#### Sample records for graphs circle graphs

1. On a conjecture concerning helly circle graphs

Durán Guillermo

2003-01-01

Full Text Available We say that G is an e-circle graph if there is a bijection between its vertices and straight lines on the cartesian plane such that two vertices are adjacent in G if and only if the corresponding lines intersect inside the circle of radius one. This definition suggests a method for deciding whether a given graph G is an e-circle graph, by constructing a convenient system S of equations and inequations which represents the structure of G, in such a way that G is an e-circle graph if and only if S has a solution. In fact, e-circle graphs are exactly the circle graphs (intersection graphs of chords in a circle, and thus this method provides an analytic way for recognizing circle graphs. A graph G is a Helly circle graph if G is a circle graph and there exists a model of G by chords such that every three pairwise intersecting chords intersect at the same point. A conjecture by Durán (2000 states that G is a Helly circle graph if and only if G is a circle graph and contains no induced diamonds (a diamond is a graph formed by four vertices and five edges. Many unsuccessful efforts - mainly based on combinatorial and geometrical approaches - have been done in order to validate this conjecture. In this work, we utilize the ideas behind the definition of e-circle graphs and restate this conjecture in terms of an equivalence between two systems of equations and inequations, providing a new, analytic tool to deal with it.

2. Edges and vertices in a unique signed circle in a signed graph

Richard Behr

2017-12-01

Full Text Available We examine the conditions under which a signed graph contains an edge or a vertex that is contained in a unique negative circle or a unique positive circle. For an edge in a unique signed circle, the positive and negative case require the same structure on the underlying graph, but the requirements on the signature are different. We characterize the structure of the underlying graph necessary to support such an edge in terms of bridges of a circle. We then use the results from the edge version of the problem to help solve the vertex version.

3. Graph Aggregation

Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.

Graph aggregation is the process of computing a single output graph that constitutes a good compromise between several input graphs, each provided by a different source. One needs to perform graph aggregation in a wide variety of situations, e.g., when applying a voting rule (graphs as preference

4. Graph sampling

Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

2017-01-01

We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

5. Graph spectrum

Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.; Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

2012-01-01

This chapter presents some simple results on graph spectra.We assume the reader is familiar with elementary linear algebra and graph theory. Throughout, J will denote the all-1 matrix, and 1 is the all-1 vector.

6. Equipackable graphs

Vestergaard, Preben Dahl; Hartnell, Bert L.

2006-01-01

There are many results dealing with the problem of decomposing a fixed graph into isomorphic subgraphs. There has also been work on characterizing graphs with the property that one can delete the edges of a number of edge disjoint copies of the subgraph and, regardless of how that is done, the gr...

7. Interaction graphs

Seiller, Thomas

2016-01-01

Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

8. Introduction to graph theory

Trudeau, Richard J

1994-01-01

Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or

9. Graph theory

Diestel, Reinhard

2017-01-01

This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

10. Graph theory

Gould, Ronald

2012-01-01

This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

11. Graphs & digraphs

Chartrand, Gary; Zhang, Ping

2010-01-01

Gary Chartrand has influenced the world of Graph Theory for almost half a century. He has supervised more than a score of Ph.D. dissertations and written several books on the subject. The most widely known of these texts, Graphs and Digraphs, … has much to recommend it, with clear exposition, and numerous challenging examples [that] make it an ideal textbook for the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course. The authors have updated their notation to reflect the current practice in this still-growing area of study. By the authors' estimation, the 5th edition is approximately 50% longer than the 4th edition. … the legendary Frank Harary, author of the second graph theory text ever produced, is one of the figures profiled. His book was the standard in the discipline for several decades. Chartrand, Lesniak and Zhang have produced a worthy successor.-John T. Saccoman, MAA Reviews, June 2012 (This book is in the MAA's basic library list.)As with the earlier editions, the current text emphasizes clear...

12. Chromatic graph theory

Chartrand, Gary; Rosen, Kenneth H

2008-01-01

Beginning with the origin of the four color problem in 1852, the field of graph colorings has developed into one of the most popular areas of graph theory. Introducing graph theory with a coloring theme, Chromatic Graph Theory explores connections between major topics in graph theory and graph colorings as well as emerging topics. This self-contained book first presents various fundamentals of graph theory that lie outside of graph colorings, including basic terminology and results, trees and connectivity, Eulerian and Hamiltonian graphs, matchings and factorizations, and graph embeddings. The remainder of the text deals exclusively with graph colorings. It covers vertex colorings and bounds for the chromatic number, vertex colorings of graphs embedded on surfaces, and a variety of restricted vertex colorings. The authors also describe edge colorings, monochromatic and rainbow edge colorings, complete vertex colorings, several distinguishing vertex and edge colorings, and many distance-related vertex coloring...

13. Graph visualization (Invited talk)

Wijk, van J.J.; Kreveld, van M.J.; Speckmann, B.

2012-01-01

Black and white node link diagrams are the classic method to depict graphs, but these often fall short to give insight in large graphs or when attributes of nodes and edges play an important role. Graph visualization aims obtaining insight in such graphs using interactive graphical representations.

14. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

1999-01-01

We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

15. Graphs and matrices

Bapat, Ravindra B

2014-01-01

This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

16. Adaptive Graph Convolutional Neural Networks

Li, Ruoyu; Wang, Sheng; Zhu, Feiyun; Huang, Junzhou

2018-01-01

Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (Graph CNNs) are generalizations of classical CNNs to handle graph data such as molecular data, point could and social networks. Current filters in graph CNNs are built for fixed and shared graph structure. However, for most real data, the graph structures varies in both size and connectivity. The paper proposes a generalized and flexible graph CNN taking data of arbitrary graph structure as input. In that way a task-driven adaptive graph is learned for eac...

17. On middle cube graphs

C. Dalfo

2015-10-01

Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

18. Price competition on graphs

Soetevent, A.R.

2010-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial

19. Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning

Switzer, J. Matt

2014-01-01

Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…

20. Similarity Measure of Graphs

Amine Labriji

2017-07-01

Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

1. Distance-regular graphs

van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

2016-01-01

This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

2. Fuzzy Graph Language Recognizability

Kalampakas , Antonios; Spartalis , Stefanos; Iliadis , Lazaros

2012-01-01

Part 5: Fuzzy Logic; International audience; Fuzzy graph language recognizability is introduced along the lines of the established theory of syntactic graph language recognizability by virtue of the algebraic structure of magmoids. The main closure properties of the corresponding class are investigated and several interesting examples of fuzzy graph languages are examined.

3. Spectra of Graphs

Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

2012-01-01

This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

4. Graphs and Homomorphisms

Hell, Pavol

2004-01-01

This is a book about graph homomorphisms. Graph theory is now an established discipline but the study of graph homomorphisms has only recently begun to gain wide acceptance and interest. The subject gives a useful perspective in areas such as graph reconstruction, products, fractional and circular colourings, and has applications in complexity theory, artificial intelligence, telecommunication, and, most recently, statistical physics.Based on the authors' lecture notes for graduate courses, this book can be used as a textbook for a second course in graph theory at 4th year or master's level an

5. Simplicial complexes of graphs

Jonsson, Jakob

2008-01-01

A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

6. Introduction to quantum graphs

Berkolaiko, Gregory

2012-01-01

A "quantum graph" is a graph considered as a one-dimensional complex and equipped with a differential operator ("Hamiltonian"). Quantum graphs arise naturally as simplified models in mathematics, physics, chemistry, and engineering when one considers propagation of waves of various nature through a quasi-one-dimensional (e.g., "meso-" or "nano-scale") system that looks like a thin neighborhood of a graph. Works that currently would be classified as discussing quantum graphs have been appearing since at least the 1930s, and since then, quantum graphs techniques have been applied successfully in various areas of mathematical physics, mathematics in general and its applications. One can mention, for instance, dynamical systems theory, control theory, quantum chaos, Anderson localization, microelectronics, photonic crystals, physical chemistry, nano-sciences, superconductivity theory, etc. Quantum graphs present many non-trivial mathematical challenges, which makes them dear to a mathematician's heart. Work on qu...

7. Graphing trillions of triangles.

Burkhardt, Paul

2017-07-01

The increasing size of Big Data is often heralded but how data are transformed and represented is also profoundly important to knowledge discovery, and this is exemplified in Big Graph analytics. Much attention has been placed on the scale of the input graph but the product of a graph algorithm can be many times larger than the input. This is true for many graph problems, such as listing all triangles in a graph. Enabling scalable graph exploration for Big Graphs requires new approaches to algorithms, architectures, and visual analytics. A brief tutorial is given to aid the argument for thoughtful representation of data in the context of graph analysis. Then a new algebraic method to reduce the arithmetic operations in counting and listing triangles in graphs is introduced. Additionally, a scalable triangle listing algorithm in the MapReduce model will be presented followed by a description of the experiments with that algorithm that led to the current largest and fastest triangle listing benchmarks to date. Finally, a method for identifying triangles in new visual graph exploration technologies is proposed.

8. Introductory graph theory

Chartrand, Gary

1984-01-01

Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

9. Price Competition on Graphs

2010-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. I propose an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. One feature of graph models of price competition is that spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand may occur. I show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs. I conjecture that this non-existence result holds...

10. Price Competition on Graphs

2014-01-01

This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

11. Pattern graph rewrite systems

Aleks Kissinger

2014-03-01

Full Text Available String diagrams are a powerful tool for reasoning about physical processes, logic circuits, tensor networks, and many other compositional structures. Dixon, Duncan and Kissinger introduced string graphs, which are a combinatoric representations of string diagrams, amenable to automated reasoning about diagrammatic theories via graph rewrite systems. In this extended abstract, we show how the power of such rewrite systems can be greatly extended by introducing pattern graphs, which provide a means of expressing infinite families of rewrite rules where certain marked subgraphs, called !-boxes ("bang boxes", on both sides of a rule can be copied any number of times or removed. After reviewing the string graph formalism, we show how string graphs can be extended to pattern graphs and how pattern graphs and pattern rewrite rules can be instantiated to concrete string graphs and rewrite rules. We then provide examples demonstrating the expressive power of pattern graphs and how they can be applied to study interacting algebraic structures that are central to categorical quantum mechanics.

12. Functions and graphs

Gelfand, I M; Shnol, E E

1969-01-01

The second in a series of systematic studies by a celebrated mathematician I. M. Gelfand and colleagues, this volume presents students with a well-illustrated sequence of problems and exercises designed to illuminate the properties of functions and graphs. Since readers do not have the benefit of a blackboard on which a teacher constructs a graph, the authors abandoned the customary use of diagrams in which only the final form of the graph appears; instead, the book's margins feature step-by-step diagrams for the complete construction of each graph. The first part of the book employs simple fu

13. Creating more effective graphs

Robbins, Naomi B

2012-01-01

A succinct and highly readable guide to creating effective graphs The right graph can be a powerful tool for communicating information, improving a presentation, or conveying your point in print. If your professional endeavors call for you to present data graphically, here's a book that can help you do it more effectively. Creating More Effective Graphs gives you the basic knowledge and techniques required to choose and create appropriate graphs for a broad range of applications. Using real-world examples everyone can relate to, the author draws on her years of experience in gr

14. Graph Generator Survey

Lothian, Joshua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Sarah S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sullivan, Blair D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baker, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schrock, Jonathan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poole, Stephen W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2013-10-01

The benchmarking effort within the Extreme Scale Systems Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory seeks to provide High Performance Computing benchmarks and test suites of interest to the DoD sponsor. The work described in this report is a part of the effort focusing on graph generation. A previously developed benchmark, SystemBurn, allowed the emulation of different application behavior profiles within a single framework. To complement this effort, similar capabilities are desired for graph-centric problems. This report examines existing synthetic graph generator implementations in preparation for further study on the properties of their generated synthetic graphs.

15. Loose Graph Simulations

Mansutti, Alessio; Miculan, Marino; Peressotti, Marco

2017-01-01

We introduce loose graph simulations (LGS), a new notion about labelled graphs which subsumes in an intuitive and natural way subgraph isomorphism (SGI), regular language pattern matching (RLPM) and graph simulation (GS). Being a unification of all these notions, LGS allows us to express directly...... also problems which are “mixed” instances of previous ones, and hence which would not fit easily in any of them. After the definition and some examples, we show that the problem of finding loose graph simulations is NP-complete, we provide formal translation of SGI, RLPM, and GS into LGSs, and we give...

16. Graph Compression by BFS

Alberto Apostolico

2009-08-01

Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

17. Graph Theory. 1. Fragmentation of Structural Graphs

Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

2002-12-01

Full Text Available The investigation of structural graphs has many fields of applications in engineering, especially in applied sciences like as applied chemistry and physics, computer sciences and automation, electronics and telecommunication. The main subject of the paper is to express fragmentation criteria in graph using a new method of investigation: terminal paths. Using terminal paths are defined most of the fragmentation criteria that are in use in molecular topology, but the fields of applications are more generally than that, as I mentioned before. Graphical examples of fragmentation are given for every fragmentation criteria. Note that all fragmentation is made with a computer program that implements a routine for every criterion.[1] A web routine for tracing all terminal paths in graph can be found at the address: http://vl.academicdirect.ro/molecular_topology/tpaths/ [1] M. V. Diudea, I. Gutman, L. Jäntschi, Molecular Topology, Nova Science, Commack, New York, 2001, 2002.

18. A graph rewriting programming language for graph drawing

Rodgers, Peter

1998-01-01

This paper describes Grrr, a prototype visual graph drawing tool. Previously there were no visual languages for programming graph drawing algorithms despite the inherently visual nature of the process. The languages which gave a diagrammatic view of graphs were not computationally complete and so could not be used to implement complex graph drawing algorithms. Hence current graph drawing tools are all text based. Recent developments in graph rewriting systems have produced computationally com...

19. Graph Transforming Java Data

de Mol, M.J.; Rensink, Arend; Hunt, James J.

This paper introduces an approach for adding graph transformation-based functionality to existing JAVA programs. The approach relies on a set of annotations to identify the intended graph structure, as well as on user methods to manipulate that structure, within the user’s own JAVA class

20. Distance-transitive graphs

Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

2004-01-01

In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

Joyner, W David

2017-01-01

This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

2. Recognition of fractal graphs

Perepelitsa, VA; Sergienko, [No Value; Kochkarov, AM

1999-01-01

Definitions of prefractal and fractal graphs are introduced, and they are used to formulate mathematical models in different fields of knowledge. The topicality of fractal-graph recognition from the point of view, of fundamental improvement in the efficiency of the solution of algorithmic problems

3. Graph Colouring Algorithms

Husfeldt, Thore

2015-01-01

This chapter presents an introduction to graph colouring algorithms. The focus is on vertex-colouring algorithms that work for general classes of graphs with worst-case performance guarantees in a sequential model of computation. The presentation aims to demonstrate the breadth of available...

4. Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily

Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

2017-01-01

Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

5. Generalized connectivity of graphs

Li, Xueliang

2016-01-01

Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

6. Autoregressive Moving Average Graph Filtering

Isufi, Elvin; Loukas, Andreas; Simonetto, Andrea; Leus, Geert

2016-01-01

One of the cornerstones of the field of signal processing on graphs are graph filters, direct analogues of classical filters, but intended for signals defined on graphs. This work brings forth new insights on the distributed graph filtering problem. We design a family of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) recursions, which (i) are able to approximate any desired graph frequency response, and (ii) give exact solutions for tasks such as graph signal denoising and interpolation. The design phi...

7. Subgraph detection using graph signals

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

2017-03-06

In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

8. Subgraph detection using graph signals

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

2017-01-01

In this paper we develop statistical detection theory for graph signals. In particular, given two graphs, namely, a background graph that represents an usual activity and an alternative graph that represents some unusual activity, we are interested in answering the following question: To which of the two graphs does the observed graph signal fit the best? To begin with, we assume both the graphs are known, and derive an optimal Neyman-Pearson detector. Next, we derive a suboptimal detector for the case when the alternative graph is not known. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical experiments.

9. Extremal graph theory

Bollobas, Bela

2004-01-01

The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

10. Downhill Domination in Graphs

Haynes Teresa W.

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A path π = (v1, v2, . . . , vk+1 in a graph G = (V,E is a downhill path if for every i, 1 ≤ i ≤ k, deg(vi ≥ deg(vi+1, where deg(vi denotes the degree of vertex vi ∈ V. The downhill domination number equals the minimum cardinality of a set S ⊆ V having the property that every vertex v ∈ V lies on a downhill path originating from some vertex in S. We investigate downhill domination numbers of graphs and give upper bounds. In particular, we show that the downhill domination number of a graph is at most half its order, and that the downhill domination number of a tree is at most one third its order. We characterize the graphs obtaining each of these bounds

11. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

2013-01-01

Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

12. Cycles in graphs

Alspach, BR

1985-01-01

This volume deals with a variety of problems involving cycles in graphs and circuits in digraphs. Leading researchers in this area present here 3 survey papers and 42 papers containing new results. There is also a collection of unsolved problems.

13. Introduction to graph theory

Wilson, Robin J

1985-01-01

Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.

14. Hyperbolicity in median graphs

mic problems in hyperbolic spaces and hyperbolic graphs have been .... that in general the main obstacle is that we do not know the location of ...... [25] Jonckheere E and Lohsoonthorn P, A hyperbolic geometry approach to multipath routing,.

15. Uniform Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

S. Broumi

2017-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new concept named the uniform single valued neutrosophic graph. An illustrative example and some properties are examined. Next, we develop an algorithmic approach for computing the complement of the single valued neutrosophic graph. A numerical example is demonstrated for computing the complement of single valued neutrosophic graphs and uniform single valued neutrosophic graph.

16. Collective Rationality in Graph Aggregation

Endriss, U.; Grandi, U.; Schaub, T.; Friedrich, G.; O'Sullivan, B.

2014-01-01

Suppose a number of agents each provide us with a directed graph over a common set of vertices. Graph aggregation is the problem of computing a single “collective” graph that best represents the information inherent in this profile of individual graphs. We consider this aggregation problem from the

17. Classical dynamics on graphs

Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

2001-01-01

We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

18. Modern graph theory

Bollobás, Béla

1998-01-01

The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...

19. Proxy Graph: Visual Quality Metrics of Big Graph Sampling.

Nguyen, Quan Hoang; Hong, Seok-Hee; Eades, Peter; Meidiana, Amyra

2017-06-01

Data sampling has been extensively studied for large scale graph mining. Many analyses and tasks become more efficient when performed on graph samples of much smaller size. The use of proxy objects is common in software engineering for analysis and interaction with heavy objects or systems. In this paper, we coin the term 'proxy graph' and empirically investigate how well a proxy graph visualization can represent a big graph. Our investigation focuses on proxy graphs obtained by sampling; this is one of the most common proxy approaches. Despite the plethora of data sampling studies, this is the first evaluation of sampling in the context of graph visualization. For an objective evaluation, we propose a new family of quality metrics for visual quality of proxy graphs. Our experiments cover popular sampling techniques. Our experimental results lead to guidelines for using sampling-based proxy graphs in visualization.

20. On some covering graphs of a graph

2016-10-01

Full Text Available For a graph $G$ with vertex set $V(G=\\{v_1, v_2, \\dots, v_n\\}$, let $S$ be the covering set of $G$ having the maximum degree over all the minimum covering sets of $G$. Let $N_S[v]=\\{u\\in S : uv \\in E(G \\}\\cup \\{v\\}$ be the closed neighbourhood of the vertex $v$ with respect to $S.$ We define a square matrix $A_S(G= (a_{ij},$ by $a_{ij}=1,$ if $\\left |N_S[v_i]\\cap N_S[v_j] \\right| \\geq 1, i\ 1. Fundamentals of algebraic graph transformation Ehrig, Hartmut; Prange, Ulrike; Taentzer, Gabriele 2006-01-01 Graphs are widely used to represent structural information in the form of objects and connections between them. Graph transformation is the rule-based manipulation of graphs, an increasingly important concept in computer science and related fields. This is the first textbook treatment of the algebraic approach to graph transformation, based on algebraic structures and category theory. Part I is an introduction to the classical case of graph and typed graph transformation. In Part II basic and advanced results are first shown for an abstract form of replacement systems, so-called adhesive high-level replacement systems based on category theory, and are then instantiated to several forms of graph and Petri net transformation systems. Part III develops typed attributed graph transformation, a technique of key relevance in the modeling of visual languages and in model transformation. Part IV contains a practical case study on model transformation and a presentation of the AGG (attributed graph grammar) tool envir... 2. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library Harshvardhan, 2013-01-01 This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable distributed graph container and a collection of commonly used parallel graph algorithms. The library introduces pGraph pViews that separate algorithm design from the container implementation. It supports three graph processing algorithmic paradigms, level-synchronous, asynchronous and coarse-grained, and provides common graph algorithms based on them. Experimental results demonstrate improved scalability in performance and data size over existing graph libraries on more than 16,000 cores and on internet-scale graphs containing over 16 billion vertices and 250 billion edges. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. 3. Graphs, groups and surfaces White, AT 1985-01-01 The field of topological graph theory has expanded greatly in the ten years since the first edition of this book appeared. The original nine chapters of this classic work have therefore been revised and updated. Six new chapters have been added, dealing with: voltage graphs, non-orientable imbeddings, block designs associated with graph imbeddings, hypergraph imbeddings, map automorphism groups and change ringing.Thirty-two new problems have been added to this new edition, so that there are now 181 in all; 22 of these have been designated as difficult'''' and 9 as unsolved''''. Three of the four unsolved problems from the first edition have been solved in the ten years between editions; they are now marked as difficult''''. 4. Profinite graphs and groups Ribes, Luis 2017-01-01 This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest... 5. Subdominant pseudoultrametric on graphs Dovgoshei, A A; Petrov, E A [Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine) 2013-08-31 Let (G,w) be a weighted graph. We find necessary and sufficient conditions under which the weight w:E(G)→R{sup +} can be extended to a pseudoultrametric on V(G), and establish a criterion for the uniqueness of such an extension. We demonstrate that (G,w) is a complete k-partite graph, for k≥2, if and only if for any weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric, among all such extensions one can find the least pseudoultrametric consistent with w. We give a structural characterization of graphs for which the subdominant pseudoultrametric is an ultrametric for any strictly positive weight that can be extended to a pseudoultrametric. Bibliography: 14 titles. 6. Quantitative graph theory mathematical foundations and applications Dehmer, Matthias 2014-01-01 The first book devoted exclusively to quantitative graph theory, Quantitative Graph Theory: Mathematical Foundations and Applications presents and demonstrates existing and novel methods for analyzing graphs quantitatively. Incorporating interdisciplinary knowledge from graph theory, information theory, measurement theory, and statistical techniques, this book covers a wide range of quantitative-graph theoretical concepts and methods, including those pertaining to real and random graphs such as:Comparative approaches (graph similarity or distance)Graph measures to characterize graphs quantitat 7. Augmented marked graphs Cheung, King Sing 2014-01-01 Petri nets are a formal and theoretically rich model for the modelling and analysis of systems. A subclass of Petri nets, augmented marked graphs possess a structure that is especially desirable for the modelling and analysis of systems with concurrent processes and shared resources.This monograph consists of three parts: Part I provides the conceptual background for readers who have no prior knowledge on Petri nets; Part II elaborates the theory of augmented marked graphs; finally, Part III discusses the application to system integration. The book is suitable as a first self-contained volume 8. Graph Query Portal Dayal, Amit; Brock, David 2018-01-01 Prashant Chandrasekar, a lead developer for the Social Interactome project, has tasked the team with creating a graph representation of the data collected from the social networks involved in that project. The data is currently stored in a MySQL database. The client requested that the graph database be Cayley, but after a literature review, Neo4j was chosen. The reasons for this shift will be explained in the design section. Secondarily, the team was tasked with coming up with three scena... 9. Spectral radius of graphs Stevanovic, Dragan 2015-01-01 Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the 10. Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph Sun, Guolei 2017-01-01 Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most 11. Using Graph and Vertex Entropy to Compare Empirical Graphs with Theoretical Graph Models Tomasz Kajdanowicz 2016-09-01 Full Text Available Over the years, several theoretical graph generation models have been proposed. Among the most prominent are: the Erdős–Renyi random graph model, Watts–Strogatz small world model, Albert–Barabási preferential attachment model, Price citation model, and many more. Often, researchers working with real-world data are interested in understanding the generative phenomena underlying their empirical graphs. They want to know which of the theoretical graph generation models would most probably generate a particular empirical graph. In other words, they expect some similarity assessment between the empirical graph and graphs artificially created from theoretical graph generation models. Usually, in order to assess the similarity of two graphs, centrality measure distributions are compared. For a theoretical graph model this means comparing the empirical graph to a single realization of a theoretical graph model, where the realization is generated from the given model using an arbitrary set of parameters. The similarity between centrality measure distributions can be measured using standard statistical tests, e.g., the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of distances between cumulative distributions. However, this approach is both error-prone and leads to incorrect conclusions, as we show in our experiments. Therefore, we propose a new method for graph comparison and type classification by comparing the entropies of centrality measure distributions (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. We demonstrate that our approach can help assign the empirical graph to the most similar theoretical model using a simple unsupervised learning method. 12. Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G 1999-01-01 Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran 13. Topics in graph theory graphs and their Cartesian product Imrich, Wilfried; Rall, Douglas F 2008-01-01 From specialists in the field, you will learn about interesting connections and recent developments in the field of graph theory by looking in particular at Cartesian products-arguably the most important of the four standard graph products. Many new results in this area appear for the first time in print in this book. Written in an accessible way, this book can be used for personal study in advanced applications of graph theory or for an advanced graph theory course. 14. Partitioning a call graph Bisseling, R.H.; Byrka, J.; Cerav-Erbas, S.; Gvozdenovic, N.; Lorenz, M.; Pendavingh, R.A.; Reeves, C.; Röger, M.; Verhoeven, A.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F. 2006-01-01 Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to 15. Coloring geographical threshold graphs Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH 2008-01-01 We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C. 16. Supermarket model on graphs Budhiraja, A.S.; Mukherjee, D.; Wu, R. 2017-01-01 We consider a variation of the supermarket model in which the servers can communicate with their neighbors and where the neighborhood relationships are described in terms of a suitable graph. Tasks with unit-exponential service time distributions arrive at each vertex as independent Poisson 17. Basin Hopping Graph Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter 2014-01-01 of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect... 18. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library Harshvardhan,; Fidel, Adam; Amato, Nancy M.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence 2013-01-01 This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable 19. A Clustering Graph Generator Winlaw, Manda [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); De Sterck, Hans [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanders, Geoffrey [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) 2015-10-26 In very simple terms a network can be de ned as a collection of points joined together by lines. Thus, networks can be used to represent connections between entities in a wide variety of elds including engi- neering, science, medicine, and sociology. Many large real-world networks share a surprising number of properties, leading to a strong interest in model development research and techniques for building synthetic networks have been developed, that capture these similarities and replicate real-world graphs. Modeling these real-world networks serves two purposes. First, building models that mimic the patterns and prop- erties of real networks helps to understand the implications of these patterns and helps determine which patterns are important. If we develop a generative process to synthesize real networks we can also examine which growth processes are plausible and which are not. Secondly, high-quality, large-scale network data is often not available, because of economic, legal, technological, or other obstacles [7]. Thus, there are many instances where the systems of interest cannot be represented by a single exemplar network. As one example, consider the eld of cybersecurity, where systems require testing across diverse threat scenarios and validation across diverse network structures. In these cases, where there is no single exemplar network, the systems must instead be modeled as a collection of networks in which the variation among them may be just as important as their common features. By developing processes to build synthetic models, so-called graph generators, we can build synthetic networks that capture both the essential features of a system and realistic variability. Then we can use such synthetic graphs to perform tasks such as simulations, analysis, and decision making. We can also use synthetic graphs to performance test graph analysis algorithms, including clustering algorithms and anomaly detection algorithms. 20. Groupies in multitype random graphs Shang, Yilun 2016-01-01 A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erd?s-R?nyi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results. 1. Groupies in multitype random graphs. Shang, Yilun 2016-01-01 A groupie in a graph is a vertex whose degree is not less than the average degree of its neighbors. Under some mild conditions, we show that the proportion of groupies is very close to 1/2 in multitype random graphs (such as stochastic block models), which include Erdős-Rényi random graphs, random bipartite, and multipartite graphs as special examples. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results. 2. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M 2007-08-07 A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs. 3. Quantum walks on quotient graphs Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A. 2007-01-01 A discrete-time quantum walk on a graph Γ is the repeated application of a unitary evolution operator to a Hilbert space corresponding to the graph. If this unitary evolution operator has an associated group of symmetries, then for certain initial states the walk will be confined to a subspace of the original Hilbert space. Symmetries of the original graph, given by its automorphism group, can be inherited by the evolution operator. We show that a quantum walk confined to the subspace corresponding to this symmetry group can be seen as a different quantum walk on a smaller quotient graph. We give an explicit construction of the quotient graph for any subgroup H of the automorphism group and illustrate it with examples. The automorphisms of the quotient graph which are inherited from the original graph are the original automorphism group modulo the subgroup H used to construct it. The quotient graph is constructed by removing the symmetries of the subgroup H from the original graph. We then analyze the behavior of hitting times on quotient graphs. Hitting time is the average time it takes a walk to reach a given final vertex from a given initial vertex. It has been shown in earlier work [Phys. Rev. A 74, 042334 (2006)] that the hitting time for certain initial states of a quantum walks can be infinite, in contrast to classical random walks. We give a condition which determines whether the quotient graph has infinite hitting times given that they exist in the original graph. We apply this condition for the examples discussed and determine which quotient graphs have infinite hitting times. All known examples of quantum walks with hitting times which are short compared to classical random walks correspond to systems with quotient graphs much smaller than the original graph; we conjecture that the existence of a small quotient graph with finite hitting times is necessary for a walk to exhibit a quantum speedup 4. A generalization of total graphs M Afkhami 2018-04-12 Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50. 5. Graph transformation tool contest 2008 Rensink, Arend; van Gorp, Pieter This special section is the outcome of the graph transformation tool contest organised during the Graph-Based Tools (GraBaTs) 2008 workshop, which took place as a satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT) 2008. The contest involved two parts: three “off-line case 6. On dominator colorings in graphs colors required for a dominator coloring of G is called the dominator .... Theorem 1.3 shows that the complete graph Kn is the only connected graph of order n ... Conversely, if a graph G satisfies condition (i) or (ii), it is easy to see that χd(G) =. 7. Topic Model for Graph Mining. Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng 2015-12-01 Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. 8. Algorithms for Planar Graphs and Graphs in Metric Spaces Wulff-Nilsen, Christian structural properties that can be exploited. For instance, a road network or a wire layout on a microchip is typically (near-)planar and distances in the network are often defined w.r.t. the Euclidean or the rectilinear metric. Specialized algorithms that take advantage of such properties are often orders...... of magnitude faster than the corresponding algorithms for general graphs. The first and main part of this thesis focuses on the development of efficient planar graph algorithms. The most important contributions include a faster single-source shortest path algorithm, a distance oracle with subquadratic...... for geometric graphs and graphs embedded in metric spaces. Roughly speaking, the stretch factor is a real value expressing how well a (geo-)metric graph approximates the underlying complete graph w.r.t. distances. We give improved algorithms for computing the stretch factor of a given graph and for augmenting... 9. A seminar on graph theory Harary, Frank 2015-01-01 Presented in 1962-63 by experts at University College, London, these lectures offer a variety of perspectives on graph theory. Although the opening chapters form a coherent body of graph theoretic concepts, this volume is not a text on the subject but rather an introduction to the extensive literature of graph theory. The seminar's topics are geared toward advanced undergraduate students of mathematics.Lectures by this volume's editor, Frank Harary, include ""Some Theorems and Concepts of Graph Theory,"" ""Topological Concepts in Graph Theory,"" ""Graphical Reconstruction,"" and other introduc 10. Spectral fluctuations of quantum graphs Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A. 2014-01-01 We prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture in its most general form for completely connected simple graphs with incommensurate bond lengths. We show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e., graphs for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap), the generating functions for all (P,Q) correlation functions for both closed and open graphs coincide (in the limit of infinite graph size) with the corresponding expressions of random-matrix theory, both for orthogonal and for unitary symmetry 11. Dynamic Representations of Sparse Graphs Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf 1999-01-01 We present a linear space data structure for maintaining graphs with bounded arboricity—a large class of sparse graphs containing e.g. planar graphs and graphs of bounded treewidth—under edge insertions, edge deletions, and adjacency queries. The data structure supports adjacency queries in worst...... case O(c) time, and edge insertions and edge deletions in amortized O(1) and O(c+log n) time, respectively, where n is the number of nodes in the graph, and c is the bound on the arboricity.... 12. Domination criticality in product graphs M.R. Chithra 2015-07-01 Full Text Available A connected dominating set is an important notion and has many applications in routing and management of networks. Graph products have turned out to be a good model of interconnection networks. This motivated us to study the Cartesian product of graphs G with connected domination number, γc(G=2,3 and characterize such graphs. Also, we characterize the k−γ-vertex (edge critical graphs and k−γc-vertex (edge critical graphs for k=2,3 where γ denotes the domination number of G. We also discuss the vertex criticality in grids. 13. Graph Creation, Visualisation and Transformation Maribel Fernández 2010-03-01 Full Text Available We describe a tool to create, edit, visualise and compute with interaction nets - a form of graph rewriting systems. The editor, called GraphPaper, allows users to create and edit graphs and their transformation rules using an intuitive user interface. The editor uses the functionalities of the TULIP system, which gives us access to a wealth of visualisation algorithms. Interaction nets are not only a formalism for the specification of graphs, but also a rewrite-based computation model. We discuss graph rewriting strategies and a language to express them in order to perform strategic interaction net rewriting. 14. Study of Chromatic parameters of Line, Total, Middle graphs and Graph operators of Bipartite graph Nagarathinam, R.; Parvathi, N. 2018-04-01 Chromatic parameters have been explored on the basis of graph coloring process in which a couple of adjacent nodes receives different colors. But the Grundy and b-coloring executes maximum colors under certain restrictions. In this paper, Chromatic, b-chromatic and Grundy number of some graph operators of bipartite graph has been investigat 15. Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar 2017-04-25 In this paper the focus is on subsampling as well as reconstructing the second-order statistics of signals residing on nodes of arbitrary undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals may be obtained by graph filtering zero-mean white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum whose shape is determined by the frequency response of the graph filter. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms an important component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks such as Wiener prediction or inpainting on graphs. The central result of this paper is that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the second-order statistics of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, and more importantly, without any spectral priors. To this end, both a nonparametric approach as well as parametric approaches including moving average and autoregressive models for the graph power spectrum are considered. The results specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non-parametric and the moving average models, whereas a particular subsampling scheme that allows linear estimation for the autoregressive model is proposed. Numerical experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets related to climatology and processing handwritten digits are provided to demonstrate the developed theory. 16. Practical graph mining with R Hendrix, William; Jenkins, John; Padmanabhan, Kanchana; Chakraborty, Arpan 2014-01-01 Practical Graph Mining with R presents a "do-it-yourself" approach to extracting interesting patterns from graph data. It covers many basic and advanced techniques for the identification of anomalous or frequently recurring patterns in a graph, the discovery of groups or clusters of nodes that share common patterns of attributes and relationships, the extraction of patterns that distinguish one category of graphs from another, and the use of those patterns to predict the category of new graphs. Hands-On Application of Graph Data Mining Each chapter in the book focuses on a graph mining task, such as link analysis, cluster analysis, and classification. Through applications using real data sets, the book demonstrates how computational techniques can help solve real-world problems. The applications covered include network intrusion detection, tumor cell diagnostics, face recognition, predictive toxicology, mining metabolic and protein-protein interaction networks, and community detection in social networks. De... 17. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs Nicolas Oury 2013-06-01 Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem. 18. Learning heat diffusion graphs Thanou, Dorina; Dong, Xiaowen; Kressner, Daniel; Frossard, Pascal 2016-01-01 Effective information analysis generally boils down to properly identifying the structure or geometry of the data, which is often represented by a graph. In some applications, this structure may be partly determined by design constraints or pre-determined sensing arrangements, like in road transportation networks for example. In general though, the data structure is not readily available and becomes pretty difficult to define. In particular, the global smoothness assumptions, that most of the... 19. An Unusual Exponential Graph Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian 2014-01-01 This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to… 20. Understanding Charts and Graphs. 1987-07-28 Farenheit degrees, which have no Onaturalo zero ); finally, ratio scales have numbers that are ordered so that the magnitudes of differences are important and...system. They have to do with the very nature of how marks serve as meaningful symbols. In the ideal case, a chart or graph will be absolutely unambiguous...and these laws comprise this principle (see Stevens, 1974). Absolute discriminability: A minimal magnitude of a mark is necessary for it to be detected 1. Graphs cospectral with a friendship graph or its complement Alireza Abdollahi 2013-12-01 Full Text Available Let$n$be any positive integer and let$F_n$be the friendship (or Dutch windmill graph with$2n+1$vertices and$3n$edges. Here we study graphs with the same adjacency spectrum as the$F_n$. Two graphs are called cospectral if the eigenvalues multiset of their adjacency matrices are the same. Let$G$be a graph cospectral with$F_n$. Here we prove that if$G$has no cycle of length$4$or$5$, then$Gcong F_n$. Moreover if$G$is connected and planar then$Gcong F_n$.All but one of connected components of$G$are isomorphic to$K_2$.The complement$overline{F_n}$of the friendship graph is determined by its adjacency eigenvalues, that is, if$overline{F_n}$is cospectral with a graph$H$, then$Hcong overline{F_n}$. 2. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel 2016-01-01 An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co... 3. X-Graphs: Language and Algorithms for Heterogeneous Graph Streams 2017-09-01 are widely used by academia and industry. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Data Analytics, Graph Analytics, High-Performance Computing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...form the core of the DeepDive Knowledge Construction System. 2 INTRODUCTION The goal of the X-Graphs project was to develop computational techniques...memory multicore machine. Ringo is based on Snap.py and SNAP, and uses Python . Ringo now allows the integration of Delite DSL Framework Graph 4. Endomorphisms of graph algebras Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech 2012-01-01 We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C... 5. Total colourings of graphs Yap, Hian-Poh 1996-01-01 This book provides an up-to-date and rapid introduction to an important and currently active topic in graph theory. The author leads the reader to the forefront of research in this area. Complete and easily readable proofs of all the main theorems, together with numerous examples, exercises and open problems are given. The book is suitable for use as a textbook or as seminar material for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. The references are comprehensive and so it will also be useful for researchers as a handbook. 6. Graph Algorithm Animation with Grrr Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia 2000-01-01 We discuss geometric positioning, highlighting of visited nodes and user defined highlighting that form the algorithm animation facilities in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The main purpose of animation was initially for the debugging and profiling of Grrr code, but recently it has been extended for the purpose of teaching algorithms to undergraduate students. The animation is restricted to graph based algorithms such as graph drawing, list manipulation or more traditional gra... 7. Optimization Problems on Threshold Graphs Elena Nechita 2010-06-01 Full Text Available During the last three decades, different types of decompositions have been processed in the field of graph theory. Among these we mention: decompositions based on the additivity of some characteristics of the graph, decompositions where the adjacency law between the subsets of the partition is known, decompositions where the subgraph induced by every subset of the partition must have predeterminate properties, as well as combinations of such decompositions. In this paper we characterize threshold graphs using the weakly decomposition, determine: density and stability number, Wiener index and Wiener polynomial for threshold graphs. 8. Eulerian Graphs and Related Topics Fleischner, Herbert 1990-01-01 The two volumes comprising Part 1 of this work embrace the theme of Eulerian trails and covering walks. They should appeal both to researchers and students, as they contain enough material for an undergraduate or graduate graph theory course which emphasizes Eulerian graphs, and thus can be read by any mathematician not yet familiar with graph theory. But they are also of interest to researchers in graph theory because they contain many recent results, some of which are only partial solutions to more general problems. A number of conjectures have been included as well. Various problems (such a 9. Quantum Graph Analysis Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lobser, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parekh, Ojas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan-Anderson, Ciaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) 2016-01-01 In recent years, advanced network analytics have become increasingly important to na- tional security with applications ranging from cyber security to detection and disruption of ter- rorist networks. While classical computing solutions have received considerable investment, the development of quantum algorithms to address problems, such as data mining of attributed relational graphs, is a largely unexplored space. Recent theoretical work has shown that quan- tum algorithms for graph analysis can be more efficient than their classical counterparts. Here, we have implemented a trapped-ion-based two-qubit quantum information proces- sor to address these goals. Building on Sandia's microfabricated silicon surface ion traps, we have designed, realized and characterized a quantum information processor using the hyperfine qubits encoded in two 171 Yb + ions. We have implemented single qubit gates using resonant microwave radiation and have employed Gate set tomography (GST) to characterize the quan- tum process. For the first time, we were able to prove that the quantum process surpasses the fault tolerance thresholds of some quantum codes by demonstrating a diamond norm distance of less than 1 . 9 x 10 [?] 4 . We used Raman transitions in order to manipulate the trapped ions' motion and realize two-qubit gates. We characterized the implemented motion sensitive and insensitive single qubit processes and achieved a maximal process infidelity of 6 . 5 x 10 [?] 5 . We implemented the two-qubit gate proposed by Molmer and Sorensen and achieved a fidelity of more than 97 . 7%. 10. Asymptote Misconception on Graphing Functions: Does Graphing Software Resolve It? Mehmet Fatih Öçal 2017-01-01 Full Text Available Graphing function is an important issue in mathematics education due to its use in various areas of mathematics and its potential roles for students to enhance learning mathematics. The use of some graphing software assists students’ learning during graphing functions. However, the display of graphs of functions that students sketched by hand may be relatively different when compared to the correct forms sketched using graphing software. The possible misleading effects of this situation brought a discussion of a misconception (asymptote misconception on graphing functions. The purpose of this study is two- fold. First of all, this study investigated whether using graphing software (GeoGebra in this case helps students to determine and resolve this misconception in calculus classrooms. Second, the reasons for this misconception are sought. The multiple case study was utilized in this study. University students in two calculus classrooms who received instructions with (35 students or without GeoGebra assisted instructions (32 students were compared according to whether they fell into this misconception on graphing basic functions (1/x, lnx, ex. In addition, students were interviewed to reveal the reasons behind this misconception. Data were analyzed by means of descriptive and content analysis methods. The findings indicated that those who received GeoGebra assisted instruction were better in resolving it. In addition, the reasons behind this misconception were found to be teacher-based, exam-based and some other factors. 11. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache 2016-01-01 In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 12. Graph Theory. 2. Vertex Descriptors and Graph Coloring Lorentz JÄNTSCHI 2002-12-01 Full Text Available This original work presents the construction of a set of ten sequence matrices and their applications for ordering vertices in graphs. For every sequence matrix three ordering criteria are applied: lexicographic ordering, based on strings of numbers, corresponding to every vertex, extracted as rows from sequence matrices; ordering by the sum of path lengths from a given vertex; and ordering by the sum of paths, starting from a given vertex. We also examine a graph that has different orderings for the above criteria. We then proceed to demonstrate that every criterion induced its own partition of graph vertex. We propose the following theoretical result: both LAVS and LVDS criteria generate identical partitioning of vertices in any graph. Finally, a coloring of graph vertices according to introduced ordering criteria was proposed. 13. On an edge partition and root graphs of some classes of line graphs K Pravas 2017-04-01 Full Text Available The Gallai and the anti-Gallai graphs of a graph$G$are complementary pairs of spanning subgraphs of the line graph of$G$. In this paper we find some structural relations between these graph classes by finding a partition of the edge set of the line graph of a graph$G$into the edge sets of the Gallai and anti-Gallai graphs of$G$. Based on this, an optimal algorithm to find the root graph of a line graph is obtained. Moreover, root graphs of diameter-maximal, distance-hereditary, Ptolemaic and chordal graphs are also discussed. 14. The planar cubic Cayley graphs Georgakopoulos, Agelos 2018-01-01 The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms. 15. Groupies in random bipartite graphs Yilun Shang 2010-01-01 A vertex$v$of a graph$G$is called a groupie if its degree is notless than the average of the degrees of its neighbors. In thispaper we study the influence of bipartition$(B_1,B_2)$on groupiesin random bipartite graphs$G(B_1,B_2,p)$with both fixed$p$and$p$tending to zero. 16. Nested Dynamic Condition Response Graphs Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs 2012-01-01 We present an extension of the recently introduced declarative process model Dynamic Condition Response Graphs ( DCR Graphs) to allow nested subgraphs and a new milestone relation between events. The extension was developed during a case study carried out jointly with our industrial partner... 17. Bell inequalities for graph states Toth, G.; Hyllus, P.; Briegel, H.J.; Guehne, O. 2005-01-01 Full text: In the last years graph states have attracted an increasing interest in the field of quantum information theory. Graph states form a family of multi-qubit states which comprises many popular states such as the GHZ states and the cluster states. They also play an important role in applications. For instance, measurement based quantum computation uses graph states as resources. From a theoretical point of view, it is remarkable that graph states allow for a simple description in terms of stabilizing operators. In this contribution, we investigate the non-local properties of graph states. We derive a family of Bell inequalities which require three measurement settings for each party and are maximally violated by graph states. In turn, any graph state violates at least one of the inequalities. We show that for certain types of graph states the violation of these inequalities increases exponentially with the number of qubits. We also discuss connections to other entanglement properties such as the positively of the partial transpose or the geometric measure of entanglement. (author) 18. Graph Sampling for Covariance Estimation Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert 2017-01-01 specialize for undirected circulant graphs in that the graph nodes leading to the best compression rates are given by the so-called minimal sparse rulers. A near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme for the non 19. Network reconstruction via graph blending Estrada, Rolando 2016-05-01 Graphs estimated from empirical data are often noisy and incomplete due to the difficulty of faithfully observing all the components (nodes and edges) of the true graph. This problem is particularly acute for large networks where the number of components may far exceed available surveillance capabilities. Errors in the observed graph can render subsequent analyses invalid, so it is vital to develop robust methods that can minimize these observational errors. Errors in the observed graph may include missing and spurious components, as well fused (multiple nodes are merged into one) and split (a single node is misinterpreted as many) nodes. Traditional graph reconstruction methods are only able to identify missing or spurious components (primarily edges, and to a lesser degree nodes), so we developed a novel graph blending framework that allows us to cast the full estimation problem as a simple edge addition/deletion problem. Armed with this framework, we systematically investigate the viability of various topological graph features, such as the degree distribution or the clustering coefficients, and existing graph reconstruction methods for tackling the full estimation problem. Our experimental results suggest that incorporating any topological feature as a source of information actually hinders reconstruction accuracy. We provide a theoretical analysis of this phenomenon and suggest several avenues for improving this estimation problem. 20. A cluster algorithm for graphs S. van Dongen 2000-01-01 textabstractA cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm (MCL~algorithm) is introduced. The algorithm provides basically an interface to an algebraic process defined on stochastic matrices, called the MCL~process. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight) 1. Planar graphs theory and algorithms Nishizeki, T 1988-01-01 Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included. 2. Quantum chaos on discrete graphs Smilansky, Uzy 2007-01-01 Adapting a method developed for the study of quantum chaos on quantum (metric) graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76), spectral ζ functions and trace formulae for discrete Laplacians on graphs are derived. This is achieved by expressing the spectral secular equation in terms of the periodic orbits of the graph and obtaining functions which belong to the class of ζ functions proposed originally by Ihara (1966 J. Mat. Soc. Japan 18 219) and expanded by subsequent authors (Stark and Terras 1996 Adv. Math. 121 124, Kotani and Sunada 2000 J. Math. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 7 7). Finally, a model of 'classical dynamics' on the discrete graph is proposed. It is analogous to the corresponding classical dynamics derived for quantum graphs (Kottos and Smilansky 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4794, Kottos and Smilansky 1999 Ann. Phys., NY 274 76). (fast track communication) 3. RJSplot: Interactive Graphs with R. Barrios, David; Prieto, Carlos 2018-03-01 Data visualization techniques provide new methods for the generation of interactive graphs. These graphs allow a better exploration and interpretation of data but their creation requires advanced knowledge of graphical libraries. Recent packages have enabled the integration of interactive graphs in R. However, R provides limited graphical packages that allow the generation of interactive graphs for computational biology applications. The present project has joined the analytical power of R with the interactive graphical features of JavaScript in a new R package (RJSplot). It enables the easy generation of interactive graphs in R, provides new visualization capabilities, and contributes to the advance of computational biology analytical methods. At present, 16 interactive graphics are available in RJSplot, such as the genome viewer, Manhattan plots, 3D plots, heatmaps, dendrograms, networks, and so on. The RJSplot package is freely available online at http://rjsplot.net. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 4. On characterizing terrain visibility graphs William Evans 2015-06-01 Full Text Available A terrain is an$x$-monotone polygonal line in the$xy$-plane. Two vertices of a terrain are mutually visible if and only if there is no terrain vertex on or above the open line segment connecting them. A graph whose vertices represent terrain vertices and whose edges represent mutually visible pairs of terrain vertices is called a terrain visibility graph. We would like to find properties that are both necessary and sufficient for a graph to be a terrain visibility graph; that is, we would like to characterize terrain visibility graphs.Abello et al. [Discrete and Computational Geometry, 14(3:331--358, 1995] showed that all terrain visibility graphs are “persistent”. They showed that the visibility information of a terrain point set implies some ordering requirements on the slopes of the lines connecting pairs of points in any realization, and as a step towards showing sufficiency, they proved that for any persistent graph$M$there is a total order on the slopes of the (pseudo lines in a generalized configuration of points whose visibility graph is$M$.We give a much simpler proof of this result by establishing an orientation to every triple of vertices, reflecting some slope ordering requirements that are consistent with$M$being the visibility graph, and prove that these requirements form a partial order. We give a faster algorithm to construct a total order on the slopes. Our approach attempts to clarify the implications of the graph theoretic properties on the ordering of the slopes, and may be interpreted as defining properties on an underlying oriented matroid that we show is a restricted type of$3$-signotope. 5. Graph embedding with rich information through heterogeneous graph Sun, Guolei 2017-11-12 Graph embedding, aiming to learn low-dimensional representations for nodes in graphs, has attracted increasing attention due to its critical application including node classification, link prediction and clustering in social network analysis. Most existing algorithms for graph embedding only rely on the topology information and fail to use the copious information in nodes as well as edges. As a result, their performance for many tasks may not be satisfactory. In this thesis, we proposed a novel and general framework for graph embedding with rich text information (GERI) through constructing a heterogeneous network, in which we integrate node and edge content information with graph topology. Specially, we designed a novel biased random walk to explore the constructed heterogeneous network with the notion of flexible neighborhood. Our sampling strategy can compromise between BFS and DFS local search on heterogeneous graph. To further improve our algorithm, we proposed semi-supervised GERI (SGERI), which learns graph embedding in an discriminative manner through heterogeneous network with label information. The efficacy of our method is demonstrated by extensive comparison experiments with 9 baselines over multi-label and multi-class classification on various datasets including Citeseer, Cora, DBLP and Wiki. It shows that GERI improves the Micro-F1 and Macro-F1 of node classification up to 10%, and SGERI improves GERI by 5% in Wiki. 6. CORECLUSTER: A Degeneracy Based Graph Clustering Framework Giatsidis , Christos; Malliaros , Fragkiskos; Thilikos , Dimitrios M. ,; Vazirgiannis , Michalis 2014-01-01 International audience; Graph clustering or community detection constitutes an important task forinvestigating the internal structure of graphs, with a plethora of applications in several domains. Traditional tools for graph clustering, such asspectral methods, typically suffer from high time and space complexity. In thisarticle, we present \\textsc{CoreCluster}, an efficient graph clusteringframework based on the concept of graph degeneracy, that can be used along withany known graph clusteri... 7. Hierarchy of modular graph identities D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin 2016-01-01 The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns. 8. Semantic graphs and associative memories Pomi, Andrés; Mizraji, Eduardo 2004-12-01 Graphs have been increasingly utilized in the characterization of complex networks from diverse origins, including different kinds of semantic networks. Human memories are associative and are known to support complex semantic nets; these nets are represented by graphs. However, it is not known how the brain can sustain these semantic graphs. The vision of cognitive brain activities, shown by modern functional imaging techniques, assigns renewed value to classical distributed associative memory models. Here we show that these neural network models, also known as correlation matrix memories, naturally support a graph representation of the stored semantic structure. We demonstrate that the adjacency matrix of this graph of associations is just the memory coded with the standard basis of the concept vector space, and that the spectrum of the graph is a code invariant of the memory. As long as the assumptions of the model remain valid this result provides a practical method to predict and modify the evolution of the cognitive dynamics. Also, it could provide us with a way to comprehend how individual brains that map the external reality, almost surely with different particular vector representations, are nevertheless able to communicate and share a common knowledge of the world. We finish presenting adaptive association graphs, an extension of the model that makes use of the tensor product, which provides a solution to the known problem of branching in semantic nets. 9. Hierarchy of modular graph identities D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) 2016-11-09 The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns. 10. XML Graphs in Program Analysis Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael I. 2011-01-01 of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package that enables others to make use of these ideas. We also survey the use of XML graphs for program analysis with four very different languages: XACT (XML in Java), Java Servlets (Web application programming), XSugar......XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation... 11. Coloring and The Lonely Graph Rabern, Landon 2007-01-01 We improve upper bounds on the chromatic number proven independently in \\cite{reedNote} and \\cite{ingo}. Our main lemma gives a sufficient condition for two paths in graph to be completely joined. Using this, we prove that if a graph has an optimal coloring with more than$\\frac{\\omega}{2}$singleton color classes, then it satisfies$\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\omega + \\Delta + 1}{2}$. It follows that a graph satisfying$n - \\Delta < \\alpha + \\frac{\\omega - 1}{2}$must also satisfy$\\chi \\leq \\frac{\\ome...

12. Graphs with Eulerian unit spheres

Knill, Oliver

2015-01-01

d-spheres in graph theory are inductively defined as graphs for which all unit spheres S(x) are (d-1)-spheres and that the removal of one vertex renders the graph contractible. Eulerian d-spheres are geometric d-spheres which are d+1 colorable. We prove here that G is an Eulerian sphere if and only if the degrees of all the (d-2)-dimensional sub-simplices in G are even. This generalizes a Kempe-Heawood result for d=2 and is work related to the conjecture that all d-spheres have chromatic numb...

13. Evolutionary games on graphs

Szabó, György; Fáth, Gábor

2007-07-01

Game theory is one of the key paradigms behind many scientific disciplines from biology to behavioral sciences to economics. In its evolutionary form and especially when the interacting agents are linked in a specific social network the underlying solution concepts and methods are very similar to those applied in non-equilibrium statistical physics. This review gives a tutorial-type overview of the field for physicists. The first four sections introduce the necessary background in classical and evolutionary game theory from the basic definitions to the most important results. The fifth section surveys the topological complications implied by non-mean-field-type social network structures in general. The next three sections discuss in detail the dynamic behavior of three prominent classes of models: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Rock-Scissors-Paper game, and Competing Associations. The major theme of the review is in what sense and how the graph structure of interactions can modify and enrich the picture of long term behavioral patterns emerging in evolutionary games.

14. Properly colored connectivity of graphs

Li, Xueliang; Qin, Zhongmei

2018-01-01

A comprehensive survey of proper connection of graphs is discussed in this book with real world applications in computer science and network security. Beginning with a brief introduction, comprising relevant definitions and preliminary results, this book moves on to consider a variety of properties of graphs that imply bounds on the proper connection number. Detailed proofs of significant advancements toward open problems and conjectures are presented with complete references. Researchers and graduate students with an interest in graph connectivity and colorings will find this book useful as it builds upon fundamental definitions towards modern innovations, strategies, and techniques. The detailed presentation lends to use as an introduction to proper connection of graphs for new and advanced researchers, a solid book for a graduate level topics course, or as a reference for those interested in expanding and further developing research in the area.

15. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-11

Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

16. Open Graphs and Computational Reasoning

Lucas Dixon

2010-06-01

Full Text Available We present a form of algebraic reasoning for computational objects which are expressed as graphs. Edges describe the flow of data between primitive operations which are represented by vertices. These graphs have an interface made of half-edges (edges which are drawn with an unconnected end and enjoy rich compositional principles by connecting graphs along these half-edges. In particular, this allows equations and rewrite rules to be specified between graphs. Particular computational models can then be encoded as an axiomatic set of such rules. Further rules can be derived graphically and rewriting can be used to simulate the dynamics of a computational system, e.g. evaluating a program on an input. Examples of models which can be formalised in this way include traditional electronic circuits as well as recent categorical accounts of quantum information.

17. The toughness of split graphs

Woeginger, G.J.

1998-01-01

In this short note we argue that the toughness of split graphs can be computed in polynomial time. This solves an open problem from a recent paper by Kratsch et al. (Discrete Math. 150 (1996) 231–245).

18. Generating random networks and graphs

Coolen, Ton; Roberts, Ekaterina

2017-01-01

This book supports researchers who need to generate random networks, or who are interested in the theoretical study of random graphs. The coverage includes exponential random graphs (where the targeted probability of each network appearing in the ensemble is specified), growth algorithms (i.e. preferential attachment and the stub-joining configuration model), special constructions (e.g. geometric graphs and Watts Strogatz models) and graphs on structured spaces (e.g. multiplex networks). The presentation aims to be a complete starting point, including details of both theory and implementation, as well as discussions of the main strengths and weaknesses of each approach. It includes extensive references for readers wishing to go further. The material is carefully structured to be accessible to researchers from all disciplines while also containing rigorous mathematical analysis (largely based on the techniques of statistical mechanics) to support those wishing to further develop or implement the theory of rand...

19. Graph theory and its applications

Gross, Jonathan L

2006-01-01

Gross and Yellen take a comprehensive approach to graph theory that integrates careful exposition of classical developments with emerging methods, models, and practical needs. Their unparalleled treatment provides a text ideal for a two-semester course and a variety of one-semester classes, from an introductory one-semester course to courses slanted toward classical graph theory, operations research, data structures and algorithms, or algebra and topology.

20. A faithful functor among algebras and graphs

Falcón Ganfornina, Óscar Jesús; Falcón Ganfornina, Raúl Manuel; Núñez Valdés, Juan; Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad; Vigo Aguiar, Jesús (Coordinador)

2016-01-01

The problem of identifying a functor between the categories of algebras and graphs is currently open. Based on a known algorithm that identifies isomorphisms of Latin squares with isomorphism of vertex-colored graphs, we describe here a pair of graphs that enable us to find a faithful functor between finite-dimensional algebras over finite fields and these graphs.

1. Graphs with branchwidth at most three

Bodlaender, H.L.; Thilikos, D.M.

1997-01-01

In this paper we investigate both the structure of graphs with branchwidth at most three, as well as algorithms to recognise such graphs. We show that a graph has branchwidth at most three, if and only if it has treewidth at most three and does not contain the three-dimensional binary cube graph

2. A Modal-Logic Based Graph Abstraction

Bauer, J.; Boneva, I.B.; Kurban, M.E.; Rensink, Arend; Ehrig, H; Heckel, R.; Rozenberg, G.; Taentzer, G.

2008-01-01

Infinite or very large state spaces often prohibit the successful verification of graph transformation systems. Abstract graph transformation is an approach that tackles this problem by abstracting graphs to abstract graphs of bounded size and by lifting application of productions to abstract

3. Graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic

Pedersen, Anders Sune

2014-01-01

We study square-complementary graphs, that is, graphs whose complement and square are isomorphic. We prove several necessary conditions for a graph to be square-complementary, describe ways of building new square-complementary graphs from existing ones, construct infinite families of square-compl...

4. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

2017-01-01

A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type...

5. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

2017-01-01

Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

6. Port-Hamiltonian Systems on Open Graphs

Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.

2010-01-01

In this talk we discuss how to define in an intrinsic manner port-Hamiltonian dynamics on open graphs. Open graphs are graphs where some of the vertices are boundary vertices (terminals), which allow interconnection with other systems. We show that a directed graph carries two natural Dirac

7. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2012-01-01

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

2012-01-01

The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

9. Chromatic polynomials of random graphs

Van Bussel, Frank; Fliegner, Denny; Timme, Marc; Ehrlich, Christoph; Stolzenberg, Sebastian

2010-01-01

Chromatic polynomials and related graph invariants are central objects in both graph theory and statistical physics. Computational difficulties, however, have so far restricted studies of such polynomials to graphs that were either very small, very sparse or highly structured. Recent algorithmic advances (Timme et al 2009 New J. Phys. 11 023001) now make it possible to compute chromatic polynomials for moderately sized graphs of arbitrary structure and number of edges. Here we present chromatic polynomials of ensembles of random graphs with up to 30 vertices, over the entire range of edge density. We specifically focus on the locations of the zeros of the polynomial in the complex plane. The results indicate that the chromatic zeros of random graphs have a very consistent layout. In particular, the crossing point, the point at which the chromatic zeros with non-zero imaginary part approach the real axis, scales linearly with the average degree over most of the density range. While the scaling laws obtained are purely empirical, if they continue to hold in general there are significant implications: the crossing points of chromatic zeros in the thermodynamic limit separate systems with zero ground state entropy from systems with positive ground state entropy, the latter an exception to the third law of thermodynamics.

10. Commuting graphs of matrix algebras

Akbari, S.; Bidkhori, H.; Mohammadian, A.

2006-08-01

The commuting graph of a ring R, denoted by Γ(R), is a graph whose vertices are all non- central elements of R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if and only if xy = yx. The commuting graph of a group G, denoted by Γ(G), is similarly defined. In this paper we investigate some graph theoretic properties of Γ(M n (F)), where F is a field and n ≥ 2. Also we study the commuting graphs of some classical groups such as GL n (F) and SL n (F). We show that Γ(M n (F)) is a connected graph if and only if every field extension of F of degree n contains a proper intermediate field. We prove that apart from finitely many fields, a similar result is true for Γ(GL n (F)) and Γ(SL n (F)). Also we show that for two fields E and F and integers m, n ≥> 2, if Γ(M m (E)) ≅ Γ(M n (F)), then m = n and vertical bar E vertical bar = vertical bar F vertical bar. (author)

11. Graph Quasicontinuous Functions and Densely Continuous Forms

Lubica Hola

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Let $X, Y$ be topological spaces. A function $f: X \\to Y$ is said to be graph quasicontinuous if there is a quasicontinuous function $g: X \\to Y$ with the graph of $g$ contained in the closure of the graph of $f$. There is a close relation between the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and minimal usco maps as well as the notions of graph quasicontinuous functions and densely continuous forms. Every function with values in a compact Hausdorff space is graph quasicontinuous; more generally every locally compact function is graph quasicontinuous.

12. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

Peng Mi; Maoyuan Sun; Moeti Masiane; Yong Cao; Chris North

2016-01-01

Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph to...

Nikonov, Igor M [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31

Graph-links arise as the intersection graphs of turning chord diagrams of links. Speaking informally, graph-links provide a combinatorial description of links up to mutations. Many link invariants can be reformulated in the language of graph-links. Khovanov homology, a well-known and useful knot invariant, is defined for graph-links in this paper (in the case of the ground field of characteristic two). Bibliography: 14 titles.

14. PRIVATE GRAPHS – ACCESS RIGHTS ON GRAPHS FOR SEAMLESS NAVIGATION

W. Dorner

2016-06-01

15. Learning about Science Graphs and Word Games. Superific Science Book V. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

Conway, Lorraine

This packet of student materials contains a variety of worksheet activities dealing with science graphs and science word games. These reproducible materials deal with: (1) bar graphs; (2) line graphs; (3) circle graphs; (4) pictographs; (5) histograms; (6) artgraphs; (7) designing your own graphs; (8) medical prefixes; (9) color prefixes; (10)…

16. Eigenfunction statistics on quantum graphs

Gnutzmann, S.; Keating, J.P.; Piotet, F.

2010-01-01

We investigate the spatial statistics of the energy eigenfunctions on large quantum graphs. It has previously been conjectured that these should be described by a Gaussian Random Wave Model, by analogy with quantum chaotic systems, for which such a model was proposed by Berry in 1977. The autocorrelation functions we calculate for an individual quantum graph exhibit a universal component, which completely determines a Gaussian Random Wave Model, and a system-dependent deviation. This deviation depends on the graph only through its underlying classical dynamics. Classical criteria for quantum universality to be met asymptotically in the large graph limit (i.e. for the non-universal deviation to vanish) are then extracted. We use an exact field theoretic expression in terms of a variant of a supersymmetric σ model. A saddle-point analysis of this expression leads to the estimates. In particular, intensity correlations are used to discuss the possible equidistribution of the energy eigenfunctions in the large graph limit. When equidistribution is asymptotically realized, our theory predicts a rate of convergence that is a significant refinement of previous estimates. The universal and system-dependent components of intensity correlation functions are recovered by means of an exact trace formula which we analyse in the diagonal approximation, drawing in this way a parallel between the field theory and semiclassics. Our results provide the first instance where an asymptotic Gaussian Random Wave Model has been established microscopically for eigenfunctions in a system with no disorder.

17. Box graphs and resolutions I

Andreas P. Braun

2016-04-01

Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

18. Degree-based graph construction

Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

2009-01-01

Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

19. Hierarchical organisation of causal graphs

Dziopa, P.

1993-01-01

This paper deals with the design of a supervision system using a hierarchy of models formed by graphs, in which the variables are the nodes and the causal relations between the variables of the arcs. To obtain a representation of the variables evolutions which contains only the relevant features of their real evolutions, the causal relations are completed with qualitative transfer functions (QTFs) which produce roughly the behaviour of the classical transfer functions. Major improvements have been made in the building of the hierarchical organization. First, the basic variables of the uppermost level and the causal relations between them are chosen. The next graph is built by adding intermediary variables to the upper graph. When the undermost graph has been built, the transfer functions parameters corresponding to its causal relations are identified. The second task consists in the upwelling of the information from the undermost graph to the uppermost one. A fusion procedure of the causal relations has been designed to compute the QFTs relevant for each level. This procedure aims to reduce the number of parameters needed to represent an evolution at a high level of abstraction. These techniques have been applied to the hierarchical modelling of nuclear process. (authors). 8 refs., 12 figs

20. Integer Flows and Circuit Covers of Graphs and Signed Graphs

Cheng, Jian

The work in Chapter 2 is motivated by Tutte and Jaeger's pioneering work on converting modulo flows into integer-valued flows for ordinary graphs. For a signed graphs (G, sigma), we first prove that for each k ∈ {2, 3}, if (G, sigma) is (k - 1)-edge-connected and contains an even number of negative edges when k = 2, then every modulo k-flow of (G, sigma) can be converted into an integer-valued ( k + 1)-ow with a larger or the same support. We also prove that if (G, sigma) is odd-(2p+1)-edge-connected, then (G, sigma) admits a modulo circular (2 + 1/ p)-flows if and only if it admits an integer-valued circular (2 + 1/p)-flows, which improves all previous result by Xu and Zhang (DM2005), Schubert and Steffen (EJC2015), and Zhu (JCTB2015). Shortest circuit cover conjecture is one of the major open problems in graph theory. It states that every bridgeless graph G contains a set of circuits F such that each edge is contained in at least one member of F and the length of F is at most 7/5∥E(G)∥. This concept was recently generalized to signed graphs by Macajova et al. (JGT2015). In Chapter 3, we improve their upper bound from 11∥E( G)∥ to 14/3 ∥E(G)∥, and if G is 2-edgeconnected and has even negativeness, then it can be further reduced to 11/3 ∥E(G)∥. Tutte's 3-flow conjecture has been studied by many graph theorists in the last several decades. As a new approach to this conjecture, DeVos and Thomassen considered the vectors as ow values and found that there is a close relation between vector S1-flows and integer 3-NZFs. Motivated by their observation, in Chapter 4, we prove that if a graph G admits a vector S1-flow with rank at most two, then G admits an integer 3-NZF. The concept of even factors is highly related to the famous Four Color Theorem. We conclude this dissertation in Chapter 5 with an improvement of a recent result by Chen and Fan (JCTB2016) on the upperbound of even factors. We show that if a graph G contains an even factor, then it

1. Graph modeling systems and methods

Neergaard, Mike

2015-10-13

An apparatus and a method for vulnerability and reliability modeling are provided. The method generally includes constructing a graph model of a physical network using a computer, the graph model including a plurality of terminating vertices to represent nodes in the physical network, a plurality of edges to represent transmission paths in the physical network, and a non-terminating vertex to represent a non-nodal vulnerability along a transmission path in the physical network. The method additionally includes evaluating the vulnerability and reliability of the physical network using the constructed graph model, wherein the vulnerability and reliability evaluation includes a determination of whether each terminating and non-terminating vertex represents a critical point of failure. The method can be utilized to evaluate wide variety of networks, including power grid infrastructures, communication network topologies, and fluid distribution systems.

2. On the graph turnpike problem

Feder, Tomá s; Motwani, Rajeev

2009-01-01

Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.

3. On the graph turnpike problem

Feder, Tomás

2009-06-01

Results on graph turnpike problem without distinctness, including its NP-completeness, and an O(m+n log n) algorithm, is presented. The usual turnpike problem has all pairwise distances given, but does not specify which pair of vertices w e corresponds to. There are two other problems that can be viewed as special cases of the graph turnpike problem, including the bandwidth problem and the low-distortion graph embedding problem. The aim for the turnpike problem in the NP-complete is to orient the edges with weights w i in either direction so that when the whole cycle is transversed in the real line, it returns to a chosen starting point for the cycle. An instance of the turnpike problem with or without distinctness is uniquely mappable if there exists at most one solution up to translation and choice of orientation.

4. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

Deepa Sinha

2014-04-01

Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs +' (plus' or -' (minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

5. Quantum snake walk on graphs

Rosmanis, Ansis

2011-01-01

I introduce a continuous-time quantum walk on graphs called the quantum snake walk, the basis states of which are fixed-length paths (snakes) in the underlying graph. First, I analyze the quantum snake walk on the line, and I show that, even though most states stay localized throughout the evolution, there are specific states that most likely move on the line as wave packets with momentum inversely proportional to the length of the snake. Next, I discuss how an algorithm based on the quantum snake walk might potentially be able to solve an extended version of the glued trees problem, which asks to find a path connecting both roots of the glued trees graph. To the best of my knowledge, no efficient quantum algorithm solving this problem is known yet.

6. On Graph Rewriting, Reduction and Evaluation

Zerny, Ian

2010-01-01

We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter-derive a t......We inter-derive two prototypical styles of graph reduction: reduction machines à la Turner and graph rewriting systems à la Barendregt et al. To this end, we adapt Danvy et al.'s mechanical program derivations from the world of terms to the world of graphs. We also outline how to inter...

7. The fascinating world of graph theory

Benjamin, Arthur; Zhang, Ping

2015-01-01

Graph theory goes back several centuries and revolves around the study of graphs-mathematical structures showing relations between objects. With applications in biology, computer science, transportation science, and other areas, graph theory encompasses some of the most beautiful formulas in mathematics-and some of its most famous problems. The Fascinating World of Graph Theory explores the questions and puzzles that have been studied, and often solved, through graph theory. This book looks at graph theory's development and the vibrant individuals responsible for the field's growth. Introducin

8. Graph-based modelling in engineering

Rysiński, Jacek

2017-01-01

This book presents versatile, modern and creative applications of graph theory in mechanical engineering, robotics and computer networks. Topics related to mechanical engineering include e.g. machine and mechanism science, mechatronics, robotics, gearing and transmissions, design theory and production processes. The graphs treated are simple graphs, weighted and mixed graphs, bond graphs, Petri nets, logical trees etc. The authors represent several countries in Europe and America, and their contributions show how different, elegant, useful and fruitful the utilization of graphs in modelling of engineering systems can be. .

9. XML Graphs in Program Analysis

Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

2007-01-01

XML graphs have shown to be a simple and effective formalism for representing sets of XML documents in program analysis. It has evolved through a six year period with variants tailored for a range of applications. We present a unified definition, outline the key properties including validation...... of XML graphs against different XML schema languages, and provide a software package that enables others to make use of these ideas. We also survey four very different applications: XML in Java, Java Servlets and JSP, transformations between XML and non-XML data, and XSLT....

10. Graph topologies on closed multifunctions

Giuseppe Di Maio

2003-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper we study function space topologies on closed multifunctions, i.e. closed relations on X x Y using various hypertopologies. The hypertopologies are in essence, graph topologies i.e topologies on functions considered as graphs which are subsets of X x Y . We also study several topologies, including one that is derived from the Attouch-Wets filter on the range. We state embedding theorems which enable us to generalize and prove some recent results in the literature with the use of known results in the hyperspace of the range space and in the function space topologies of ordinary functions.

11. Cyclic graphs and Apery's theorem

Sorokin, V N

2002-01-01

This is a survey of results about the behaviour of Hermite-Pade approximants for graphs of Markov functions, and a survey of interpolation problems leading to Apery's result about the irrationality of the value ζ(3) of the Riemann zeta function. The first example is given of a cyclic graph for which the Hermite-Pade problem leads to Apery's theorem. Explicit formulae for solutions are obtained, namely, Rodrigues' formulae and integral representations. The asymptotic behaviour of the approximants is studied, and recurrence formulae are found

12. Interacting particle systems on graphs

Sood, Vishal

In this dissertation, the dynamics of socially or biologically interacting populations are investigated. The individual members of the population are treated as particles that interact via links on a social or biological network represented as a graph. The effect of the structure of the graph on the properties of the interacting particle system is studied using statistical physics techniques. In the first chapter, the central concepts of graph theory and social and biological networks are presented. Next, interacting particle systems that are drawn from physics, mathematics and biology are discussed in the second chapter. In the third chapter, the random walk on a graph is studied. The mean time for a random walk to traverse between two arbitrary sites of a random graph is evaluated. Using an effective medium approximation it is found that the mean first-passage time between pairs of sites, as well as all moments of this first-passage time, are insensitive to the density of links in the graph. The inverse of the mean-first passage time varies non-monotonically with the density of links near the percolation transition of the random graph. Much of the behavior can be understood by simple heuristic arguments. Evolutionary dynamics, by which mutants overspread an otherwise uniform population on heterogeneous graphs, are studied in the fourth chapter. Such a process underlies' epidemic propagation, emergence of fads, social cooperation or invasion of an ecological niche by a new species. The first part of this chapter is devoted to neutral dynamics, in which the mutant genotype does not have a selective advantage over the resident genotype. The time to extinction of one of the two genotypes is derived. In the second part of this chapter, selective advantage or fitness is introduced such that the mutant genotype has a higher birth rate or a lower death rate. This selective advantage leads to a dynamical competition in which selection dominates for large populations

13. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

2012-11-19

Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

14. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

2012-01-01

Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

15. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking.

Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Bensmail, Halima; Gao, Xin

2012-11-19

Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

16. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

Wang Jim

2012-11-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods. Results To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods. Conclusion The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications.

17. Constructing Knowledge Graphs of Depression

Huang, Zhisheng; Yang, Jie; van Harmelen, Frank; Hu, Qing

2017-01-01

Knowledge Graphs have been shown to be useful tools for integrating multiple medical knowledge sources, and to support such tasks as medical decision making, literature retrieval, determining healthcare quality indicators, co-morbodity analysis and many others. A large number of medical knowledge

18. Partitioning graphs into connected parts

Hof, van 't P.; Paulusma, D.; Woeginger, G.J.; Frid, A.; Morozov, A.S.; Rybalchenko, A.; Wagner, K.W.

2009-01-01

The 2-DISJOINT CONNECTED SUBGRAPHS problem asks if a given graph has two vertex-disjoint connected subgraphs containing pre-specified sets of vertices. We show that this problem is NP-complete even if one of the sets has cardinality 2. The LONGEST PATH CONTRACTIBILITY problem asks for the largest

19. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.

2007-09-01

Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

20. Ancestral Genres of Mathematical Graphs

Gerofsky, Susan

2011-01-01

Drawing from sources in gesture studies, cognitive science, the anthropology of religion and art/architecture history, this article explores cultural, bodily and cosmological resonances carried (unintentionally) by mathematical graphs on Cartesian coordinates. Concepts of asymmetric bodily spaces, grids, orthogonality, mapping and sacred spaces…

1. Humidity Graphs for All Seasons.

Esmael, F.

1982-01-01

In a previous article in this journal (Vol. 17, p358, 1979), a wet-bulb depression table was recommended for two simple experiments to determine relative humidity. However, the use of a graph is suggested because it gives the relative humidity directly from the wet and dry bulb readings. (JN)

2. Contracting a planar graph efficiently

Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam

2017-01-01

the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar...

3. Graph Model Based Indoor Tracking

Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin

2009-01-01

The tracking of the locations of moving objects in large indoor spaces is important, as it enables a range of applications related to, e.g., security and indoor navigation and guidance. This paper presents a graph model based approach to indoor tracking that offers a uniform data management...

4. A graph with fractional revival

Bernard, Pierre-Antoine; Chan, Ada; Loranger, Érika; Tamon, Christino; Vinet, Luc

2018-02-01

An example of a graph that admits balanced fractional revival between antipodes is presented. It is obtained by establishing the correspondence between the quantum walk on a hypercube where the opposite vertices across the diagonals of each face are connected and, the coherent transport of single excitations in the extension of the Krawtchouk spin chain with next-to-nearest neighbour interactions.

5. Fixation Time for Evolutionary Graphs

Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai

Evolutionary graph theory (EGT) is recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. EGT is successful for explaining biological evolution and some social phenomena. It is extremely important to consider the time of fixation for EGT in many practical problems, including evolutionary theory and the evolution of cooperation. This study characterizes the time to asymptotically reach fixation.

6. Coloring sums of extensions of certain graphs

Johan Kok

2017-12-01

Full Text Available We recall that the minimum number of colors that allow a proper coloring of graph $G$ is called the chromatic number of $G$ and denoted $\\chi(G$. Motivated by the introduction of the concept of the $b$-chromatic sum of a graph the concept of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum are introduced in this paper. The extended graph $G^x$ of a graph $G$ was recently introduced for certain regular graphs. This paper furthers the concepts of $\\chi'$-chromatic sum and $\\chi^+$-chromatic sum to extended paths and cycles. Bipartite graphs also receive some attention. The paper concludes with patterned structured graphs. These last said graphs are typically found in chemical and biological structures.

7. Mathematical Minute: Rotating a Function Graph

Bravo, Daniel; Fera, Joseph

2013-01-01

Using calculus only, we find the angles you can rotate the graph of a differentiable function about the origin and still obtain a function graph. We then apply the solution to odd and even degree polynomials.

8. Towards a theory of geometric graphs

Pach, Janos

2004-01-01

The early development of graph theory was heavily motivated and influenced by topological and geometric themes, such as the Konigsberg Bridge Problem, Euler's Polyhedral Formula, or Kuratowski's characterization of planar graphs. In 1936, when Denes Konig published his classical Theory of Finite and Infinite Graphs, the first book ever written on the subject, he stressed this connection by adding the subtitle Combinatorial Topology of Systems of Segments. He wanted to emphasize that the subject of his investigations was very concrete: planar figures consisting of points connected by straight-line segments. However, in the second half of the twentieth century, graph theoretical research took an interesting turn. In the most popular and most rapidly growing areas (the theory of random graphs, Ramsey theory, extremal graph theory, algebraic graph theory, etc.), graphs were considered as abstract binary relations rather than geometric objects. Many of the powerful techniques developed in these fields have been su...

9. Bounds on Gromov hyperbolicity constant in graphs

Infinite graphs; Cartesian product graphs; independence number; domin- ation number; geodesics ... the secure transmission of information through the internet (see [15, 16]). In particular, ..... In particular, δ(G) is an integer multiple of 1/4.

10. Summary: beyond fault trees to fault graphs

Alesso, H.P.; Prassinos, P.; Smith, C.F.

1984-09-01

Fault Graphs are the natural evolutionary step over a traditional fault-tree model. A Fault Graph is a failure-oriented directed graph with logic connectives that allows cycles. We intentionally construct the Fault Graph to trace the piping and instrumentation drawing (P and ID) of the system, but with logical AND and OR conditions added. Then we evaluate the Fault Graph with computer codes based on graph-theoretic methods. Fault Graph computer codes are based on graph concepts, such as path set (a set of nodes traveled on a path from one node to another) and reachability (the complete set of all possible paths between any two nodes). These codes are used to find the cut-sets (any minimal set of component failures that will fail the system) and to evaluate the system reliability

11. Torsional rigidity, isospectrality and quantum graphs

Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Kaganovskiy, Leon

2017-01-01

We study torsional rigidity for graph and quantum graph analogs of well-known pairs of isospectral non-isometric planar domains. We prove that such isospectral pairs are distinguished by torsional rigidity. (paper)

12. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

2015-01-01

A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...

13. A Graph Calculus for Predicate Logic

Paulo A. S. Veloso

2013-03-01

Full Text Available We introduce a refutation graph calculus for classical first-order predicate logic, which is an extension of previous ones for binary relations. One reduces logical consequence to establishing that a constructed graph has empty extension, i. e. it represents bottom. Our calculus establishes that a graph has empty extension by converting it to a normal form, which is expanded to other graphs until we can recognize conflicting situations (equivalent to a formula and its negation.

14. Sphere and dot product representations of graphs

R.J. Kang (Ross); T. Müller (Tobias)

2012-01-01

textabstractA graph $G$ is a $k$-sphere graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such that $ij\\in E(G)$ if and only if the distance between $v_i$ and $v_j$ is at most $1$. A graph $G$ is a $k$-dot product graph if there are $k$-dimensional real vectors $v_1,\\dots,v_n$ such

15. Deep Learning with Dynamic Computation Graphs

Looks, Moshe; Herreshoff, Marcello; Hutchins, DeLesley; Norvig, Peter

2017-01-01

Neural networks that compute over graph structures are a natural fit for problems in a variety of domains, including natural language (parse trees) and cheminformatics (molecular graphs). However, since the computation graph has a different shape and size for every input, such networks do not directly support batched training or inference. They are also difficult to implement in popular deep learning libraries, which are based on static data-flow graphs. We introduce a technique called dynami...

16. Constructs for Programming with Graph Rewrites

Rodgers, Peter

2000-01-01

Graph rewriting is becoming increasingly popular as a method for programming with graph based data structures. We present several modifications to a basic serial graph rewriting paradigm and discuss how they improve coding programs in the Grrr graph rewriting programming language. The constructs we present are once only nodes, attractor nodes and single match rewrites. We illustrate the operation of the constructs by example. The advantages of adding these new rewrite modifiers is to reduce t...

17. On the sizes of expander graphs and minimum distances of graph codes

Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

2014-01-01

We give lower bounds for the minimum distances of graph codes based on expander graphs. The bounds depend only on the second eigenvalue of the graph and the parameters of the component codes. We also give an upper bound on the size of a degree regular graph with given second eigenvalue....

18. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

2010-01-01

Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

19. The groupies of random multipartite graphs

Portmann, Marius; Wang, Hongyun

2012-01-01

If a vertex $v$ in a graph $G$ has degree larger than the average of the degrees of its neighbors, we call it a groupie in $G$. In the current work, we study the behavior of groupie in random multipartite graphs with the link probability between sets of nodes fixed. Our results extend the previous ones on random (bipartite) graphs.

20. Modeling Software Evolution using Algebraic Graph Rewriting

Ciraci, Selim; van den Broek, Pim

We show how evolution requests can be formalized using algebraic graph rewriting. In particular, we present a way to convert the UML class diagrams to colored graphs. Since changes in software may effect the relation between the methods of classes, our colored graph representation also employs the

1. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo

2009-01-01

In this report we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java

2. An intersection graph of straight lines

Thomassen, Carsten

2002-01-01

G. Ehrlich, S. Even, and R.E. Tarjan conjectured that the graph obtained from a complete 3 partite graph K4,4,4 by deleting the edges of four disjoint triangles is not the intersection graph of straight line segments in the plane. We show that it is....

3. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

2005-01-01

We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree $k$ and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed ...

4. Cycles in weighted graphs and related topics

Zhang, Shenggui

2002-01-01

This thesis contains results on paths andcycles in graphs andon a more or less relatedtopic, the vulnerability of graphs. In the first part of the thesis, Chapters 2 through 5, we concentrate on paths andcycles in weightedgraphs. A number of sufficient conditions are presentedfor graphs to contain

5. Graph Transformation Semantics for a QVT Language

Rensink, Arend; Nederpel, Ronald; Bruni, Roberto; Varró, Dániel

It has been claimed by many in the graph transformation community that model transformation, as understood in the context of Model Driven Architecture, can be seen as an application of graph transformation. In this paper we substantiate this claim by giving a graph transformation-based semantics to

6. Girth 5 graphs from relative difference sets

Jørgensen, Leif Kjær

We consider the problem of construction of graphs with given degree and girth 5 and as few vertices as possible. We give a construction of a family of girth 5 graphs based on relative difference sets. This family contains the smallest known graph of degree 8 and girth 5 which was constructed by G...

7. Improper colouring of (random) unit disk graphs

Kang, R.J.; Müller, T.; Sereni, J.S.

2008-01-01

For any graph G, the k-improper chromatic number ¿k(G) is the smallest number of colours used in a colouring of G such that each colour class induces a subgraph of maximum degree k. We investigate ¿k for unit disk graphs and random unit disk graphs to generalise results of McDiarmid and Reed

8. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

2013-01-01

An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances in polyn...

9. A Type Graph Model for Java Programs

Rensink, Arend; Zambon, Eduardo; Lee, D.; Lopes, A.; Poetzsch-Heffter, A.

2009-01-01

In this work we present a type graph that models all executable constructs of the Java programming language. Such a model is useful for any graph-based technique that relies on a representation of Java programs as graphs. The model can be regarded as a common representation to which all Java syntax

10. RATGRAPH: Computer Graphing of Rational Functions.

1987-01-01

Presents an easy-to-use Applesoft BASIC program that graphs rational functions and any asymptotes that the functions might have. Discusses the nature of rational functions, graphing them manually, employing a computer to graph rational functions, and describes how the program works. (TW)

11. A new cluster algorithm for graphs

S. van Dongen

1998-01-01

textabstractA new cluster algorithm for graphs called the emph{Markov Cluster algorithm ($MCL$ algorithm) is introduced. The graphs may be both weighted (with nonnegative weight) and directed. Let~$G$~be such a graph. The $MCL$ algorithm simulates flow in $G$ by first identifying $G$ in a

12. Well-covered graphs and factors

Randerath, Bert; Vestergaard, Preben D.

2006-01-01

A maximum independent set of vertices in a graph is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices of largest cardinality α. Plummer defined a graph to be well-covered, if every independent set is contained in a maximum independent set of G. Every well-covered graph G without isolated vertices has a perf...

13. A new characterization of trivially perfect graphs

Christian Rubio Montiel

2015-03-01

Full Text Available A graph $G$ is \\emph{trivially perfect} if for every induced subgraph the cardinality of the largest set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices (the stability number $\\alpha(G$ equals the number of (maximal cliques $m(G$. We characterize the trivially perfect graphs in terms of vertex-coloring and we extend some definitions to infinite graphs.

14. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

2010-10-01

... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...

15. Centrosymmetric Graphs And A Lower Bound For Graph Energy Of Fullerenes

Katona Gyula Y.

2014-11-01

Full Text Available The energy of a molecular graph G is defined as the summation of the absolute values of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of a graph G. In this paper, an infinite class of fullerene graphs with 10n vertices, n ≥ 2, is considered. By proving centrosymmetricity of the adjacency matrix of these fullerene graphs, a lower bound for its energy is given. Our method is general and can be extended to other class of fullerene graphs.

16. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar; Leus, Geert

2016-01-01

In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

17. On 4-critical t-perfect graphs

Benchetrit, Yohann

2016-01-01

It is an open question whether the chromatic number of $t$-perfect graphs is bounded by a constant. The largest known value for this parameter is 4, and the only example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph, due to Laurent and Seymour, is the complement of the line graph of the prism $\\Pi$ (a graph is 4-critical if it has chromatic number 4 and all its proper induced subgraphs are 3-colorable). In this paper, we show a new example of a 4-critical $t$-perfect graph: the complement of the line gra...

18. Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation

Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar

2016-10-06

In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.

19. Proving relations between modular graph functions

Basu, Anirban

2016-01-01

We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links. (paper)

20. A graph edit dictionary for correcting errors in roof topology graphs reconstructed from point clouds

Xiong, B.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

2014-07-01

In the task of 3D building model reconstruction from point clouds we face the problem of recovering a roof topology graph in the presence of noise, small roof faces and low point densities. Errors in roof topology graphs will seriously affect the final modelling results. The aim of this research is to automatically correct these errors. We define the graph correction as a graph-to-graph problem, similar to the spelling correction problem (also called the string-to-string problem). The graph correction is more complex than string correction, as the graphs are 2D while strings are only 1D. We design a strategy based on a dictionary of graph edit operations to automatically identify and correct the errors in the input graph. For each type of error the graph edit dictionary stores a representative erroneous subgraph as well as the corrected version. As an erroneous roof topology graph may contain several errors, a heuristic search is applied to find the optimum sequence of graph edits to correct the errors one by one. The graph edit dictionary can be expanded to include entries needed to cope with errors that were previously not encountered. Experiments show that the dictionary with only fifteen entries already properly corrects one quarter of erroneous graphs in about 4500 buildings, and even half of the erroneous graphs in one test area, achieving as high as a 95% acceptance rate of the reconstructed models.

1. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

2017-01-01

in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

2. Groups, graphs and random walks

Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

2017-01-01

An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

3. Flux networks in metabolic graphs

Warren, P B; Queiros, S M Duarte; Jones, J L

2009-01-01

A metabolic model can be represented as a bipartite graph comprising linked reaction and metabolite nodes. Here it is shown how a network of conserved fluxes can be assigned to the edges of such a graph by combining the reaction fluxes with a conserved metabolite property such as molecular weight. A similar flux network can be constructed by combining the primal and dual solutions to the linear programming problem that typically arises in constraint-based modelling. Such constructions may help with the visualization of flux distributions in complex metabolic networks. The analysis also explains the strong correlation observed between metabolite shadow prices (the dual linear programming variables) and conserved metabolite properties. The methods were applied to recent metabolic models for Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Methanosarcina barkeri. Detailed results are reported for E. coli; similar results were found for other organisms

4. 3-biplacement of bipartite graphs

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Let \\(G=(L,R;E\\ be a bipartite graph with color classes \\(L\\ and \\(R\\ and edge set \\(E\\. A set of two bijections \\(\\{\\varphi_1 , \\varphi_2\\}\\, \\(\\varphi_1 , \\varphi_2 :L \\cup R \\to L \\cup R\\, is said to be a \\(3\\-biplacement of \\(G\\ if \\(\\varphi_1(L= \\varphi_2(L = L\\ and \\(E \\cap \\varphi_1^*(E=\\emptyset\\, \\(E \\cap \\varphi_2^*(E=\\emptyset\\, \\(\\varphi_1^*(E \\cap \\varphi_2^*(E=\\emptyset\\, where \\(\\varphi_1^*\\, \\(\\varphi_2^*\\ are the maps defined on \\(E\\, induced by \\(\\varphi_1\\, \\(\\varphi_2\\, respectively. We prove that if \\(|L| = p\\, \\(|R| = q\\, \\(3 \\leq p \\leq q\\, then every graph \\(G=(L,R;E\\ of size at most \\(p\\ has a \\(3\\-biplacement.

5. On the centrality of some graphs

Vecdi Aytac

2017-10-01

Full Text Available A central issue in the analysis of complex networks is the assessment of their stability and vulnerability. A variety of measures have been proposed in the literature to quantify the stability of networks and a number of graph-theoretic parameters have been used to derive formulas for calculating network reliability. Different measures for graph vulnerability have been introduced so far to study different aspects of the graph behavior after removal of vertices or links such as connectivity, toughness, scattering number, binding number, residual closeness and integrity. In this paper, we consider betweenness centrality of a graph. Betweenness centrality of a vertex of a graph is portion of the shortest paths all pairs of vertices passing through a given vertex. In this paper, we obtain exact values for betweenness centrality for some wheel related graphs namely gear, helm, sunflower and friendship graphs.

6. Quantum walk on a chimera graph

Xu, Shu; Sun, Xiangxiang; Wu, Jizhou; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Arshed, Nigum; Sanders, Barry C.

2018-05-01

We analyse a continuous-time quantum walk on a chimera graph, which is a graph of choice for designing quantum annealers, and we discover beautiful quantum walk features such as localization that starkly distinguishes classical from quantum behaviour. Motivated by technological thrusts, we study continuous-time quantum walk on enhanced variants of the chimera graph and on diminished chimera graph with a random removal of vertices. We explain the quantum walk by constructing a generating set for a suitable subgroup of graph isomorphisms and corresponding symmetry operators that commute with the quantum walk Hamiltonian; the Hamiltonian and these symmetry operators provide a complete set of labels for the spectrum and the stationary states. Our quantum walk characterization of the chimera graph and its variants yields valuable insights into graphs used for designing quantum-annealers.

7. Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph

Joe DeMaio

2014-10-01

Full Text Available In 1982, Prodinger and Tichy defined the Fibonacci number of a graph G to be the number of independent sets of the graph G. They did so since the Fibonacci number of the path graph Pn is the Fibonacci number F(n+2 and the Fibonacci number of the cycle graph Cn is the Lucas number Ln. The tadpole graph Tn,k is the graph created by concatenating Cn and Pk with an edge from any vertex of Cn to a pendant of Pk for integers n=3 and k=0. This paper establishes formulae and identities for the Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph via algebraic and combinatorial methods.

8. Software for Graph Analysis and Visualization

M. I. Kolomeychenko

2014-01-01

Full Text Available This paper describes the software for graph storage, analysis and visualization. The article presents a comparative analysis of existing software for analysis and visualization of graphs, describes the overall architecture of application and basic principles of construction and operation of the main modules. Furthermore, a description of the developed graph storage oriented to storage and processing of large-scale graphs is presented. The developed algorithm for finding communities and implemented algorithms of autolayouts of graphs are the main functionality of the product. The main advantage of the developed software is high speed processing of large size networks (up to millions of nodes and links. Moreover, the proposed graph storage architecture is unique and has no analogues. The developed approaches and algorithms are optimized for operating with big graphs and have high productivity.

9. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

2010-01-01

In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of Â¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

10. Submanifolds weakly associated with graphs

A CARRIAZO, L M FERN ´ANDEZ and A RODRÍGUEZ-HIDALGO. Department of Geometry and Topology, ..... by means of trees (connected graphs without cycles) and forests (disjoint unions of trees, see [6]) given in [3], by extending it to weak ... CR-submanifold. In this case, every tree is a K2. Finally, Theorem 3.8 of [3] can ...

11. Topological structure of dictionary graphs

Fuks, Henryk; Krzeminski, Mark

2009-01-01

We investigate the topological structure of the subgraphs of dictionary graphs constructed from WordNet and Moby thesaurus data. In the process of learning a foreign language, the learner knows only a subset of all words of the language, corresponding to a subgraph of a dictionary graph. When this subgraph grows with time, its topological properties change. We introduce the notion of the pseudocore and argue that the growth of the vocabulary roughly follows decreasing pseudocore numbers-that is, one first learns words with a high pseudocore number followed by smaller pseudocores. We also propose an alternative strategy for vocabulary growth, involving decreasing core numbers as opposed to pseudocore numbers. We find that as the core or pseudocore grows in size, the clustering coefficient first decreases, then reaches a minimum and starts increasing again. The minimum occurs when the vocabulary reaches a size between 10 3 and 10 4 . A simple model exhibiting similar behavior is proposed. The model is based on a generalized geometric random graph. Possible implications for language learning are discussed.

12. Quantum information processing with graph states

Schlingemann, Dirk-Michael

2005-04-01

Graph states are multiparticle states which are associated with graphs. Each vertex of the graph corresponds to a single system or particle. The links describe quantum correlations (entanglement) between pairs of connected particles. Graph states were initiated independently by two research groups: On the one hand, graph states were introduced by Briegel and Raussendorf as a resource for a new model of one-way quantum computing, where algorithms are implemented by a sequence of measurements at single particles. On the other hand, graph states were developed by the author of this thesis and ReinhardWerner in Braunschweig, as a tool to build quantum error correcting codes, called graph codes. The connection between the two approaches was fully realized in close cooperation of both research groups. This habilitation thesis provides a survey of the theory of graph codes, focussing mainly, but not exclusively on the author's own research work. We present the theoretical and mathematical background for the analysis of graph codes. The concept of one-way quantum computing for general graph states is discussed. We explicitly show how to realize the encoding and decoding device of a graph code on a one-way quantum computer. This kind of implementation is to be seen as a mathematical description of a quantum memory device. In addition to that, we investigate interaction processes, which enable the creation of graph states on very large systems. Particular graph states can be created, for instance, by an Ising type interaction between next neighbor particles which sits at the points of an infinitely extended cubic lattice. Based on the theory of quantum cellular automata, we give a constructive characterization of general interactions which create a translationally invariant graph state. (orig.)

13. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

P. Anusha Devi

2015-10-01

Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

14. Replica methods for loopy sparse random graphs

Coolen, ACC

2016-01-01

I report on the development of a novel statistical mechanical formalism for the analysis of random graphs with many short loops, and processes on such graphs. The graphs are defined via maximum entropy ensembles, in which both the degrees (via hard constraints) and the adjacency matrix spectrum (via a soft constraint) are prescribed. The sum over graphs can be done analytically, using a replica formalism with complex replica dimensions. All known results for tree-like graphs are recovered in a suitable limit. For loopy graphs, the emerging theory has an appealing and intuitive structure, suggests how message passing algorithms should be adapted, and what is the structure of theories describing spin systems on loopy architectures. However, the formalism is still largely untested, and may require further adjustment and refinement. (paper)

15. Chemical Graph Transformation with Stereo-Information

Andersen, Jakob Lykke; Flamm, Christoph; Merkle, Daniel

2017-01-01

Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms and their neighbo......Double Pushout graph transformation naturally facilitates the modelling of chemical reactions: labelled undirected graphs model molecules and direct derivations model chemical reactions. However, the most straightforward modelling approach ignores the relative placement of atoms...... and their neighbours in space. Stereoisomers of chemical compounds thus cannot be distinguished, even though their chemical activity may differ substantially. In this contribution we propose an extended chemical graph transformation system with attributes that encode information about local geometry. The modelling...... of graph transformation, but we here propose a framework that also allows for partially specified stereoinformation. While there are several stereochemical configurations to be considered, we focus here on the tetrahedral molecular shape, and suggest general principles for how to treat all other chemically...

16. Reconstructing Topological Graphs and Continua

Gartside, Paul; Pitz, Max F.; Suabedissen, Rolf

2015-01-01

The deck of a topological space $X$ is the set $\\mathcal{D}(X)=\\{[X \\setminus \\{x\\}] \\colon x \\in X\\}$, where $[Z]$ denotes the homeomorphism class of $Z$. A space $X$ is topologically reconstructible if whenever $\\mathcal{D}(X)=\\mathcal{D}(Y)$ then $X$ is homeomorphic to $Y$. It is shown that all metrizable compact connected spaces are reconstructible. It follows that all finite graphs, when viewed as a 1-dimensional cell-complex, are reconstructible in the topological sense, and more genera...

17. Decomposing a graph into bistars

Thomassen, Carsten

2013-01-01

Bárat and the present author conjectured that, for each tree T, there exists a natural number kT such that the following holds: If G is a kT-edge-connected graph such that |E(T)| divides |E(G)|, then G has a T-decomposition, that is, a decomposition of the edge set into trees each of which...... is isomorphic to T. The conjecture has been verified for infinitely many paths and for each star. In this paper we verify the conjecture for an infinite family of trees that are neither paths nor stars, namely all the bistars S(k,k+1)....

18. On path hypercompositions in graphs and automata

Massouros Christos G.

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The paths in graphs define hypercompositions in the set of their vertices and therefore it is feasible to associate hypercompositional structures to each graph. Similarly, the strings of letters from their alphabet, define hypercompositions in the automata, which in turn define the associated hypergroups to the automata. The study of the associated hypercompositional structures gives results in both, graphs and automata theory.

19. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

2014-09-01

Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

20. Steiner Distance in Graphs--A Survey

Mao, Yaping

2017-01-01

For a connected graph $G$ of order at least $2$ and $S\\subseteq V(G)$, the \\emph{Steiner distance} $d_G(S)$ among the vertices of $S$ is the minimum size among all connected subgraphs whose vertex sets contain $S$. In this paper, we summarize the known results on the Steiner distance parameters, including Steiner distance, Steiner diameter, Steiner center, Steiner median, Steiner interval, Steiner distance hereditary graph, Steiner distance stable graph, average Steiner distance, and Steiner ...

1. Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs

Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan

2006-01-01

subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....

2. Efficient Algorithmic Frameworks via Structural Graph Theory

2016-10-28

constant. For example, they measured that, on large samples of the entire network, the Amazon graph has average degree 17.7, the Facebook graph has average...department heads’ opinions of departments, and generally lack transparency and well-defined measures . On the other hand, the National Research Council (the...Efficient and practical resource block allocation for LTE -based D2D network via graph coloring. Wireless Networks 20(4): 611-624 (2014) 50. Hossein

3. Decomposing a planar graph into an independent set and a 3-degenerate graph

Thomassen, Carsten

2001-01-01

We prove the conjecture made by O. V. Borodin in 1976 that the vertex set of every planar graph can be decomposed into an independent set and a set inducing a 3-degenerate graph. (C) 2001 Academic Press....

4. Graph algorithms in the titan toolkit.

McLendon, William Clarence, III; Wylie, Brian Neil

2009-10-01

Graph algorithms are a key component in a wide variety of intelligence analysis activities. The Graph-Based Informatics for Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism project addresses the critical need of making these graph algorithms accessible to Sandia analysts in a manner that is both intuitive and effective. Specifically we describe the design and implementation of an open source toolkit for doing graph analysis, informatics, and visualization that provides Sandia with novel analysis capability for non-proliferation and counter-terrorism.

5. The Harary index of a graph

2015-01-01

This is the first book to focus on the topological index, the Harary index, of a graph, including its mathematical properties, chemical applications and some related and attractive open problems. This book is dedicated to Professor Frank Harary (1921—2005), the grandmaster of graph theory and its applications. It has be written by experts in the field of graph theory and its applications. For a connected graph G, as an important distance-based topological index, the Harary index H(G) is defined as the sum of the reciprocals of the distance between any two unordered vertices of the graph G. In this book, the authors report on the newest results on the Harary index of a graph. These results mainly concern external graphs with respect to the Harary index; the relations to other topological indices; its properties and applications to pure graph theory and chemical graph theory; and two significant variants, i.e., additively and multiplicatively weighted Harary indices. In the last chapter, we present a number o...

6. Mechatronic modeling and simulation using bond graphs

Das, Shuvra

2009-01-01

Introduction to Mechatronics and System ModelingWhat Is Mechatronics?What Is a System and Why Model Systems?Mathematical Modeling Techniques Used in PracticeSoftwareBond Graphs: What Are They?Engineering SystemsPortsGeneralized VariablesBond GraphsBasic Components in SystemsA Brief Note about Bond Graph Power DirectionsSummary of Bond Direction RulesDrawing Bond Graphs for Simple Systems: Electrical and MechanicalSimplification Rules for Junction StructureDrawing Bond Graphs for Electrical SystemsDrawing Bond Graphs for Mechanical SystemsCausalityDrawing Bond Graphs for Hydraulic and Electronic Components and SystemsSome Basic Properties and Concepts for FluidsBond Graph Model of Hydraulic SystemsElectronic SystemsDeriving System Equations from Bond GraphsSystem VariablesDeriving System EquationsTackling Differential CausalityAlgebraic LoopsSolution of Model Equations and Their InterpretationZeroth Order SystemsFirst Order SystemsSecond Order SystemTransfer Functions and Frequency ResponsesNumerical Solution ...

7. An algebraic approach to graph codes

Pinero, Fernando

This thesis consists of six chapters. The first chapter, contains a short introduction to coding theory in which we explain the coding theory concepts we use. In the second chapter, we present the required theory for evaluation codes and also give an example of some fundamental codes in coding...... theory as evaluation codes. Chapter three consists of the introduction to graph based codes, such as Tanner codes and graph codes. In Chapter four, we compute the dimension of some graph based codes with a result combining graph based codes and subfield subcodes. Moreover, some codes in chapter four...

8. The color space of a graph

Jensen, T.R.; Thomassen, Carsten

2000-01-01

If k is a prime power, and G is a graph with n vertices, then a k-coloring of G may be considered as a vector in GF(k)(n). We prove that the subspace of GF(3)(n) spanned by all 3-colorings of a planar triangle-free graph with n vertices has dimension n. In particular, any such graph has at least n...... - 1 nonequivalent 3-colorings, and the addition of any edge or any vertex of degree 3 results in a 3-colorable graph. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

9. Interactive Graph Layout of a Million Nodes

Peng Mi

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Sensemaking of large graphs, specifically those with millions of nodes, is a crucial task in many fields. Automatic graph layout algorithms, augmented with real-time human-in-the-loop interaction, can potentially support sensemaking of large graphs. However, designing interactive algorithms to achieve this is challenging. In this paper, we tackle the scalability problem of interactive layout of large graphs, and contribute a new GPU-based force-directed layout algorithm that exploits graph topology. This algorithm can interactively layout graphs with millions of nodes, and support real-time interaction to explore alternative graph layouts. Users can directly manipulate the layout of vertices in a force-directed fashion. The complexity of traditional repulsive force computation is reduced by approximating calculations based on the hierarchical structure of multi-level clustered graphs. We evaluate the algorithm performance, and demonstrate human-in-the-loop layout in two sensemaking case studies. Moreover, we summarize lessons learned for designing interactive large graph layout algorithms on the GPU.

10. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

Kraus, Martin

2011-01-01

-filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...... solutions for the design of text-filled stacked area graphs with the help of an exemplary visualization of the genres, publication years, and titles of a database of several thousand PC games....

11. Reconstructing Nearly Simple Polytopes from their Graph

Doolittle, Joseph

2017-01-01

We present a partial description of which polytopes are reconstructible from their graphs. This is an extension of work by Blind and Mani (1987) and Kalai (1988), which showed that simple polytopes can be reconstructed from their graphs. In particular, we introduce a notion of $h$-nearly simple and prove that 1-nearly simple and 2-nearly simple polytopes are reconstructible from their graphs. We also give an example of a 3-nearly simple polytope which is not reconstructible from its graph. Fu...

12. A Reduction of the Graph Reconstruction Conjecture

Monikandan S.

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A graph is said to be reconstructible if it is determined up to isomor- phism from the collection of all its one-vertex deleted unlabeled subgraphs. Reconstruction Conjecture (RC asserts that all graphs on at least three vertices are reconstructible. In this paper, we prove that interval-regular graphs and some new classes of graphs are reconstructible and show that RC is true if and only if all non-geodetic and non-interval-regular blocks G with diam(G = 2 or diam(Ḡ = diam(G = 3 are reconstructible

13. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

2015-06-01

Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

14. Equitable Colorings Of Corona Multiproducts Of Graphs

Furmánczyk Hanna

2017-11-01

Full Text Available A graph is equitably k-colorable if its vertices can be partitioned into k independent sets in such a way that the numbers of vertices in any two sets differ by at most one. The smallest k for which such a coloring exists is known as the equitable chromatic number of G and denoted by =(G. It is known that the problem of computation of =(G is NP-hard in general and remains so for corona graphs. In this paper we consider the same model of coloring in the case of corona multiproducts of graphs. In particular, we obtain some results regarding the equitable chromatic number for the l-corona product G ◦l H, where G is an equitably 3- or 4-colorable graph and H is an r-partite graph, a cycle or a complete graph. Our proofs are mostly constructive in that they lead to polynomial algorithms for equitable coloring of such graph products provided that there is given an equitable coloring of G. Moreover, we confirm the Equitable Coloring Conjecture for corona products of such graphs. This paper extends the results from [H. Furmánczyk, K. Kaliraj, M. Kubale and V.J. Vivin, Equitable coloring of corona products of graphs, Adv. Appl. Discrete Math. 11 (2013 103–120].

15. VT Digital Line Graph Miscellaneous Transmission Lines

Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This datalayer is comprised of Miscellaineous Transmission Lines. Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic...

16. On cyclic orthogonal double covers of circulant graphs by special infinite graphs

R. El-Shanawany

2017-12-01

Full Text Available In this article, a technique to construct cyclic orthogonal double covers (CODCs of regular circulant graphs by certain infinite graph classes such as complete bipartite and tripartite graphs and disjoint union of butterfly and K1,2n−10 is introduced.

17. The complexity of the matching-cut problem for planar graphs and other graph classes

Bonsma, P.S.

2009-01-01

The Matching-Cut problem is the problem to decide whether a graph has an edge cut that is also a matching. Previously this problem was studied under the name of the Decomposable Graph Recognition problem, and proved to be -complete when restricted to graphs with maximum degree four. In this paper it

18. Probability on graphs random processes on graphs and lattices

Grimmett, Geoffrey

2018-01-01

This introduction to some of the principal models in the theory of disordered systems leads the reader through the basics, to the very edge of contemporary research, with the minimum of technical fuss. Topics covered include random walk, percolation, self-avoiding walk, interacting particle systems, uniform spanning tree, random graphs, as well as the Ising, Potts, and random-cluster models for ferromagnetism, and the Lorentz model for motion in a random medium. This new edition features accounts of major recent progress, including the exact value of the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice, and the critical point of the random-cluster model on the square lattice. The choice of topics is strongly motivated by modern applications, and focuses on areas that merit further research. Accessible to a wide audience of mathematicians and physicists, this book can be used as a graduate course text. Each chapter ends with a range of exercises.

19. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

2015-01-01

In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

20. Isospectral graphs with identical nodal counts

Oren, Idan; Band, Ram

2012-01-01

According to a recent conjecture, isospectral objects have different nodal count sequences (Gnutzmann et al 2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 8921–33). We study generalized Laplacians on discrete graphs, and use them to construct the first non-trivial counterexamples to this conjecture. In addition, these examples demonstrate a surprising connection between isospectral discrete and quantum graphs. (paper)

1. Compression-based inference on graph data

Bloem, P.; van den Bosch, A.; Heskes, T.; van Leeuwen, D.

2013-01-01

We investigate the use of compression-based learning on graph data. General purpose compressors operate on bitstrings or other sequential representations. A single graph can be represented sequentially in many ways, which may in uence the performance of sequential compressors. Using Normalized

2. On minimum degree conditions for supereulerian graphs

Broersma, Haitze J.; Xiong, L.

1999-01-01

A graph is called supereulerian if it has a spanning closed trail. Let $G$ be a 2-edge-connected graph of order $n$ such that each minimal edge cut $E \\subseteq E (G)$ with $|E| \\le 3$ satisfies the property that each component of $G-E$ has order at least $(n-2)/5$. We prove that either $G$ is

3. On the exterior structure of graphs

Kastler, Daniel

2004-01-01

After a detailed ab initio description of the exterior structure of graphs as handled by Connes and Kreimer in their work on renormalization (illustrated by the example of the φ 3 model in six dimensions) we spell out in detail their study of the Lie algebra of infinitesimal characters and of the group of characters of the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs

4. The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes

Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

2011-01-01

We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....

5. Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs | Henning ...

Domination versus disjunctive domination in graphs. Michael A Henning, Sinclair A Marcon. Abstract. A dominating set in a graph G is a set S of vertices of G such that every vertex not in S is adjacent to a vertex of S. The domination number of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set of G. For a positive integer b, ...

6. Eigenvalues and expansion of bipartite graphs

Høholdt, Tom; Janwa, Heeralal

2012-01-01

We prove lower bounds on the largest and second largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of bipartite graphs and give necessary and sufficient conditions for equality. We give several examples of classes that are optimal with respect to the bouns. We prove that BIBD-graphs are characterized by ...

7. Co-Roman domination in graphs

1National Centre for Advanced Research in Discrete Mathematics ... 3Department of Computer Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA .... The corona of two disjoint graphs G1 and G2 is defined to be the graph G = G1 ◦ G2,.

8. Trajectories entropy in dynamical graphs with memory

Francesco eCaravelli

2016-04-01

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the application of non-local graph entropy to evolving and dynamical graphs. The measure is based upon the notion of Markov diffusion on a graph, and relies on the entropy applied to trajectories originating at a specific node. In particular, we study the model of reinforcement-decay graph dynamics, which leads to scale free graphs. We find that the node entropy characterizes the structure of the network in the two parameter phase-space describing the dynamical evolution of the weighted graph. We then apply an adapted version of the entropy measure to purely memristive circuits. We provide evidence that meanwhile in the case of DC voltage the entropy based on the forward probability is enough to characterize the graph properties, in the case of AC voltage generators one needs to consider both forward and backward based transition probabilities. We provide also evidence that the entropy highlights the self-organizing properties of memristive circuits, which re-organizes itself to satisfy the symmetries of the underlying graph.

9. Graphs, Ideal Flow, and the Transportation Network

Teknomo, Kardi

2016-01-01

This lecture discusses the mathematical relationship between network structure and network utilization of transportation network. Network structure means the graph itself. Network utilization represent the aggregation of trajectories of agents in using the network graph. I show the similarity and relationship between the structural pattern of the network and network utilization.

10. Supplantation of Mental Operations on Graphs

Vogel, Markus; Girwidz, Raimund; Engel, Joachim

2007-01-01

Research findings show the difficulties younger students have in working with graphs. Higher mental operations are necessary for a skilled interpretation of abstract representations. We suggest connecting a concrete representation of the modeled problem with the related graph. The idea is to illustrate essential mental operations externally. This…

11. Some remarks on definability of process graphs

Grabmayer, C.A.; Klop, J.W.; Luttik, B.; Baier, C.; Hermanns, H.

2006-01-01

We propose the notions of "density" and "connectivity" of infinite process graphs and investigate them in the context of the wellknown process algebras BPA and BPP. For a process graph G, the density function in a state s maps a natural number n to the number of states of G with distance less or

12. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements

2009-01-01

This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns)

13. Declarative Process Mining for DCR Graphs

Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas T.; Laursen, Paw Høvsgaard

2017-01-01

We investigate process mining for the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) graphs process modelling language. We contribute (a) a process mining algorithm for DCR graphs, (b) a proposal for a set of metrics quantifying output model quality, and (c) a preliminary example-based comparison...

14. A Graph Library Extension of SVG

Nørmark, Kurt

2007-01-01

be aggregated as a single node, and an entire graph can be embedded in a single node. In addition, a number of different graph animations are described. The starting point of the SVG extension is a library that provides an exact of mirror of SVG 1.1 in the functional programming language Scheme. Each element...

15. Acyclicity in edge-colored graphs

Gutin, Gregory; Jones, Mark; Sheng, Bin

2017-01-01

A walk W in edge-colored graphs is called properly colored (PC) if every pair of consecutive edges in W is of different color. We introduce and study five types of PC acyclicity in edge-colored graphs such that graphs of PC acyclicity of type i is a proper superset of graphs of acyclicity of type i......+1, i=1,2,3,4. The first three types are equivalent to the absence of PC cycles, PC closed trails, and PC closed walks, respectively. While graphs of types 1, 2 and 3 can be recognized in polynomial time, the problem of recognizing graphs of type 4 is, somewhat surprisingly, NP-hard even for 2-edge-colored...... graphs (i.e., when only two colors are used). The same problem with respect to type 5 is polynomial-time solvable for all edge-colored graphs. Using the five types, we investigate the border between intractability and tractability for the problems of finding the maximum number of internally vertex...

16. From concatenated codes to graph codes

Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

2004-01-01

We consider codes based on simple bipartite expander graphs. These codes may be seen as the first step leading from product type concatenated codes to more complex graph codes. We emphasize constructions of specific codes of realistic lengths, and study the details of decoding by message passing...

17. Graph coarsening and clustering on the GPU

Fagginger Auer, B.O.; Bisseling, R.H.

2013-01-01

Agglomerative clustering is an effective greedy way to quickly generate graph clusterings of high modularity in a small amount of time. In an effort to use the power offered by multi-core CPU and GPU hardware to solve the clustering problem, we introduce a fine-grained sharedmemory parallel graph

18. Pixels to Graphs by Associative Embedding

Newell, Alejandro; Deng, Jia

2017-01-01

network such that it takes in an input image and produces a full graph. This is done end-to-end in a single stage with the use of associative embeddings. The network learns to simultaneously identify all of the elements that make up a graph and piece them

19. Isomorphisms and traversability of directed path graphs

Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Xueliang; Li, X.

1998-01-01

The concept of a line digraph is generalized to that of a directed path graph. The directed path graph $\\forw P_k(D)$ of a digraph $D$ is obtained by representing the directed paths on $k$ vertices of $D$ by vertices. Two vertices are joined by an arc whenever the corresponding directed paths in $D$

20. Perfect secure domination in graphs

S.V. Divya Rashmi

2017-07-01

Full Text Available Let $G=(V,E$ be a graph. A subset $S$ of $V$ is a dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $Vsetminus S$ is adjacent to a vertex in $S.$ A dominating set $S$ is called a secure dominating set if for each $vin Vsetminus S$ there exists $uin S$ such that $v$ is adjacent to $u$ and $S_1=(Ssetminus{u}cup {v}$ is a dominating set. If further the vertex $uin S$ is unique, then $S$ is called a perfect secure dominating set. The minimum cardinality of a perfect secure dominating set of $G$ is called the perfect  secure domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_{ps}(G.$ In this paper we initiate a study of this parameter and present several basic results.

1. Graph Mining Meets the Semantic Web

Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL

2015-01-01

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) and SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL) were introduced about a decade ago to enable flexible schema-free data interchange on the Semantic Web. Today, data scientists use the framework as a scalable graph representation for integrating, querying, exploring and analyzing data sets hosted at different sources. With increasing adoption, the need for graph mining capabilities for the Semantic Web has emerged. We address that need through implementation of three popular iterative Graph Mining algorithms (Triangle count, Connected component analysis, and PageRank). We implement these algorithms as SPARQL queries, wrapped within Python scripts. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on 6 real world data sets and show graph mining algorithms (that have a linear-algebra formulation) can indeed be unleashed on data represented as RDF graphs using the SPARQL query interface.

2. On the nullity number of graphs

Mustapha Aouchiche

2017-10-01

Full Text Available The paper discusses bounds on the nullity number of graphs. It is proved in [B. Cheng and B. Liu, On the nullity of graphs. Electron. J. Linear Algebra 16 (2007 60--67] that $\\eta \\le n - D$, where $\\eta$, n and D denote the nullity number, the order and the diameter of a connected graph, respectively. We first give a necessary condition on the extremal graphs corresponding to that bound, and then we strengthen the bound itself using the maximum clique number. In addition, we prove bounds on the nullity using the number of pendant neighbors in a graph. One of those bounds is an improvement of a known bound involving the domination number.

3. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

2011-01-01

in a third syntactic theory. The structure of the store-based abstract machine corresponding to this third syntactic theory oincides with that of Turner's original reduction machine. The three syntactic theories presented here The three syntactic heories presented here therefore have the following......We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this syntactic theory as a reduction semantics, which we refocus into the first storeless abstract machine...... for combinatory graph reduction, which we refunctionalize into the first storeless natural semantics for combinatory graph reduction.We then factor out the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand, resulting in a second syntactic theory, this one...

4. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

2013-01-01

, as a store-based reduction semantics of combinatory term graphs. We then refocus this store-based reduction semantics into a store-based abstract machine. The architecture of this store-based abstract machine coincides with that of Turner's original reduction machine. The three syntactic theories presented......We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this rst syntactic theory as a storeless reduction semantics of combinatory terms. We then factor out...... the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand . The factored terms can be interpreted as term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. We express this second syntactic theory, which we prove equivalent to the rst, as a storeless reduction semantics...

5. Algorithms and Data Structures for Graphs

Rotenberg, Eva

are planar graphs, which are those that can be drawn on a piece of paper without any pair of edges crossing. For planar graphs where each edge can only be traversed in one direction, a fundamental question is whether there is a route from vertex A to vertex B in the graph. We show how such a graph can...... of the form: "Is there an edge such that all paths between A and B go via that edge?" and which can quickly be updated when edges are inserted or deleted. We further show how to represent a planar graph such that we can quickly update our representation when an edge is deleted, and such that questions...

6. OPEX: Optimized Eccentricity Computation in Graphs

Henderson, Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

2011-11-14

Real-world graphs have many properties of interest, but often these properties are expensive to compute. We focus on eccentricity, radius and diameter in this work. These properties are useful measures of the global connectivity patterns in a graph. Unfortunately, computing eccentricity for all nodes is O(n2) for a graph with n nodes. We present OPEX, a novel combination of optimizations which improves computation time of these properties by orders of magnitude in real-world experiments on graphs of many different sizes. We run OPEX on graphs with up to millions of links. OPEX gives either exact results or bounded approximations, unlike its competitors which give probabilistic approximations or sacrifice node-level information (eccentricity) to compute graphlevel information (diameter).

7. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

Hajian Majid

2017-11-01

Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

8. Pristine transfinite graphs and permissive electrical networks

Zemanian, Armen H

2001-01-01

A transfinite graph or electrical network of the first rank is obtained conceptually by connecting conventionally infinite graphs and networks together at their infinite extremities. This process can be repeated to obtain a hierarchy of transfiniteness whose ranks increase through the countable ordinals. This idea, which is of recent origin, has enriched the theories of graphs and networks with radically new constructs and research problems. The book provides a more accessible introduction to the subject that, though sacrificing some generality, captures the essential ideas of transfiniteness for graphs and networks. Thus, for example, some results concerning discrete potentials and random walks on transfinite networks can now be presented more concisely. Conversely, the simplifications enable the development of many new results that were previously unavailable. Topics and features: *A simplified exposition provides an introduction to transfiniteness for graphs and networks.*Various results for conventional g...

9. A model of language inflection graphs

Fukś, Henryk; Farzad, Babak; Cao, Yi

2014-01-01

Inflection graphs are highly complex networks representing relationships between inflectional forms of words in human languages. For so-called synthetic languages, such as Latin or Polish, they have particularly interesting structure due to the abundance of inflectional forms. We construct the simplest form of inflection graphs, namely a bipartite graph in which one group of vertices corresponds to dictionary headwords and the other group to inflected forms encountered in a given text. We, then, study projection of this graph on the set of headwords. The projection decomposes into a large number of connected components, to be called word groups. Distribution of sizes of word group exhibits some remarkable properties, resembling cluster distribution in a lattice percolation near the critical point. We propose a simple model which produces graphs of this type, reproducing the desired component distribution and other topological features.

10. Disease management research using event graphs.

Allore, H G; Schruben, L W

2000-08-01

Event Graphs, conditional representations of stochastic relationships between discrete events, simulate disease dynamics. In this paper, we demonstrate how Event Graphs, at an appropriate abstraction level, also extend and organize scientific knowledge about diseases. They can identify promising treatment strategies and directions for further research and provide enough detail for testing combinations of new medicines and interventions. Event Graphs can be enriched to incorporate and validate data and test new theories to reflect an expanding dynamic scientific knowledge base and establish performance criteria for the economic viability of new treatments. To illustrate, an Event Graph is developed for mastitis, a costly dairy cattle disease, for which extensive scientific literature exists. With only a modest amount of imagination, the methodology presented here can be seen to apply modeling to any disease, human, plant, or animal. The Event Graph simulation presented here is currently being used in research and in a new veterinary epidemiology course. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

11. Pixels to Graphs by Associative Embedding

Newell, Alejandro

2017-06-22

Graphs are a useful abstraction of image content. Not only can graphs represent details about individual objects in a scene but they can capture the interactions between pairs of objects. We present a method for training a convolutional neural network such that it takes in an input image and produces a full graph. This is done end-to-end in a single stage with the use of associative embeddings. The network learns to simultaneously identify all of the elements that make up a graph and piece them together. We benchmark on the Visual Genome dataset, and report a Recall@50 of 9.7% compared to the prior state-of-the-art at 3.4%, a nearly threefold improvement on the challenging task of scene graph generation.

12. Approximate Computing Techniques for Iterative Graph Algorithms

Panyala, Ajay R.; Subasi, Omer; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chavarria Miranda, Daniel G.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram

2017-12-18

Approximate computing enables processing of large-scale graphs by trading off quality for performance. Approximate computing techniques have become critical not only due to the emergence of parallel architectures but also the availability of large scale datasets enabling data-driven discovery. Using two prototypical graph algorithms, PageRank and community detection, we present several approximate computing heuristics to scale the performance with minimal loss of accuracy. We present several heuristics including loop perforation, data caching, incomplete graph coloring and synchronization, and evaluate their efficiency. We demonstrate performance improvements of up to 83% for PageRank and up to 450x for community detection, with low impact of accuracy for both the algorithms. We expect the proposed approximate techniques will enable scalable graph analytics on data of importance to several applications in science and their subsequent adoption to scale similar graph algorithms.

13. Inferring ontology graph structures using OWL reasoning

Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel

2018-01-05

Ontologies are representations of a conceptualization of a domain. Traditionally, ontologies in biology were represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAG) which represent the backbone taxonomy and additional relations between classes. These graphs are widely exploited for data analysis in the form of ontology enrichment or computation of semantic similarity. More recently, ontologies are developed in a formal language such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and consist of a set of axioms through which classes are defined or constrained. While the taxonomy of an ontology can be inferred directly from the axioms of an ontology as one of the standard OWL reasoning tasks, creating general graph structures from OWL ontologies that exploit the ontologies\\' semantic content remains a challenge.We developed a method to transform ontologies into graphs using an automated reasoner while taking into account all relations between classes. Searching for (existential) patterns in the deductive closure of ontologies, we can identify relations between classes that are implied but not asserted and generate graph structures that encode for a large part of the ontologies\\' semantic content. We demonstrate the advantages of our method by applying it to inference of protein-protein interactions through semantic similarity over the Gene Ontology and demonstrate that performance is increased when graph structures are inferred using deductive inference according to our method. Our software and experiment results are available at http://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/Onto2Graph .Onto2Graph is a method to generate graph structures from OWL ontologies using automated reasoning. The resulting graphs can be used for improved ontology visualization and ontology-based data analysis.

14. Inferring ontology graph structures using OWL reasoning.

Rodríguez-García, Miguel Ángel; Hoehndorf, Robert

2018-01-05

Ontologies are representations of a conceptualization of a domain. Traditionally, ontologies in biology were represented as directed acyclic graphs (DAG) which represent the backbone taxonomy and additional relations between classes. These graphs are widely exploited for data analysis in the form of ontology enrichment or computation of semantic similarity. More recently, ontologies are developed in a formal language such as the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and consist of a set of axioms through which classes are defined or constrained. While the taxonomy of an ontology can be inferred directly from the axioms of an ontology as one of the standard OWL reasoning tasks, creating general graph structures from OWL ontologies that exploit the ontologies' semantic content remains a challenge. We developed a method to transform ontologies into graphs using an automated reasoner while taking into account all relations between classes. Searching for (existential) patterns in the deductive closure of ontologies, we can identify relations between classes that are implied but not asserted and generate graph structures that encode for a large part of the ontologies' semantic content. We demonstrate the advantages of our method by applying it to inference of protein-protein interactions through semantic similarity over the Gene Ontology and demonstrate that performance is increased when graph structures are inferred using deductive inference according to our method. Our software and experiment results are available at http://github.com/bio-ontology-research-group/Onto2Graph . Onto2Graph is a method to generate graph structures from OWL ontologies using automated reasoning. The resulting graphs can be used for improved ontology visualization and ontology-based data analysis.

15. Graph-based Operational Semantics of a Lazy Functional Languages

Rose, Kristoffer Høgsbro

1992-01-01

Presents Graph Operational Semantics (GOS): a semantic specification formalism based on structural operational semantics and term graph rewriting. Demonstrates the method by specifying the dynamic ...

16. Twin edge colorings of certain square graphs and product graphs

R Rajarajachozhan

2016-04-01

Full Text Available A twin edge $k\\!$-coloring of a graph $G$ is a proper edge $k$-coloring of $G$ with the elements of $\\mathbb{Z}_k$ so that the induced vertex $k$-coloring, in which the color of a vertex $v$ in $G$ is the sum in $\\mathbb{Z}_k$ of the colors of the edges incident with $v,$ is a proper vertex $k\\!$-coloring. The minimum $k$ for which $G$ has a twin edge $k\\!$-coloring is called the twin chromatic index of $G.$ Twin chromatic index of the square $P_n^2,$ $n\\ge 4,$ and the square $C_n^2,$ $n\\ge 6,$ are determined. In fact, the twin chromatic index of the square $C_7^2$ is $\\Delta+2,$ where $\\Delta$ is the maximum degree. Twin chromatic index of $C_m\\,\\Box\\,P_n$ is determined, where $\\Box$ denotes the Cartesian product. $C_r$ and $P_r$ are, respectively, the cycle, and the path on $r$ vertices each.

17. Graph-theoretical concepts and physicochemical data

Lionello Pogliani

2003-02-01

Full Text Available Graph theoretical concepts have been used to model the molecular polarizabilities of fifty-four organic derivatives, and the induced dipole moment of a set of fifty-seven organic compounds divided into three subsets. The starting point of these modeling strategies is the hydrogen-suppressed chemical graph and pseudograph of a molecule, which works very well for second row atoms. From these types of graphs a set of graph-theoretical basis indices, the molecular connectivity indices, can be derived and used to model properties and activities of molecules. With the aid of the molecular connectivity basis indices it is then possible to build higher-order descriptors. The problem of 'graph' encoding the contribution of the inner-core electrons of heteroatoms can here be solved with the aid of odd complete graphs, Kp-(p-odd. The use of these graph tools allow to draw an optimal modeling of the molecular polarizabilities and a satisfactory modeling of the induced dipole moment of a wide set of organic derivatives.

18. Optical generation of matter qubit graph states

Benjamin, S C; Eisert, J; Stace, T M

2005-01-01

We present a scheme for rapidly entangling matter qubits in order to create graph states for one-way quantum computing. The qubits can be simple three-level systems in separate cavities. Coupling involves only local fields and a static (unswitched) linear optics network. Fusion of graph-state sections occurs with, in principle, zero probability of damaging the nascent graph state. We avoid the finite thresholds of other schemes by operating on two entangled pairs, so that each generates exactly one photon. We do not require the relatively slow single qubit local flips to be applied during the growth phase: growth of the graph state can then become a purely optical process. The scheme naturally generates graph states with vertices of high degree and so is easily able to construct minimal graph states, with consequent resource savings. The most efficient approach will be to create new graph-state edges even as qubits elsewhere are measured, in a 'just in time' approach. An error analysis indicates that the scheme is relatively robust against imperfections in the apparatus

19. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

2012-01-01

Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

20. A heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator

Yeonchan, Ahn [Seoul National University; Sungchan, Park [Seoul National University; Lee, Matt Sangkeun [ORNL; Sang-goo, Lee [Seoul National University

2013-01-01

Heterogeneous graph-based recommendation frameworks have flexibility in that they can incorporate various recommendation algorithms and various kinds of information to produce better results. In this demonstration, we present a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation simulator which enables participants to experience the flexibility of a heterogeneous graph-based recommendation method. With our system, participants can simulate various recommendation semantics by expressing the semantics via meaningful paths like User Movie User Movie. The simulator then returns the recommendation results on the fly based on the user-customized semantics using a fast Monte Carlo algorithm.

1. Giant Components in Biased Graph Processes

Amir, Gideon; Gurel-Gurevich, Ori; Lubetzky, Eyal; Singer, Amit

2005-01-01

A random graph process, $\\Gorg[1](n)$, is a sequence of graphs on $n$ vertices which begins with the edgeless graph, and where at each step a single edge is added according to a uniform distribution on the missing edges. It is well known that in such a process a giant component (of linear size) typically emerges after $(1+o(1))\\frac{n}{2}$ edges (a phenomenon known as the double jump''), i.e., at time $t=1$ when using a timescale of $n/2$ edges in each step. We consider a generalization of ...

2. Graph Processing on GPUs: A Survey

Shi, Xuanhua; Zheng, Zhigao; Zhou, Yongluan

2018-01-01

hundreds of billions, has attracted much attention in both industry and academia. It still remains a great challenge to process such large-scale graphs. Researchers have been seeking for new possible solutions. Because of the massive degree of parallelism and the high memory access bandwidth in GPU......, utilizing GPU to accelerate graph processing proves to be a promising solution. This article surveys the key issues of graph processing on GPUs, including data layout, memory access pattern, workload mapping, and specific GPU programming. In this article, we summarize the state-of-the-art research on GPU...

3. The Partial Mapping of the Web Graph

Kristina Machova

2009-06-01

Full Text Available The paper presents an approach to partial mapping of a web sub-graph. This sub-graph contains the nearest surroundings of an actual web page. Our work deals with acquiring relevant Hyperlinks of a base web site, generation of adjacency matrix, the nearest distance matrix and matrix of converted distances of Hyperlinks, detection of compactness of web representation, and visualization of its graphical representation. The paper introduces an LWP algorithm – a technique for Hyperlink filtration.  This work attempts to help users with the orientation within the web graph.

4. Graph reconstruction with a betweenness oracle

Abrahamsen, Mikkel; Bodwin, Greg; Rotenberg, Eva

2016-01-01

Graph reconstruction algorithms seek to learn a hidden graph by repeatedly querying a blackbox oracle for information about the graph structure. Perhaps the most well studied and applied version of the problem uses a distance oracle, which can report the shortest path distance between any pair...... of nodes. We introduce and study the betweenness oracle, where bet(a, m, z) is true iff m lies on a shortest path between a and z. This oracle is strictly weaker than a distance oracle, in the sense that a betweenness query can be simulated by a constant number of distance queries, but not vice versa...

5. A first course in graph theory

Chartrand, Gary

2012-01-01

This comprehensive text offers undergraduates a remarkably student-friendly introduction to graph theory. Written by two of the field's most prominent experts, it takes an engaging approach that emphasizes graph theory's history. Unique examples and lucid proofs provide a sound yet accessible treatment that stimulates interest in an evolving subject and its many applications.Optional sections designated as ""excursion"" and ""exploration"" present interesting sidelights of graph theory and touch upon topics that allow students the opportunity to experiment and use their imaginations. Three app

6. On the strong metric dimension of generalized butterfly graph, starbarbell graph, and {C}_{m}\\odot {P}_{n} graph

Yunia Mayasari, Ratih; Atmojo Kusmayadi, Tri

2018-04-01

Let G be a connected graph with vertex set V(G) and edge set E(G). For every pair of vertices u,v\\in V(G), the interval I[u, v] between u and v to be the collection of all vertices that belong to some shortest u ‑ v path. A vertex s\\in V(G) strongly resolves two vertices u and v if u belongs to a shortest v ‑ s path or v belongs to a shortest u ‑ s path. A vertex set S of G is a strong resolving set of G if every two distinct vertices of G are strongly resolved by some vertex of S. The strong metric basis of G is a strong resolving set with minimal cardinality. The strong metric dimension sdim(G) of a graph G is defined as the cardinality of strong metric basis. In this paper we determine the strong metric dimension of a generalized butterfly graph, starbarbell graph, and {C}mȯ {P}n graph. We obtain the strong metric dimension of generalized butterfly graph is sdim(BFn ) = 2n ‑ 2. The strong metric dimension of starbarbell graph is sdim(S{B}{m1,{m}2,\\ldots,{m}n})={\\sum }i=1n({m}i-1)-1. The strong metric dimension of {C}mȯ {P}n graph are sdim({C}mȯ {P}n)=2m-1 for m > 3 and n = 2, and sdim({C}mȯ {P}n)=2m-2 for m > 3 and n > 2.

7. Graphing the order of the sexes: constructing, recalling, interpreting, and putting the self in gender difference graphs.

Hegarty, Peter; Lemieux, Anthony F; McQueen, Grant

2010-03-01

Graphs seem to connote facts more than words or tables do. Consequently, they seem unlikely places to spot implicit sexism at work. Yet, in 6 studies (N = 741), women and men constructed (Study 1) and recalled (Study 2) gender difference graphs with men's data first, and graphed powerful groups (Study 3) and individuals (Study 4) ahead of weaker ones. Participants who interpreted graph order as evidence of author "bias" inferred that the author graphed his or her own gender group first (Study 5). Women's, but not men's, preferences to graph men first were mitigated when participants graphed a difference between themselves and an opposite-sex friend prior to graphing gender differences (Study 6). Graph production and comprehension are affected by beliefs and suppositions about the groups represented in graphs to a greater degree than cognitive models of graph comprehension or realist models of scientific thinking have yet acknowledged.

8. Edge Cover Domination in Mangoldt Graph

Bheema

Department of Applied Mathematics, Y.V. University, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. Department of Mathematics, Sri Padmavati Mahila University, Tirupati, ...... arithmetic graphs, Ph.D Thesis, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India.

9. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 24K

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

10. Inferring ontology graph structures using OWL reasoning

Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Hoehndorf, Robert

2018-01-01

' semantic content remains a challenge.We developed a method to transform ontologies into graphs using an automated reasoner while taking into account all relations between classes. Searching for (existential) patterns in the deductive closure of ontologies

11. Distance matrices and quadratic embedding of graphs

Nobuaki Obata

2018-04-01

Full Text Available A connected graph is said to be of QE class if it admits  a quadratic embedding in a Hilbert space, or equivalently, if the distance matrix is conditionally negative definite. Several criteria for a graph to be of QE class are derived from the point of view of graph operations. For a quantitative criterion the QE constant is introduced and concrete examples are shown with explicit calculation. If the distance matrix admits a constant row sum, the QE constant coincides with the second largest eigenvalue of the distance matrix. The QE constants are determined for all graphs on $n$ vertices with $n\\le5$, among which two are not of QE class.

12. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

Sorour, Sameh; Aboutoraby, Neda; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

2015-01-01

© 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase

13. Digital Line Graphs (DLG) 100K

Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital line graph (DLG) data are digital representations of cartographic information. DLG's of map features are converted to digital form from maps and related...

14. Kuramoto model for infinite graphs with kernels

Canale, Eduardo; Tembine, Hamidou; Tempone, Raul; Zouraris, Georgios E.

2015-01-01

. We focus on circulant graphs which have enough symmetries to make the computations easier. We then focus on the asymptotic regime where an integro-partial differential equation is derived. Numerical analysis and convergence proofs of the Fokker

15. Quantum Graphs And Their Resonance Properties

Lipovsky, J.

2016-01-01

In the current review, we study the model of quantum graphs. We focus mainly on the resonance properties of quantum graphs. We define resolvent and scattering resonances and show their equivalence. We present various results on the asymptotics of the number of resolvent resonances in both non-magnetic and magnetic quantum graphs and find bounds on the coefficient by the leading term of the asymptotics. We explain methods how to find the spectral and resonance condition. Most of the notions and theorems are illustrated in examples. We show how to find resonances numerically and, in a simple example, we find trajectories of resonances in the complex plane. We discuss Fermi’s golden rule for quantum graphs and distribution of the mean intensity for the topological resonances. (author)

16. Determining X-chains in graph states

Wu, Jun-Yi; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

2016-01-01

The representation of graph states in the X-basis as well as the calculation of graph state overlaps can efficiently be performed by using the concept of X-chains (Wu et al 2015 Phys. Rev. A 92 012322). We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for X-chains and show that they can efficiently be determined by the Bareiss algorithm. An analytical approach for searching X-chain groups of a graph state is proposed. Furthermore we generalize the concept of X-chains to so-called Euler chains, whose induced subgraphs are Eulerian. This approach helps to determine if a given vertex set is an X-chain and we show how Euler chains can be used in the construction of multipartite Bell inequalities for graph states. (paper)

17. The signed permutation group on Feynman graphs

Purkart, Julian, E-mail: purkart@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2016-08-15

The Feynman rules assign to every graph an integral which can be written as a function of a scaling parameter L. Assuming L for the process under consideration is very small, so that contributions to the renormalization group are small, we can expand the integral and only consider the lowest orders in the scaling. The aim of this article is to determine specific combinations of graphs in a scalar quantum field theory that lead to a remarkable simplification of the first non-trivial term in the perturbation series. It will be seen that the result is independent of the renormalization scheme and the scattering angles. To achieve that goal we will utilize the parametric representation of scalar Feynman integrals as well as the Hopf algebraic structure of the Feynman graphs under consideration. Moreover, we will present a formula which reduces the effort of determining the first-order term in the perturbation series for the specific combination of graphs to a minimum.

18. Destroying longest cycles in graphs and digraphs

Van Aardt, Susan A.; Burger, Alewyn P.; Dunbar, Jean E.

2015-01-01

In 1978, C. Thomassen proved that in any graph one can destroy all the longest cycles by deleting at most one third of the vertices. We show that for graphs with circumference k≤8 it suffices to remove at most 1/k of the vertices. The Petersen graph demonstrates that this result cannot be extended...... to include k=9 but we show that in every graph with circumference nine we can destroy all 9-cycles by removing 1/5 of the vertices. We consider the analogous problem for digraphs and show that for digraphs with circumference k=2,3, it suffices to remove 1/k of the vertices. However this does not hold for k≥4....

19. Use of Attack Graphs in Security Systems

Vivek Shandilya

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Attack graphs have been used to model the vulnerabilities of the systems and their potential exploits. The successful exploits leading to the partial/total failure of the systems are subject of keen security interest. Considerable effort has been expended in exhaustive modeling, analyses, detection, and mitigation of attacks. One prominent methodology involves constructing attack graphs of the pertinent system for analysis and response strategies. This not only gives the simplified representation of the system, but also allows prioritizing the security properties whose violations are of greater concern, for both detection and repair. We present a survey and critical study of state-of-the-art technologies in attack graph generation and use in security system. Based on our research, we identify the potential, challenges, and direction of the current research in using attack graphs.

20. Query Optimizations over Decentralized RDF Graphs

Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Mansour, Essam; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

2017-01-01

Applications in life sciences, decentralized social networks, Internet of Things, and statistical linked dataspaces integrate data from multiple decentralized RDF graphs via SPARQL queries. Several approaches have been proposed to optimize query

1. Fixation probability on clique-based graphs

Choi, Jeong-Ok; Yu, Unjong

2018-02-01

The fixation probability of a mutant in the evolutionary dynamics of Moran process is calculated by the Monte-Carlo method on a few families of clique-based graphs. It is shown that the complete suppression of fixation can be realized with the generalized clique-wheel graph in the limit of small wheel-clique ratio and infinite size. The family of clique-star is an amplifier, and clique-arms graph changes from amplifier to suppressor as the fitness of the mutant increases. We demonstrate that the overall structure of a graph can be more important to determine the fixation probability than the degree or the heat heterogeneity. The dependence of the fixation probability on the position of the first mutant is discussed.

2. High Dimensional Spectral Graph Theory and Non-backtracking Random Walks on Graphs

Kempton, Mark

This thesis has two primary areas of focus. First we study connection graphs, which are weighted graphs in which each edge is associated with a d-dimensional rotation matrix for some fixed dimension d, in addition to a scalar weight. Second, we study non-backtracking random walks on graphs, which are random walks with the additional constraint that they cannot return to the immediately previous state at any given step. Our work in connection graphs is centered on the notion of consistency, that is, the product of rotations moving from one vertex to another is independent of the path taken, and a generalization called epsilon-consistency. We present higher dimensional versions of the combinatorial Laplacian matrix and normalized Laplacian matrix from spectral graph theory, and give results characterizing the consistency of a connection graph in terms of the spectra of these matrices. We generalize several tools from classical spectral graph theory, such as PageRank and effective resistance, to apply to connection graphs. We use these tools to give algorithms for sparsification, clustering, and noise reduction on connection graphs. In non-backtracking random walks, we address the question raised by Alon et. al. concerning how the mixing rate of a non-backtracking random walk to its stationary distribution compares to the mixing rate for an ordinary random walk. Alon et. al. address this question for regular graphs. We take a different approach, and use a generalization of Ihara's Theorem to give a new proof of Alon's result for regular graphs, and to extend the result to biregular graphs. Finally, we give a non-backtracking version of Polya's Random Walk Theorem for 2-dimensional grids.

3. Expander graphs in pure and applied mathematics

Lubotzky, Alexander

2012-01-01

Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

4. Data transfer using complete bipartite graph

Chandrasekaran, V. M.; Praba, B.; Manimaran, A.; Kailash, G.

2017-11-01

Information exchange extent is an estimation of the amount of information sent between two focuses on a framework in a given time period. It is an extremely significant perception in present world. There are many ways of message passing in the present situations. Some of them are through encryption, decryption, by using complete bipartite graph. In this paper, we recommend a method for communication using messages through encryption of a complete bipartite graph.

5. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

Chen, Ya-Chen

2010-01-01

A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

6. Graph Treewidth and Geometric Thickness Parameters

Dujmović, Vida; Wood, David R.

2005-01-01

Consider a drawing of a graph $G$ in the plane such that crossing edges are coloured differently. The minimum number of colours, taken over all drawings of $G$, is the classical graph parameter "thickness". By restricting the edges to be straight, we obtain the "geometric thickness". By further restricting the vertices to be in convex position, we obtain the "book thickness". This paper studies the relationship between these parameters and treewidth. Our first main result states that for grap...

7. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PENJADWALAN PEMBELAJARAN MENGGUNAKAN GRAPH COLORING

Taufik Hidayatulloh

2016-03-01

8. Minimal Function Graphs are not Instrumented

1992-01-01

The minimal function graph semantics of Jones and Mycroft is a standard denotational semantics modified to include only reachable' parts of a program. We show that it may be expressed directly in terms of the standard semantics without the need for instrumentation at the expression level and......, in doing so, bring out a connection with strictness. This also makes it possible to prove a stronger theorem of correctness for the minimal function graph semantics....

9. Outer-totalistic cellular automata on graphs

Marr, Carsten; Huett, Marc-Thorsten

2009-01-01

We present an intuitive formalism for implementing cellular automata on arbitrary topologies. By that means, we identify a symmetry operation in the class of elementary cellular automata. Moreover, we determine the subset of topologically sensitive elementary cellular automata and find that the overall number of complex patterns decreases under increasing neighborhood size in regular graphs. As exemplary applications, we apply the formalism to complex networks and compare the potential of scale-free graphs and metabolic networks to generate complex dynamics

10. The many faces of graph dynamics

Pignolet, Yvonne Anne; Roy, Matthieu; Schmid, Stefan; Tredan, Gilles

2017-06-01

The topological structure of complex networks has fascinated researchers for several decades, resulting in the discovery of many universal properties and reoccurring characteristics of different kinds of networks. However, much less is known today about the network dynamics: indeed, complex networks in reality are not static, but rather dynamically evolve over time. Our paper is motivated by the empirical observation that network evolution patterns seem far from random, but exhibit structure. Moreover, the specific patterns appear to depend on the network type, contradicting the existence of a ‘one fits it all’ model. However, we still lack observables to quantify these intuitions, as well as metrics to compare graph evolutions. Such observables and metrics are needed for extrapolating or predicting evolutions, as well as for interpolating graph evolutions. To explore the many faces of graph dynamics and to quantify temporal changes, this paper suggests to build upon the concept of centrality, a measure of node importance in a network. In particular, we introduce the notion of centrality distance, a natural similarity measure for two graphs which depends on a given centrality, characterizing the graph type. Intuitively, centrality distances reflect the extent to which (non-anonymous) node roles are different or, in case of dynamic graphs, have changed over time, between two graphs. We evaluate the centrality distance approach for five evolutionary models and seven real-world social and physical networks. Our results empirically show the usefulness of centrality distances for characterizing graph dynamics compared to a null-model of random evolution, and highlight the differences between the considered scenarios. Interestingly, our approach allows us to compare the dynamics of very different networks, in terms of scale and evolution speed.

11. Sparse geometric graphs with small dilation

Aronov, B.; Berg, de M.; Cheong, O.; Gudmundsson, J.; Haverkort, H.J.; Vigneron, A.; Deng, X.; Du, D.

2005-01-01

Given a set S of n points in the plane, and an integer k such that 0 = k graph with vertex set S, at most n – 1 + k edges, and dilation O(n / (k + 1)) can be computed in time O(n log n). We also construct n–point sets for which any geometric graph with n – 1 + k edges

12. Determinantal spanning forests on planar graphs

Kenyon, Richard

2017-01-01

We generalize the uniform spanning tree to construct a family of determinantal measures on essential spanning forests on periodic planar graphs in which every component tree is bi-infinite. Like the uniform spanning tree, these measures arise naturally from the laplacian on the graph. More generally these results hold for the "massive" laplacian determinant which counts rooted spanning forests with weight $M$ per finite component. These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, ...

13. Optimal Embeddings of Distance Regular Graphs into Euclidean Spaces

F. Vallentin (Frank)

2008-01-01

htmlabstractIn this paper we give a lower bound for the least distortion embedding of a distance regular graph into Euclidean space. We use the lower bound for finding the least distortion for Hamming graphs, Johnson graphs, and all strongly regular graphs. Our technique involves semidefinite

14. Stability notions in synthetic graph generation: a preliminary study

van Leeuwen, W.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Yakovets, N.; Bonifati, A.; Markl, Volker; Orlando, Salvatore; Mitschang, Bernhard

2017-01-01

With the rise in adoption of massive graph data, it be- comes increasingly important to design graph processing algorithms which have predictable behavior as the graph scales. This work presents an initial study of stability in the context of a schema-driven synthetic graph generation. Specifically,

15. On the Recognition of Fuzzy Circular Interval Graphs

Oriolo, Gianpaolo; Pietropaoli, Ugo; Stauffer, Gautier

2011-01-01

Fuzzy circular interval graphs are a generalization of proper circular arc graphs and have been recently introduced by Chudnovsky and Seymour as a fundamental subclass of claw-free graphs. In this paper, we provide a polynomial-time algorithm for recognizing such graphs, and more importantly for building a suitable representation.

16. On the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs

K. Kayathri

2017-04-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we study the size of edge chromatic 5-critical graphs in several classes of 5-critical graphs. In most of the classes of 5-critical graphs in this paper, we have obtained their exact size and in the other classes of 5-critical graphs, we give new bounds on their number of major vertices and size.

17. Smooth Bundling of Large Streaming and Sequence Graphs

Hurter, C.; Ersoy, O.; Telea, A.

2013-01-01

Dynamic graphs are increasingly pervasive in modern information systems. However, understanding how a graph changes in time is difficult. We present here two techniques for simplified visualization of dynamic graphs using edge bundles. The first technique uses a recent image-based graph bundling

18. Probabilistic Graph Layout for Uncertain Network Visualization.

Schulz, Christoph; Nocaj, Arlind; Goertler, Jochen; Deussen, Oliver; Brandes, Ulrik; Weiskopf, Daniel

2017-01-01

We present a novel uncertain network visualization technique based on node-link diagrams. Nodes expand spatially in our probabilistic graph layout, depending on the underlying probability distributions of edges. The visualization is created by computing a two-dimensional graph embedding that combines samples from the probabilistic graph. A Monte Carlo process is used to decompose a probabilistic graph into its possible instances and to continue with our graph layout technique. Splatting and edge bundling are used to visualize point clouds and network topology. The results provide insights into probability distributions for the entire network-not only for individual nodes and edges. We validate our approach using three data sets that represent a wide range of network types: synthetic data, protein-protein interactions from the STRING database, and travel times extracted from Google Maps. Our approach reveals general limitations of the force-directed layout and allows the user to recognize that some nodes of the graph are at a specific position just by chance.

19. Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems

Doern, Sebastian

2008-01-01

This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)

20. Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

2013-10-01

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Quantum complexity of graph and algebraic problems

Doern, Sebastian

2008-02-04

This thesis is organized as follows: In Chapter 2 we give some basic notations, definitions and facts from linear algebra, graph theory, group theory and quantum computation. In Chapter 3 we describe three important methods for the construction of quantum algorithms. We present the quantum search algorithm by Grover, the quantum amplitude amplification and the quantum walk search technique by Magniez et al. These three tools are the basis for the development of our new quantum algorithms for graph and algebra problems. In Chapter 4 we present two tools for proving quantum query lower bounds. We present the quantum adversary method by Ambainis and the polynomial method introduced by Beals et al. The quantum adversary tool is very useful to prove good lower bounds for many graph and algebra problems. The part of the thesis containing the original results is organized in two parts. In the first part we consider the graph problems. In Chapter 5 we give a short summary of known quantum graph algorithms. In Chapter 6 to 8 we study the complexity of our new algorithms for matching problems, graph traversal and independent set problems on quantum computers. In the second part of our thesis we present new quantum algorithms for algebraic problems. In Chapter 9 to 10 we consider group testing problems and prove quantum complexity bounds for important problems from linear algebra. (orig.)

2. Orientations of infinite graphs with prescribed edge-connectivity

Thomassen, Carsten

2016-01-01

We prove a decomposition result for locally finite graphs which can be used to extend results on edge-connectivity from finite to infinite graphs. It implies that every 4k-edge-connected graph G contains an immersion of some finite 2k-edge-connected Eulerian graph containing any prescribed vertex...... set (while planar graphs show that G need not containa subdivision of a simple finite graph of large edge-connectivity). Also, every 8k-edge connected infinite graph has a k-arc-connected orientation, as conjectured in 1989....

3. On the local edge antimagicness of m-splitting graphs

Albirri, E. R.; Dafik; Slamin; Agustin, I. H.; Alfarisi, R.

2018-04-01

Let G be a connected and simple graph. A split graph is a graph derived by adding new vertex v‧ in every vertex v‧ such that v‧ adjacent to v in graph G. An m-splitting graph is a graph which has m v‧-vertices, denoted by mSpl(G). A local edge antimagic coloring in G = (V, E) graph is a bijection f:V (G)\\to \\{1,2,3,\\ldots,|V(G)|\\} in which for any two adjacent edges e 1 and e 2 satisfies w({e}1)\

4. DIMENSI METRIK GRAPH LOBSTER Ln (q;r

PANDE GDE DONY GUMILAR

2013-05-01

Full Text Available The metric dimension of connected graph G is the cardinality of minimum resolving set in graph G. In this research, we study how to find the metric dimension of lobster graph Ln (q;r. Lobster graph Ln (q;r is a regular lobster graph with vertices backbone on the main path, every backbone vertex is connected to q hand vertices and every hand vertex is connected to r finger vertices, with n, q, r element of N. We obtain the metric dimension of lobster graph L2 (1;1 is 1, the metric dimension of lobster graph L2 (1;1 for n > 2 is 2.

5. Relating zeta functions of discrete and quantum graphs

Harrison, Jonathan; Weyand, Tracy

2018-02-01

We write the spectral zeta function of the Laplace operator on an equilateral metric graph in terms of the spectral zeta function of the normalized Laplace operator on the corresponding discrete graph. To do this, we apply a relation between the spectrum of the Laplacian on a discrete graph and that of the Laplacian on an equilateral metric graph. As a by-product, we determine how the multiplicity of eigenvalues of the quantum graph, that are also in the spectrum of the graph with Dirichlet conditions at the vertices, depends on the graph geometry. Finally we apply the result to calculate the vacuum energy and spectral determinant of a complete bipartite graph and compare our results with those for a star graph, a graph in which all vertices are connected to a central vertex by a single edge.

6. Bipartite separability and nonlocal quantum operations on graphs

Dutta, Supriyo; Adhikari, Bibhas; Banerjee, Subhashish; Srikanth, R.

2016-07-01

In this paper we consider the separability problem for bipartite quantum states arising from graphs. Earlier it was proved that the degree criterion is the graph-theoretic counterpart of the familiar positive partial transpose criterion for separability, although there are entangled states with positive partial transpose for which the degree criterion fails. Here we introduce the concept of partially symmetric graphs and degree symmetric graphs by using the well-known concept of partial transposition of a graph and degree criteria, respectively. Thus, we provide classes of bipartite separable states of dimension m ×n arising from partially symmetric graphs. We identify partially asymmetric graphs that lack the property of partial symmetry. We develop a combinatorial procedure to create a partially asymmetric graph from a given partially symmetric graph. We show that this combinatorial operation can act as an entanglement generator for mixed states arising from partially symmetric graphs.

7. Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs

Almasri, Islam

2014-12-01

The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.

8. Genus Ranges of 4-Regular Rigid Vertex Graphs.

Buck, Dorothy; Dolzhenko, Egor; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico; Valencia, Karin

2015-01-01

A rigid vertex of a graph is one that has a prescribed cyclic order of its incident edges. We study orientable genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs. The (orientable) genus range is a set of genera values over all orientable surfaces into which a graph is embedded cellularly, and the embeddings of rigid vertex graphs are required to preserve the prescribed cyclic order of incident edges at every vertex. The genus ranges of 4-regular rigid vertex graphs are sets of consecutive integers, and we address two questions: which intervals of integers appear as genus ranges of such graphs, and what types of graphs realize a given genus range. For graphs with 2 n vertices ( n > 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. For graphs with 2 n - 1 vertices ( n ≥ 1), we prove that all intervals [ a, b ] for all a genus ranges. We also provide constructions of graphs that realize these ranges.

9. Quick Mining of Isomorphic Exact Large Patterns from Large Graphs

Almasri, Islam; Gao, Xin; Fedoroff, Nina V.

2014-01-01

The applications of the sub graph isomorphism search are growing with the growing number of areas that model their systems using graphs or networks. Specifically, many biological systems, such as protein interaction networks, molecular structures and protein contact maps, are modeled as graphs. The sub graph isomorphism search is concerned with finding all sub graphs that are isomorphic to a relevant query graph, the existence of such sub graphs can reflect on the characteristics of the modeled system. The most computationally expensive step in the search for isomorphic sub graphs is the backtracking algorithm that traverses the nodes of the target graph. In this paper, we propose a pruning approach that is inspired by the minimum remaining value heuristic that achieves greater scalability over large query and target graphs. Our testing on various biological networks shows that performance enhancement of our approach over existing state-of-the-art approaches varies between 6x and 53x. © 2014 IEEE.

10. Continuous-time quantum walks on star graphs

Salimi, S.

2009-01-01

In this paper, we investigate continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs. It is shown that quantum central limit theorem for a continuous-time quantum walk on star graphs for N-fold star power graph, which are invariant under the quantum component of adjacency matrix, converges to continuous-time quantum walk on K 2 graphs (complete graph with two vertices) and the probability of observing walk tends to the uniform distribution.

11. Graph theory and the Virasoro master equation

Obers, N.A.J.

1991-01-01

A brief history of affine Lie algebra, the Virasoro algebra and its culmination in the Virasoro master equation is given. By studying ansaetze of the master equation, the author obtains exact solutions and gains insight in the structure of large slices of affine-Virasoro space. He finds an isomorphism between the constructions in the ansatz SO(n) diag , which is a set of unitary, generically irrational affine-Virasoro constructions on SO(n), and the unlabeled graphs of order n. On the one hand, the conformal constructions, are classified by the graphs, while, conversely, a group-theoretic and conformal field-theoretic identification is obtained for every graph of graph theory. He also defines a class of magic Lie group bases in which the Virasoro master equation admits a simple metric ansatz {g metric }, whose structure is visible in the high-level expansion. When a magic basis is real on compact g, the corresponding g metric is a large system of unitary, generically irrational conformal field theories. Examples in this class include the graph-theory ansatz SO(n) diag in the Cartesian basis of SO(n), and the ansatz SU(n) metric in the Pauli-like basis of SU(n). Finally, he defines the 'sine-area graphs' of SU(n), which label the conformal field theories of SU(n) metric , and he notes that, in similar fashion, each magic basis of g defines a generalized graph theory on g which labels the conformal field theories of g metric

12. Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study

Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

2012-01-01

This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

13. Proving termination of graph transformation systems using weighted type graphs over semirings

Bruggink, H.J.S.; König, B.; Nolte, D.; Zantema, H.; Parisi-Presicce, F.; Westfechtel, B.

2015-01-01

We introduce techniques for proving uniform termination of graph transformation systems, based on matrix interpretations for string rewriting. We generalize this technique by adapting it to graph rewriting instead of string rewriting and by generalizing to ordered semirings. In this way we obtain a

14. GoFFish: A Sub-Graph Centric Framework for Large-Scale Graph Analytics1

Simmhan, Yogesh; Kumbhare, Alok; Wickramaarachchi, Charith; Nagarkar, Soonil; Ravi, Santosh; Raghavendra, Cauligi; Prasanna, Viktor

2014-08-25

Large scale graph processing is a major research area for Big Data exploration. Vertex centric programming models like Pregel are gaining traction due to their simple abstraction that allows for scalable execution on distributed systems naturally. However, there are limitations to this approach which cause vertex centric algorithms to under-perform due to poor compute to communication overhead ratio and slow convergence of iterative superstep. In this paper we introduce GoFFish a scalable sub-graph centric framework co-designed with a distributed persistent graph storage for large scale graph analytics on commodity clusters. We introduce a sub-graph centric programming abstraction that combines the scalability of a vertex centric approach with the flexibility of shared memory sub-graph computation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation. We map Connected Components, SSSP and PageRank algorithms to this model to illustrate its flexibility. Further, we empirically analyze GoFFish using several real world graphs and demonstrate its significant performance improvement, orders of magnitude in some cases, compared to Apache Giraph, the leading open source vertex centric implementation.

15. Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices.

Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng

2014-10-01

Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach.

16. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

Michael Charles Davis

2015-12-01

Full Text Available Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs. Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels and edge weights to graph structure.

17. A graph model for opportunistic network coding

Sorour, Sameh

2015-08-12

© 2015 IEEE. Recent advancements in graph-based analysis and solutions of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) trigger the interest to extend them to more complicated opportunistic network coding (ONC) scenarios, with limited increase in complexity. In this paper, we design a simple IDNC-like graph model for a specific subclass of ONC, by introducing a more generalized definition of its vertices and the notion of vertex aggregation in order to represent the storage of non-instantly-decodable packets in ONC. Based on this representation, we determine the set of pairwise vertex adjacency conditions that can populate this graph with edges so as to guarantee decodability or aggregation for the vertices of each clique in this graph. We then develop the algorithmic procedures that can be applied on the designed graph model to optimize any performance metric for this ONC subclass. A case study on reducing the completion time shows that the proposed framework improves on the performance of IDNC and gets very close to the optimal performance.

18. Towards Scalable Graph Computation on Mobile Devices

Chen, Yiqi; Lin, Zhiyuan; Pienta, Robert; Kahng, Minsuk; Chau, Duen Horng

2015-01-01

Mobile devices have become increasingly central to our everyday activities, due to their portability, multi-touch capabilities, and ever-improving computational power. Such attractive features have spurred research interest in leveraging mobile devices for computation. We explore a novel approach that aims to use a single mobile device to perform scalable graph computation on large graphs that do not fit in the device's limited main memory, opening up the possibility of performing on-device analysis of large datasets, without relying on the cloud. Based on the familiar memory mapping capability provided by today's mobile operating systems, our approach to scale up computation is powerful and intentionally kept simple to maximize its applicability across the iOS and Android platforms. Our experiments demonstrate that an iPad mini can perform fast computation on large real graphs with as many as 272 million edges (Google+ social graph), at a speed that is only a few times slower than a 13″ Macbook Pro. Through creating a real world iOS app with this technique, we demonstrate the strong potential application for scalable graph computation on a single mobile device using our approach. PMID:25859564

19. Percolator: Scalable Pattern Discovery in Dynamic Graphs

Choudhury, Sutanay; Purohit, Sumit; Lin, Peng; Wu, Yinghui; Holder, Lawrence B.; Agarwal, Khushbu

2018-02-06

We demonstrate Percolator, a distributed system for graph pattern discovery in dynamic graphs. In contrast to conventional mining systems, Percolator advocates efficient pattern mining schemes that (1) support pattern detection with keywords; (2) integrate incremental and parallel pattern mining; and (3) support analytical queries such as trend analysis. The core idea of Percolator is to dynamically decide and verify a small fraction of patterns and their in- stances that must be inspected in response to buffered updates in dynamic graphs, with a total mining cost independent of graph size. We demonstrate a) the feasibility of incremental pattern mining by walking through each component of Percolator, b) the efficiency and scalability of Percolator over the sheer size of real-world dynamic graphs, and c) how the user-friendly GUI of Percolator inter- acts with users to support keyword-based queries that detect, browse and inspect trending patterns. We also demonstrate two user cases of Percolator, in social media trend analysis and academic collaboration analysis, respectively.

20. Survey of Approaches to Generate Realistic Synthetic Graphs

Lim, Seung-Hwan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Sangkeun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Sarah S [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shankar, Mallikarjun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Imam, Neena [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2016-10-01

A graph is a flexible data structure that can represent relationships between entities. As with other data analysis tasks, the use of realistic graphs is critical to obtaining valid research results. Unfortunately, using the actual ("real-world") graphs for research and new algorithm development is difficult due to the presence of sensitive information in the data or due to the scale of data. This results in practitioners developing algorithms and systems that employ synthetic graphs instead of real-world graphs. Generating realistic synthetic graphs that provide reliable statistical confidence to algorithmic analysis and system evaluation involves addressing technical hurdles in a broad set of areas. This report surveys the state of the art in approaches to generate realistic graphs that are derived from fitted graph models on real-world graphs.

1. An Association-Oriented Partitioning Approach for Streaming Graph Query

Yun Hao

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The volumes of real-world graphs like knowledge graph are increasing rapidly, which makes streaming graph processing a hot research area. Processing graphs in streaming setting poses significant challenges from different perspectives, among which graph partitioning method plays a key role. Regarding graph query, a well-designed partitioning method is essential for achieving better performance. Existing offline graph partitioning methods often require full knowledge of the graph, which is not possible during streaming graph processing. In order to handle this problem, we propose an association-oriented streaming graph partitioning method named Assc. This approach first computes the rank values of vertices with a hybrid approximate PageRank algorithm. After splitting these vertices with an adapted variant affinity propagation algorithm, the process order on vertices in the sliding window can be determined. Finally, according to the level of these vertices and their association, the partition where the vertices should be distributed is decided. We compare its performance with a set of streaming graph partition methods and METIS, a widely adopted offline approach. The results show that our solution can partition graphs with hundreds of millions of vertices in streaming setting on a large collection of graph datasets and our approach outperforms other graph partitioning methods.

2. Resistance Distances in Vertex-Face Graphs

Shangguan, Yingmin; Chen, Haiyan

2018-01-01

The computation of two-point resistances in networks is a classical problem in electric circuit theory and graph theory. Let G be a triangulation graph with n vertices embedded on an orientable surface. Define K(G) to be the graph obtained from G by inserting a new vertex vϕ to each face ϕ of G and adding three new edges (u, vϕ), (v, vϕ) and (w, vϕ), where u, v and w are three vertices on the boundary of ϕ. In this paper, using star-triangle transformation and resistance local-sum rules, explicit relations between resistance distances in K(G) and those in G are obtained. These relations enable us to compute resistance distance between any two points of Kk(G) recursively. As explanation examples, some resistances in several networks are computed, including the modified Apollonian network and networks constructed from tetrahedron, octahedron and icosahedron, respectively.

3. Herdable Systems Over Signed, Directed Graphs

Ruf, Sebastian F.

2018-04-11

This paper considers the notion of herdability, a set-based reachability condition, which asks whether the state of a system can be controlled to be element-wise larger than a non-negative threshold. The basic theory of herdable systems is presented, including a necessary and sufficient condition for herdability. This paper then considers the impact of the underlying graph structure of a linear system on the herdability of the system, for the case where the graph is represented as signed and directed. By classifying nodes based on the length and sign of walks from an input, we find a class of completely herdable systems as well as provide a complete characterization of nodes that can be herded in systems with an underlying graph that is a directed out-branching rooted at a single input.

4. A graph algebra for scalable visual analytics.

Shaverdian, Anna A; Zhou, Hao; Michailidis, George; Jagadish, Hosagrahar V

2012-01-01

Visual analytics (VA), which combines analytical techniques with advanced visualization features, is fast becoming a standard tool for extracting information from graph data. Researchers have developed many tools for this purpose, suggesting a need for formal methods to guide these tools' creation. Increased data demands on computing requires redesigning VA tools to consider performance and reliability in the context of analysis of exascale datasets. Furthermore, visual analysts need a way to document their analyses for reuse and results justification. A VA graph framework encapsulated in a graph algebra helps address these needs. Its atomic operators include selection and aggregation. The framework employs a visual operator and supports dynamic attributes of data to enable scalable visual exploration of data.

5. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

2009-10-01

By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

6. Learning molecular energies using localized graph kernels

Ferré, Grégoire; Haut, Terry; Barros, Kipton

2017-03-01

Recent machine learning methods make it possible to model potential energy of atomic configurations with chemical-level accuracy (as calculated from ab initio calculations) and at speeds suitable for molecular dynamics simulation. Best performance is achieved when the known physical constraints are encoded in the machine learning models. For example, the atomic energy is invariant under global translations and rotations; it is also invariant to permutations of same-species atoms. Although simple to state, these symmetries are complicated to encode into machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach based on graph theory that naturally incorporates translation, rotation, and permutation symmetries. Specifically, we use a random walk graph kernel to measure the similarity of two adjacency matrices, each of which represents a local atomic environment. This Graph Approximated Energy (GRAPE) approach is flexible and admits many possible extensions. We benchmark a simple version of GRAPE by predicting atomization energies on a standard dataset of organic molecules.

7. Herdable Systems Over Signed, Directed Graphs

Ruf, Sebastian F.; Egerstedt, Magnus; Shamma, Jeff S.

2018-01-01

This paper considers the notion of herdability, a set-based reachability condition, which asks whether the state of a system can be controlled to be element-wise larger than a non-negative threshold. The basic theory of herdable systems is presented, including a necessary and sufficient condition for herdability. This paper then considers the impact of the underlying graph structure of a linear system on the herdability of the system, for the case where the graph is represented as signed and directed. By classifying nodes based on the length and sign of walks from an input, we find a class of completely herdable systems as well as provide a complete characterization of nodes that can be herded in systems with an underlying graph that is a directed out-branching rooted at a single input.

8. A note on arbitrarily vertex decomposable graphs

Antoni Marczyk

2006-01-01

Full Text Available A graph \\(G\\ of order \\(n\\ is said to be arbitrarily vertex decomposable if for each sequence \\((n_{1},\\ldots,n_k\\ of positive integers such that \\(n_{1}+\\ldots+n_{k}=n\\ there exists a partition \\((V_{1},\\ldots,V_{k}\\ of the vertex set of \\(G\\ such that for each \\(i \\in \\{1,\\ldots,k\\}\\, \\(V_{i}\\ induces a connected subgraph of \\(G\\ on \\(n_i\\ vertices. In this paper we show that if \\(G\\ is a two-connected graph on \\(n\\ vertices with the independence number at most \\(\\lceil n/2\\rceil\\ and such that the degree sum of any pair of non-adjacent vertices is at least \\(n-3\\, then \\(G\\ is arbitrarily vertex decomposable. We present another result for connected graphs satisfying a similar condition, where the bound \\(n-3\\ is replaced by \\(n-2\\.

9. Dynamic graph system for a semantic database

Mizell, David

2015-01-27

A method and system in a computer system for dynamically providing a graphical representation of a data store of entries via a matrix interface is disclosed. A dynamic graph system provides a matrix interface that exposes to an application program a graphical representation of data stored in a data store such as a semantic database storing triples. To the application program, the matrix interface represents the graph as a sparse adjacency matrix that is stored in compressed form. Each entry of the data store is considered to represent a link between nodes of the graph. Each entry has a first field and a second field identifying the nodes connected by the link and a third field with a value for the link that connects the identified nodes. The first, second, and third fields represent the rows, column, and elements of the adjacency matrix.

10. Dynamic planar embeddings of dynamic graphs

Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva

2015-01-01

-flip-linkable(u, v) providing a suggestion for a flip that will make them linkable if one exists. We will support all updates and queries in O(log2 n) time. Our time bounds match those of Italiano et al. for a static (flipless) embedding of a dynamic graph. Our new algorithm is simpler, exploiting...... that the complement of a spanning tree of a connected plane graph is a spanning tree of the dual graph. The primal and dual trees are interpreted as having the same Euler tour, and a main idea of the new algorithm is an elegant interaction between top trees over the two trees via their common Euler tour....

11. Dynamic planar embeddings of dynamic graphs

Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva

2017-01-01

query, one-flip- linkable(u,v) providing a suggestion for a flip that will make them linkable if one exists. We support all updates and queries in O(log 2 n) time. Our time bounds match those of Italiano et al. for a static (flipless) embedding of a dynamic graph. Our new algorithm is simpler......, exploiting that the complement of a spanning tree of a connected plane graph is a spanning tree of the dual graph. The primal and dual trees are interpreted as having the same Euler tour, and a main idea of the new algorithm is an elegant interaction between top trees over the two trees via their common...

12. Strategic Port Graph Rewriting: An Interactive Modelling and Analysis Framework

Maribel Fernández

2014-07-01

Full Text Available We present strategic portgraph rewriting as a basis for the implementation of visual modelling and analysis tools. The goal is to facilitate the specification, analysis and simulation of complex systems, using port graphs. A system is represented by an initial graph and a collection of graph rewriting rules, together with a user-defined strategy to control the application of rules. The strategy language includes constructs to deal with graph traversal and management of rewriting positions in the graph. We give a small-step operational semantics for the language, and describe its implementation in the graph transformation and visualisation tool PORGY.

13. Some Results on the Graph Theory for Complex Neutrosophic Sets

Shio Gai Quek

2018-05-01

Full Text Available Fuzzy graph theory plays an important role in the study of the symmetry and asymmetry properties of fuzzy graphs. With this in mind, in this paper, we introduce new neutrosophic graphs called complex neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (abbr. CNG1. We then present a matrix representation for it and study some properties of this new concept. The concept of CNG1 is an extension of the generalized fuzzy graphs of type 1 (GFG1 and generalized single-valued neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (GSVNG1. The utility of the CNG1 introduced here are applied to a multi-attribute decision making problem related to Internet server selection.

14. Design of reconfigurable antennas using graph models

Costantine, Joseph; Christodoulou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Christos G

2013-01-01

This lecture discusses the use of graph models to represent reconfigurable antennas. The rise of antennas that adapt to their environment and change their operation based on the user's request hasn't been met with clear design guidelines. There is a need to propose some rules for the optimization of any reconfigurable antenna design and performance. Since reconfigurable antennas are seen as a collection of self-organizing parts, graph models can be introduced to relate each possible topology to a corresponding electromagnetic performance in terms of achieving a characteristic frequency of oper

15. Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices

Knauer, Ulrich

2011-01-01

This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient

16. Layered Graph Drawing for Visualizing Evaluation Structures.

2017-01-01

An evaluation structure is a hierarchical structure of human cognition extracted from interviews based on the evaluation grid method. An evaluation structure can be defined as a directed acyclic graph (DAG). The authors propose a layer-assignment method that is part of the Sugiyama framework, a popular method for drawing DAGs, to satisfy the requirements for drawing evaluation structures. Their evaluations demonstrate that the layered graph drawing produced by the proposed layer-assignment method is preferred by users and aids in the understanding of evaluation structures.

17. Distributed graph coloring fundamentals and recent developments

Barenboim, Leonid

2013-01-01

The focus of this monograph is on symmetry breaking problems in the message-passing model of distributed computing. In this model a communication network is represented by a n-vertex graph G = (V,E), whose vertices host autonomous processors. The processors communicate over the edges of G in discrete rounds. The goal is to devise algorithms that use as few rounds as possible.A typical symmetry-breaking problem is the problem of graph coloring. Denote by ? the maximum degree of G. While coloring G with ? + 1 colors is trivial in the centralized setting, the problem becomes much more challenging

18. Kuramoto model for infinite graphs with kernels

Canale, Eduardo

2015-01-07

In this paper we study the Kuramoto model of weakly coupled oscillators for the case of non trivial network with large number of nodes. We approximate of such configurations by a McKean-Vlasov stochastic differential equation based on infinite graph. We focus on circulant graphs which have enough symmetries to make the computations easier. We then focus on the asymptotic regime where an integro-partial differential equation is derived. Numerical analysis and convergence proofs of the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation are conducted. Finally, we provide numerical examples that illustrate the convergence of our method.

19. Connected Colourings of Complete Graphs and Hypergraphs

2014-01-01

Gallai's colouring theorem states that if the edges of a complete graph are 3-coloured, with each colour class forming a connected (spanning) subgraph, then there is a triangle that has all 3 colours. What happens for more colours: if we $k$-colour the edges of the complete graph, with each colour class connected, how many of the $\\binom{k}{3}$ triples of colours must appear as triangles? In this note we show that the obvious' conjecture, namely that there are always at least $\\binom{k-1}{2}... 20. Generalized graph manifolds and their effective recognition Matveev, S V 1998-01-01 A generalized graph manifold is a three-dimensional manifold obtained by gluing together elementary blocks, each of which is either a Seifert manifold or contains no essential tori or annuli. By a well-known result on torus decomposition each compact three-dimensional manifold with boundary that is either empty or consists of tori has a canonical representation as a generalized graph manifold. A short simple proof of the existence of a canonical representation is presented and a (partial) algorithm for its construction is described. A simple hyperbolicity test for blocks that are not Seifert manifolds is also presented 1. Evolutionary Graphs with Frequency Dependent Fitness Nie, Pu-Yan; Zhang, Pei-Ai Evolutionary graph theory was recently proposed by Lieberman et al. in 2005. In the previous papers about evolutionary graphs (EGs), the fitness of the residents in the EGs is in general assumed to be unity, and the fitness of a mutant is assumed to be a constant r. We aim to extend EG to general cases in this paper, namely, the fitness of a mutant is heavily dependent upon frequency. The corresponding properties for these new EGs are analyzed, and the fixation probability is obtained for large population. 2. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs Yoshifumi Fukunishi 2009-01-01 Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure. 3. Efficient Graph Computation for Node2Vec Zhou, Dongyan; Niu, Songjie; Chen, Shimin 2018-01-01 Node2Vec is a state-of-the-art general-purpose feature learning method for network analysis. However, current solutions cannot run Node2Vec on large-scale graphs with billions of vertices and edges, which are common in real-world applications. The existing distributed Node2Vec on Spark incurs significant space and time overhead. It runs out of memory even for mid-sized graphs with millions of vertices. Moreover, it considers at most 30 edges for every vertex in generating random walks, causin... 4. Test bank for precalculus functions & graphs Kolman, Bernard; Levitan, Michael L 1984-01-01 Test Bank for Precalculus: Functions & Graphs is a supplementary material for the text, Precalculus: Functions & Graphs. The book is intended for use by mathematics teachers.The book contains standard tests for each chapter in the textbook. Each set of test focuses on gauging the level of knowledge the student has achieved during the course. The answers for each chapter test and the final exam are found at the end of the book.Mathematics teachers teaching calculus will find the book extremely useful. 5. An introduction to grids, graphs, and networks Pozrikidis, C 2014-01-01 An Introduction to Grids, Graphs, and Networks aims to provide a concise introduction to graphs and networks at a level that is accessible to scientists, engineers, and students. In a practical approach, the book presents only the necessary theoretical concepts from mathematics and considers a variety of physical and conceptual configurations as prototypes or examples. The subject is timely, as the performance of networks is recognized as an important topic in the study of complex systems with applications in energy, material, and information grid transport (epitomized by the internet). The bo 6. Graph-based semi-supervised learning Subramanya, Amarnag 2014-01-01 While labeled data is expensive to prepare, ever increasing amounts of unlabeled data is becoming widely available. In order to adapt to this phenomenon, several semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms, which learn from labeled as well as unlabeled data, have been developed. In a separate line of work, researchers have started to realize that graphs provide a natural way to represent data in a variety of domains. Graph-based SSL algorithms, which bring together these two lines of work, have been shown to outperform the state-of-the-art in many applications in speech processing, computer visi 7. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil 2014-01-01 We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree... 8. Non-heuristic reduction of the graph in graph-cut optimization Malgouyres, François; Lermé, Nicolas 2012-01-01 During the last ten years, graph cuts had a growing impact in shape optimization. In particular, they are commonly used in applications of shape optimization such as image processing, computer vision and computer graphics. Their success is due to their ability to efficiently solve (apparently) difficult shape optimization problems which typically involve the perimeter of the shape. Nevertheless, solving problems with a large number of variables remains computationally expensive and requires a high memory usage since underlying graphs sometimes involve billion of nodes and even more edges. Several strategies have been proposed in the literature to improve graph-cuts in this regards. In this paper, we give a formal statement which expresses that a simple and local test performed on every node before its construction permits to avoid the construction of useless nodes for the graphs typically encountered in image processing and vision. A useless node is such that the value of the maximum flow in the graph does not change when removing the node from the graph. Such a test therefore permits to limit the construction of the graph to a band of useful nodes surrounding the final cut. 9. Graph mining for next generation sequencing: leveraging the assembly graph for biological insights. Warnke-Sommer, Julia; Ali, Hesham 2016-05-06 The assembly of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) reads remains a challenging task. This is especially true for the assembly of metagenomics data that originate from environmental samples potentially containing hundreds to thousands of unique species. The principle objective of current assembly tools is to assemble NGS reads into contiguous stretches of sequence called contigs while maximizing for both accuracy and contig length. The end goal of this process is to produce longer contigs with the major focus being on assembly only. Sequence read assembly is an aggregative process, during which read overlap relationship information is lost as reads are merged into longer sequences or contigs. The assembly graph is information rich and capable of capturing the genomic architecture of an input read data set. We have developed a novel hybrid graph in which nodes represent sequence regions at different levels of granularity. This model, utilized in the assembly and analysis pipeline Focus, presents a concise yet feature rich view of a given input data set, allowing for the extraction of biologically relevant graph structures for graph mining purposes. Focus was used to create hybrid graphs to model metagenomics data sets obtained from the gut microbiomes of five individuals with Crohn's disease and eight healthy individuals. Repetitive and mobile genetic elements are found to be associated with hybrid graph structure. Using graph mining techniques, a comparative study of the Crohn's disease and healthy data sets was conducted with focus on antibiotics resistance genes associated with transposase genes. Results demonstrated significant differences in the phylogenetic distribution of categories of antibiotics resistance genes in the healthy and diseased patients. Focus was also evaluated as a pure assembly tool and produced excellent results when compared against the Meta-velvet, Omega, and UD-IDBA assemblers. Mining the hybrid graph can reveal biological phenomena captured 10. On some labelings of triangular snake and central graph of triangular snake graph Agasthi, P.; Parvathi, N. 2018-04-01 A Triangular snake Tn is obtained from a path u 1 u 2 … u n by joining ui and u i+1 to a new vertex wi for 1≤i≤n‑1. A Central graph of Triangular snake C(T n ) is obtained by subdividing each edge of Tn exactly once and joining all the non adjacent vertices of Tn . In this paper the ways to construct square sum, square difference, Root Mean square, strongly Multiplicative, Even Mean and Odd Mean labeling for Triangular Snake and Central graph of Triangular Snake graphs are reported. 11. Efficient dynamic graph construction for inductive semi-supervised learning. Dornaika, F; Dahbi, R; Bosaghzadeh, A; Ruichek, Y 2017-10-01 Most of graph construction techniques assume a transductive setting in which the whole data collection is available at construction time. Addressing graph construction for inductive setting, in which data are coming sequentially, has received much less attention. For inductive settings, constructing the graph from scratch can be very time consuming. This paper introduces a generic framework that is able to make any graph construction method incremental. This framework yields an efficient and dynamic graph construction method that adds new samples (labeled or unlabeled) to a previously constructed graph. As a case study, we use the recently proposed Two Phase Weighted Regularized Least Square (TPWRLS) graph construction method. The paper has two main contributions. First, we use the TPWRLS coding scheme to represent new sample(s) with respect to an existing database. The representative coefficients are then used to update the graph affinity matrix. The proposed method not only appends the new samples to the graph but also updates the whole graph structure by discovering which nodes are affected by the introduction of new samples and by updating their edge weights. The second contribution of the article is the application of the proposed framework to the problem of graph-based label propagation using multiple observations for vision-based recognition tasks. Experiments on several image databases show that, without any significant loss in the accuracy of the final classification, the proposed dynamic graph construction is more efficient than the batch graph construction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 12. Colour Mathematics: With Graphs and Numbers LoPresto, Michael C. 2009-01-01 The different combinations involved in additive and subtractive colour mixing can often be difficult for students to remember. Using transmission graphs for filters of the primary colours and a numerical scheme to write out the relationships are good exercises in analytical thinking that can help students recall the combinations rather than just… 13. Thematization of the Calculus Graphing Schema Cooley, Laurel; Baker, Bernadette; Trigueros, Maria 2003-01-01 This article is the result of an investigation of students' conceptualizations of calculus graphing techniques after they had completed at least two semesters of calculus. The work and responses of 27 students to a series of questions that solicit information about the graphical implications of the first derivative, second derivative, continuity,… 14. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.; Gatlin, P. N.; Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Bugbee, K.; Christopher, S. A.; Miller, J. J. 2017-12-01 Estimates indicate that the world's information will grow by 800% in the next five years. In any given field, a single researcher or a team of researchers cannot keep up with this rate of knowledge expansion without the help of cognitive systems. Cognitive computing, defined as the use of information technology to augment human cognition, can help tackle large systemic problems. Knowledge graphs, one of the foundational components of cognitive systems, link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. Researchers could mine these graphs to make probabilistic recommendations and to infer new knowledge. At this point, however, there is a dearth of tools to generate scalable Knowledge graphs using existing corpus of scientific literature for Earth science research. Our project is currently developing an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge graphs for Earth Science. Semantic Entity Recognition (SER) is one of the key steps in this methodology. SER for Earth Science uses external resources (including metadata catalogs and controlled vocabulary) as references to guide entity extraction and recognition (i.e., labeling) from unstructured text, in order to build a large training set to seed the subsequent auto-learning component in our algorithm. Results from several SER experiments will be presented as well as lessons learned. 15. Altermatic number of categorical product of graphs Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein 2018-01-01 In this paper, we prove some relaxations of Hedetniemi's conjecture in terms of altermatic number and strong altermatic number of graphs, two combinatorial parameters introduced by the present authors Alishahi and Hajiabolhassan (2015) providing two sharp lower bounds for the chromatic number of ... 16. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs Hofstad, van der R.W. 2013-01-01 We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs in the so-called rank-1 case, where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. The edge occupation probabilities are moderated by vertex weights, and are such that the degree of vertex i is close in 17. Critical behavior in inhomogeneous random graphs Hofstad, van der R.W. 2009-01-01 We study the critical behavior of inhomogeneous random graphs where edges are present independently but with unequal edge occupation probabilities. We show that the critical behavior depends sensitively on the properties of the asymptotic degrees. Indeed, when the proportion of vertices with degree 18. Algorithms and Models for the Web Graph Gleich, David F.; Komjathy, Julia; Litvak, Nelli 2015-01-01 This volume contains the papers presented at WAW2015, the 12th Workshop on Algorithms and Models for the Web-Graph held during December 10–11, 2015, in Eindhoven. There were 24 submissions. Each submission was reviewed by at least one, and on average two, Program Committee members. The committee 19. On Graph Refutation for Relational Inclusions Paulo A. S. Veloso 2012-03-01 Full Text Available We introduce a graphical refutation calculus for relational inclusions: it reduces establishing a relational inclusion to establishing that a graph constructed from it has empty extension. This sound and complete calculus is conceptually simpler and easier to use than the usual ones. 20. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs independent dominating set of a graph is a set of vertices of such that every vertex of ()\\ has a neighbor in and the maximum vertex degree of the subgraph induced by ()\\ is at most one. The outer-2-independent domination ... 1. Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs R. Alagammai 2015-11-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H. 2. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook Wang, Rui 2012-01-01 This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too. 3. Outer-2-independent domination in graphs Outer-2-independent domination in graphs. MARCIN KRZYWKOWSKI1,2,∗, DOOST ALI MOJDEH3 and MARYEM RAOOFI4. 1Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics, University of Johannesburg,. Johannesburg, South Africa. 2Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Gdansk University. 4. The Shapley value for directed graph games Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; Selcuk, Özer; Talman, Dolf 2014-01-01 The Shapley value for directed graph (digraph) games, TU games with limited cooperation introduced by an arbitrary digraph prescribing the dominance relation among the players, is introduced. It is dened as the average of marginal contribution vectors corresponding to all permutations that do not 5. The partition dimension of cycle books graph Santoso, Jaya; Darmaji 2018-03-01 Let G be a nontrivial and connected graph with vertex set V(G), edge set E(G) and S ⊆ V(G) with v ∈ V(G), the distance between v and S is d(v,S) = min{d(v,x)|x ∈ S}. For an ordered partition ∏ = {S 1, S 2, S 3,…, Sk } of V(G), the representation of v with respect to ∏ is defined by r(v|∏) = (d(v, S 1), d(v, S 2),…, d(v, Sk )). The partition ∏ is called a resolving partition of G if all representations of vertices are distinct. The partition dimension pd(G) is the smallest integer k such that G has a resolving partition set with k members. In this research, we will determine the partition dimension of Cycle Books {B}{Cr,m}. Cycle books graph {B}{Cr,m} is a graph consisting of m copies cycle Cr with the common path P 2. It is shown that the partition dimension of cycle books graph, pd({B}{C3,m}) is 3 for m = 2, 3, and m for m ≥ 4. pd({B}{C4,m}) is 3 + 2k for m = 3k + 2, 4 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k + 1, and 3 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k. pd({B}{C5,m}) is m + 1. 6. Higher-Order Minimal Functional Graphs Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads 1994-01-01 We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving... 7. On semidefinite programming bounds for graph bandwidth de Klerk, E.; Nagy, M.; Sotirov, R. 2013-01-01 In this paper, we propose two new lower bounds on graph bandwidth and cyclic bandwidth based on semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxations of the quadratic assignment problem. We compare the new bounds with two other SDP bounds reported in [A. Blum, G. Konjevod, R. Ravi, and S. Vempala, 8. Proving correctness of compilers using structured graphs Bahr, Patrick 2014-01-01 it into a compiler implementation using a graph type along with a correctness proof. The implementation and correctness proof of a compiler using a tree type without explicit jumps is simple, but yields code duplication. Our method provides a convenient way of improving such a compiler without giving up the benefits... 9. Dynamic Matchings in Convex Bipartite Graphs Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt 2007-01-01 We consider the problem of maintaining a maximum matching in a convex bipartite graph G = (V,E) under a set of update operations which includes insertions and deletions of vertices and edges. It is not hard to show that it is impossible to maintain an explicit representation of a maximum matching... 10. Connected feedback vertex set in planar graphs Grigoriev, Alexander; Sitters, René 2010-01-01 We study the problem of finding a minimum tree spanning the faces of a given planar graph. We show that a constant factor approximation follows from the unconnected version if the minimum degree is 3. Moreover, we present a polynomial time approximation scheme for both the connected and unconnected 11. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers. Embse, Charles Vonder 1993-01-01 Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH) 12. Paths and cycles in colored graphs Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Shenggui; Hurink, Johann L.; Pickl, Stefan; Broersma, Haitze J.; Faigle, U. 2001-01-01 Let G be an (edge-)colored graph. A path (cycle) is called monochromatic if all the edges of it have the same color, and is called heterochromatic if all the edges of it have different colors. In this note, some sufficient conditions for the existence of monochromatic and heterochromatic paths and 13. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael 2010-01-01 Suppose the vertices of a graph$G$were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let$Sum(v)$denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex$v$. A labeling is lucky if the function$Sum$is a proper coloring of$G$, that is, if we have$Sum(u) \

14. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

2017-12-01

We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

15. Chromatic roots and limits of dense graphs

Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, P. E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

2017-01-01

Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 628974 - PAECIDM Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0012365X16303661

16. Infinite Random Graphs as Statistical Mechanical Models

Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

2011-01-01

We discuss two examples of infinite random graphs obtained as limits of finite statistical mechanical systems: a model of two-dimensional dis-cretized quantum gravity defined in terms of causal triangulated surfaces, and the Ising model on generic random trees. For the former model we describe a ...

17. Chromatic Roots and Limits of Dense Graphs

Csikvári, P.; Frenkel, E.; Hladký, Jan; Hubai, T.

2017-01-01

Roč. 340, č. 5 (2017), s. 1129-1135 ISSN 0012-365X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : chromatic root * graph limit * holomorphic moment Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.639, year: 2016

18. Community detection by graph Voronoi diagrams

Deritei, Dávid; Lázár, Zsolt I.; Papp, István; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Sumi, Róbert; Varga, Levente; Ravasz Regan, Erzsébet; Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária

2014-06-01

Accurate and efficient community detection in networks is a key challenge for complex network theory and its applications. The problem is analogous to cluster analysis in data mining, a field rich in metric space-based methods. Common to these methods is a geometric, distance-based definition of clusters or communities. Here we propose a new geometric approach to graph community detection based on graph Voronoi diagrams. Our method serves as proof of principle that the definition of appropriate distance metrics on graphs can bring a rich set of metric space-based clustering methods to network science. We employ a simple edge metric that reflects the intra- or inter-community character of edges, and a graph density-based rule to identify seed nodes of Voronoi cells. Our algorithm outperforms most network community detection methods applicable to large networks on benchmark as well as real-world networks. In addition to offering a computationally efficient alternative for community detection, our method opens new avenues for adapting a wide range of data mining algorithms to complex networks from the class of centroid- and density-based clustering methods.

19. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

Ren, Jing; Schneider, Jens; Ovsjanikov, Maks; Wonka, Peter

2017-01-01

We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

20. Neuro-symbolic representation learning on biological knowledge graphs

AlShahrani, Mona; Khan, Mohammed Asif; Maddouri, Omar; Kinjo, Akira R; Queralt-Rosinach, Nú ria; Hoehndorf, Robert

2017-01-01

Biological data and knowledge bases increasingly rely on Semantic Web technologies and the use of knowledge graphs for data integration, retrieval and federated queries. In the past years, feature learning methods that are applicable to graph

1. The Thickness of Amalgamations and Cartesian Product of Graphs

Yang Yan

2017-08-01

Full Text Available The thickness of a graph is the minimum number of planar spanning subgraphs into which the graph can be decomposed. It is a measurement of the closeness to the planarity of a graph, and it also has important applications to VLSI design, but it has been known for only few graphs. We obtain the thickness of vertex-amalgamation and bar-amalgamation of graphs, the lower and upper bounds for the thickness of edge-amalgamation and 2-vertex-amalgamation of graphs, respectively. We also study the thickness of Cartesian product of graphs, and by using operations on graphs, we derive the thickness of the Cartesian product Kn □ Pm for most values of m and n.

2. A Feynman graph selection tool in GRACE system

Yuasa, Fukuko; Ishikawa, Tadashi; Kaneko, Toshiaki

2001-01-01

We present a Feynman graph selection tool grcsel, which is an interpreter written in C language. In the framework of GRACE, it enables us to get a subset of Feynman graphs according to given conditions

3. The n-th Power Signed Graphs-II

Reddyy, P. Siva Kota; Vijay, S.; Lokeshaz, V.

2010-01-01

For standard terminology and notion in graph theory we refer the reader to Harary [6]; the non-standard will be given in this paper as and when required. We treat only finite simple graphs without self loops and isolates.

4. Graph-theoretic techniques for web content mining

Schenker, Adam; Bunke, Horst; Last, Mark

2005-01-01

This book describes exciting new opportunities for utilizing robust graph representations of data with common machine learning algorithms. Graphs can model additional information which is often not present in commonly used data representations, such as vectors.

5. Dataflow Interchange Format and a Framework for Processing Dataflow Graphs

Keceli, Fuat

2004-01-01

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) applications are often designed with tools based on dataflow graphs and the increasing number of such tools shows the need for a common intermediate graph representation for exchanging dataflow information...

6. Incremental Frequent Subgraph Mining on Large Evolving Graphs

Abdelhamid, Ehab; Canim, Mustafa; Sadoghi, Mohammad; Bhatta, Bishwaranjan; Chang, Yuan-Chi; Kalnis, Panos

2017-01-01

, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem

7. Optimizing graph algorithms on pregel-like systems

Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer

2014-01-01

We study the problem of implementing graph algorithms efficiently on Pregel-like systems, which can be surprisingly challenging. Standard graph algorithms in this setting can incur unnecessary inefficiencies such as slow convergence or high

8. Some formulae for the Zagreb indices of graphs

Cangul, Ismail Naci; Yurttas, Aysun; Togan, Muge; Cevik, Ahmet Sinan

2012-09-01

In this study, we first find formulae for the first and second Zagreb indices and coindices of certain classical graph types including path, cycle, star and complete graphs. Secondly we give similar formulae for the first and second Zagreb coindices.

9. Mutual proximity graphs for improved reachability in music recommendation.

Flexer, Arthur; Stevens, Jeff

2018-01-01

This paper is concerned with the impact of hubness, a general problem of machine learning in high-dimensional spaces, on a real-world music recommendation system based on visualisation of a k-nearest neighbour (knn) graph. Due to a problem of measuring distances in high dimensions, hub objects are recommended over and over again while anti-hubs are nonexistent in recommendation lists, resulting in poor reachability of the music catalogue. We present mutual proximity graphs, which are an alternative to knn and mutual knn graphs, and are able to avoid hub vertices having abnormally high connectivity. We show that mutual proximity graphs yield much better graph connectivity resulting in improved reachability compared to knn graphs, mutual knn graphs and mutual knn graphs enhanced with minimum spanning trees, while simultaneously reducing the negative effects of hubness.

10. Joint Graph Layouts for Visualizing Collections of Segmented Meshes

Ren, Jing

2017-09-12

We present a novel and efficient approach for computing joint graph layouts and then use it to visualize collections of segmented meshes. Our joint graph layout algorithm takes as input the adjacency matrices for a set of graphs along with partial, possibly soft, correspondences between nodes of different graphs. We then use a two stage procedure, where in the first step, we extend spectral graph drawing to include a consistency term so that a collection of graphs can be handled jointly. Our second step extends metric multi-dimensional scaling with stress majorization to the joint layout setting, while using the output of the spectral approach as initialization. Further, we discuss a user interface for exploring a collection of graphs. Finally, we show multiple example visualizations of graphs stemming from collections of segmented meshes and we present qualitative and quantitative comparisons with previous work.

11. A Demonstration of the Grrr Graph Rewriting Programming Language

Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

2000-01-01

This paper overviews the graph rewriting programming language, Grrr. The serial graph rewriting strategy is detailed, and key elements of the user interface are described. The system is illustrated by a simple example.

12. Multigraph: Interactive Data Graphs on the Web

Phillips, M. B.

2010-12-01

Many aspects of geophysical science involve time dependent data that is often presented in the form of a graph. Considering that the web has become a primary means of communication, there are surprisingly few good tools and techniques available for presenting time-series data on the web. The most common solution is to use a desktop tool such as Excel or Matlab to create a graph which is saved as an image and then included in a web page like any other image. This technique is straightforward, but it limits the user to one particular view of the data, and disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data an often cumbersome manual process. This situation is somewhat analogous to the state of mapping before the advent of GIS. Maps existed only in printed form, and creating a map was a laborious process. In the last several years, however, the world of mapping has experienced a revolution in the form of web-based and other interactive computer technologies, so that it is now commonplace for anyone to easily browse through gigabytes of geographic data. Multigraph seeks to bring a similar ease of access to time series data. Multigraph is a program for displaying interactive time-series data graphs in web pages that includes a simple way of configuring the appearance of the graph and the data to be included. It allows multiple data sources to be combined into a single graph, and allows the user to explore the data interactively. Multigraph lets users explore and visualize "data space" in the same way that interactive mapping applications such as Google Maps facilitate exploring and visualizing geography. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file and requires no programming. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf

13. Cellular Automata on Graphs: Topological Properties of ER Graphs Evolved towards Low-Entropy Dynamics

Marc-Thorsten Hütt

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are a remarkably  efficient tool for exploring general properties of complex systems and spatiotemporal patterns arising from local rules. Totalistic cellular automata,  where the update  rules depend  only on the density of neighboring states, are at the same time a versatile  tool for exploring  dynamical  processes on graphs. Here we briefly review our previous results on cellular automata on graphs, emphasizing some systematic relationships between network architecture and dynamics identified in this way. We then extend the investigation  towards graphs obtained in a simulated-evolution procedure, starting from Erdő s–Rényi (ER graphs and selecting for low entropies of the CA dynamics. Our key result is a strong association of low Shannon entropies with a broadening of the graph’s degree distribution.

14. Faucet: streaming de novo assembly graph construction.

Rozov, Roye; Goldshlager, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Shamir, Ron

2018-01-01

15. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

Szmytkie Robert

2017-01-01

In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement). When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the n...

16. High-performance analysis of filtered semantic graphs

Buluç, A; Fox, A; Gilbert, JR; Kamil, S; Lugowski, A; Oliker, L; Williams, S

2012-01-01

High performance is a crucial consideration when executing a complex analytic query on a massive semantic graph. In a semantic graph, vertices and edges carry \\attributes" of various types. Analytic queries on semantic graphs typically depend on the values of these attributes; thus, the computation must either view the graph through a filter that passes only those individual vertices and edges of interest, or else must first materialize a subgraph or subgraphs consisting of only the vertices ...

17. Graphs on Surfaces and the Partition Function of String Theory

Garcia-Islas, J. Manuel

2007-01-01

Graphs on surfaces is an active topic of pure mathematics belonging to graph theory. It has also been applied to physics and relates discrete and continuous mathematics. In this paper we present a formal mathematical description of the relation between graph theory and the mathematical physics of discrete string theory. In this description we present problems of the combinatorial world of real importance for graph theorists. The mathematical details of the paper are as follows: There is a com...

18. Tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2

Feng, Yan-Quan; Kutnar, Klavdija; Marusic, Dragan

2014-01-01

A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified.......A graph is one-regular if its automorphism group acts regularly on the set of its arcs. In this paper tetravalent one-regular graphs of order 4p2, where p is a prime, are classified....

19. Genus of total graphs from rings: A survey

T. Tamizh Chelvam

2018-04-01

Full Text Available Let R be a commutative ring. The total graph T Γ ( R of R is the undirected graph with vertex set R and two distinct vertices x and y are adjacent if x + y is a zero divisor in R . In this paper, we present a survey of results on the genus of T Γ ( R and three of its generalizations. Keywords: Commutative ring, Total graph, Cayley graph, Genus, Planar

20. On two energy-like invariants of line graphs and related graph operations

Xiaodan Chen

2016-02-01

Full Text Available Abstract For a simple graph G of order n, let μ 1 ≥ μ 2 ≥ ⋯ ≥ μ n = 0 $\\mu_{1}\\geq\\mu_{2}\\geq\\cdots\\geq\\mu_{n}=0$ be its Laplacian eigenvalues, and let q 1 ≥ q 2 ≥ ⋯ ≥ q n ≥ 0 $q_{1}\\geq q_{2}\\geq\\cdots\\geq q_{n}\\geq0$ be its signless Laplacian eigenvalues. The Laplacian-energy-like invariant and incidence energy of G are defined as, respectively, LEL ( G = ∑ i = 1 n − 1 μ i and IE ( G = ∑ i = 1 n q i . $$\\mathit{LEL}(G=\\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}\\sqrt{ \\mu_{i}} \\quad\\mbox{and}\\quad \\mathit {IE}(G=\\sum_{i=1}^{n} \\sqrt{q_{i}}.$$ In this paper, we present some new upper and lower bounds on LEL and IE of line graph, subdivision graph, para-line graph and total graph of a regular graph, some of which improve previously known results. The main tools we use here are the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and the Ozeki inequality.

1. Do Graphs Promote Learning in Principles of Economics?

Cohn, Elchanan; Cohn, Sharon; Balch, Donald C.; Bradley, James, Jr.

2001-01-01

Tests the effects on student performance when using graphs as part of a University of South Carolina (Columbia) principles of economics lecture. Finds in 1995 that students in the lecture with graphs had significantly lower gain scores than those in the no-graphs lecture. Finds no significant difference in 1997. (RLH)

2. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

D O Haryeni

2017-11-17

Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.

3. Towards Trustworthy Adaptive Case Management with Dynamic Condition Response Graphs

Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

2013-01-01

We describe how the declarative Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs process model can be used for trustworthy adaptive case management by leveraging the flexible execution, dynamic composition and adaptation supported by DCR Graphs. The dynamically composed and adapted graphs are verified for...

4. Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree

Brandt, Stephan

2010-01-01

In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must sati...

5. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

2006-01-01

We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the

6. Optimal induced universal graphs and adjacency labeling for trees

Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs

2017-01-01

In this article, we show that there exists a graph G with O(n) nodes such that any forest of n nodes is an induced subgraph of G Furthermore, for constant arboricity k, the result implies the existence of a graph with O(nk) nodes that contains all n-node graphs of arboricity k as node-induced sub...

7. Homotopy Type of Neighborhood Complexes of Kneser Graphs, KG

3

2017-04-12

Apr 12, 2017 ... Abstract. Schrijver identified a family of vertex critical subgraphs of the. Kneser graphs called the stable Kneser graphs SGn,k. Björner and de Longueville proved that the neighborhood complex of the stable. Kneser graph SGn,k is homotopy equivalent to a k−sphere. In this article, we prove that the ...

8. Graph approach to the gradient expansion of density functionals

Kozlowski, P.M.; Nalewajski, R.F.

1986-01-01

A graph representation of terms in the gradient expansion of the kinetic energy density functional is presented. They briefly discuss the implications of the virial theorem for the graph structure and relations between possible graphs at a given order of expansion

9. Forbidden Structures for Planar Perfect Consecutively Colourable Graphs

Borowiecka-Olszewska Marta

2017-05-01

Full Text Available A consecutive colouring of a graph is a proper edge colouring with posi- tive integers in which the colours of edges incident with each vertex form an interval of integers. The idea of this colouring was introduced in 1987 by Asratian and Kamalian under the name of interval colouring. Sevast- janov showed that the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete even restricted to the class of bipartite graphs. We focus our attention on the class of consecutively colourable graphs whose all induced subgraphs are consecutively colourable, too. We call elements of this class perfect consecutively colourable to emphasise the conceptual similarity to perfect graphs. Obviously, the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs is induced hereditary, so it can be characterized by the family of induced forbidden graphs. In this work we give a necessary and sufficient conditions that must be satisfied by the generalized Sevastjanov rosette to be an induced forbid- den graph for the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs. Along the way, we show the exact values of the deficiency of all generalized Sevastjanov rosettes, which improves the earlier known estimating result. It should be mentioned that the deficiency of a graph measures its closeness to the class of consecutively colourable graphs. We motivate the investigation of graphs considered here by showing their connection to the class of planar perfect consecutively colourable graphs.

10. Computing the forgotten topological index of four operations on graphs

Shehnaz Akhter

2017-04-01

The first and second Zagreb indices for the four operations on graphs were studied by Deng et al. (2016. In this paper, we extend this study to the F-index of graphs and determine the closed formulas for the F-index of four operations on graphs.

11. More progress on tough graphs -- The Y2K report

Bauer, D.; Broersma, Haitze J.; Schmeichel, E.

2000-01-01

We now know that not every $2$-tough graph is hamiltonian. In fact for every $\\epsilon > 0$, there exists a ($9/4 - \\epsilon$) - tough nontraceable graph. We continue our quadrennial survey of results that relate the toughness of a graph to its cycle structure.

12. Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some Illustrative Examples

Graph Theory to Pure Mathematics: Some. Illustrative Examples v Yegnanarayanan is a. Professor of Mathematics at MNM Jain Engineering. College, Chennai. His research interests include graph theory and its applications to both pure maths and theoretical computer science. Keywords. Graph theory, matching theory,.

13. A generalization of zero divisor graphs associated to commutative ...

M. Afkhami

2018-03-19

Mar 19, 2018 ... R . We also determine all isomorphic classes of finite commutative rings whose generalized zero divisor graphs have genus at most three. Keywords. Zero divisor graph; lower triangular matrix; genus; complete graph. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 15B33, 05C10, 05C25, 05C45. 1. Introduction.

14. Chromatic roots and minor-closed families of graphs

Perrett, Thomas

2016-01-01

Given a minor-closed class of graphs G, what is the in mum of the non-trivial roots of the chromatic polynomial of G ε G? When G is the class of all graphs, the answer is known to be 32/27. We answer this question exactly for three minor-closed classes of graphs. Furthermore, we conjecture precis...

15. Graph Transformation for Consolidation of Creativity Sessions Results

Dolog, Peter

2010-01-01

Graph transformation approach for consolidation of creativity sessions results is part of the FP7 EU/IST project idSpace: Tooling of and training for collaborative, distributed product innovation. The goal of graph transformation approach is to provide a tool for merging results of various sessions...... (such as brainstorming sessions), which are represented as graphs, when the session participants- are physically distributed....

16. Engineering Object-Oriented Semantics Using Graph Transformations

Kastenberg, H.; Kleppe, A.G.; Rensink, Arend

In this paper we describe the application of the theory of graph transformations to the practise of language design. We have defined the semantics of a small but realistic object-oriented language (called TAAL) by mapping the language constructs to graphs and their operational semantics to graph

17. Cycles through all finite vertex sets in infinite graphs

Kundgen, Andre; Li, Binlong; Thomassen, Carsten

2017-01-01

is contained in a cycle of G. We apply this to extend a number of results and conjectures on finite graphs to Hamiltonian curves in infinite locally finite graphs. For example, Barnette’s conjecture (that every finite planar cubic 3-connected bipartite graph is Hamiltonian) is equivalent to the statement...

18. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

2017-01-01

The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor o...

19. Learning Financial Reports From Mixed Symbolic-Spatial Graphs

Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

2011-01-01

Mixed visuals of numbers and graphs are available in various financial reports that demonstrate the financial status and risks of a firm. GWN (graphs with numbers) and TWG (table of numbers with graphs) were used as two alternative visuals derived from the actual data of two large public companies, one from food manufacturing industry (food) and…

20. Deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states

Huang, C.-Y.; Yu, I-C.; Lin, F.-L.; Hsu, L.-Y.

2009-01-01

We propose schemes to perform the deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition of a viable graph state for the proposed schemes. That is, for the associated graph, the reduced adjacency matrix of the Tanner-type subgraph between senders and receivers should be invertible.

1. On Pathos Adjacency Cut Vertex Jump Graph of a Tree

Nagesh.H.M; R.Chandrasekhar

2014-01-01

In this paper the concept of pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graph PJC(T) of a tree T is introduced. We also present a characterization of graphs whose pathos adjacency cut vertex jump graphs are planar, outerplanar, minimally non-outerplanar, Eulerian and Hamiltonian.

2. External memory K-bisimulation reduction of big graphs

Luo, Y.; Fletcher, G.H.L.; Hidders, A.J.H.; Wu, Y.; De Bra, P.M.E.

2013-01-01

In this paper, we present, to our knowledge, the first known I/O efficient solutions for computing the k-bisimulation partition of a massive directed graph, and performing maintenance of such a partition upon updates to the underlying graph. Ubiquitous in the theory and application of graph data,

3. Spectral Results on Some Hamiltonian Properties of Graphs

Rao Li

2014-10-01

Full Text Available Using Lotker’s interlacing theorem on the Laplacian eigenvalues of a graph in [5] and Wang and Belardo’s interlacing theorem on the signless Laplacian eigenvalues of a graph in [6], we in this note obtain spectral conditions for some Hamiltonian properties of graphs

4. Expert interpretation of bar and line graphs: The role of graphicacy in reducing the effect of graph format.

David ePeebles

2015-10-01

Full Text Available The distinction between informational and computational equivalence of representations, first articulated by Larkin and Simon (1987 has been a fundamental principle in the analysis of diagrammatic reasoning which has been supported empirically on numerous occasions. We present an experiment that investigates this principle in relation to the performance of expert graph users of 2 x 2 'interaction' bar and line graphs. The study sought to determine whether expert interpretation is affected by graph format in the same way that novice interpretations are. The findings revealed that, unlike novices - and contrary to the assumptions of several graph comprehension models - experts' performance was the same for both graph formats, with their interpretation of bar graphs being no worse than that for line graphs. We discuss the implications of the study for guidelines for presenting such data and for models of expert graph comprehension.

5. Decentralized formation of random regular graphs for robust multi-agent networks

Yazicioglu, A. Yasin; Egerstedt, Magnus; Shamma, Jeff S.

2014-01-01

systems. One family of robust graphs is the random regular graphs. In this paper, we present a locally applicable reconfiguration scheme to build random regular graphs through self-organization. For any connected initial graph, the proposed scheme

6. A comparative study of applying Mason’s Rule in the case of flow-graphs and bond-graphs

2009-05-01

Full Text Available The paper presents two methods to analyzethe electric circuits using the flow-graphs and thebond-graphs studying the differences between thesemethods.As it can be noticed, the two methods are totallydifferent; their common point being Mason’s rule thatis applied in both cases but it is applied differently foreach type of graphs.

7. A Note on the PageRank of Undirected Graphs

Grolmusz, Vince

2012-01-01

The PageRank is a widely used scoring function of networks in general and of the World Wide Web graph in particular. The PageRank is defined for directed graphs, but in some special cases applications for undirected graphs occur. In the literature it is widely noted that the PageRank for undirected graphs are proportional to the degrees of the vertices of the graph. We prove that statement for a particular personalization vector in the definition of the PageRank, and we also show that in gene...

8. Modular Environment for Graph Research and Analysis with a Persistent

2009-11-18

The MEGRAPHS software package provides a front-end to graphs and vectors residing on special-purpose computing resources. It allows these data objects to be instantiated, destroyed, and manipulated. A variety of primitives needed for typical graph analyses are provided. An example program illustrating how MEGRAPHS can be used to implement a PageRank computation is included in the distribution.The MEGRAPHS software package is targeted towards developers of graph algorithms. Programmers using MEGRAPHS would write graph analysis programs in terms of high-level graph and vector operations. These computations are transparently executed on the Cray XMT compute nodes.

9. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

Sakr, Sherif

2017-01-07

This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

10. b-tree facets for the simple graph partitioning polytope

Sørensen, Michael Malmros

2004-01-01

The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...... defining property of the inequalities. Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

11. The Container Problem in Bubble-Sort Graphs

Suzuki, Yasuto; Kaneko, Keiichi

Bubble-sort graphs are variants of Cayley graphs. A bubble-sort graph is suitable as a topology for massively parallel systems because of its simple and regular structure. Therefore, in this study, we focus on n-bubble-sort graphs and propose an algorithm to obtain n-1 disjoint paths between two arbitrary nodes in time bounded by a polynomial in n, the degree of the graph plus one. We estimate the time complexity of the algorithm and the sum of the path lengths after proving the correctness of the algorithm. In addition, we report the results of computer experiments evaluating the average performance of the algorithm.

12. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

Sakr, Sherif; Orakzai, Faisal Moeen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Khayyat, Zuhair

2017-01-01

This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

13. A Characterization of 2-Tree Probe Interval Graphs

Brown David E.

2014-08-01

Full Text Available A graph is a probe interval graph if its vertices correspond to some set of intervals of the real line and can be partitioned into sets P and N so that vertices are adjacent if and only if their corresponding intervals intersect and at least one belongs to P. We characterize the 2-trees which are probe interval graphs and extend a list of forbidden induced subgraphs for such graphs created by Pržulj and Corneil in [2-tree probe interval graphs have a large obstruction set, Discrete Appl. Math. 150 (2005 216-231

14. Automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph

Ganesan, Ashwin

2014-01-01

The modified bubble-sort graph of dimension $n$ is the Cayley graph of $S_n$ generated by $n$ cyclically adjacent transpositions. In the present paper, it is shown that the automorphism group of the modified bubble sort graph of dimension $n$ is $S_n \\times D_{2n}$, for all $n \\ge 5$. Thus, a complete structural description of the automorphism group of the modified bubble-sort graph is obtained. A similar direct product decomposition is seen to hold for arbitrary normal Cayley graphs generate...

15. The Reduction of Directed Cyclic Graph for Task Assignment Problem

Ariffin W.N.M.

2018-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a directed cyclic graph (DCG is proposed as the task graph. It is undesirable and impossible to complete the task according to the constraints if the cycle exists. Therefore, an effort should be done in order to eliminate the cycle to obtain a directed acyclic graph (DAG, so that the minimum amount of time required for the entire task can be found. The technique of reducing the complexity of the directed cyclic graph to a directed acyclic graph by reversing the orientation of the path is the main contribution of this study. The algorithm was coded using Java programming and consistently produced good assignment and task schedule.

16. Improved Conflict Detection for Graph Transformation with Attributes

Géza Kulcsár

2015-04-01

Full Text Available In graph transformation, a conflict describes a situation where two alternative transformations cannot be arbitrarily serialized. When enriching graphs with attributes, existing conflict detection techniques typically report a conflict whenever at least one of two transformations manipulates a shared attribute. In this paper, we propose an improved, less conservative condition for static conflict detection of graph transformation with attributes by explicitly taking the semantics of the attribute operations into account. The proposed technique is based on symbolic graphs, which extend the traditional notion of graphs by logic formulas used for attribute handling. The approach is proven complete, i.e., any potential conflict is guaranteed to be detected.

17. Central limit theorems for large graphs: Method of quantum decomposition

Hashimoto, Yukihiro; Hora, Akihito; Obata, Nobuaki

2003-01-01

A new method is proposed for investigating spectral distribution of the combinatorial Laplacian (adjacency matrix) of a large regular graph on the basis of quantum decomposition and quantum central limit theorem. General results are proved for Cayley graphs of discrete groups and for distance-regular graphs. The Coxeter groups and the Johnson graphs are discussed in detail by way of illustration. In particular, the limit distributions obtained from the Johnson graphs are characterized by the Meixner polynomials which form a one-parameter deformation of the Laguerre polynomials

18. Graphs of groups on surfaces interactions and models

White, AT

2001-01-01

The book, suitable as both an introductory reference and as a text book in the rapidly growing field of topological graph theory, models both maps (as in map-coloring problems) and groups by means of graph imbeddings on sufaces. Automorphism groups of both graphs and maps are studied. In addition connections are made to other areas of mathematics, such as hypergraphs, block designs, finite geometries, and finite fields. There are chapters on the emerging subfields of enumerative topological graph theory and random topological graph theory, as well as a chapter on the composition of English

19. On a Fuzzy Algebra for Querying Graph Databases

Pivert , Olivier; Thion , Virginie; Jaudoin , Hélène; Smits , Grégory

2014-01-01

International audience; This paper proposes a notion of fuzzy graph database and describes a fuzzy query algebra that makes it possible to handle such database, which may be fuzzy or not, in a flexible way. The algebra, based on fuzzy set theory and the concept of a fuzzy graph, is composed of a set of operators that can be used to express preference queries on fuzzy graph databases. The preferences concern i) the content of the vertices of the graph and ii) the structure of the graph. In a s...

20. Low-Rank Matrix Factorization With Adaptive Graph Regularizer.

Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian

2016-05-01

In this paper, we present a novel low-rank matrix factorization algorithm with adaptive graph regularizer (LMFAGR). We extend the recently proposed low-rank matrix with manifold regularization (MMF) method with an adaptive regularizer. Different from MMF, which constructs an affinity graph in advance, LMFAGR can simultaneously seek graph weight matrix and low-dimensional representations of data. That is, graph construction and low-rank matrix factorization are incorporated into a unified framework, which results in an automatically updated graph rather than a predefined one. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art low-rank matrix factorization methods.

1. Skin Segmentation Based on Graph Cuts

HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong

2009-01-01

Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.

2. Gems of combinatorial optimization and graph algorithms

Skutella, Martin; Stiller, Sebastian; Wagner, Dorothea

2015-01-01

Are you looking for new lectures for your course on algorithms, combinatorial optimization, or algorithmic game theory?  Maybe you need a convenient source of relevant, current topics for a graduate student or advanced undergraduate student seminar?  Or perhaps you just want an enjoyable look at some beautiful mathematical and algorithmic results, ideas, proofs, concepts, and techniques in discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science?   Gems of Combinatorial Optimization and Graph Algorithms is a handpicked collection of up-to-date articles, carefully prepared by a select group of international experts, who have contributed some of their most mathematically or algorithmically elegant ideas.  Topics include longest tours and Steiner trees in geometric spaces, cartograms, resource buying games, congestion games, selfish routing, revenue equivalence and shortest paths, scheduling, linear structures in graphs, contraction hierarchies, budgeted matching problems, and motifs in networks.   This ...

3. Distance 2-Domination in Prisms of Graphs

2017-05-01

Full Text Available A set of vertices D of a graph G is a distance 2-dominating set of G if the distance between each vertex u ∊ (V (G − D and D is at most two. Let γ2(G denote the size of a smallest distance 2-dominating set of G. For any permutation π of the vertex set of G, the prism of G with respect to π is the graph πG obtained from G and a copy G′ of G by joining u ∊ V(G with v′ ∊ V(G′ if and only if v′ = π(u. If γ2(πG = γ2(G for any permutation π of V(G, then G is called a universal γ2-fixer. In this work we characterize the cycles and paths that are universal γ2-fixers.

4. On the Distribution of Random Geometric Graphs

Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.

2018-01-01

as a measure of the graph’s topological uncertainty (or information content). Moreover, the distribution is also relevant for determining average network performance or designing protocols. However, a major impediment in deducing the graph distribution is that it requires the joint probability distribution......Random geometric graphs (RGGs) are commonly used to model networked systems that depend on the underlying spatial embedding. We concern ourselves with the probability distribution of an RGG, which is crucial for studying its random topology, properties (e.g., connectedness), or Shannon entropy...... of the n(n − 1)/2 distances between n nodes randomly distributed in a bounded domain. As no such result exists in the literature, we make progress by obtaining the joint distribution of the distances between three nodes confined in a disk in R 2. This enables the calculation of the probability distribution...

5. Graph-theoretic approach to quantum correlations.

Cabello, Adán; Severini, Simone; Winter, Andreas

2014-01-31

Correlations in Bell and noncontextuality inequalities can be expressed as a positive linear combination of probabilities of events. Exclusive events can be represented as adjacent vertices of a graph, so correlations can be associated to a subgraph. We show that the maximum value of the correlations for classical, quantum, and more general theories is the independence number, the Lovász number, and the fractional packing number of this subgraph, respectively. We also show that, for any graph, there is always a correlation experiment such that the set of quantum probabilities is exactly the Grötschel-Lovász-Schrijver theta body. This identifies these combinatorial notions as fundamental physical objects and provides a method for singling out experiments with quantum correlations on demand.

6. Analysis and enumeration algorithms for biological graphs

Marino, Andrea

2015-01-01

In this work we plan to revise the main techniques for enumeration algorithms and to show four examples of enumeration algorithms that can be applied to efficiently deal with some biological problems modelled by using biological networks: enumerating central and peripheral nodes of a network, enumerating stories, enumerating paths or cycles, and enumerating bubbles. Notice that the corresponding computational problems we define are of more general interest and our results hold in the case of arbitrary graphs. Enumerating all the most and less central vertices in a network according to their eccentricity is an example of an enumeration problem whose solutions are polynomial and can be listed in polynomial time, very often in linear or almost linear time in practice. Enumerating stories, i.e. all maximal directed acyclic subgraphs of a graph G whose sources and targets belong to a predefined subset of the vertices, is on the other hand an example of an enumeration problem with an exponential number of solutions...

7. Document organization by means of graphs

Santa Vallejo Figueroa

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Nowadays documents are the main way to represent information and knowledge in several domains. Continuously users store documents in hard disk or online media according to some personal organization based on topics, but such documents can contain one or more topics. This situation makes hard to access documents when is required. The current search engines are based on the name of file or content, but where the desired term or terms must match exactly as are in the content. In this paper, a method for organize documents by means of graphs is proposed, taking into account the topics of the documents. For this a graph for each document is generated taking into account synonyms, semantic related terms, hyponyms, and hypernyms of nouns and verbs contained in documents. The proposal have been compares against Google Desktop and LogicalDoc with interesting results.

8. Using resource graphs to represent conceptual change

Michael C. Wittmann

2006-08-01

Full Text Available We introduce resource graphs, a representation of linked ideas used when reasoning about specific contexts in physics. Our model is consistent with previous descriptions of coordination classes and resources. It represents mesoscopic scales that are neither knowledge-in-pieces nor large-scale concepts. We use resource graphs to describe several forms of conceptual change: incremental, cascade, wholesale, and dual construction. For each, we give evidence from the physics education research literature to show examples of each form of conceptual change. Where possible, we compare our representation to models used by other researchers. Building on our representation, we analyze another form of conceptual change, differentiation, and suggest several experimental studies that would help understand the differences between reform-based curricula.

9. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

2009-01-01

In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

10. Dynamic MLD analysis with flow graphs

Jenab, K.; Sarfaraz, A.; Dhillon, B.S.; Seyed Hosseini, S.M.

2012-01-01

Master Logic Diagram (MLD) depicts the interrelationships among the independent functions and dependent support functions. Using MLD, the manner in which all functions, sub-functions interact to achieve the overall system objective can be investigated. This paper reports a probabilistic model to analyze an MLD by translating the interrelationships to a graph model. The proposed model uses the flow-graph concept and Moment Generating Function (MGF) to analyze the dependency matrix representing the MLD with embedded self-healing function/sub-functions. The functions/sub-functions are featured by failure detection and recovery mechanisms. The newly developed model provides the probability of the system failure, and system mean and standard deviation time to failure in the MLD. An illustrative example is demonstrated to present the application of the model.

11. Dynamic graphs, community detection, and Riemannian geometry

Bakker, Craig; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Visweswara Sathanur, Arun

2018-03-29

A community is a subset of a wider network where the members of that subset are more strongly connected to each other than they are to the rest of the network. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying and tracking communities in graphs that change over time {dynamic community detection} and present a framework based on Riemannian geometry to aid in this task. Our framework currently supports several important operations such as interpolating between and averaging over graph snapshots. We compare these Riemannian methods with entry-wise linear interpolation and that the Riemannian methods are generally better suited to dynamic community detection. Next steps with the Riemannian framework include developing higher-order interpolation methods (e.g. the analogues of polynomial and spline interpolation) and a Riemannian least-squares regression method for working with noisy data.

12. Mutual Contextualization in Tripartite Graphs of Folksonomies

Yeung, Ching-Man Au; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

The use of tags to describe Web resources in a collaborative manner has experienced rising popularity among Web users in recent years. The product of such activity is given the name folksonomy, which can be considered as a scheme of organizing information in the users' own way. This research work attempts to analyze tripartite graphs - graphs involving users, tags and resources - of folksonomies and discuss how these elements acquire their semantics through their associations with other elements, a process we call mutual contextualization. By studying such process, we try to identify solutions to problems such as tag disambiguation, retrieving documents of similar topics and discovering communities of users. This paper describes the basis of the research work, mentions work done so far and outlines future plans.

13. Random geometric graphs with general connection functions

Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

2016-03-01

In the original (1961) Gilbert model of random geometric graphs, nodes are placed according to a Poisson point process, and links formed between those within a fixed range. Motivated by wireless ad hoc networks "soft" or "probabilistic" connection models have recently been introduced, involving a "connection function" H (r ) that gives the probability that two nodes at distance r are linked (directly connect). In many applications (not only wireless networks), it is desirable that the graph is connected; that is, every node is linked to every other node in a multihop fashion. Here the connection probability of a dense network in a convex domain in two or three dimensions is expressed in terms of contributions from boundary components for a very general class of connection functions. It turns out that only a few quantities such as moments of the connection function appear. Good agreement is found with special cases from previous studies and with numerical simulations.

14. Graph processing platforms at scale: practices and experiences

Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Brown, Tyler C [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Ganesh, Gautam [ORNL

2015-01-01

Graph analysis unveils hidden associations of data in many phenomena and artifacts, such as road network, social networks, genomic information, and scientific collaboration. Unfortunately, a wide diversity in the characteristics of graphs and graph operations make it challenging to find a right combination of tools and implementation of algorithms to discover desired knowledge from the target data set. This study presents an extensive empirical study of three representative graph processing platforms: Pegasus, GraphX, and Urika. Each system represents a combination of options in data model, processing paradigm, and infrastructure. We benchmarked each platform using three popular graph operations, degree distribution, connected components, and PageRank over a variety of real-world graphs. Our experiments show that each graph processing platform shows different strength, depending the type of graph operations. While Urika performs the best in non-iterative operations like degree distribution, GraphX outputforms iterative operations like connected components and PageRank. In addition, we discuss challenges to optimize the performance of each platform over large scale real world graphs.

15. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

Hong, Sungpack; Salihoglu, Semih; Widom, Jennifer; Olukotun, Kunle

2014-01-01

Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel's programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

16. Labeled Embedding Of (n, n-2-Graphs In Their Complements

Tahraoui M.-A.

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Graph packing generally deals with unlabeled graphs. In [4], the authors have introduced a new variant of the graph packing problem, called the labeled packing of a graph. This problem has recently been studied on trees [M.A. Tahraoui, E. Duchêne and H. Kheddouci, Labeled 2-packings of trees, Discrete Math. 338 (2015 816-824] and cycles [E. Duchˆene, H. Kheddouci, R.J. Nowakowski and M.A. Tahraoui, Labeled packing of graphs, Australas. J. Combin. 57 (2013 109-126]. In this note, we present a lower bound on the labeled packing number of any (n, n − 2-graph into Kn. This result improves the bound given by Woźniak in [Embedding graphs of small size, Discrete Appl. Math. 51 (1994 233-241].

17. Simplifying Scalable Graph Processing with a Domain-Specific Language

Hong, Sungpack

2014-01-01

Large-scale graph processing, with its massive data sets, requires distributed processing. However, conventional frameworks for distributed graph processing, such as Pregel, use non-traditional programming models that are well-suited for parallelism and scalability but inconvenient for implementing non-trivial graph algorithms. In this paper, we use Green-Marl, a Domain-Specific Language for graph analysis, to intuitively describe graph algorithms and extend its compiler to generate equivalent Pregel implementations. Using the semantic information captured by Green-Marl, the compiler applies a set of transformation rules that convert imperative graph algorithms into Pregel\\'s programming model. Our experiments show that the Pregel programs generated by the Green-Marl compiler perform similarly to manually coded Pregel implementations of the same algorithms. The compiler is even able to generate a Pregel implementation of a complicated graph algorithm for which a manual Pregel implementation is very challenging.

18. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

2018-05-01

The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

19. Computer recognition of divergences in Feynman graphs

Calmet, J

1973-05-01

The program described recognizes whether or not a graph is divergent. It determines the kind of the divergences found: vacuum polarizations, electron self energies and vertices. it does not consider infrared divergences. The programming language used is REDUCE. A LISP version is also available. The nature of the divergences and their counter terms was extensively used to write down this program, therefore it is limited to the case of quantum electrodynamics. (auth)

20. Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph