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Sample records for gras generally recognized

  1. 21 CFR 570.30 - Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), it may be used in food only within such limitation(s) (including the category of food(s), the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for classification as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 570.30 Section 570.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Clara G.; Hart, Joy L.; Walker, Kandi L.; Robertson, Rose Marie

    2017-01-01

    Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS) designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-v...

  3. Generally Recognized as Safe: Uncertainty Surrounding E-Cigarette Flavoring Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G. Sears

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite scientific uncertainty regarding the relative safety of inhaling e-cigarette aerosol and flavorings, some consumers regard the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s “generally recognized as safe” (GRAS designation as evidence of flavoring safety. In this study, we assessed how college students’ perceptions of e-cigarette flavoring safety are related to understanding of the GRAS designation. During spring 2017, an online questionnaire was administered to college students. Chi-square p-values and multivariable logistic regression were employed to compare perceptions among participants considering e-cigarette flavorings as safe and those considering e-cigarette flavorings to be unsafe. The total sample size was 567 participants. Only 22% knew that GRAS designation meant that a product is safe to ingest, not inhale, inject, or use topically. Of participants who considered flavorings to be GRAS, the majority recognized that the designation meant a product is safe to ingest but also considered it safe to inhale. Although scientific uncertainty on the overall safety of flavorings in e-cigarettes remains, health messaging can educate the public about the GRAS designation and its irrelevance to e-cigarette safety.

  4. Letter to the editor regarding "GRAS from the ground up: Review of the Interim Pilot Program for GRAS notification" by.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewalt, Vincent; LaMarta, James; Shanahan, Diane; Gregg, Lori; Carrillo, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Present letter is aimed at clarifying some critical points highlighted by Hanlon et al. regarding the common knowledge element of the safety of food enzymes in support of their GRAS designation. Particularly, we outline the development of peer-reviewed, generally recognized safety evaluation methodology for microbial enzymes and its adoption by the enzyme industry, which provides the US FDA with a review framework for enzyme GRAS Notices. This approach may serve as a model to other food ingredient categories for a scientifically sound, rigorous, and transparent application of the GRAS concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food(s), the technical effect(s... within such limitation(s), including the category of food(s), the functional use(s) of the ingredient... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as...

  6. 21 CFR 186.1 - Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient, one or more of these limited conditions of use, which may include the category of food-contact...(s), it shall be used in food-contact surfaces only within such limitation(s), including the category... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added indirectly to human food affirmed...

  7. Genome-wide identification and characterization of GRAS transcription factors in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yiling; Zhao, Tingting; Xu, Xiangyang; Li, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum , belonging to Solanaceae, is one of the commonly used model plants. The GRAS genes are transcriptional regulators, which play a significant role in plant growth and development, and the functions of several GRAS genes have been recognized, such as, axillary shoot meristem formation, radial root patterning, phytohormones (gibberellins) signal transduction, light signaling, and abiotic/biotic stress; however, only a few of these were identified and functionally characterized. In this study, a gene family was analyzed comprehensively with respect to phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern; the 54 GRAS members were screened from tomato by bioinformatics for the first time. The GRAS genes among tomato, Arabidopsis , rice, and grapevine were rebuilt to form a phylogenomic tree, which was divided into ten groups according to the previous classification of Arabidopsis and rice. A multiple sequence alignment exhibited the typical GRAS domain and conserved motifs similar to other gene families. Both the segmental and tandem duplications contributed significantly to the expansion and evolution of the GRAS gene family in tomato; the expression patterns across a variety of tissues and biotic conditions revealed potentially different functions of GRAS genes in tomato development and stress responses. Altogether, this study provides valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis for improving the resistance of tomato growth.

  8. International legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental generally recognized principles of international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meherremov, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of international legal protection of environment in the system of fundamental, generally recognized principles of international law is analyzed in the article taking into consideration the different opinions in legal scientific researches and international practice. It is concluded that the protection of environment for the present and next generations - is a basic principle of international legal protection of environment. The meaning of this principleis that the countries will take all necessary measures for preservation and promotion of the quality of environment for the present and next generations, as well as rational management of natural resources. Adoption and national legal implementation of specific norms, in conformity with that basic principle, is a main factor in resolution of environmental problemsand ensuring environmental security

  9. Robust speech perception: Recognize the familiar, generalize to the similar, and adapt to the novel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Dave F.; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2016-01-01

    Successful speech perception requires that listeners map the acoustic signal to linguistic categories. These mappings are not only probabilistic, but change depending on the situation. For example, one talker’s /p/ might be physically indistinguishable from another talker’s /b/ (cf. lack of invariance). We characterize the computational problem posed by such a subjectively non-stationary world and propose that the speech perception system overcomes this challenge by (1) recognizing previously encountered situations, (2) generalizing to other situations based on previous similar experience, and (3) adapting to novel situations. We formalize this proposal in the ideal adapter framework: (1) to (3) can be understood as inference under uncertainty about the appropriate generative model for the current talker, thereby facilitating robust speech perception despite the lack of invariance. We focus on two critical aspects of the ideal adapter. First, in situations that clearly deviate from previous experience, listeners need to adapt. We develop a distributional (belief-updating) learning model of incremental adaptation. The model provides a good fit against known and novel phonetic adaptation data, including perceptual recalibration and selective adaptation. Second, robust speech recognition requires listeners learn to represent the structured component of cross-situation variability in the speech signal. We discuss how these two aspects of the ideal adapter provide a unifying explanation for adaptation, talker-specificity, and generalization across talkers and groups of talkers (e.g., accents and dialects). The ideal adapter provides a guiding framework for future investigations into speech perception and adaptation, and more broadly language comprehension. PMID:25844873

  10. Nanocarriers from GRAS Zein Proteins to Encapsulate Hydrophobic Actives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmueller, Nikolas T; Lu, Hoang D; Hurley, Amanda; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-11-14

    One factor limiting the expansion of nanomedicines has been the high cost of the materials and processes required for their production. We present a continuous, scalable, low cost nanoencapsulation process, Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) that enables the production of nanocarriers (NCs) with a narrow size distribution using zein corn proteins. Zein is a low cost, GRAS protein (having the FDA status of "Generally Regarded as Safe") currently used in food applications, which acts as an effective encapsulant for hydrophobic compounds using FNP. The four-stream FNP configuration allows the encapsulation of very hydrophobic compounds in a way that is not possible with previous precipitation processes. We present the encapsulation of several model active compounds with as high as 45 wt % drug loading with respect to zein concentration into ∼100 nm nanocarriers. Three examples are presented: (1) the pro-drug antioxidant, vitamin E-acetate, (2) an anticholera quorum-sensing modulator CAI-1 ((S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one; CAI-1 that reduces Vibrio cholerae virulence by modulating cellular communication), and (3) hydrophobic fluorescent dyes with a range of hydrophobicities. The specific interaction between zein and the milk protein, sodium caseinate, provides stabilization of the NCs in PBS, LB medium, and in pH 2 solutions. The stability and size changes in the three media provide information on the mechanism of assembly of the zein/active/casein NC.

  11. Maïs beperkt nitraatverlies van gras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.; Boumans, L.

    2006-01-01

    Maïs staat bekend als een gewas dat veel nitraat naar het grondwater lekt. Maar maïs heeft ook goeie kanten. Nieuw in dit rijtje is dat maïs, in vruchtwisseling met gras, ook het nitraatverlies van grasland beperkt. Dit blijkt uit de metingen van het RIVM op De Marke.

  12. The Presenting Feature and Role of General Practitioners and Non-neurosurgeon Physicians in Recognizing Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wihasto Suryaningtyas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the presenting features and role of non-neurosurgeon physician in recognizing the signs and symptoms of brain tumours in children. METHOD: Medical records of 31 pediatric brain tumor patients treated in Department of Neurosurgery, Soetomo General Hospital, Airlangga University Faculty of Medicine, Surabaya from August 2005 to September 2006 were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty five percents f parents went to pediatrician as their first contact physician, 25% to general practitioner, 20% neurologist, 20% to neurosurgeon. Neurosurgeon was the second and third contact physician receiving refferal from non-neurosurgeon physician. The most common symptoms were headache (71%, vomiting (61%, motor weakness (48%, visual disturbance (45%, decrease level of consciousness (45% and seizures (38%, unsteadiness (35%. The most common symptoms that led the parents to find medical help at any time were motor disturbance (48%, vomiting (48%, visual disturbance (45%, unsteadiness (35%, decrease level of consciousness (32%, seizures (32%, headache (32%. All patients had neurological signs at diagnosis; 58% had papilloedema, 48% cranial nerve abnormalities, 35% cerebellar signs, 32% motor disturbance, 29% a reduced level of consciousness, 12% cranial enlargement. Duration of symptoms at admission was 1 months (32%, 2 months (42%, 3-6 months (19%, more than 6 months (7%. A short symptom interval was significantly associated with high grade tumours and patient age 3 years or younger. CONCLUSION: The symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, mimicking more common diseases. Therefore, the possibility of a brain neoplasm should always be considered, it materializes very rarely. Benign neurologic symptoms such as headache, which last for 2 months or more, should indicate the need of additional studies. Our results higlighted the neurologic impairments which might facilitate early recognition of a brain neoplasm. Neurologic problems as the only symptom of brain

  13. The importance of GRAS to the functional food and nutraceutical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdock, George A.; Carabin, Ioana G.; Griffiths, James C.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when 150 million Americans spend over $20.5 billion on functional foods, nutraceuticals and dietary supplements, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is doing little to ensure that all the safe and efficacious products that could come to the market are allowed to do so. FDA has only responded slowly and reluctantly to Congressional action and to mandates from the Courts to implement the law. Additionally, FDA had set the bar too high for Health Claims and was forced by the Courts to implement a more reasonable standard, but the response, Qualified Health Claims, has failed to gain the confidence of the public because of the confusing wording of the claims demanded by FDA. Congressional efforts to assure consumer access to dietary supplements have been met with similar resistance from FDA. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) was the product of a compromise with a lower threshold for demonstration of safety (reasonable expectation of no harm) that would be met by consumer self-policing and assumption of some risk. FDA has thwarted this effort by raising the bar for New Dietary Ingredient Notifications (NDIN) to what appears to be the higher threshold for the safety of food ingredients (reasonable certainty of no harm)-FDA apparently sees these two safety thresholds as a distinction without a difference. As a result, increasing numbers of dietary supplement manufacturers, unwilling to gamble the future of their products to a system that provides little hope for the FDA's response of 'no objection', have committed the additional resources necessary to obtain Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for their supplements. The pressure on FDA and Congress for change is again building with increased dissatisfaction among consumers as the result of confusing labels. A second force for change will be a need to uncouple the FDA mandated substance-disease relationship and return to the substance-claim relationship to allow for progress in

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-12-29

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut.

  15. Les trois traditions du foie gras dans la gastronomie française Foie Gras as represented by three traditional protagonists in French gastronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Mognard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La promulgation du foie gras comme patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français en janvier 2006, nous invite à questionner le processus de patrimonialisation du foie gras en France. La patrimonialisation est habituellement étudiée dans les interactions entre les acteurs des filières courte et longue. Des travaux récents invitent à renouveler cette approche en ajoutant les professionnels des métiers de bouche à l’analyse et à en inscrire l’étude dans la longue durée. Les trajectoires sur le long terme de trois catégories d’acteurs sont ici retracées par l’étude des traditions et des métiers de bouche, industrielle et fermière. Cette analyse fait notamment ressortir des relations entre chefs cuisiniers et industriels et la mobilisation de la cuisine du gras dans l’offre agritouristique. Ces aspects confirment l’intérêt d’envisager l’analyse des patrimonialisations en passant du système binaire des acteurs de la production (filières courtes et longues à un système ternaire des acteurs de la valorisation (industriels, producteurs fermiers et professionnels des métiers de bouche.In January 2006, the production of foie gras was declared «patrimoine gastronomique et culturel français » (French gastronomic and cultural heritage. But how has foie gras become food heritage in France? Foie gras as food heritage is usually analyzed through interactions between the actors of the food-processing industry and farming networks. Recent works re-use this approach in a long-term perspective, adding the professionals of catering trade to the analysis. Long-term trajectories of three categories of actors are described here through the study of catering trade, food-processing industry and farmer traditions. This analysis brings out the relations between chefs and industrialists and the implication of the cuisine du gras in the agrotourism experience. It confirms the interest in renewing the analyses of food heritage

  16. The Medicago truncatula GRAS protein RAD1 supports arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and Phytophthora palmivora susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Thomas; Bonhomme, Maxime; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Gavrin, Aleksandr; Toulotte, Justine; Yang, Weibing; André, Olivier; Jacquet, Christophe; Schornack, Sebastian

    2017-12-16

    The roots of most land plants are colonized by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. To facilitate this symbiosis, plant genomes encode a set of genes required for microbial perception and accommodation. However, the extent to which infection by filamentous root pathogens also relies on some of these genes remains an open question. Here, we used genome-wide association mapping to identify genes contributing to colonization of Medicago truncatula roots by the pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora palmivora. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers most significantly associated with plant colonization response were identified upstream of RAD1, which encodes a GRAS transcription regulator first negatively implicated in root nodule symbiosis and recently identified as a positive regulator of AM symbiosis. RAD1 transcript levels are up-regulated both in response to AM fungus and, to a lower extent, in infected tissues by P. palmivora where its expression is restricted to root cortex cells proximal to pathogen hyphae. Reverse genetics showed that reduction of RAD1 transcript levels as well as a rad1 mutant are impaired in their full colonization by AM fungi as well as by P. palmivora. Thus, the importance of RAD1 extends beyond symbiotic interactions, suggesting a general involvement in M. truncatula microbe-induced root development and interactions with unrelated beneficial and detrimental filamentous microbes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuxing; Wang, Tao; Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-02-01

    Prunus mume is an ornamental flower and fruit tree in Rosaceae. We investigated the GRAS gene family to improve the breeding and cultivation of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees. The GRAS gene family encodes transcriptional regulators that have diverse functions in plant growth and development, such as gibberellin and phytochrome A signal transduction, root radial patterning, and axillary meristem formation and gametogenesis in the P. mume genome. Despite the important roles of these genes in plant growth regulation, no findings on the GRAS genes of P. mume have been reported. In this study, we discerned phylogenetic relationships of P. mume GRAS genes, and their locations, structures in the genome and expression levels of different tissues. Out of 46 identified GRAS genes, 45 were located on the 8 P. mume chromosomes. Phylogenetic results showed that these genes could be classified into 11 groups. We found that Group X was P. mume-specific, and three genes of Group IX clustered with the rice-specific gene Os4. We speculated that these genes existed before the divergence of dicotyledons and monocotyledons and were lost in Arabidopsis. Tissue expression analysis indicated that 13 genes showed high expression levels in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and were related to plant growth and development. Functional analysis of 24 GRAS genes and an orthologous relationship analysis indicated that many functioned during plant growth and flower and fruit development. Our bioinformatics analysis provides valuable information to improve the economic, agronomic and ecological benefits of P. mume and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

  18. 78 FR 36662 - Safety Zone; Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras, Lake Erie, Fairport, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... the Fairport Harbor Mardi Gras Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display. DATES: This rule is effective...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Erie...

  19. Tracking and orbit determination performance of the GRAS instrument on MetOp-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenbruck, O.; Andres, Y.; Bock, H.; Van Helleputte, T.; Van den IJssel, J.; Loiselet, M.; Marquardt, M.; Silvestrin, P.; Visser, P.; Yoon, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The global navigation satellite system receiver for atmospheric sounding (GRAS) on MetOp-A is the first European GPS receiver providing dual-frequency navigation and occultation measurements from a spaceborne platform on a routine basis. The receiver is based on ESA’s AGGA-2 correlator chip, which

  20. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Salem, F. M.; Abu Arab, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning fatty liver, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 {mu}g/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 degree centigrade were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 degree centigrade. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 degree centigrade could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 degree centigrade). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of

  1. Processing of GRAS/METOP radio occultation data recorded in closed-loop and raw-sampling modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Instrument GRAS (Global Navigation Satellite System Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding on-board of the Metop-A satellite was activated on 27 October 2006. Currently, Metop-A is a fully operational satellite with GRAS providing from 650–700 occultations per day. We describe our processing of GRAS data based on the modification of our OCC software, which was modified to become capable of reading and processing GRAS data. We perform a statistical comparison of bending angles and refractivities derived from GRAS data with those derived from ECMWF analyses. We conclude that GRAS data have error characteristics close to those of COSMIC data. In the height range 10–30 km, the systematic refractivity difference GRAS–ECMWF is of the order of 0.1–0.2 %, and the standard deviation is 0.3–0.6 %. In the lower troposphere GRAS refractivity and bending angle indicate a negative bias, which reaches its maximum value in the tropics. In particular the retrieved refractivity is biased by up to 2.5 %. The negative bias pattern is similar to that found in the statistical validation of COSMIC data. This makes it probable that the bias should not be attributed to the instrument design or hardware.

  2. Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Salem, Ferial M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras. Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA or sorbic acid (SA and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA, total volatile nitrogen (TVN, peroxide value (PV, free fatty acid (FFA, ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C. This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras. A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In

  3. INDUSTRIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT Les préoccupations environnementales de l’industrie des corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pages Xavier

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations environnementales de l’industrie des corps gras sont principalement rythmées par le renforcement des contraintes réglementaires et concernent tous les aspects environnementaux : effluents gazeux et aqueux, déchets, management, énergie. Ces aspects sont inégalement présents dans les différents sous-secteurs de l’industrie des corps gras ; quelques exemples sont présentés. La réduction des émissions de COV (composés organiques volatils et les nuisances olfactives sont une problématique concernant principalement l’activité de trituration, la lipochimie et la fonte de corps gras animaux. Des valeurs limites de consommation de solvant sont maintenant imposées réglementairement en extraction; la prise en compte de problèmes de nuisance olfactive donnent lieu à l’amélioration des procédés de traitement d’air (corps gras animaux ou à leur mise en place progressive (trituration de colza. La gestion des déchets reste une préoccupation essentielle pour l’ensemble de la profession et tout particulièrement pour les secteurs des corps gras animaux et la lipochimie, en raison de la remise en cause des filières d’élimination due au renforcement des contraintes réglementaires, mais aussi en raison des coûts de traitement. Ce poste ne doit pas être négligé par les entreprises : réduction à la source, recherche de filières pérennes, valorisation énergétique ou matière sont des éléments permettant également une réduction significative des coûts. La maîtrise de la consommation d’énergie est un élément important, voir stratégique, notamment dans le secteur de la trituration des graines oléagineuses. Des actions de sensibilisation permettent de poursuivre également l’effort auprès des PME, actuellement moins impliquées. En matière de traitement d’eau, des avancées notables sont observées depuis une décennie ; néanmoins certaines difficultés persistent, notamment dans les

  4. Transcriptional regulators of legume-rhizobia symbiosis: nuclear factors Ys and GRAS are two for tango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rípodas, Carolina; Clúa, Joaquín; Battaglia, Marina; Baudin, Maël; Niebel, Andreas; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are DNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis established between legume plants and soil bacteria is a complex interaction, in which plants need to integrate signals derived from the symbiont and the surrounding environment to initiate the developmental program of nodule organogenesis and the infection process. Several transcription factors that play critical roles in these processes have been reported in the past decade, including proteins of the GRAS and NF-Y families. Recently, we reported the characterization of a new GRAS domain containing-protein that interacts with a member of the C subunit of the NF-Y family, which plays an important role in nodule development and the progression of bacterial infection during the symbiotic interaction. The connection between transcription factors of these families highlights the significance of multimeric complexes in the fabulous capacity of plants to integrate and respond to multiple environmental stimuli.

  5. Effect of different GRAS compounds in the control of apples blue mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2013-01-01

    The most important pathogen for apples is Penicillium expansum that is the causal organism of blue mould. Postharvest losses are controlled with chemical fungicides such as TBZ but a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In the search of new environment and consumer friendly technologies that can reduce toxic residues, the use of GRAS compounds represent a valid alternative to the use of synthetic postharvest fungicides. The aims of the present work were: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of different GRAS compounds in the control of P. expansum in artificially inoculated fruit; (2) To assess the capability of injured and treated fruit with GRAS compounds, used alone or combined, to heal the wounds in order to resist to infection. Fruit was injured with a steel rod and after 1 hour was (1) Inoculated with the pathogen and after 24 hours treated or (2) Treated and after 24 hours inoculated. Treatments were performed with the following compounds: sodium bicarbonate (SBC), boric acid (BA) and calcium chloride (CC) by using a 1% solution for all of them. After 9 or 14 days fruit lesion diameters were assessed. In the trial (1) the combined treatment with BA and SBC was the most effective reducing the lesion diameter by 86.5% with respect to untreated fruit, after 9 days from infection. A good pathogen control was also obtained with BA used alone or combined with CC. When the treatment was performed before infection the best results were achieved with the combination of SBC and CC, with 87% of reduction of the lesion diameter. The addition of CC also reduced the lesion if combined with BA (66.8%). These preliminary results showed that GRAS compounds can be effective in reducing blue mold by a direct effect on the pathogen, and by modulating fruit responses enhancing host resistance.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Analysis, and Stress Responses of the GRAS Gene Family in Castor Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific GRAS transcription factors play important roles in regulating growth, development, and stress responses. Castor beans (Ricinus communis are important non-edible oilseed plants, cultivated worldwide for its seed oils and its adaptability to growth conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a total of 48 GRAS genes based on the castor bean genome. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the castor bean GRAS members were divided into 13 distinct groups. Functional divergence analysis revealed the presence of mostly Type-I functional divergence. The gene structures and conserved motifs, both within and outside the GRAS domain, were characterized. Gene expression analysis, performed in various tissues and under a range of abiotic stress conditions, uncovered the potential functions of GRAS members in regulating plant growth development and stress responses. The results obtained from this study provide valuable information toward understanding the potential molecular mechanisms of GRAS proteins in castor beans. These findings also serve as a resource for identifying the genes that allow castor beans to grow in stressful conditions and to enable further breeding and genetic improvements in agriculture.

  7. FDA Recognized Consensus Standards

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database consists of those national and international standards recognized by FDA which manufacturers can declare conformity to and is part of the information...

  8. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  9. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  10. The FEMA GRAS assessment of phenethyl alcohol, aldehyde, acid, and related acetals and esters used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Cohen, S.M.; Doull, J.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.I.; Marnett, L.J.; Munro, I.C.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.; Waddell, W.J.; Wagner, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    This publication is the ninth in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  11. The FEMA GRAS assessment of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Gavin, C.L.; Taylor, S.V.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  12. The FEMA GRAS assessment of a,b-unsaturated aldehydes and related substances used as flavor ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, T.B.; Lucas-Gavin, C.; Taylor, S.V.; Waddell, W.J.; Cohen, S.M.; Feron, V.J.; Goodman, J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Marnett, L.J.; Portoghese, P.S.; Smith, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the 12th in a series of safety evaluations performed by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA). In 1993, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 1700 GRAS flavoring substances under conditions of

  13. Data archiving and serving system implementation in CLEP's GRAS Core System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Zeng, Xingguo; Zhang, Zhoubin; Geng, Liang; Li, Chunlai

    2017-04-01

    The Ground Research & Applications System(GRAS) is one of the five systems of China's Lunar Exploration Project(CLEP), it is responsible for data acquisition, processing, management and application, and it is also the operation control center during satellite in-orbit and payload operation management. Chang'E-1, Chang'E-2 and Chang'E-3 have collected abundant lunar exploration data. The aim of this work is to present the implementation of data archiving and Serving in CLEP's GRAS Core System software. This first approach provides a client side API and server side software allowing the creation of a simplified version of CLEPDB data archiving software, and implements all required elements to complete data archiving flow from data acquisition until its persistent storage technology. The client side includes all necessary components that run on devices that acquire or produce data, distributing and streaming to configure remote archiving servers. The server side comprises an archiving service that stores into PDS files all received data. The archiving solution aims at storing data coming for the Data Acquisition Subsystem, the Operation Management Subsystem, the Data Preprocessing Subsystem and the Scientific Application & Research Subsystem. The serving solution aims at serving data for the various business systems, scientific researchers and public users. The data-driven and component clustering methods was adopted in this system, the former is used to solve real-time data archiving and data persistence services; the latter is used to keep the continuous supporting ability of archive and service to new data from Chang'E Mission. Meanwhile, it can save software development cost as well.

  14. Acides gras oméga 3 et maladies cardiovasculaires : approches épidémiologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducimetiere Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La prise alimentaire d’acides gras oméga 3 a de nombreuses conséquences biologiques en particulier dans les domaines intéressant le risque cardiovasculaire (thrombose, métabolisme lipidique, inflammation. A partir de l’énorme littérature épidémiologique sur le sujet, on peut conclure que la consommation de poisson « gras » ou d’oméga 3 à longue chaîne a un effet protecteur sur la mortalité coronaire et plus généralement sur les maladies cardiovasculaires. Il existe des indications en faveur d’un effet similaire de l’apport en alphalinolénique (ALA. Les essais de prévention secondaire avec des oméga 3 à longue chaîne ont confirmé ces résultats mais les essais de conseils nutritionnels favorisant la consommation d’ALA ne sont qu’indicatifs. Il n’existe guère « d’evidence » en faveur du rôle des oméga sur le développement quantitatif de l’athérome alors que leur effet protecteur sur la vulnérabilité cardiaque aux arythmies est bien établie. Ces données expérimentales et cliniques fournissent une base biologique à la relation observée entre un apport augmenté de poisson ou d’oméga 3 et un risque abaissé de mort subite dans plusieurs études de cohortes.

  15. Acides gras polyinsaturés trans : aspects métaboliques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebedio Jean-Louis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras trans polyinsaturés sont formés à partir des acides gras indispensables (acides linoléique et a-linolénique au cours des traitements technologiques comme par exemple le raffinage des huiles ou la friture [1, 2]. L’acide linolénique est plus sensible à l’isomérisation que l’acide linoléique. En effet, comme l’a montré Wolff dans une revue récente [3], le degré d’isomérisation de l’acide linolénique peut atteindre 30 à 35 %. On retrouve également ces pourcentages dans les formules infantiles et le lait de femme [1]. Les principaux isomères formés sont les composés monotrans, à savoir les 18 :2-9trans,12cis, 18 :2-9cis,12trans, 18 :3-9trans,12cis,15cis, et le 18 :3-9cis,12cis,15-trans. Cependant, une température de désodorisation supérieure à 220 °C entraîne la formation d’isomères di-trans [4]. À titre d’exemple, nous avons représenté dans le tableau le contenu de quelques huiles végétales en isomères des acides linoléique et a-linolénique. Compte tenu de leur présence dans l’alimentation, on peut s’interroger sur les conséquences nutritionnelles et biochimiques de leur ingestion.

  16. ASPECTS NUTRITIONNELS DES ACIDES GRAS TRANS : Consommation en acides gras trans et risque cardio-vasculaire : Étude Aquitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Au cours de cette dernière décennie, les études sur la consommation d’acides gras trans (AGT se sont multipliées pour en préciser l’impact éventuel sur le risque de maladies cardio-vasculaires (MCV. À l’origine, se trouve l’étude américaine de Willett et al. [1], conduite sur une cohorte de 85 000 infirmières suivies pendant 8 ans. Cette étude épidémiologique rapportait l’existence d’une corrélation positive entre la consommation d’AGT d’origine végétale et l’apparition de MCV. Ont suivi d’autres études que l’on peut classer en trois catégories selon leur approche expérimentale : les études épidémiologiques [2-5] longitudinales ou transversales, les comparaisons « cas-témoins » [6-11] et les interventions nutritionnelles [12-15]. Des deux premières catégories d’études, il n’émerge aucun consensus quant à l’implication éventuelle des AGT alimentaires dans le risque de MCV. Les divergences observées pourraient, en partie tout au moins, être liées à la méthode utilisée pour estimer la consommation d’AGT qui, dans certains cas, est fondée sur des enquêtes alimentaires et, dans d’autres cas, sur la teneur en AGT du tissu adipeux des sujets, connue pour refléter l’apport alimentaire en AGT des années précédentes. En effet, au-delà de considérations sur de possibles biais méthodologiques [16], comme le non-ajustement des résultats à des facteurs de confusion tels que l’âge, la consommation de tabac ou certaines pathologies, on peut faire le constat suivant : les études qui ont conclu à un effet négatif des AGT alimentaires étaient fondées, pour la plupart, exclusivement sur des enquêtes alimentaires [1-3, 11] ; celles qui ne montraient aucun effet utilisaient, le plus souvent, la composition en AGT du tissu adipeux [4, 6-9]. La carence, dans les bases de données, vis-à-vis des teneurs en AGT des aliments augmente, en outre, la difficulté à déterminer la

  17. Burnout: Recognize and Reverse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne, Samantha

    2014-07-01

    Physician burnout may be underrecognized and can cause significant detrimental effects on personal health and job satisfaction. Burnout has been associated with medical errors, alcohol and drug abuse, and neglect and abandonment of career goals. With self-awareness, development of coping mechanisms, and the adoption of a strong social and professional support network, burnout can be combated. This article focuses on recognizing characteristics of burnout and providing strategies to cope to avoid reaching a high degree of burnout. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  18. Analysis of GPS radio occultation data from the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC and Metop/GRAS missions at CDAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schreiner

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the noise level and mission-to-mission stability of Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO neutral atmospheric bending angle data at the UCAR COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center (CDAAC. Data are used from two independently developed RO instruments currently flying in orbit on the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3C and Metop/GRAS (GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding missions. The F3C 50 Hz RO data are post-processed with a single-difference excess atmospheric phase algorithm, and the Metop/GRAS 50 Hz closed loop and raw sampling (down-sampled from 1000 Hz to 50 Hz data are processed with a zero-difference algorithm. The standard deviations of the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles from climatology between 60 and 80 km altitude from June–December 2009 are approximately 1.78 and 1.13 μrad, respectively. The F3C standard deviation reduces significantly to 1.44 μrad when single-difference processing uses GPS satellites on the same side of the spacecraft. The higher noise level for F3C bending angles can be explained by additional noise from the reference link phase data that are required with single-difference processing. The F3C and Metop/GRAS mean bending angles differences relative to climatology during the same six month period are statistically significant and have values of −0.05 and −0.02 μrad, respectively. A comparison of ~13 500 collocated F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angle profiles over this six month period shows a similar mean difference of ~0.02 ± 0.02 μrad between 30 and 60 km impact heights that is marginally significant. The observed mean difference between the F3C and Metop/GRAS bending angles of ~0.02–0.03 μrad is quite small and illustrates the high degree of re-produceability and mission independence of the GPS RO data at high altitudes. Collocated bending angles between two F3C satellites from early in the mission differ on average by up to 0.5% near the surface due to systematically

  19. Recognizing Facial Slivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad-Gutnick, Sharon; Harmatz, Elia Samuel; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Yovel, Galit; Sinha, Pawan

    2018-07-01

    We report here an unexpectedly robust ability of healthy human individuals ( n = 40) to recognize extremely distorted needle-like facial images, challenging the well-entrenched notion that veridical spatial configuration is necessary for extracting facial identity. In face identification tasks of parametrically compressed internal and external features, we found that the sum of performances on each cue falls significantly short of performance on full faces, despite the equal visual information available from both measures (with full faces essentially being a superposition of internal and external features). We hypothesize that this large deficit stems from the use of positional information about how the internal features are positioned relative to the external features. To test this, we systematically changed the relations between internal and external features and found preferential encoding of vertical but not horizontal spatial relationships in facial representations ( n = 20). Finally, we employ magnetoencephalography imaging ( n = 20) to demonstrate a close mapping between the behavioral psychometric curve and the amplitude of the M250 face familiarity, but not M170 face-sensitive evoked response field component, providing evidence that the M250 can be modulated by faces that are perceptually identifiable, irrespective of extreme distortions to the face's veridical configuration. We theorize that the tolerance to compressive distortions has evolved from the need to recognize faces across varying viewpoints. Our findings help clarify the important, but poorly defined, concept of facial configuration and also enable an association between behavioral performance and previously reported neural correlates of face perception.

  20. Problématiques des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacoste Florence

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La présence des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP dans les huiles végétales peut provenir de différentes sources, mais généralement les huiles contaminées sont issues de matières premières nécessitant d’être séchées telles que les pépins de raisin, le coprah ou les grignons d’olive. Actuellement, il n’y a pas de réglementation européenne limitant la teneur en HAP dans les produits alimentaires mais un Code de Bonnes Pratiques a été établi par FEDIOL 1. La détermination de la totalité des HAP présents dans les corps gras est rendue délicate par le faible niveau de chaque PAH à quantifier et la complexité des étapes d’extraction et de purification. La seule méthode faisant l’objet d’une norme (NF EN ISO 15302 concerne la détermination de la teneur en benzo[a]pyrène. Un projet de méthode fourni par l’ITERG est en cours d’évaluation dans le cadre des travaux du Sous-Comité ISO\\\\TC34\\\\SC11 des « Corps gras d’origines animale et végétale ». Cette méthode permet la quantification de 12 HAP dans les corps gras, avec une limite de quantification de 0,2 μg\\\\kg pour tous les composés analysés, à l’exception des fluoranthène et benzo[g,h,i]pérylène où celle-ci est de 0,3 μg\\\\kg, ainsi que de l’indéno[1,2,3-cd]pyrène pour lequel la limite de quantification atteint 1 μg\\\\kg. Depuis quatre ans, les travaux de l’ITERG sur les HAP ont été centrés sur l’optimisation et la normalisation d’une procédure d’analyse (ISO\\\\CD 15753, sur l’estimation du niveau de contamination des huiles végétales produites en France et sur l’effet du raffinage sur le niveau en HAP. Chaque étape de ce travail est développée ici.

  1. ASPECTS NUTRITIONNELS DES ACIDES GRAS POLYINSATURES n-3 Augmentation sélective de la sensibilité des tumeurs à la chimiothérapie par les acides gras polyinsaturés n-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bougnoux Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available L’alimentation intervient à différents niveaux dans le déroulement de la maladie cancéreuse : au niveau du risque [1] et au niveau de l’évolution en modifiant le risque de survenue des métastases. L’alimentation influence-t-elle aussi la réponse aux traitements anticancéreux ? À l’appui de cette hypothèse viennent deux observations indirectes réalisées dans le cancer du sein : nos données [2, 3] ainsi que les observations épidémiologiques provenant d’autres travaux [4] ont apporté des arguments supportant l’hypothèse que les lipides alimentaires peuvent influencer la réponse des tumeurs mammaires aux traitements. On sait que la composition des lipides membranaires n’est pas génétiquement déterminée, mais qu’elle dépend des acides gras disponibles aux tissus périphériques. Le type d’acides gras disponibles est influencé par les apports alimentaires. Comme les tumeurs incorporent dans leurs lipides les acides gras disponibles de façon similaire aux autres tissus [5], il est plausible que les habitudes alimentaires (apports alimentaires en acides gras polyinsaturés, vitamines anti ou pro-oxydantes puissent influencer leur chimiosensibilité en apportant aux cellules tumorales des substrats de peroxydation.

  2. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  3. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  4. Antarctic skuas recognize individual humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Young; Han, Yeong-Deok; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G; Jung, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings report that wild animals can recognize individual humans. To explain how the animals distinguish humans, two hypotheses are proposed. The high cognitive abilities hypothesis implies that pre-existing high intelligence enabled animals to acquire such abilities. The pre-exposure to stimuli hypothesis suggests that frequent encounters with humans promote the acquisition of discriminatory abilities in these species. Here, we examine individual human recognition abilities in a wild Antarctic species, the brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus), which lives away from typical human settlements and was only recently exposed to humans due to activities at Antarctic stations. We found that, as nest visits were repeated, the skua parents responded at further distances and were more likely to attack the nest intruder. Also, we demonstrated that seven out of seven breeding pairs of skuas selectively responded to a human nest intruder with aggression and ignored a neutral human who had not previously approached the nest. The results indicate that Antarctic skuas, a species that typically inhabited in human-free areas, are able to recognize individual humans who disturbed their nests. Our findings generally support the high cognitive abilities hypothesis, but this ability can be acquired during a relatively short period in the life of an individual as a result of interactions between individual birds and humans.

  5. Recognizing conservation success

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simberloff, D.; Genovesi, P.; Pyšek, Petr; Campbell, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 332, č. 6028 (2011), s. 419-419 ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nature conversation * biological invasions * eradication Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 31.201, year: 2011 http://apps.webofknowledge.com/full_record.do?product=UA&search_mode=GeneralSearch&qid=5&SID=R1pe@Jk8OBGjkbhdl2C&page=1&doc=6

  6. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  7. GS6, a member of the GRAS gene family, negatively regulates grain size in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianjun; Li, Xiaojiao; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Xianyou; Sun, Xuewen; Sun, Chuanqing

    2013-10-01

    Grain size is an important yield-related trait in rice. Intensive artificial selection for grain size during domestication is evidenced by the larger grains of most of today's cultivars compared with their wild relatives. However, the molecular genetic control of rice grain size is still not well characterized. Here, we report the identification and cloning of Grain Size 6 (GS6), which plays an important role in reducing grain size in rice. A premature stop at the +348 position in the coding sequence (CDS) of GS6 increased grain width and weight significantly. Alignment of the CDS regions of GS6 in 90 rice materials revealed three GS6 alleles. Most japonica varieties (95%) harbor the Type I haplotype, and 62.9% of indica varieties harbor the Type II haplotype. Association analysis revealed that the Type I haplotype tends to increase the width and weight of grains more than either of the Type II or Type III haplotypes. Further investigation of genetic diversity and the evolutionary mechanisms of GS6 showed that the GS6 gene was strongly selected in japonica cultivars. In addition, a "ggc" repeat region identified in the region that encodes the GRAS domain of GS6 played an important historic role in the domestication of grain size in rice. Knowledge of the function of GS6 might aid efforts to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control grain development and evolution in rice plants, and could facilitate the genetic improvement of rice yield. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. The GraS Sensor in Staphylococcus aureus Mediates Resistance to Host Defense Peptides Differing in Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaili, Siyang; Cheung, Ambrose L; Bayer, Arnold S; Xiong, Yan Q; Waring, Alan J; Memmi, Guido; Donegan, Niles; Yang, Soo-Jin; Yeaman, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus uses the two-component regulatory system GraRS to sense and respond to host defense peptides (HDPs). However, the mechanistic impact of GraS or its extracellular sensing loop (EL) on HDP resistance is essentially unexplored. Strains with null mutations in the GraS holoprotein (ΔgraS) or its EL (ΔEL) were compared for mechanisms of resistance to HDPs of relevant immune sources: neutrophil α-defensin (human neutrophil peptide 1 [hNP-1]), cutaneous β-defensin (human β-defensin 2 [hBD-2]), or the platelet kinocidin congener RP-1. Actions studied by flow cytometry included energetics (ENR); membrane permeabilization (PRM); annexin V binding (ANX), and cell death protease activation (CDP). Assay conditions simulated bloodstream (pH 7.5) or phagolysosomal (pH 5.5) pH contexts. S. aureus strains were more susceptible to HDPs at pH 7.5 than at pH 5.5, and each HDP exerted a distinct effect signature. The impacts of ΔgraS and ΔΕL on HDP resistance were peptide and pH dependent. Both mutants exhibited defects in ANX response to hNP-1 or hBD-2 at pH 7.5, but only hNP-1 did so at pH 5.5. Both mutants exhibited hyper-PRM, -ANX, and -CDP responses to RP-1 at both pHs and hypo-ENR at pH 5.5. The actions correlated with ΔgraS or ΔΕL hypersusceptibility to hNP-1 or RP-1 (but not hBD-2) at pH 7.5 and to all study HDPs at pH 5.5. An exogenous EL mimic protected mutant strains from hNP-1 and hBD-2 but not RP-1, indicating that GraS and its EL play nonredundant roles in S. aureus survival responses to specific HDPs. These findings suggest that GraS mediates specific resistance countermeasures to HDPs in immune contexts that are highly relevant to S. aureus pathogenesis in humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Development, terroir and welfare: a case study of farm-produced foie gras, in south west France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Techoueyres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Le foie gras et les produits de palmipèdes gavés font partie du patrimoine culinaire et culturel régional de la France et tout particulièrement du Sud Ouest. A ce titre ils sont ce que l’on appelle des produits de terroir. Ce travail, en retraçant le développement récent et l’internationalisation de ces produits avec les problèmes qui les accompagnent, tente de déchiffrer ce que de tels phénomènes signifient pour les producteurs au plan local, dans l’aire délimitée par l’IGP Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. A travers l’exemple d’une famille de producteurs à la ferme, on observera concrètement des points d’articulation entre global et local : comment cohabitent développement économique et protection de savoir-faire traditionnels ; comment des producteurs s’approprient de nouvelles technologies pour améliorer la productivité et les conditions de travail ; comment son réactualisés certains aspects traditionnels et ancestraux; et comment se développent de nouvelles sociabilités.Foie gras and fat duck products are part of the French culinary and cultural heritage, particularly of South West France. As such they belong to the produits de terroir category. Starting by tracing the recent developments and globalisation of such products with subsequent challenges, this paper assumes a local perspective, in the geographical area delimited by the PGI Palmipèdes à Foie Gras du Sud Ouest. Through the observation of a family of farmers, meeting points between local and global are analyzed, particularly tensions between economic development and the protection of traditional knowledge but also the way contemporary changes promote new sociabilities.

  10. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Melanie K.; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Background Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorr...

  11. 46 CFR 90.10-35 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 90.10-35 Section 90... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-35 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  12. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Water in the Cratonic Mantle: Insights from FTIR Data on Lac De Gras Xenoliths (Slave Craton, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Brandon, Alan D.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; O'Reilly, Suzanne Yvette; Griffin, William L.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The mantle lithosphere beneath the cratonic part of continents is the deepest (> 200 km) and oldest (>2-3 Ga) on Earth, remaining a conundrum as to how these cratonic roots could have resisted delamination by asthenospheric convection over time. Water, or trace H incorporated in mineral defects, could be a key player in the evolution of continental lithosphere because it influences melting and rheology of the mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Lac de Gras kimberlite in the Slave craton were analyzed by FTIR. The cratonic mantle beneath Lac de Gras is stratified with shallow (water contents extending to higher values than those from the shallow ones. The FTIR spectra of olivines from the shallow samples have more prominent Group II OH bands compared to the olivines from the deep samples, consistent with a more oxidized mantle environment. The range of olivine water content is similar to that observed in Kaapvaal craton peridotites at the same depths (129-184 km) but does not extend to as high values as those from Udachnaya (Siberian craton). The Slave, Kaapvaal and Siberian cratons will be compared in terms of water content distribution, controls and role in cratonic root longevity.

  14. Role of the GRAS transcription factor ATA/RAM1 in the transcriptional reprogramming of arbuscular mycorrhiza in Petunia hybrida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Roux, Christophe; Reinhardt, Didier

    2017-08-08

    Development of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) requires a fundamental reprogramming of root cells for symbiosis. This involves the induction of hundreds of genes in the host. A recently identified GRAS-type transcription factor in Petunia hybrida, ATA/RAM1, is required for the induction of host genes during AM, and for morphogenesis of the fungal endosymbiont. To better understand the role of RAM1 in symbiosis, we set out to identify all genes that depend on activation by RAM1 in mycorrhizal roots. We have carried out a transcript profiling experiment by RNAseq of mycorrhizal plants vs. non-mycorrhizal controls in wild type and ram1 mutants. The results show that the expression of early genes required for AM, such as the strigolactone biosynthetic genes and the common symbiosis signalling genes, is independent of RAM1. In contrast, genes that are involved at later stages of symbiosis, for example for nutrient exchange in cortex cells, require RAM1 for induction. RAM1 itself is highly induced in mycorrhizal roots together with many other transcription factors, in particular GRAS proteins. Since RAM1 has previously been shown to be directly activated by the common symbiosis signalling pathway through CYCLOPS, we conclude that it acts as an early transcriptional switch that induces many AM-related genes, among them genes that are essential for the development of arbuscules, such as STR, STR2, RAM2, and PT4, besides hundreds of additional RAM1-dependent genes the role of which in symbiosis remains to be explored. Taken together, these results indicate that the defect in the morphogenesis of the fungal arbuscules in ram1 mutants may be an indirect consequence of functional defects in the host, which interfere with nutrient exchange and possibly other functions on which the fungus depends.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1374-2 - Net recognized built-in gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Net recognized built-in gain. 1.1374-2 Section 1...-in gain. (a) In general. An S corporation's net recognized built-in gain for any taxable year is the... considering only its recognized built-in gain, recognized built-in loss, and recognized built-in gain...

  16. Do You Recognize This Parent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edna

    1997-01-01

    Suggests effective ways to work with parents who may be permissive, busy, detached, overprotective, or negative. Recommends that child care professionals be sensitive and understanding, recognize other demands on parents' time and communicate competitively with them, use terms parents understand, accept various levels of parental involvement, be…

  17. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  18. Recognizing and Managing Interpersonal Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Nancy; Hovland, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Practical advice is offered, to managers and supervisors at any level, on recognizing and analyzing interpersonal conflicts, managing such conflicts and making them productive, and ensuring that performance reviews result in progress for both supervisor and employee. Conflict is seen as inevitable, an opportunity to take action, and manageable.…

  19. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  20. 46 CFR 188.10-59 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 188.10-59 Section 188... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-59 Recognized classification society. This term means the American Bureau of Shipping or other classification society...

  1. Identification and characterization of dwarf 62, a loss-of-function mutation in DLT/OsGRAS-32 affecting gibberellin metabolism in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenqiang; Wu, Jianguo; Weng, Shili; Zhang, Yujiang; Zhang, Dapeng; Shi, Chunhai

    2010-11-01

    A dwarf mutant, dwarf 62 (d62), was isolated from rice cultivar 93-11 by mutagenesis with γ-rays. Under normal growth conditions, the mutant had multiple abnormal phenotypes, such as dwarfism, wide and dark-green leaf blades, reduced tiller numbers, late and asynchronous heading, short roots, partial male sterility, etc. Genetic analysis indicated that the abnormal phenotypes were controlled by the recessive mutation of a single nuclear gene. Using molecular markers, the D62 gene was fine mapped in 131-kb region at the short arm of chromosome 6. Positional cloning of D62 gene revealed that it was the same locus as DLT/OsGRAS-32, which encodes a member of the GRAS family. In previous studies, the DLT/OsGRAS-32 is confirmed to play positive roles in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Sequence analysis showed that the d62 carried a 2-bp deletion in ORF region of D62 gene which led to a loss-of-function mutation. The function of D62 gene was confirmed by complementation experiment. RT-PCR analysis and promoter activity analysis showed that the D62 gene expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, leaves and panicles of rice plant. The d62 mutant exhibited decreased activity of α-amylase in endosperm and reduced content of endogenous GA(1). The expression levels of gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic genes including OsCPS1, OsKS1, OsKO1, OsKAO, OsGA20ox2/SD1 and OsGA2ox3 were significantly increased in d62 mutant. Briefly, these results demonstrated that the D62 (DLT/OsGRAS-32) not only participated in the regulation of BR signaling, but also influenced GA metabolism in rice.

  2. Comparative analysis of the expression level of recombinant ginsenoside-transforming β-glucosidase in GRAS hosts and mass production of the ginsenoside Rh2-Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Cui, Chang-Hao; Park, Seul-Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Sun-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rh2, a pharmaceutically active component of ginseng, is known to have anticancer and antitumor effects. However, white ginseng and red ginseng have extremely low concentrations of Rh2 or Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, and Rh3]. To enhance the production of food-grade ginsenoside Rh2, an edible enzymatic bioconversion technique was developed adopting GRAS host strains. A β-glucosidase (BglPm), which has ginsenoside conversion ability, was expressed in three GRAS host strains (Corynebacterium glutamicum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactococus lactis) by using a different vector system. Enzyme activity in these three GRAS hosts were 75.4%, 11.5%, and 9.3%, respectively, compared to that in the E. coli pGEX 4T-1 expression system. The highly expressed BglPm_C in C. glutamicum can effectively transform the ginsenoside Rg3-Mix [20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rk1, Rg5] to Rh2-Mix [20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, Rk2, Rh3] using a scaled-up biotransformation reaction, which was performed in a 10-L jar fermenter at pH 6.5/7.0 and 37°C for 24 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which 50 g of PPD-Mix (Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd) as a starting substrate was converted to ginsenoside Rg3-Mix by acid heat treatment and then 24.5-g Rh2-Mix was obtained by enzymatic transformation of Rg3-Mix through by BglPm_C. Utilization of this enzymatic method adopting a GRAS host could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rh2-Mix in cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries, thereby replacing the E. coli expression system. PMID:28423055

  3. Évolution de la normalisation dans le domaine des oléagineux et des corps gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinsac Alain

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available La normalisation joue un grand rôle dans les échanges économiques en participant à l’ouverture et à la transparence des marchés. La filière des Oléagineux et des Corps Gras a intégré depuis longtemps la normalisation dans sa stratégie. Élaborés à partir des besoins de la profession et notamment au niveau de la relation client-fournisseur, les programmes ont concerné principalement l’échantillonnage et l’analyse. Depuis quelques années, une forte évolution du contexte socio-économique et réglementaire (utilisation non-alimentaire, sécurité alimentaire, assurance qualité, a élargi le champ de la normalisation. La démarche normative adoptée dans le cas des bio-diesels et de la détection des OGM dans les oléagineux est expliquée. Les conséquences de l’évolution de la normalisation et les enjeux pour la profession des oléagineux dans le futur sont évoqués.

  4. The Petunia GRAS Transcription Factor ATA/RAM1 Regulates Symbiotic Gene Expression and Fungal Morphogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K.

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutual symbiosis that involves a complex symbiotic interface over which nutrients are exchanged between the plant host and the AM fungus. Dozens of genes in the host are required for the establishment and functioning of the interaction, among them nutrient transporters that mediate the uptake of mineral nutrients delivered by the fungal arbuscules. We have isolated in a genetic mutant screen a petunia (Petunia hybrida) GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR of GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, and SCARECROW (GRAS)-type transcription factor, ATYPICAL ARBUSCULE (ATA), that acts as the central regulator of AM-related genes and is required for the morphogenesis of arbuscules. Forced mycorrhizal inoculations from neighboring wild-type plants revealed an additional role of ATA in restricting mycorrhizal colonization of the root meristem. The lack of ATA, which represents the ortholog of REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 in Medicago truncatula, renders the interaction completely ineffective, hence demonstrating the central role of AM-related genes for arbuscule development and function. PMID:25971550

  5. The Petunia GRAS Transcription Factor ATA/RAM1 Regulates Symbiotic Gene Expression and Fungal Morphogenesis in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Mélanie K; Schorderet, Martine; Bapaume, Laure; Falquet, Laurent; Morel, Patrice; Vandenbussche, Michiel; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-07-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a mutual symbiosis that involves a complex symbiotic interface over which nutrients are exchanged between the plant host and the AM fungus. Dozens of genes in the host are required for the establishment and functioning of the interaction, among them nutrient transporters that mediate the uptake of mineral nutrients delivered by the fungal arbuscules. We have isolated in a genetic mutant screen a petunia (Petunia hybrida) Gibberellic Acid Insensitive, Repressor of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive, and Scarecrow (GRAS)-type transcription factor, Atypical Arbuscule (ATA), that acts as the central regulator of AM-related genes and is required for the morphogenesis of arbuscules. Forced mycorrhizal inoculations from neighboring wild-type plants revealed an additional role of ATA in restricting mycorrhizal colonization of the root meristem. The lack of ATA, which represents the ortholog of Required For Arbuscular Mycorrhiza1 in Medicago truncatula, renders the interaction completely ineffective, hence demonstrating the central role of AM-related genes for arbuscule development and function. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Libération des acides gras par autolyse enzymatique des triglycérides des graines oléoprotéagineuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibert Gilbert

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Les acides gras produits par hydrolyse chimique des lipides des plantes sont des matériaux de base pour l’industrie des biocarburants, des lubrifiants, des plastiques, des détergents et également des adjuvants de préparations commerciales d’herbicides. Cependant les procédés actuels de production des acides gras sont hautement polluants et coûteux en énergie. Dans ce travail nous développons un nouveau procédé de production des acides gras mettant en œuvre des plantes génétiquement modifiées. Nous avons introduit dans le tabac, retenu comme plante modèle, une construction génétique comprenant un gène de lipase (de la levure Geotrichum candidum sous le contrôle d’un promoteur graine spécifique (promoteur AtEm1 d’Arabidopsis thaliana. Ce promoteur devrait permettre l’expression du gène de lipase au niveau de l’axe embryonnaire tandis que les lipides s’accumulent dans les corps lipidiques des cotylédons. Dans ces conditions, les lipides de la graine devraient être séparés de la lipase par une compartimentation tissulaire et ne pas interférer. Après broyage des graines on peut penser que la mise en contact des lipides et de la lipase conduira à la libération d’acides gras. Plusieurs transformants ont été produits par transfert de gène à l’aide d’Agrobacterium tumefaciens, quelques-uns d’entre eux exprimant, comme attendu, la lipase dans leurs graines. Trois clones (2, 19 et 43 présentent une activité lipase significative et ont été retenus pour des études complémentaires. Cependant l’activité enzymatique observée est faible et certains clones présentent un défaut de compartimentation entre l’enzyme et les lipides se traduisant par la production d’acides gras dans la graine intacte. Lorsque les graines du clone 43 sont broyées dans un tampon, des acides gras sont produits dans le milieu réactionnel, validant le procédé imaginé. De nouvelles constructions réalisées, soit

  7. Producing and Recognizing Analogical Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkens, Regina; Hayes, Steven C

    2009-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important component of intelligent behavior, and a key test of any approach to human language and cognition. Only a limited amount of empirical work has been conducted from a behavior analytic point of view, most of that within Relational Frame Theory (RFT), which views analogy as a matter of deriving relations among relations. The present series of four studies expands previous work by exploring the applicability of this model of analogy to topography-based rather than merely selection-based responses and by extending the work into additional relations, including nonsymmetrical ones. In each of the four studies participants pretrained in contextual control over nonarbitrary stimulus relations of sameness and opposition, or of sameness, smaller than, and larger than, learned arbitrary stimulus relations in the presence of these relational cues and derived analogies involving directly trained relations and derived relations of mutual and combinatorial entailment, measured using a variety of productive and selection-based measures. In Experiment 1 participants successfully recognized analogies among stimulus networks containing same and opposite relations; in Experiment 2 analogy was successfully used to extend derived relations to pairs of novel stimuli; in Experiment 3 the procedure used in Experiment 1 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations; in Experiment 4 the procedure used in Experiment 2 was extended to nonsymmetrical comparative relations. Although not every participant showed the effects predicted, overall the procedures occasioned relational responses consistent with an RFT account that have not yet been demonstrated in a behavior-analytic laboratory setting, including productive responding on the basis of analogies. PMID:19230515

  8. Apports spontanés en acides gras oméga 3 chez des diabétiques de type 2 tunisiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamoussi Henda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Il est admis à l’unanimité que les acides gras oméga 3 ont de multiples bénéfices pour la santé et plus précisément des effets protecteurs contre les maladies cardiovasculaires et neurodégénératives. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer les apports spontanés en acides alphalinolénique (ALA, docosahexaénoïque (DHA, éicosapentaénoïque (EPA et linoléique (LA. Cette étude d’observation a été réalisée auprès de 42 diabétiques de type 2 (21 hommes et 21 femmes âgés de 30 à 75 ans. L’estimation des apports en acides gras a été réalisée en utilisant la méthode d’enregistrement sur sept jours. Les résultats ont montré que l’apport moyen en ALA était de 0,99 ± 0,40 g/j soit 0,42 ± 0,13 % de l’apport énergétique total (AET. Aucun de nos patients n’avait un apport suffisant en ALA. Les apports quotidiens moyens en DHA et en EPA étaient respectivement de 90,0 ± 85 mg/j et de 83,5 ± 80 mg/j. Quant à la contribution des aliments aux apports en EPA et en DHA, les poissons et les fruits de mer représentaient la part la plus importante (57 % de ces deux acides gras. Nos résultats appellent à renforcer l’éducation nutritionnelle des diabétiques afin d’augmenter les apports en acides gras oméga 3 et d’assurer un rapport LA/ALA optimal qui contribuerait à la prévention des maladies cardiovasculaires.

  9. Pre-announcement of symbiotic guests: transcriptional reprogramming by mycorrhizal lipochitooligosaccharides shows a strict co-dependency on the GRAS transcription factors NSP1 and RAM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnjec, Natalija; Czaja-Hasse, Lisa F; Hogekamp, Claudia; Küster, Helge

    2015-11-23

    More than 80 % of all terrestrial plant species establish an arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis with Glomeromycota fungi. This plant-microbe interaction primarily improves phosphate uptake, but also supports nitrogen, mineral, and water aquisition. During the pre-contact stage, the AM symbiosis is controled by an exchange of diffusible factors from either partner. Amongst others, fungal signals were identified as a mix of sulfated and non-sulfated lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), being structurally related to rhizobial nodulation (Nod)-factor LCOs that in legumes induce the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. LCO signals are transduced via a common symbiotic signaling pathway (CSSP) that activates a group of GRAS transcription factors (TFs). Using complex gene expression fingerprints as molecular phenotypes, this study primarily intended to shed light on the importance of the GRAS TFs NSP1 and RAM1 for LCO-activated gene expression during pre-symbiotic signaling. We investigated the genome-wide transcriptional responses in 5 days old primary roots of the Medicago truncatula wild type and four symbiotic mutants to a 6 h challenge with LCO signals supplied at 10(-7/-8) M. We were able to show that during the pre-symbiotic stage, sulfated Myc-, non-sulfated Myc-, and Nod-LCO-activated gene expression almost exclusively depends on the LysM receptor kinase NFP and is largely controled by the CSSP, although responses independent of this pathway exist. Our results show that downstream of the CSSP, gene expression activation by Myc-LCOs supplied at 10(-7/-8) M strictly required both the GRAS transcription factors RAM1 and NSP1, whereas those genes either co- or specifically activated by Nod-LCOs displayed a preferential NSP1-dependency. RAM1, a central regulator of root colonization by AM fungi, controled genes activated by non-sulfated Myc-LCOs during the pre-symbiotic stage that are also up-regulated in areas with early physical contact, e.g. hyphopodia and

  10. De l’oléochimie à la bioraffinerie : continuité de développement pour le secteur des corps gras ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rous Jean-François

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available L’oléochimie est une science très ancienne dont l’objectif est de transformer les corps gras animaux ou les huiles végétales pour produire des molécules chimiques, telles que des alcools gras, des acides gras, des esters plus ou moins complexes, entrant dans de multiples applications telles que les savons, les lubrifiants, les tensio-actifs, les agents de rhéologie, et bien d’autres applications. Depuis le début des années 90, grâce au développement des technologies et notamment à la transposition dans le domaine des huiles et corps gras de technologies préalablement développées pour la pétrochimie (comme la métathèse par exemple (Poels EK, Moulijn JA, Sibeijn MJ. 1994. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71 : 553, cette science évolue pour produire des molécules de plus en plus complexes, et notamment des intermédiaires de synthèse qui entrent dans la préparation de polymères (par exemple des acides dimères, ou des diacides, qui sont modifiés -ou pas- en diols ou diamines ou autres molécules bifonctionnelles de type amino-acides. La bioraffinerie quant à elle, à l’instar de la raffinerie, vise à développer le meilleur usage possible des différentes fractions d’une plante. Le premier exemple (et meilleur à ce jour est l’amidonnerie, qui au-delà du développement des dérivés de l’amidon, fractionne complètement la graine de blé ou de maïs afin d’en tirer le maximum de valeur possible. Bien qu’un certain nombre de développements aient été menés depuis quelques années, les unités de trituration et raffinage des graines oléagineuses sont encore loin de s’apparenter à ce degré de fractionnement. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer que même si les développements successifs des usages faisables à partir des corps gras et des huiles ont suivi des choix parfois politiques, il n’en reste pas moins que ces choix ne peuvent être considérés que comme des « déclencheurs » et qu’à termes c

  11. Recognizing Job Health Hazards. Module SH-08. Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on recognizing job health hazards is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module presents the four general categories of environmental conditions or stresses: chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic. Following the introduction, 14 objectives (each keyed to a page in the text) the student is…

  12. Marché des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation des corps gras Market of Hydrogenation Catalysts for Fats and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barraque M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'institut Français du Pétrole (IFP ayant acquis une grande expérience dans le domaine des catalyseurs, notamment d'hydrogénation, le Département Evaluation a effectué à diverses reprises des études qui en évaluent les marchés potentiels. L'analyse qui suit a été réalisée en vue de déterminer les débouchés possibles des catalyseurs utilisés dans l'hydrogénation des corps gras; elle couvre l'industrie alimentaire, l'hydrogénation des acides gras d'origine animale ou végétale, la production d'alcools gras et d'amines grasses. Ce marché dépasse 60 millions de dollars/an et correspond à près de 11 000 t/an de catalyseurs utilisés. Ces valeurs tiennent compte des consommations captives de catalyseurs produits par les compagnies utilisatrices. Ce chiffre d'affaires est du même ordre que celui des catalyseurs d'hydrogénation utilisés dans la synthèse des grands intermédiaires pétrochimiques. Plus de 64 % des applications concernent l'industrie alimentaire : production de margarine et shortening, hydrogénation d'huiles de salade et de friture aux États-Unis. Alors que la consommation de catalyseurs utilisés en lipochimie est très fortement concentrée dans les principales régions industrialisées : États-Unis, Europe occidentale et Japon, celle de I'lindustrie alimentaire est beaucoup plus dispersée : les 3 régions précitées représentent moins de 64 % de la consommation mondiale. Les débouchés estimés représentent des chiffres d'affaires annuels de 41×10·6 dollars pour l'industrie alimentaire, 8,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'acide gras, 11×10·6 dollars pour la production d'alcools gras et 1,3×10·6 dollars pour la production d'amines grasses. Ces hydrogénations sont effectuées en présence de nickel sur support (industrie alimentaire, production d'acides gras et d'amines secondaires et tertiaires, en présence de nickel de Raney (production d'amines primaires ou de chromite de cuivre

  13. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  14. Apports spontanés en acides gras oméga 3 chez des diabétiques de type 2 tunisiens

    OpenAIRE

    Jamoussi Henda; Chaabouni Salma; Gammoudi Amel; Mahjoub Faten; Ounaissa Kamilia; Berriche Olfa; Amrouche Chiraz; Blouza Samira

    2014-01-01

    Il est admis à l’unanimité que les acides gras oméga 3 ont de multiples bénéfices pour la santé et plus précisément des effets protecteurs contre les maladies cardiovasculaires et neurodégénératives. L’objectif de ce travail était d’estimer les apports spontanés en acides alphalinolénique (ALA), docosahexaénoïque (DHA), éicosapentaénoïque (EPA) et linoléique (LA). Cette étude d’observation a été réalisée auprès de 42 diabétiques de type ...

  15. Recommendations for recognizing video events by concept vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    represents a video in terms of low-level audiovisual features [16,38,50,35,15,19,37]. In general, these methods first extract from the video various types of...interpretable, but is also reported to outperform the state-of-the-art low-level audiovisual features in recognizing events [31,33]. Rather than training...concept detector accuracy. As a consequence, the vocabulary concepts do not necessarily have a semantic interpreta- tion needed to explain the video content

  16. [Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami: health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    a zero risk from human-generated disasters such as the severe accident of FDNPP. Many are very intolerant of the health impairment risks factors and wish to avoid any risk altogether. The viewpoint of the general population differs considerably from that of epidemiologists and other research experts. Researchers and experts are often well versed in their own specialized areas but ignorant of other areas. Thus, it is difficult to grasp the complete view of an event under consideration. This so-called 'takotsubo' situation is dangerous in human society. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand areas other than their own specialized areas. Scientific researchers usually possess a great deal of conviction from the results of their own studies. They are apt to ignore criticism of their study results from individuals working in other research areas even when the results of their studies are inadequate. When the conditions of their studies are changed somewhat and insufficient information is obtained, the results may not be accurate. Researchers and experts should take full cognizance of this possibility, view with strong skepticism about the results of studies even in their own areas, and listen with humility to criticisms from those working in fields of discipline other than their own. It should be fully recognized that the viewpoint of the general population is considerably different from that of researchers and experts regarding health risks due to the severe accident of FDNPP. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand the opinions of those working in areas other than their own in order to grasp a true and complete view of an event under consideration.

  17. Perspective on the nuclear power plant accident caused by the great east Japan earthquake and tsunami. Health impairment risks due to pollution by radioactive materials from the damaged plant as recognized by experts and by the general population and role of the experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Minoru; Miyakawa, Michiko

    2012-01-01

    human-generated disasters such as the severe accident of FDNPP. Many are very intolerant of the health impairment risks factors and wish to avoid any risk altogether. The viewpoint of the general population differs considerably from that of epidemiologists and other research experts. Researchers and experts are often well versed in their own specialized areas but ignorant of other areas. Thus, it is difficult to grasp the complete view of an event under consideration. This so-called 'takotsubo' situation is dangerous in human society. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand areas other than their own specialized areas. Scientific researchers usually possess a great deal of conviction from the results of their own studies. They are apt to ignore criticism of their study results from individuals working in other research areas even when the results of their studies are inadequate. When the conditions of their studies are changed somewhat and insufficient information is obtained, the results may not be accurate. Researchers and experts should take full cognizance of this possibility, view with strong skepticism about the results of studies even in their own areas, and listen with humility to criticisms from those working in fields of discipline other than their own. It should be fully recognized that the viewpoint of the general population is considerably different from that of researchers and experts regarding health risks due to the severe accident of FDNPP. Researchers and experts must make effort to understand the opinions of those working in areas other than their own in order to grasp a true and complete view of an event under consideration. (author)

  18. Recognizing, Confronting, and Eliminating Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Peggy Ann; Gillespie, Gordon L; Fisher, Bonnie S; Gormley, Denise K

    2016-07-01

    Workplace bullying (WPB) behaviors negatively affect nurse productivity, satisfaction, and retention, and hinder safe patient care. The purpose of this article is to define WPB, differentiate between incivility and WPB, and recommend actions to prevent WPB behaviors. Informed occupational and environmental health nurses and nurse leaders must recognize, confront, and eliminate WPB in their facilities and organizations. Recognizing, confronting, and eliminating WPB behaviors in health care is a crucial first step toward sustained improvements in patient care quality and the health and safety of health care employees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  20. Recognizing textual entailment models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dagan, Ido; Sammons, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of NLP researchers have developed and participated in the task of Recognizing Textual Entailment (RTE). This task encapsulates Natural Language Understanding capabilities within a very simple interface: recognizing when the meaning of a text snippet is contained in the meaning of a second piece of text. This simple abstraction of an exceedingly complex problem has broad appeal partly because it can be conceived also as a component in other NLP applications, from Machine Translation to Semantic Search to Information Extraction. It also avoids commitment to any sp

  1. 21 CFR 184.1287 - Enzyme-modified fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Enzyme-modified milk powder may be prepared with GRAS enzymes from reconstituted milk powder, whole milk, condensed or concentrated whole milk, evaporated milk...

  2. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  3. Two rice GRAS family genes responsive to N -acetylchitooligosaccharide elicitor are induced by phytoactive gibberellins: evidence for cross-talk between elicitor and gibberellin signaling in rice cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R Bradley; Tanabe, Shigeru; Koshioka, Masaji; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Minami, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present data showing that two members of the GRAS family of genes from rice, CIGR1 and CIGR2 (chitin-inducible gibberellin-responsive), inducible by the potent elicitor N -acetylchitooligosaccharide (GN), are rapidly induced by exogenous gibberellins. The pattern of mRNA accumulation was dependent on the dose and biological activity of the gibberellins, suggesting that the induction of the genes by gibberellin is mediated by a biological receptor capable of specific recognition and signal transduction upon perception of the phytoactive compounds. Further pharmacological analysis revealed that the CIGR1 and CIGR2 mRNA accumulation by treatment with gibberellin is dependent upon protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation events. In rice calli derived from slender rice 1, a constitutive gibberellin-responsive mutant, or d1, a mutant deficient in the alpha -subunit of the heterotrimeric G-protein, CIGR1 and CIGR2 were induced by a GN elicitor, yet not by gibberellin. Neither gibberellin nor GN showed related activities in defense or development, respectively. These results strongly suggested that the signal transduction cascade from gibberellin is independent of that from GN, and further implied that CIGR1 and CIGR2 have dual, distinct roles in defense and development.

  4. Proctalgia fugax: would you recognize it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, R R

    1996-04-01

    Proctalgia fugax is characterized by sudden and sometimes severe rectal pain that occurs by day or night at irregular intervals. The pain results from dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter. Proctalgia fugax has a uniform clinical picture, and it can be easily diagnosed when recognized. The patient can be assured that nothing serious is wrong. Expensive tests, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis, are not required. Treatment may be difficult, but if the attacks of pain are numerous and severe,, a calcium channel blocker such as nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia) should be tried.

  5. Ants recognize foes and not friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J.; Nehring, Volker; Jørgensen, Charlotte G.; Nielsen, John; Galizia, C. Giovanni; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    Discriminating among individuals and rejecting non-group members is essential for the evolution and stability of animal societies. Ants are good models for studying recognition mechanisms, because they are typically very efficient in discriminating ‘friends’ (nest-mates) from ‘foes’ (non-nest-mates). Recognition in ants involves multicomponent cues encoded in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Here, we tested whether workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus herculeanus use the presence and/or absence of cuticular hydrocarbons to discriminate between nest-mates and non-nest-mates. We supplemented the cuticular profile with synthetic hydrocarbons mixed to liquid food and then assessed behavioural responses using two different bioassays. Our results show that (i) the presence, but not the absence, of an additional hydrocarbon elicited aggression and that (ii) among the three classes of hydrocarbons tested (unbranched, mono-methylated and dimethylated alkanes; for mono-methylated alkanes, we present a new synthetic pathway), only the dimethylated alkane was effective in eliciting aggression. Our results suggest that carpenter ants use a fundamentally different mechanism for nest-mate recognition than previously thought. They do not specifically recognize nest-mates, but rather recognize and reject non-nest-mates bearing odour cues that are novel to their own colony cuticular hydrocarbon profile. This begs for a reappraisal of the mechanisms underlying recognition systems in social insects. PMID:19364750

  6. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, G.; Cecco, V.S.

    1981-11-01

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  7. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  8. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  9. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  11. Substâncias GRAS no controle do crescimento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Fusarium guttiforme in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskálath Morganna Silva Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Fusarium guttiforme são fungos fitopatogênicos causadores de diversas doenças pós-colheita em frutos. As substâncias “GRAS”- (Generally d Regarded As Safe, são uma alternativa no controle de micro-organismos na fase pós-colheita, devido seus efeitos fungistáticos e fungicidas comprovados. O presente estudo observou os efeitos de cinco substâncias “GRAS” no controle de crescimento dos fungos fitopatogênicos C. gloeosporioides e F. guttiforme in vitro. Meios de cultura (BDA foram suplementados com 1%, 3% e 5% de bicarbonato de sódio, carbonato de sódio, carbonato de cálcio, cloreto de cálcio e 0,1%, 0,5% 1% de cloreto de potássio. Foram inoculados 10µl de solução de esporo na concentração de 5x103 esporo/ml. Das cinco substâncias utilizadas nos testes, bicarbonato de sódio e carbonato de sódio inibiram 100% o crescimento do fungo C. gloeosporioides, as demais não foram limitantes para o desenvolvimento do fungo quando comparado ao controle. Carbonato de sódio inibiu em 100% o crescimento de F. guttiforme em todas as concentrações. Foram positivos também, bicarbonato de sódio nas concentrações de 3% e 5%. O tratamento utilizando 5% de cloreto de cálcio reduziu em 51% o crescimento deste fitopatógeno. As outras substâncias não reduziram ou inibiram o crescimento micelial do fitopatógeno quando comparado com o controle. Das cinco substâncias “GRAS” testadas neste trabalho, carbonato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio, foram eficazes em inibir o crescimento micelial de C. gloeosporioides. Carbonato de sódio, bicarbonato de sódio e cloreto de cálcio se mostraram capazes de inibir o crescimento micelial F. guttiforme.

  12. Recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi, Tuan Hue; Wang, Li; Ye, Ning; Zhang, Jian; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-12

    Vision-based surveillance and monitoring is a potential alternative for early detection of respiratory disease outbreaks in urban areas complementing molecular diagnostics and hospital and doctor visit-based alert systems. Visible actions representing typical flu-like symptoms include sneeze and cough that are associated with changing patterns of hand to head distances, among others. The technical difficulties lie in the high complexity and large variation of those actions as well as numerous similar background actions such as scratching head, cell phone use, eating, drinking and so on. In this paper, we make a first attempt at the challenging problem of recognizing flu-like symptoms from videos. Since there was no related dataset available, we created a new public health dataset for action recognition that includes two major flu-like symptom related actions (sneeze and cough) and a number of background actions. We also developed a suitable novel algorithm by introducing two types of Action Matching Kernels, where both types aim to integrate two aspects of local features, namely the space-time layout and the Bag-of-Words representations. In particular, we show that the Pyramid Match Kernel and Spatial Pyramid Matching are both special cases of our proposed kernels. Besides experimenting on standard testbed, the proposed algorithm is evaluated also on the new sneeze and cough set. Empirically, we observe that our approach achieves competitive performance compared to the state-of-the-arts, while recognition on the new public health dataset is shown to be a non-trivial task even with simple single person unobstructed view. Our sneeze and cough video dataset and newly developed action recognition algorithm is the first of its kind and aims to kick-start the field of action recognition of flu-like symptoms from videos. It will be challenging but necessary in future developments to consider more complex real-life scenario of detecting these actions simultaneously from

  13. Can a CNN recognize Catalan diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, P.; Bolaños, M.; Radeva, P.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, we can find several diseases related to the unhealthy diet habits of the population, such as diabetes, obesity, anemia, bulimia and anorexia. In many cases, these diseases are related to the food consumption of people. Mediterranean diet is scientifically known as a healthy diet that helps to prevent many metabolic diseases. In particular, our work focuses on the recognition of Mediterranean food and dishes. The development of this methodology would allow to analise the daily habits of users with wearable cameras, within the topic of lifelogging. By using automatic mechanisms we could build an objective tool for the analysis of the patient's behavior, allowing specialists to discover unhealthy food patterns and understand the user's lifestyle. With the aim to automatically recognize a complete diet, we introduce a challenging multi-labeled dataset related to Mediter-ranean diet called FoodCAT. The first type of label provided consists of 115 food classes with an average of 400 images per dish, and the second one consists of 12 food categories with an average of 3800 pictures per class. This dataset will serve as a basis for the development of automatic diet recognition. In this context, deep learning and more specifically, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), currently are state-of-the-art methods for automatic food recognition. In our work, we compare several architectures for image classification, with the purpose of diet recognition. Applying the best model for recognising food categories, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 72.29%, and top-5 of 97.07%. In a complete diet recognition of dishes from Mediterranean diet, enlarged with the Food-101 dataset for international dishes recognition, we achieve a top-1 accuracy of 68.07%, and top-5 of 89.53%, for a total of 115+101 food classes.

  14. Synergie et acides gras – XXIe siècle : une ère nouvelle pour les lipides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The various disciplins of Science reveal a complex, consistent, and flexible world of lipids, which moreover allows for most of the biological world resilience. Marketing of Science, Commercial and Political marketing, have wanted to simplify this complex world at the most, reaching the limits of binary reduction of black and white, of Opposition and Exclusion. The Communication Mediatory Mask has ceased fulfilling its social function of interpreter, transmitter of truth. It became reducer, letting appearance to be confused with reality, disinformer by fact. Thus, the way to cognitive dissociation and repeated inconsistencies, was fully mapped out. Children of the century, researchers became heavily contaminated, and scientists were accused of inconsistancy. In the food and agri-business field, as well as in the pharmaceutical field, the sanction has been, is or will be severe (animal flours and new variants of prion disease, coxiBs or anti-Cox2. The real scientific discourse is actually very consistant, provided no acquisition, no question, neither from past nor for present time, is ignored, provided one’s accepts its complexity. Several ignored questions or problems about to be solved or renewed, are raised :- Tendency to take a part for the whole, the concept of flux speed, of endogenous synthesis speed, concept of the influence of a different man made environment – Excess of exogenous or endogenous oleic acid, danger of cholesterol oleate, but requirement for a little amount of endogenous oleic acid - Phytosterols and 25-OH vitamin D- Requirement for a saturated fatty acids minimal amount. -Confusion between Vaccenic acid :-C18 :1n-7trans, natural parent of Rumenic acid, and Elaidic acid (C18 :1n-9trans product of industrial hydrogenation. Furthermore new and old data on the confusion between alphalinolenic acid (in general and alpha-linolenic in sn-2 position, the only one to be indispensable, are emerging together with the

  15. Fractioneren van gras en luzerne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasper, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gewasfractionering is de mechanische scheiding van gewassen in een aantal fracties voor een betere benutting van het oorspronkelijke materiaal. Het is een proces waarbij de bladrijke plant sterk gekneusd en samengeperst wordt. Hierdoor ontstaat een relatief eiwitrijke en een vezelarme sapfractie en

  16. 46 CFR 42.05-60 - Recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recognized classification society. 42.05-60 Section 42... FOREIGN VOYAGES BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-60 Recognized classification society. The term recognized classification society means the American Bureau of Shipping or other...

  17. Recognizing Psychiatric Comorbidity With Reading Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Hendren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading disorder (RD, a specific learning disorder (SLD of reading that includes impairment in word reading, reading fluency, and/or reading comprehension, is common in the general population but often is not comprehensively understood or assessed in mental health settings. In education settings, comorbid mental and associated disorders may be inadequately integrated into intervention plans. Assessment and intervention for RD may be delayed or absent in children with frequently co-occurring mental disorders not fully responding to treatment in both school and mental health settings. To address this oversight, this review summarizes current knowledge regarding RDs and common comorbid or co-occurring disorders that are important for mental health and school settings. We chose to highlight RD because it is the most common SLD, and connections to other often comorbid disorders have been more thoroughly described in the literature. Much of the literature we describe is on decoding-based RD (or developmental dyslexia as it is the most common form of RD. In addition to risk for academic struggle and social, emotional, and behavioral problems, those with RD often show early evidence of combined or intertwined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition childhood disorders. These include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and depression, disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and other SLDs. The present review highlights issues and areas of controversy within these comorbidities, as well as directions for future research. An interdisciplinary, integrated approach between mental health professionals and educators can lead to comprehensive and targeted treatments encompassing both academic and mental health interventions. Such targeted treatments may contribute to improved educational and health-related outcomes in vulnerable youth. While there is a growing research literature

  18. Recognizing Bedside Events Using Thermal and Ultrasonic Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielsen Asbjørn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Falls in homes of the elderly, in residential care facilities and in hospitals commonly occur in close proximity to the bed. Most approaches for recognizing falls use cameras, which challenge privacy, or sensor devices attached to the bed or the body to recognize bedside events and bedside falls. We use data collected from a ceiling mounted 80 × 60 thermal array combined with an ultrasonic sensor device. This approach makes it possible to monitor activity while preserving privacy in a non-intrusive manner. We evaluate three different approaches towards recognizing location and posture of an individual. Bedside events are recognized using a 10-second floating image rule/filter-based approach, recognizing bedside falls with 98.62% accuracy. Bed-entry and exit events are recognized with 98.66% and 96.73% accuracy, respectively.

  19. 76 FR 33419 - Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 232, 240, 249, et al. Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-11] RIN 3235-AL15 Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organizations AGENCY: Securities and... rating organizations (``NRSROs''). In addition, in accordance with the Dodd-Frank Act, the Commission is...

  20. Régulation de la biosynthèse des acides gras polyinsaturés lors de l’hypertension artérielle associée aux diabètes de type 1 et 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comte Céline

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons étudié les effets de l’association des pathologies hypertensive et diabétiques sur la conversion des acides linoléique et alpha-linolénique en acides gras plus longs et plus insaturés. Pour cela, nous avons mis en place deux modèles de rats : le premier combinant hypertension artérielle (HTA et diabète de type 2, grâce à l’administration d’un régime enrichi en fructose à des rats SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat adultes \\; le deuxième combinant HTA et diabète de type 1, induit par une injection de streptozotocine à des rats SHR adultes, traités (STZI ou non (STZ à l’insuline. Après mesure de la pression artérielle et de la glycémie au sacrifice des animaux, nous avons déterminé la composition des lipides totaux hépatiques en acides gras, les activités de delta-6 désaturation microsomales hépatiques ainsi que l’expression du gène codant la delta-6 désaturase. Les résultats de l’expérience 1 mettent en évidence une diminution des teneurs en 18 : 2 n-6 et en produits de désaturation à longue chaîne, chez les animaux du lot fructose. L’activité de delta-6 n-3 désaturation est augmentée significativement, alors que l’expression génique a tendance à diminuer. Dans l’expérience 2, une augmentation de la teneur en 18 : 2 n-6 est observée dans le lot STZ, alors que le lot STZI présente des teneurs semblables à celles des témoins. De plus, les teneurs en 20 : 4 n-6 et 22 : 6 n-3 sont augmentées dans le lot STZI. L’activité delta-6 n-3 désaturante est partiellement inhibée dans le lot STZI, et l’expression génique de la delta-6 désaturase est diminuée dans les deux lots traités. Ces résultats mettent en évidence que l’association de l’HTA et des différentes formes de diabète entraîne des perturbations de la biosynthèse des acides gras polyinsaturés qui sont différentes, voire opposées, selon le type de diabète. Leurs répercussions sur

  1. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Sultana, Mahbuba Q.; Useinov, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    . This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation

  2. Recognizing the Stranger: Recognition Scenes in the Gospel of John

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Bro

    Recognizing the Stranger is the first monographic study of recognition scenes and motifs in the Gospel of John. The recognition type-scene (anagnōrisis) was a common feature in ancient drama and narrative, highly valued by Aristotle as a touching moment of truth, e.g., in Oedipus’ tragic self...... structures of the type-scene in order to show how Jesus’ true identity can be recognized behind the half-mask of his human appearance....

  3. A novel approach in recognizing magnetic material with simplified algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2011-04-01

    In this article a cost-effective and simple system (circuit and algorithm) which allows recognizing different kinds of films by their magneto-field conductive properties is demonstrated. The studied signals are generated by a proposed circuit. This signal was further analyzed (recognized) in frequency domain creating the Fourier frequency spectrum which is easily used to detect the response of magnetic sample. The novel algorithm in detecting magnetic field is presented here with both simulation and experimental results. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. 75 FR 81536 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... a fundamental truth or proposition on which others depend (Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 5th... English Dictionary, 5th Edition, 2002); a ``study'' can be defined as the devotion of time and attention...

  5. 76 FR 59247 - Environmental Impact Considerations, Food Additives, and Generally Recognized As Safe Substances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... agent in the manufacture of silica.'' PART 178--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND... pale orange or pinkish white powder. * * * * * * * * 0 21. Section 184.1845 is amended by revising the...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1 - Substances that are generally recognized as safe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... illustration, the Commissioner regards such common food ingredients as salt, pepper, sugar, vinegar, baking... constitute a finding on the part of the Department that the substance is useful as a supplement to the diet...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1588 - Pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific.... Pectin is produced commercially by extracting citrus peel, apple pomace, or beet pulp with hot dilute... affirmation of these ingredients as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as direct human food ingredients is...

  8. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  9. Drawing and Recognizing Chinese Characters with Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Yao; Yin, Fei; Zhang, Yan-Ming; Liu, Cheng-Lin; Bengio, Yoshua

    2018-04-01

    Recent deep learning based approaches have achieved great success on handwriting recognition. Chinese characters are among the most widely adopted writing systems in the world. Previous research has mainly focused on recognizing handwritten Chinese characters. However, recognition is only one aspect for understanding a language, another challenging and interesting task is to teach a machine to automatically write (pictographic) Chinese characters. In this paper, we propose a framework by using the recurrent neural network (RNN) as both a discriminative model for recognizing Chinese characters and a generative model for drawing (generating) Chinese characters. To recognize Chinese characters, previous methods usually adopt the convolutional neural network (CNN) models which require transforming the online handwriting trajectory into image-like representations. Instead, our RNN based approach is an end-to-end system which directly deals with the sequential structure and does not require any domain-specific knowledge. With the RNN system (combining an LSTM and GRU), state-of-the-art performance can be achieved on the ICDAR-2013 competition database. Furthermore, under the RNN framework, a conditional generative model with character embedding is proposed for automatically drawing recognizable Chinese characters. The generated characters (in vector format) are human-readable and also can be recognized by the discriminative RNN model with high accuracy. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of using RNNs as both generative and discriminative models for the tasks of drawing and recognizing Chinese characters.

  10. Excusable neglect in malpractice suits against radiologists: a proposed jury instruction to recognize the human condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Charles; Seamone, Evan R

    2007-01-01

    This article unwraps the nature and source of human errors involved in Radiology, revealing unique elements of the specialty that warrant special consideration in medical malpractice cases. The authors compare these errors to negligent practices in other professions and conclude that a general concept of negligence cannot adequately address the complexities of decision-making in Radiology. After analyzing legal precedent, they develop an innovative jury instruction that recognizes particular situations of error in Radiology that occur in the absence of negligence.

  11. Bridges to Excellence--recognizing high-quality care: analysis of physician quality and resource use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meredith B; de Brantes, Francois S; Sinaiko, Anna D; Frankel, Matthew; Robbins, Russell D; Young, Sara

    2008-10-01

    To examine whether physicians who sought and received Bridges to Excellence (BTE) recognition performed better than similar physicians on a standardized set of population-based performance measures. Cross-sectional comparison of performance data. Using a claims dataset of all commercially insured members from 6 health plans in Massachusetts, we examined population-based measures of quality and resource use for physicians recognized by the BTE programs Physician Office Link and Diabetes Care Link, compared with nonrecognized physicians in the same specialties. Differences in performance were tested using generalized linear models. Physician Office Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better than their nonrecognized peers on measures of cervical cancer screening, mammography, and glycosylated hemoglobin testing. Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians performed significantly better on all 4 diabetes process measures of quality, with the largest differences observed in microalbumin screening (17.7%). Patients of Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had a significantly greater percentage of their resource use accounted for by evaluation and management services (3.4%), and a smaller percentage accounted for by facility (-1.6%), inpatient ancillary (-0.1%), and nonmanagement outpatient services (-1.0%). After adjustment for patient age and sex, and case mix, Physician Office Link-recognized physicians had significantly fewer episodes per patient (0.13) and lower resource use per episode (dollars 130), but findings were mixed for Diabetes Care Link-recognized physicians. Our findings suggest that the BTE approach to ascertaining physician quality identifies physicians who perform better on claims-based quality measures and primary care physicians who use a less resource-intensive practice style.

  12. Recognizing Variable Environments The Theory of Cognitive Prism

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tiansi

    2012-01-01

    Normal adults do not have any difficulty in recognizing their homes. But can artificial systems do in the same way as humans? This book collects interdisciplinary evidences and presents an answer from the perspective of computing, namely, the theory of cognitive prism. To recognize an environment, an intelligent system only needs to classify objects, structures them based on the connection relation (not through measuring!), subjectively orders the objects, and compares with the target environment, whose knowledge is similarly structured. The intelligent system works, therefore, like a prism: when a beam of light (a scene) reaches (is perceived) to an optical prism (by an intelligent system), some light (objects) is reflected (are neglected), those passed through (the recognized objects) are distorted (are ordered differently). So comes the term 'cognitive prism'! Two fundamental propositions used in the theory can be informally stated as follow: an orientation relation is a kind of distance comparison relatio...

  13. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...... home environment, and conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate our system. Results show that epMAR outperforms existing schemes in terms of accuracy, scalability and robustness....

  14. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  15. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  16. Lessons from Tiananmen Square: Recognizing Bias in News Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Recommends teaching students to recognize bias in news reports and how personal preferences infringe on objective judgment. Provides two class activities designed to help students understand this concept. Uses the Cinderella story from three cultures and group discussion to illustrate this technique. (NL)

  17. Framework for benchmarking FA-based string recognizers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngassam, EK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available of suggested algorithms by domain-specific FA-implementers requires prior knowledge of the behaviour (performance-wise) of each algorithm in order to make an informed choice. The authors propose a based string recognizers such that FA-implementers could capture...

  18. Recognizing Family Dynamics in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Len

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is an increasingly common chronic medical condition that affects not only patients but also their families. Because family dynamics, particularly the family life cycle, can and does influence the disease process, those providing counseling to CFS patients and their families would do well to recognize these dynamics.…

  19. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.

  20. Recognizing Risk-of-Failure in Communication Design Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Joyce; Lievesley, Matthew; Taylor, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pace of commercial graphic design practice presents very few opportunities to conduct user research after a project's launch. This makes the design team's ability to anticipate and address risks during the design development phase even more important, recognized in the astute observation from Tim Brown, CEO of leading international design…

  1. Recognizing and managing sapstreak disease of sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; David R. Houston

    1993-01-01

    Sapstreak disease, a potentially serious problem of sugarbushes and forest stands, occurs when the causal fungus, Ceratocystis virescens, invades the sapwood of roots and bases of stems through wounds inflicted during logging, saphauling, or other activities. Describes how to recognize the disease, the factors that affect its occurrence and development, and management...

  2. NREL: News - Students Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Event Recognized for Creativity during Energy Education Event Golden, Colo., May 13, 2002 Tapping the power of the sun was the theme of the May 11 Solarbrate Education event at the U.S. Department Assistance Foundation, Oakwood Homes, Home Depot, E-Star Colorado, Governor's Office of Energy Management

  3. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships,

  4. Shady strategic behavior : Recognizing strategic behavior of Dark Triad followers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Birgit; Wisse, Barbara; Sanders, Stacey

    2018-01-01

    The importance of strategic behavior in organizations has long been recognized. However, so far the literature has primarily focused on leaders’ strategic behavior, largely ignoring followers’ strategic behavior. In the present paper, we take a follower trait perspective to strategic follower

  5. Professional Development Recognizing Technology Integration Modeled after the TPACK Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCusker, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Public school teachers within a Pennsylvania intermediate unit are receiving inadequate job-embedded professional development that recognizes knowledge of content, pedagogy, and technology integration, as outlined by Mishra and Koehler's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework (2006). A school environment where teachers are…

  6. Structural elements recognized by abacavir-induced T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yerly, Daniel; Pompeu, Yuri Andreiw; Schutte, Ryan J.

    2017-01-01

    of autoimmune destruction. The structural elements recognized by drug-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) in vivo are poorly defined. Drug-stimulated T cells express TCRs specific for peptide/HLA complexes, but the characteristics of peptides (sequence, or endogenous or exogenous origin) presented in the context...

  7. Cultural characters of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, M P; John, M; Parker, M T

    1966-07-01

    Members of a newly recognized group of hospital staphylococci, which are believed to have arisen from 83A staphylococci by lysogenization, differ from them in several cultural characters. Some but not all of these characters appear to be determined by the carriage of phage.

  8. QMODULE: CAMAC modules recognized by the QAL compiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1977-10-01

    The compiler for the Q Analyzer Language, QAL, recognizes a certain set of CAMAC modules as having known characteristics. The conventions and procedures used to describe these modules are discussed as well as the tools available to the user for extending this set as required

  9. Recognizing Textual Entailment: Challenges in the Portuguese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing textual entailment comprises the task of determining semantic entailment relations between text fragments. A text fragment entails another text fragment if, from the meaning of the former, one can infer the meaning of the latter. If such relation is bidirectional, then we are in the presence of a paraphrase. Automatically recognizing textual entailment relations captures major semantic inference needs in several natural language processing (NLP applications. As in many NLP tasks, textual entailment corpora for English abound, while the same is not true for more resource-scarce languages such as Portuguese. Exploiting what seems to be the only Portuguese corpus for textual entailment and paraphrases (the ASSIN corpus, in this paper, we address the task of automatically recognizing textual entailment (RTE and paraphrases from text written in the Portuguese language, by employing supervised machine learning techniques. We employ lexical, syntactic and semantic features, and analyze the impact of using semantic-based approaches in the performance of the system. We then try to take advantage of the bi-dialect nature of ASSIN to compensate its limited size. With the same aim, we explore modeling the task of recognizing textual entailment and paraphrases as a binary classification problem by considering the bidirectional nature of paraphrases as entailment relationships. Addressing the task as a multi-class classification problem, we achieve results in line with the winner of the ASSIN Challenge. In addition, we conclude that semantic-based approaches are promising in this task, and that combining data from European and Brazilian Portuguese is less straightforward than it may initially seem. The binary classification modeling of the problem does not seem to bring advantages to the original multi-class model, despite the outstanding results obtained by the binary classifier for recognizing textual entailments.

  10. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  11. Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasoz Fatma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement. We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.

  12. Analysis of Gait Pattern to Recognize the Human Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition based on the computer vision is the process of labelling image sequences with action labels. Accurate systems for this problem are applied in areas such as visual surveillance, human computer interaction and video retrieval. The challenges are due to variations in motion, recording settings and gait differences. Here we propose an approach to recognize the human activities through gait. Activity recognition through Gait is the process of identifying an activity by the manner in which they walk. The identification of human activities in a video, such as a person is walking, running, jumping, jogging etc are important activities in video surveillance. We contribute the use of Model based approach for activity recognition with the help of movement of legs only. Experimental results suggest that our method are able to recognize the human activities with a good accuracy rate and robust to shadows present in the videos.

  13. T cells recognizing a peptide contaminant undetectable by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brezar, Vedran; Culina, Slobodan; Østerbye, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used in immunological research as epitopes to stimulate their cognate T cells. These preparations are never completely pure, but trace contaminants are commonly revealed by mass spectrometry quality controls. In an effort to characterize novel major histocompatibility...... complex (MHC) Class I-restricted ß-cell epitopes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, we identified islet-infiltrating CD8+ T cells recognizing a contaminating peptide. The amount of this contaminant was so small to be undetectable by direct mass spectrometry. Only after concentration by liquid...... chromatography, we observed a mass peak corresponding to an immunodominant islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)(206-214) epitope described in the literature. Generation of CD8+ T-cell clones recognizing IGRP(206-214) using a novel method confirmed the identity...

  14. Discovering Activities to Recognize and Track in a Smart Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J; Holder, Lawrence B; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The machine learning and pervasive sensing technologies found in smart homes offer unprecedented opportunities for providing health monitoring and assistance to individuals experiencing difficulties living independently at home. In order to monitor the functional health of smart home residents, we need to design technologies that recognize and track activities that people normally perform as part of their daily routines. Although approaches do exist for recognizing activities, the approaches are applied to activities that have been pre-selected and for which labeled training data is available. In contrast, we introduce an automated approach to activity tracking that identifies frequent activities that naturally occur in an individual's routine. With this capability we can then track the occurrence of regular activities to monitor functional health and to detect changes in an individual's patterns and lifestyle. In this paper we describe our activity mining and tracking approach and validate our algorithms on data collected in physical smart environments.

  15. Slice&Dice: Recognizing Food Preparation Activities Using Embedded Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Cuong; Olivier, Patrick

    Within the context of an endeavor to provide situated support for people with cognitive impairments in the kitchen, we developed and evaluated classifiers for recognizing 11 actions involved in food preparation. Data was collected from 20 lay subjects using four specially designed kitchen utensils incorporating embedded 3-axis accelerometers. Subjects were asked to prepare a mixed salad in our laboratory-based instrumented kitchen environment. Video of each subject's food preparation activities were independently annotated by three different coders. Several classifiers were trained and tested using these features. With an overall accuracy of 82.9% our investigation demonstrated that a broad set of food preparation actions can be reliably recognized using sensors embedded in kitchen utensils.

  16. Action of the city of Schweinfurt against Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld recognized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    In the appeal proceedings, the Bavarian Administrative Court with its interim decision of April 9, 1979 - No. 167 VI 74 - has recognized the action of the city of Schweinfurt against the state of Bavaria to set aside the 1st part license for the construction of Kernkraftwerk Grafenrheinfeld, although the right for action was limited to the city's legal position concerning planning authority, drinking water supply, and a city-owned lake used for swimming. Appeal was allowed. The city has lodged an appeal. The decision of the Administrative Court of Wuerzburg of March 25, 1977, which was contested by the appeal, had also recognized the city's rights but dismissed the action as being unfounded. Guidelines and reasons for the decision of the Bavarian Administrative Court are given in full wording. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 HIS [de

  17. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  18. Federally-Recognized Tribes of the Columbia-Snake Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1997-11-01

    This is an omnibus publication about the federally-recognized Indian tribes of the Columbia-Snake river basin, as presented by themselves. It showcases several figurative and literal snapshots of each tribe, bits and pieces of each tribe`s story. Each individual tribe or tribal confederation either submitted its own section to this publication, or developed its own section with the assistance of the writer-editor. A federally-recognized tribe is an individual Indian group, or confederation of Indian groups, officially acknowledged by the US government for purposes of legislation, consultation and benefits. This publication is designed to be used both as a resource and as an introduction to the tribes. Taken together, the sections present a rich picture of regional indian culture and history, as told by the tribes.

  19. Craig Reynolds: Recognized for Excellence in Medicine | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Distinguished Alumni Award is one of the most prestigious awards at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine. This award recognizes influential alumni who have achieved excellence in the art and science of medicine. One of this year’s recipients is Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., associate director, NCI. When asked how he felt about receiving this

  20. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, M.; Miellet, S.; Dzieciol, A.M.; Konrad, B.N; Dresler, M.; Caldara, R.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perce...

  1. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human’s body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  2. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  4. Passive wireless sensor systems can recognize activites of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Prabitha; Stucki, Reto; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    The ability to determine what activity of daily living a person performs is of interest in many application domains. It is possible to determine the physical and cognitive capabilities of the elderly by inferring what activities they perform in their houses. Our primary aim was to establish a proof of concept that a wireless sensor system can monitor and record physical activity and these data can be modeled to predict activities of daily living. The secondary aim was to determine the optimal placement of the sensor boxes for detecting activities in a room. A wireless sensor system was set up in a laboratory kitchen. The ten healthy participants were requested to make tea following a defined sequence of tasks. Data were collected from the eight wireless sensor boxes placed in specific places in the test kitchen and analyzed to detect the sequences of tasks performed by the participants. These sequence of tasks were trained and tested using the Markov Model. Data analysis focused on the reliability of the system and the integrity of the collected data. The sequence of tasks were successfully recognized for all subjects and the averaged data pattern of tasks sequences between the subjects had a high correlation. Analysis of the data collected indicates that sensors placed in different locations are capable of recognizing activities, with the movement detection sensor contributing the most to detection of tasks. The central top of the room with no obstruction of view was considered to be the best location to record data for activity detection. Wireless sensor systems show much promise as easily deployable to monitor and recognize activities of daily living.

  5. Male tawny dragons use throat patterns to recognize rivals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Louise; Umbers, Kate D L; Backwell, Patricia R Y; Keogh, J Scott

    2012-10-01

    The ability to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics is important for many animals, especially territorial species since it allows them to avoid unnecessary interactions with individuals that pose little threat. There are very few studies, however, that identify the proximate cues that facilitate such recognition in visual systems. Here, we show that in tawny dragons (Ctenophorus decresii), males can recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific males based on morphological features alone, without the aid of chemical or behavioural cues. We further show that it is the colour pattern of the throat patches (gular) that facilitates this recognition.

  6. Recognizing and Treating Malaria in U.S. Residents

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-06-09

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: It's a Small World After All: Dengue and Malaria in U.S. Residents - Recognizing and Treating These Mosquito-borne Diseases. CDC's David Townes discusses clinical presentation, transmission, prevention strategies, new treatments, and malaria resources available to health care providers.  Created: 6/9/2010 by Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Emergency Communication System (ECS)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/15/2010.

  7. THE HYDROGENOSOMAL ENZYME HYDROGENASE FROM THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP L2 IS RECOGNIZED BY ANTIBODIES, DIRECTED AGAINST THE C-TERMINAL MICROBODY PROTEIN TARGETING SIGNAL SKL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; KRAAK, MN; VEENHUIS, M; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    The question was addressed whether antibodies directed against the general microbody C-terminal protein targeting signal SKL recognized hydrogenosomal proteins from Neocallimastix sp. L2. Immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting experiments using these antibodies indicated the

  8. Impact environnemental des corps gras et de leurs dérivés formulés ou non : biodégradabilité et écotoxicité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Vincent

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Les risques encourus par l’environnement à cause de la libération d’un produit chimique particulier dépendent essentiellement du potentiel et de la durée d’exposition de ce produit à l’environnement et de sa toxicité. Les corps gras et leurs dérivés sont utilisés dans des domaines très variés tels que les lubrifiants, les solvants, les agents de surface, les détergents… L’impact environnemental de ces composés peut être mis en évidence par des essais normalisés de biodégradabilité et de toxicité. La biodégradabilité est évaluée par diverses mesures : disparition de la substance, évolution de la demande biochimique en oxygène (DBO, consommation d’oxygène, production de dioxyde de carbone et évolution de la composition gazeuse autour du phénomène de biodégradation. La toxicité est évaluée sur divers organismes tels que les bactéries, les algues, les crustacés, les poissons, les mammifères… L’ensemble de ces mesures, expliquées dans cet article, est d’autant plus important qu’il intervient dans les classifications, les réglementations et les écolabels.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-05-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case.

  10. Effects of Facial Expressions on Recognizing Emotions in Dance Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Shikanai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of facial expressions on recognizing emotions expressed in dance movements were investigated. Dancers expressed three emotions: joy, sadness, and anger through dance movements. We used digital video cameras and a 3D motion capturing system to record and capture the movements. We then created full-video displays with an expressive face, full-video displays with an unexpressive face, stick figure displays (no face, or point-light displays (no face from these data using 3D animation software. To make point-light displays, 13 markers were attached to the body of each dancer. We examined how accurately observers were able to identify the expression that the dancers intended to create through their dance movements. Dance experienced and inexperienced observers participated in the experiment. They watched the movements and rated the compatibility of each emotion with each movement on a 5-point Likert scale. The results indicated that both experienced and inexperienced observers could identify all the emotions that dancers intended to express. Identification scores for dance movements with an expressive face were higher than for other expressions. This finding indicates that facial expressions affect the identification of emotions in dance movements, whereas only bodily expressions provide sufficient information to recognize emotions.

  11. Comparison of concept recognizers for building the Open Biomedical Annotator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (NCBO is developing a system for automated, ontology-based access to online biomedical resources (Shah NH, et al.: Ontology-driven indexing of public datasets for translational bioinformatics. BMC Bioinformatics 2009, 10(Suppl 2:S1. The system's indexing workflow processes the text metadata of diverse resources such as datasets from GEO and ArrayExpress to annotate and index them with concepts from appropriate ontologies. This indexing requires the use of a concept-recognition tool to identify ontology concepts in the resource's textual metadata. In this paper, we present a comparison of two concept recognizers – NLM's MetaMap and the University of Michigan's Mgrep. We utilize a number of data sources and dictionaries to evaluate the concept recognizers in terms of precision, recall, speed of execution, scalability and customizability. Our evaluations demonstrate that Mgrep has a clear edge over MetaMap for large-scale service oriented applications. Based on our analysis we also suggest areas of potential improvements for Mgrep. We have subsequently used Mgrep to build the Open Biomedical Annotator service. The Annotator service has access to a large dictionary of biomedical terms derived from the United Medical Language System (UMLS and NCBO ontologies. The Annotator also leverages the hierarchical structure of the ontologies and their mappings to expand annotations. The Annotator service is available to the community as a REST Web service for creating ontology-based annotations of their data.

  12. Recognizing Induced Emotions of Happiness and Sadness from Dance Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Edith; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu; Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that emotional content can be successfully decoded from human dance movement. Most previous studies made use of videos of actors or dancers portraying emotions through choreography. The current study applies emotion induction techniques and free movement in order to examine the recognition of emotional content from dance. Observers (N = 30) watched a set of silent videos showing depersonalized avatars of dancers moving to an emotionally neutral musical stimulus after emotions of either sadness or happiness had been induced. Each of the video clips consisted of two dance performances which were presented side-by-side and were played simultaneously; one of a dancer in the happy condition and one of the same individual in the sad condition. After every film clip, the observers were asked to make forced-choices concerning the emotional state of the dancer. Results revealed that observers were able to identify the emotional state of the dancers with a high degree of accuracy. Moreover, emotions were more often recognized for female dancers than for their male counterparts. In addition, the results of eye tracking measurements unveiled that observers primarily focus on movements of the chest when decoding emotional information from dance movement. The findings of our study show that not merely portrayed emotions, but also induced emotions can be successfully recognized from free dance movement. PMID:24587026

  13. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  14. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  15. Apports en DHA (acide gras oméga-3 par les poissons et les fruits de mer consommés en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourre Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This present work measures the contributions of seafood (finfish and shellfish, wild and farmed to the intakes of DHA in France, year 2005, and consequently to the French recommended daily intakes (RDA of DHA. For this purpose, we measured the concentrations of DHA in each individual seafood by analysis of many published data. We also determined the exact consumption of the main products of seafood (fishing and farming in France (year 2005 using the modified method of the dietary intake measurement defined by the FAO. For year 2005, the 34 species of finfish and shellfish whose DHA contents are known account for 150% of the RDA of this omega-3 fatty acid. Taking all the species individually and extrapolating to include those whose DHA contents are not known, gives 156% of the RDA. The 10 greatest contributors to the DHA intake in the present diet are: salmon (47.6 mg/day/person, sardine (28.4, tuna (20.5, mackerel (15.7, herring (12.4, Alaskan pollock (8.9, cod (6.9, trout (6.5, hake (4.7, saithe (4.6. The 5 species of oily fish (salmon, sardine, tuna, mackerel and herring provide 63% of the DHA intake, and thus approx 95% of the French RDA. Besides DHA, seafood contains low amounts of ALA, but it can very high in farmed fish fed on rapeseed or linseed products. Omega-3 fatty acids (including EPA and DHA have an important role in human diet, both for prevention and the therapy of different pathologies. Data from many epidemiological studies has shown an inverse association between fish consumption, generally oily fish, and reductions in certain diseases. Although number of people do not lack dietary DHA, others, mainly pregnant women and nursing mothers and those people whose life styles or socio-economic positions restrict their seafood intakes, would benefit greatly from an increased intake of this omega-3 fatty acid.

  16. Increased Production of Food-Grade d-Tagatose from d-Galactose by Permeabilized and Immobilized Cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum, a GRAS Host, Expressing d-Galactose Isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Sim, Dong-Hyun; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-11-02

    The generally recognized as safe microorganism Corynebacterium glutamicum expressing Geobacillus thermodenitrificans d-galactose isomerase (d-GaI) was an efficient host for the production of d-tagatose, a functional sweetener. The d-tagatose production at 500 g/L d-galactose by the host was 1.4-fold higher than that by Escherichia coli expressing d-GaI. The d-tagatose-producing activity of permeabilized C. glutamicum (PCG) cells treated with 1% (w/v) Triton X-100 was 2.1-fold higher than that of untreated cells. Permeabilized and immobilized C. glutamicum (PICG) cells in 3% (w/v) alginate showed a 3.1-fold longer half-life at 50 °C and 3.1-fold higher total d-tagatose concentration in repeated batch reactions than PCG cells. PICG cells, which produced 165 g/L d-tagatose after 3 h, with a conversion of 55% (w/w) and a productivity of 55 g/L/h, showed significantly higher d-tagatose productivity than that reported for other cells. Thus, d-tagatose production by PICG cells may be an economical process to produce food-grade d-tagatose.

  17. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Guihua; Li, Huihui; Huang, Jubing; Li, Danyang; Xun, Eryang

    2017-01-01

    Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN) can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN) method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  19. A Novel Handwritten Letter Recognizer Using Enhanced Evolutionary Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Mirzashaeri, Mohsen; Shahamatnia, Ehsan; Faridnia, Saed

    This paper introduces a novel design for handwritten letter recognition by employing a hybrid back-propagation neural network with an enhanced evolutionary algorithm. Feeding the neural network consists of a new approach which is invariant to translation, rotation, and scaling of input letters. Evolutionary algorithm is used for the global search of the search space and the back-propagation algorithm is used for the local search. The results have been computed by implementing this approach for recognizing 26 English capital letters in the handwritings of different people. The computational results show that the neural network reaches very satisfying results with relatively scarce input data and a promising performance improvement in convergence of the hybrid evolutionary back-propagation algorithms is exhibited.

  20. Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: an increasingly recognized condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Meira Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE has been increasingly recognized in the literature. Patients with CPFE are usually heavy smokers or former smokers with concomitant lower lobe fibrosis and upper lobe emphysema on chest HRCT scans. They commonly present with severe breathlessness and low DLCO, despite spirometry showing relatively preserved lung volumes. Moderate to severe pulmonary arterial hypertension is common in such patients, who are also at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for CPFE. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and prognostic factors of CPFE. Given that most of the published data on CPFE are based on retrospective analysis, more studies are needed in order to address the role of emphysema and its subtypes; the progression of fibrosis/emphysema and its correlation with inflammation; treatment options; and prognosis.

  1. Blue petrels recognize the odor of their egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclaire, Sarah; Bourret, Vincent; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    Most studies on avian olfactory communication have focused on mate choice, and the importance of olfaction in subsequent nesting stages has been poorly explored. In particular, the role of olfactory cues in egg recognition has received little attention, despite eggs potentially being spread with parental odorous secretions known to elicit individual discrimination. Here, we used behavioral choice tests to determine whether female blue petrels ( Halobaena caerulea ) can discriminate the odor of their own egg from the odor of a conspecific egg. Females preferentially approached the odor of their own egg, suggesting that blue petrels can recognize their own egg using odor cues. This finding raises the question of the adaptive value of this mechanism, and may inspire further research on odor-based egg discrimination in species suffering brood parasitism. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. PMab-38 Recognizes Canine Podoplanin of Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Honma, Ryusuke; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Takagi, Michiaki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Podoplanin, a type I transmembrane protein, is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although we previously developed an anticanine podoplanin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, immunohistochemistry (IHC) showed that it did not react with canine lymphatic endothelial cells. Here, we determined whether PMab-38 recognizes canine podoplanin of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and clarified its epitope. In IHC, PMab-38 reacted with 83% of SCCs (15/18 cases). Flow cytometry showed that the epitope of PMab-38 was different from that of the platelet aggregation-stimulating domain of the N-terminus, which was detected by almost all antipodoplanin mAbs such as D2-40 or NZ-1. PMab-38 is expected to be useful for investigating the function of podoplanin in canine tumors.

  3. Perceptron Genetic to Recognize Openning Strategy Ruy Lopez

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Zulfian; Mawengkang, Herman

    2018-01-01

    The application of Perceptron method is not effective for coding on hardware based systems because it is not real time learning. With Genetic algorithm approach in calculating and searching the best weight (fitness value) system will do learning only one iteration. And the results of this analysis were tested in the case of the introduction of the opening pattern of chess Ruy Lopez. The Analysis with Perceptron Model with Algorithm Approach Genetics from group Artificial Neural Network for open Ruy Lopez. The data is processed with base open chess, with step eight a position white Pion from end open chess. Using perceptron method have many input and one output process many weight and refraction until output equal goal. Data trained and test with software Matlab and system can recognize the chess opening Ruy Lopez or Not open Ruy Lopez with Real time.

  4. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risques et bénéfices pour la santé des acides gras trans apportés par les aliments. Recommandations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léger Claude-Louis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Food Safety Agency (Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire des Aliments, AFSSA has recently adopted a definite position on risks and benefits of food trans fatty acids (TFA for human health. After considering available data on origins and biological activities of all types of TFA, including conjugated fatty acids (CLA, it has been proposed a regulatory definition of these fatty acids which is the chemical one : « the trans fatty acids are all unsaturated fatty acids that contain at least one double bond in a trans configuration ». This definition includes the CLA and TFA of animal origin. Daily intakes of TFA (except CLA in France was found to be 3 g/d in adults, i.e. 1.3 % total energy intake (E %. The male children are the most exposed to high TFA intakes which culminate at 2.5 E % for the 95 th percentile of the 12-14 year-old male children. Consumption of usual foods (not including the consumption of synthetic CLA supplements leads to a rumenic acid daily intake inferior to 200 mg/d (0.08 E %. The contribution of TFA of animal origin is 60 % in adult (55 % for milk and dairy products and 55 % (44 % for male children, showing a higher consumption of TFA of technological origin in the form of bakery products in children than in adults. According to epidemiological data, TFA intakes (except CLA of 2 E % are associated to a 25 % increased risk of the coronary heard disease. Clinical studies show that the CLA 10t,12c at the dose of 2.6 g/d should be considered potentially proatherogenic. The loss of body fat mass (the anti-obesity effect with the administration of CLA mixture 9c,11t + 10t,12c (or 10t,12c alone is obtained at a daily doses ranging from 1.6 to 6.8 g/d (2.6 g/d, but the loss is generally low even in the case of long term administration and adverse effects are observed in particular with 2.6 g/d CLA 10t,12c regarding insuline resistance, insulinemia, C-peptide, glycemia, HDL-C, enzymatic and non enzymatic

  6. Hypoglycemia in Older People - A Less Well Recognized Risk Factor for Frailty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Morley, John E.; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is common in older people with diabetes and is likely to be less recognized and under reported by patients and health care professionals. Hypoglycemia in this age group is associated with significant morbidities leading to both physical and cognitive dysfunction. Repeated hospital admissions due to frequent hypoglycemia are also associated with further deterioration in patients’ general health. This negative impact of hypoglycemia is likely to eventually lead to frailty, disability and poor outcomes. It appears that the relationship between hypoglycemia and frailty is bidirectional and mediated through a series of influences including under nutrition. Therefore, attention should be paid to the management of under nutrition in the general elderly population by improving energy intake and maintaining muscle mass. Increasing physical activity and having a more conservative approach to glycemic targets in frail older people with diabetes may be worthwhile. PMID:25821643

  7. Pediatric rheumatology: An under-recognized subspecialty in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhila Kavirayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatrics in India at the levels of both undergraduate and postgraduate training is often viewed upon as an acute disease specialty with little emphasis on chronic medical musculoskeletal diseases. Pediatric rheumatology is an under-recognized subspecialty of pediatrics which deals specifically with childhood arthritis, noninflammatory joint pains, connective tissue diseases, autoimmune diseases, vasculitis, and other rare inflammatory disorders. This article aims to give a bird's eye view of the repertoire of commonly encountered problems seen by a pediatric rheumatologist, via a classical case vignette for each topic followed by discussion. There is also mention of some rare diseases managed within pediatric rheumatology to give a flavor of the spectrum of diseases encountered. This is to raise awareness of the importance of pediatric rheumatology as a subspecialty within India and to prompt readers to seek specialist advice when encountering challenging cases. Pediatric rheumatologists network and work collaboratively with many other specialties such as ophthalmology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, nephrology, infectious diseases, immunology, and gastroenterology for combined care of diverse conditions. There is an unmet need in India to develop a training program for pediatric rheumatology so that shared care pathways with sensitized pediatricians and other specialists can be developed nationwide, to serve these children better to achieve optimal outcomes.

  8. Random Deep Belief Networks for Recognizing Emotions from Speech Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Now the human emotions can be recognized from speech signals using machine learning methods; however, they are challenged by the lower recognition accuracies in real applications due to lack of the rich representation ability. Deep belief networks (DBN can automatically discover the multiple levels of representations in speech signals. To make full of its advantages, this paper presents an ensemble of random deep belief networks (RDBN method for speech emotion recognition. It firstly extracts the low level features of the input speech signal and then applies them to construct lots of random subspaces. Each random subspace is then provided for DBN to yield the higher level features as the input of the classifier to output an emotion label. All outputted emotion labels are then fused through the majority voting to decide the final emotion label for the input speech signal. The conducted experimental results on benchmark speech emotion databases show that RDBN has better accuracy than the compared methods for speech emotion recognition.

  9. Recognizing genes and other components of genomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Myers, E. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Stormo, G.D. (Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (USA). Dept. of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology)

    1991-01-01

    The Aspen Center for Physics (ACP) sponsored a three-week workshop, with 26 scientists participating, from 28 May to 15 June, 1990. The workshop, entitled Recognizing Genes and Other Components of Genomic Structure, focussed on discussion of current needs and future strategies for developing the ability to identify and predict the presence of complex functional units on sequenced, but otherwise uncharacterized, genomic DNA. We addressed the need for computationally-based, automatic tools for synthesizing available data about individual consensus sequences and local compositional patterns into the composite objects (e.g., genes) that are -- as composite entities -- the true object of interest when scanning DNA sequences. The workshop was structured to promote sustained informal contact and exchange of expertise between molecular biologists, computer scientists, and mathematicians. No participant stayed for less than one week, and most attended for two or three weeks. Computers, software, and databases were available for use as electronic blackboards'' and as the basis for collaborative exploration of ideas being discussed and developed at the workshop. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Recognizing emotions from EEG subbands using wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Henry; Yuwono, Mitchell; Handojoseno, Ardi; Chai, Rifai; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-01-01

    Objectively recognizing emotions is a particularly important task to ensure that patients with emotional symptoms are given the appropriate treatments. The aim of this study was to develop an emotion recognition system using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to identify four emotions including happy, sad, angry, and relaxed. We approached this objective by firstly investigating the relevant EEG frequency band followed by deciding the appropriate feature extraction method. Two features were considered namely: 1. Wavelet Energy, and 2. Wavelet Entropy. EEG Channels reduction was then implemented to reduce the complexity of the features. The ground truth emotional states of each subject were inferred using Russel's circumplex model of emotion, that is, by mapping the subjectively reported degrees of valence (pleasure) and arousal to the appropriate emotions - for example, an emotion with high valence and high arousal is equivalent to a `happy' emotional state, while low valence and low arousal is equivalent to a `sad' emotional state. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was then used for mapping each feature vector into corresponding discrete emotions. The results presented in this study indicated thatWavelet features extracted from alpha, beta and gamma bands seem to provide the necessary information for describing the aforementioned emotions. Using the DEAP (Dataset for Emotion Analysis using electroencephalogram, Physiological and Video Signals), our proposed method achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 77.4% ± 14.1% and 69.1% ± 12.8%, respectively.

  11. The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Benktander

    Full Text Available The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAcβ3Galβ4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Galα3Galα3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.

  12. A deep convolutional neural network for recognizing foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    Controlling the food intake is an efficient way that each person can undertake to tackle the obesity problem in countries worldwide. This is achievable by developing a smartphone application that is able to recognize foods and compute their calories. State-of-art methods are chiefly based on hand-crafted feature extraction methods such as HOG and Gabor. Recent advances in large-scale object recognition datasets such as ImageNet have revealed that deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) possess more representation power than the hand-crafted features. The main challenge with CNNs is to find the appropriate architecture for each problem. In this paper, we propose a deep CNN which consists of 769; 988 parameters. Our experiments show that the proposed CNN outperforms the state-of-art methods and improves the best result of traditional methods 17%. Moreover, using an ensemble of two CNNs that have been trained two different times, we are able to improve the classification performance 21:5%.

  13. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    Full Text Available Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  14. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  15. Structural basis of Zika virus helicase in recognizing its substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent explosive outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV infection has been reported in South and Central America and the Caribbean. Neonatal microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection has already caused a public health emergency of international concern. No specific vaccines or drugs are currently available to treat ZIKV infection. The ZIKV helicase, which plays a pivotal role in viral RNA replication, is an attractive target for therapy. We determined the crystal structures of ZIKV helicase-ATP-Mn2+ and ZIKV helicase-RNA. This is the first structure of any flavivirus helicase bound to ATP. Comparisons with related flavivirus helicases have shown that although the critical P-loop in the active site has variable conformations among different species, it adopts an identical mode to recognize ATP/Mn2+. The structure of ZIKV helicase-RNA has revealed that upon RNA binding, rotations of the motor domains can cause significant conformational changes. Strikingly, although ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV apo-helicases share conserved residues for RNA binding, their different manners of motor domain rotations result in distinct individual modes for RNA recognition. It suggests that flavivirus helicases could have evolved a conserved engine to convert chemical energy from nucleoside triphosphate to mechanical energy for RNA unwinding, but different motor domain rotations result in variable RNA recognition modes to adapt to individual viral replication.

  16. Tuning Recurrent Neural Networks for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Words

    KAUST Repository

    Qaralleh, Esam; Abandah, Gheith; Jamour, Fuad Tarek

    2013-01-01

    and sizes of the hidden layers. Large sizes are slow and small sizes are generally not accurate. Tuning the neural network size is a hard task because the design space is often large and training is often a long process. We use design of experiments

  17. Celiac crisis: a rare or rarely recognized disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, N.; Cheema, H.A.; Suleman, H.; Fayyaz, Z.; Mushtaq, I.

    2017-01-01

    Celiac crisis is a serious life threatening complication of celiac disease characterized by profuse diarrhoea, severe dehydration and metabolic disturbances leading to neuromuscular weakness, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. It has been described as rare condition and not well documented in the literature. To improve awareness and facilitate diagnosis of this condition, we studied risk factors, pattern of presentation and management plans of celiac crisis. Methods: It was a descriptive cross sectional study. Patients presenting in emergency room(ER) with profuse diarrhoea leading to severe dehydration, neuromuscular weakness, and metabolic acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities enrolled in the studies after positive serology and small bowel biopsy suggestive of celiac disease. Results: Total 126 patients out of 350 fulfilled the criteria including 54 (42.8 percent) male and 71 (56.3 percent) female. The mean age at presentation was 5.25+-1.18 years. Risk factors were poor social status (97.60 percent), consanguinity (96.77 percent), early weaning with gluten contained diet (93.54 percent), and Presenting complaints were loose motion (100 percent), loss of neck holding (96.77 percent), dehydration (96.77 percent), polyuria (95.96 percent), inability to walk (67.74 percent), abdominal distension (85.86 percent). Electrolytes imbalances were hypokalaemia (2.4+-0.55), hypocalcaemia (7.29+-0.66), hypomagnesaemia (1.89+-0.50), hypophosphatemia (2.8+-0.68), hypoalbuminemia (3.05+-0.48) and metabolic acidosis (96 percent). One hundred and twenty patients were stabilized with GFD and correction of dehydration, acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. Six patients needed parenteral steroids ant total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Recovery time from crisis was mean 5.4+-2.73 days (range 3-20 days). Conclusion: Celiac crisis is a common but under recognized problem in developing countries. Commonest presenting feature is neuromuscular paralysis and biochemical abnormality is

  18. Earth as an Exoplanet: Lessons in Recognizing Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria; Robinson, Tyler; Misra, Amit; Ennico, Kimberly; Sparks, William B.; Claire, Mark; Crisp, David; Schwieterman, Edward; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Earth will always be our best-studied example of a habitable world. While extrasolar planets are unlikely to look exactly like Earth, they may share key characteristics, such as oceans, clouds and surface inhomogeneity. Earth's globally-averaged characteristics can therefore help us to recognize planetary habitability in data-limited exoplanet observations. One of the most straightforward ways to detect habitability will be via detection of 'glint', specular reflectance from an ocean (Robinson et al., 2010). Other methods include undertaking a census of atmospheric greenhouse gases, or attempting to measure planetary surface temperature and pressure, to determine if liquid water would be feasible on the planetary surface. Here we present recent research on detecting planetary habitability, led by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team. This work includes a collaboration with the NASA Lunar Science Institute on the detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Earth observations (Robinson et al., 2014). This data/model comparison provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. We find that the VPL spectral Earth model is in excellent agreement with the LCROSS Earth data, and can be used to reliably predict Earth's appearance at a range of phases relevant to exoplanet observations. Determining atmospheric surface pressure and temperature directly for a potentially habitable planet will be challenging due to the lack of spatial-resolution, presence of clouds, and difficulty in spectrally detecting many bulk constituents of terrestrial atmospheres. Additionally, Rayleigh scattering can be masked by absorbing gases and absorption from the underlying surface. However, new techniques using molecular dimers of oxygen (Misra et al., 2014) and nitrogen

  19. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  20. Training a whole-book LSTM-based recognizer with an optimal training set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2018-04-01

    Despite the recent progress in OCR technologies, whole-book recognition, is still a challenging task, in particular in case of old and historical books, that the unknown font faces or low quality of paper and print contributes to the challenge. Therefore, pre-trained recognizers and generic methods do not usually perform up to required standards, and usually the performance degrades for larger scale recognition tasks, such as of a book. Such reportedly low error-rate methods turn out to require a great deal of manual correction. Generally, such methodologies do not make effective use of concepts such redundancy in whole-book recognition. In this work, we propose to train Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks on a minimal training set obtained from the book to be recognized. We show that clustering all the sub-words in the book, and using the sub-word cluster centers as the training set for the LSTM network, we can train models that outperform any identical network that is trained with randomly selected pages of the book. In our experiments, we also show that although the sub-word cluster centers are equivalent to about 8 pages of text for a 101- page book, a LSTM network trained on such a set performs competitively compared to an identical network that is trained on a set of 60 randomly selected pages of the book.

  1. Association between recognizing dementia as a mental illness and dementia knowledge among elderly Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Woo, Benjamin K P

    2016-06-22

    To investigate whether older Chinese Americans perceive dementia as a mental illness and the relationship between such perception and their general understanding of dementia remains unclear. Our study aims to understand this relationship and its future implication on improving dementia literacy among ethnic minorities. Elderly Chinese American participants from the Greater Los Angeles were asked to complete an 11-item dementia questionnaire, following a community health seminar. Cross-sectional survey data was analyzed using standard statistical methods. The questionnaire received an 88.3% response rate. Among 316 responders, only 28.8% (n = 91) of elderly Chinese Americans identified dementia as a mental illness, and 71.2% (n = 225) did not recognize its mental disease origin. Furthermore, in comparison between these two groups, the first group demonstrated significantly higher level of baseline knowledge of the disease. This study reveals that only approximately 1 out of 4 older Chinese Americans recognized dementia as a mental illness, consistent with previous studies on Asian Americans. Our study however showed that when dementia was being perceived as a mental illness, such perception was associated with a higher level of baseline dementia understanding. The current study suggested the potential of improving older Chinese Americans dementia literacy by increasing awareness of its mental illness origin.

  2. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  3. 75 FR 9953 - Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...] Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... its Regulation on the Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (29...

  4. 76 FR 28954 - International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... International Conservation and Management Measures Recognized by the United States AGENCY: National Marine... international conservation and management measures recognized by the United States. To fulfill this requirement, a list of agreements resulting in international conservation and management measures was first...

  5. 78 FR 7460 - Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...] Stakeholder Meeting on the Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of stakeholder meeting. SUMMARY: OSHA invites interested parties to attend an informal stakeholder meeting concerning Nationally Recognized Testing...

  6. Recognize and classify pneumoconiosis; Pneumokoniosen erkennen und klassifizieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, K.G.; Hofmann-Preiss, K. [Klinikum Westfalen, Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Dortmund (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    In the year 2012, out of the 10 most frequently recognized occupational diseases 6 were forms of pneumoconiosis. With respect to healthcare and economic aspects, silicosis and asbestos-associated diseases are of foremost importance. The latter are to be found everywhere and are not restricted to large industrial areas. Radiology has a central role in the diagnosis and evaluation of occupational lung disorders. In cases of known exposure mainly to asbestos and quartz, the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, with few exceptions will be established primarily by the radiological findings. As these disorders are asymptomatic for a long time they are quite often detected as incidental findings in examinations for other reasons. Therefore, radiologists have to be familiar with the pattern of findings of the most frequent forms of pneumoconiosis and the differential diagnoses. For reasons of equal treatment of the insured a quality-based, standardized performance, documentation and evaluation of radiological examinations is required in preventive procedures and evaluations. Above all, a standardized low-dose protocol has to be used in computed tomography (CT) examinations, although individualized concerning the dose, in order to keep radiation exposure as low as possible for the patient. The International Labour Office (ILO) classification for the coding of chest X-rays and the international classification of occupational and environmental respiratory diseases (ICOERD) classification used since 2004 for CT examinations meet the requirements of the insured and the occupational insurance associations as a means of reproducible and comparable data for decision-making. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2012 waren 6 der 10 am haeufigsten anerkannten Berufskrankheiten Pneumokoniosen. Gesundheitspolitisch und oekonomisch stehen dabei die Silikose und asbestassoziierte Erkrankungen im Vordergrund. Insbesondere Letztere treten ubiquitaer auf und sind nicht an grosse Industriestandorte gebunden

  7. Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, acides gras insaturés Un exemple : l’acide linoléique et les récepteurs du LDL-cholestérol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, et acides gras poly-insaturés. Il deviendra impossible dans le futur de poser le problème des apports nutritionnels conseillés sans se poser la question : Conseillés dans quel but ? Comptable, humanitaire, épanouissement individuel ? Obtenir une croissance, une reproduction, un gain de masse musculaire dans le plus court temps sont des objectifs de nutritionnistes zoo-techniciens. Dans ce système, l’objectif final est la mort programmée dans un abattoir dans le délai le plus court et le plus rentable possible. En nutrition humaine, l’objectif est d’obtenir la meilleure adaptabilité possible dans n’importe quelle situation et le plus longtemps possible. L’objectif n’est plus comme à la fin du xviiie et xixe siècle, d’obtenir une main-d’oeuvre pouvant se développer et se reproduire le plus rapidement possible, assurer un travail physique efficace au moindre coût. Peut-être est-il la transmission des connaissances anciennes, l’acquisition et la transmission de connaissances nouvelles, durant le plus lontemps possible. Pour l’homme, la définition des apports nutritionnels conseillés devrait être la définition des marges de sécurités entre les apports minimaux acceptables et les apports maximaux tolérables. Ces marges de sécurité devraient permettre d’obtenir une fonctionnalité réelle, soit la meilleure conformation récepteurs-enzymes, malgré des status génétiques variés (mutations, polymorphisme, etc., un environnement aléatoire, d’obtenir la résislience, l’adaptabilité individuelle, maximale, durant le plus longtemps possible (maintenance. Il n’existe pas d’autres possibilités de prévention des maladies conformationnelles nouvellement décrites. À titre d’exemple, les conditions d’obtention du niveau de régulation optimale du récepteur LDL, la dégradation sécrétoire de l’ApoB par le récepteur LDL sur le chemin de la s

  8. Gas chromatographic analysis of plant sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytosterols are well-known for their ability to lower blood cholesterol by competing with absorption of cholesterol from the diet and reabsorption of bile cholesterol. Phytosterols as food ingredients are “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) by the FDA, and they are increasingly incorporated into ...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1924 - Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus fermentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Urease enzyme preparation from Lactobacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1924 Urease enzyme..., nontoxicogenic bacterium Lactobacillus fermentum. It contains the enzyme urease (CAS Reg. No. 9002-13-5), which...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1388 - Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1388 Lactase enzyme preparation from Kluyveromyces lactis. (a) This enzyme preparation is derived from the nonpathogenic...

  15. A carvacrol wash and/or a chitosan based coating reduced Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wingettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne disease in humans, largely associated with consumption of contaminated poultry and poultry products. With increasing consumer demand for natural and minimally processed foods, the use of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status plant derived com...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common or...

  17. Comparative transcriptional analysis of Bacillus subtilis cells overproducing either secreted proteins, lipoproteins or membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marciniak, Bogumila C.; Trip, Hein; van-der Veek, Patricia J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Marciniak, Bogumiła C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Bacillus subtilis is a favorable host for the production of industrially relevant proteins because of its capacity of secreting proteins into the medium to high levels, its GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) status, its genetic accessibility and its capacity to grow in large

  18. Use of a chitosan based natural coating materials to reduce spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on poultry products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan is a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity having GRAS status (generally recognized as safe) as determined by the United States Food and Drug Administration (Smith et al., 2014). Efforts are underway to develop and improve the use of chitosan based films as packaging material...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1655 - Propane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1655 Propane. (a) Propane (empirical formula C3H8, CAS Reg. No. 74-98-6) is also known as dimethylmethane or propyl hydrid. It is a colorless, odorless, flammable gas at normal...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1165 - n-Butane and iso-butane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1165 n-Butane and iso-butane. (a) n-Butane and iso..., odorless, flammable gases at normal temperatures and pressures. They are easily liquefied under pressure at...

  1. Safety evaluation of substituted thiophenes used as flavoring ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Samuel M.; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Guengerich, F.P.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Smith, Robert L.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; McGowen, Margaret M.; Valerio, Luis G.; Taylor, Sean V.

    2017-01-01

    This publication is the second in a series by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association summarizing the conclusions of its third systematic re-evaluation of the safety of flavorings previously considered to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under conditions of

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  3. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  4. Tuning Recurrent Neural Networks for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Words

    KAUST Repository

    Qaralleh, Esam

    2013-10-01

    Artificial neural networks have the abilities to learn by example and are capable of solving problems that are hard to solve using ordinary rule-based programming. They have many design parameters that affect their performance such as the number and sizes of the hidden layers. Large sizes are slow and small sizes are generally not accurate. Tuning the neural network size is a hard task because the design space is often large and training is often a long process. We use design of experiments techniques to tune the recurrent neural network used in an Arabic handwriting recognition system. We show that best results are achieved with three hidden layers and two subsampling layers. To tune the sizes of these five layers, we use fractional factorial experiment design to limit the number of experiments to a feasible number. Moreover, we replicate the experiment configuration multiple times to overcome the randomness in the training process. The accuracy and time measurements are analyzed and modeled. The two models are then used to locate network sizes that are on the Pareto optimal frontier. The approach described in this paper reduces the label error from 26.2% to 19.8%.

  5. General Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. General Editorial. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2 General Editorial. General Editorial on Publication Ethics · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 3-3 ...

  6. 21 CFR 330.10 - Procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and effective and not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directions for use and warnings against unsafe use, provides rational concurrent therapy for a significant...) Court appeal. The monograph contained in the final order constitutes final agency action from which appeal lies to the courts. The Food and Drug Administration will request consolidation of all appeals in...

  7. 75 FR 31800 - Substances Generally Recognized as Safe Added to Food for Animals; Notice of Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Cosmetic Act (the act). The 1958 amendment required that, before a new additive could be used in food, its... exemption. FDA has defined ``safe'' as a reasonable certainty in the minds of competent scientists that the... recommendation of an authoritative body such as the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences...

  8. 21 CFR 330.14 - Additional criteria and procedures for classifying OTC drugs as generally recognized as safe and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR... for each country and explain why there are differences or changes. (v) A description of the country's... marketing, i.e., a large volume of sales with cultural diversity among users of the product. If the...

  9. Préférence et sensibilité aux aliments apportant les goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer et état pondéral [Preference and sensitivity to food providing fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes, and weight status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouassila ALLAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Résumé Introduction. Le goût est une modalité sensorielle chimique qui permet d'apprécier les saveurs d'une substance ingérée. Il joue un rôle essentiel dans la sélection des aliments. Objectif. Déterminer le niveau de sensibilité gustative aux goûts gras, sucré, salé et amer, à travers les préférences alimentaires et étudier le lien possible avec l’état pondéral. Matériel et méthodes. L’étude a porté sur 210 jeunes adultes (F/H, 157/53 âgés de 18 à 30 ans. Les mesures anthropométriques concernent le poids et la taille. Le questionnaire utilisé a permis l'évaluation des préférences alimentaires en relation avec différentes saveurs. Le niveau de sensibilité est estimé à partir des scores moyens de préférence attribués à chaque groupe d’aliments apportant le goût étudié. L’analyse statistique est réalisée avec le logiciel StatView. Résultats. Notre population compte 45,7% de sujets en surpoids dont 20% d’obèses. Le pourcentage du surpoids est plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes (p=0,04. Une relation significative est trouvée entre la préférence au gras rajouté et l’état pondéral des adultes (p=0,0003. Aucune différence significative n’est trouvée entre le niveau de préférence ou de sensibilité pour les aliments sucrés, salés ou amers et l’état pondéral des adultes. Conclusion. Les adultes en surpoids présentent le niveau de préférence le plus faible et sont les moins sensibles par rapport au gras rajouté, ce qui peut influencer l’état pondéral par une consommation excessive d’aliments riches en gras. [ Abstract Introduction. Taste is a chemical sensory modality allowing to appreciate the flavors of an ingested substance. It plays an essential role in food choice. Objective. To define the level of taste sensitivity to fatty, sweet, salty and bitter tastes through food preferences and to study the possible link with weight status. Material and

  10. Use what you can: Storage, abstraction processes and perceptual adjustments help listeners recognize reduced forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja ePoellmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three eye-tracking experiments tested whether native listeners recognized reduced Dutch words better after having heard the same reduced words, or different reduced words of the same reduction type and whether familiarization with one reduction type helps listeners to deal with another reduction type. In the exposure phase, a segmental reduction group was exposed to /b/-reductions (e.g., minderij instead of binderij, 'book binder' and a syllabic reduction group was exposed to full-vowel deletions (e.g., p'raat instead of paraat, 'ready', while a control group did not hear any reductions. In the test phase, all three groups heard the same speaker producing reduced-/b/ and deleted-vowel words that were either repeated (Experiments 1 & 2 or new (Experiment 3, but that now appeared as targets in semantically neutral sentences. Word-specific learning effects were found for vowel-deletions but not for /b/-reductions. Generalization of learning to new words of the same reduction type occurred only if the exposure words showed a phonologically consistent reduction pattern (/b/-reductions. In contrast, generalization of learning to words of another reduction type occurred only if the exposure words showed a phonologically inconsistent reduction pattern (the vowel deletions; learning about them generalized to recognition of the /b/-reductions. In order to deal with reductions, listeners thus use various means. They store reduced variants (e.g., for the inconsistent vowel-deleted words and they abstract over incoming information to build up and apply mapping rules (e.g., for the consistent /b/-reductions. Experience with inconsistent pronunciations leads to greater perceptual flexibility in dealing with other forms of reduction uttered by the same speaker than experience with consistent pronunciations.

  11. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco, Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  12. Learning to Recognize Actions From Limited Training Examples Using a Recurrent Spiking Neural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Priyadarshini; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in machine learning today is to build a model that can learn from few examples. Here, we describe a reservoir based spiking neural model for learning to recognize actions with a limited number of labeled videos. First, we propose a novel encoding, inspired by how microsaccades influence visual perception, to extract spike information from raw video data while preserving the temporal correlation across different frames. Using this encoding, we show that the reservoir generalizes its rich dynamical activity toward signature action/movements enabling it to learn from few training examples. We evaluate our approach on the UCF-101 dataset. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed reservoir achieves 81.3/87% Top-1/Top-5 accuracy, respectively, on the 101-class data while requiring just 8 video examples per class for training. Our results establish a new benchmark for action recognition from limited video examples for spiking neural models while yielding competitive accuracy with respect to state-of-the-art non-spiking neural models. PMID:29551962

  13. How biological soil crusts became recognized as a functional unit: a selective history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Otto L.; Belnap, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    It is surprising that despite the world-wide distribution and general importance of biological soil crusts (biocrusts), scientific recognition and functional analysis of these communities is a relatively young field of science. In this chapter, we sketch the historical lines that led to the recognition of biocrusts as a community with important ecosystem functions. The idea of biocrusts as a functional ecological community has come from two main scientific branches: botany and soil science. For centuries, botanists have long recognized that multiple organisms colonize the soil surface in the open and often dry areas occurring between vascular plants. Much later, after the initial taxonomic and phyto-sociological descriptions were made, soil scientists and agronomists observed that these surface organisms interacted with soils in ways that changed the soil structure. In the 1970’s, research on these communities as ecological units that played an important functional role in drylands began in earnest, and these studies have continued to this day. Here, we trace the history of these studies from the distant past until 1990, when biocrusts became well-known to scientists and the public.

  14. Can We Recognize an Innovation? Perspective from an Evolving Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sanjay; Krishna, Sandeep

    "Innovations" are central to the evolution of societies and the evolution of life. But what constitutes an innovation? We can often agree after the event, when its consequences and impact over a long term are known, whether something was an innovation, and whether it was a "big" innovation or a "minor" one. But can we recognize an innovation "on the fly" as it appears? Successful entrepreneurs often can. Is it possible to formalize that intuition? We discuss this question in the setting of a mathematical model of evolving networks. The model exhibits self-organization , growth, stasis, and collapse of a complex system with many interacting components, reminiscent of real-world phenomena. A notion of "innovation" is formulated in terms of graph-theoretic constructs and other dynamical variables of the model. A new node in the graph gives rise to an innovation, provided it links up "appropriately" with existing nodes; in this view innovation necessarily depends upon the existing context. We show that innovations, as defined by us, play a major role in the birth, growth, and destruction of organizational structures. Furthermore, innovations can be categorized in terms of their graph-theoretic structure as they appear. Different structural classes of innovation have potentially different qualitative consequences for the future evolution of the system, some minor and some major. Possible general lessons from this specific model are briefly discussed.

  15. RECOGNIZING INFANTS' EMOTIONAL EXPRESSIONS: ARE ADOLESCENTS LESS SENSITIVE TO INFANTS' CUES?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessen, Anke; Konrad, Kerstin; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Firk, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that adolescent mothers interact less sensitively with their infants than do adult mothers. This difference might be due to developmental difficulties in the recognition of infants' emotional states in adolescents. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore differences in the recognition of infant signals between nonparous adolescent girls and boys as compared to female and male adults. To this end, we examined 54 childless adolescents and 54 childless adults (50% female). Participants were shown a series of 20 short videos of infants aged 3 to 6 months presenting different emotional states ranging from very distressed to very happy. In addition, participants were asked to report their own parental experiences using the German version, Fragebogen zum erinnerten elterlichen Erziehungsverhalten (J. Schumacher, M. Eisemann, & E. Brähler, ), of the Egna Minnen Befräffande Uppfostran (Own Memories of Parental Rearing Experiences in Childhood; C. Perris, L. Jacobsson, H. Lindstrom, L. von Knorring, & H. Perris, ). Adolescents rated distressed infants as more distressed than did the adults. Furthermore, female participants rated the very distressed infants as more distressed than did male participants. These data suggest that adolescents, in general, are not impaired in recognizing infant emotional states, as compared to adults. Thus, we suggest that more extreme ratings of infant signals of discomfort together with immature sociocognitive regulation processes during adolescence might contribute to reduced sensitivity observed in adolescent mothers. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  16. Recognizing Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Iben Mundbjerg; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2018-01-01

    narratives; yet during memory testing, patients are not allowed any substitution to clearly expose cognitive shortcomings. In combining works of theorists Ian Hacking and Paul Ricoeur, we argue that the clinical identification of dementia unmakes the knowing subject, a deconstruction that threatens...

  17. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  18. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Signs and Symptoms Overview ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  19. Recognizing Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age-related cataract. They recommend eating plenty of green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and other healthy foods. Also, don’t smoke, because smoking may speed cataract development. To screen for early signs of eye disease, Bishop recommends ...

  20. Recognizing Hypothermia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    Hypothermia is a serious medical condition that strikes during very cold weather or when people are chilled from rain, sweat, or cold water.  Created: 11/1/2007 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 12/13/2007.

  1. 17 CFR 240.17g-3 - Annual financial reports to be furnished by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial statements of the nationally recognized statistical rating organization or audited consolidated financial statements of its parent if the nationally recognized statistical rating organization is a...) of this section are consolidated financial statements of the parent of the nationally recognized...

  2. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    General relativity is discussed in this book at a level appropriate to undergraduate students of physics and astronomy. It describes concepts and experimental results, and provides a succinct account of the formalism. A brief review of special relativity is followed by a discussion of the equivalence principle and its implications. Other topics covered include the concepts of curvature and the Schwarzschild metric, test of the general theory, black holes and their properties, gravitational radiation and methods for its detection, the impact of general relativity on cosmology, and the continuing search for a quantum theory of gravity. (author)

  3. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Wearable Sensors in a Smart Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping

    2010-01-01

    The advances of wearable sensors and wireless networks oer many opportunities to recognize human activities from sensor readings in pervasive computing. Existing work so far focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user in a home environment. However, there are typically multiple inha...

  4. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  5. Can Independent Judges Recognize Different Psychotherapies? An Experience with Manual-Guided Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luborsky, Lester; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested whether independent judges could recognize three different manual-guided psychotherapies, drug counseling, supportive-expressive psychotherapy, and cognitive-behavioral using a special rating form containing scales for the characteristic aspects of each type. Results indicated that manual-guided therapies can be reliably recognized.…

  6. A Safe Education for All: Recognizing and Stemming Harassment in Music Classes and Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Bruce Allen

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the pervasiveness of harassment in schools in the United States and presents ways to recognize and stem bullying in music classrooms. Music educators are in a unique position to recognize atypical behaviors in their students. Music educators who teach middle and high school ensembles often retain the same students in their…

  7. Evaluation of speech recognizers for use in advanced combat helicopter crew station research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army Crew Station Research and Development Facility uses vintage 1984 speech recognizers. An evaluation was performed of newer off-the-shelf speech recognition devices to determine whether newer technology performance and capabilities are substantially better than that of the Army's current speech recognizers. The Phonetic Discrimination (PD-100) Test was used to compare recognizer performance in two ambient noise conditions: quiet office and helicopter noise. Test tokens were spoken by males and females and in isolated-word and connected-work mode. Better overall recognition accuracy was obtained from the newer recognizers. Recognizer capabilities needed to support the development of human factors design requirements for speech command systems in advanced combat helicopters are listed.

  8. Mining Emerging Patterns for Recognizing Activities of Multiple Users in Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wu, Zhanqing; Wang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and recognizing human activities from sensor readings is an important task in pervasive computing. Existing work on activity recognition mainly focuses on recognizing activities for a single user in a smart home environment. However, in real life, there are often multiple inhabitants...... activity models, and propose an Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single-user and multiuser activities. We conduct our empirical studies by collecting real-world activity traces done by two volunteers over a period of two weeks in a smart home environment...... sensor readings in a home environment, and propose a novel pattern mining approach to recognize both single-user and multi-user activities in a unified solution. We exploit Emerging Pattern – a type of knowledge pattern that describes significant changes between classes of data – for constructing our...

  9. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  10. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. Our characterization makes no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model...

  11. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  12. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  13. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  14. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Supersymmetry. Akshay Kulkarni P Ramadevi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 28-41 ... Author Affiliations. Akshay Kulkarni1 P Ramadevi1. Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  15. General indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes the main 2002 energy indicators for France. A first table lists the evolution of general indicators between 1973 and 2002: energy bill, price of imported crude oil, energy independence, primary and final energy consumption. The main 2002 results are detailed separately for natural gas, petroleum and coal (consumption, imports, exports, production, stocks, prices). (J.S.)

  16. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...

  17. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Surgery, University of Cape Town Health Sciences Faculty, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town,. South Africa ... included all district, regional and tertiary hospitals in the nine provinces. Clinics and so-called ..... large contingency of senior general surgeons from countries such as Cuba, who have ...

  18. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effect of fatigue on patient safety, and owing to increasing emphasis on lifestyle issues .... increasing emphasis on an appropriate work-life balance in professional life.10 ... experience, were the most negative about the EWTD in general.3,13 ...

  19. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the endoscopy room. GENERAL SURGERY. T du Toit, O C Buchel, S J A Smit. Department of Surgery, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ... The lack of video instrumentation in developing countries: Redundant fibre-optic instruments (the old. “eye scope”) are still being used. This instrument brings endoscopists ...

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  1. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    could cripple the global economy. Greater attention ... Africa and 5.7 general surgeons per 100 000 in the US.12 One of the key ... 100 000 insured population working in the private sector, which is comparable with the United States (US).

  2. Necklaces: Generalizations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    . A q-ary necklace of length n is an equivalence class of q-coloured strings of length n under rota- tion. In this article, we study various generaliza- tions and derive analytical expressions to count the number of these generalized necklaces.

  3. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje; Jensen, Christian Skov

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  4. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  5. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  6. Do Parents Recognize Autistic Deviant Behavior Long before Diagnosis? Taking into Account Interaction Using Computational Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Chetouani, Mohamed; Cassel, Raquel S.; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Cohen, David

    2011-01-01

    Background To assess whether taking into account interaction synchrony would help to better differentiate autism (AD) from intellectual disability (ID) and typical development (TD) in family home movies of infants aged less than 18 months, we used computational methods. Methodology and Principal Findings First, we analyzed interactive sequences extracted from home movies of children with AD (N = 15), ID (N = 12), or TD (N = 15) through the Infant and Caregiver Behavior Scale (ICBS). Second, discrete behaviors between baby (BB) and Care Giver (CG) co-occurring in less than 3 seconds were selected as single interactive patterns (or dyadic events) for analysis of the two directions of interaction (CG→BB and BB→CG) by group and semester. To do so, we used a Markov assumption, a Generalized Linear Mixed Model, and non negative matrix factorization. Compared to TD children, BBs with AD exhibit a growing deviant development of interactive patterns whereas those with ID rather show an initial delay of development. Parents of AD and ID do not differ very much from parents of TD when responding to their child. However, when initiating interaction, parents use more touching and regulation up behaviors as early as the first semester. Conclusion When studying interactive patterns, deviant autistic behaviors appear before 18 months. Parents seem to feel the lack of interactive initiative and responsiveness of their babies and try to increasingly supply soliciting behaviors. Thus we stress that credence should be given to parents' intuition as they recognize, long before diagnosis, the pathological process through the interactive pattern with their child. PMID:21818320

  7. Automated Facial Coding Software Outperforms People in Recognizing Neutral Faces as Neutral from Standardized Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eLewinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about people’s accuracy of recognizing neutral faces as neutral. In this paper, I demonstrate the importance of knowing how well people recognize neutral faces. I contrasted human recognition scores of 100 typical, neutral front-up facial images with scores of an arguably objective judge – automated facial coding (AFC software. I hypothesized that the software would outperform humans in recognizing neutral faces because of the inherently objective nature of computer algorithms. Results confirmed this hypothesis. I provided the first-ever evidence that computer software (90% was more accurate in recognizing neutral faces than people were (59%. I posited two theoretical mechanisms, i.e. smile-as-a-baseline and false recognition of emotion, as possible explanations for my findings.

  8. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What To Do When Every Moment Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke? What ... could prevent many of these deaths. Fast action can also limit permanent damage to the body. Heart ...

  9. Measurement of the ability of science students to recognize business opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304827614; Oost, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11394229X; Pilot, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068350880; van Keulen, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138693587

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument measuring students’ ability to recognize business opportunities. Recognition of business opportunities where others do not is one of the basic qualities of entrepreneurs, and therefore needs attention in entrepreneurship education. However, only

  10. Literature Review: Is the Emotional Expression of Contempt Recognized Universally or Culturally?

    OpenAIRE

    Phoukhao, Julianna

    2017-01-01

    The universal facial expression of contempt is often described as one lip corner raised and tightened. This literature reviews whether or not this expression is recognized universally. After examining theories and methods, low agreement of this expression recognized as contempt was found across cultures. Evidence so far is not sufficient enough to support the unilateral lip corner as an universal expression for contempt. The expression and recognition of contempt is highly dependent on cultur...

  11. Generalizing entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ding

    2017-12-01

    The expected indefinite causal structure in quantum gravity poses a challenge to the notion of entanglement: If two parties are in an indefinite causal relation of being causally connected and not, can they still be entangled? If so, how does one measure the amount of entanglement? We propose to generalize the notions of entanglement and entanglement measure to address these questions. Importantly, the generalization opens the path to study quantum entanglement of states, channels, networks, and processes with definite or indefinite causal structure in a unified fashion, e.g., we show that the entanglement distillation capacity of a state, the quantum communication capacity of a channel, and the entanglement generation capacity of a network or a process are different manifestations of one and the same entanglement measure.

  12. A practical approach for writer-dependent symbol recognition using a writer-independent symbol recognizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaViola, Joseph J; Zeleznik, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer. Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison. Each classifier consists of a set of weak learners, one of which is based on a writer-independent handwriting recognizer. During online recognition, we also use the n-best list of the writer-independent recognizer to prune the set of possible symbols and thus reduce the number of required binary classifications. In this paper, we describe the geometric and statistical features used in our recognizer and our all-pairs classification algorithm. We also present the results of experiments that quantify the effect incorporating a writer-independent recognition engine into a writer-dependent recognizer has on accuracy, speed, and user training time.

  13. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  14. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  15. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  16. General relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes a course on general relativity. He first presents a geometrical framework by addressing, presenting and discussion the following notions: the relativistic space-time, the metric tensor, Universe lines, observers, principle of equivalence and geodesics. In the next part, he addresses gravitational fields with spherical symmetry: presentation of the Schwarzschild metrics, radial light geodesics, gravitational spectral shift (Einstein effect), orbitals of material objects, photon trajectories. The next parts address the Einstein equation, black holes, gravitational waves, and cosmological solutions. Appendices propose a discussion of the relationship between relativity and GPS, some problems and their solutions, and Sage codes

  17. 28 CFR 544.82 - General program characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 544.82 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT..., state departments of education, or other recognized accrediting educational organizations; (2... through a sponsoring accredited educational institution; (3) General Educational Development tests...

  18. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  19. The roles of categorical and coordinate spatial relations in recognizing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Piccardi, Laura; Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Categorical spatial information is considered more useful for recognizing objects, and coordinate spatial information for guiding actions--for example, during navigation or grasping. In contrast with this assumption, we hypothesized that buildings, unlike other categories of objects, require both categorical and coordinate spatial information in order to be recognized. This hypothesis arose from evidence that right-brain-damaged patients have deficits in both coordinate judgments and recognition of buildings and from the fact that buildings are very useful for guiding navigation in urban environments. To test this hypothesis, we assessed 210 healthy college students while they performed four different tasks that required categorical and coordinate judgments and the recognition of common objects and buildings. Our results showed that both categorical and coordinate spatial representations are necessary to recognize a building, whereas only categorical representations are necessary to recognize an object. We discuss our data in view of a recent neural framework for visuospatial processing, suggesting that recognizing buildings may specifically activate the parieto-medial-temporal pathway.

  20. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  1. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Identification of a mammalian nuclear factor and human cDNA-encoded proteins that recognize DNA containing apurinic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, J.; Okenquist, S.A.; LoSardo, J.E.; Hamilton, K.K.; Doetsch, P.W.

    1990-01-01

    Damage to DNA can have lethal or mutagenic consequences for cells unless it is detected and repaired by cellular proteins. Repair depends on the ability of cellular factors to distinguish the damaged sites. Electrophoretic binding assays were used to identify a factor from the nuclei of mammalian cells that bound to DNA containing apurinic sites. A binding assay based on the use of β-galactosidase fusion proteins was subsequently used to isolate recombinant clones of human cDNAs that encoded apurinic DNA-binding proteins. Two distinct human cDNAs were identified that encoded proteins that bound apurinic DNA preferentially over undamaged, methylated, or UV-irradiated DNA. These approaches may offer a general method for the detection of proteins that recognize various types of DNA damage and for the cloning of genes encoding such proteins

  3. Measuring the Influence of Legally Recognized Partnerships on the Health and Well-Being of Same-Sex Couples: Utility of the California Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Sun, Qiankun; Breen, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This study explored the utility of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) to compare health-related outcomes among gay men, lesbians, and heterosexuals who reported being in a legally recognized partnership. Methods: We regressed sexual identity and marriage/legally recognized partnership status on seven different outcomes related to health insurance coverage, medical services access and use, and general health and well-being using CHIS data collected between 2009 and 2013. Results: There were 1432 respondents who identified as gay, lesbian, or homosexual, and 67,746 who identified as heterosexual. The percentage of participants who reported being married/legally partnered was 54.06% for heterosexual women, 52.93% for heterosexual men, 38.83% for lesbians, and 23.56% for gay men. Legally partnered/married gay and lesbian respondents were more likely to have health insurance and use healthcare than their counterparts not in such partnerships; few trends were statistically significant. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships were more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report continuous health insurance coverage, a usual medical care source, and at least one provider visit within the past 12 months. We found statistically significant poorer health status outcomes among lesbians in legally recognized partnerships compared to married heterosexual women. Conclusions: Lesbians in legally recognized partnerships did not fare as well as married heterosexual women. Gay men in legally recognized partnerships fared better than married heterosexual men on some measures. CHIS questionnaire structures limited our sample and analyses. We recommend that CHIS and other researchers ask partnered status-, marriage-, and sexual identity-related questions en bloc to ensure more robust representation, analyses, recommendations, and policy resolutions. PMID:28207297

  4. The effect of ethics training on students recognizing ethical violations and developing moral sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Demir, Sevil Guler; Yaman, Sengul

    2015-09-01

    Moral sensitivity is a life-long cognitive ability. It is expected that nurses who work in a professional purpose at "curing human beings" should have a highly developed moral sensitivity. The general opinion is that ethics education plays a significant role in this sense to enhance the moral sensitivity in terms of nurses' professional behaviors and distinguish ethical violations. This study was conducted as intervention research for the purpose of determining the effect of the ethics training on fourth-year students of the nursing department recognizing ethical violations experienced in the hospital and developing ethical sensitivity. The study was conducted with 50 students, with 25 students each in the experiment and control groups. Students in the experiment group were provided ethics training and consultancy services. The data were collected through the data collection form, which consists of questions on the socio-demographic characteristics and ethical sensitivity of the students, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and the observation form on ethical principle violations/protection in the clinic environment. The data were digitized on the computer with the SPSS for Windows 13.0 program. The data were evaluated utilizing number, percentile calculation, paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and the McNemar test. The total Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire pre-test score averages of students in the experiment group were determined to be 93.88 ± 13.57, and their total post-test score averages were determined to be 89.24 ± 15.90. The total pre-test score averages of students in the control group were determined to be 91.48 ± 17.59, and their total post-test score averages were determined to be 97.72 ± 19.91. In the study, it was determined that the post-training ethical sensitivity of students in the experiment group increased; however, this was statistically not significant. Furthermore, it was determined that the number of ethical principle protection

  5. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A.; Miranda, Robbin A.; Ullman, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  6. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Scott A; Miranda, Robbin A; Ullman, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part) by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies), and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition). Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable) material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language, such commonalities may be

  7. The necessity of recognizing all events in x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, T.; Maxwell, J.A.; Papp, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In our work in studying properties of inner shell ionization, we stumbled upon the problems that the basic parameters of x-ray physics have a large and unexplainable scatter. If we look deep into the problems many of them contradict simple logic, elemental arithmetic, even parity and angular conservation laws. We have identified that the main source of the problems, other than the human factor, is rooted in the signal processing electronics. To overcome these problems, we have developed a fully digital signal processor, which not only has excellent resolution and line shape but also allows proper accounting. It is achieved by processing all events and separating them into two or more spectra, maximum sixteen, where the first spectrum is the accepted or good spectrum and the second spectrum is the rejected spectrum. Depending on the request of the analysis further spectra can be generated to supply all the information needed for the analysis. It is not enough to know that an event was rejected, and increment the input counter, it is necessary to know, what why and when it happened, whether it was a noise, noisy or disturbed event, or an event, and any pile up combination of them, accounting properly as input and at the dead time as well. This can be determined from the spectra of properly processed rejected events. We will demonstrate that the direct comparison of the results of the detector simulation model with a partial spectrum, what the various signal recognition and discrimination methods of the signal processor have created, is ambiguous. We will present the difference between pile up and sum peaks, demonstrate the proper accounting of pile up, dead time and what compromises are made in general to warrant the good resolution. We will demonstrate why it is mandatory to recognize all the events, how to interpret the rejected spectrum, what advantage it has in training the industrial analyst, and how it reduces the demands for human expertise in x

  8. Sex Differences in Music: A Female Advantage at Recognizing Familiar Melodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Ullman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Although sex differences have been observed in various cognitive domains, there has been little work examining sex differences in the cognition of music. We tested the prediction that women would be better than men at recognizing familiar melodies, since memories of specific melodies are likely to be learned (at least in part by declarative memory, which shows female advantages. Participants were 24 men and 24 women, with half musicians and half non-musicians in each group. The two groups were matched on age, education, and various measures of musical training. Participants were presented with well-known and novel melodies, and were asked to indicate their recognition of familiar melodies as rapidly as possible. The women were significantly faster than the men in responding, with a large effect size. The female advantage held across musicians and non-musicians, and across melodies with and without commonly associated lyrics, as evidenced by an absence of interactions between sex and these factors. Additionally, the results did not seem to be explained by sex differences in response biases, or in basic auditory or motor processes as tested in a control task. Though caution is warranted given that this is the first study to examine sex differences in familiar melody recognition, the results are consistent with the hypothesis motivating our prediction, namely that declarative memory underlies knowledge about music (particularly about familiar melodies, and that the female advantage at declarative memory may thus lead to female advantages in music cognition (particularly at familiar melody recognition. Additionally, the findings argue against the view that female advantages at tasks involving verbal (or verbalizable material are due solely to a sex difference specific to the verbal domain. Further, the results may help explain previously-reported cognitive commonalities between music and language: since declarative memory also underlies language

  9. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program sp...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model.......As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...

  10. Recognizing the needs – Student teachers´ learning to teach from teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Nilsson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on an exploration of the ways in which primary science student teachers recognize and learn about issues that shape their own professional learning. The paper discusses different perspectives of “knowledgebase needed for teaching” and Shulman’s concept of pedagogical content knowledge, and explores how elements of knowledge are to be recognized and further developed within primary teacher education. Primary science student teacher participants (n = 25 were stimulated to use portfolios as a tool to reflect upon situations within their six weeks teaching practice in pre- and primary schools in order to facilitate recognizing their knowledge needs. The results give an insight into what situations within the teaching practice that student teachers consider as important for their own learning to teach primary maths and science.

  11. Recognizing Risk and Vulnerability in Research Ethics: Imagining the "What Ifs?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Elizabeth; Friedland, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) may misunderstand the vulnerability of participants, given their distance from the field. What RECs identify as the vulnerabilities that were not adequately recognized in protocols and how they attempt to protect the perceived vulnerability of participants and mitigate risks were examined using the response letters sent to researchers by three university-based RECs. Using a critical qualitative method informed by feminist ethics, we identified an overarching theme of recognizing and responding to cascading vulnerabilities and four subthemes: identifying vulnerable groups, recognizing potentially risky research, imagining the "what ifs," and mitigating perceived risks. An ethics approach that is up-close, as opposed to distant, is needed to foster closer relationships among participants, researchers, and RECs and to understand participant vulnerability and strength better.

  12. The assessment of the nutritional value of meals consumed by patients with recognized schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Lech, Magdalena; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zapolska, Joanna; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2018-01-01

    As studies show, changes in diet - so important in the therapy of psychiatric disorders and related to changes in appetite and nutritional preferences, including avoiding of the consumption of specific groups of products and dishes - are much more frequent among patients affected by schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to assess the chosen nutritional habits, including the number and type of meals usually consumed during a day, snacking between meals and the energy value and content of the chosen nutrients in the diets of persons with recognized schizophrenia. The study was carried out in a group of 85 patients with recognized schizophrenia, and 70 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 18-65 years without mental or nutritional disorders. For the purpose of the study, we used a questionnaire containing questions on nutritional habits. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment with the use of the computer program Dieta 5.0. Female patients with recognized schizophrenia were having 3 meals a day significantly more frequently as compared to healthy women. They were also having an afternoon snack much more frequently as compared to the control group. The food rations of female patients were characterized by a significantly higher energy value and the content of most of the assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy women. The food rations of men with recognized schizophrenia were characterized by a much lower energy intake and the content of the majority of assessed nutrients as compared to the food rations of healthy men. In all compared groups, we observed an energetic structure of food rations with the breakdown by specific meals that was inconsistent with the applicable recommendations. Despite of differences between the nutritional value of the meals of patients with recognized schizophrenia and those of healthy subjects, it seems advisable to involve patients with recognized schizophrenia in the education of

  13. Realistic Creativity Training for Innovation Practitioners: The Know-Recognize-React Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    As creativity becomes increasingly recognized as important raw material for innovation, the importance of identifying ways to increase practitioners’ creativity through rigorously designed creativity training programs is highlighted. Therefore we sat out to design a creativity training program...... the transdisciplinary study described in this paper. Co-creation was employed as a method to ensure the three layers of focus would be taken into consideration. The result is a program called Creative Awareness Training which is based on the new Know-Recognize-React model....

  14. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is recognized by ECT2 during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Bian, Chunjing; Yu, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is an unique posttranslational modification and required for spindle assembly and function during mitosis. However, the molecular mechanism of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) in mitosis remains elusive. Here, we show the evidence that PAR is recognized by ECT2, a key guanine nucleotide exchange factor in mitosis. The BRCT domain of ECT2 directly binds to PAR both in vitro and in vivo. We further found that α-tubulin is PARylated during mitosis. PARylation of α-tubulin is recognized by ECT2 and recruits ECT2 to mitotic spindle for completing mitosis. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which PAR regulates mitosis.

  15. Do pediatricians recognize cognitive developmental problems in preterm children at age 5 years?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sondaar, M.; Kessel, B.J.M. van; Kleine, M.J.K. de; Briët, J.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Baar, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Often developmental psychologists see children only after referral from physicians. Do pediatricians recognize which children in a known risk group are in need of a cognitive evaluation? A judgment by pediatricians, based on an assessment using a parent questionnaire, the Denver Developmental

  16. Recognition and Diagnosis. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Fahey, Patrick J.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The goals of this unit of study are to provide an overview of the problem of of teenage alcoholism and substance abuse and to facilitate the diagnosis of adolescent alcoholism. The…

  17. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hoon; Cho, Sung-Bae

    2017-12-11

    Recently, recognizing a user's daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user's obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the "Five W's", and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54-14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing.

  18. 46 CFR 159.010-7 - Recognized independent laboratory: Memorandum of Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... independent laboratory and the Coast Guard; (7) An agreement to conduct comparison testing with other... for conducting comparison tests with other recognized laboratories. (d) Copies of MOUs signed by the... Understanding. 159.010-7 Section 159.010-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED...

  19. Song Recognition without Identification: When People Cannot "Name that Tune" but Can Recognize It as Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Recognition without identification (RWI) is a common day-to-day experience (as when recognizing a face or a tune as familiar without being able to identify the person or the song). It is also a well-established laboratory-based empirical phenomenon: When identification of recognition test items is prevented, participants can discriminate between…

  20. Level of Awareness of Biology and Geography Students Related to Recognizing Some Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladag, Caner; Kaya, Bastürk; Dinç, Muhittin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness of the geography and biology students about recognizing some plants which they see frequently around them in accordance with the information they gained during their education process. The sample of the study consists of 37 biology and 40 geography students studying at the Ahmet Kelesoglu…

  1. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  2. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  3. Pisotriquetral joint disorders: an under-recognized cause of ulnar side wrist pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraux, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Imagerie Medicale Jacquemars Gielee, Lille (France); Lefebvre, G.; Pansini, V.; Aucourt, J.; Vandenbussche, L.; Cotten, A. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Demondion, X. [Hopital Roger Salengro, Service d' Imagerie Musculo-Squelettique, Centre de Consultation de l' Appareil Locomoteur, CHRU Lille (France); Pole Recherche Faculte de Medecine de Lille, Laboratoire d' Anatomie, Lille (France)

    2014-06-15

    Pisotriquetral joint disorders are often under-recognized in routine clinical practice. They nevertheless represent a significant cause of ulnar side wrist pain. The aim of this article is to present the main disorders of this joint and discuss the different imaging modalities that can be useful for its assessment. (orig.)

  4. Recognizing mid-career productivity: the 2008 Retrovirology Prize, call for nomination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent analysis suggested a narrow age range for productivity of innovative work by researchers. The Retrovirology Prize seeks to recognize the research of a mid-career retrovirologist between the ages of 45 and 60. The 2007 Retrovirology Prize was awarded to Dr. Karen Beemon. Nominations are being solicited for the 2008 prize.

  5. 78 FR 60898 - Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...] Regulation on Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory; Revision of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements... collection requirements specified by its Regulation at 29 CFR 1910.7, ``definition and requirements for a...

  6. 78 FR 68819 - Final NOAA Procedures for Government-to-Government Consultation With Federally Recognized Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... implications'' are defined in section 1 of E.O. 13175. This Handbook provides guidance to Regional Offices and... has defined the term ``policies with tribal implications.'' It is not within the [[Page 68821... Native Corporation and Federally recognized Indian tribe may conflict or coincide. The essence of the...

  7. 48 CFR 1642.1204 - Agreement to recognize a successor in interest (novation agreement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the corporate name of (insert old corporate name) was changed to (insert new corporate name) on... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Novation and Change-of-Name Agreements 1642.1204 Agreement to recognize a... corporate name) (Transferor), a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of (insert State...

  8. Assistant director of intramural sports and technology recognized for innovative contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Kropff, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Jennifer Rezac, assistant director of intramural sports and technology at Virginia Tech, was recognized at the National Intramural-Recreational Sports Association (NIRSA) Annual Conference in Charlotte, N.C., in April for her contributions to the Virginia Tech Recreational Sports department.

  9. Human L-ficolin recognizes phosphocholine moieties of pneumococcal teichoic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassal-Stermann, Emilie; Lacroix, Monique; Gout, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Human L-ficolin is a soluble protein of the innate immune system able to sense pathogens through its fibrinogen (FBG) recognition domains and to trigger activation of the lectin complement pathway through associated serine proteases. L-Ficolin has been previously shown to recognize pneumococcal c...

  10. Racism and Psychological and Emotional Injury: Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the psychological and emotional effects of racism on people of Color. Psychological models and research on racism, discrimination, stress, and trauma will be integrated to promote a model to be used to understand, recognize, and assess race-based traumatic stress to aid counseling and psychological…

  11. How do GPs recognize needs for palliative care in their patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.; Francke, A.L.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore how GPs in the Netherlands recognize patients’ needs for palliative care. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with about 25 GPs. These GPs were interviewed about recognition of the needs for palliative care in their patients and how

  12. Do Preschoolers Recognize The Emotional Expressiveness of Colors in Realistic and Abstract Art Paintings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliou, Dimitra; Bonoti, Fotini; Nikonanou, Niki

    2018-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine preschoolers' ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of an art painting, through its colors. To attain this aim 78 children, 3-5 years old were presented with realistic and abstract paintings conveying either happiness or sadness and were asked to choose those which matched the appropriate emotion. In total 16 paintings were used, which varied in color, while their subject matter was held as constant as possible after they had been previously rated by a group of adults to ensure that they conveyed the two emotions under investigation. Results showed that children's ability to recognize the emotional expressiveness of a painting through its colors appears at 3 years old and increases significantly at 4 and 5 years old. It was also found that the mood of happiness was more easily recognized than that of sadness, while the style of art paintings (realistic vs. abstract) did not affect children's ability to recognize emotions.

  13. The SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein is selectively recognized by lung surfactant protein D and activates macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Zhong, Fei; Chow, Vincent T K

    2007-01-01

    Da glycosylated protein. It was not secreted in the presence of tunicamycin and was detected as a 130 kDa protein in the cell lysate. The purified S-protein bound to Vero but not 293T cells and was itself recognized by lung surfactant protein D (SP-D), a collectin found in the lung alveoli. The binding required...

  14. The Physician's Role in Prevention. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph V.; Krol, Ronald A.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study offer guidelines to help physicians make responsible and informed decisions about their roles with adolescent patients. Materials are presented which…

  15. Computer-aided identification of recognized drugs as Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Jakobsen, Tim Holm

    2009-01-01

    R, and a quorum-sensing receptor agonist. Six top-ranking compounds, all recognized drugs, were identified and tested for quorum-sensing-inhibitory activity. Three compounds, salicylic acid, nifuroxazide, and chlorzoxazone, showed significant inhibition of quorum-sensing-regulated gene expression and related...

  16. Multi-UAV joint target recognizing based on binocular vision theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Target recognizing of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV based on image processing take the advantage of 2D information containing in the image for identifying the target. Compare to single UAV with electrical optical tracking system (EOTS, multi-UAV with EOTS is able to take a group of image focused on the suspected target from multiple view point. Benefit from matching each couple of image in this group, points set constituted by matched feature points implicates the depth of each point. Coordinate of target feature points could be computing from depth of feature points. This depth information makes up a cloud of points and reconstructed an exclusive 3D model to recognizing system. Considering the target recognizing do not require precise target model, the cloud of feature points was regrouped into n subsets and reconstructed to a semi-3D model. Casting these subsets in a Cartesian coordinate and applying these projections in convolutional neural networks (CNN respectively, the integrated output of networks is the improved result of recognizing.

  17. A Woman with a Plan: Recognizing Competencies for Ascent to Administration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paaige K.; Norwood, Kristen; Noe, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress, women are still disproportionally underrepresented in leadership positions in higher education. Women must contend with a glass ceiling, which we argue is constituted by discourses of impossibility and femininity. These discourses discourage women from recognizing their qualifications, continuing to develop skills, and making a…

  18. T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, Surgery Branch, Tumor Immunology Section, is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize T Cells Attacking Cancer: T Cell Receptors that Recognize the Tyrosinase Tumor Antigen

  19. Hidden Abuse within the Home: Recognizing and Responding to Sibling Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutey, Diane; Clemens, Elysia V.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling abuse is a serious phenomenon in our society that often goes unaddressed. Victims of sibling abuse experience psychological effects similar to those of child abuse (Caspi, 2012; Wiehe, 2002). The purpose of this article is to provide school counselors with a definition of sibling abuse and a five-step model to recognize and respond. A…

  20. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  1. 46 CFR 8.230 - Minimum standards for a recognized classification society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the United States that provides a continuous management and administrative presence; (15) Maintain an... required end-results; (19) Maintain and ensure compliance with a Code of Ethics that recognizes the...) Not have any business interest in, or share of ownership of, any vessel in its classed fleet; and (23...

  2. Disseminating treatment for anxiety disorders: step 1: recognizing the problem as a precursor to seeking help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Meredith E; Schubert, Jessica R; Heimberg, Richard G; Weiss, Barry D

    2014-12-01

    Untreated mental illness is a substantial public health issue in the United States, with only approximately 1/3 of the estimated 46 million adults in the US with mental illness receiving treatment. Many of the individuals with mental illness suffer from excessive anxiety, as over 25% of Americans experience an anxiety disorder during their lifetime and most of these individuals remain untreated. Building from the premise that recognizing one's symptoms precedes requests for help, the current paper presents data from 577 adults (50% Caucasian, 50% African American) in the US regarding their ability to recognize anxiety disorders. Findings from a national survey showed that when presented with detailed vignettes portraying symptoms and their impact, 50% of respondents correctly recognized depression, whereas less than 20% correctly recognized the anxiety disorders. Recognition that the symptoms were a cause for concern was much more common, with 75% or more of the sample noting concern. Responses were surprisingly similar across the two races, and few consistent moderators were found. In conclusion, increasing recognition of anxiety disorders may be a useful first step toward increasing service utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The "Finding Physics" Project: Recognizing and Exploring Physics outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    Students in introductory physics classes often have difficulty recognizing the relevance of physics concepts outside the confines of the physics classroom, lab, and textbook. Even though textbooks and instructors often provide examples of physics applications from a wide array of areas, students have difficulty relating physics to their own lives.…

  4. Development of the EMAP tool facilitating existential communication between general practitioners and cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing Hvidt, Elisabeth; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Ammentorp, Jette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice recognizes the existential dimension as an integral part of multidimensional patient care alongside the physical, psychological and social dimensions. However, general practitioners (GPs) report substantial barriers related to communication with patients about existen...

  5. Recognizing and managing a deteriorating patient: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving clinical performance in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayt, Louise Caroline; Merriman, Clair; Ricketts, Barry; Morton, Sean; Simpson, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    To report the results of a randomized controlled trial which explored the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving the clinical performance of recognizing and managing an adult deteriorating patient in hospital. There is evidence that final year undergraduate nurses may lack knowledge, clinical skills and situation awareness required to manage a deteriorating patient competently. The effectiveness of clinical simulation as a strategy to teach the skills required to recognize and manage the early signs of deterioration needs to be evaluated. This study was a two centre phase II single, randomized, controlled trial with single blinded assessments. Data were collected in July 2013. Ninety-eight first year nursing students were randomized either into a control group, where they received a traditional lecture, or an intervention group where they received simulation. Participants completed a pre- and postintervention objective structured clinical examination. General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores were measured before and after the intervention. Student satisfaction with teaching was also surveyed. The intervention group performed significantly better in the post-objective structured clinical examination. There was no significant difference in the postintervention General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores between the control and intervention group. The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with their teaching method. Simulation-based education may be an effective educational strategy to teach nurses the skills to effectively recognize and manage a deteriorating patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Structure-function analysis of the self-recognizing Antigen 43 autotransporter protein from Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Hjerrild, L.; Gjermansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein and consi......Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a self-recognizing surface adhesin found in most Escherichia coli strains. Expression of Ag43 confers aggregation and fluffing of cells, promotes biofilm formation and is associated with enhanced resistance to antimicrobial agents. Ag43 is an autotransporter protein......-clumping variants, we have pinpointed the region of the protein responsible for autoaggregation to be located within the N-terminal one-third of the passenger domain. Our data suggest that ionic interactions between charged residues residing in interacting pairs of Ag43(alpha) domains may be important for the self...

  7. Recognizing and labeling sex-based and sexual harassment in the health care workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, J; Minichiello, V

    2000-01-01

    To explore how registered nurses (RNs) recognized and labeled incidents of sex-based and sexual harassment in the Australian health care workplace. Qualitative, using 16 unstructured interviews with registered nurses in Australia. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed largely by inductive analysis. Key categories were identified as themes or concepts for analysis. RNs reported several indicators of sexual harassment, including the invasion of space, confirmation from others, lack of respect, the deliberate nature of the behavior, perceived power or control, overly friendly behavior, and a sexualized workplace. RNs rarely labeled harassing behaviors as sex-based or sexual harassment. Many forces reduce the likelihood that RNs will correctly recognize and label unwelcome sexualized behavior as sexual harassment. Recognition is associated with a variety of workplace behaviors that sometimes precede harassment. Implications for the health care workplace are discussed.

  8. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy.

  9. Should the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognize climate migrants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, Christine; Ford, James

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase migration flows, especially from socially and environmentally vulnerable populations. These ‘climate migrants’ do not have any official protection under international law, which has implications for the human security of migrants. This work argues that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) can and should recognize climate migrants, and is the most relevant international framework for doing so. While not legally binding, the acknowledgment of climate displacement, migration and planned relocation issues in the UNFCCC’s Cancun Adaptation Framework indicates a willingness to address the issue through an adaptation lens. Herein, the paper proposes a framework for setting the institutional groundwork for recognizing climate migrants, focusing on the most vulnerable, promoting targeted research and policy agendas, and situating policies within a comprehensive strategy. (letter)

  10. Expression intensity, gender and facial emotion recognition: Women recognize only subtle facial emotions better than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Kessler, Henrik; Eppel, Tobias; Rukavina, Stefanie; Traue, Harald C

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of expression intensity on gender differences in the recognition of facial emotions. The first experiment compared recognition accuracy between female and male participants when emotional faces were shown with full-blown (100% emotional content) or subtle expressiveness (50%). In a second experiment more finely grained analyses were applied in order to measure recognition accuracy as a function of expression intensity (40%-100%). The results show that although women were more accurate than men in recognizing subtle facial displays of emotion, there was no difference between male and female participants when recognizing highly expressive stimuli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of Neural Network to Recognize the Parts of the Computer Motherboard

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas M. Ali; S. D. Gore; Musaab AL-Sarierah

    2005-01-01

    This study suggests a new approach of learning which utilizes the techniques of computer vision to recognize the parts inside the motherboard. The main thrust is to identify different parts of the motherboard using a Hopfield Neural Network. The outcome of the net is compared with the objects stored in the database. The proposed scheme is implemented using bottom -up approach, where steps like edge detection, spatial filtering, image masking..etc are performed in sequence. the scheme is simul...

  12. Recognized focused practice: Does sub-specialty designation offer value to the neurosurgeon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya A Babu

    Full Text Available Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP. We administered a validated, online, confidential survey to 4,899 neurosurgeons (2,435 American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS Diplomates participating in MOC, 1,440 Diplomates certified prior to 1999 (grandfathered, and 1,024 retired Diplomates. We received 1,449 responses overall (30% response rate. A plurality of respondents were in practice 11-15 years (18.5%, in private practice (40% and participate in MOC (61%. 49% of respondents felt that a RFP designation would not be helpful. For the 30% who felt that RFP would be helpful, 61.3% felt that it would support recognition by their hospital or practice, it would motivate them to stay current on medical knowledge (53.4%, or it would help attract patients (46.4%;. The most popular suggestions for RFP were Spine (56.2%, Cerebrovascular (62.9%, Pediatrics (64.1%, and Functional/Stereotactic (52%. A plurality of neurosurgeons (35.7% felt that RFP should recognize neurosurgeons with accredited and non-accredited fellowship experience and sub-specialty experience. Ultimately, Recognized Focused Practice may provide value to individual neurosurgeons, but the neurosurgical community shows tepid interest for pursuing this designation.

  13. Recognized focused practice: Does sub-specialty designation offer value to the neurosurgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Maya A; Liau, Linda M; Meyer, Fredric B

    2017-01-01

    Vehicles for life-long assessment such as Maintenance of Certification tend to focus on generalist neurosurgical knowledge. However, as neurosurgeons advance in their careers, they tend to narrow their practice and increase volumes in certain specific types of operations. Failing to test the type of procedures most relevant to the practitioner is a lost opportunity to improve the knowledge and practice of the individual neurosurgeon. In this study, we assess the neurosurgical community's appetite for designations of board-recognized Recognized Focused Practice (RFP). We administered a validated, online, confidential survey to 4,899 neurosurgeons (2,435 American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) Diplomates participating in MOC, 1,440 Diplomates certified prior to 1999 (grandfathered), and 1,024 retired Diplomates). We received 1,449 responses overall (30% response rate). A plurality of respondents were in practice 11-15 years (18.5%), in private practice (40%) and participate in MOC (61%). 49% of respondents felt that a RFP designation would not be helpful. For the 30% who felt that RFP would be helpful, 61.3% felt that it would support recognition by their hospital or practice, it would motivate them to stay current on medical knowledge (53.4%), or it would help attract patients (46.4%;). The most popular suggestions for RFP were Spine (56.2%), Cerebrovascular (62.9%), Pediatrics (64.1%), and Functional/Stereotactic (52%). A plurality of neurosurgeons (35.7%) felt that RFP should recognize neurosurgeons with accredited and non-accredited fellowship experience and sub-specialty experience. Ultimately, Recognized Focused Practice may provide value to individual neurosurgeons, but the neurosurgical community shows tepid interest for pursuing this designation.

  14. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Hoon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, recognizing a user’s daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user’s obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the “Five W’s”, and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54–14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing.

  15. Modular Bayesian Networks with Low-Power Wearable Sensors for Recognizing Eating Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Recently, recognizing a user’s daily activity using a smartphone and wearable sensors has become a popular issue. However, in contrast with the ideal definition of an experiment, there could be numerous complex activities in real life with respect to its various background and contexts: time, space, age, culture, and so on. Recognizing these complex activities with limited low-power sensors, considering the power and memory constraints of the wearable environment and the user’s obtrusiveness at once is not an easy problem, although it is very crucial for the activity recognizer to be practically useful. In this paper, we recognize activity of eating, which is one of the most typical examples of a complex activity, using only daily low-power mobile and wearable sensors. To organize the related contexts systemically, we have constructed the context model based on activity theory and the “Five W’s”, and propose a Bayesian network with 88 nodes to predict uncertain contexts probabilistically. The structure of the proposed Bayesian network is designed by a modular and tree-structured approach to reduce the time complexity and increase the scalability. To evaluate the proposed method, we collected the data with 10 different activities from 25 volunteers of various ages, occupations, and jobs, and have obtained 79.71% accuracy, which outperforms other conventional classifiers by 7.54–14.4%. Analyses of the results showed that our probabilistic approach could also give approximate results even when one of contexts or sensor values has a very heterogeneous pattern or is missing. PMID:29232937

  16. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenshuo; Xi, Junqiang; Chen, Huiyan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics de...

  17. A new endonuclease recognizing the deoxynucleotide sequence CCNNGG from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calléja, F; Tandeau de Marsac, N; Coursin, T; van Ormondt, H; de Waard, A

    1985-09-25

    A new sequence-specific endonuclease from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis species PCC 6701 has been purified and characterized. This enzyme, SecI, is unique in recognizing the nucleotide sequence: 5' -CCNNGG-3' 3' -GGNNCC-5' and cleaves it at the position indicated by the symbol. Two other restriction endonucleases, SecII and SecIII, found in this organism are isoschizomers of MspI and MstII, respectively.

  18. Application of subinterval area median contrast filtering method in the recognizing of geochemical anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ningbo; Fu Jin; Zhang Chuan; Liu Huan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional geochemical processing method sometimes maybe loses some weak anomalies related to mineralization, the authors can avoid the influence of geology background and can solve the problem of recognizing weak anomalies in the low-background and high-background area with the subinterval area median contrast filtering method. In an area of Jiangxi Province, several new anomalies are identified by this method and uranium mineralized prospects are found among them. (authors)

  19. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Halsall, P J

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis....

  20. Recognizing Suffering or Resistance? Honoring the Courage of Indigenous Quechua Women in Post Conflict Ayacucho, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barrios Suarez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on extensive field work in Ayacucho, the area most affected by the past armed conflict in Peru (1980–2000, this practice note outlines some of the contributions to justice and reconciliation made by Quechua women in post-conflict Ayacucho and hypothesizes a number of reasons why these contributions have not been recognized to the same extent as their suffering.

  1. Backpropagation Neural Ensemble for Localizing and Recognizing Non-Standardized Malaysia’s Car Plates

    OpenAIRE

    Chin Kim On; Teo Kein Yau; Rayner Alfred; Jason Teo; Patricia Anthony; Wang Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a research project that autonomously localizes and recognizes non-standardized Malaysian’s car plates using conventional Backpropagation algorithm (BPP) in combination with Ensemble Neural Network (ENN). We compared the results with the results obtained using simple Feed-Forward Neural Network (FFNN). This research aims to solve four main issues; (1) localization of car plates that has the same colour with the vehicle colour, (2) detection and recognition of car pla...

  2. Recognizing and responding to uncertainty: a grounded theory of nurses' uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranley, Lisa A; Doran, Diane M; Tourangeau, Ann E; Kushniruk, Andre; Nagle, Lynn

    2012-08-01

    There has been little research to date exploring nurses' uncertainty in their practice. Understanding nurses' uncertainty is important because it has potential implications for how care is delivered. The purpose of this study is to develop a substantive theory to explain how staff nurses experience and respond to uncertainty in their practice. Between 2006 and 2008, a grounded theory study was conducted that included in-depth semi-structured interviews. Fourteen staff nurses working in adult medical-surgical intensive care units at two teaching hospitals in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The theory recognizing and responding to uncertainty characterizes the processes through which nurses' uncertainty manifested and how it was managed. Recognizing uncertainty involved the processes of assessing, reflecting, questioning, and/or being unable to predict aspects of the patient situation. Nurses' responses to uncertainty highlighted the cognitive-affective strategies used to manage uncertainty. Study findings highlight the importance of acknowledging uncertainty and having collegial support to manage uncertainty. The theory adds to our understanding the processes involved in recognizing uncertainty, strategies and outcomes of managing uncertainty, and influencing factors. Tailored nursing education programs should be developed to assist nurses in developing skills in articulating and managing their uncertainty. Further research is needed to extend, test and refine the theory of recognizing and responding to uncertainty to develop strategies for managing uncertainty. This theory advances the nursing perspective of uncertainty in clinical practice. The theory is relevant to nurses who are faced with uncertainty and complex clinical decisions, to managers who support nurses in their clinical decision-making, and to researchers who investigate ways to improve decision-making and care delivery. ©2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Facial Asymmetry-Based Age Group Estimation: Role in Recognizing Age-Separated Face Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Taj, Imtiaz Ahmad; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Ratyal, Naeem Iqbal

    2018-04-23

    Face recognition aims to establish the identity of a person based on facial characteristics. On the other hand, age group estimation is the automatic calculation of an individual's age range based on facial features. Recognizing age-separated face images is still a challenging research problem due to complex aging processes involving different types of facial tissues, skin, fat, muscles, and bones. Certain holistic and local facial features are used to recognize age-separated face images. However, most of the existing methods recognize face images without incorporating the knowledge learned from age group estimation. In this paper, we propose an age-assisted face recognition approach to handle aging variations. Inspired by the observation that facial asymmetry is an age-dependent intrinsic facial feature, we first use asymmetric facial dimensions to estimate the age group of a given face image. Deeply learned asymmetric facial features are then extracted for face recognition using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). Finally, we integrate the knowledge learned from the age group estimation into the face recognition algorithm using the same dCNN. This integration results in a significant improvement in the overall performance compared to using the face recognition algorithm alone. The experimental results on two large facial aging datasets, the MORPH and FERET sets, show that the proposed age group estimation based on the face recognition approach yields superior performance compared to some existing state-of-the-art methods. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. A high affinity monoclonal antibody recognizing the light chain of human coagulating factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarial, Sheila; Asadi, Farzad; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Hadavi, Reza; Bayat, Ali Ahmad; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Taghizadeh-Jahed, Masoud; Shokri, Fazel; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2012-12-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is a serine protease-coagulating element responsible for the initiation of an extrinsic pathway of clot formation. Here we generated and characterized a high affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes human FVII. Recombinant human FVII (rh-FVII) was used for the production of a monoclonal antibody using BALB/c mice. The specificity of the antibody was determined by Western blot using plasma samples from human, mouse, sheep, goat, bovine, rabbit, and rat. Furthermore, the antibody was used to detect transiently expressed rh-FVII in BHK21 cell line using Western blot and sandwich ELISA. A mouse IgG1 (kappa chain) monoclonal antibody clone 1F1-B11 was produced against rh-FVII. The affinity constant (K(aff)) of the antibody was calculated to be 6.4×10(10) M(-1). The antibody could specifically recognize an epitope on the light chain of hFVII, with no reactivity with factor VII from several other animals. In addition, transiently expressed rh-FVII in BHK21 cells was recognized by 1F1-B11. The high affinity as well as the specificity of 1F1-B11 for hFVII will facilitate the affinity purification of hFVII and also production of FVII deficient plasma and minimizes the risk of bovine FVII contamination when fetal bovine serum-supplemented media are used for production and subsequent purification of rh-FVII.

  5. Recognizing the signs of time in the perspective of Jesus’ call to the evangelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Adamczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The call of Jesus to recognize the signs of time from Mt 16, 3 has a timeless character. The investigation and explanation of the Gospel light is the duty of the Church. This has a fundamental importance for the effectiveness of evangelization. The signs of time can be correlated directly with God’s initiative to save us. The sign of time can be considered the sign of God in which God’s freedom addresses our freedom, calling us to create history. God, thanks to the signs of time, not so much manifests his definite will, but rather directs us towards freedom. The signs of time show the direction of behaviour for the development of the world which is unanimous with the thought of God. They are God’s calls, which are directed towards men, therefore, recognizing the signs of time has mainly a practical dimen- sion, not a theoretical one. Recognizing signs nowadays allows us to discover new and current elements in the Gospel.

  6. Deficits in recognizing disgust facial expressions and Internet addiction: Perceived stress as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongting; Poon, Kai-Tak; Cheng, Cecilia

    2017-08-01

    Studies have examined social maladjustment among individuals with Internet addiction, but little is known about their deficits in specific social skills and the underlying psychological mechanisms. The present study filled these gaps by (a) establishing a relationship between deficits in facial expression recognition and Internet addiction, and (b) examining the mediating role of perceived stress that explains this hypothesized relationship. Ninety-seven participants completed validated questionnaires that assessed their levels of Internet addiction and perceived stress, and performed a computer-based task that measured their facial expression recognition. The results revealed a positive relationship between deficits in recognizing disgust facial expression and Internet addiction, and this relationship was mediated by perceived stress. However, the same findings did not apply to other facial expressions. Ad hoc analyses showed that recognizing disgust was more difficult than recognizing other facial expressions, reflecting that the former task assesses a social skill that requires cognitive astuteness. The present findings contribute to the literature by identifying a specific social skill deficit related to Internet addiction and by unveiling a psychological mechanism that explains this relationship, thus providing more concrete guidelines for practitioners to strengthen specific social skills that mitigate both perceived stress and Internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 recognizes human cytochrome P450 db1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, M; Yamamoto, A M; Bernard, O; Alvarez, F

    1989-03-15

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 (LKM1), present in the sera of a group of children with autoimmune hepatitis, was recently shown to recognize a 50 kDa protein identified as rat liver cytochromes P450 db1 and db2. High homology between these two members of the rat P450 IID subfamily and human P450 db1 suggested that anti-LKM1 antibody is directed against this human protein. To test this hypothesis, a human liver cDNA expression library in phage lambda GT-11 was screened using rat P450 db1 cDNA as a probe. Two human cDNA clones were found to be identical to human P450 db1 by restriction mapping. Immunoblot analysis using as antigen, the purified fusion protein from one of the human cDNA clones showed that only anti-LKM1 with anti-50 kDa reactivity recognized the fusion protein. This fusion protein was further used to develop an ELISA test that was shown to be specific for sera of children with this disease. These results: 1) identify the human liver antigen recognized by anti-LKM1 auto-antibodies as cytochrome P450 db1, 2) allow to speculate that mutation on the human P450 db1 gene could alter its expression in the hepatocyte and make it auto-antigenic, 3) provide a simple and specific diagnostic test for this disease.

  8. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  9. The California Central Coast Research Partnership: Building Relationships, Partnerships, and Paradigms for University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    Dietary Allowance EPO - Erythropoietin SMP - Skim Milk Powder EVOH - Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol FFM - Fat Free Mass GRAS - General Recognized As Safe...loss in lean muscle mass, and impaired physical and cognitive performance (Marriott 1995). A loss of fat free mass ( FFM ) can also be interpreted as...reported that the soldiers lost an average of 4.02kg +/- 1.42kg in FFM during the first three months of the experiment. This portion of the

  10. Analysis of potato virus Y coat protein epitopes recognized by three commercial monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan-Ping; Hepojoki, Jussi; Ranki, Harri; Lankinen, Hilkka; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY, genus Potyvirus) causes substantial economic losses in solanaceous plants. Routine screening for PVY is an essential part of seed potato certification, and serological assays are often used. The commercial, commonly used monoclonal antibodies, MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130, recognize the viral coat protein (CP) of PVY and distinguish PVYN strains from PVYO and PVYC strains, or detect all PVY strains, respectively. However, the minimal epitopes recognized by these antibodies have not been identified. SPOT peptide array was used to map the epitopes in CP recognized by MAb1128, MAb1129, and MAb1130. Then alanine replacement as well as N- and C-terminal deletion analysis of the identified peptide epitopes was done to determine critical amino acids for antibody recognition and the respective minimal epitopes. The epitopes of all antibodies were located within the 30 N-terminal-most residues. The minimal epitope of MAb1128 was 25NLNKEK30. Replacement of 25N or 27N with alanine weakened the recognition by MAb1128, and replacement of 26L, 29E, or 30K nearly precluded recognition. The minimal epitope for MAb1129 was 16RPEQGSIQSNP26 and the most critical residues for recognition were 22I and 23Q. The epitope of MAb1130 was defined by residues 5IDAGGS10. Mutation of residue 6D abrogated and mutation of 9G strongly reduced recognition of the peptide by MAb1130. Amino acid sequence alignment demonstrated that these epitopes are relatively conserved among PVY strains. Finally, recombinant CPs were produced to demonstrate that mutations in the variable positions of the epitope regions can affect detection with the MAbs. The epitope data acquired can be compared with data on PVY CP-encoding sequences produced by laboratories worldwide and utilized to monitor how widely the new variants of PVY can be detected with current seed potato certification schemes or during the inspection of imported seed potatoes as conducted with these MAbs.

  11. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hansong; Huang, He; Huang, Liusheng; Sun, Yu-E

    2016-08-20

    As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user's daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR) respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR) are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  12. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  13. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user’s daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  14. Recognizing lexical and semantic change patterns in evolving life science ontologies to inform mapping adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Julio Cesar; Dinh, Duy; Da Silveira, Marcos; Pruski, Cédric; Reynaud-Delaître, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Mappings established between life science ontologies require significant efforts to maintain them up to date due to the size and frequent evolution of these ontologies. In consequence, automatic methods for applying modifications on mappings are highly demanded. The accuracy of such methods relies on the available description about the evolution of ontologies, especially regarding concepts involved in mappings. However, from one ontology version to another, a further understanding of ontology changes relevant for supporting mapping adaptation is typically lacking. This research work defines a set of change patterns at the level of concept attributes, and proposes original methods to automatically recognize instances of these patterns based on the similarity between attributes denoting the evolving concepts. This investigation evaluates the benefits of the proposed methods and the influence of the recognized change patterns to select the strategies for mapping adaptation. The summary of the findings is as follows: (1) the Precision (>60%) and Recall (>35%) achieved by comparing manually identified change patterns with the automatic ones; (2) a set of potential impact of recognized change patterns on the way mappings is adapted. We found that the detected correlations cover ∼66% of the mapping adaptation actions with a positive impact; and (3) the influence of the similarity coefficient calculated between concept attributes on the performance of the recognition algorithms. The experimental evaluations conducted with real life science ontologies showed the effectiveness of our approach to accurately characterize ontology evolution at the level of concept attributes. This investigation confirmed the relevance of the proposed change patterns to support decisions on mapping adaptation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topographic antigenic determinants recognized by monoclonal antibodies on human choriogonadotropin beta-subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidart, J.M.; Troalen, F.; Salesse, R.; Bousfield, G.R.; Bohuon, C.J.; Bellet, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a first attempt to study the antibody-combining sites recognized by monoclonal antibodies raised against the beta-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG). Two groups of antibodies were first defined by their ability to recognize only the free beta-subunit or the free and combined subunit. Antibodies FBT-11 and FBT-11-L bind only to hCG beta-subunit but not to hCG, whereas antibodies FBT-10 and D1E8 bind to both the beta-subunit and the hormone. In both cases, the antigenic determinants were localized to the core of the protein (residues 1-112), indicating the weak immunogenicity of the specific carboxyl-terminal extension of hCG-beta. Nine synthetic peptides spanning different regions of hCG-beta and lutropin-beta were assessed for their capacity to inhibit antibody binding. A synthetic peptide inclusive of the NH2-terminal region (residues 1-7) of the hCG beta-subunit was found to inhibit binding to the radiolabeled subunit of a monoclonal antibody specific for free hCG-beta (FBT-11). Further delineation of the antigenic site recognized by this antibody provided evidence for the involvement of fragment 82-92. Moreover, monoclonal antibody FBT-11 inhibited the recombination of hCG-beta to hCG-alpha, indicating that its antigenic determinant might be located nearby or in the hCG-beta portion interacting with the alpha-subunit. Binding of monoclonal antibody FBT-10, corresponding to the second antigenic determinant, was weakly inhibited by fragment 82-105 and did not impair the recombination of the hCG beta-subunit to the hCG alpha-subunit. Its combining site appeared to be located in a region of the intact native choriogonadotropin present at the surface of the hormone-receptor complex

  16. Gently does it: Humans outperform a software classifier in recognizing subtle, nonstereotypical facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak, Neta; Giladi, Nir; Gurevich, Tanya; Messinger, Daniel S; Prince, Emily B; Martin, Katherine; Aviezer, Hillel

    2017-12-01

    According to dominant theories of affect, humans innately and universally express a set of emotions using specific configurations of prototypical facial activity. Accordingly, thousands of studies have tested emotion recognition using sets of highly intense and stereotypical facial expressions, yet their incidence in real life is virtually unknown. In fact, a commonplace experience is that emotions are expressed in subtle and nonprototypical forms. Such facial expressions are at the focus of the current study. In Experiment 1, we present the development and validation of a novel stimulus set consisting of dynamic and subtle emotional facial displays conveyed without constraining expressers to using prototypical configurations. Although these subtle expressions were more challenging to recognize than prototypical dynamic expressions, they were still well recognized by human raters, and perhaps most importantly, they were rated as more ecological and naturalistic than the prototypical expressions. In Experiment 2, we examined the characteristics of subtle versus prototypical expressions by subjecting them to a software classifier, which used prototypical basic emotion criteria. Although the software was highly successful at classifying prototypical expressions, it performed very poorly at classifying the subtle expressions. Further validation was obtained from human expert face coders: Subtle stimuli did not contain many of the key facial movements present in prototypical expressions. Together, these findings suggest that emotions may be successfully conveyed to human viewers using subtle nonprototypical expressions. Although classic prototypical facial expressions are well recognized, they appear less naturalistic and may not capture the richness of everyday emotional communication. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A generalized global alignment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiu; Chao, Kun-Mao

    2003-01-22

    Homologous sequences are sometimes similar over some regions but different over other regions. Homologous sequences have a much lower global similarity if the different regions are much longer than the similar regions. We present a generalized global alignment algorithm for comparing sequences with intermittent similarities, an ordered list of similar regions separated by different regions. A generalized global alignment model is defined to handle sequences with intermittent similarities. A dynamic programming algorithm is designed to compute an optimal general alignment in time proportional to the product of sequence lengths and in space proportional to the sum of sequence lengths. The algorithm is implemented as a computer program named GAP3 (Global Alignment Program Version 3). The generalized global alignment model is validated by experimental results produced with GAP3 on both DNA and protein sequences. The GAP3 program extends the ability of standard global alignment programs to recognize homologous sequences of lower similarity. The GAP3 program is freely available for academic use at http://bioinformatics.iastate.edu/aat/align/align.html.

  18. Glycosylation of the self-recognizing Escherichia coli Ag43 autotransporter protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherlock, O.; Dobrindt, U.; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    a novel member to this exclusive group, namely, antigen 43 (Ag43), a self-recognizing autotransporter protein. By mass spectrometry Ag43 was demonstrated to be glycosylated by addition of heptose residues at several positions in the passenger domain. Glycosylation of Ag43 by the action of the Aah and Tib......C glycosyltransferases was observed in laboratory strains. Importantly, Ag43 was also found to be glycosylated in a wild-type strain, suggesting that Ag43-glycosylation may be a widespread phenomenon. Glycosylation of Ag43 does not seem to interfere with its self-associating properties. However, the glycosylated form...

  19. An Efficient Primitive-Based Method to Recognize Online Sketched Symbols with Autocompletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new structural method of sketched symbol recognition, which aims to recognize a hand-drawn symbol before it is fully completed. It is invariant to scale, stroke number, and order. We also present two novel descriptors to represent the spatial distribution between two primitives. One is invariant to rotation and the other is not. Then a symbol is represented as a set of descriptors. The distance between the input symbol and the template one is calculated based on the assignment problem. Moreover, a fast nearest neighbor (NN search algorithm is proposed for recognition. The method achieves a satisfactory recognition rate in real time.

  20. Modeling and Recognizing Driver Behavior Based on Driving Data: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and recognizing driver behavior have become crucial to understanding intelligence transport systems, human-vehicle systems, and intelligent vehicle systems. A wide range of both mathematical identification methods and modeling methods of driver behavior are presented from the control point of view in this paper based on the driving data, such as the brake/throttle pedal position and the steering wheel angle, among others. Subsequently, the driver’s characteristics derived from the driver model are embedded into the advanced driver assistance systems, and the evaluation and verification of vehicle systems based on the driver model are described.

  1. A rat monoclonal antibody that recognizes pro- and active MMP-7 indicates polarized expression in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fingleton, Barbara; Powell, William C; Crawford, Howard C

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes named for their ability to degrade proteins of the extracellular matrix. Here we describe the characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing one member of this enzyme family, MMP-7. This antibody has been tested...... for its use in multiple assay types and was shown to be useful for direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemistry of frozen or paraffin-embedded tissues. The antibody has been evaluated for its usefulness with tissues from several...

  2. Recognizing and addressing barriers to the effective management of ADHD in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culpepper, Larry

    2013-07-01

    Several barriers can hinder the diagnosis of ADHD in college students, especially those with unrecognized symptoms, dysfunctional behavior, or psychiatric conditions. One specific barrier includes the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students, perhaps to improve academic performance or to self-treat undiagnosed ADHD symptoms. Because of the dangers, both medical and legal, that nonmedical stimulant use can cause, clinicians must recognize these undiagnosed students and initiate proper treatment. By establishing a therapeutic relationship with students, clinicians can provide education, monitoring, and treatment options that will help minimize misuse of prescriptions while giving students the support they need to successfully complete college. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Federal Administrative Court recognizes foreclosure of demurer in administrative proceedings, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    In its decision of July 17, 1980, the Federal Administrative Court dismissed the appeal lodged by the community S. against the dismissal by the administrative court concerning the action to set aside the license granted for the Wyhl reactor. In doing so, and by giving full reasons, the effectiveness of the foreclosure of demurers in administrative proceedings has been recognized and the notion of demurer has been defined. The amount in litigation was fixed at 50000 DM for the proceedings of appeal. (HSCH) [de

  4. Preparing for the future: a case study of role changing and reengineering. Recognize and seize the new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C A

    1995-01-01

    Today's laboratory managers are caught in the midst of a tumultuous environment as a result of managed care, mergers and acquisitions, and downsizing. We must prepare ourselves through continuous learning, recognize the marketable value of our skills outside of the laboratory, and seize opportunities to expand into new roles. At Arkansas Children's Hospital, the Chief Executive Officer selected the Administrative Director of Laboratories to reengineer the General Pediatric Center. Our goals were to improve quality of care, efficiency, teamwork, clinic visit times, and satisfaction of patients, staff, and physicians. We developed ideal objectives from surveys, brainstorming sessions, and interviews to serve as guidelines for reengineering teams. Teams met the goals and 12 of 15 ideal objectives. Patient flow redesign resulted in different processes for different patient populations and a 35% decrease in the average clinic visit time. Patient, staff, and physician satisfaction improved, as did the clinic's financial status. The project's success confirms that our leadership and analytical skills are transferable from the laboratory to carry us to new heights in other health-care arenas.

  5. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Focusing errors in radiography - how they can be recognized and avoided. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.A.; Zimmer-Brossy, M.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the problem of recognizing and judging focusing errors for the daily practice has caused the authors to give this systematic and abundantly pictured account of the most frequent focusing errors, for as yet no such book has been published either in Germany or abroad. To keep it as concise and handy as possible the authors have restricted themselves to the most important standard pictures and omitted to list errors such as: blurred pictures owing to breathing or movement as well as under and overexposed pictures, which are easy to recognize and avoid. By contrast, they describe in detail those characteristic points and lines of orientation that must be checked to verify the technical quality of an X-ray picture. Knowledge of the typical aspects in a correctly focused X-ray picture is a precondition for understanding incorrectly focused pictures which have some characteristic properties as well. Proper interpretation of an incorrectly focused picture then permits to detect also the cause of the focusing error, be it false centring or false positioning. Thus quick and aimed correction becomes possible. To avoid unnecessary repeat X-rays, which are self-prohibitive for reasons of radiation protection alone, each chapter contains at the end a remark starting in which cases the medical indication requires the repetition of an unserviceable X-ray. (orig./ORU) [de

  7. The ability of IgY to recognize surface proteins of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans are gram positive bacteria classified into viridians group, and have a role in pathogenesis of dental caries. It’s adhesion to the tooth surface is mediated by cell surface proteins, which interact with specific receptor located in tooth pellicle. Glucan binding protein, Glukosyltransferase, and antigen I/II are basic proteins of S. mutans, which have a role in initiating the interaction. A previous study showed that chicken’s IgY can interfere the interaction. Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of IgY in recognizing the surface molecule of Streptococcus mutans expressed by various serotypes (c, d, e, f and a strain derived from IPB, Bogor. Method: Western blot was used as a method to determine such capability. Result: The result showed that IgY has a potency to recognize antigen I/II, but not the other proteins on the cell surface of all bacteria tested. Conclusion: The ability of IgY to bind the surface protein, antigen I/II, indicates that this avian antibody could be used as a candidate for anti-adhesion in preventing dental caries.

  8. The Ability of Immunoglobulin Yolk Recognized the Antigen in the Tissue of Ascaridia galli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody reaction is an important tool for the analysis of localization of target molecules, including antigenic protein within worm tissues. The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of immunoglobulin yolk (IgY anti-excretory/secretory recognized the antigen in the tissue of Ascaridia galli by mean of immunohistochemistry method. The excretory/secretory protein was procured from A. galli and concentrated by mean of vivaspin 30,000 MWCO. IgY was produced by egg yolks of immunized chickens with excretory/secretory, and purified using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC method. A. galli adult worms were cut in transversal and longitudinal section of the center and anterior region. Slides were incubated with both primary IgY for overnight at 4 oC and secondary antibody rabbit anti-chicken IgY HRP-conjugate for one hour at room temperature. The slides were stained with 3-amino, 9-ethylcarbazole (AEC chromogen, counterstained with Lillie Mayer Haematoxylin, and mounted in glyserin aqueous mount. Antigen-antibody reaction was investigated under a microscope. The result showed that antigen was appeared in the tissues such as cuticle, epicuticle, buccal cavity, and eggs inside the uterine of A. galli. This research concluded that IgY stimulated by the excretory/secretory was able to recognized the antigen scattered in the tissues of A. galli so the IgY could be applied for immunodiagnostic.

  9. Antibody against Microbial Neuraminidases Recognizes Human Sialidase 3 (NEU3: the Neuraminidase/Sialidase Superfamily Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiguang Feng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuraminidases (NAs are critical virulence factors for several microbial pathogens. With a highly conserved catalytic domain, a microbial NA “superfamily” has been proposed. We previously reported that murine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN sialidase activity was important in leukocyte trafficking to inflamed sites and that antibodies to Clostridium perfringens NA recognized a cell surface molecule(s, presumed to be a sialidase of eukaryotic origin on interleukin-8-stimulated human and murine PMNs. These antibodies also inhibited cell sialidase activity both in vitro and, in the latter instance, in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that mammalian sialidases share structural homology and epitopes with microbial NAs. We now report that antibodies to one of the isoforms of C. perfringens NA, as well as anti-influenza virus NA serum, recognize human NEU3 but not NEU1 and that antibodies to C. perfringens NA inhibit NEU3 enzymatic activity. We conclude that the previously described microbial NA superfamily extends to human sialidases. Strategies designed to therapeutically inhibit microbial NA may need to consider potential compromising effects on human sialidases, particularly those expressed in cells of the immune system.

  10. Evolution of Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain to Recognize Sulfotyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Tong; Niu, Wei; Guo, Jiantao

    2016-09-16

    Protein tyrosine O-sulfation is considered as the most common type of post-translational tyrosine modification in nature and plays important roles in extracellular biomolecular interactions. To facilitate the mapping, biological study, and medicinal application of this type of post-translational modification, we seek to evolve a small protein scaffold that recognizes sulfotyrosine with high affinity. We focused our efforts on the engineering of the Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain, which represents the largest class of known phosphotyrosine-recognition domain in nature and has a highly evolvable binding pocket. By using phage display, we successfully engineered the SH2 domain to recognize sulfotyrosine with high affinity. The best mutant, SH2-60.1, displayed more than 1700 fold higher sulfotyrosine-binding affinity than that of the wild-type SH2 domain. We also demonstrated that the evolved SH2 domain mutants could be used to detect sulfoprotein levels on the cell surface. These evolved SH2 domain mutants can be potentially applied to the study of protein tyrosine O-sulfation with proper experimental designs.

  11. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intra-abdominal hypertension in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection--an under-recognized treatable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2010-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults, with recent reports of increased severity and case fatality. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognized and treatable complications of severe illness in medical patients, and are independent predictors of mortality. Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. However, ACS has been only rarely described in this population. We report a case of a 61 year-old morbidly obese, chronically ill, ventilator dependent patient, who developed fulminant CDI, including progressive colonic distension, acute renal failure and intra-abdominal fluid sequestration. Her clinical course worsened abruptly, with new shock, worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, increased peak airway pressures and reduced tidal volumes. Intra-abdominal pressure was 30 mm Hg. The patient was not considered a surgical candidate, was refractory to escalating non-surgical support, and died following withdrawal of life support. Although patients with fulminant CDI share many risk factors for IAH and ACS, these conditions were rarely reported in this population and are likely under recognized, as was the case with the present patient. Increased vigilance for IAH is needed in this at-risk population.

  13. Human peripheral blood monocytes display surface antigens recognized by monoclonal antinuclear antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holers, V.M.; Kotzin, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    The authors used monoclonal anti-nuclear autoantibodies and indirect immunofluorescence to examine normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes for the presence of cell surface nuclear antigens. Only one monoclonal anti-histone antibody (MH-2) was found to bind to freshly isolated PBL, staining approximately 10% of large cells. However, after cells were placed into culture for 16-24 h, a high percentage (up to 60%) of large-sized cells were recognized by an anti-DNA (BWD-1) and several different antihistone monoclonal antibodies (BWH-1, MH-1, and MH-2). These antibodies recognize separate antigenic determinants on chromatin and histones extracted from chromatin. The histone antigen-positive cells were viable, and the monoclonal antibodies could be shown to be binding to the cell surface and not to the nucleus. Using monoclonal antibodies specific for monocytes and T cells, and complement-mediated cytotoxicity, the cells bearing histone antigens were shown to be primarily monocytes. The appearance of histone and DNA antigen-positive cells was nearly completely inhibited by the addition of low concentrations of cycloheximide at initiation of the cultures. In contrast, little effect on the percentage of positive cells was detected if cells were exposed to high doses of gamma irradiation before culture. These data further support the existence of cell surface nuclear antigens on selected cell subsets, which may provide insight into the immunopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and related autoimmune diseases

  14. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voggeser, Birgit J; Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2017-01-01

    In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling). We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task). Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity) did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  15. Self-control in Online Discussions: Disinhibited Online Behavior as a Failure to Recognize Social Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit J. Voggeser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In an online experiment we examined the role of self-control in recognizing social cues in the context of disinhibited online behavior (e.g., flaming and trolling. We temporarily lowered participants' self-control capacity with an ego depletion paradigm (i.e., color Stroop task. Next, we measured participants' sensitivity to social cues with an emotional Stroop task containing neutral, negative, and taboo words. Sensitivity to social cues is represented by the increase in reaction time to negative and especially taboo words compared to neutral words. As expected, undepleted participants were slower to process the color of negative and taboo words. By contrast, depleted participants (i.e., those with lowered self-control capacity did not react differently to taboo or negative words than they did to neutral words. The experiment illustrates that self-control failure may manifest itself in a failure to recognize social cues. The finding underlines the importance of self-control in understanding disinhibited online behavior: Many instances of disinhibited online behavior may occur not because people are unable to control themselves, but because they do not realize that a situation calls for self-control in the first place.

  16. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound

  17. Evaluation of Retro recon for SRS planning correction according to the error of recognize to coordinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyeon Seok; Jeong, Deok Yang; Do, Gyeong Min; Lee, Yeong Cheol; KIm, Sun Myung; Kim, Young Bun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Retro recon in SRS planning using BranLAB when stereotactic location error occurs by metal artifact. By CT simulator, image were acquired from head phantom(CIRS, PTW, USA). To observe stereotactic location recognizing and beam hardening, CT image were approved by SRS planning system(BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). In addition, we compared acquisition image(1.25mm slice thickness) and Retro recon image(using for 2.5 mm, 5mm slice thickness). To evaluate these three images quality, the test were performed by AAPM phantom study. In patient, it was verified stereotactic location error. All the location recognizing error did not occur in scanned image of phantom. AAPM phantom scan images all showed the same trend. Contrast resolution and Spatial resolution are under 6.4 mm, 1.0 mm. In case of noise and uniformity, under 11, 5 of HU were measured. In patient, the stereotactic location error was not occurred at reconstructive image. For BrainLAB planning, using Retro recon were corrected stereotactic error at beam hardening. Retro recon may be the preferred modality for radiation treatment planning and approving image quality.

  18. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Mirjam; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Le, Phuonganh; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Aaron W; Brennan, Patrick J; Belisle, John T; Modlin, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors. One such receptor, NOD2, via recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), triggers a distinct network of innate immune responses, including the production of interleukin-32 (IL-32), which leads to the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). NOD2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human leprosy, yet it is not clear whether Mycobacterium leprae, which has a distinct MDP structure, can activate this pathway. We investigated the effect of MDP structure on the innate immune response, finding that infection of monocytes with M. leprae induces IL-32 and DC differentiation in a NOD2-dependent manner. The presence of the proximal l-Ala instead of Gly in the common configuration of the peptide side chain of M. leprae did not affect recognition by NOD2 or cytokine production. Furthermore, amidation of the d-Glu residue did not alter NOD2 activation. These data provide experimental evidence that NOD2 recognizes naturally occurring structural variants of MDP. Copyright © 2016 Schenk et al.

  19. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  20. [A method of recognizing biology surface spectrum using cascade-connection artificial neural nets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Jie; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Tie-Qiang; Meng, Xian-Jiang

    2008-05-01

    A method of recognizing the visible spectrum of micro-areas on the biological surface with cascade-connection artificial neural nets is presented in the present paper. The visible spectra of spots on apples' pericarp, ranging from 500 to 730 nm, were obtained with a fiber-probe spectrometer, and a new spectrum recognition system consisting of three-level cascade-connection neural nets was set up. The experiments show that the spectra of rotten, scar and bumped spot on an apple's pericarp can be recognized by the spectrum recognition system, and the recognition accuracy is higher than 85% even when noise level is 15%. The new recognition system overcomes the disadvantages of poor accuracy and poor anti-noise with the traditional system based on single cascade neural nets. Finally, a new method of expression of recognition results was proved. The method is based on the conception of degree of membership in fuzzing mathematics, and through it the recognition results can be expressed exactly and objectively.

  1. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele, E-mail: michele.ceriotti@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modeling, and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials MARVEL, IMX, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-11-07

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding – a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  2. Recognizing molecular patterns by machine learning: An agnostic structural definition of the hydrogen bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Piero; Ceriotti, Michele

    2014-11-01

    The concept of chemical bonding can ultimately be seen as a rationalization of the recurring structural patterns observed in molecules and solids. Chemical intuition is nothing but the ability to recognize and predict such patterns, and how they transform into one another. Here, we discuss how to use a computer to identify atomic patterns automatically, so as to provide an algorithmic definition of a bond based solely on structural information. We concentrate in particular on hydrogen bonding - a central concept to our understanding of the physical chemistry of water, biological systems, and many technologically important materials. Since the hydrogen bond is a somewhat fuzzy entity that covers a broad range of energies and distances, many different criteria have been proposed and used over the years, based either on sophisticate electronic structure calculations followed by an energy decomposition analysis, or on somewhat arbitrary choices of a range of structural parameters that is deemed to correspond to a hydrogen-bonded configuration. We introduce here a definition that is univocal, unbiased, and adaptive, based on our machine-learning analysis of an atomistic simulation. The strategy we propose could be easily adapted to similar scenarios, where one has to recognize or classify structural patterns in a material or chemical compound.

  3. Recognizing the Face of Johnny, Suzy, and Me: Insensitivity to the Spacing Among Features at 4 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Leis, Anishka; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Four-year-olds were tested for their ability to use differences in the spacing among features to recognize familiar faces. They were given a storybook depicting multiple views of 2 children. They returned to the laboratory 2 weeks later and used a "magic wand" to play a computer game that tested their ability to recognize the familiarized faces…

  4. Shared fine specificity between T-cell receptors and an antibody recognizing a peptide/major histocompatibility class I complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stryhn, A; Andersen, P S; Pedersen, L O

    1996-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells recognize mosaic structures consisting of target peptides embedded within self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. This structure has been described in great detail for several peptide-MHC complexes. In contrast, how T-cell receptors recognize peptide...... each other showing that peptide residues 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 were exposed on the MHC surface and recognized by the T cells. Thus, the majority, and perhaps all, of the side chains of the non-primary anchor residues may be available for T-cell recognition, and contribute to the stringent specificity of T...... cells. A striking similarity between the specificity of the T cells and that of the pSAN antibody was found and most of the peptide residues, which could be recognized by the T cells, could also be recognized by the antibody....

  5. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  6. Recognizing and reporting vertebral fractures: reducing the risk of future osteoporotic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.; Brown, J.P.; Khan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Given the increasing evidence that vertebral fractures are underdiagnosed and not acted on, Osteoporosis Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists initiated a project to develop and publish a set of recommendations to promote and facilitate the diagnosis and reporting of vertebral fractures. The identification of spinal fractures is not uniform. More than 65% of vertebral fractures cause no symptoms. It is also apparent that vertebral fractures are inadequately recognized when the opportunity for diagnosis arises fortuitously. It is to patients' benefit that radiologists report vertebral fractures evident on a chest or other radiograph, no matter how incidental to the immediate clinical indication for the examination. The present recommendations can help to close the gap in care in recognizing and treating vertebral fractures, to prevent future fractures and thus reduce the burden of osteoporosis-related morbidity and mortality, as well as fracture-related costs to the health care system. Several studies indicate that a gap exists in regard to the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the clinical response following such diagnosis. All recommendations presented here are based on consensus. These recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary working group under the auspices of the Scientific Advisory Council of Osteoporosis Canada and the Canadian Association of Radiologists. Prevalent vertebral fractures have important clinical implications in terms of future fracture risk. Recognizing and reporting fractures incidental to radiologic examinations done for other reasons has the potential to reduce health care costs by initiating further steps in osteoporosis diagnosis and appropriate therapy. Physicians should be aware of the importance of vertebral fracture diagnosis in assessing future osteoporotic fracture risk. Vertebral fractures incidental to radiologic examinations done for other reasons should be identified and reported. Vertebral fractures

  7. Bifidobacterium breve C50 secretes lipoprotein with CHAP domain recognized in aggregated form by TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, Angelo; Djorie, Serge; Colavizza, Michel; Romond, Pierre-Charles; Romond, Marie-Bénédicte

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular components secreted by Bifidobacterium breve C50 can induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of dendritic cells via a TLR2 pathway. In this study, the components were isolated from the supernatant by gel filtration chromatography. Antibodies raised against the major compounds with molecular weight above 600 kDa (Bb C50BC) also recognized compounds of lower molecular weight (200–600 kDa). TLR2 and TLR6 bound to the components already recognized by the antibodies. Trypsin digestion of Bb C50BC released three major peptides whose sequences displayed close similarities to a putative secreted protein with a CHAP amidase domain from B. breve. The 1300-bp genomic region corresponding to the hypothetical protein was amplified by PCR. The deduced polypeptide started with an N-terminal signal sequence of 45 amino acids, containing the lipobox motif (LAAC) with the cysteine in position 25, and 2 positively charged residues within the first 14 residues of the signal sequence. Lipid detection in Bb C50BC by GC/MS further supported the implication of a lipoprotein. Sugars were also detected in Bb C50BC. Close similarity with the glucan-binding protein B from Bifidobacterium animalis of two released peptides from Bb C50BC protein suggested that glucose moieties, possibly in glucan form, could be bound to the lipoprotein. Finally, heating at 100 °C for 5 min led to the breakdown of Bb C50BC in compounds of molecular weight below 67 kDa, which suggested that Bb C50BC was an aggregate. One might assume that a basic unit was formed by the lipoprotein bound putatively to glucan. Besides the other sugars and hexosamines recognized by galectin 1 were localized at the surface of the Bb C50BC aggregate. In conclusion, the extracellular components secreted by B. breve C50 were constituted of a lipoprotein putatively associated with glucose moieties and acting in an aggregating form as an agonist of TLR2/TLR6.

  8. Isikuvabadus seab meediale piirid / Frederic Gras ; interv. Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gras, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    ETV meediakonverentsil esinev Euroopa Nõukogu meediaekspert vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema esinemisteemat, ajakirjaniku käitumist oma allika avaldamata jätmisel, tänapäevast tsensuurivormi, ajakirjanike kohtussekaebamist, BBC ja Briti valitsuse Iraagi-tüli

  9. Nanoformulation des corps gras. Nanocapsules, nanoémulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonnet Jean-Thierry

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanocapsules (submicron particles, of diameter 250 nm, with an oily core enclosed in a solid polymeric shell were prepared using a controlled nanoprecipitation process with preformed polymers (for example poly-E caprolactone, polyethylene adipate. Nanocapsules formed by this method contain up to 7.5% oil (1% polymer. The following properties are observed using nanocapsules : improved oxygen stability of active ingredients (retinol, β carotene, significantly improved vectorisation (up to 3 times in skin and a reservoir effect. Due to their solid polymer shell nanocapsules are stable when formulated and penetrate intact into the superficial layers of the epidermis. Nanoemulsions wich are very fine oil-in-water dispersions having droplet diameter smaller than 100 nanometers, were prepared with a high shear device. Two major sources of unstability were identified and extensively studied: Ostwald ripening and depletion induced floculation following the addition of thickening polymers. The control of these two mechanisms allowed the industrial production of a large variety of cosmetic products. The nanoemulsions are easily valued in skin care due to their good sensorial properties and their biophysical properties.

  10. Importance des corps gras dans le domaine des tensioactifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilbot Jérôme

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is willing to show through different industrial examples the role played by the oleochemistry in the development of new surfactants. This field offers indeed a large choice of alkyl chains that can be transformed. Linked to a polar head such as a polyol, a carbohydrate or a protein derivative, these alkyl chains lead to performing bio-surfactants that show interesting toxicological and ecotoxicological profiles. This natural lipophilic source allows thus to adjust some physico-chemical parameters of the surfactant such as its geometry, its hydrophilic lipophilic balance, the type of functional groups linking its hydrophilic part to its lipophilic part, its molecular weight, etc. The emulsifying, foaming, solubilizing, biological properties can be valued in cosmetics (as excipients or actives, in the areas of veterinary additives, of detergents, in the food industry, etc.

  11. A newly recognized syndrome of severe growth deficiency, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Chana; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Michelson, Marina; Haas, Dorothea; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Lev, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Genetic syndromes with proportionate severe short stature are rare. We describe two sisters born to nonconsanguineous parents with severe linear growth retardation, poor weight gain, microcephaly, characteristic facial features, cutaneous syndactyly of the toes, high myopia, and severe intellectual disability. During infancy and early childhood, the girls had transient hepatosplenomegaly and low blood cholesterol levels that normalized later. A thorough evaluation including metabolic studies, radiological, and genetic investigations were all normal. Cholesterol metabolism and transport were studied and no definitive abnormality was found. No clinical deterioration was observed and no metabolic crises were reported. After due consideration of other known hereditary causes of post-natal severe linear growth retardation, microcephaly, and intellectual disability, we propose that this condition represents a newly recognized autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. SUPAR: Smartphone as a ubiquitous physical activity recognizer for u-healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Sungyoung; Yoon, Yongik

    2014-01-01

    Current generation smartphone can be seen as one of the most ubiquitous device for physical activity recognition. In this paper we proposed a physical activity recognizer to provide u-healthcare services in a cost effective manner by utilizing cloud computing infrastructure. Our model is comprised on embedded triaxial accelerometer of the smartphone to sense the body movements and a cloud server to store and process the sensory data for numerous kind of services. We compute the time and frequency domain features over the raw signals and evaluate different machine learning algorithms to identify an accurate activity recognition model for four kinds of physical activities (i.e., walking, running, cycling and hopping). During our experiments we found Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperforms for the aforementioned physical activities as compared to its counterparts. Furthermore, we also explain how smartphone application and cloud server communicate with each other.

  13. Ants use partner specific odors to learn to recognize a mutualistic partner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru K Hojo

    Full Text Available Regulation via interspecific communication is an important for the maintenance of many mutualisms. However, mechanisms underlying the evolution of partner communication are poorly understood for many mutualisms. Here we show, in an ant-lycaenid butterfly mutualism, that attendant ants selectively learn to recognize and interact cooperatively with a partner. Workers of the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus learn to associate cuticular hydrocarbons of mutualistic Narathura japonica caterpillars with food rewards and, as a result, are more likely to tend the caterpillars. However, the workers do not learn to associate the cuticular hydrocarbons of caterpillars of a non-ant-associated lycaenid, Lycaena phlaeas, with artificial food rewards. Chemical analysis revealed cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the mutualistic caterpillars were complex compared with those of non-ant-associated caterpillars. Our results suggest that partner-recognition based on partner-specific chemical signals and cognitive abilities of workers are important mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of mutualism with ants.

  14. Stories of Informal Mentorship: Recognizing the Voices of Mentees in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen MacKinnon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2014 OLA Super Conference session “Mentorship in Academic Libraries: A Universe of Possibilities,” this article explores the benefits of informal mentorship in its various forms and how librarians are embracing a new way of thinking about mentorship both individually and organizationally. The lived experiences of two professional academic librarians are shared as they argue that informal mentorship offers the opportunity to co-create a meaningful mentorship experience by recognizing the importance of the mentee’s voice. This paper will discuss the value of informal mentorship and how, when certain elements are present within it, this model can allow us to reimagine mentorship in academic libraries. Concepts such as “accidental” mentorship, “purposeful” mentorship, mentorship “network,” and “peer” mentorship are discussed.

  15. A newly-recognized galactic supernova remnant with shell-type and filled-center features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.J.; Turtle, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    While the number of galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) now known is fairly large (>150), the subset among these that are known to resemble the Crab Nebula is still distressingly small, about 15 or so. Thus any object that can be unambiguously included in this exclusive club forms a valuable addition to knowledge of this class. The authors report observations of a newly recognized nonthermal galactic object, G18.94-1.06, having all the hallmarks of the classical shell-type SNRs, while also appearing to have a filled-centre component located inside the shell. Among the known Crab-like remnants, about one third show this dual nature. This diagnosis of G18.94-1.06 is supported mainly by the variations in spectral index across the source, as seen between the two observation frequencies, 408 MHz and 5.0 GHz

  16. Can medical students recognize depression? A survey at the Zagreb School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Bosnjak, Dina; Vokal, Petra; Kuharic, Josip; Brkic, Ivana; Kuzman, Tomislav; Dujmovic, Josip

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate medical students' knowledge and attitudes towards depression. Students attending their final year at Zagreb School of Medicine completed a set of standardized questionnaires, including attitudes towards psychiatric medication, attitudes towards depression, and personality inventory. In total, 199 students completed the questionnaire (response rate 77 %). Most medical students were only partially able to correctly identify major symptoms of depression, but did suggest referral to mental health specialists as the most appropriate course of action. They recognized social and biological causes of depression. Degree of correct identification of symptoms of depression correlated positively with non-stigmatizing attitudes towards depression and negatively with stigmatizing attitudes towards depression. Students' attitudes toward depression may influence their recognition of symptoms of depression. Incorporation of these findings in development of undergraduate medical curricula may improve students' recognition of depression.

  17. Selective tumor cell death induced by irradiated riboflavin through recognizing DNA G-T mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi; Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Lianqi; Wu, Jiasi; Chen, Gangyi; Li, Sheng; Zou, Jiawei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Fan; Tang, Zhuo

    2017-09-06

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) has been thought to be a promising antitumoral agent in photodynamic therapy, though the further application of the method was limited by the unclear molecular mechanism. Our work reveals that riboflavin was able to recognize G-T mismatch specifically and induce single-strand breaks in duplex DNA targets efficiently under irradiation. In the presence of riboflavin, the photo-irradiation could induce the death of tumor cells that are defective in mismatch repair system selectively, highlighting the G-T mismatch as potential drug target for tumor cells. Moreover, riboflavin is a promising leading compound for further drug design due to its inherent specific recognition of the G-T mismatch. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. A system for tracking and recognizing pedestrian faces using a network of loosely coupled cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, L.; Laliberté, F.; Foucher, S.; Branzan Albu, A.; Laurendeau, D.

    2006-05-01

    A face recognition module has been developed for an intelligent multi-camera video surveillance system. The module can recognize a pedestrian face in terms of six basic emotions and the neutral state. Face and facial features detection (eyes, nasal root, nose and mouth) are first performed using cascades of boosted classifiers. These features are used to normalize the pose and dimension of the face image. Gabor filters are then sampled on a regular grid covering the face image to build a facial feature vector that feeds a nearest neighbor classifier with a cosine distance similarity measure for facial expression interpretation and face model construction. A graphical user interface allows the user to adjust the module parameters.

  19. A smart technique for attendance system to recognize faces through parallelism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhavathi, B.; Tanuja, V.; Madhu Viswanatham, V.; Rajashekhara Babu, M.

    2017-11-01

    Major part of recognising a person is face with the help of image processing techniques we can exploit the physical features of a person. In the old approach method that is used in schools and colleges it is there that the professor calls the student name and then the attendance for the students marked. Here in paper want to deviate from the old approach and go with the new approach by using techniques that are there in image processing. In this paper we presenting spontaneous presence for students in classroom. At first classroom image has been in use and after that image is kept in data record. For the images that are stored in the database we apply system algorithm which includes steps such as, histogram classification, noise removal, face detection and face recognition methods. So by using these steps we detect the faces and then compare it with the database. The attendance gets marked automatically if the system recognizes the faces.

  20. Recognizing facial expressions of emotion in infancy: A replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Kristina; Moulson, Margaret C

    2017-05-01

    Infants may recognize facial expressions of emotion more readily when familiar faces express the emotions. Studies 1 and 2 investigated whether familiarity influences two metrics of emotion processing: Categorization and spontaneous preference. In Study 1 (n = 32), we replicated previous findings showing an asymmetrical pattern of categorization of happy and fearful faces in 6.5-month-old infants, and extended these findings by demonstrating that infants' categorization did not differ when emotions were expressed by familiar (i.e., caregiver) faces. In Study 2 (n = 34), we replicated the spontaneous preference for fearful over happy expressions in 6.5-month-old infants, and extended these findings by demonstrating that the spontaneous preference for fear was also present for familiar faces. Thus, infants' performance on two metrics of emotion processing did not differ depending on face familiarity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  2. Fashion Design as a Means to Recognize and Build Communities-in-Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilys Williams

    Full Text Available This article explores how fashion design—an activity that fundamentally weaves together the practices, skills, and materials associated with clothing the body—can begin to weave together people in places. I reflect on collaborative encounters emerging from participatory design practice to consider how fashion-related activity might recognize and inspire deeper relational connections between people, and between people and their environment. I explore the role of the designer as host: one capable of creating conditions that lead to interactive movement among people and dialogue that expresses and explores intent. The designer as host activities of the action research project described here—I Stood Up in Chrisp Street—demonstrate fashion design’s capacity to inform not only localized sustainability practices, but also Fashion and Design for Sustainability research, education, and business practice. Keywords: Designer as host, Inside-out, Outside-in, Meaning-making, Matter-making, Cultures of resilience

  3. Recognizing and Preventing Overexposure to Methylmercury from Fish and Seafood Consumption: Information for Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Silbernagel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a valuable source of nutrition, and many people would benefit from eating fish regularly. But some people eat a lot of fish, every day or several meals per week, and thus can run a significant risk of overexposure to methylmercury. Current advice regarding methylmercury from fish consumption is targeted to protect the developing brain and nervous system but adverse health effects are increasingly associated with adult chronic low-level methylmercury exposure. Manifestations of methylmercury poisoning are variable and may be difficult to detect unless one considers this specific diagnosis and does an appropriate test (blood or hair analysis. We provide information to physicians to recognize and prevent overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption. Physicians are urged to ask patients if they eat fish: how often, how much, and what kinds. People who eat fish frequently (once a week or more often and pregnant women are advised to choose low mercury fish.

  4. Pollinators, pests, and predators: Recognizing ecological trade-offs in agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Manu E; Peisley, Rebecca K; Rader, Romina; Luck, Gary W

    2016-02-01

    Ecological interactions between crops and wild animals frequently result in increases or declines in crop yield. Yet, positive and negative interactions have mostly been treated independently, owing partly to disciplinary silos in ecological and agricultural sciences. We advocate a new integrated research paradigm that explicitly recognizes cost-benefit trade-offs among animal activities and acknowledges that these activities occur within social-ecological contexts. Support for this paradigm is presented in an evidence-based conceptual model structured around five evidence statements highlighting emerging trends applicable to sustainable agriculture. The full range of benefits and costs associated with animal activities in agroecosystems cannot be quantified by focusing on single species groups, crops, or systems. Management of productive agroecosystems should sustain cycles of ecological interactions between crops and wild animals, not isolate these cycles from the system. Advancing this paradigm will therefore require integrated studies that determine net returns of animal activity in agroecosystems.

  5. The elderly recognizing themselves as vulnerable to falls in the concreteness of the femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, César Junior Aparecido de; Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini

    2017-04-01

    understand the experience of the elderly with falls followed by femoral fracture and elaborate theoretical model of this process of lived experience. qualitative research with theoretical saturation through analysis of the ninth nondirected interview of elderly who underwent such experience. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. three categories emerged (sub-processes): evaluating signs and symptoms of fracture after the fall; feeling sad and insecure with the new condition; and finding oneself susceptible to fractures. From realignment of these categories (sub-processes) we could abstract the central category (process), recognizing oneself as vulnerable to falls in the concreteness of the fracture. the theoretical model considering the Symbolic Interactionism signals the implementation of continued program for fall prevention, with teaching strategies that encourage the elderly to reflect on the concreteness of contexts in which there is risk of occurring injury to their health.

  6. Cisplatin-resistant cells express increased levels of a factor that recognizes damaged DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, G.; Chang, E.

    1990-01-01

    Cancer treatment with the drug cisplatin is often thwarted by the emergence of drug-resistant cells. To study this phenomenon, the authors identified two independent cellular factors that recognize cisplatin-damaged DNA. One of the two factors, designated XPE binding factor, is deficient in complementation group E of xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disease characterized by defective repair of DNA damaged by ultraviolet radiation, cisplatin, and other agents. Human tumor cell lines selected for resistance to cisplatin showed more efficient DNA repair and increased expression of XPE binding factor. These results suggest that XPE binding factor may be responsible, at least in part, for the development of cisplatin resistance in human tumors and that the mechanism may be increased DNA repair

  7. A survey of exposures related to recognized occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carøe, Tanja Korfitsen; Ebbehøj, Niels; Agner, Tove

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin diseases are the most commonly recognized occupational diseases in Denmark, and occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) comprises ∼95% of all cases. OBJECTIVES: To prevent occupational contact dermatitis, it is important to specifically identify exposures and work routines related...... to outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to give an overview of exposures for patients with occupational contact dermatitis in Denmark in 2010, and relate this to line of work and disease severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a descriptive, register-based study including patients......, 1020 women and 484 men, were included in the study. Irritant contact dermatitis accounted for 70% of all cases; 68% of these were caused by wet work. Forty-six per cent of all patients were employed either in the healthcare sector, in cleaning, or as kitchen workers. Among contact allergies, the most...

  8. Beyond Creativity Assessment: Comparing Methods and Identifying Consequences of Recognized Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    Can people recognize and appreciate design creativity in products? It has previously been shown that creativity influences willingness to purchase products. Those results served as the inspiration for this study, however, it was of interest to investigate whether using adifferent research approach...... is outside the usual CAT frame. Despite the expansion of CAT a high interrater agreement existed for each attribute indicating that CAT was reliable. This study could, however, not reproduce the previous findings of a relationship between creativity and purchasability of design products. Aesthetic appeal...... would yield similar results. Thus the Consensual AssessmentTechnique (CAT) (Amabile, 1982) was adopted. Participants were asked to assess creativity level, technical advancement and aesthetic appeal, as required when applying CAT, adding purchasability to investigate appreciation of creativity, which...

  9. Failure to recognize preoperatively high-risk endometrial carcinoma is associated with a poor outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Rania, Erika; Zuccalà, Valeria; Venturella, Roberta; Mocciaro, Rita; Zullo, Fulvio; Morelli, Michele

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the misdiagnosis between endometrial biopsy and definitive surgical pathology and to assess whether the failure in recognizing preoperatively high-risk endometrial carcinoma (EC) can impact oncological outcomes. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate patients with EC diagnosed by preoperative endometrial biopsy who subsequently underwent surgical staging between 2006 and 2013 at our institution. In patients with a surgical diagnosis of high-risk EC, histotype and grade change between the endometrial biopsy and surgical specimen (discordance diagnosis) were evaluated and correlated to survival outcomes. Cox's regression model for multivariable analysis was used to evaluate the effect of several variables (age, stage, discordance in diagnosis, co-morbidities, frozen section, extensive surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy) on the survival rate. Data from 447 patients were reviewed. Among 109 women with surgical diagnosis of high-risk EC, 35 (32.1%) were preoperatively misdiagnosed. Of these 35 women, 24 (68.6%) cases were upgraded to grade 3, and 11 (3.4%) were upgraded to serous or clear cell type in the definitive specimen. The 5-year overall survival (OS; 70.2 vs. 86.8%; p=0.029), disease-specific survival (DSS; 72.5 vs. 88.2%; p=0.039) and recurrence free survival (RFS; 62.6 vs. 82.5%; p=0.024) were significantly lower in the high-risk EC patients who were preoperatively undiagnosed in the endometrial biopsy compared with patients with an appropriate preoperative histological diagnosis. Controlling for age, stage, co-morbidities, frozen section, extensive surgical staging and adjuvant chemotherapy, multivariable analysis revealed that discordance in diagnosis was associated with poorer survival outcomes. Failure to recognize preoperatively high-risk ECs is associated with worse outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Recognizing and Addressing Limited PHarmaceutical literacy: Development of the RALPH interview guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; Rademakers, Jany J D J M; Bouvy, Marcel L; De Smet, Peter A G M; Philbert, Daphne; Koster, Ellen S

    2018-04-30

    In the context of medication use, pharmaceutical literacy skills are crucial for appropriate and safe use of medication. Recognition of patients with inadequate pharmaceutical literacy in daily pharmacy practice is difficult. No instrument is yet available to support pharmacists herein. The aim of this study was therefore to develop an interview guide for pharmacists to Recognize and Address Limited PHarmaceutical literacy (RALPH). The RALPH interview guide was constructed in three phases: (1) development including a literature search, expert group discussion, and feasibility test with 15 patients; (2) pilot-test with 421 patients throughout 30 community pharmacies, and (3) final test with 508 patients to optimize the interview guide. The development phase resulted in a first interview guide comprising 15 questions: seven in the functional domain (understanding instructions), four in the communicative domain (finding and understanding medication information) and four in the critical domain (critically analyzing medication information). This version was pilot-tested in 30 pharmacies, with 147 patients during medication reviews and another 274 patients were interviewed while waiting to collect their medication. This test phase led to removal of questions that proved difficult to interpret and to rephrasing some questions. The second version including 11 questions was tested by 109 pharmacists trainees with 508 patients, resulting in the final RALPH interview guide comprising 10 questions, all directly linked to the patient's own medication: three in the functional, three in the communicative and four in the critical domain. Besides instructions on how to use the interview guide, recommendations are provided for pharmacists on how to support patients with limited pharmaceutical literacy skills. The practice-based RALPH interview guide supports pharmacists in recognizing patients with limited pharmaceutical literacy. With this insight, pharmacists can tailor their

  11. Developing the surveillance algorithm for detection of failure to recognize and treat severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Andrew M; Thongprayoon, Charat; Kashyap, Rahul; Chute, Christopher G; Gajic, Ognjen; Pickering, Brian W; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2015-02-01

    To develop and test an automated surveillance algorithm (sepsis "sniffer") for the detection of severe sepsis and monitoring failure to recognize and treat severe sepsis in a timely manner. We conducted an observational diagnostic performance study using independent derivation and validation cohorts from an electronic medical record database of the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral center. All patients aged 18 years and older who were admitted to the medical ICU from January 1 through March 31, 2013 (N=587), were included. The criterion standard for severe sepsis/septic shock was manual review by 2 trained reviewers with a third superreviewer for cases of interobserver disagreement. Critical appraisal of false-positive and false-negative alerts, along with recursive data partitioning, was performed for algorithm optimization. An algorithm based on criteria for suspicion of infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, organ hypoperfusion and dysfunction, and shock had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 96% when applied to the validation cohort. In order, low systolic blood pressure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome positivity, and suspicion of infection were determined through recursive data partitioning to be of greatest predictive value. Lastly, 117 alert-positive patients (68% of the 171 patients with severe sepsis) had a delay in recognition and treatment, defined as no lactate and central venous pressure measurement within 2 hours of the alert. The optimized sniffer accurately identified patients with severe sepsis that bedside clinicians failed to recognize and treat in a timely manner. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing Human Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) as Research and Theranostic Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Zora; Foss, Catherine A; Copeland, Benjamin T; Morath, Volker; Baranová, Petra; Havlínová, Barbora; Skerra, Arne; Pomper, Martin G; Barinka, Cyril

    2017-05-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a validated target for the imaging and therapy of prostate cancer. Here, we report the detailed characterization of four novel murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing human PSMA as well as PSMA orthologs from different species. Performance of purified mAbs was assayed using a comprehensive panel of in vitro experimental setups including Western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, flow cytometry, and surface-plasmon resonance. Furthermore, a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was used to compare the suitability of the mAbs for in vivo applications. All mAbs demonstrate high specificity for PSMA as documented by the lack of cross-reactivity to unrelated human proteins. The 3F11 and 1A11 mAbs bind linear epitopes spanning residues 226-243 and 271-288 of human PSMA, respectively. 3F11 is also suitable for the detection of PSMA orthologs from mouse, pig, dog, and rat in experimental setups where the denatured form of PSMA is used. 5D3 and 5B1 mAbs recognize distinct surface-exposed conformational epitopes and are useful for targeting PSMA in its native conformation. Most importantly, using a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer we show that both the intact 5D3 and its Fab fragment are suitable for in vivo imaging. With apparent affinities of 0.14 and 1.2 nM as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively, 5D3 has approximately 10-fold higher affinity for PSMA than the clinically validated mAb J591 and, therefore, is a prime candidate for the development of next-generation theranostics to target PSMA. Prostate 77:749-764, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preparing Family Caregivers to Recognize Delirium Symptoms in Older Adults After Elective Hip or Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Margaret J; Boaz, Lesley; Maadooliat, Mehdi; Hagle, Mary E; Gettrust, Lynn; Greene, Maureen T; Holmes, Sue Baird; Saczynski, Jane S

    2017-01-01

    To test the feasibility of a telephone-based intervention that prepares family caregivers to recognize delirium symptoms and how to communicate their observations to healthcare providers. Mixed-method, pre-post quasi-experimental design. A Midwest Veterans Affairs Medical Center and a nonprofit health system. Forty-one family caregiver-older adult dyads provided consent; 34 completed the intervention. Four telephone-based education modules using vignettes were completed during the 3 weeks before the older adult's hospital admission for elective hip or knee replacement. Each module required 20 to 30 minutes. Interviews were conducted before the intervention and 2 weeks and 2 months after the older adult's hospitalization. A researcher completed the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and a family caregiver completed the Family Version of the Confusion Assessment Method (FAM-CAM) 2 days after surgery to assess the older adults for delirium symptoms. Family caregivers' knowledge of delirium symptoms improved significantly from before the intervention to 2 weeks after the intervention and was maintained after the older adult's hospitalization. They also were able to recognize the presence and absence of delirium symptoms in the vignettes included in the intervention and in the older adult after surgery. In 94% of the cases, the family caregiver rating on the FAM-CAM approximately 2 days after the older adult's surgery agreed with the researcher rating on the CAM. Family caregivers expressed satisfaction with the intervention and stated that the information was helpful. Delivery of a telephone-based intervention appears feasible. All family caregivers who began the program completed the four education modules. Future studies evaluating the effectiveness of the educational program should include a control group. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Recognizing speech in a novel accent: the motor theory of speech perception reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The motor theory of speech perception holds that we perceive the speech of another in terms of a motor representation of that speech. However, when we have learned to recognize a foreign accent, it seems plausible that recognition of a word rarely involves reconstruction of the speech gestures of the speaker rather than the listener. To better assess the motor theory and this observation, we proceed in three stages. Part 1 places the motor theory of speech perception in a larger framework based on our earlier models of the adaptive formation of mirror neurons for grasping, and for viewing extensions of that mirror system as part of a larger system for neuro-linguistic processing, augmented by the present consideration of recognizing speech in a novel accent. Part 2 then offers a novel computational model of how a listener comes to understand the speech of someone speaking the listener's native language with a foreign accent. The core tenet of the model is that the listener uses hypotheses about the word the speaker is currently uttering to update probabilities linking the sound produced by the speaker to phonemes in the native language repertoire of the listener. This, on average, improves the recognition of later words. This model is neutral regarding the nature of the representations it uses (motor vs. auditory). It serve as a reference point for the discussion in Part 3, which proposes a dual-stream neuro-linguistic architecture to revisits claims for and against the motor theory of speech perception and the relevance of mirror neurons, and extracts some implications for the reframing of the motor theory.

  15. An own-age bias in recognizing faces with horizontal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal information, as a result of a selective filtering process, are essential in younger adults’ (YA ability to recognize human faces. Obermeyer, Kolling, Schaich, and Knopf (2012 recently reported impaired recognition of faces with horizontal information in older adults (OA suggesting age-variant processing. Two yet unconsidered factors (stimulus age and exposure duration that may have influenced previous results, were investigated in this study. Forty-seven YA (18-35yrs and 49 OA (62-83yrs were tested in a 2x2x2x2 mixed design with the between-subjects factors age group (YA vs OA and stimulus age (young faces vs older faces and the within-subjects factors filter (filtered (HF faces vs unfiltered faces (UF and exposure duration (0.8s vs 8s. Subjects were presented morph videos between pairs of faces: A starting face gradually merged into either the previously encoded target face or a control face. As expected, results showed an increase in recognition sensitivity (d’ with longer exposure duration in YA with both younger and older HF faces. OA however were unable to recognize filtered young faces not even with increased exposure duration. Furthermore, only elderly participants showed more accurate recognition with faces of their own age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB. For YA no OAB was observed. Filtered face recognition was significantly correlated with unfiltered recognition in YA but not in OA. It is concluded, that processing of horizontal information changes at a higher age. Presenting filtered or unfiltered faces both targets convergent face-specific processing only in YA but not in OA.

  16. LKM-1 autoantibodies recognize a short linear sequence in P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase.

    OpenAIRE

    Manns, M P; Griffin, K J; Sullivan, K F; Johnson, E F

    1991-01-01

    LKM-1 autoantibodies, which are associated with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, recognize P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. The reactivities of 26 LKM-1 antisera were tested with a panel of deletion mutants of P450IID6 expressed in Escherichia coli. 22 sera recognize a 33-amino acid segment of P450IID6, and 11 of these recognize a shorter segment, DPAQPPRD. PAQPPR is also found in IE175 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Antibodies for HSV-1 proteins were detected by ELISA...

  17. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  18. The stress of residency: recognizing the signs of depression and suicide in you and your fellow residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark S; Berman, Russell S; Kalet, Adina L; Zabar, Sondra R; Gillespie, Colleen; Pachter, H Leon

    2013-02-01

    Stress, depression, and suicide are universal but frequently unrecognized issues for women and men in residency training. Stress affects cognitive and psychomotor performance both inside and outside of the operating room. Stress impairs the 2 key components of a surgeon's responsibilities: intellectual judgment and technical skill. We hypothesized that the recognition of depression, substance abuse, failing personal relationships, and potential suicide is poor among surgeons. If residents can recognize the signs of stress, depression, and suicide among colleagues, we believe it will not only improve their quality of life but also may preserve it. We first determined baseline resident knowledge of the signs of surgical stress including fatigue; burn out; depression; physician suicide; drug and alcohol abuse; and their effects on family, friends, and relationships. We then developed a curriculum to identify these signs in first, second, third, and fourth year surgical residents were identified as the target learners. The major topics discussed were depression; physician suicide; drug and alcohol abuse; and the effects of stress on family, friends, and our goals. Secondary objectives included identifying major sources of stress, general self-awareness, understanding professional choices, and creating a framework to manage stress. Residents participated in an interactive seminar with a surgical facilitator. Before and after the seminar, a multiple-choice test was administered with questions to assess knowledge of the signs of stress (eg, fatigue, burn out, and depression). Twenty-one residents participated in this study. Seventeen completed the pretest, and 21 participated in the interactive seminar and completed the post-test. The pretest revealed that surgical residents were correct in 46.8% (standard deviation [SD] = 25.4%) of their responses. The postseminar test showed an improvement to 89.7% (SD = 6.1%, P abuse, divorce, and suicide, educating house staff about

  19. Methodology of Detailed Geophysical Examination of the Areas of World Recognized Religious and Cultural Artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppelbaum, Lev

    2010-05-01

    It is obvious that noninvasive geophysical methods are the main interpreting tools at the areas of world recognized religious and cultural artifacts. Usually in these areas any excavations, drilling and infrastructure activity are forbidden or very strongly limited. According to field experience and results of numerous modeling (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2000, 2009a, 2009b; Eppelbaum and Itkis, 2001, 2003; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2003a, 2006a, 2006b, 2007, 2010, Itkis et al., 2003; Neishtadt et al., 2006), a set of applied geophysical methods may include the following types of surveys: (1) magnetic, (3) GPR (ground penetration radar), (3) gravity, (4) electromagnetic VLF (very low frequency), (5) ER (electric resistivity), (6) SP (self-potential), (7) IP (induced polarization), (8) SE (seismoelectric), and (9) NST (near-surface temperature). As it was shown in (Eppelbaum, 2005), interpretation ambiguity may be sufficiently reduced not only by integrated analysis of several geophysical methods, but also by the way of multilevel observations of geophysical fields. Magnetic, gravity and VLF measurements may be performed at different levels over the earth's surface (0.1 - 3 m), ER, SP and SE observations may be obtained with different depth of electrodes grounding (0.1 - 1 m), and NST sensor may be located at a depth of 0.8 - 2.5 m. GPR method usually allows measuring electromagnetic fields at various frequencies (with corresponding changing of the investigation depth and other parameters). Influence of some typical noise factors to geophysical investigations at archaeological sites was investigated in (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2001). In many cases various constructions and walls are in the nearest vicinity of the examined artifacts. These constructions can be also utilized for carrying out geophysical measurements (magnetic, gravity and VLF) at different levels. Application of the modern ROV (remote operated vehicles) with registration of magnetic and VLF fields at

  20. Prescription drugs for human use generally recognized as safe and effective and not misbranded: drugs used in research: radioactive drugs for certain research uses; amended reporting requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    This amendment revises the reporting requirements for research studies in which radioactive drugs are used. It deletes the requirement for detailed measurements and calculations for each subject in the study; instead, it permits submission of data on a representative subject. The effect will be to decrease the burden in reporting required of the Radioactive Drug Research Committee, but still provide the agency with data to evaluate the risk attributable to radioactive drugs

  1. Dendrites of cerebellar granule cells correctly recognize their target axons for synaptogenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shoko; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2009-08-04

    Neural circuits are generated by precisely ordered synaptic connections among neurons, and this process is thought to rely on the ability of neurons to recognize specific partners. However, it is also known that neurons promiscuously form synapses with nonspecific partners, in particular when cultured in vitro, causing controversies about neural recognition mechanisms. Here we reexamined whether neurons can or cannot select particular partners in vitro. In the cerebellum, granule cell (GC) dendrites form synaptic connections specifically with mossy fibers, but not with climbing fibers. We cocultured GC neurons with pontine or inferior olivary axons, the major sources for mossy and climbing fibers, respectively, as well as with hippocampal axons as a control. The GC neurons formed synapses with pontine axons predominantly at the distal ends of their dendrites, reproducing the characteristic morphology of their synapses observed in vivo, whereas they failed to do so when combined with other axons. In the latter case, synaptic proteins could accumulate between axons and dendrites, but these synapses were randomly distributed throughout the contact sites, and also their synaptic vesicle recycling was anomalous. These observations suggest that GC dendrites can select their authentic partners for synaptogenesis even in vitro, forming the synapses with a GC-specific nature only with them.

  2. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  4. Recognizing mild cognitive impairment based on network connectivity analysis of resting EEG with zero reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Xiong, Xiu Chun; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Pei Yang; Yao, De Zhong; Xue, Qing; Wang, Yu Ping; Peng, Yueheng

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very helpful for early therapeutic interventions of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI has been proven to be correlated with disorders in multiple brain areas. In this paper, we used information from resting brain networks at different EEG frequency bands to reliably recognize MCI. Because EEG network analysis is influenced by the reference that is used, we also evaluate the effect of the reference choices on the resting scalp EEG network-based MCI differentiation. The conducted study reveals two aspects: (1) the network-based MCI differentiation is superior to the previously reported classification that uses coherence in the EEG; and (2) the used EEG reference influences the differentiation performance, and the zero approximation technique (reference electrode standardization technique, REST) can construct a more accurate scalp EEG network, which results in a higher differentiation accuracy for MCI. This study indicates that the resting scalp EEG-based network analysis could be valuable for MCI recognition in the future. (paper)

  5. Recognizing Cognitive and Psychiatric Changes in the Post-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carvalhal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not.

  6. Recognizing cognitive and psychiatric changes in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhal, Adriana; Baril, Jean-Guy; Crouzat, Frederic; De Wet, Joss; Junod, Patrice; Kovacs, Colin; Sheehan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not. PMID:24294277

  7. Recognizing Human Activities User-independently on Smartphones Based on Accelerometer Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Siirtola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time human activity recognition on a mobile phone is presented in this article. Unlike in most other studies, not only the data were collected using the accelerometers of a smartphone, but also models were implemented to the phone and the whole classification process (preprocessing, feature extraction and classification was done on the device. The system is trained using phone orientation independent features to recognize five everyday activities: walking, running, cycling, driving a car and sitting/standing while the phone is in the pocket of the subject's trousers. Two classifiers were compared, knn (k nearest neighbors and QDA (quadratic discriminant analysis. The models for real-time activity recognition were trained offline using a data set collected from eight subjects and these offline results were compared to real-time recognition rates, which are obtained by implementing models to mobile activity recognition application which currently supports two operating systems: Symbian^3 and Android. The results show that the presented method is light and, therefore, suitable for be used in real-time recognition. In addition, the recognition rates on the smartphones were encouraging, in fact, the recognition accuracies obtained are approximately as high as offline recognition rates. Also, the results show that the method presented is not an operating system dependent.

  8. A scalable machine-learning approach to recognize chemical names within large text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wren Jonathan D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation The use or study of chemical compounds permeates almost every scientific field and in each of them, the amount of textual information is growing rapidly. There is a need to accurately identify chemical names within text for a number of informatics efforts such as database curation, report summarization, tagging of named entities and keywords, or the development/curation of reference databases. Results A first-order Markov Model (MM was evaluated for its ability to distinguish chemical names from words, yielding ~93% recall in recognizing chemical terms and ~99% precision in rejecting non-chemical terms on smaller test sets. However, because total false-positive events increase with the number of words analyzed, the scalability of name recognition was measured by processing 13.1 million MEDLINE records. The method yielded precision ranges from 54.7% to 100%, depending upon the cutoff score used, averaging 82.7% for approximately 1.05 million putative chemical terms extracted. Extracted chemical terms were analyzed to estimate the number of spelling variants per term, which correlated with the total number of times the chemical name appeared in MEDLINE. This variability in term construction was found to affect both information retrieval and term mapping when using PubMed and Ovid.

  9. What's she doing in the kitchen? Context helps when actions are hard to recognize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2017-04-01

    Specific spatial environments are often indicative of where certain actions may take place: In kitchens we prepare food, and in bathrooms we engage in personal hygiene, but not vice versa. In action recognition, contextual cues may constrain an observer's expectations toward actions that are more strongly associated with a particular context than others. Such cues should become particularly helpful when the action itself is difficult to recognize. However, to date only easily identifiable actions were investigated, and the effects of context on recognition were rather interfering than facilitatory. To test whether context also facilitates action recognition, we measured recognition performance of hardly identifiable actions that took place in compatible, incompatible, and neutral contextual settings. Action information was degraded by pixelizing the area of the object manipulation while the room in which the action took place remained fully visible. We found significantly higher accuracy for actions that took place in compatible compared to incompatible and neutral settings, indicating facilitation. Additionally, action recognition was slower in incompatible settings than in compatible and neutral settings, indicating interference. Together, our findings demonstrate that contextual information is effectively exploited during action observation, in particular when visual information about the action itself is sparse. Differential effects on speed and accuracy suggest that contexts modulate action recognition at different levels of processing. Our findings emphasize the importance of contextual information in comprehensive, ecologically valid models of action recognition.

  10. A distributional and cytological survey of the presently recognized taxa of Hibiscus section Furcaria (Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Douglas Wilson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus section Furcaria is a natural group of plants that presently includes 109 recognized taxa. Taxa are found in subsaharan Africa, India, southeastern Asia, Malesia, Australia, islands of the Pacific basin, the Caribbean, North, Central, and South America. The basic chromosome number is x = 18. In nature, ploidy levels range from diploid to decaploid. The taxa exhibit a remarkable amount of genome diversity. At least 13 genomes have been identified, some distributed widely and others with more restricted distributions. No modern taxonomic monograph ofHibiscus section Furcaria exists, but a number of regional studies have appeared that are essentially global in extent. Also, a number of studies of chromosome numbers and genome relationships have been published. The present paper includes a census of all the presently accepted taxa, the geographical distribution of each taxon, and chromosome numbers and genome designations of the 49 taxa for which the information is available. Important mechanisms of speciation include genome divergence at the diploid level, followed by hybridization and allopolyploidy, significant species radiation at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels, and the development of even higher levels of allopolyploids.

  11. Recognizing vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese: a validated database of Chinese vocal emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Pell, Marc D

    2012-12-01

    To establish a valid database of vocal emotional stimuli in Mandarin Chinese, a set of Chinese pseudosentences (i.e., semantically meaningless sentences that resembled real Chinese) were produced by four native Mandarin speakers to express seven emotional meanings: anger, disgust, fear, sadness, happiness, pleasant surprise, and neutrality. These expressions were identified by a group of native Mandarin listeners in a seven-alternative forced choice task, and items reaching a recognition rate of at least three times chance performance in the seven-choice task were selected as a valid database and then subjected to acoustic analysis. The results demonstrated expected variations in both perceptual and acoustic patterns of the seven vocal emotions in Mandarin. For instance, fear, anger, sadness, and neutrality were associated with relatively high recognition, whereas happiness, disgust, and pleasant surprise were recognized less accurately. Acoustically, anger and pleasant surprise exhibited relatively high mean f0 values and large variation in f0 and amplitude; in contrast, sadness, disgust, fear, and neutrality exhibited relatively low mean f0 values and small amplitude variations, and happiness exhibited a moderate mean f0 value and f0 variation. Emotional expressions varied systematically in speech rate and harmonics-to-noise ratio values as well. This validated database is available to the research community and will contribute to future studies of emotional prosody for a number of purposes. To access the database, please contact pan.liu@mail.mcgill.ca.

  12. Good Practices for Learning to Recognize Actions Using FV and VLAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianxin; Zhang, Yu; Lin, Weiyao

    2016-12-01

    High dimensional representations such as Fisher vectors (FV) and vectors of locally aggregated descriptors (VLAD) have shown state-of-the-art accuracy for action recognition in videos. The high dimensionality, on the other hand, also causes computational difficulties when scaling up to large-scale video data. This paper makes three lines of contributions to learning to recognize actions using high dimensional representations. First, we reviewed several existing techniques that improve upon FV or VLAD in image classification, and performed extensive empirical evaluations to assess their applicability for action recognition. Our analyses of these empirical results show that normality and bimodality are essential to achieve high accuracy. Second, we proposed a new pooling strategy for VLAD and three simple, efficient, and effective transformations for both FV and VLAD. Both proposed methods have shown higher accuracy than the original FV/VLAD method in extensive evaluations. Third, we proposed and evaluated new feature selection and compression methods for the FV and VLAD representations. This strategy uses only 4% of the storage of the original representation, but achieves comparable or even higher accuracy. Based on these contributions, we recommend a set of good practices for action recognition in videos for practitioners in this field.

  13. Recognizing "me" benefits "we": Investigating the positive spillover effects of formal individual recognition in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoming; Harris, T Brad; Liu, Xin; Kirkman, Bradley L

    2016-07-01

    Many organizations use formal recognition programs (e.g., "employee of the month") as a way to publically acknowledge an individual employee's outstanding performance and motivate continued high performance. However, it remains unclear whether emphasizing individual achievement in a team context is beneficial or detrimental for recipients' teammates and, by extension, the team as a whole. Drawing on a social influence perspective, we examine potential spillover effects of individual formal recognition programs in teams. We hypothesize that a single team member's recognition will produce positive spillover effects on other team members' performance, as well as overall team performance, via social influence processes, especially when the award recipient is located in a central position in a team. Findings from 2 lab experiments of 24 teams and 40 teams (Study 1 and Study 2, respectively) and a field experiment of 52 manufacturing teams (Study 3) reveal that formally recognizing a team member leads to positive changes in her/his teammates' individual and collective performance. Thus, formal social recognition programs can potentially provide a motivational effect beyond individual recipients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Recognizing famous voices: influence of stimulus duration and different types of retrieval cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinberger, S R; Herholz, A; Sommer, W

    1997-04-01

    The current investigation measured the effects of increasing stimulus duration on listeners' ability to recognize famous voices. In addition, the investigation studied the influence of different types of cues on the naming of voices that could not be named before. Participants were presented with samples of famous and unfamiliar voices and were asked to decide whether or not the samples were spoken by a famous person. The duration of each sample increased in seven steps from 0.25 s up to a maximum of 2 s. Voice recognition improvements with stimulus duration were with a growth function. Gains were most rapid within the first second and less pronounced thereafter. When participants were unable to name a famous voice, they were cued with either a second voice sample, the occupation, or the initials of the celebrity. Initials were most effective in eliciting the name only when semantic information about the speaker had been accessed prior to cue presentation. Paralleling previous research on face naming, this may indicate that voice naming is contingent on previous activation of person-specific semantic information.

  15. Questioning the "big assumptions". Part II: recognizing organizational contradictions that impede institutional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Constance M; Lahey, Lisa; Kegan, Robert; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Well-designed medical curriculum reforms can fall short of their primary objectives during implementation when unanticipated or unaddressed organizational resistance surfaces. This typically occurs if the agents for change ignore faculty concerns during the planning stage or when the provision of essential institutional safeguards to support new behaviors are neglected. Disappointing outcomes in curriculum reforms then result in the perpetuation of or reversion to the status quo despite the loftiest of goals. Institutional resistance to change, much like that observed during personal development, does not necessarily indicate a communal lack of commitment to the organization's newly stated goals. It may reflect the existence of competing organizational objectives that must be addressed before substantive advances in a new direction can be accomplished. The authors describe how the Big Assumptions process (see previous article) was adapted and applied at the institutional level during a school of medicine's curriculum reform. Reform leaders encouraged faculty participants to articulate their reservations about considered changes to provided insights into the organization's competing commitments. The line of discussion provided an opportunity for faculty to appreciate the gridlock that existed until appropriate test of the school's long held Big Assumptions could be conducted. The Big Assumptions process proved useful in moving faculty groups to recognize and questions the validity of unchallenged institutional beliefs that were likely to undermine efforts toward change. The process also allowed the organization to put essential institutional safeguards in place that ultimately insured that substantive reforms could be sustained.

  16. Relational and item-specific influences on generate-recognize processes in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Melissa J; McDaniel, Mark A; Strosser, Garrett L; Ramirez, Juan M; Castleberry, Erica H; Arnett, Kristen H

    2014-02-01

    The generate-recognize model and the relational-item-specific distinction are two approaches to explaining recall. In this study, we consider the two approaches in concert. Following Jacoby and Hollingshead (Journal of Memory and Language 29:433-454, 1990), we implemented a production task and a recognition task following production (1) to evaluate whether generation and recognition components were evident in cued recall and (2) to gauge the effects of relational and item-specific processing on these components. An encoding task designed to augment item-specific processing (anagram-transposition) produced a benefit on the recognition component (Experiments 1-3) but no significant benefit on the generation component (Experiments 1-3), in the context of a significant benefit to cued recall. By contrast, an encoding task designed to augment relational processing (category-sorting) did produce a benefit on the generation component (Experiment 3). These results converge on the idea that in recall, item-specific processing impacts a recognition component, whereas relational processing impacts a generation component.

  17. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Trenkwalder, Claudia

    2018-01-05

    When Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are asked about the quality of their sleep, their answers are dominated by difficulties associated with impaired mobility in bed, medically referred to as nocturnal hypokinesia. Nocturnal hypokinesia is symptomatic from the mid-stage of the disease, affecting up to 70% of PD patients, and contributes to poor sleep quality, and increased carer burden. Here we explore four areas of nocturnal hypokinesia that are relevant to clinical practice, namely: manifestations and definition; clinical assessment and objective monitoring; etiologies and contributing factors; and evidence-based therapeutic approaches. In addition, we provide an operational definition of what constitutes nocturnal hypokinesia and outline different methods of assessment, ranging from clinical interviews and rating scales to objective night-time monitoring with inertial sensors. Optimal management of nocturnal hypokinesia in PD begins with recognizing its manifestation by inquiring about cardinal symptoms and contributing factors from, not only patients, but also carers, followed by formal assessment, and the application of individualized evidence-based treatment. Night-time dopaminergic treatment is the primary therapy; however, careful clinical judgment is required to balance the benefits with the potential adverse events related to nocturnal dopaminergic stimulation. Future studies are needed to explore the practicality of home-based objective assessment of nocturnal hypokinesia, new therapeutic options not limited to dopaminergic medications, and non-pharmacologic approaches, including training on compensatory strategies and bedroom adaptations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping; Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ). FB 1 is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB 1 were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB 1 via aptasensors. (author)

  19. Selection and characterization of single stranded DNA aptamers recognizing fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiujuan; Huang, Yukun; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Xia, Yu; Ma, Xiaoyuan; Ding, Zhansheng; Wang, Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122 (China); Zhu, Changqing; Jiang, Yuan [Animal, Plant and Food Inspection Centre, Jiangsu Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Nanjing, 210001 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We present an improved method for the selection of single-stranded DNA aptamers that can recognize fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}). FB{sub 1} is a carcinogenic mycotoxin mainly found in corn and corn-based food products worldwide, posing a global threat to feed and food safety. Selection was based on the mag-SELEX (magnetic bead systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) technology modified by adopting free analogs of targets rather than immobilized targets for counter selections. Firstly, aptamer candidates for FB{sub 1} were selected from an 80 nt random DNA library after 13 rounds of selection. Next, binding assays were performed for affinity evaluation, and circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to investigate their conformation. A high-affinity aptamer designated as F10 (with a dissociation constant of 62 ± 5 nM) was identified and tested for its specificity by competitive binding assays. The results demonstrate that this improved mag-SELEX technology facilitates aptamer screening because it avoids the tedious immobilization of counter-selection molecules on magnetic beads. The aptamers obtained by this technique open new possibilities for the detection of FB{sub 1} via aptasensors. (author)

  20. FRAN and RBF-PSO as two components of a hyper framework to recognize protein folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Elham; Ghatee, Mehdi; Shiri, M E

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an intelligent hyper framework is proposed to recognize protein folds from its amino acid sequence which is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. This framework includes some statistical and intelligent algorithms for proteins classification. The main components of the proposed framework are the Fuzzy Resource-Allocating Network (FRAN) and the Radial Bases Function based on Particle Swarm Optimization (RBF-PSO). FRAN applies a dynamic method to tune up the RBF network parameters. Due to the patterns complexity captured in protein dataset, FRAN classifies the proteins under fuzzy conditions. Also, RBF-PSO applies PSO to tune up the RBF classifier. Experimental results demonstrate that FRAN improves prediction accuracy up to 51% and achieves acceptable multi-class results for protein fold prediction. Although RBF-PSO provides reasonable results for protein fold recognition up to 48%, it is weaker than FRAN in some cases. However the proposed hyper framework provides an opportunity to use a great range of intelligent methods and can learn from previous experiences. Thus it can avoid the weakness of some intelligent methods in terms of memory, computational time and static structure. Furthermore, the performance of this system can be enhanced throughout the system life-cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a Wiimote-based Gesture Recognizer in a Microprocessor Laboratory Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Lorente Leal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This gesture recognizer, developed by students in a third-year microprocessor-based laboratory course, takes Wii remote (Wiimote as an input device to estimate the movements of the user and to compare the detected trajectory with the previously learnt movements, in order to carry out the associated actions. Such a cheap state-of-the-art wireless user interface is very attractive for the students and can be used in many interactive applications, from robotics to virtual reality and multimedia presentations. By combining commercially-available hardware, pattern-matching techniques and programming skills, we are able to foster students' interest on developing innovative potentially-marketable systems. This freeware project, implemented as a configurable publicly-available library, can be adapted to the needs of any course or student. In our laboratory this open-source DLL is used for remotely controlling a robot (based on an open-hardware Arduino platform, using a PC and the Wiimote, although the DLL can be integrated in any C, C++, Java or C# project. A GUI application (based on a Model-View-Presenter paradigm is also provided and can be used as a template for new applications or just for debugging purposes. Although the developed application only uses data from the accelerometers, data from the infrared camera and buttons of the Wiimote is also available.

  2. Construction of a recombinant single chain antibody recognizing nonreducing terminal mannose residues applicable to immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Iida, Noriko; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Wei; Wilczynski, Sharon; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2007-10-01

    We recently reported characterization of 25 clones isolated from a phage library displaying human scFvs using a neoglycolipid Man3-DPPE, which was synthesized from mannotriose (Man3) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE). Of those, 5A3 scFv was successfully expressed and purified as a humanized scFv-Fc form (Sakai et al., Biochemistry 46:253, 2007, Zhang et al. ibid 263). To carry out immunohistochemistry (IHC) in human tissues, a HA tag sequence was introduced to the 5A3 scFv-Fc gene and the resulting construct was transfected to murine myeloma NS0 cells. The 5A3 scFv-Fc protein expressed was affinity-purified. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nonreducing and reducing conditions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that 5A3 scFv-Fc protein is dimeric and retained the ability to recognize nonreducing terminal mannose residues. IHC staining of non-neoplastic tissues by this recombinant antibody revealed that no immunoreactivity was detectable in most of 16 tissues examined. Exceptions were found in IHC staining of kidney and pancreas, which demonstrated clear staining of proximal tubules and islet of Langerhans, respectively. These results demonstrated that nonreducing terminal mannose residues are not usually present under normal physiological conditions. This study thus provided a potentially useful tool for examination of the nonreducing terminal mannose residues, which may become exposed under certain pathophysiologycal conditions.

  3. The "Finding Physics" Project: Recognizing and Exploring Physics Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith; Perkins, James

    2016-11-01

    Students in introductory physics classes often have difficulty recognizing the relevance of physics concepts outside the confines of the physics classroom, lab, and textbook. Even though textbooks and instructors often provide examples of physics applications from a wide array of areas, students have difficulty relating physics to their own lives. Encouraging students to apply physics to their own surroundings helps them develop the critical analysis skills of a scientifically literate and competent citizen. Fink, in his book Creating Significant Learning Experiences, emphasizes the importance of constructing opportunities to help students connect what they learn in their academic courses with past and current life experiences and link them to possible future life experiences. Several excellent papers in this journal have presented labs and activities that address this concern by encouraging teachers to bring real-world examples into the classroom or to take students into the field for data collection and observation. Alternatively, Smith suggests a writing exercise in which his students identify and explain an event in terms of their understanding of physics. In this paper we present a multiphase exercise that challenges students to find their own examples of physics from outside the classroom and analyze them using the conceptual understanding and quantitative skills which they are developing in the classroom. The ultimate goal of the "Finding Physics" project is to improve students' learning through enhancing their recognition that, to quote one participant's end-of-course survey, "Physics is everywhere!"

  4. Religions and religiosity: the challenge to know and to recognize the other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Kramer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourses that value religious plurality coexist in various contexts with actions of humiliation, exclusion, violence and attempts to eliminate religious groups. Committed to such questions, this text analyzes the lack of knowledge that exists about religions, even when there is coexistence between people, stands out the urgency of this recognition and discusses the role that should be exercised by the schools. The first item presents interactions between teachers and students in different institutions of Higher Education in Brazil and in the United States. These situations evidence express the difficulty of accepting the other of recognizing the religion of the other as having equal value, spirituality and relevance. The second item focuses on two philosophers whose work have an important impact in academic production, in social movements and in education conceived as community building: Martin Buber, his conception of religion and religiosity, the recognition of the other and his otherness as responsible engagement, unique ethical act; and Abraham Heschel, his vision of mankind, his passion for truth and the human search for God. The analyses of their texts invites us to bring Paulo Freire. The third item reflects on what can be done in school and specially in teacher education. And how to educate educators? How to build authentic dialogue? How to accept and educate the human being as a person (mensch, weaving the in between ourselves and others, trusting in the humanity of man, the bond and interfaith dialogue?

  5. Learning with distribution of optimized features for recognizing common CT imaging signs of lung diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Liu, Xiabi; Fei, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    Common CT imaging signs of lung diseases (CISLs) are defined as the imaging signs that frequently appear in lung CT images from patients. CISLs play important roles in the diagnosis of lung diseases. This paper proposes a novel learning method, namely learning with distribution of optimized feature (DOF), to effectively recognize the characteristics of CISLs. We improve the classification performance by learning the optimized features under different distributions. Specifically, we adopt the minimum spanning tree algorithm to capture the relationship between features and discriminant ability of features for selecting the most important features. To overcome the problem of various distributions in one CISL, we propose a hierarchical learning method. First, we use an unsupervised learning method to cluster samples into groups based on their distribution. Second, in each group, we use a supervised learning method to train a model based on their categories of CISLs. Finally, we obtain multiple classification decisions from multiple trained models and use majority voting to achieve the final decision. The proposed approach has been implemented on a set of 511 samples captured from human lung CT images and achieves a classification accuracy of 91.96%. The proposed DOF method is effective and can provide a useful tool for computer-aided diagnosis of lung diseases on CT images.

  6. Rhombencephalosynapsis as a cause of aqueductal stenosis: an under-recognized association in hydrocephalic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Grimm, John; Nelson, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare genetic aberration characterized by variable vermian hypoplasia/aplasia in conjunction with united cerebellar hemispheres. Genetic defects in the isthmic organizer at the mesencephalic-metencephalic junction are presumably responsible for the associated aqueductal stenosis. We performed a retrospective review of 20 children with rhombencephalosynapsis to evaluate for and emphasize the association of aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus. We retrospectively reviewed the MR and CT images of 20 children (0-11 years old) with rhombencephalosynapsis encountered at two academic children's hospitals. Rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum severity was graded based on pre-existing literature. We analyzed examinations for ventriculomegaly and degree of aqueductal stenosis. The collicular distances were measured from the collicular apices. Imaging studies were also analyzed for malformations of cortical and cerebellar development. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with rhombencephalosynapsis presented with clinical or imaging evidence of hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis, principally involving the caudal cerebral aqueduct. All children with aqueductal stenosis had collicular fusion. All six children with complete rhombencephalosynapsis had aqueductal stenosis. The cerebral aqueduct varied from normal to stenotic in children with incomplete rhombencephalosynapsis. Corpus callosum dysgenesis was present in four children. Aqueductal stenosis in the setting of rhombencephalosynapsis is an under-recognized cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Our findings support the hypothesis that a defect involving the common gene(s) responsible for the differentiation and development of both the roof plate and midline cerebellar primordium at the mesencephalon/first rhombomere junction may be responsible for the association of aqueductal stenosis and rhombencephalosynapsis. (orig.)

  7. Robots Learn to Recognize Individuals from Imitative Encounters with People and Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucenna, Sofiane; Cohen, David; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Gaussier, Philippe; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    Prior to language, human infants are prolific imitators. Developmental science grounds infant imitation in the neural coding of actions, and highlights the use of imitation for learning from and about people. Here, we used computational modeling and a robot implementation to explore the functional value of action imitation. We report 3 experiments using a mutual imitation task between robots, adults, typically developing children, and children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. We show that a particular learning architecture - specifically one combining artificial neural nets for (i) extraction of visual features, (ii) the robot’s motor internal state, (iii) posture recognition, and (iv) novelty detection - is able to learn from an interactive experience involving mutual imitation. This mutual imitation experience allowed the robot to recognize the interactive agent in a subsequent encounter. These experiments using robots as tools for modeling human cognitive development, based on developmental theory, confirm the promise of developmental robotics. Additionally, findings illustrate how person recognition may emerge through imitative experience, intercorporeal mapping, and statistical learning.

  8. Semantic size does not matter: "bigger" words are not recognized faster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sean H K; Yap, Melvin J; Tse, Chi-Shing; Kurby, Christopher A

    2011-06-01

    Sereno, O'Donnell, and Sereno (2009) reported that words are recognized faster in a lexical decision task when their referents are physically large than when they are small, suggesting that "semantic size" might be an important variable that should be considered in visual word recognition research and modelling. We sought to replicate their size effect, but failed to find a significant latency advantage in lexical decision for "big" words (cf. "small" words), even though we used the same word stimuli as Sereno et al. and had almost three times as many subjects. We also examined existing data from visual word recognition megastudies (e.g., English Lexicon Project) and found that semantic size is not a significant predictor of lexical decision performance after controlling for the standard lexical variables. In summary, the null results from our lab experiment--despite a much larger subject sample size than Sereno et al.--converged with our analysis of megastudy lexical decision performance, leading us to conclude that semantic size does not matter for word recognition. Discussion focuses on why semantic size (unlike some other semantic variables) is unlikely to play a role in lexical decision.

  9. Recognizing cognitive and psychiatric changes in the post-highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhal, Adriana; Baril, Jean-Guy; Crouzat, Frederic; De Wet, Joss; Junod, Patrice; Kovacs, Colin; Sheehan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Amid numerous complications that plague the health and quality of life of people living with HIV, neurocognitive and psychiatric illnesses pose unique challenges. While there remains uncertainty with respect to the pathophysiology surrounding these disorders, their adverse implications are increasingly recognized. Left undetected, they have the potential to significantly impact patient well being, adherence to antiretroviral treatment and overall health outcomes. As such, early identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and psychiatric illnesses will be paramount in the proactive management of affected patients. The present review focuses on strategies to ensure optimal screening and detection of HAND, depression and substance abuse in routine practice. For each topic, currently available screening methods are discussed. These include identification of risk factors, recognition of relevant symptomatology and an update on validated screening tools that can be efficiently implemented in the clinical setting. Specifically addressed in the present review are the International HIV Dementia Scale, a novel screening equation and algorithm for HAND, as well as brief, validated, verbal questionnaires for detection of depression and substance abuse. Adequate understanding and usage of these screening mechanisms can ensure effective use of resources by distinguishing patients who require referral for more extensive diagnostic procedures from those who likely do not.

  10. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late and under recognized consequence of rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W; McNamara, P H; Lawlor, B; Hutchinson, S; Farrell, M

    2016-01-01

    The association between exposure to head injury and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), is widely recognized. Historically, this was largely considered a phenomenon restricted to boxers, with more recent case series identifying further 'high risk' individuals, such as former American footballers, or military personnel. However, in all cases thus far reported, it is clear that it is the exposure to head injury which is associated with increased dementia risk, and not the circumstances or environment of exposure. As such, there is considerable potential for under-recognition of CTE in patients presenting with neurodegenerative disease, particularly where head injury exposure might have been historical and through sport. This article reviews current understanding of CTE and, via an illustrative case in rugby union, highlights the value of a detailed history on head injury and also draws attention to imaging studies in assessing patients with neurodegenerative disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Crystal twinning of human MD-2 recognizing endotoxin cores of lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohto, Umeharu; Satow, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    Twinned crystals of humaan MD-2 are transformed into single crystals with cryoprotectant optimization. Twinning of crystals causes overlapping of two or more reciprocal lattice points, and hence structure amplitudes for a single crystalline domain are hardly obtained from X-ray diffraction intensities. MD-2 protein forms a stable complex with Toll-like receptor 4 and recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Excessive immune responses activated by LPS cause septic shocks. Saccharide-trimmed human MD-2 crystallizes in the tetragonal form with apparent Laue symmetry of 4/mmm, and diffraction intensities from these crystals indicate crystal twinning. The crystal consists of two different domains, A and B. The c A axis of domain A coincides with the c B axis of domain B with a smaller lattice, and the a A axis corresponds to the (a B + b B ) axis. This twinning severely imposes difficulty in structure determination. Through optimization of cryoprotectant, domain A was thoroughly transformed into domain B. The crystal containing only domain B is in space group P4 1 2 1 2 with one MD-2 molecule in the asymmetric unit. The structure of this form of MD-2 as well as its complex with antiendotoxic lipid IVa was successfully determined using the multiple isomorphous replacement method

  12. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  13. Externalities in utility resource selection: A means to formally recognize the envionmental benefits of wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birner, S.

    1992-01-01

    Wind can only make its full contribution to the minimization of the total cost of energy services if it is valued for all the costs that it avoids, including avoided environmental costs. Means of incorporating environmental costs, or externalities, into utility planning decisions are described. Externalities are defined as uncompensated costs or benefits of an action borne by a party other than the one causing the costs. A simple example of the use of externalities in utility resource selection is presented, comparing costs of a coal-fired power plant and a wind farm. Externalities of wind farms are analyzed and found to be very low. An examination of some aspects of legislation in the USA and Canada shows a trend for utility commissions and other regulatory bodies to determine that including externalitites lies within their mandate. By formally recognizing and accounting for the environmental benefits of wind farms, it is seen that externalities can have a significant effect on utility demand for wind energy. A review of USA state actions regarding externalities is appended. 10 refs

  14. The natural antibody repertoire of sharks and humans recognizes the potential universe of antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Miranda K; Schluter, Samuel F; Marchalonis, John J

    2004-02-01

    In ancestral sharks, a rapid emergence in the evolution of the immune system occurred, giving jawed-vertebrates the necessary components for the combinatorial immune response (CIR). To compare the natural antibody (NAb) repertoires of the most divergent vertebrates with the capacity to produce antibodies, we isolated NAbs to the same set of antigens by affinity chromatography from two species of Carcharhine sharks and from human polyclonal IgG and IgM antibody preparations. The activities of the affinity-purified anti-T-cell receptor (anti-TCR) NAbs were compared with those of monoclonal anti-TCR NAbs that were generated from a systemic lupus erythematosus patient. We report that sharks and humans, representing the evolutionary extremes of vertebrate species sharing the CIR, have NAbs to human TCRs, Igs, the human senescent cell antigen, and to numerous retroviral antigens, indicating that essential features of the combinatorial repertoire and the capacity to recognize the potential universe of antigens is shared among all jawed-vertebrates.

  15. How to recognize late-onset hypogonadism in men with sexual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Vignozzi, Linda; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been considered the most common form of male hypogonadism with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 100 men. Diagnosis of LOH should be made in symptomatic men with unequivocally low serum testosterone (T) levels. However, its clinical presentation is often insidious and difficult to recognize because it is characterized by nonspecific symptoms that make differential diagnosis with physiological ageing problematic. Sexual dysfunction is the most important determinant for medical consultation and the most specific symptom associated with low T. We therefore analysed a consecutive series of 1734 subjects who attended our unit for sexual dysfunction to investigate the associations between low T (different thresholds), sexual parameters, medical history data (delayed puberty, pituitary disease or cryptorchidism) and their physical exam results. Metabolic parameters, in particular waist circumference, display the greatest accuracy in detecting low T. We found that only the association of several symptoms and signs could significantly raise the clinical suspicion of low T. Structured inventories, which cluster together symptoms and signs of hypogonadism, can help clinicians suspect androgen deficiency. In particular, structured interviews, such as ANDROTEST, have been demonstrated to have a greater accuracy when compared to self reported questionnaires in detecting low T levels. PMID:22286862

  16. Cultural similarities and differences in perceiving and recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Young, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    The ability to recognize facial expressions of basic emotions is often considered a universal human ability. However, recent studies have suggested that this commonality has been overestimated and that people from different cultures use different facial signals to represent expressions (Jack, Blais, Scheepers, Schyns, & Caldara, 2009; Jack, Caldara, & Schyns, 2012). We investigated this possibility by examining similarities and differences in the perception and categorization of facial expressions between Chinese and white British participants using whole-face and partial-face images. Our results showed no cultural difference in the patterns of perceptual similarity of expressions from whole-face images. When categorizing the same expressions, however, both British and Chinese participants were slightly more accurate with whole-face images of their own ethnic group. To further investigate potential strategy differences, we repeated the perceptual similarity and categorization tasks with presentation of only the upper or lower half of each face. Again, the perceptual similarity of facial expressions was similar between Chinese and British participants for both the upper and lower face regions. However, participants were slightly better at categorizing facial expressions of their own ethnic group for the lower face regions, indicating that the way in which culture shapes the categorization of facial expressions is largely driven by differences in information decoding from this part of the face. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Neural network for recognizing signal-shape of nuclear detector output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiyanto M Panitra

    2006-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligent technique in the engineering field has been familiar especially in the field of pattern recognition. By using this technique, either simple routine works or complicated routine works can be done by the help of a digital camera and a personal computer. One of the complicated works that can not be solved easily is how to separate two kinds of nuclear radiation types which are mixed in the same field. The separation of the two kinds of radiation become is very important for the radiation dosimetry purposes. For doing this we have carried out a preliminary research in applying a neural network technique for recognizing C and T letters with right, left, up, and down positions. We arranged a three-layer neural network i.e. input layer (9 neurons with/without bias neuron), hidden layer (11 neurons), and output layer (1 neuron). From this preliminary study the use of a bias neuron gave faster learning process compared with the one without the bias neuron. The neural network could work successfully in determining the letter S and T without any mistake. (author)

  18. The effects of scene characteristics, resolution, and compression on the ability to recognize objects in video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumke, Joel; Ford, Carolyn G.; Stange, Irena W.

    2011-03-01

    Public safety practitioners increasingly use video for object recognition tasks. These end users need guidance regarding how to identify the level of video quality necessary for their application. The quality of video used in public safety applications must be evaluated in terms of its usability for specific tasks performed by the end user. The Public Safety Communication Research (PSCR) project performed a subjective test as one of the first in a series to explore visual intelligibility in video-a user's ability to recognize an object in a video stream given various conditions. The test sought to measure the effects on visual intelligibility of three scene parameters (target size, scene motion, scene lighting), several compression rates, and two resolutions (VGA (640x480) and CIF (352x288)). Seven similarly sized objects were used as targets in nine sets of near-identical source scenes, where each set was created using a different combination of the parameters under study. Viewers were asked to identify the objects via multiple choice questions. Objective measurements were performed on each of the scenes, and the ability of the measurement to predict visual intelligibility was studied.

  19. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce ... the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and ...

  20. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  1. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  2. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  3. Recognizing Our Cultural Biases as Counsellor Supervisors: A Reflective Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Jesse A.

    2004-01-01

    This article encourages supervisors, in general, and counsellor supervisors, in particular, to engage in reflective learning as a way to identify their cultural biases. Awareness of counsellor bias has been addressed by ethical standards outlined for professional helpers. This article presents reflective learning as a potentially useful strategy…

  4. Erythrocyte and porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Valis, Erik; Benktander, John; Ångström, Jonas; Breimer, Michael E; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4-fimbriated Escherichia coli is associated with diarrheal disease in neonatal and postweaning pigs. The F4 fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacteria to the pig intestinal epithelium, enabling an efficient delivery of diarrhea-inducing enterotoxins to the target epithelial cells. There are three variants of F4 fimbriae designated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, respectively, having different antigenic and adhesive properties. In the present study, the binding of isolated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae, and F4ab/ac/ad-fimbriated E. coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive view of the F4-binding glycosphingolipids involved in F4-mediated hemagglutination and adhesion to the epithelial cells of porcine intestine. Specific interactions between the F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae and both acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were obtained, and after isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids and characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, distinct carbohydrate binding patterns were defined for each fimbrial subtype. Two novel glycosphingolipids were isolated from chicken erythrocytes, and characterized as GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer and GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4GlcNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer. These two compounds, and lactosylceramide (Galß4Glcß1Cer) with phytosphingosine and hydroxy fatty acid, were recognized by all three variants of F4 fimbriae. No binding of the F4ad fimbriae or F4ad-fimbriated E. coli to the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids occurred. However, for F4ab and F4ac two distinct binding patterns were observed. The F4ac fimbriae and the F4ac-expressing E. coli selectively bound to galactosylceramide (Galß1Cer) with sphingosine and hydroxy 24:0 fatty acid, while the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4ab fimbriae and the F4ab-fimbriated bacteria were characterized as galactosylceramide, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galß1Cer), sulf

  5. Why Freeter and NEET are Misunderstood: Recognizing the New Precarious Conditions of Japanese Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, the transition from school to work has radically changed over the past two decades. It has become prolonged, complicated and individualized (Bynner et al., 1997; Walther et al., 2004. Young people used to transition directly from school to stable employment, or with a very short unemployed period. In many European countries, this situation has been changing since the eighties: overall youth unemployment has increased, and many young people experience long periods of unemployment, government training schemes and part-time or temporary jobs. In Japan, this change has taken a decade later to appear, becoming prevalent by the late nineties (Inui, 2003. The transiting process has become not only precarious for young people, but also difficult for society to precisely understand the risks and problems. Traditionally, we have been able to recognize young people's situation by a simple category: in education, employed, in training or unemployed. However, these categories no longer accurately represent young people's state. In Japan, most young people used to move from school directly to full-time employment through the new graduate recruitment system (Inui, 1993. Therefore, in official statistics such as the School Basic Survey, 'employed' includes only those who are in regular employment, while those who are in part-time or temporary work are covered by the categories 'jobless' and 'others'. However, with the increase in non-full-time jobs in the nineties, these categories have become less useful for describing the actual employment conditions of young people. Indeed, this is why, in the late of nineties, the Japanese Ministry of Education changed the category name from 'jobless' to 'others'.

  6. Musculoskeletal injuries description of an under-recognized injury problem among military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauret, Keith G; Jones, Bruce H; Bullock, Steven H; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Canada, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Although injuries are recognized as a leading health problem in the military, the size of the problem is underestimated when only acute traumatic injuries are considered. Injury-related musculoskeletal conditions are common in this young, active population. Many of these involve physical damage caused by micro-trauma (overuse) in recreation, sports, training, and job performance. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the incidence of injury-related musculoskeletal conditions in the military services (2006) and describe a standardized format in which to categorize and report them. The subset of musculoskeletal diagnoses found to be injury-related in previous military investigations was identified. Musculoskeletal injuries among nondeployed, active duty service members in 2006 were identified from military medical surveillance data. A matrix was used to report and categorize these conditions by injury type and body region. There were 743,547 injury-related musculoskeletal conditions in 2006 (outpatient and inpatient, combined), including primary and nonprimary diagnoses. In the matrix, 82% of injury-related musculoskeletal conditions were classified as inflammation/pain (overuse), followed by joint derangements (15%) and stress fractures (2%). The knee/lower leg (22%), lumbar spine (20%), and ankle/foot (13%) were leading body region categories. When assessing the magnitude of the injury problem in the military services, injury-related musculoskeletal conditions should be included. When these injuries are combined with acute traumatic injuries, there are almost 1.6 million injury-related medical encounters each year. The matrix provides a standardized format to categorize these injuries, make comparisons over time, and focus prevention efforts on leading injury types and/or body regions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Recognizing Binge-Eating Disorder in the Clinical Setting: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G; Kunovac, Jelena L; Herman, Barry K; Culpepper, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008-December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder . Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded. A total of 101 publications were included in this review. Although BED is the most prevalent eating disorder, it is underdiagnosed and undertreated. BED can be associated with medical (eg, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome) and psychiatric (eg, depression and anxiety) comorbidities that, if left untreated, can impair quality of life and functionality. Primary care physicians may find diagnosing and treating BED challenging because of insufficient knowledge of its new diagnostic criteria and available treatment options. Furthermore, individuals with BED may be reluctant to seek treatment because of shame, embarrassment, and a lack of awareness of the disorder. Several short assessment tools are available to screen for BED in primary care settings. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on reducing binge-eating behavior, thereby reducing medical and psychiatric complications. Overcoming primary care physician- and patient-related barriers is critical to accurately diagnose and appropriately treat BED. Primary care physicians should take an active role in the initial recognition and assessment of suspected BED based on case-finding indicators (eg, eating habits and being overweight), the initial treatment selection, and the long-term follow-up of patients who meet DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria.

  8. Rhombencephalosynapsis as a cause of aqueductal stenosis: an under-recognized association in hydrocephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States); Grimm, John; Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Rhombencephalosynapsis is a rare genetic aberration characterized by variable vermian hypoplasia/aplasia in conjunction with united cerebellar hemispheres. Genetic defects in the isthmic organizer at the mesencephalic-metencephalic junction are presumably responsible for the associated aqueductal stenosis. We performed a retrospective review of 20 children with rhombencephalosynapsis to evaluate for and emphasize the association of aqueductal stenosis and hydrocephalus. We retrospectively reviewed the MR and CT images of 20 children (0-11 years old) with rhombencephalosynapsis encountered at two academic children's hospitals. Rhombencephalosynapsis spectrum severity was graded based on pre-existing literature. We analyzed examinations for ventriculomegaly and degree of aqueductal stenosis. The collicular distances were measured from the collicular apices. Imaging studies were also analyzed for malformations of cortical and cerebellar development. Thirteen of the 20 children (65%) with rhombencephalosynapsis presented with clinical or imaging evidence of hydrocephalus and aqueductal stenosis, principally involving the caudal cerebral aqueduct. All children with aqueductal stenosis had collicular fusion. All six children with complete rhombencephalosynapsis had aqueductal stenosis. The cerebral aqueduct varied from normal to stenotic in children with incomplete rhombencephalosynapsis. Corpus callosum dysgenesis was present in four children. Aqueductal stenosis in the setting of rhombencephalosynapsis is an under-recognized cause of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Our findings support the hypothesis that a defect involving the common gene(s) responsible for the differentiation and development of both the roof plate and midline cerebellar primordium at the mesencephalon/first rhombomere junction may be responsible for the association of aqueductal stenosis and rhombencephalosynapsis. (orig.)

  9. Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius recognize different sites on human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantz, M.S.; Allen, R.D.; Bounelis, P.; Switalski, L.M.; Hook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) intermedius have been implicated in the etiology of human periodontal diseases. These organisms are able to bind and degrade human fibrinogen, and these interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In attempts to map the bacterial binding sites along the fibrinogen molecule, we have found that strains of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius, respectively, recognize spatially distant and distinct sites on the fibrinogen molecule. Isolated reduced and alkylated alpha-, beta-, and gamma-fibrinogen chains inhibited binding of 125I-fibrinogen to both Bacteroides species in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasmin fragments D and to some extent fragment E, however, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of 125I-fibrinogen binding to B. intermedius strains but did not affect binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. gingivalis strains. Radiolabeled fibrinogen chains and fragments were compared with 125I-fibrinogen with respect to specificity and reversibility of binding to bacteria. According to these criteria, gamma chain most closely resembled the native fibrinogen molecule in behavior toward B. gingivalis strains and fragments D most closely resembled fibrinogen in behavior toward B. intermedius strains. The ability of anti-human fibrinogen immunoglobulin G (IgG) to inhibit binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. intermedius strains was greatly reduced by absorbing the IgG with fragments D. Absorbing the IgG with fragments D had no effect on the ability of the antibody to inhibit binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. gingivalis strains. A purified staphylococcal fibrinogen-binding protein blocked binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. intermedius strains but not to B. gingivalis strains

  10. The long-term risk of recognized and unrecognized myocardial infarction for depression in older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanova, O; Luik, A I; Leening, M J G; Noordam, R; Aarts, N; Hofman, A; Franco, O H; Dehghan, A; Tiemeier, H

    2016-07-01

    The association between myocardial infarction (MI) and depression is well described. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are unclear and the contribution of psychological factors is uncertain. We aimed to determine the risk of recognized (RMI) and unrecognized (UMI) myocardial infections on depression, as both have a similar impact on cardiovascular health but differ in psychological epiphenomena. Participants of the Rotterdam Study, 1823 men aged ⩾55 years, were followed for the occurrence of depression. RMI and UMI were ascertained using electrocardiography and medical history at baseline. We determined the strength of the association of RMI and UMI with mortality, and we studied the relationship of RMI and UMI with depressive symptoms and the occurrence of major depression. The risk of mortality was similar in men with RMI [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.03] and UMI (aHR 1.58, 95% CI 1.27-1.97). Men with RMI had on average [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) 1.14, 95% CI 0.07-2.21] higher scores for depressive symptoms. By contrast, we found no clear association between UMI and depressive symptoms (B 0.55, 95% CI -0.51 to 1.62) in men. Analysis including occurrence of major depression as the outcome were consistent with the pattern of association. The discrepant association of RMI and UMI with mortality compared to depression suggests that the psychological burden of having experienced an MI contributes to the long-term risk of depression.

  11. Implementation of an Education Value Unit (EVU System to Recognize Faculty Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph House

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Faculty educational contributions are hard to quantify, but in an era of limited resources it is essential to link funding with effort. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of an educational value unit (EVU system in an academic emergency department and to examine its effect on faculty behavior, particularly on conference attendance and completion of trainee evaluations. Methods: A taskforce representing education, research, and clinical missions was convened to develop a method of incentivizing productivity for an academic emergency medicine faculty. Domains of educational contributions were defined and assigned a value based on time expended. A 30-hour EVU threshold for achievement was aligned with departmental goals. Targets included educational presentations, completion of trainee evaluations and attendance at didactic conferences. We analyzed comparisons of performance during the year preceding and after implementation. Results: Faculty (N=50 attended significantly more didactic conferences (22.7 hours v. 34.5 hours, p<0.005 and completed more trainee evaluations (5.9 v. 8.8 months, p<0.005. During the pre-implementation year, 84% (42/50 met the 30-hour threshold with 94% (47/50 meeting post-implementation (p=0.11. Mean total EVUs increased significantly (94.4 hours v. 109.8 hours, p=0.04 resulting from increased conference attendance and evaluation completion without a change in other categories. Conclusion: In a busy academic department there are many work allocation pressures. An EVU system integrated with an incentive structure to recognize faculty contributions increases the importance of educational responsibilities. We propose an EVU model that could be implemented and adjusted for differing departmental priorities at other academic departments.

  12. Recognizing occupational effects of diacetyl: What can we learn from this history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Kathleen

    2017-08-01

    For half of the 30-odd years that diacetyl-exposed workers have developed disabling lung disease, obliterative bronchiolitis was unrecognized as an occupational risk. Delays in its recognition as an occupational lung disease are attributable to the absence of a work-related temporal pattern of symptoms; failure to recognize clusters of cases; complexity of exposure environments; and absence of epidemiologic characterization of workforces giving rise to case clusters. Few physicians are familiar with this rare disease, and motivation to investigate the unknown requires familiarity with what is known and what is anomalous. In pursuit of the previously undescribed risk, investigators benefited greatly from multi-disciplinary collaboration, in this case including physicians, epidemiologists, environmental scientists, toxicologists, industry representatives, and worker advocates. In the 15 years since obliterative bronchiolitis was described in microwave popcorn workers, α-dicarbonyl-related lung disease has been found in flavoring manufacturing workers, other food production workers, diacetyl manufacturing workers, and coffee production workers, alongside case reports in other industries. Within the field of occupational health, impacts include new ventures in public health surveillance, attention to spirometry quality for serial measurements, identifying other indolent causes of obliterative bronchiolitis apart from accidental over-exposures, and broadening the spectrum of diagnostic abnormalities in the disease. Within toxicology, impacts include new attention to appropriate animal models of obliterative bronchiolitis, pertinence of computational fluid dynamic-physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling, and contributions to mechanistic understanding of respiratory epithelial necrosis, airway fibrosis, and central nervous system effects. In these continuing efforts, collaboration between laboratory scientists, clinicians, occupational public health practitioners

  13. Recognizing Binge-Eating Disorder in the Clinical Setting: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornstein, Susan G.; Kunovac, Jelena L.; Herman, Barry K.; Culpepper, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Review the clinical skills needed to recognize, diagnose, and manage binge-eating disorder (BED) in a primary care setting. Data Sources: A PubMed search of English-language publications (January 1, 2008–December 11, 2014) was conducted using the term binge-eating disorder. Relevant articles known to the authors were also included. Study Selection/Data Extraction: Publications focusing on preclinical topics (eg, characterization of receptors and neurotransmitter systems) without discussing clinical relevance were excluded. A total of 101 publications were included in this review. Results: Although BED is the most prevalent eating disorder, it is underdiagnosed and undertreated. BED can be associated with medical (eg, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome) and psychiatric (eg, depression and anxiety) comorbidities that, if left untreated, can impair quality of life and functionality. Primary care physicians may find diagnosing and treating BED challenging because of insufficient knowledge of its new diagnostic criteria and available treatment options. Furthermore, individuals with BED may be reluctant to seek treatment because of shame, embarrassment, and a lack of awareness of the disorder. Several short assessment tools are available to screen for BED in primary care settings. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on reducing binge-eating behavior, thereby reducing medical and psychiatric complications. Conclusions: Overcoming primary care physician– and patient-related barriers is critical to accurately diagnose and appropriately treat BED. Primary care physicians should take an active role in the initial recognition and assessment of suspected BED based on case-finding indicators (eg, eating habits and being overweight), the initial treatment selection, and the long-term follow-up of patients who meet DSM-5 BED diagnostic criteria. PMID:27733955

  14. Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius recognize different sites on human fibrinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, M.S.; Allen, R.D.; Bounelis, P.; Switalski, L.M.; Hook, M. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) gingivalis and Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) intermedius have been implicated in the etiology of human periodontal diseases. These organisms are able to bind and degrade human fibrinogen, and these interactions may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In attempts to map the bacterial binding sites along the fibrinogen molecule, we have found that strains of B. gingivalis and B. intermedius, respectively, recognize spatially distant and distinct sites on the fibrinogen molecule. Isolated reduced and alkylated alpha-, beta-, and gamma-fibrinogen chains inhibited binding of 125I-fibrinogen to both Bacteroides species in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasmin fragments D and to some extent fragment E, however, produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of 125I-fibrinogen binding to B. intermedius strains but did not affect binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. gingivalis strains. Radiolabeled fibrinogen chains and fragments were compared with 125I-fibrinogen with respect to specificity and reversibility of binding to bacteria. According to these criteria, gamma chain most closely resembled the native fibrinogen molecule in behavior toward B. gingivalis strains and fragments D most closely resembled fibrinogen in behavior toward B. intermedius strains. The ability of anti-human fibrinogen immunoglobulin G (IgG) to inhibit binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. intermedius strains was greatly reduced by absorbing the IgG with fragments D. Absorbing the IgG with fragments D had no effect on the ability of the antibody to inhibit binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. gingivalis strains. A purified staphylococcal fibrinogen-binding protein blocked binding of 125I-fibrinogen to B. intermedius strains but not to B. gingivalis strains.

  15. A conjoint analysis to consumer choice in Brazil: Defining device attributes for recognizing customized foods characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, L P; Barbosa, J; Marodin, G A; Fettermann, D C

    2018-07-01

    the availability of information about food products may be an essential factor in the consumer's value perception in their purchasing decision. As the food product becomes personalized, the customization of this information becomes complex due to the possible combinations of product components. The use of smart technology in devices is one way to provide customers with customized food information. In the following research five attributes were identified in the composition of these devices: (A) portability; (B) precision; (C) diet customization; (D) food quality analysis; and (E) price. This study aims to identify the appropriate combination of possible functionalities or attributes that must be present in a device in order to detect the food composition of customized foods and their relation to market characteristics. One experiment used fractional factorial project to present the attributes in the form of scenarios following the Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBCA) method. The data collection was done using survey methodology, through online questionnaire, with some 303 Brazilian respondents. So, the Logistic Regression was applied to data analysis. The moderating variables-gender, age, gluten restriction, lactose restriction and other restrictions-were also added to verify potential interactions with the primary attributes. From the results obtained, it was possible to observe higher significance for the primary attributes of diet personalization and quality food analyzes function. Our study contributes to the literature by enhancing the understanding about what the attributes should be in a technological device that has the purpose of recognizing food characteristics and is capable of generating information about customized food products. Furthermore, this device can enabler the production of mass customized food with the nutritional labels for each possible combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 recognizes specific morphologies of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Steele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages represent a first-line innate host defense mechanism for clearing inhaled Aspergillus fumigatus from the lungs, yet contradictory data exist as to which alveolar macrophage recognition receptor is critical for innate immunity to A. fumigatus. Acknowledging that the A. fumigatus cell wall contains a high beta-1,3-glucan content, we questioned whether the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1 played a role in this recognition process. Monoclonal antibody, soluble receptor, and competitive carbohydrate blockage indicated that the alveolar macrophage inflammatory response, specifically the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, CXCL2/macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2, CCL3/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, and granulocyte monocyte-CSF (GM-CSF, to live A. fumigatus was dependent on recognition via the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1. The inflammatory response was triggered at the highest level by A. fumigatus swollen conidia and early germlings and correlated to the levels of surface-exposed beta glucans, indicating that dectin-1 preferentially recognizes specific morphological forms of A. fumigatus. Intratracheal administration of A. fumigatus conidia to mice in the presence of a soluble dectin-Fc fusion protein reduced both lung proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels and cellular recruitment while modestly increasing the A. fumigatus fungal burden, illustrating the importance of beta-glucan-initiated dectin-1 signaling in defense against this pathogen. Collectively, these data show that dectin-1 is centrally required for the generation of alveolar macrophage proinflammatory responses to A. fumigatus and to our knowledge provides the first in vivo evidence for the role of dectin-1 in fungal innate defense.

  17. Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: a validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtiari, Niloofar; Kuhlmann, Michael; Eslami, Moharram; Klann-Delius, Gisela

    2015-03-01

    Research on emotional speech often requires valid stimuli for assessing perceived emotion through prosody and lexical content. To date, no comprehensive emotional speech database for Persian is officially available. The present article reports the process of designing, compiling, and evaluating a comprehensive emotional speech database for colloquial Persian. The database contains a set of 90 validated novel Persian sentences classified in five basic emotional categories (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness), as well as a neutral category. These sentences were validated in two experiments by a group of 1,126 native Persian speakers. The sentences were articulated by two native Persian speakers (one male, one female) in three conditions: (1) congruent (emotional lexical content articulated in a congruent emotional voice), (2) incongruent (neutral sentences articulated in an emotional voice), and (3) baseline (all emotional and neutral sentences articulated in neutral voice). The speech materials comprise about 470 sentences. The validity of the database was evaluated by a group of 34 native speakers in a perception test. Utterances recognized better than five times chance performance (71.4 %) were regarded as valid portrayals of the target emotions. Acoustic analysis of the valid emotional utterances revealed differences in pitch, intensity, and duration, attributes that may help listeners to correctly classify the intended emotion. The database is designed to be used as a reliable material source (for both text and speech) in future cross-cultural or cross-linguistic studies of emotional speech, and it is available for academic research purposes free of charge. To access the database, please contact the first author.

  18. The voice of emotion across species: how do human listeners recognize animals' affective states?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Scheumann

    Full Text Available Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context. Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew. Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence or affiliative (positive emotional valence context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM. Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms.

  19. “An Unexpected Sound”: Recognizing Diverse Voices in Postcolonial Literary Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Nystrom Janssen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores expectations about the ways in which readers from each side of the colonial/colonized divide might approach texts. Pedagogical articles about world and postcolonial literature frequently classify readers in one of two categories—Western or non-Western. Since I teach women from a dozen Asian countries at the Asian University for Women in Chittagong, Bangladesh, I had imagined that my world literature students would embody expectations about readers from the developing world: that they would relate to the characters and themes in the course’s contemporary texts. When I began teaching Marjane Satrapi’s "Persepolis" (2003 last spring, however, I learned that my students’ responses to the text varied considerably from what I had expected. As a result, I began questioning my assumptions: why exactly did I expect certain responses from my students, and what is the significance of the alternate responses with which I was confronted? I argue that the assumed interpretive binary does not always exist. In addition to failing to recognize the diverse points of view that readers may bring to texts, the assumption frequently presupposes that postcolonial authors have imagined only Western readers as their audiences—a view that runs the risk of reinforcing oppositional lines of thinking rather than eradicating them. Using Persepolis as a case study, I propose avoiding the Western/non-Western binary when considering readers of literature, which requires paying greater attention to “minority” voices—an ironic assertion, considering the field’s alleged attention to diversity, heterogeneity, and cultural and historical specificity.

  20. Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis: report of 55 cases of a poorly recognized entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellegara, Giovanni; Rosai, Juan

    2015-03-01

    During the course of our consultation activity, we have recognized a peculiar form of thyroiditis in which multiple foci of fibrosis, most of which were associated with reactive atypia of the surrounding follicles, are present. We have referred to this condition, both in our consultation reports and in the third series of A.F.I.P. Fascicle on Tumors of the Thyroid Gland, as "multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis" or (less frequently) "multifocal sclerosing thyroiditis," which are descriptive terms that highlight the benign/inflammatory nature of the process, its multiplicity, and its unknown pathogenesis. The aim of this study is to better define the morphologic features of this process and correlate it with some clinical data. With this purpose, the consultation files of one of the authors (J.R.) were searched for cases coded as multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis or multifocal sclerosing thyroiditis in a 20-year period ranging from January 1989 to December 2009. A total of 55 cases were identified that displayed the above-listed features. There were 51 (93%) female and 4 (7%) male patients (F/M=12.75), with ages ranging between 15 and 71 years (mean age, 47.03 y; median age, 44.5 y). Microscopically, multiple foci of fibrosis were identified in all cases, their number ranging from 2 to 51 per case (mean number, 16), with a mean diameter of 3 mm (range: 0.36 to 15.1 mm). Although heterogenous in shape and size, the individual foci were rather similar to each other in composition, being characterized by a fibrotic poorly cellular center that merged with a cellular peripheral zone. Some of the follicular structures present at the periphery of the scar and-to a lesser extent-those entrapped inside it underwent complex reactive and regenerative (atypical) changes that simulated malignancy. We discuss the differential diagnosis with other benign and malignant thyroid conditions and speculate about its pathogenesis and possible relationship with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

  1. On the Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van der Heiden (Colin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD) is increasingly recognized as a prevalent anxiety disorder with a chronic course and signifi cant impairment (APA, 2000; Ballenger et al., 2001; Weisberg, 2009). In the Netherlands, according to the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey

  2. Adolescents' Suicidal Thinking and Reluctance to Consult General Medical Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Marshall, Kellie L.; Dalley, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well…

  3. Recognizing and coping with our own prejudices: Fighting liberal bias without conservative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-01-01

    This commentary summarizes my struggle to overcome liberal bias without conservative input. I generally assume I am biased and constantly try to build a good-quality argument for the opposite view. Trying to dispense with one's liberal values can help, if one is willing. Frequent self-tests help. Liberal biases include race, gender, and poverty, but also dislike of business corporations and even Western civilization. Feminism is the single strongest and most powerful bias.

  4. Generalized Cartan Calculus in general dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Nan

    2015-07-01

    We develop the generalized Cartan Calculus for the groups and SO(5 , 5). They are the underlying algebraic structures of d = 9 , 7 , 6 exceptional field theory, respectively. These algebraic identities are needed for the "tensor hierarchy" structure in exceptional field theory. The validity of Poincaré lemmas in this new differential geometry is also discussed. Finally we explore some possible extension of the generalized Cartan calculus beyond the exceptional series.

  5. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo (including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group 'distinctness values') was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of 'distinctness values' was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of 'distinctness values' test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups among the

  6. Protein antigenic structures recognized by T cells: potential applications to vaccine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzofsky, J A; Cease, K B; Cornette, J L; Spouge, J L; Margalit, H; Berkower, I J; Good, M F; Miller, L H; DeLisi, C

    1987-08-01

    In summary, our results using the model protein antigen myoglobin indicated, in concordance with others, that helper T lymphocytes recognize a limited number of immunodominant antigenic sites of any given protein. Such immunodominant sites are the focus of a polyclonal response of a number of different T cells specific for distinct but overlapping epitopes. Therefore, the immunodominance does not depend on the fine specificity of any given clone of T cells, but rather on other factors, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the structure of the antigen. A major extrinsic factor is the MHC of the responding individual, probably due to a requirement for the immunodominant peptides to bind to the MHC of presenting cells in that individual. In looking for intrinsic factors, we noted that both immunodominant sites of myoglobin were amphipathic helices, i.e., helices having hydrophilic and hydrophobic residues on opposite sides. Studies with synthetic peptides indicated that residues on the hydrophilic side were necessary for T-cell recognition. However, unfolding of the native protein was shown to be the apparent goal of processing of antigen, presumably to expose something not already exposed on the native molecule, such as the hydrophobic sides of these helices. We propose that such exposure is necessary to interact with something on the presenting cell, such as MHC or membrane, where we have demonstrated the presence of antigenic peptides by blocking of presentation of biotinylated peptide with avidin. The membrane may serve as a short-term memory of peptides from antigens encountered by the presenting cell, for dynamic sampling by MHC molecules to be available for presentation to T cells. These ideas, together with the knowledge that T-cell recognition required only short peptides and therefore had to be based only on primary or secondary structure, not tertiary folding of the native protein, led us to propose that T-cell immunodominant epitopes may tend to be amphipathic

  7. Recognizing upper limb movements with wrist worn inertial sensors using k-means clustering classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dwaipayan; Cranny, Andy; Gupta, Nayaab; Maharatna, Koushik; Achner, Josy; Klemke, Jasmin; Jöbges, Michael; Ortmann, Steffen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for recognizing three fundamental movements of the human forearm (extension, flexion and rotation) using pattern recognition applied to the data from a single wrist-worn, inertial sensor. We propose that this technique could be used as a clinical tool to assess rehabilitation progress in neurodegenerative pathologies such as stroke or cerebral palsy by tracking the number of times a patient performs specific arm movements (e.g. prescribed exercises) with their paretic arm throughout the day. We demonstrate this with healthy subjects and stroke patients in a simple proof of concept study in which these arm movements are detected during an archetypal activity of daily-living (ADL) - 'making-a-cup-of-tea'. Data is collected from a tri-axial accelerometer and a tri-axial gyroscope located proximal to the wrist. In a training phase, movements are initially performed in a controlled environment which are represented by a ranked set of 30 time-domain features. Using a sequential forward selection technique, for each set of feature combinations three clusters are formed using k-means clustering followed by 10 runs of 10-fold cross validation on the training data to determine the best feature combinations. For the testing phase, movements performed during the ADL are associated with each cluster label using a minimum distance classifier in a multi-dimensional feature space, comprised of the best ranked features, using Euclidean or Mahalanobis distance as the metric. Experiments were performed with four healthy subjects and four stroke survivors and our results show that the proposed methodology can detect the three movements performed during the ADL with an overall average accuracy of 88% using the accelerometer data and 83% using the gyroscope data across all healthy subjects and arm movement types. The average accuracy across all stroke survivors was 70% using accelerometer data and 66% using gyroscope data. We also use a Linear

  8. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo(including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group ‘distinctness values’) was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of ‘distinctness values’ was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of ‘distinctness values’ test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups

  9. Production, Characterization and Use of Monoclonal Antibodies Recognizing IgY Epitopes Shared by Chicken, Turkey, Pheasant, Peafowl and Sparrow

    OpenAIRE

    Narat, Mojca; Biček, Ajda; Vadnjal, Robert; Benčina, Dušan

    2004-01-01

    Chicken antibodies are not only a part of immune defense but are more and more popular commercial products in form of chicken polyclonal, monoclonal or recombinant antibodies. We produced and characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize epitopes located on heavy or light chain of chicken immunoglobulin Y (chIgY) shared also by some other Phasianidae birds. The use of mAbs 1F5 and 2F10 that recognize heavy chain on chIgY common epitopes was demonstrated on immunoglobulins of...

  10. Recognizing Axionic Dark Matter by Compton and de Broglie Scale Modulation of Pulsar Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Ivan; Broadhurst, Tom; Tye, S-H Henry; Chiueh, Tzihong; Schive, Hsi-Yu; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Light axionic dark matter, motivated by string theory, is increasingly favored for the "no weakly interacting massive particle era". Galaxy formation is suppressed below a Jeans scale of ≃10^{8}  M_{⊙} by setting the axion mass to m_{B}∼10^{-22}  eV, and the large dark cores of dwarf galaxies are explained as solitons on the de Broglie scale. This is persuasive, but detection of the inherent scalar field oscillation at the Compton frequency ω_{B}=(2.5  months)^{-1}(m_{B}/10^{-22}  eV) would be definitive. By evolving the coupled Schrödinger-Poisson equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate, we predict the dark matter is fully modulated by de Broglie interference, with a dense soliton core of size ≃150  pc, at the Galactic center. The oscillating field pressure induces general relativistic time dilation in proportion to the local dark matter density and pulsars within this dense core have detectably large timing residuals of ≃400  nsec/(m_{B}/10^{-22}  eV). This is encouraging as many new pulsars should be discovered near the Galactic center with planned radio surveys. More generally, over the whole Galaxy, differences in dark matter density between pairs of pulsars imprints a pairwise Galactocentric signature that can be distinguished from an isotropic gravitational wave background.

  11. Recognizing the degree of human attention using EEG signals from mobile sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning-Han; Chiang, Cheng-Yu; Chu, Hsuan-Chin

    2013-08-09

    During the learning process, whether students remain attentive throughout instruction generally influences their learning efficacy. If teachers can instantly identify whether students are attentive they can be suitably reminded to remain focused, thereby improving their learning effects. Traditional teaching methods generally require that teachers observe students' expressions to determine whether they are attentively learning. However, this method is often inaccurate and increases the burden on teachers. With the development of electroencephalography (EEG) detection tools, mobile brainwave sensors have become mature and affordable equipment. Therefore, in this study, whether students are attentive or inattentive during instruction is determined by observing their EEG signals. Because distinguishing between attentiveness and inattentiveness is challenging, two scenarios were developed for this study to measure the subjects' EEG signals when attentive and inattentive. After collecting EEG data using mobile sensors, various common features were extracted from the raw data. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to calculate and analyze these features to identify the combination of features that best indicates whether students are attentive. Based on the experiment results, the method proposed in this study provides a classification accuracy of up to 76.82%. The study results can be used as a reference for learning system designs in the future.

  12. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  13. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N

    2007-01-01

    projects, particularly for nuclear facilities. Depending upon the waste form and the intended disposal path, PCBs can be regulated at thresholds in the low parts-per-billion (ppb). These low regulatory thresholds often are overlooked due to the erroneous belief by many waste management professionals that materials containing PCBs are regulated by TSCA only if their PCB concentration is at least 50 parts-per-million (ppm). Failure to recognize when and how the lower thresholds apply can lead to rejection of the waste materials by treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facilities as well as potential regulatory non-compliance. Furthermore, re-use of ''excess'' materials with PCBs is also regulated by TSCA. In the event of a characterization error, the costs required to make necessary corrections can be very high. This paper will focus on PCB characterization and waste management issues associated with D and D of DOE nuclear facilities. It will identify PCB materials that are likely to be present in such facilities, with emphasis on the nonliquid PCB forms. The paper will discuss characterization pitfalls associated with Non-Liquid PCBs (NLPCBs), including circumstances in which NLPCBs can migrate into other materials. The paper also will identify TSCA requirements for materials with very low concentrations of PCBs; certain materials are regulated at concentrations as low as 0.5 (micro)g/L PCBs (approximately 0.5 ppb). The paper will then examine the potentially extensive impacts to a facility if the materials are not managed in a TSCA-compliant manner. Examples from a recent D and D project at the DOE Savannah River Site will be used to illustrate key points and lessons learned. It is expected that this information would be useful to other DOE sites, DoD installations and commercial nuclear facilities constructed prior to 1979

  14. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  15. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  16. Generalized quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leivo, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    The algebraic approach to quantum groups is generalized to include what may be called an anyonic symmetry, reflecting the appearance of phases more general than ±1 under transposition. (author). 6 refs

  17. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  18. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  19. Generalized hypergeometric coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a large class of holomorphic quantum states by choosing their normalization functions to be given by generalized hypergeometric functions. We call them generalized hypergeometric states in general, and generalized hypergeometric coherent states in particular, if they allow a resolution of unity. Depending on the domain of convergence of the generalized hypergeometric functions, we distinguish generalized hypergeometric states on the plane, the open unit disc and the unit circle. All states are eigenstates of suitably defined lowering operators. We then study their photon number statistics and phase properties as revealed by the Husimi and Pegg-Barnett phase distributions. On the basis of the generalized hypergeometric coherent states we introduce new analytic representations of arbitrary quantum states in Bargmann and Hardy spaces as well as generalized hypergeometric Husimi distributions and corresponding phase distributions

  20. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  1. Pathological gambling: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Larry L; Boehlke, Karmen K

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the course of history, gambling has been a popular activity across most cultures. In the United States, gambling has transitioned from early acceptance to prohibition to widespread proliferation. For most, gambling is a relaxing and recreational activity; however, for some individuals gambling becomes more than harmless fun. The most severe form of gambling, pathological gambling, is recognized as a mental health disorder. Pathological gambling is currently classified as an impulse control disorder in the DSM-IV-TR, but it shares many important features with substance use disorders, especially in terms of diagnostic criteria, clinical course, and treatment. Consequently, the DSM-V Task Force has suggested that pathological gambling be reclassified and included in a new category entitled "Addiction and Related Disorders." The category would include both substance-related and non-substance/behavioral addictions. This article provides a general overview of some of the available literature regarding pathological gambling and includes the presentation of a number of relevant topics including etiology, risk factors, comorbidity, prevention, and treatment. However, as with most complex, multifaceted, and multidimensional phenomena, more research is needed in order to improve both prevention and treatment efforts for pathological gambling.

  2. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  3. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  4. Health Informatics Can Avoid Committing Symbolic Violence by Recognizing and Supporting Generic Decision-making Competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    'Symbolic violence' is committed, however well-intentionally, by the imposition of particular conceptualizations of what information, in what form and quality, is needed in order to make an 'informed choice' and hence - by questionable segue - a high quality decision. The social and cultural forms...... experienced by individuals at any and all levels of general literacy. It leads many to adopt the same range of avoidant and other undesirable strategies within healthcare situations observed in those of low basic literacy. The alternative response we propose exploits the alternative generic decision literacy...... which comes in the form of the ability to access and use the decision-relevant resources provided for many consumer services and products on comparison websites and magazines. The methodology is the simple form of multi-criteria analysis in which the products' ratings on multiple criteria are combined...

  5. Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dunker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are a family of retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from cellular RNA polymerase III transcripts. Over evolutionary time, SINEs have expanded throughout the human genome and today comprise ~11% of total chromosomal DNA. While generally transcriptionally silent in healthy somatic cells, SINE expression increases during a variety of types of stresses, including DNA virus infection. The relevance of SINE expression to viral infection was largely unexplored, however, recent years have seen great progress towards defining the impact of SINE expression on viral replication and host gene expression. Here we review the origin and diversity of SINE elements and their transcriptional control, with an emphasis on how their expression impacts host cell biology during viral infection.

  6. Recognizing thyrotoxicosis in a patient with bipolar mania: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thyroid stimulating hormone level is commonly measured in patients presenting with symptoms of mania in order to rule out an underlying general medical condition such as hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis. Indeed, many cases have been reported in which a patient is initially treated for bipolar mania, but is later found to have a thyroid condition. Several case reports have noted the development of a thyroid condition in bipolar patients either on lithium maintenance treatment or recently on lithium treatment. Case presentation We review a case in which a patient with a long history of bipolar disorder presents with comorbid hyperthyroidism and bipolar mania after recent discontinuation of lithium treatment. Conclusion Physicians should consider a comorbid hyperthyroidism in bipolar manic patients only partially responsive to standard care treatment with a mood stabilizer and antipsychotic.

  7. Governance, Scale and the Environment: The Importance of Recognizing Knowledge Claims in Transdisciplinary Arenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Buizer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Any present day approach of the world's most pressing environmental problems involves both scale and governance issues. After all, current local events might have long-term global consequences (the scale issue and solving complex environmental problems requires policy makers to think and govern beyond generally used time-space scales (the governance issue. To an increasing extent, the various scientists in these fields have used concepts like social-ecological systems, hierarchies, scales and levels to understand and explain the "complex cross-scale dynamics" of issues like climate change. A large part of this work manifests a realist paradigm: the scales and levels, either in ecological processes or in governance systems, are considered as "real". However, various scholars question this position and claim that scales and levels are continuously (reconstructed in the interfaces of science, society, politics and nature. Some of these critics even prefer to adopt a non-scalar approach, doing away with notions such as hierarchy, scale and level. Here we take another route, however. We try to overcome the realist-constructionist dualism by advocating a dialogue between them on the basis of exchanging and reflecting on different knowledge claims in transdisciplinary arenas. We describe two important developments, one in the ecological scaling literature and the other in the governance literature, which we consider to provide a basis for such a dialogue. We will argue that scale issues, governance practices as well as their mutual interdependencies should be considered as human constructs, although dialectically related to nature's materiality, and therefore as contested processes, requiring intensive and continuous dialogue and cooperation among natural scientists, social scientists, policy makers and citizens alike. They also require critical reflection on scientists' roles and on academic practices in general. Acknowledging knowledge claims

  8. 25 CFR 115.422 - As a custodial parent, the legal guardian, the person who BIA has recognized as having control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BIA has recognized as having control and custody of the minor, or an emancipated minor, what are your... BIA has recognized as having control and custody of the minor, or an emancipated minor, what are your... legal guardian, the person who BIA has recognized as having control and custody of the minor, or an...

  9. Popcorn-worker lung caused by corporate and regulatory negligence: an avoidable tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilman, David; Mailloux, Caroline; Valentin, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Diacetyl-containing butter flavor was identified as the cause of an outbreak of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) and other lung diseases in popcorn-plant workers. Litigation documents show that the outbreak was both predictable and preventable. The industry trade organization was aware of BO cases in workers at butter-flavoring and popcorn-manufacturing plants but often failed to implement industrial hygiene improvements and actively hid pertinent warning information. Due to weaknesses in the organization and mandates of regulatory bodies, organizations such as NIOSH, OSHA, the FDA, particularly the "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) system, and the EPA failed to detect and prevent the outbreak, which highlights the need for systemic changes in food-product regulation, including the need for corporations to act responsibly, for stronger regulations with active enforcement, for a restructuring of the GRAS system, and for criminal penalties against corporations and professionals who knowingly hide information relevant to worker protection.

  10. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  11. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  12. The psychosocial needs of children in foster care with a history of sexual abuse: Are they recognized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; Ellingsen, Ingunn; van der Steen, Stephanie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Youth in family foster care who have experienced sexual abuse have specific psychosocial needs. However, youth themselves are rarely asked about their needs, and it is unknown if caretakers recognize these needs as such. Using Q-methodology, this study aimed to describe what youth consider their

  13. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  14. 17 CFR 240.17g-2 - Records to be made and retained by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... be complete and current: (1) Records of original entry into the accounting system of the nationally... publicly available on its corporate Internet Web site in an XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language... its corporate Internet Web site, the nationally recognized statistical rating organization shall use...

  15. Rodriguez Recognized as Recipient of the MSSS AACC Chair’s Inspirational Award | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, has been recognized as the recipient of the Chair’s Inspirational Award by the Mass Spectrometry and Separation Sciences for Laboratory Medicine Division (MSSS), American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC).

  16. CD8(+) T cells of Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice recognize both linear and spliced proteasome products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Mishto, Michele; Textoris-Taube, Kathrin; Keller, Christin; Liepe, Juliane; Busch, Dirk H; Kloetzel, Peter M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    CD8(+) T cells responding to infection recognize pathogen-derived epitopes presented by MHC class-I molecules. While most of such epitopes are generated by proteasome-mediated antigen cleavage, analysis of tumor antigen processing has revealed that epitopes may also derive from proteasome-catalyzed

  17. The original Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium monoclonal antibody recognizes a vascular endothelial growth factor binding site within neuropilin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaalouk, Diana E.; Ozawa, Nfichael G.; Sun, Jessica; Lahdenranta, Johanna; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih

    2007-01-01

    For two decades, the antigen recognized by the Pathologische Anatomie Leiden-Endothelium (PAL-E) monoclonal antibody, a standard vascular endothelial cell marker, has remained elusive. Here, we used a combinatorial phage display-based approach ("epitope mapping") to select peptides binding to the

  18. 29 CFR 5.16 - Training plans approved or recognized by the Department of Labor prior to August 20, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Training plans approved or recognized by the Department of... STANDARDS ACT) Davis-Bacon and Related Acts Provisions and Procedures § 5.16 Training plans approved or... contractor shall be required to obtain approval of a training program which, prior to August 20, 1975, was...

  19. How Accurately Can the Google Web Speech API Recognize and Transcribe Japanese L2 English Learners' Oral Production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Tim; Elam, Jesse R.

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate aim of our research project was to use the Google Web Speech API to automate scoring of elicited imitation (EI) tests. However, in order to achieve this goal, we had to take a number of preparatory steps. We needed to assess how accurate this speech recognition tool is in recognizing native speakers' production of the test items; we…

  20. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…