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Sample records for graphite tube furnace

  1. Determination of vanadium in sea water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tube coated with pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tokuo; Sakai, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    The trace amount of vanadium in sea water was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tube coated with pyrolytic graphite. To correct the background absorption, a deuterium lamp with a higher-brilliant thermal cathode was used. The sensitivity for vanadium increased 10 -- 20 fold by the use of the tube coated with pyrolytic graphite, and the utility lifetime of the tube was greatly extended. Vanadium(V) - 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) complexes were extracted into chloroform as an ion-pair with benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (Zephiramine) cation alternatively. The sample of sea water, which was made to 0.1 N in sulfuric acid and 0.1% in hydrogen peroxide, was loaded onto the column of Dowex 1-X 4 resin (SO 4 2- -form). Vanadium was then eluted from the resin with 1 N sulfuric acid-0.1% hydrogen peroxide or 1 N hydrochloric acid-0.1% hydrogen peroxide evaporated to dry. After dissolution of the elute in 0.2 N nitric acid, vanadium was extracted. Secondly, the sample of sea water was adjusted to pH 5.0, and loaded onto the column of Chelex-100 resin. Vanadium was eluted from the resin with 2 N ammonia. The above two methods took much time, but the coprecipitation method was not so and recommended for the determination of vanadium in sea water. Vanadium was coprecipitated with iron(III) hydroxide-hydrous titanium(IV) oxide at pH 6.0. The precipitate was digested with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide. The solution was diluted to 50 ml with water. The resulting solutions were employed to determine the vanadium concentration by the graphite furnace atomic absorption measurement. The trace amounts of vanadium in various kinds of the coastal sea water were determined by the coprecipitation method. (author)

  2. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  3. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrometry as alternative method for trace analysis of ... Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .... Methods comparison and validation .... plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  4. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  5. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for trace analysis of arsenic (As) in natural herbal products (NHPs). Method: Arsenic analysis in natural herbal products and standard reference ...

  6. Determination of trace elements in paints by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pozebon, Dirce [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.br; Mello, Paola A.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, UFSM, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-10-17

    A direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (DS-GFAAS) method for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu in paints has been developed. Serigraphy, acrylic and tattoo paints were analysed. Approaches like pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, modifiers and sample mass introduced in the atomizer were studied. Quantification was performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions pipetted onto the platform. The sample mass introduced in the graphite tube ranged from 0.02 to 8.0 mg. Palladium was used as modifier for Cd, Pb and Cu, while Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was used for Co. For Ni determination, the graphite platform was covered with carbon powder. The characteristic masses of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu were 1.4, 22.5, 7.9, 11.0, 9.6 and 12.5 pg, while the limits of detection were 0.0004, 0.001, 0.03, 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu, respectively. The accuracy was determined by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), using liquid sampling of digests. For matrix characterization, major and minor elements (Al, Mg, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti and Mg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

  7. Determination of trace elements in paints by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Pozebon, Dirce; Mello, Paola A.; Flores, Erico M.M.

    2007-01-01

    A direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (DS-GFAAS) method for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu in paints has been developed. Serigraphy, acrylic and tattoo paints were analysed. Approaches like pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, modifiers and sample mass introduced in the atomizer were studied. Quantification was performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions pipetted onto the platform. The sample mass introduced in the graphite tube ranged from 0.02 to 8.0 mg. Palladium was used as modifier for Cd, Pb and Cu, while Mg(NO 3 ) 2 was used for Co. For Ni determination, the graphite platform was covered with carbon powder. The characteristic masses of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu were 1.4, 22.5, 7.9, 11.0, 9.6 and 12.5 pg, while the limits of detection were 0.0004, 0.001, 0.03, 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 μg g -1 of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu, respectively. The accuracy was determined by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), using liquid sampling of digests. For matrix characterization, major and minor elements (Al, Mg, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti and Mg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

  8. Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Elemental Analysis of Ecstasy Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    French, Holly E.; Went, Michael J.; Gibson, Stuart J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Six metals (Cu, Mg, Ba, Ni, Cr, Pb) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy\\ud tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric\\ud acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced\\ud in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 ppm and\\ud in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly high...

  9. Determination of technetium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, J.H.; Ballou, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    A detection limit of 6 x 10 -11 g has been achieved for measurement of technetium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A commercially available, demountable, hollow cathode lamp was used and both argon and neon were used as fill gases for the lamp. The range of applicability of the method, when the unresolved 2614.23 to 2615.87 A doublet is used for analysis, is from 60 pg to at least 3 ng of technetium per aliquot analyzed. 3 figures, 1 table

  10. Graphite furnace atomic absorption elemental analysis of ecstasy tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Holly E; Went, Michael J; Gibson, Stuart J

    2013-09-10

    Six metals (copper, magnesium, barium, nickel, chromium and lead) were determined in two separate batches of seized ecstasy tablets by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) following digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Large intra-batch variations were found as expected for tablets produced in clandestine laboratories. For example, nickel in batch 1 was present in the range 0.47-13.1 parts per million (ppm) and in batch 2 in the range 0.35-9.06 ppm. Although batch 1 had significantly higher 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA) content than batch 2, barium was the only element which discriminated between the two ecstasy seizures (batch 1: 0.19-0.66 ppm, batch 2: 3.77-5.47 ppm). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  12. Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke

  13. Sub-parts-per-quadrillion-level graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry based on laser wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickadeit, Fritz K; Berniolles, Sandrine; Kemp, Helen R; Tong, William G

    2004-03-15

    Nonlinear laser wave mixing in a common graphite furnace atomizer is presented as a zeptomole-level, sub-Doppler, high-resolution atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. A nonplanar three-dimensional wave-mixing optical setup is used to generate the signal beam in its own space. Signal collection is efficient and convenient using a template-based optical alignment. The graphite furnace atomizer offers advantages including fast and convenient introduction of solid, liquid, or gas analytes, clean atomization environment, and minimum background noise. Taking advantage of the unique features of the wave-mixing optical method and those of the graphite furnace atomizer, one can obtain both excellent spectral resolution and detection sensitivity. A preliminary concentration detection limit of 0.07 parts-per-quadrillion and a preliminary mass detection limit of 0.7 ag or 8 zmol are determined for rubidium using a compact laser diode as the excitation source.

  14. [Determination of trace cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L X; Ding, B M; Jiang, D; Liu, D Y; Yu, B; Zhu, B L; Ding, L

    2016-05-20

    To establish a method to determine cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine with 2% nitric acid diluted two-fold, to quantify the curve, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Co was linear within 2.5~40.0 ng/ml with r>0.999. Spike experiment showed that Co received good recovery rate, which was 90.8%~94.8%. Intra-assay precisions were 3.2%~5.1% for Co, inter-assay precisions were 4.4%~5.2% for Co. The method by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr to determine urine Co was fast, accurate and with low matrix effect. It could meet the requirement in GBZ/T 210.5-2008.

  15. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace system for treatment of environmentally undesirable solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    A gas tight DC arc furnace system using graphite electrodes is ideally suited for destruction of organic materials, compaction of metallic materials, and vitrification of inorganic waste materials. A graphite electrode DC arc furnace system which was developed by Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. has been used to demonstrate that iron basalt soil containing various surrogate nonradioactive materials found on Department of Energy's Atomic Energy Sites and hospital waste can be reduced to a compact, vitrified, solid material which is environmentally acceptable and will pass TCLP leachate tests. A second graphite electrode DC arc furnace system is presently under construction and will be in operation at MIT during the second quarter of 1993. This furnace system is designed for demonstration of waste treatment and stabilization at a rate of 500 pounds per hour and will also be used for development and performance evaluation of diagnostic techniques and equipment for measuring and understanding internal furnace temperature profiles, gas entrained particulate composition, and particulate size distribution in various locations in the furnace during operation

  16. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  17. Selenium determination in biological material by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in graphite furnace and using vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Vidal, M. de F. de.

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry to the determination of selenium in biological material using vapor generation and electrothermal atomization in the graphite furnace was investigated. Instrumental parameters and the analytical conditions of the methods were studied. Decomposition methods for the samples were tested, and the combustion in the Wickbold apparatus was chosen. (author) [pt

  18. DETERMINING BERYLLIUM IN DRINKING WATER BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers s...

  19. Determination of cadmium in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Tokuo; Shijo, Yoshio; Sakai, Kaoru

    1981-01-01

    A trace amount of cadmium in human urine was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A urine sample (25 ml) was digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 and 30 ml of H 2 O 2 in a long-neck flask on a hot-plate (200 0 C), then diluted to 50 ml. The standard addition method was carried out before digesting. Ten μl of the resulted solution was injected into a tube treated with tungsten carbide, and the cadmium signal was measured with the ramp mode atomization. Interference induced by organic materials in urine was avoided by HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 digestion. Interference induced by inorganic salts could be reduced by 2-fold dilution and tungsten carbide treatment. The cadmium signal was separated sufficiently from the molecular absorption due to NaCl etc. by the ramp mode atomization. Since the blank level of H 2 O 2 was relatively high, the determination was limited to about 0.1 μg/l. The coefficient of variation was 1.76% at 0.36 μg/l in 24 h human urine (n = 4). The time required was (8 -- 10)h. The precision of this method was higher than those of direct methods, and the reasonable values of urine levels of cadmium were obtained. (author)

  20. Surface studies on graphite furnace platforms covered with Pd, Rh and Ir as modifiers in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry of tellurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedro, Juana [Area de Química Analítica, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000GL.N), Santa Fe (Argentina); Stripekis, Jorge [Laboratorio de Análisis de Trazas, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires, Av. Eduardo Madero 399 (1106), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bonivardi, Adrian [Area de Química Analítica, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829 (S3000GL.N), Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel, E-mail: tudino@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Análisis de Trazas, Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of correlations between the efficiency of the distribution of the permanent platinum group modifiers Pd, Rh and Ir over the graphite surface with the aim of improving analytical signal of tellurium. Modifier solution was deposited onto the platform and pyrolysed after drying. In the case of Pd, the physical vaporization/deposition technique was also tested. In order to analyze the differences amongst coverings (morphology, topology and distribution), the graphite surfaces were studied with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microscopy. Micrographs for physical vaporization and pyrolytic deposition of Pd were also analyzed in order to explain the lack of signal obtained for tellurium with the first alternative. Similar micrographs were obtained for pyrolytic deposition of Ir and Rh and then, compared to those of Pd. Ir showed the most homogeneous distribution on the graphite surface and the tallest and sharpest transient. With the aim of improving the analytical signal of tellurium, the correlation between the surface studies and the tellurium transient signal (height, area and shape) is discussed. - Highlights: • Distribution of Rh, Pd and Ir onto graphite furnaces is evaluated by SEM and EDX • Micrographs and spectra showed that surface distribution could influence Te signal. • Ir showed the best signal together with the most homogeneous surface distribution. • Pd-PVD micrographs revealed the absence of graphite and no signal for Te.

  1. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  2. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng

    2016-01-01

    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  3. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  4. Development of a manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron castings from a cupola furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.

  5. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  6. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600 degrees C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation

  7. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  8. High temperature vacuum furnace for the preparation of graphite targets for 14C dating by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.C.; Bristow, P.; Judd, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    A simple and reliable furnace design capable of producing temperatures of up to 2800 deg. C is presented. The furnace has been specifically designed for the rapid and reliable production of graphite targets for 14 C dating purposes but may be used in a variety of applications requiring high temperatures under vacuum conditions

  9. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  10. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J.

    1995-01-01

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials

  11. Atomization in a graphite furnace with ballast - a method of improvement of reliability of atomic absorption analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katskov, D.A.; Grinshtejn, I.L.

    1978-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the reliability with which elements are determined in atomic absorption analysis with atomization in a graphite furnace, a method is proposed based on the use of a furnace with an extra ballast body. A small cylinder of graphite or refractory metal (Ta) placed in the central part of the furnace, is used as ballast. When in poor heat contact with the wall the ballast is heated by ray emission at a somewhat slower rate than the furnace. It is shown that the kinetics of evaporation of the substance being analysed in the ballast furnace is determined by the rate of change of temperature of the ballast body. As a result of the lag in evaporation, vapour from the analysed substance reaches a zone of a much higher temperature than with evaporation in the usual type furnace, leading to an increase in the degree of atomization. Theoretical analysis establishes the temperature of the ballast, and conditions for the determination of elements (Cd) are optimized. The experiments conducted indicate a considerable decrease in the effect of the composition of the sample on the results of the analysis and a lower molecular interference in the ballast furnace. With high evaporation lag the vapours of the sample reach the zone of practically constant temperature, thus making it possible to use the integral method of absorption registration with absolute accuracy. With fractionated distillation of volatile components of the sample, fractionation is considerably more accurate in a ballast furnace than in the usual type furnace

  12. High-Temperature Graphitization Failure of Primary Superheater Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Mandal, N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the main cause of unit outages of the plant, which further affects the reliability, availability and safety of the unit. So failure analysis of boiler tubes is absolutely essential to predict the root cause of the failure and the steps are taken for future remedial action to prevent the failure in near future. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the primary superheater tube in a thermal power plant boiler. Visual inspection, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as the part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it is concluded that the superheater tube is failed due to graphitization for prolonged exposure of the tube at higher temperature.

  13. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeini Jahromi, Elham; Bidari, Araz; Assadi, Yaghoub; Milani Hosseini, Mohammad Reza; Jamali, Mohammad Reza

    2007-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique was successfully used as a sample preparation method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). In this extraction method, 500 μL methanol (disperser solvent) containing 34 μL carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) and 0.00010 g ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (chelating agent) was rapidly injected by syringe into the water sample containing cadmium ions (interest analyte). Thereby, a cloudy solution formed. The cloudy state resulted from the formation of fine droplets of carbon tetrachloride, which have been dispersed, in bulk aqueous sample. At this stage, cadmium reacts with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and therefore, hydrophobic complex forms which is extracted into the fine droplets of carbon tetrachloride. After centrifugation (2 min at 5000 rpm), these droplets were sedimented at the bottom of the conical test tube (25 ± 1 μL). Then a 20 μL of sedimented phase containing enriched analyte was determined by GF AAS. Some effective parameters on extraction and complex formation, such as extraction and disperser solvent type and their volume, extraction time, salt effect, pH and concentration of the chelating agent have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor 125 was obtained from only 5.00 mL of water sample. The calibration graph was linear in the rage of 2-20 ng L -1 with detection limit of 0.6 ng L -1 . The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.s) for ten replicate measurements of 20 ng L -1 of cadmium was 3.5%. The relative recoveries of cadmium in tap, sea and rivers water samples at spiking level of 5 and 10 ng L -1 are 108, 95, 87 and 98%, respectively. The characteristics of the proposed method have been compared with cloud point extraction (CPE), on-line liquid-liquid extraction, single drop microextraction (SDME), on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and co-precipitation based on bibliographic data. Therefore, DLLME combined with

  14. Determination of trace amounts of cadmium in zirconium and its alloys by graphite furnace AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Kyoichiro; Toida, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    Trace amount of cadmium in zirconium and its alloys was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after ion exchange separation. A 2g chip sample was decomposed with 20ml of hydrofluoric acid (1+9) and a few drops of nitric acid. A trace amount of cadmium was separated from zirconium by strongly acidic cation-exchange resin (MCI GEL CK 08P) using 50ml of hydrochloric acid as an eluent. The solution was gently evaporated to dryness on an electric hot plate heater and under an infrared lamp. The residue was dissolved in 1ml of nitric acid (1+14) and diluted to 10ml in a volumetric glass flask with distilled water. Ten microliters of this solution was injected into a graphite furnace and then atomized at 2200degC for 4s in argon at a flow rate of 3.0l/min. Acids used in the analytical procedure were purified by azeotropic distillation and cation-exchange resin. The limit of determination (3σ BK ) for cadmium was 0.5ngCd/g and the relative standard deviation (RSD) at 1ngCd/g level was less than 20% for the GF-AAS. The accuracy of this technique was confirmed by NIST SRM 1643b (trace elements in water). (author)

  15. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  16. Development of mixed-waste analysis capability for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.A.; TenKate, L.B.; Wroblewski, A.

    1995-03-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) are typically configured with ventilation to capture potentially toxic and corrosive gases emitted from the vaporization of sample aliquots. When radioactive elements are present, additional concerns (such as meeting safety guidelines and ALARA principles) must be addressed. This report describes a modification to a GFAAS that provides additional containment of vaporized sample aliquots. The modification was found to increase containment by a factor of 80, given expected operating conditions. The use of the modification allows more mixed-waste samples to be analyzed, permits higher levels of radioactive samples to be analyzed, or exposes the analyst to less airborne radioactivity. The containment apparatus was attached to a Perkin-Elmer Zeeman 5000 spectrophotometer for analysis of mixed-waste samples; however, it could also be used on other systems and in other applications where greater containment of vaporized material is desired

  17. [Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of thallium in blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Gao, G

    2016-04-20

    Colloidal palladium was used as chemical modifier in the determination of blood thallium by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Blood samples were precipitated with 5% (V/V)nitric acid, and then determined by GFAAS with colloidal palladium used as a chemical modifier. 0.2% (W/V)sodium chloride was added in the standard series to improve the matrix matching between standard solution and sample. The detection limit was 0.2 μg/L. The correlation coefficient was 0.9991. The recoveries were between 93.9% to 101.5%.The relative standard deviations were between 1.8% to 2.7%.The certified reference material of whole blood thallium was determined and the result was within the reference range Conclusion: The method is accurate, simple and sensitive, and it can meet the needs of detection thallium in blood entirely.

  18. Liquid-phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle, Inmaculada; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2016-09-14

    An overview of the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is reported herein. The high sensitivity of GFAAS is significantly enhanced by its association with a variety of miniaturized solvent extraction approaches. LPME-GFAAS thus represents a powerful combination for determination of metals, metalloids and organometallic compounds at (ultra)trace level. Different LPME modes used with GFAAS are briefly described, and the experimental parameters that show an impact in those microextraction processes are discussed. Special attention is paid to those parameters affecting GFAAS analysis. Main issues found when coupling LPME and GFAAS, as well as those strategies reported in the literature to solve them, are summarized. Relevant applications published on the topic so far are included. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with a tantalum boat for the determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daidoji, Hidehiro; Tamura, Shohei

    1982-01-01

    The determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprodium by means of graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was studied by a tantalum boat inserted into a graphite tube atomizer. These elements could not be determined by the use of a commercial graphite tube, In the atomization from a tantalum boat, better analytical sensitivities and negligible memory effects for these rare earths are obtained. The analytical sensitivities of yttrium, samarium, and dysprodium with the tantalum boat were 0.60 ng, 0.86 ng, and 0.17 ng respectively. This method was applied for the determination of yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal. The measurements were performed with slightly acidified solutions (0.01 mol dm 3 HCI or HNO 3 ). The sensitivities and the precisions for these elements decreased with increasing acid concentration. An enhancement in the sensitivities of yttrium and dysprosium upon the addition of a large excess of lanthanum, neodymium, and praseodymium salts were observed. The yttrium, samarium, and dysprosium in a mish metal were determined with both analytical curves of standard solutions containing an excess of lanthanum, cerium, and neodymium ions and of the standard addition. The precisions for this work were in the 3 - 9.3% range. (author)

  20. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhou Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P. titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and studied the effects of common contaminants (C, O, N on sintering densification of titanium. It is found that on the surface of the as-sintered titanium, a severely contaminated porous scale was formed and identified as titanium oxycarbonitride. Despite the porous surface, the sintered density in the sample interiors increased with increasing sintering temperature and holding time. Tensile specimens cut from different positions within a large sintered cylinder reveal different tensile properties, strongly dependent on the impurity level mainly carbon and oxygen. Depending on where the specimen is taken from the sintered compact, ultimate tensile strength varied from 300 to 580 MPa. An average tensile elongation of 5% to 7% was observed. Largely depending on the interstitial contents, the fracture modes from typical brittle intergranular fracture to typical ductile fracture.

  1. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez Diaz, Mirella del Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals are a big source of environmental contamination and are also highly toxic to humans. Since shellfish are bio-accumulators of these metals, proper techniques for quantifying them should be available. This work aims to develop an analytical method for the quantitative determination of heavy metals in biological materials (shellfish), specifically arsenic and cadmium at the trace level, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, for which nickel and phosphate solutions were used to modify the modifiers. Prior to the analysis, the sample was diluted with nitric acid in a DAB II pressure digestion system order to destroy the organic matter. The instrument conditions were initially set (wavelength, slit, integration peaks, graphite tube, etc.), then the work range was defined for each element and the most appropriate operational parameters were studied, such as: temperature, ramp times, hold times and internal gas flow, in the different stage of the electrothermal treatment (drying, calcination, atomization) for the furnace program. Once the above mentioned conditions were set and since this was a biological sample, a matrix chemical modifier had to be used, in order to make the elements that accompany the element being studied more volatile. In this way the chemical and spectral interferences decrease together with the high background absorption of the matrix. Therefore, different matrix modifiers were studied for the definition of each analyte. The method validation was done using Certified Oyster Tissue Reference Material N o 1566a from the National Institute of Standards and Technology applying different tests in order to eliminate outliers. Repeatability, uncertainty, sensitivity, lineal range, working range, detection limit and quantification limit were evaluated for each element, and the results were compared with the values for the certified material. The Fisher and Student tests were the statistical tools used. The experimental values

  2. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.S. dos

    1987-01-01

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osintsev, V V; Khidiyatov, A M

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the operating efficiency of the furnace device containing prefurnaces connected to the main combustion chamber. For this purpose in the proposed furnace device is equipped with prefurnaces with burners, rectangular vertical chamber of combustion is equipped with central hearth projection. As indicated by studies, the hearth projection of the indicated projections promotes the development of transverse streams which guarantee effective mixing of the combustion products in the upper part of the combustion chamber 3. This reduces the nonuniformity of temperature at the outlet from the latter, decreases the probability of slagging and hot spots on the heating surface.

  4. The method of the atomic-absorption analysis in a graphite furnace with the metallic collector-ballast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katskov, D.A.; Vasil'eva, L.A.; Grinshtejn, I.L.; Savel'eva, G.O.

    1987-01-01

    New method of atomic-absorption analysis in a graphite furnace with the metallic collector-ballast (tungsten were) is suggested. It enables to widen the number of analyzed objects of liquid products wetting readily graphite and metals. It is shown that application of metallic collector-ballast enables to improve sensitivity and reproducibility of analysis, increase the volume of dosed samples as well as to suppress effectively the influence of excess of mineral and organic substrate on results of atomic-absorption analysis of several elements, including Cd, Sr, In, Te

  5. A New Cross-Shaped Graphite Furnace with Ballast Body for Reduction of Interferences in Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Asweisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new crossed graphite furnace for atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was designed and installed in heated graphite atomizer (HGA500 combined with Perkin-Elmer spectrometer (AAS1100. The Tungsten ballast body was inserted inside one part of the crossed furnace in a way perpendicular to light path. The analyzed sample was injected manually on the ballast body inside the cross and pushed into the measuring zone using the original inner and additional purge gas. The sample was adsorbed strongly on the ballast and evaporated and transferred with different rates at different temperatures during the temperature program allowing the separation of analyte and matrix signals. Analysis of middle volatile element such as copper and manganese in standard urine sample (seronorm 2525 showed complete separation of analyte and background signals with good sensitivity and repeatability.

  6. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.Y. Kamenetskii [All-Russia Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering (OAO VNIIAM), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  7. Burnout in the horizontal tubes of a furnace waterwall panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenetskii, B. Ya.

    2009-08-01

    An experimental study of heat transfer that occurs in tubes nonuniformly heated over the perimeter at low velocities of subcooled water flowing in them is presented. Experiments with unsteady supply of heat made it possible to determine heat fluxes under burnout conditions. Unusually low values of critical heat fluxes were obtained under such conditions.

  8. Determination of copper and iron in the human aqueous humor by atomic absorption spectrometer with graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mohammad, Z.; Shah, M.T.; Saeed, M.; Imdadullah

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of copper and iron was determined in human aqueous humor using atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace. The mean (+- SEM) concentrations of copper (n=16) and iron (n=14) were 0.0234 -+ 0.0045 mu g.ml/sup -1/ and 0.045 -+ 0.0092 mu.ml/sup -1/ respectively. In male and female, the concentrations of copper (p< 0.82) and iron (p<0.38) were not significantly different. (author)

  9. Fluorine determination in coal using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Patrícia M.; Morés, Silvane; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard, E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Carasek, Eduardo [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    The absorption of the calcium mono-fluoride (CaF) molecule has been employed in this study for the determination of fluorine in coal using direct solid sample analysis and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS). The rotational line at 606.440 nm was used for measuring the molecular absorption in the gas phase. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 700 °C and 2100 °C, respectively. Different chemical modifiers have been studied, such as Pd and Ir as permanent modifiers, and Pd and the mixed Pd/Mg modifier in solution. The limit of detection and the characteristic mass were 0.3 and 0.1 ng F, respectively. One certified reference material (CRM) of coal (NIST 1635) and four CRMs with a non-certified value for F (SARM 18, SARM 20, BCR 40, BCR 180) were used to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the method, obtaining good agreement (104%) with the certified value and with the informed values (ranging from 90 to 103%). - Highlights: • High-resolution Graphite Furnace Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (HR-GF MAS) • Fluorine has been determined using HR-GF MAS of the CaF molecule. • The CaF molecule was generated in a graphite furnace at a temperature of 2100 °C • Coal samples have been analyzed using direct solid sample introduction. • Aqueous standard solutions have been used for calibration.

  10. Determination of lithium in sodium by vacuum distillation-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chun; Sun Shiping; Jia Yunteng; Wen Ximeng

    1996-12-01

    When sodium is used as a coolant in China Experimental Fast Reactor, the lithium content in sodium has an effect on the nuclear property of reactor. A method has been developed to determine the trace lithium in sodium metal at the level of less than ten parts per million. About 0.4 g sodium is placed into a high-purity tantalum crucible, then it is placed in a stainless-steel still to distill at 360 degree C under vacuum (0.01 Pa). After the sodium has been removed, the residue is dissolved by nitric acid (1:2) and analyzed with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy at 671.0 nm wavelength. The distillation conditions, working conditions of the instrument and interferences from matrix sodium, acid and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with lithium chloride and lithium nitrate. The percentage recoveries are 96.8% and 97.4% respectively. The relative standard deviation is less than +- 5%. The method has been used to determine lithium content in high pure sodium and industrial grade sodium. (11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.)

  11. [Detecting Thallium in Water Samples using Dispersive Liquid Phase Microextraction-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Li, Yan; Zheng, Bo; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xiao; Zou, Xiao-li

    2015-11-01

    To develope a method of solvent demulsification dispersive liquid phase microextraction (SD-DLPME) based on ion association reaction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) for detecting thallium in water samples. Methods Thallium ion in water samples was oxidized to Tl(III) with bromine water, which reacted with Cl- to form TlCl4-. The ionic associated compound with trioctylamine was obtained and extracted. DLPME was completed with ethanol as dispersive solvent. The separation of aqueous and organic phase was achieved by injecting into demulsification solvent without centrifugation. The extractant was collected and injected into GFAAS for analysis. With palladium colloid as matrix modifier, a two step drying and ashing temperature programming process was applied for high precision and sensitivity. The linear range was 0.05-2.0 microg/L, with a detection limit of 0.011 microg/L. The relative standard derivation (RSD) for detecting Tl in spiked water sample was 9.9%. The spiked recoveries of water samples ranged from 94.0% to 103.0%. The method is simple, sensitive and suitable for batch analysis of Tl in water samples.

  12. The determination of magnesium in simulated PWR coolant by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatford, C.; Torrance, K.

    1988-06-01

    The determination of magnesium in simulated PWR coolant has been investigated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with atomization from a L'vov platform. The presence of boric acid in the coolant suppresses the magnesium absorption to such an extent that removal of the boron is necessary and three variations of a methyl borate volatilization technique for the in situ removal of boron from the sample platform were investigated. This work has shown that dilution of the sample with an equal volume of acidified methanol and volatilization of the methyl borate was adequate for the determination of magnesium in coolant samples containing up to 2000 mg 1 -1 of boron. In simulated coolant samples containing 25 and 4 μg 1 -1 of magnesium, positive biases of about 2 and 0.5 μg 1 -1 were measured and these errors were considered to be due to contamination. The limit of detection in the presence of 100 and 2000 mg 1 -1 boron were 0.14 and 0.93 μg 1 -1 respectively. These performance characteristics suggest the method is completely acceptable for monitoring the chemical purity of PWR coolant and associated waters containing boric acid. If, however, more precise analyses were to be required for research purposes then any significant improvement in the above figures would require increased purity of reagents, clean-room conditions to reduce contamination and a more versatile atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (author)

  13. Liquid-phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calle, Inmaculada de la; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos, E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2016-09-14

    An overview of the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is reported herein. The high sensitivity of GFAAS is significantly enhanced by its association with a variety of miniaturized solvent extraction approaches. LPME-GFAAS thus represents a powerful combination for determination of metals, metalloids and organometallic compounds at (ultra)trace level. Different LPME modes used with GFAAS are briefly described, and the experimental parameters that show an impact in those microextraction processes are discussed. Special attention is paid to those parameters affecting GFAAS analysis. Main issues found when coupling LPME and GFAAS, as well as those strategies reported in the literature to solve them, are summarized. Relevant applications published on the topic so far are included. - Highlights: • We review the LPME-GFAAS combination in a comprehensive way. • A brief description of main LPME modes is included. • Effect of experimental parameters in the performance of LPME-GFAAS is discussed. • Main applications for trace element analysis and speciation are reviewed.

  14. Liquid-phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, Inmaculada de la; Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the combination of liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is reported herein. The high sensitivity of GFAAS is significantly enhanced by its association with a variety of miniaturized solvent extraction approaches. LPME-GFAAS thus represents a powerful combination for determination of metals, metalloids and organometallic compounds at (ultra)trace level. Different LPME modes used with GFAAS are briefly described, and the experimental parameters that show an impact in those microextraction processes are discussed. Special attention is paid to those parameters affecting GFAAS analysis. Main issues found when coupling LPME and GFAAS, as well as those strategies reported in the literature to solve them, are summarized. Relevant applications published on the topic so far are included. - Highlights: • We review the LPME-GFAAS combination in a comprehensive way. • A brief description of main LPME modes is included. • Effect of experimental parameters in the performance of LPME-GFAAS is discussed. • Main applications for trace element analysis and speciation are reviewed.

  15. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, D., E-mail: david.chartier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Muzeau, B. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Stefan, L. [AREVA NC/D& S - France/Technical Department, 1 place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Défense (France); Sanchez-Canet, J. [Commissariat à l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA, DEN, DTCD, SPDE, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Monguillon, C. [DEN-Service d’Etude du Comportement des Radionucléides (SECR), CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  16. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, D.; Muzeau, B.; Stefan, L.; Sanchez-Canet, J.; Monguillon, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Embedded in cement, magnesium is corroded by residual water present in porosity of the matrix. • Corrosion is enhanced by galvanic phenomenon when magnesium is in contact with graphite. • Galvanic corrosion of magnesium in contact with graphite debris is shown to be severe with ordinary Portland cement. • Galvanic corrosion is significantly lowered in high alkali medium such as sodium hydroxide. • Sodium hydroxide activated blast furnace slag is a convenient binder to embed magnesium. - Abstract: Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  17. Researching the Performance of Dual-Chamber Fire-Tube Boiler Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous heating systems equipped with fire-tube or shell boilers show high effectiveness, consistent performance and great technical parameters. But there is a significant limitation of its thermal productivity due to the complexity of durable large diameter fire-tube bottoms implementation. Optimization of combustion aerodynamics can be the way to expand the fire-tube boilers performance limit. In this case lots of problems connected with reducing emissions of toxic substances, providing of burning stability, local heat stresses and aerodynamic resistances should be solved. To resolve the indicated problems, a modified model of dual-chamber fire-tube boiler furnace is proposed. The performance of suggested flame-tube was simulated using the proven computer-aided engineering software ANSYS Multiphysics. Results display proposed flame tube completely filled with moving medium without stagnant zones. Turbulent vortical combustion is observed even with the straight-through fuel supply. Active flue gas recirculation in suggested dual-chamber furnace reduces emissions of pollutants. Diminution of wall heat fluxes allows boiler operation at lower water treatment costs.

  18. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl -1 , respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloud point extraction for the determination of lead and cadmium in urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with multivariate optimization using Box-Behnken design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranhao, Tatiane de A; Martendal, Edmar; Borges, Daniel L.G.; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud point extraction (CPE) is proposed as a pre-concentration procedure for the determination of Pb and Cd in undigested urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). Aliquots of 0.5 mL urine were acidified with HCl and the chelating agent ammonium O,O-diethyl dithiophosphate (DDTP) was added along with the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 at the optimized concentrations. Phase separation was achieved by heating the mixture to 50 deg. C for 15 min. The surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by GF AAS, employing the optimized pyrolysis temperatures of 900 deg. C for Pb and 800 deg. C for Cd, using a graphite tube with a platform treated with 500 μg Ru as permanent modifier. The reagent concentrations for CPE (HCl, DDTP and Triton X-114) were optimized using a Box-Behnken design. The response surfaces and the optimum values were very similar for aqueous solutions and for the urine samples, demonstrating that aqueous standards submitted to CPE could be used for calibration. Detection limits of 40 and 2 ng L -1 for Pb and Cd, respectively, were obtained along with an enhancement factor of 16 for both analytes. Three control urine samples were analyzed using this approach, and good agreement was obtained at a 95% statistical confidence level between the certified and determined values. Five real samples have also been analyzed before and after spiking with Pb and Cd, resulting in recoveries ranging from 97 to 118%

  20. Determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast by Zeeman-effect graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ekelund, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast is described. The samples were ashed in nitric acid. Hydrochloric acid was used to prevent precipitation of, in particular, iron salts. After appropriate dilutions, the selenium was determined by Zeeman......-effect background corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A furnace ashing step at 1100 °C was necessary in order to obtain a total recovery of selenium when present in the organic form. Palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate was used as a matrix modifier. Independent methods were used to determine...... the content of selenium in a selenised yeast check sample. Accuracy was assured using this sample and by recovery experiments. Between-day random error showed a coefficient of variation of 4.2%. Results from the analysis of eight different commercial supplements were in good agreement with declared contents....

  1. Life Management Technique of Thermal Fatigue for SMST Boiler Tube at Different Heating Zone Using Smithy Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar Pal,; Pradeep Suman

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights on the evaluation of thermal fatigue failure for SMST (Salzgitter Mannesmann strain less boiler tube) DMV 304 HCu boiler tube using life management technique by using of smithy furnace. Boiler tubes are highly affected by operating conditions like, high temperature and high pressure. So it needs periodic checking for the purpose of safety and health assessment of the plant. So using this technique we can identify the degradation of tubes at microstructure...

  2. Computer programs in BASIC language for graphite furnace atomic absorption using the method of additions. Part 2. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Ryan, D.P.

    1979-08-01

    There are four computer programs, written in the BASIC language, used for taking and processing data from an atomic absorption spectrophotometer using the graphite furnace and the method of additions for calibration. The programs chain to each other and are divided into logical sections that have been flow-charted. The chaining sequences, general features, structure, order of subroutines and functions, and the storage of data are discussed. In addition, variables are listed and defined, and a complete listing of each program with a symbol occurrence table is provided

  3. Computer programs in BASIC language for graphite furnace atomic absorption using the method of additions. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, W.G. Jr.; Ryan, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    These instructions describe how to use BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers using the graphite furnace and the method of additions calibration technique. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, performing operations with an automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs interact with each other is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases. In addition, a concise set of operating instructions is included as an appendix

  4. Mathematical modeling of thermal stresses in basic oxygen furnace hood tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.

    1985-06-01

    The stress-strain history of Basic Oxygen Furnace hood tubes during thermal cycling has been computed using heat flow and stress analyses. The steady-state temperature distribution in a transverse section of the tube was computed at a location where gas temperature in the hood could be expected to be a maximum. Calculations were performed for peak gas temperatures in the range 1950 to 2480 °C (3500 to 4500 °F). The stress-strain history of an element of material located at the center of the tube hot face was traced for three consecutive cycles using elasto-plastic finite-element analysis. It has been shown that the state of stress in the element alternates between compression and tension as the tube successively heats and cools. Yielding and plastic flow occurs at the end of each half of a given cycle. It was postulated that owing to repctitive yielding, plastic strain energy accumulates causing failure of the tubes by fatigue in the low cycle region. Using fatigue theory a conservative estimate for tube life was arrived at. In-plant observations support this mechanism of failure, and the number of cycles within which tube cracking was observed compares reasonably with model predictions. Utilizing the heat flow and stress models it was recommended that tube life could be enhanced by changing the tube material to ARMCO 17-4 pH or AISI 405 steel or alternatively reconstructing hoods with AISI 316L tubes of reduced thickness. These recommendations were based on the criterion that low-cycle fatigue failure could be averted if the magnitude of the cyclic strain could be reduced or if macroscopic plastic flow could be prevented.

  5. Model calculation of the characteristic mass for convective and diffusive vapor transport in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencs, László, E-mail: bencs.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Laczai, Nikoletta [Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Ajtony, Zsolt [Institute of Food Science, University of West Hungary, H-9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Lucsony utca 15–17 (Hungary)

    2015-07-01

    A combination of former convective–diffusive vapor-transport models is described to extend the calculation scheme for sensitivity (characteristic mass — m{sub 0}) in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). This approach encompasses the influence of forced convection of the internal furnace gas (mini-flow) combined with concentration diffusion of the analyte atoms on the residence time in a spatially isothermal furnace, i.e., the standard design of the transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA). A couple of relationships for the diffusional and convectional residence times were studied and compared, including in factors accounting for the effects of the sample/platform dimension and the dosing hole. These model approaches were subsequently applied for the particular cases of Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, V and Zn analytes. For the verification of the accuracy of the calculations, the experimental m{sub 0} values were determined with the application of a standard THGA furnace, operating either under stopped, or mini-flow (50 cm{sup 3} min{sup −1}) of the internal sheath gas during atomization. The theoretical and experimental ratios of m{sub 0}(mini-flow)-to-m{sub 0}(stop-flow) were closely similar for each study analyte. Likewise, the calculated m{sub 0} data gave a fairly good agreement with the corresponding experimental m{sub 0} values for stopped and mini-flow conditions, i.e., it ranged between 0.62 and 1.8 with an average of 1.05 ± 0.27. This indicates the usability of the current model calculations for checking the operation of a given GFAAS instrument and the applied methodology. - Highlights: • A calculation scheme for convective–diffusive vapor loss in GFAAS is described. • Residence time (τ) formulas were compared for sensitivity (m{sub 0}) in a THGA furnace. • Effects of the sample/platform dimension and dosing hole on τ were assessed. • Theoretical m{sub 0} of 18 analytes were

  6. Optimization of Sealed Tube Graphitization Method for Environmental C-14 Studies Using MICADAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinyu, Laszlo, E-mail: rinyu@atomki.hu [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Isotoptech Zrt., H-4025 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnar, Mihaly [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Major, Istvan [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Nagy, Tamas; Veres, Mihaly [Isotoptech Zrt., H-4025 Debrecen (Hungary); Kimak, Adam [University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Wacker, Lukas; Synal, Hans-Arno [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The original sealed tube zinc reduction graphitization process was first developed for rapid low-precision measurements of biomedical tracer samples and later also applied for high precision measurements of not too old samples. In this study we tested the MICADAS (mini radiocarbon dating system [1]) radiocarbon measurements of targets prepared by sealed tube graphitization process. We found the optimal iron catalyst and reagents (TiH{sub 2} and Zn) amount whereby we can reach a relatively low background level, and minimized the overall {delta}{sup 13}C fractionation during the graphitization. Repeated measurements of normalization standards and real samples with known {sup 14}C activities were very well reproduced. Finally, we demonstrated the applicability of the sealed tube graphitization on real environmental samples covering a wide range of {sup 14}C concentrations.

  7. Graphite furnace analysis of a series of metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd) in ox kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Josenilda M. da; Melo, Jessica V. de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a methodology for animal tissue analysis, with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques and graphite furnace analysis to determining metal concentrations in ox kidney. The organ of this animal can be considered a great nutritional food, due to the high protein and micronutrient content beyond the ability to absorb and concentrate important metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn and Se. On the other hand, there is a risk when eating this food owing to the capacity to accumulate toxic metals such as Pb and Cd. In accordance with the laboratory analysis, Zn can be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but other metals such as Cu, Mn, Pb and Cd, could only be detected by graphite furnace analysis. The results showed that there is more Zn and Cu than other metals. Such metals follows an order reported by the literature (Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Mn). The results showed that kidney is actually a rich source of Zn and Cu. The Cd levels in the ox kidney did not exceed the values which cause toxic effects. The adequacy of the results indicates that the proposed methodology can be used for animal tissue analysis.(author)

  8. Surfactant/oil/water system for the determination of selenium in eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieggli, C. V. S.; Bohrer, D.; Noremberg, S.; do Nascimento, P. C.; de Carvalho, L. M.; Vieira, S. L.; Reis, R. N.

    2009-06-01

    An oil-in-water formulation has been optimized to determine trace levels of selenium in whole hen eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GF AAS) measurement was carried out using standard addition calibration and Pd as a modifier. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 5% and the limit of detection was 1 µg L - 1 . The validation of the method was performed against a standard reference material Whole Egg Powder (RM 8415), and the measured Se corresponded to 95.2% of the certified value. The method was used for the determination of the Se level in eggs from hens treated with Se dietary supplements. Inorganic and organic Se sources were added to hen feed. The Se content of eggs was higher when hens were fed with organic Se compared to the other treatments. The proposed method, including sample emulsification for subsequent Se determination by GF AAS has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.

  9. Surfactant/oil/water system for the determination of selenium in eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieggli, C.V.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bohrer, D. [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: ndenise@quimica.ufsm.br; Noremberg, S.; Nascimento, P.C. do; Carvalho, L.M. de [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Vieira, S.L.; Reis, R.N. [Faculdade de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 7712, CEP 90540-000, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    An oil-in-water formulation has been optimized to determine trace levels of selenium in whole hen eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GF AAS) measurement was carried out using standard addition calibration and Pd as a modifier. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 5% and the limit of detection was 1 {mu}g L{sup - 1}. The validation of the method was performed against a standard reference material Whole Egg Powder (RM 8415), and the measured Se corresponded to 95.2% of the certified value. The method was used for the determination of the Se level in eggs from hens treated with Se dietary supplements. Inorganic and organic Se sources were added to hen feed. The Se content of eggs was higher when hens were fed with organic Se compared to the other treatments. The proposed method, including sample emulsification for subsequent Se determination by GF AAS has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.

  10. Graphite furnace analysis of a series of metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd) in ox kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jmnilda@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: Jessica_clorofila@hotmail.com [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to create a methodology for animal tissue analysis, with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques and graphite furnace analysis to determining metal concentrations in ox kidney. The organ of this animal can be considered a great nutritional food, due to the high protein and micronutrient content beyond the ability to absorb and concentrate important metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn and Se. On the other hand, there is a risk when eating this food owing to the capacity to accumulate toxic metals such as Pb and Cd. In accordance with the laboratory analysis, Zn can be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but other metals such as Cu, Mn, Pb and Cd, could only be detected by graphite furnace analysis. The results showed that there is more Zn and Cu than other metals. Such metals follows an order reported by the literature (Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Mn). The results showed that kidney is actually a rich source of Zn and Cu. The Cd levels in the ox kidney did not exceed the values which cause toxic effects. The adequacy of the results indicates that the proposed methodology can be used for animal tissue analysis.(author)

  11. The behavior of various chemical forms of nickel in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry under different chemical modification approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Various organic and inorganic Ni forms were investigated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Experiments without chemical modification showed a wide range of characteristic mass values for Ni (from 6.7 to 29 pg) and the importance of interaction with graphite. With the aim of achieving signal unification of organic Ni forms, different ways of chemical modification were tested. Some rules that govern the behavior of Ni were found and confirmed a significant role of the organic component of the analyte molecule in the analytical process. The application of air as an internal furnace gas in the pyrolysis phase and the Pd modifier injected with the sample solution improved the signal of porphyrins, while the application of iodine and methyltrioctylammonium chloride was required for organic compounds containing oxygen-bound Ni atoms. The Ni signal was strongly diminished when an aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid was measured with the Pd modifier injected over the sample. Using the developed analytical methods, the range of characteristic mass values for various Ni forms totally dissolved in organic or aqueous solution was 6.5–7.9 pg. - Highlights: ► Some rules that govern behavior of organic Ni forms during GFAAS analysis were found. ► Interaction with graphite can significantly influence evaporation of porphyrins. ► Determination of Ni in form of porphyrins needs Pd organic modifier and air ashing. ► Determination of Ni in O-bound organic compounds needs pretreatment with I2+MTOACl. ► Chemical modification for GFAAS determination of Ni in HCl-containing solution.

  12. Chapter 8: Exponential experiments on graphite moderated lattices fuelled by natural uranium tubes containing cylindrical graphite cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, D.B.; Hoskins, T.A.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out using a fuel element comprising a 2.75 in. o.d./2.40 in. i.d. natural uranium tube containing a graphite core of diameter 2.0 in. Values of material buckling and migration area asymmetry for lattices at 7 in., 8 in. and 8/2 in. pitch have been obtained, and correlated with the theory of Syrett (1961) to derive an effective resonance integral for the cored element. By comparison with the resonance integral for the same fuel tube without a core, a value for the constant 'γ' of the theory of Stace (1959) is obtained. (author)

  13. Enhancement of the atomic absorbance of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb in metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using absorption tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Koike

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trace amounts of Cr, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined by metal furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using absorption tubes. Various absorption tubes were designed as roof- and tube-types, and fixed above the metal furnace in order to extend the light path length. Aqueous standards and samples were injected in the metal furnace and atomized in a metal atomizer with an absorption tube (6 cm length, 15.5 mm diameter. The used of an absorption tube resulted in an enhancement of the atomic absorbance. The ratios of absorbance values with and without the roof- and tube-type absorption tubes were 1.33 and 1.11 for Cr; 1.42 and 1.99 for Zn; 1.66 and 1.98 for Cd; and 1.31 and 1.16 for Pb, respectively. The use of an absorption tube was effective for Zn and Cd analysis, as the absorbance values for these low boiling point metals doubled. The proposed method was successfully applied in the determination of Zn in tap water.

  14. Feasibility of internal standardization in the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu and Pb in sugar-cane spirits by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Naise Mary; Ruella Oliveira, Silvana; Anchieta Gomes Neto, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Bismuth and Sb were evaluated as internal standards (IS) to minimize matrix effects on the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu, and Pb in cachaca by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using W-coated platform plus Pd-Mg(NO 3 ) 2 as modifier. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0.5-10 μg L -1 As, 100-1000 μg L -1 Cu and 0.5-30 μg L -1 Pb intervals were established using the ratios As absorbance to Sb absorbance, Cu absorbance to Bi absorbance and Pb absorbance to Bi absorbance versus analytes concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999 were, respectively, obtained. The proposed method was applied for direct determination of As, Cu and Pb in 10 commercial cachaca samples and results were in agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at 95% confidence level. The found characteristic masses were 30 pg As, 274 pg Cu and 39 pg Pb. The useful lifetime of the graphite tube was around 760 firings. Recoveries of As, Cu and Pb added to cachaca samples varied, respectively, from 98% to 109%, 97% to 108% and 98% to 104% with internal standards and from 48% to 54%, 53% to 92% and 62% to 97% without internal standards. The limits of detection were 0.13 μg L -1 As, 22 μg L -1 Cu and 0.05 μg L -1 Pb. The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for a spiked sample containing 20 μg L -1 As, Pb and 500 μg L -1 Cu were 1.6%, 1.0%, and 1.8% with IS and 4.3%, 5.2%, and 5.5% without IS

  15. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  16. Double plasma arc in a graphite tube - application of discharge atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, C.; Nickel, H.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Vukanovic, D.

    1981-01-01

    With a view to safety and economic efficiency element-specific limits are required for permissible impurities in reactor graphite. This leads to the necessity of developing suitable methods of analysis. Emission spectroscopy has proved to be a method of analysis featuring a high detection capability and offering the possibility of determining several elements simultaneously. A prolongation of the particle residence time in the plasma (and, thus, an increase in radiation intensity) was the objective when developing a novel spectrochemical source of excitation. The method uses two d.c. arcs burning in a horizontally arranged graphite tube. The double plasma arc in a graphite tube has proved to be an excellent source of excitation for the analysis of powder and solutions. (orig./IHOE)

  17. The effect of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of high slagged deposit fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V V; Kovalevitch, I A; Maidanik, M N [All-Union Heat Engineering Institute, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigating the effectiveness of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of slagged deposits fuels fired boilers type E-500, P-64, P-67 are given. The boilers of these types are designed to burn Jugoslavian lignites are Beresovo lignites of the Kansk-Achinsk deposits. Recommendations for usage of low retractable, long retractable and long-range water blowers, depending on the design, produced in the USSR, the furnace dimension and stability of deposits are given as well.

  18. 'Intelligent' triggering methodology for improved detectability of wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry applied to window-equipped graphite furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Joergen; Axner, Ove

    2003-01-01

    The wavelength modulation-diode laser absorption spectrometry (WM-DLAS) technique experiences a limited detectability when window-equipped sample compartments are used because of multiple reflections between components in the optical system (so-called etalon effects). The problem is particularly severe when the technique is used with a window-equipped graphite furnace (GF) as atomizer since the heating of the furnace induces drifts of the thickness of the windows and thereby also of the background signals. This paper presents a new detection methodology for WM-DLAS applied to a window-equipped GF in which the influence of the background signals from the windows is significantly reduced. The new technique, which is based upon a finding that the WM-DLAS background signals from a window-equipped GF are reproducible over a considerable period of time, consists of a novel 'intelligent' triggering procedure in which the GF is triggered at a user-chosen 'position' in the reproducible drift-cycle of the WM-DLAS background signal. The new methodology makes also use of 'higher-than-normal' detection harmonics, i.e. 4f or 6f, since these previously have shown to have a higher signal-to-background ratio than 2f-detection when the background signals originates from thin etalons. The results show that this new combined background-drift-reducing methodology improves the limit of detection of the WM-DLAS technique used with a window-equipped GF by several orders of magnitude as compared to ordinary 2f-detection, resulting in a limit of detection for a window-equipped GF that is similar to that of an open GF

  19. Thermal performance measurements of a graphite tube compact cryogenic support for the Superconducting Super Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.

    1988-12-01

    The magnet cryostat development program for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) High Energy Physics Proton-Proton Collider has produced an innovative design for the structural support of the cold mass and thermal radiation shields. This work updates the continuing development of the support known as the Compact Cryogenic Support (CCS). As the structural and thermal requirements of the SSC became better defined, a CCS was developed that employs an innermost tube comprised of a graphite composite material. Presented is the thermal performance to 4.5K of the graphite CCS model. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Determination of silicon and aluminum in silicon carbide nanocrystals by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Bencs, László; Beke, Dávid; Gali, Adam

    2016-01-15

    The determination of Al contaminant and the main component Si in silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals with the size-distribution of 1-8nm dispersed in an aqueous solution was developed using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS). The vaporization/atomization processes were investigated in a transversally heated graphite atomizer by evaporating solution samples of Al and Si preserved in various media (HCl, HNO3). For Si, the best results were obtained by applying a mixture of 5µg Pd plus 5µg Mg, whereas for Al, 10µg Mg (each as nitrate solution) was dispensed with the samples, but the results obtained without modifier were found to be better. This way a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 1200°C for Si and 1300°C for Al could be used, and the optimum (compromise) atomization temperature was 2400°C for both analytes. The Si and Al contents of different sized SiC nanocrystals, dispersed in aqueous solutions, were determined against aqueous (external) calibration standards. The correlation coefficients (R values) of the calibrations were found to be 0.9963 for Si and 0.9991 for Al. The upper limit of the linear calibration range was 2mg/l Si and 0.25mg/l Al. The limit of detection was 3µg/l for Si and 0.5µg/l for Al. The characteristic mass (m0) was calculated to be 389pg Si and 6.4pg Al. The Si and Al content in the solution samples were found to be in the range of 1.0-1.7mg/l and 0.1-0.25mg/l, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of gold and cobalt dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide by slurry sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Daria G.; Eskina, Vasilina V.; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B.; Vladimirova, Svetlana A.; Gaskov, Alexander M.; Rumyantseva, Marina N.; Karpov, Yuri A.

    2018-02-01

    A novel approach is developed for the determination of Co and Au dopants in advanced materials based on tin oxide using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS) with direct slurry sampling. Sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is an effective stabilizer for diluted suspensions. Use Na-CMC allows to transfer the analytes into graphite furnace completely and reproducibly. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not higher than 4%. Accuracy was proven by means inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in solutions after decomposition as a comparative technique. To determine Au and Co in the volume of SnO2, the acid decomposition conditions (HCl, HF) of the samples were suggested by means of an autoclave in a microwave oven.

  2. ESTIMATION OF MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY IN THE DETERMINATION OF Fe CONTENT IN POWDERED TONIC FOOD DRINK USING GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Budiman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of uncertainty measurement in the determination of Fe content in powdered tonic food drink using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. The specification of measurand, source of uncertainty, standard uncertainty, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty from this measurement were evaluated and accounted. The measurement result showed that the Fe content in powdered tonic food drink sample was 569.32 µg/5g, with the expanded uncertainty measurement ± 178.20 µg/5g (coverage factor, k = 2, at confidende level 95%. The calibration curve gave the major contribution to the uncertainty of the final results.   Keywords: uncertainty, powdered tonic food drink, iron (Fe, graphite furnace AAS

  3. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  4. Determination of Chlorine in Milk via Molecular Absorption of SrCl Using High-Resolution Continuum Source Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-07-20

    Total chlorine in milk was determined via the molecular absorption of diatomic strontium monochloride at 635.862 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of coating the graphite furnace, using different modifiers, amount of molecule-forming element, and different calibrants were investigated and optimized. Chlorine concentrations in milk samples were determined in a Zr-coated graphite furnace using 25 μg of Sr as the molecule-forming reagent and applying a pyrolysis temperature of 600 °C and a molecule-forming temperature of 2300 °C. Linearity was maintained up to 500 μg mL(-1) of Cl. The method was tested by analyzing a certified reference wastewater. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified value. The limit of detection of the method was 1.76 μg mL(-1). The chlorine concentrations in various cow milk samples taken from the market were found in the range of 588-1472 mg L(-1).

  5. Determination of Arsenic in Soil Alkali by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery Using Modified Corn Silk Fiber as Adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Ju, S.; Liu, M.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A safe, rapid, simple and environmentally friendly method based modified corn silk fiber (MC), chemical modified with succinic anhydride (C/sub 4/H/sub 4/O/sub 3/), was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of As(III) in food additives soil alkali sample prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) analysis. The structure and properties of VC (unmodified corn silk fiber) and MC were analyzed and discussed by means of FTIR, SEM and TG, and the effect of adsorbent amount, pH, soil alkali solution concentration, adsorption time and adsorption temperature were carefully optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations (RSD, n=6) were 1.27-3.05%, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0-100 meu g/ L and the limits of detection (LOD) was 0.13 meu g/L. The surface of MC became loose and porous which increased the adsorption area. Comparing with VC, carboxy groups were measured in MC and the increase of negative electron group in fiber molecular made its coordination combining ability with As(III) enhanced; In comparison with the removal arsenic rate of VC, MC's significantly increased by 2.86 fold. The recovery rate of soil alkali, treated by VC and MC, reached to 96.85% and 94.32%, and it did not affected the function of soil alkali. (author)

  6. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  7. Determination of boron isotope ratios by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry using graphite furnace vaporizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Carlos; Florek, Stefan; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao-Dong; Heinrich, Hans-Joachim; Recknagel, Sebastian; Vogl, Jochen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Boron isotope amount ratios n(10B)/n(11B) have been determined by monitoring the absorption spectrum of boron monohydride (BH) in a graphite furnace using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-MAS). Bands (0 → 0) and (1 → 1) for the electronic transition X1Σ+ → A1Π were evaluated around wavelengths 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm respectively. Clean and free of memory effect molecular spectra of BH were recorded. In order to eliminate the memory effect of boron, a combination of 2% (v/v) hydrogen gas in argon and 1% trifluoromethane in argon, an acid solution of calcium chloride and mannitol as chemical modifiers was used. Partial least square regression (PLS) for analysis of samples and reference materials were applied. For this, a spectral library with different isotopes ratios for PLS regression was built. Results obtained around the 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm spectral regions are metrologically compatible with those reported by mass spectrometric methods. Moreover, for the evaluated region of 437 nm, an accuracy of 0.15‰ is obtained as the average deviation from the isotope reference materials. Expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k = 2 range between 0.15 and 0.44‰. This accuracy and precision are compatible with those obtained by mass spectrometry for boron isotope ratio measurements.

  8. Determination of trace concentrations of chlorine in aqueous solutions by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machyňák, Ľubomír; Čacho, František; Němeček, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Trace concentrations of total chlorine were determined by means of molecular absorption of indium mono-chloride (InCl) at 267.217 nm using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry. The effects of chemical modifiers and the amount of In on the sensitivity and accuracy were investigated. The optimum pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. The limit of detection and characteristic mass were found to be 0.10 ng and 0.21 ng, respectively. Potential non-spectral and spectral interferences were tested for various metals and non-metals at concentrations up to 50 mg L- 1 and for phosphoric, sulphuric and nitric acids. No spectral interferences were observed. Significant non-spectral interferences were observed with F, Br, and I at concentrations higher than 1 mg L- 1, 5 mg L- 1 and 25 mg L- 1, respectively, which is probably caused by formation of competitive indium halogen molecules. Higher concentrations of mineral acids depressed the signal owing to the formation of volatile HCl. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.3 and 10 ng with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.993. The elaborated method was used for the chlorine determination in various waters and a drug sample.

  9. Determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Mei; Wu Qianghua

    2010-01-01

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) had been developed in this paper. The CPE method was based on the complex of Al(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and Triton X-114 was used as non-ionic surfactant. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration and kind of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 34.8 was obtained for the preconcentration of Al(III) with 10 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Al(III) was 0.06 ng mL -1 . The relative standard deviation (n = 7) of sample was 3.6%, values of recovery of aluminum were changed from 92.3% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can be applied to the determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin.

  10. Determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Mei, E-mail: sunmei@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences on Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, No. 96, Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu Qianghua [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) had been developed in this paper. The CPE method was based on the complex of Al(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and Triton X-114 was used as non-ionic surfactant. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration and kind of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 34.8 was obtained for the preconcentration of Al(III) with 10 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Al(III) was 0.06 ng mL{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (n = 7) of sample was 3.6%, values of recovery of aluminum were changed from 92.3% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can be applied to the determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin.

  11. Determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin by cloud point extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Wu, Qianghua

    2010-04-15

    A cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the preconcentration of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) had been developed in this paper. The CPE method was based on the complex of Al(III) with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and Triton X-114 was used as non-ionic surfactant. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of solution, concentration and kind of complexing agent, concentration of non-ionic surfactant, equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An enrichment factor of 34.8 was obtained for the preconcentration of Al(III) with 10 mL solution. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit of Al(III) was 0.06 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (n=7) of sample was 3.6%, values of recovery of aluminum were changed from 92.3% to 94.7% for three samples. This method is simple, accurate, sensitive and can be applied to the determination of ultra-trace aluminum in human albumin. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Gasification of biomass in a drop tube furnace. Foergasning av biomassa i fallroersreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallgren, A; Andersson, L A; Bjerle, I [Lund Univ. (SE). Dept. of Chemical Engineering 2

    1989-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation of steam gasification is mainly to study the influence on gas production (quantity, composition) for different temperatures, dwells, and partial pressure of steam and nitrogen in a drop tube furnace. The range of temperature in the experiments was 1000-1400 deg C, range of dwell 0.25-1 sec, and range of water vapor/nitrogen partial pressure ratio 25/75 to 75/25. The degree of burnup increases with increasing dwell. Highest burnup is found at the highest tmperatures. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere the degree of burnup is slightly higher than in N{sub 2} atmosphere. In the steam experiments is shown that a long dwell as well as a high water vapor partial pressure increases burnup. The product gas consists mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, but ca 10% each of carbon dioxide and methane are also found. Hydrocarbons like ethene, acetylene and ethane are also found, but only in a total amount of less than 5%. The experiments in water vapor atmosphere show that a change in steam partial pressure has a very small effect on the composition of the product gas for the temperature range studied. (O.S.) (7 figs.).

  13. Fundamental study of the pulverized coal char combustion in oxyfuel mode with drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takamasa; Takafuji, Makoto; Suda, Toshiyuki; Fujimori, Toshiro [Heat and Fluid Dynamics Department, Yokohama (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    The combustion characteristics of coal char particles in either O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions were experimentally investigated. Especially, the char burnout, the char particle temperature and the shrinkage of the char particles were discussed. A Drop Tube Furnace (DTF: whose wall temperature was set at 873, 923 and 973 K) was used as the experimental apparatus. The experimental results revealed that, in equivalent oxygen concentration, the char burnout and the char particle temperature were higher in O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} conditions than those in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions. The shrinkage of the char particle did not show the large difference in either O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} conditions. Up to 15% of char burnout, the char particle diameters were reduced gradually. Up to 80% of char burnout, the char particle diameters were not changed. This is supposed that the chemical reaction is mainly occurred not on the external surface but on the internal surface of the char particle. Over 80% of char burnout, sudden shrinkage could be seen. Finally, an empirical equation for the prediction of the char particle shrinkage was introduced. Further investigation is required in high operating temperature, where CO{sub 2} gasification may have a large influence on the char burnout.

  14. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Olson, Donald W.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Graphite is a form of pure carbon that normally occurs as black crystal flakes and masses. It has important properties, such as chemical inertness, thermal stability, high electrical conductivity, and lubricity (slipperiness) that make it suitable for many industrial applications, including electronics, lubricants, metallurgy, and steelmaking. For some of these uses, no suitable substitutes are available. Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composite applications could substantially increase world demand for graphite.Graphite ores are classified as “amorphous” (microcrystalline), and “crystalline” (“flake” or “lump or chip”) based on the ore’s crystallinity, grain-size, and morphology. All graphite deposits mined today formed from metamorphism of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks, and the ore type is determined by the geologic setting. Thermally metamorphosed coal is the usual source of amorphous graphite. Disseminated crystalline flake graphite is mined from carbonaceous metamorphic rocks, and lump or chip graphite is mined from veins in high-grade metamorphic regions. Because graphite is chemically inert and nontoxic, the main environmental concerns associated with graphite mining are inhalation of fine-grained dusts, including silicate and sulfide mineral particles, and hydrocarbon vapors produced during the mining and processing of ore. Synthetic graphite is manufactured from hydrocarbon sources using high-temperature heat treatment, and it is more expensive to produce than natural graphite.Production of natural graphite is dominated by China, India, and Brazil, which export graphite worldwide. China provides approximately 67 percent of worldwide output of natural graphite, and, as the dominant exporter, has the ability to set world prices. China has significant graphite reserves, and

  16. Tungsten-rhenium composite tube fabricated by CVD for application in 18000C high thermal efficiency fuel processing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svedberg, R.C.; Bowen, W.W.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposit (CVD) rhenium was selected as the muffle material for an 1800 0 C high thermal efficiency fuel processing furnace. The muffle is exposed to high vacuum on the heater/insulation/instrumentation side and to a flowing argon-8 V/0 hydrogen gas mixture at one atmosphere pressure on the load volume side. During operation, the muffle cycles from room temperature to 1800 0 C and back to room temperature once every 24 hours. Operational life is dependent on resistance to thermal fatigue during the high temperature exposure. For a prototypical furnace, the muffle is approximately 13 cm I.D. and 40 cm in length. A small (about one-half size) rhenium closed end tube overcoated with tungsten was used to evaluate the concept. The fabrication and testing of the composite tungsten-rhenium tube and prototypic rhenium muffle is described

  17. Methodology for full comparative assessment of direct gross glycerin combustion in a flame tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maturana, Aymer Yeferson; Pagliuso, Josmar D. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Sao Carlos School of Engineering. University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: aymermat@sc.usp.br, josmar@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This study is to develop a methodology to identify and evaluate the emissions and heat transfer associated to combustion of gross glycerin a by-product of the Brazilian biodiesel manufacture process as alternative energy source. It aims to increase the present knowledge on the matter and to contribute to the improvement of the economic and environmental perspective of biodiesel industry. This methodology was considered to be used for assessment of gross glycerin combustion from three different types of biodiesel (bovine tallow, palm and soy). The procedures for evaluation and quantification of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acrolein were analyzed, described and standardized. Experimental techniques for mutagenic and toxic effects assessment of gases similarly were analyzed and standardized, as well as the calorific power, the associate heat transfer and fundamentals operational parameters. The methodology was developed, using a full-instrumented flame tube furnace, continuous gas analyzers, a chromatograph, automatic data acquisition systems and other auxiliary equipment. The mutagenic and toxic effects of the study was based on Tradescantia clone KU-20, using chambers of intoxication and biological analytical techniques previously developed and others were specially adapted. The benchmark for the initial set up was based on the performance evaluation of the previous equipment tested with diesel considering its behavior during direct combustion. Finally, the following factors were defined for the combustion of crude glycerin, configurations of equipment types, operational parameters such as air fuel ratio adiabatic temperature and other necessary aspect for successful application of the methodology. The developed and integrated methodology was made available to the concern industry, environmental authorities and researchers as procedures to access the viability of gross glycerin or similar fuels as

  18. Use of image analysis on the prediction of coal burnout performance in a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Barranco; M. Cloke; E. Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, SChEME

    2003-07-01

    An experimental investigation in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) into the combustion burnout performance of some South American coals was carried out. The coal samples, mainly from Colombia, were crushed and screened into three size fractions: 53-75 {mu}m, 106-125 {mu}m, and 150-180 {mu}m. These samples were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Pyrolysis of these samples was performed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The chars obtained were then re-fired in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, at various residence times, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The changes in the characteristics of the chars produced were assessed using a number of different techniques including intrinsic reactivity test and automatic char analysis. Despite the fact that all the coals used in this study were vitrinite-rich, variations in char morphology were evident. This demonstrated that it was impossible to assign any one char type to a single maceral group. It was apparent that vitrinite generates a wide range of char types depending upon the rank of the parent coal and on the maceral associations within the coal. In addition, a reactivity parameter, derived from the grey-scale histogram obtained by image analysis of the coal, was found to be important in the prediction of coal combustion behaviour. Some properties of the re-fired chars were compared with morphology and intrinsic reactivity data of the pyrolysed chars. The results showed that the poor burnout of one of the coals was clearly due to the formation of some particular chars during pyrolysis. This confirms the usefulness of high temperature pyrolysis chars as a predictor of burnout performance. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Solid sampling-graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of boron in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Briceno, J.; Aramendia, M.; Belarra, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the potential of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of B in plant tissues has been investigated. Three certified reference materials (NIST SRM 1570a spinach leaves, NIST SRM 1573a tomato leaves and BCR CRM 679 white cabbage) were selected for this study, the goal always being to develop a fast procedure that could be robust enough to provide a satisfactory performance for all of them, without any modifications in the conditions applied. The use of a suitable chemical modifier was found to be essential for obtaining a reproducible and sufficiently sensitive signal for boron solutions. In this regard, the performance of the combination of citric acid plus W (added as a permanent modifier) was noteworthy, resulting in well-defined signal profiles, a remarkable analyte stabilization during the pyrolysis step (up to 2100 deg. C) and minimal memory effects. This mixture of modifiers provided a good performance for the direct analysis of solid samples as well, but only if a suitable temperature program, favoring the interaction between the analyte and the modifiers, was used. Thus, such a temperature program, with two pyrolysis steps and the addition of NH 4 NO 3 in order to carry out the in situ sample microdigestion, was optimized. Under these conditions, the peak areas obtained for both solid samples and aqueous standards were comparable. Finally, the analysis of the samples was carried out. In all cases, a good agreement with the certified values was obtained, while R.S.D. values ranged between 6 and 10%. It can be concluded that the method proposed shows significant advantages for the determination of this complicated element in solid samples such as the use of aqueous standards for calibration, a high sample throughput (20 min per sample), a suitable limit of detection (0.3 μg g -1 ) and reduced risk of analyte losses and contamination

  20. Determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using matrix modifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos Aranda, Juan; Cortez Diaz, Mirella

    2003-01-01

    Serious problems of environmental contamination due to the activity of the man exist at the present time. Where the greater impact is the produced one by heavy metals that go to the sea. Where the shellfish can collect some of them, the highly toxic ones, since these are bioaccumulation of these metals. Therefore one becomes necessary to count with the reliable analytical procedures to determine these elements. The purpose of this work is to present the determination of arsenic and cadmium in shellfish, by spectroscopy of atomic absorption with graphite furnace. For each determined element, solutions of nickel and phosphate like matrix modifiers were used respectively The validation was made using a Reference Certified Material, Oyster ' Tissue 156 (National Institute of Standards and Technology). The sample previously was digested in triplicate by two consecutive days, with nitric acid in a pressure digestion system DAB 11. For each element it was evaluated: limit of detection and quantification, sensitivity, repeatability, linear, slope rank and uncertainty. In addition, the obtained results were compared with the certified values of the certified material of reference using like statistical tools the tests of Student and Fisher. In both tests the calculated values were smaller to the shown ones in table, for degrees of freedom with 95% of confidence. Thus it was verified that it does not exist significant differences between the precision and the average values of the results obtained with respect to the values of the certified material. In addition, the obtained parameters are appropriate for the determination of these trace elements in this type of environmental sample (author)

  1. Investigation of the feasibility to use Zeeman-effect background correction for the graphite furnace determination of phosphorus using high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry as a diagnostic tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepri, Fabio G. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard, E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.b [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Bohrer, Denise [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97110-905 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 137, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 - S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mao Donghuang; Becker-Ross, Helmut [ISAS, Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department of Interface Spectroscopy, Albert-Einstein Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The determination of phosphorus by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at the non-resonance line at 213.6 nm, and the capability of Zeeman-effect background correction (Z-BC) to deal with the fine-structured background absorption due to the PO molecule have been investigated in the presence of selected chemical modifiers. Two line source atomic absorption spectrometers, one with a longitudinally heated and the other with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer have been used in this study, as well as two prototype high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometers, one of which had a longitudinally arranged magnet at the furnace. It has been found that Z-BC is capable correcting very well the background caused by the PO molecule, and also that of the NO molecule, which has been encountered when the Pd + Ca mixed modifier was used. Both spectra exhibited some Zeeman splitting, which, however, did not cause any artifacts or correction errors. The practical significance of this study is to confirm that accurate results can be obtained for the determination of phosphorus using Z-BC. The best sensitivity with a characteristic mass of m{sub 0} = 11 ng P has been obtained with the pure Pd modifier, which also caused the lowest background level. The characteristic mass obtained with the mixed Pd+Ca modifier depended on the equipment used and was between m{sub 0} = 9 ng P and m{sub 0} = 15 ng P, and the background signal was higher. The major problem of Z-BC remains the relatively restricted linear working range.

  2. Analysis of ferritic stainless steel tube applied in radiation furnaces; Analise de tubos de aco inoxidavel ferritico para aplicacao em fornos de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.C.R.; Spim, J.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Lab. de Fundicao], e-mail: spim@ufrgs.br; Santos, C.A. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the change in mechanic properties and phase transformations of ferritic stainless steel tube, ASTM 268 Gr 446, applied in high temperature conditions. The work has used tubes from radiation furnaces of the PETROBRAS Xisto Industrialization Unit. The samples used for comparison were obtained from new tubes and tubes already used in furnaces. The test analyses were optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, hardness and microhardness test and tension test. Results have shown that the new tubes presented a ferritic matrix and in old tubes were observed a great quantity of sigma phase and carbides. Along with the thickness of the tubes it was verified that the inside region presented an increase of sulfate and the outside region an increase of carbides. (author)

  3. Solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct analysis of microextraction solvent bars used for metal ultra-trace pre-concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Rafael Jesús; Pinto, Juan J.; Bellido-Milla, Dolores; Moreno, Carlos

    2017-09-01

    The potential applicability of the continuum source solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (CS SS-GF AAS) technique has been studied to carry out the direct analysis of microextraction solvent bars used for metal ultra-trace pre-concentration in natural waters. An optimisation of the temperature program was developed for this purpose. Preliminary chamber furnace studies were performed in order to understand the behaviour of the bars with the increasing temperature. Solvent bars were filled with an acceptor solution, impregnated with an organic extractant and placed into the chamber furnace to carry out several temperature programs. Results led to perform a correct optimisation of the drying and pyrolysis steps of the furnace temperature program, which was tested with silver once completed. Blank solvent bars as well as standards containing silver were measured, obtaining a calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of 0.991. The results exhibited good repeatability and reproducibility, with relative standard deviations below 10% in both cases, indicating a promising applicability of the CS SS-GF AAS technique to directly determine metallic species in microextraction solvent bars.

  4. X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsov, V.V.; Alekseev, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray study of texture in zirconium alloy tubes and in graphite has been developed. The method is based on constructing coordinate grid of stereographic projection determining quantity and coordinates of points where measurements should be performed depending on a specimen slope pitch. Complete stereographic projection obtained so is a base both for constructing pole figures showing distribution normales of plane system being studied and for calculating texture coefficients determining property anisotropy in materials under investigation. This method can be applied to study texture in items of any materials independent of the item shape

  5. Determination of chlorine in food samples via the AlCl molecule using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in a graphite furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechetia, Miriam; Tognon, Andre Luiz; Veiga, Marcia A.M.S. da, E-mail: mamsveiga@ffclrp.usp.br

    2012-05-15

    Determination of chlorine using the molecular absorption of aluminum mono-chloride (AlCl) at the 261.418 nm wavelength was accomplished by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry using a transversely heated graphite tube furnace with an integrated platform. For the analysis, 10 {mu}L of the sample followed by 10 {mu}L of a solution containing Al-Ag-Sr modifier, (1 g L{sup -1} each), were directly injected onto the platform. A spectral interference due to the use of Al-Ag-Sr as mixed modifier was easily corrected by the least-squares algorithm present in the spectrometer software. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 500 Degree-Sign C and 2200 Degree-Sign C, respectively. To evaluate the feasibility of a simple procedure for the determination of chlorine in food samples present in our daily lives, two different digestion methods were applied, namely (A) an acid digestion method using HNO{sub 3} only at room temperature, and (B) a digestion method with Ag, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, where chlorine is precipitated as a low-solubility salt (AgCl), which is then dissolved with ammonia solution. The experimental results obtained with method B were in good agreement with the certified values and demonstrated that the proposed method is more accurate than method A. This is because the formation of silver chloride prevented analyte losses by volatilization. The limit of detection (LOD, 3{sigma}/s) for Cl in methods A and B was 18 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 9 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively, 1.7 and 3.3 times lower compared to published work using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and absolute LODs were 2.4 and 1.2 ng, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HR-CS MAS as technique for Cl determination via AlCl molecule Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectral interference was corrected by the least-squares algorithm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chorine precipitation as AgCl prevents Cl losses during

  6. Comparison of different sample preparation methods for platinum determination in cultured cells by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Platinum-based agents are widely used in chemotherapy against solid tumors and insufficient intracellular drug accumulation is one of the leading causes of platinum resistance which is associated with poor survival of tumor patients. Thus, the detection of intracellular platinum is pivotal for studies aiming to overcome platinum resistance. In the present study, we aimed to establish a reliable graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS-based assay to quantify the intracellular platinum content for cultured cells. Methods Several most commonly applied cell preparation methods, including 0.2% HNO3, 0.2% Triton X-100, concentrated nitric acid, RIPA combined with concentrated nitric acid and hydroxide, followed by GFAAS for platinum detection were compared in ovarian, cervical and liver cancer cell lines to obtain the optimal one, and parameters regarding linearity, accuracy, precision and sensitivity were evaluated. Influence of other metals on platinum detection and the storage conditions of samples were also determined. Results The treatment of cells with 0.2% HNO3 was superior to other approaches with fewer platinum loss and better repeatability. The recovery rate and precision of this method were 97.3%–103.0% and 1.4%–3.8%, respectively. The average recoveries in the presence of other metals were 95.1%–103.1%. The detection limit was 13.23 ug/L. The recovery rate of platinum remained acceptable even in cell samples stored in −20 °C or −80 °C for two months. Discussion After comparison, we found that 0.2% HNO3 was optimal for intracellular platinum quantification based on GFAAS, which presented values compatible with that of inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS, and this is partially attributed to the simplicity of this method. Moreover, the assay was proved to be accurate, sensitive, cost-effective and suitable for the research of platinum-based antitumor therapy.

  7. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of graphite tubes for the non-aqueous system of accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, R.C.; Venneri, F.; Trujillo, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste offers exciting possibilities for the disposal of nuclear waste by converting it into more benign Species. The non-aqueous system discussed here contains the materials to be transmuted within a lithium-fluoride salt. The system consists of bundles of graphite tubes containing the salt Solution. The tubes are cooled as lithium flows across their exterior. These circular graphite tubes have an inner circular passage and an outer annulus. Natural convection within the tubes causes the salt to circulate. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulics of the system; it does not consider the neutronics in detail. Heat transfer and fluid flow were modeled using a custom computer program the system behavior of an graphite tube. Different geometries were tried, while keeping the system volume the same, to determine an optimize graphite tube geometry. I considered both the parallel flow and the counterflow of the lithium coolant, and allowed limited boiling to occur to facilitate circulation. I achieved power densities as high as 200 W/cm 3 for the overall blanket

  8. Determination of bromide in aqueous solutions via the TlBr molecule using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Frantisek; Machynak, Lubomir; Nemecek, Martin; Beinrohr, Ernest

    2018-06-01

    The paper describes the determination of bromide by evaluating the molecular absorption of thallium mono-bromide (TlBr) at the rotational line at 342.9815 nm by making use a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The effects of variables such as the wavelength, graphite furnace program, amount of Tl and the use of a modifier were investigated and optimized. Various chemical modifiers have been studied, such as Pd, Mg, Ag and a mixture of Pd/Mg. It was found that best results were obtained by using Ag which prevents losses of bromide during pyrolysis step through precipitation of bromide as AgBr. In this way, a maximum pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C could be used. The optimum molecule forming temperature was found to be 900 °C. Bromide concentrations in various water samples (CRM, bottled drinking water and tap water) were determined. The quantification was made by both linear calibration and standard addition techniques. The results were matched well those of the reference method. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 1 and 1000 ng Br with a correlation coefficient R = 0.999. The limit of detection and characteristic mass of the method were 0.3 ng and 4.4 ng of Br.

  9. Direct determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: A comparison between filter and platform atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Emilene; Rampazzo, Roger T.; Dessuy, Morgana B. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq - INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, Marcia M. da [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq - INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Katskov, Dmitri A. [Tshwane University of Technology (TUT), Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2011-05-15

    In the present work a direct method for the determination of arsenic in petroleum derivatives has been developed, comparing the performance of a commercial transversely heated platform atomizer (THPA) with that of a transversely heated filter atomizer (THFA). The THFA results in a reduction of background absorption and an improved sensitivity as has been reported earlier for this atomizer. The mixture of 0.1% (m/v) Pd + 0.03% (m/v) Mg + 0.05% (v/v) Triton X-100 was used as the chemical modifier for both atomizers. The samples (naphtha, gasoline and petroleum condensate) were stabilized in the form of a three-component solution (detergentless microemulsion) with the sample, propan-1-ol and 0.1% (v/v) HNO{sub 3} in a ratio of 3.0:6.4:0.6. The characteristic mass of 13 pg found in the THFA was about a factor of two better than that of 28 pg obtained with the THPA; however, the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were essentially the same for both atomizers (1.9 and 6.2 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, for THPA, and 1.8 and 5.9 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively, for THFA) due to the increased noise observed with the THFA. A possible explanation for that is a partial blockage of the radiation from the hollow cathode lamp by the narrow inner diameter of this tube and the associated loss of radiation energy. Due to the lack of an appropriate certified reference material, recovery tests were carried out with inorganic and organic arsenic standards and the results were between 89% and 111%. The only advantage of the THFA found in this work was a reduction of the total analysis time by about 20% due to the 'hot injection' that could be realized with this furnace. The arsenic concentrations varied from < LOQ to 43.3 {mu}g L{sup -1} in the samples analyzed in this work.

  10. Simulation of Working Processes in the Water-Tube Boiler Furnace with the Purpose of Reducing Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of domestic and industrial boilers are in operation in Ukraine. Nitrogen oxides are the most dangerous among all combustion products that pollute the atmosphere, therefore, one should take some measures for decreasing the formation of nitrogen oxides during combustion. The studies were carried out at the boilers of low power (100 kW with a tubular radiator and an open end. The studies in the furnaces of industrial steam boilers having a tubular radiator with a closed end have not been done. The numerical study results of the gaseous fuel combustion processes in the furnace of a DE-10/14 steam water-tube boiler are presented. The fuel-air mixture is formed by premixing the 15% part of the air with a primary burner twist factor n=2.4 and a secondary burner twist factor n=1.6, and an air excess factor αв=10. As a result of the studies, the temperature and velocity distributions of gases in the combustion chamber, the density of heat flows on the screen tubular surfaces, and the concentrations of the combustion components were determined. Flue gas recirculation in the volume of 80-100% is provided, and the reversible movement of combustion products towards the combustion front provides a reduction in the concentration of nitrogen oxides up to 123-125 mg/m3 at the furnace outlet. Disadvantages are the following: the formation of stagnant zones near the end of the secondary radiator. The optimum diameter of the tubular radiator equals to two burners diameters and tubular radiator is located at a distance of one meter from the burner cutoff.

  11. Application of Factorial Designs and Simplex Optimisation in the Development of Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Procedures as Demonstrated for the Determination of Trace Levels of Germanium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilligsøe, Bo; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1997-01-01

    The optimisation of a volume-based FI-HG-GFAAS procedure is described for the trace determination of Ge, comprising in situ collection of the generated germane in the graphite furnace. The response function is the peak area readout (A*s). Based on a preliminary study, where factorial designs were...

  12. Fouling deposition characteristic by variation of coal particle size and deposition temperature in DTF (Drop Tube Furnace)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkung, Hueon; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research; Xu, Li-hua [IAE, Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Plant Engineering Center

    2013-07-01

    One of the major operation obstacles in gasification process is ash deposition phenomenon. In this investigation, experiment was carried out to examine coal fouling characteristics using a laminar DTF (Drop Tube Furnace) with variation of operating condition such as different coal size, and probe surface temperature. Four different samples of pulverized coal were injected into DTF under various conditions. The ash particles are deposited on probe by impacting and agglomerating action. Fouling grains are made of eutectic compound, which is made by reacting with acid minerals and alkali minerals, in EPMA (Electron Probe Micro-Analysis). And agglomeration area of fouling at top layer is wide more than it of middle and bottom layer. The major mineral factors of fouling phenomenon are Fe, Ca, and Mg. The deposition quantity of fouling increases with increasing particle size, high alkali mineral (Fe, Ca, and Mg) contents, and ash deposition temperature.

  13. Identification of molecules in graphite furnace by laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: sulfur and chlorine containing compounds

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raseleka, RM

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electro thermal vaporizer (ETV) coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) with laser ionization (LI) was applied to the identification of molecules from sulphur and chlorine matrices in the furnace. An interface was developed...

  14. Persistent sample circulation microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for trace determination of heavy metals in fish species marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Yahya; Karimaei, Mostafa; Sharafi, Kiomars; Arfaeinia, Hossein; Moradi, Masoud; Fattahi, Nazir

    2018-06-01

    Persistent sample circulation microextraction (PSCME) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was developed as a high pre-concentration technique for the determination of heavy metals in fish species. In this method, a few microliters of organic solvent (40.0 µL carbon tetrachloride) was transferred to the bottom of a conical sample cup. Then 10.0 mL of aqueous solution was transformed to fine droplets while passing through the organic solvent. At this stage, metal-ligand hydrophobic complex was extracted into the organic solvent. After extraction, 20 µL of extraction solvent was injected into the graphite tube using an auto-sampler. Under optimal conditions, enrichment factors and enhancement factor were in the range of 180-240 and 155-214, respectively. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.03-200 µg kg -1 and the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.01-0.05 µg kg -1 . Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) for 0.50 µg L -1 Hg and 0.10 µg L -1 Cd and Pb were in the range of 3.1-4.2% (n = 7) and 4.3-6.1% (n = 7), respectively. Potential human health risk assessment was conducted by calculating estimated weekly intake (EWI) of the metals from eating fish and comparison of these values with provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) values. EWI data for the studied metals through fish consumption were lower than the PTWI values. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Investigation of ultraviolet photolysis vapor generation with in-atomizer trapping graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madden, Jeremy T. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physics, Marist College, 3399 North Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 (United States); Fitzgerald, Neil [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physics, Marist College, 3399 North Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 (United States)], E-mail: neil.fitzgerald@marist.edu

    2009-09-15

    Generation of mercury vapor by ultraviolet irradiation of mercury solutions in low molecular weight organic acid solutions prior to measurement by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry is a cheap, simple and green method for determination of trace concentrations of mercury. In this work mercury vapor generated by ultraviolet photolysis was trapped onto a palladium coated graphite furnace significantly improving the detection limit of the method. The system was optimized and a detection limit of 0.12 {mu}g L{sup - 1} (compared to 2.1 {mu}g L{sup - 1} for a previously reported system in the absence of trapping) with a precision of 11% for a 10 {mu}g L{sup - 1} mercury standard (RSD, N = 5)

  16. Study for the determination of samarium, europium,terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in gadolinium oxide matrix by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caires, A.C.F.

    1985-01-01

    A study for determination of samarium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium in a gadolinium oxide matrix by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace is presented. The best charrring and atomization conditions were estabilished for each element, the most convenient ressonance lines being selected as well. The study was carried out for the mentioned lanthanides both when pure and when in binary mixtures with gadolinium, besides those where all for them were together with gadolinium. The determination limits for pure lanthanides were found to be between 1.3 and 9.6 ng assuming a 20% relative standard deviation as acceptable. The detection limits were in the range 0.51 and 7.5 ng, assuming as positive any answer higher than twofold the standard deviation. (author) [pt

  17. Preconcentration of trace elements from high-purity thorium and uranium on Chelex-100 and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raje, Naina; Kayasth, Satish; Asari, T.P.S.; Gangadharan, S.

    1994-01-01

    Preconcentration of trace impurities from large-sized samples of uranium metal and thorium oxide using a small column of Chelex-100 followed by their determination using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is reported. A 0.5-10-g amount of the sample (uranium metal or thorium oxide) was dissolved, complexed with ammonium carbonate and subjected to the ion-exchange procedure. The retained analytes were eluted with 2-4 M nitric acid and brought to a small volume for a final dilution to 10-25 ml for their determination using GFAAS. The validity of the separation procedure and recoveries at μg kg -1 levels was checked by standard addition; the recoveries were >95%

  18. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS for determination of trace Cu and Zn in water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was proposed for the determination of trace amounts of Copper and Zinc ions using 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ as chelating agent. Several factors influencing the microextraction efficiency of Cu and Zn and their subsequent determinations, such as pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and their volume, concentration of the chelating agent and extraction time were studied, and the optimized experimental conditions were established. After extraction, the enrichment factors were 25 and 26 for Cu and Zn, respectively. The detection limits of the method were 0.025 and 0.0033 μg/L for Cu and Zn, and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D for five determinations of 1 ng/ml Cu and Zn were 8.51% and 7.41%, respectively.

  20. Air-assisted Liquid Liquid Microextraction Combined with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Preconcentration and Determination of Trace Amount of Co(II and Ni(II Ions in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammad Sorouraddin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of cobalt (II and nickel (II ions in water samples by air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (AALLME coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. In the proposed method, much less volume of an organic solvent was used as the extraction solvent in the absence of disperser solvent. Fine organic droplets were formed by sucking and injecting of the mixture of aqueous sample solution and extraction solvent with a syringe for several times in a conical test tube. After extraction, phase separation was performed by centrifugation and the enriched analytes in the sedimented phase were determined by GFAAS. Several variables that could affect the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Calibration graphs were linear in the range of 6.5-100 ng L-1. Detection limits for Co and Ni were 2.3 ng L-1 and 3 ng L-1, respectively. The accuracy of the developed procedure was checked by analyzing NRCC-SLRS4 Riverine water as a certified reference material. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of cobalt (II and nickel (II ions in tap, surface and river water samples.

  1. Determination of cobalt in biological samples by line-source and high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using solid sampling or alkaline treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Anderson Schwingel; Vieira, Mariana Antunes; Furtado da Silva, Alessandra; Borges, Daniel L. Gallindo; Welz, Bernhard; Heitmann, Uwe; Curtius, Adilson Jose

    2005-01-01

    Two procedures for the determination of Co in biological samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) were compared: solid sampling (SS) and alkaline treatment with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) using two different instruments for the investigation: a conventional line-source (LS) atomic absorption spectrometer and a prototype high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer. For the direct introduction of the solid samples, certified reference materials (CRM) were ground to a particle size ≤50 μm. Alkaline treatment was carried out by placing about 250 mg of the sample in polypropylene flasks, adding 2 mL of 25% m/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide and de-ionized water. Due to its unique capacity of providing a 3-D spectral plot, a high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used as a tool to evaluate potential spectral interferences, including background absorption for both sample introduction procedures, revealing that a continuous background preceded the atomic signal for pyrolysis temperatures lower than 700 deg. C. Molecular absorption bands with pronounced rotational fine structure appeared for atomization temperatures >1800 deg. C probably as a consequence of the formation of PO. After optimization had been carried out using high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry, the optimized conditions were adopted also for line-source atomic absorption spectrometry. Six biological certified reference materials were analyzed, with calibration against aqueous standards, resulting in agreement with the certified values (according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level) and in detection limits as low as 5 ng g -1

  2. Feasibility of using in situ fusion for the determination of Co, Cr and Mn in Portland cement by direct solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intima, Danielle Polidorio; de Oliveira, Elisabeth; Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano

    2009-01-01

    In situ fusion on the boat-type graphite platform has been used as a sample pretreatment for the direct determination of Co, Cr and Mn in Portland cement by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (SS-GF AAS). The 3-field Zeeman technique was adopted for background correction to decrease the sensitivity during measurements. This strategy allowed working with up to 200 μg of sample. The in situ fusion was accomplished using 10 μL of a flux mixture 4.0% m/v Na 2 CO 3 + 4.0% m/v ZnO + 0.1% m/v Triton (registered) X-100 added over the cement sample and heated at 800 deg. C for 20 s. The resulting mould was completely dissolved with 10 μL of 0.1% m/v HNO 3 . Limits of detection were 0.11 μg g - 1 for Co, 1.1 μg g - 1 for Cr and 1.9 μg g - 1 for Mn. The accuracy of the proposed method has been evaluated by the analysis of certified reference materials. The values found presented no statistically significant differences compared to the certified values (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). In general, the relative standard deviation was lower than 12% (n = 5).

  3. Investigation of spectral interferences in the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Aline R. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq — INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker, Emilene M.; François, Luciane L.; Jesus, Alexandre de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq — INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq — INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B., E-mail: mbdessuy@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq — INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    In the present work, spectral interferences on the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples were investigated using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry at the main analytical lines: 217.001 and 283.306 nm. For these investigations, samples were introduced into the furnace as slurry together with a mixture of Pd and Mg as chemical modifier. Spectral interferences were observed for some samples at both analytical lines. In order to verify whether a wet digestion procedure would avoid these interferences, a reference method for wet digestion of fertilizers was employed as an alternative sample preparation procedure. However, the same interferences were also observed in the digested samples. In order to identify and eliminate the fine-structured background using a least-squares background correction, reference spectra were generated using the combination of different species. The use of the latter technique allowed the elimination of spectral interferences for most of the investigated samples, making possible the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples free of interferences. The best results were found using a reference spectrum of NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at 217.001 nm, and a mixture of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + Ca and HNO{sub 3} + Ca at the 283.306 nm line. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using a certified reference material “Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer”. Similar results were obtained using line source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction, indicating that the latter technique was also capable to correct the spectral interferences, at least in part. - Highlights: • Spectral interferences on the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone. • The analytical lines at 217.001 nm and 283.306 nm using HR-CS GF AAS. • Various combinations of compounds were used to create reference spectra. • LSBC

  4. The Study of Heat Treatment Effects on Chromium Carbide Precipitation of 35Cr-45Ni-Nb Alloy for Repairing Furnace Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarin Srisuwan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a specific kind of failure in ethylene pyrolysis furnace tubes. It considers the case in which the tubes made of 35Cr-45Ni-Nb high temperature alloy failed to carburization, causing creep damage. The investigation found that used tubes became difficult to weld repair due to internal carburized layers of the tube. The microstructure and geochemical component of crystallized carbide at grain boundary of tube specimens were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with back-scattered electrons mode (BSE, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. Micro-hardness tests was performed to determine the hardness of the matrix and the compounds of new and used tube material. The testing result indicated that used tubes exhibited a higher hardness and higher degree of carburization compared to those of new tubes. The microstructure of used tubes also revealed coarse chromium carbide precipitation and a continuous carbide lattice at austenite grain boundaries. However, thermal heat treatment applied for developing tube weld repair could result in dissolving or breaking up chromium carbide with a decrease in hardness value. This procedure is recommended to improve the weldability of the 35Cr-45Ni-Nb used tubes alloy.

  5. Strontium mono-chloride — A new molecule for the determination of chlorine using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard, E-mail: w.bernardo@terra.com.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Lopez, Alfredo H.D.; Gois, Jefferson S. de; Caramori, Giovanni F. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Carasek, Eduardo [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. de [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of chlorine in biological reference materials using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) of the strontium mono-chloride (SrCl) molecule and direct solid sample analysis. The use of the SrCl molecule for high-temperature MAS was not described up to now in the literature. Preliminary time-dependent density functional theory calculations of the SrCl structure were carried out in order to obtain reasonable estimates of the absorption spectrum of the target molecule. The calculations, which were carried out at BHandHLyp/def2-QZVP level of theory, proved a very accurate and inexpensive way to get information about the spectrum of the SrCl molecule, which enabled us to perform the Cl determination with good sensitivity and specificity. The molecular absorption of the SrCl molecule has been measured using the wavelength at 635.862 nm, and zirconium and palladium have been evaluated as the chemical modifiers in order to increase the sensitivity of the gaseous SrCl molecule generated in the graphite furnace. The pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 600 °C and 2300 °C, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using biological certified reference materials of both animal and plant origins, showing good agreement with the informed and certified values. Limit of detection and characteristic mass were 1.0 and 2.2 ng, respectively. The results found using HR-CS GF MAS were in agreement (95% confidence level) compared to those obtained by electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • The spectrum of the SrCl molecule was calculated on a theoretical basis and found very close to the predicted wavelength. • It is the first time that the spectrum of the SrCl molecule is described and used analytically for the determination of Cl. • No spectral interferences were observed as the

  6. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of vanadium after cloud point extraction in the presence of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Marín-Hernández, Juan José; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2018-05-01

    Vanadium (V) and vanadium (IV) in the presence of a small concentration of graphene oxide (0.05 mg mL-1) are quantitatively transferred to the coacervate obtained with Triton X-114 in a cloud point microextraction process. The surfactant-rich phase is directly injected into the graphite atomizer of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Using a 10-mL aliquot sample and 150 μL of a 15% Triton X-114 solution, the enrichment factor for the analyte is 103, which results in a detection limit of 0.02 μg L-1 vanadium. The separation of V(V) and V(IV) using an ion-exchanger allows speciation of the element at low concentrations. Data for seven reference water samples with certified vanadium contents confirm the reliability of the procedure. Several beer samples are also analyzed, those supplied as canned drinks showing low levels of tetravalent vanadium.

  7. The formation of boron, silicon and calcium containing molecular species in a graphite furnace in Ar/O2 mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MARKICEVIC

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the Ar/O2/C gas system in the presence of traces of either B, Si or Ca was calculated under the assumption of thermal equilibrium in the temperature range 500-5500 K. The mole concentration of oxygen was taken to be 1-4 %. Two sets of calculations were carried out. In the first one the presence of solid phase (graphite was ignored and the calculations were performed for a single-phase (gas system, at variable ratios C/O (0.5, 0.96, 1 and 2. In the second set of calculations the presence of solid carbon (graphite was taken into account and the composition of the gas system in equilibrium with solid carbon, at p = 1 atm, was determined. The results presented show that the equilibrium composition, particularly the concentration of different compounds involving the trace elements , is very sensitive to the amounts, and the ratio of the amounts of oxygen and carbon. Increasing the O/C ratio results in increasing partial pressures of molecular and atomic oxygen, which favours the formation of oxides of the trace elements and moves their atomization temperatures to higher values. On the other hand, increasing the C/O ratio (C/O >>1 favours atomization, but also carbide formation in the lower-temperature region. It was found that, over a relatively wide temperature interval (1000 << T << 3500 K, the composition of the Ar/O2/C/X (X = B, Si, Ca system, with comparable amounts of oxygen and carbon (C/O = 1, does not significantly depend on the presence of the solid phase. The results of calculations enable a reasonable interpretation of numerous experiments carried out on similar systems.

  8. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples stabilized as microemulsion using conventional and permanent modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Reyes, Mariela N.; Campos, Reinaldo C.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples was developed. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization was observed by mixing different organic solvents with propan-1-ol and 50% vol/vol HNO 3 at a 3.3:6.5:1 volume ratio. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using aqueous Pd-Mg modifier as well as for Ir as permanent modifier. The drying temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ni, and had to be carefully optimized. Taking this into account, the same sensitivity was attained in all investigated organic media stabilized as microemulsion. Thus, calibration with microemulsions prepared with a single organic solvent was possible, using aqueous or organic stock solutions. Commercial gasoline and diesel samples were directly analyzed after stabilization as microemulsion and by comparative UOP procedures. n-Hexane microemulsions were used for calibration, and good agreement was obtained between the results using the proposed and comparative procedures. Typical coefficients of variation (n = 6) ranged from 1% to 4%, and from 1% to 3% for Ni and Pb, respectively. Detection limits (k = 3) in the original gasoline or diesel samples, derived from 10 blank measurements, were 4.5 and 3.6 μg l -1 for Ni and Pb, respectively, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples

  9. Determination of phospholipids in soybean lecithin samples via the phosphorus monoxide molecule by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Laís N; Brandão, Geovani C; Teixeira, Leonardo S G

    2017-06-15

    This paper presents a method for determining phospholipids in soybean lecithin samples by phosphorus determination using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) via molecular absorption of phosphorus monoxide. Samples were diluted in methyl isobutyl ketone. The best conditions were found to be 213.561nm with a pyrolysis temperature of 1300°C, a volatilization temperature of 2300°C and Mg as a chemical modifier. To increase the analytical sensitivity, measurement of the absorbance signal was obtained by summing molecular transition lines for PO surrounding 213nm: 213.561, 213.526, 213.617 and 213.637nm. The limit of detection was 2.35mgg -1 and the precision, evaluated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was 2.47% (n=10) for a sample containing 2.2% (w/v) phosphorus. The developed method was applied for the analysis of commercial samples of soybean lecithin. The determined concentrations of phospholipids in the samples varied between 38.1 and 45% (w/v). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Speciation and determination of ultra trace amounts of chromium by solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghadam, Masoud Rohani [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadfarnia, Shayessteh, E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazduni.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    Solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) method in combination with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) has been used for the determination of chromium species in water and urine samples. 1-undecanol containing 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) was used as a selective chelating agent for the extraction of Cr(III). The total Cr was determined after the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) with hydroxylamine. The concentration of Cr(VI) was determined from the difference between the concentration of total chromium and the Cr(III). Several variables such as the sample pH, concentration of TTA, salt concentration, extraction time and the sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the proposed method was 0.006 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Cr(III) and the relative standard deviation for six replicate determinations at 0.1 {mu}g l{sup -1} Cr(III) was 5.1%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of chromium species in tap water, well water, mineral water, and urine samples.

  11. Determination of trace aluminum concentration and homogeneity in biological material TORT-1 by instrumental neutron activation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochvil, B.; Motkosky, N.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1987-01-01

    The biological reference material TORT-1, lobster hepatopancreas, was analyzed for aluminum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). After correction of the INAA results for interferences from 28 Al produced by 31 P(n,α) 28 Al and 28 (n,p) 28 Al reactions, and use of HNO 3 plus HF for sample dissolution for the GFAAS analyses, the methods gave similar results of 43 ± 3 and 42 ± 2 μg/g respectively for 200 to 300-mg test portions. Analysis of six portions from each of six bottles of TORT-1 showed no statistical difference at the 95% confidence level for the between and within bottle variances. Therefore, The material can be considered homogeneous for aluminum if 200- to 300-mg test portions are taken. The variance was greater and the average lower when 30-mg test portions were analyzed for aluminum by GFAAS. The pattern of the results, together with the need for HF in the dissolution procedure, suggests the presence of aluminum-containing microparticulate mineral matter, perhaps silicate material, in the material

  12. Investigation of chemical modifiers for sulfur determination in diesel fuel samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry using direct analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Charles S. [Instituto Federal Sul-rio-grandense, Câmpus Pelotas, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Química, Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Andrade, Jailson B. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Dessuy, Morgana B., E-mail: mbdessuy@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Química, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry has been applied for sulfur determination in diesel fuel. The sharp rotational lines of the carbon monosulfide molecule (formed during the vaporization step) were used to measure the absorbance. The analytical line at 258.056 nm was monitored using the sum of three pixels. Different chemical modifiers were investigated and the mixture of palladium and magnesium was used as chemical modifier in combination with iridium as permanent modifier. L-Cysteine was chosen as sulfur standard and the calibration was done against aqueous standard solutions. The proposed method was applied for the analyses of four diesel samples: two S10 samples and two S500 samples. The trueness of the method was checked with a certified reference material (CRM) of sulfur in diesel fuel (NIST 2724b). Accurate results, for samples and CRM, were achieved after a dilution with propan-1-ol. The following figures of merit were obtained: characteristic mass of 17 ± 3 ng, limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.4 mg kg{sup −1} and 4.7 mg kg{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Ir, Ru and Zr were investigated as permanent modifiers. • Ca, Mg, Pd and Pd/Mg were investigated as modifiers in solution. • Indirect determination of sulfur monitoring the molecular absorbance of the CS • Direct analysis of diesel samples using a dilution in propan-1-ol.

  13. Determination of trace amounts of rare earth elements in samarium, terbium and disprosium oxides by graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, E.S.K.

    1990-01-01

    A graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry method for the determination of neodymium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium at trace level in samarium oxide; of samarium, europium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium and yttrium in terbium oxide and of europium, terbium, holmium, erbium and yttrium in dysprosium oxide was established. The best pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were determined for each lanthanide considered. Calibration curves were obtained for the pure elements, for binary mixtures formed by the matrix and each of the lanthanides studied and, finally, for the complex mixtures constituted by the matrix and all the other lanthanide of the group under scrutiny. This study has been carried out to examine the interference of the presence of one lanthanide on the behaviour of the other, since a lack of linearity on the calibration curves has been observed in some cases. Detection and determination limits have been determined as well. The detection limits encountered were within the range 0.002 to 0.3% for different elements. The precision of the method expressed as the relative standard deviation was calculated for each element present in each of the matrices studied. The conclusion arrived at is that the method can be applied for determining the above mentioned lanthanides present in the matrices studied with purity up to 99.50%. (author)

  14. CaI and SrI molecules for iodine determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry: Greener molecules for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Melina Borges Teixeira; Nakadi, Flávio Venâncio; da Veiga, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva

    2018-03-01

    A new method to determine iodine in drug samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) has been developed. The method measures the molecular absorption of a diatomic molecule, CaI or SrI (less toxic molecule-forming reagents), at 638.904 or 677.692nm, respectively, and uses a mixture containing 5μg of Pd and 0.5μg of Mg as chemical modifier. The method employs pyrolysis temperatures of 1000 and 800°C and vaporization temperatures of 2300 and 2400°C for CaI and SrI, respectively. The optimized amounts of Ca and Sr as molecule-forming reagents are 100 and 150µg, respectively. On the basis of interference studies, even small chlorine concentrations reduce CaI and SrI absorbance significantly. The developed method was used to analyze different commercial drug samples, namely thyroid hormone pills with three different iodine amounts (15.88, 31.77, and 47.66µg) and one liquid drug with 1% m v -1 active iodine in their compositions. The results agreed with the values informed by the manufacturers (95% confidence level) regardless of whether CaI or SrI was determined. Therefore, the developed method is useful for iodine determination on the basis of CaI or SrI molecular absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  16. Evaluation of solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for direct determination of chromium in medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgilio, Alex; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Rêgo, Jardes F.; Neto, José A. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    A method for Cr determination in medicinal plants using direct solid sampling graphite furnace high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. Modifiers were dispensable. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1500 °C and 2400 °C, respectively. Slopes of calibration curves (50–750 pg Cr, R 2 > 0.999) using aqueous and solid standards coincides in 96%, indicated feasibility of aqueous calibration for solid sampling of medicinal plants. Accuracy was checked by analysis of four plant certified reference materials. Results were in agreement at 95% confidence level with certified and non-certified values. Ten samples of medicinal plants were analyzed and Cr contents were in the 1.3–17.7 μg g −1 Cr range. The highest RSD (n = 5) was 15.4% for the sample Melissa officinalis containing 13.9 ± 2.1 μg g −1 Cr. The limit of detection was 3.3 ng g −1 Cr. - Highlights: ► Direct solid sampling is first time employed for Cr in plant materials. ► Calibration curves with liquids and solids are coincident. ► Microanalysis of plants for Cr is validated by reference materials. ► The proposed HR-CS GF AAS method is environmental friendly.

  17. Evaluation of solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for direct determination of chromium in medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgilio, Alex; Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Post Office Box 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil); Rego, Jardes F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Post Office Box 355, 14801-970, Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Neto, Jose A. Gomes, E-mail: anchieta@iq.unesp.br [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, Post Office Box 355, 14801-970, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    A method for Cr determination in medicinal plants using direct solid sampling graphite furnace high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. Modifiers were dispensable. Pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1500 Degree-Sign C and 2400 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Slopes of calibration curves (50-750 pg Cr, R{sup 2} > 0.999) using aqueous and solid standards coincides in 96%, indicated feasibility of aqueous calibration for solid sampling of medicinal plants. Accuracy was checked by analysis of four plant certified reference materials. Results were in agreement at 95% confidence level with certified and non-certified values. Ten samples of medicinal plants were analyzed and Cr contents were in the 1.3-17.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cr range. The highest RSD (n = 5) was 15.4% for the sample Melissa officinalis containing 13.9 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g g{sup -1} Cr. The limit of detection was 3.3 ng g{sup -1} Cr. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct solid sampling is first time employed for Cr in plant materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration curves with liquids and solids are coincident. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microanalysis of plants for Cr is validated by reference materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed HR-CS GF AAS method is environmental friendly.

  18. Modified carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction of gold, and its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Firouzeh Hassani; Behzadi, Mansoureh; Naghizadeh, Matin; Taher, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace levels of gold in various samples. It is based on the adsorption of gold on modified oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The type and volume of eluent solution, sample pH value, flow rates of sample and eluent, sorption capacity and breakthrough volume were optimized. Under these conditions, the method showed linearity in the range of 0.2–6.0 ng L −1 with coefficients of determination of >0.99 in the sample. The relative standard deviation for seven replicate determinations of gold (at a level of 0.6 ng L −1 ) is ±3.8 %, the detection limit is 31 pg L −1 (in the initial solution and at an S/N ratio of 3; for n = 8), and the enrichment factor is 200. The sorption capacity of the modified MWCNTs for gold(III) is 4.15 mg g −1 . The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of gold in (spiked) water samples, human hair, human urine and standard reference material with recoveries ranging from 97.0 to 104.2 %. (author)

  19. RAPID AND SENSITIVE DETERMINATION OF PALLADIUM USING HOMOGENEOUS LIQUID-LIQUID MICROEXTRACTION VIA FLOTATION ASSISTANCE FOLLOWED BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of trace amounts of palladium was developed using homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction via flotation assistance (HLLME-FA followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC was used as a complexing agent. This was applied to determine palladium in three types of water samples. In this study, a special extraction cell was designed to facilitate collection of the low-density solvent extraction. No centrifugation was required in this procedure. The water sample solution was added to the extraction cell which contained an appropriate mixture of extraction and homogeneous solvents. By using air flotation, the organic solvent was collected at the conical part of the designed cell. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 1.0-200 µg L-1 with a limit of detection of 0.3 µg L-1. The performance of the method was evaluated for the extraction and determination of palladium in water samples and satisfactory results were obtained. In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the standard addition method was applied for the determination of palladium in spiked synthetic samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Determination of trace aluminum concentration and homogeneity in biological material TORT-1 by instrumental neutron activation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, B; Motkosky, N; Duke, M J.M.; Ng, D

    1987-05-01

    The biological reference material TORT-1, lobster hepatopancreas, was analyzed for aluminum by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). After correction of the INAA results for interferences from /sup 28/Al produced by /sup 31/P(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 28/Al and /sup 28/(n,p)/sup 28/Al reactions, and use of HNO/sub 3/ plus HF for sample dissolution for the GFAAS analyses, the methods gave similar results of 43 +- 3 and 42 +- 2 ..mu..g/g respectively for 200 to 300-mg test portions. Analysis of six portions from each of six bottles of TORT-1 showed no statistical difference at the 95% confidence level for the between and within bottle variances. Therefore, The material can be considered homogeneous for aluminum if 200- to 300-mg test portions are taken. The variance was greater and the average lower when 30-mg test portions were analyzed for aluminum by GFAAS. The pattern of the results, together with the need for HF in the dissolution procedure, suggests the presence of aluminum-containing microparticulate mineral matter, perhaps silicate material, in the material.

  1. On-line preconcentration of ultra-trace thallium(I in water samples with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Asadpour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method has been developed for the determination of Tl(I based on simultaneous sorption and preconcentration with a microcolumn packed with TiO2 nanoparticle with a high specific surface area prepared by Sonochemical synthesis prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS. The optimum experimental parameters for preconcentration of thallium, such as elution condition, pH, and sample volume and flow rate have been investigated. Tl(I can be quantitatively retained by TiO2 nanoparticles at pH 9.0, then eluted completely with 1.0 mol L−1 HCl. The adsorption capacity of TiO2 nanoparticles for Tl(I was found to be 25 mg g−1. Also detection limit, precision (RSD, n = 8 and enrichment factor for Tl(I were 87 ng L−1, 6.4% and 100, respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of trace amounts of Tl(I in some environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  2. One-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the selective determination of methylmercury in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Pei; Kang, Caiyan; Mo, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    A novel method for the selective determination of methylmercury (MeHg) was developed by one-step displacement dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (D-DLLME) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. In the proposed method, Cu(II) reacted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) to form Cu-DDTC complex, which was used as the chelating agent instead of DDTC for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of MeHg. Because the stability of MeHg-DDTC is higher than that of Cu-DDTC, MeHg can displace Cu from the Cu-DDTC complex and be preconcentrated in a single DLLME procedure. MeHg could be extracted into the extraction solvent phase at pH 6 while Hg(II) remained in the sample solution. Potential interference from co-existing metal ions with lower DDTC complex stability was largely eliminated without the need of any masking reagent. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of this method was 13.6ngL(-1) (as Hg), and an enhancement factor of 81 was achieved with a sample volume of 5.0mL. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace MeHg in some environmental samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the direct determination of arsenic in fish oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Éderson R; de Almeida, Tarcísio S; Borges, Daniel L G; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Feldmann, Jörg; Campo Menoyo, Javier Del

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) has been applied for the development of a method for the determination of total As in fish oil samples using direct analysis. The method does not use any sample pretreatment, besides dilution with 1-propanole, in order to decrease the oil viscosity. The stability and sensitivity of As were evaluated using ruthenium and iridium as permanent chemical modifiers and palladium added in solution over the sample. The best results were obtained with ruthenium as the permanent modifier and palladium in solution added to samples and standard solutions. Under these conditions, aqueous standard solutions could be used for calibration for the fish oil samples diluted with 1-propanole. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1400 °C and 2300 °C, respectively, and the limit of detection and characteristic mass were 30 pg and 43 pg, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples with subsequent determination by HR-CS GF AAS and ICP-MS; the results were in agreement (95% confidence level) with those of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric for selenium speciation in foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Pekiner, Ozlem Zeynep

    2015-12-01

    A rapid and environmentally friendly ultrasound assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (USA-IL-DLLME) was developed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in beverages and total selenium in food samples by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Some analytical parameters including pH, amount of complexing agent, extraction time, volume of ionic liquid, sample volume, etc. were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Enhancement factor (EF) and limit of detection (LOD) for Se(IV) were found to be 150 and 12 ng L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was found 4.2%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with analysis of LGC 6010 Hard drinking water and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves standard reference materials. Optimized method was applied to ice tea, soda and mineral water for the speciation of Se(IV) and Se(VI) and some food samples including beer, cow's milk, red wine, mixed fruit juice, date, apple, orange, grapefruit, egg and honey for the determination of total selenium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction for the determination of vanadium in water and food samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A new dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, magnetic stirrer induced dispersive ionic-liquid microextraction (MS-IL-DLLME) was developed to quantify the trace level of vanadium in real water and food samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In this extraction method magnetic stirrer was applied to obtained a dispersive medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6] in aqueous solution of (real water samples and digested food samples) to increase phase transfer ratio, which significantly enhance the recovery of vanadium - 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) chelate. Variables having vital role on desired microextraction methods were optimised to obtain the maximum recovery of study analyte. Under the optimised experimental variables, enhancement factor (EF) and limit of detection (LOD) were achieved to be 125 and 18 ng L(-1), respectively. Validity and accuracy of the desired method was checked by analysis of certified reference materials (SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicate determinations at 0.5 μg L(-1) of vanadium level was found to be <5.0%. This method was successfully applied to real water and acid digested food samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Micro-sampling method based on high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for calcium determination in blood and mitochondrial suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Nieto, Beatriz; Gismera, Mª Jesús; Sevilla, Mª Teresa; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Procopio, Jesús R

    2017-08-01

    A micro-sampling and straightforward method based on high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) was developed to determine extracellular and intracellular Ca in samples of interest in clinical and biomedical analysis. Solid sampling platforms were used to introduce the micro-samples into the graphite furnace atomizer. The secondary absorption line for Ca, located at 239.856nm, was selected to carry out the measurements. Experimental parameters such as pyrolysis and atomization temperatures and the amount of sample introduced for the measurements were optimized. Calibration was performed using aqueous standards and the approach to measure at the wings of the absorption lines was employed for the expansion of the linear response range. The limit of detection was of 0.02mgL -1 Ca (0.39ng Ca) and the upper limit of linear range was increased up to 8.0mgL -1 Ca (160ng Ca). The proposed method was used to determine Ca in mitochondrial suspensions and whole blood samples with successful results. Adequate recoveries (within 91-107%) were obtained in the tests performed for validation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multielement preconcentration of trace heavy metals in seawater with an emulsion containing 8-quinolinol for graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Hiroaki; Kageyama, Tomohiro; Hiraide, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A water-in-oil type emulsion containing 8-quinolinol has been used for the concentration of traces of heavy metals from seawater prior to their determinations by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The emulsion used was prepared by dissolving 40 mg of 8-quinolinol and 60 mg of sorbitan monooleate (Span-80) in 3.0 ml of toluene and vigorously mixing with 0.70 ml of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (1.5 mol l -1 ) by ultrasonic irradiation. The resulting emulsion was gradually injected into 100 ml of sample solution (pH 8.5) and dispersed by stirring as numerous tiny globules. Four heavy metals (Co, Ni, Cu, and Cd) in the sample solution were quantitatively transported through the organic layer into the acidic aqueous droplets encapsulated in the emulsion. After collecting the dispersed emulsion globules, they were demulsified by heating and the heavy metals in the segregated aqueous phase were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Owing to the highly efficient concentration (100-fold), these heavy metals at sub-ng ml -1 levels in seawater were determined with satisfactory accuracy and precision, being confirmed with certified reference samples

  8. [Determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic rice by crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan microcolumn preconcentration combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-qing; Li, Sheng-qing; Qu, Yang; Chen, Hao

    2012-02-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice based on separation and preconcentration with a micro column packed with crosslinked carboxymethyl konjac glucomannan (CCMKGM) prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Variables affecting the separation and preconcentration of lead and cadmium, such as the acidity of the aqueous solution, sample flow rate and volume, and eluent concentration and volume, were optimized. Under optimized condition, detection limits of the method for the determination of trace lead and cadmium in transgenic brown rice were 0.11 and 0.002 microg x L(-1), respectively. The obtained results of lead and cadmium in the certified reference material (GBW10010, GBS1-1) were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries were in the range of 90%-103% and 93%-105% for detection of Pb and Cd in transgenic brown rice and the wild-type brown rice samples respectively. This study could provide technical support for determination of trace Pb and Cd in transgenic rice.

  9. Electrochemical generation of mercury cold vapor and its in-situ trapping in gold-covered graphite tube atomizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerveny, Vaclav; Rychlovsky, Petr; Netolicka, Jarmila; Sima, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of more efficient flow-through electrochemical mercury cold vapor generation with its in-situ trapping in a graphite tube atomizer is described. This coupled technique has been optimized to attain the maximum sensitivity for Hg determination and to minimize the limits of detection and determination. A laboratory constructed thin-layer flow-through cell with a platinum cathode served as the cold vapor generator. Various cathode arrangements with different active surface areas were tested. Automated sampling equipment for the graphite atomizer with an untreated fused silica capillary was used for the introduction of the mercury vapor. The inner surface of the graphite tube was covered with a gold foil placed against the sampling hole. The results attained for the electrochemical mercury cold vapor generation (an absolute limit of detection of 80 pg; peak absorbance, 3σ criterion) were compared with the traditional vapor generation using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent (an absolute limit of detection of 124 pg; peak absorbance, 3σ criterion). The repeatability at the 5 ng ml -1 level was better than 4.1% (RSD) for electrochemical mercury vapor generation and better than 5.6% for the chemical cold vapor generation. The proposed method was applied to the determination the of Hg contents in a certified reference material and in spiked river water samples

  10. Determination of molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium in radioinactive simulated waste of the nuclear fuel cycle by solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmiedel, G.; Mainka, E.; Ache, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    In relation with insoluble particles in the nuclear fuel cycle waste, the solid sampling GFAAS was used to determine molybdenum, ruthenium, rhodium, and palladium in such waste. Two methods for the direct determination of these elements are described. The samples must be handled in glove boxes or moreover in hot cells with a robot. The determination of the elements by the cup-in-tube technique needs a very sensitive balance (microbalance) for weighing in μg-range and the handling of this method is not practical in glove boxes and hot cells. An alternative technique of solid sampling GFAAS, which can be used without great problems in glove boxes and hot cells is the slurry technique. In this case two methods have been used. One method uses graphite powder as a diluter, the other is the direct suspension of the sample in a matrix modifier solution. In the case of slurry technique with predilution of the sample with graphite powder, recoveries between 91 and 102% and RSD between 4 and 8% were obtained, whereas in the case of slurry technique with direct suspension of the waste sample recoveries between 91 and 103% and RSD between 14 and 20% for the above mentioned elements were obtained. (orig.)

  11. On the possibilities of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous or sequential monitoring of multiple atomic lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Rello, L.; Florez, M.; Belarra, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of commercially available high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation for the simultaneous or sequential monitoring of various atomic lines, in an attempt to highlight the analytical advantages that can be derived from this strategy. In particular, it is demonstrated how i) the monitoring of multiplets may allow for the simple expansion of the linear range, as shown for the measurement of Ni using the triplet located in the vicinity of 234.6 nm; ii) the use of a suitable internal standard may permit improving the precision and help in correcting for matrix-effects, as proved for the monitoring of Ni in different biological samples; iii) direct and multi-element analysis of solid samples may be feasible on some occasions, either by monitoring various atomic lines that are sufficiently close (truly simultaneous monitoring, as demonstrated in the determination of Co, Fe and Ni in NIST 1566a Oyster tissue) or, alternatively, by opting for a selective and sequential atomization of the elements of interest during every single replicate. Determination of Cd and Ni in BCR 679 White cabbage is attempted using both approaches, which permits confirming that both methods can offer very similar and satisfactory results. However, it is important to stress that the second approach provides more flexibility, since analysis is no longer limited to those elements that show very close atomic lines (closer than 0.3 nm in the ultraviolet region) with a sensitivity ratio similar to the concentration ratio of the analytes in the samples investigated.

  12. Influence of citric acid as chemical modifier for lead determination in dietary calcium supplement samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cezar Paz de Mattos, Julio; Medeiros Nunes, Adriane; Figueiredo Martins, Ayrton; Luiz Dressler, Valderi; Marlon de Moraes Flores, Erico

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid was used as a chemical modifier for Pb determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in dietary supplement samples (calcium carbonate, dolomite and oyster shell samples) and its efficiency was compared to the use of palladium. Pyrolysis and atomization curves were established without use of chemical modifier, with the addition of 20, 100 and 200 μg of citric acid, and with 3 μg of palladium. The citric acid modifier made possible the interference-free Pb determination in the presence of high concentrations of Ca and Mg nitrates. Acid sample digestion involving closed vessels (microwave-assisted and conventional heating) and acid attack using polypropylene vessels at room temperature were compared. All digestion procedures presented similar results for calcium carbonate and dolomite samples. However, for oyster shell samples accurate results were obtained only with the use of closed vessel systems. Analyte addition and matrix-matched standards were used for calibration. The characteristic mass for Pb using citric acid and palladium were 16 and 25 pg, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was always less than 5% when citric acid was used. The relative and absolute limits of detection were 0.02 μg g -1 and 8 pg with citric acid and 0.1 μg g -1 and 44 pg with the Pd modifier, respectively (n = 10, 3σ). The recovery of Pb in spiked calcium supplement samples (10 μg l -1 ) was between 98% and 105%. With the use of 100 μg of citric acid as chemical modifier, problems such as high background absorption and high RSD values were minimized in comparison to the addition of 3 μg of palladium

  13. Determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers employing direct solid sampling analysis and high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; François, Luciane Luiza; Borges, Aline Rocha; Vale, Maria Goreti Rodrigues; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    The present study proposes the determination of copper and mercury in phosphate fertilizers by direct solid sampling analysis (SS) employing high resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). For Cu determination, two analytical lines were used: 327.3960 nm and 249.2146 nm. Hg determination was carried out on the line 253.6521 nm and 100 μg KMnO4 was used as chemical modifier. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for Cu determination was 1300 °C. Atomization temperatures for Cu and Hg were 2400 and 1100 °C, respectively. External calibration with aqueous standard solutions was adopted for both elements. The limits of quantification (LoQs) and characteristic mass (m0) obtained for Cu determination were 0.4 μg g- 1 and 1.12 ng, respectively, on line 249.2146 nm, and 64 μg g- 1 and 25 pg on 327.3960 nm. For mercury, LoQ and m0 were 4.8 ng g- 1 and 39 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed methods was confirmed by the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) of Trace Elements in Multi-Nutrient Fertilizer (SRM NIST 695). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was better than 8.2% for Hg and 7.7% for the Cu (n = 5), considered satisfactory for microanalysis in solid sample. Four fertilizer samples acquired in commercial establishments in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were analyzed. The optimized analytical methods were simple, fast, accurate, precise and free of spectral interferences for the determination of Cu and Hg in phosphate fertilizer samples by SS-HR-CS GF AAS, avoiding the dissolution of the sample, the use of harmful reagents and the generation of residues.

  14. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F.; Robaina, Nicolle F.; Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Cassella, Ricardo J.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO 3 , the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO 3 medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  15. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  16. Multiple response optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with sample injection as detergent emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, A. Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, Vicosa/MG, 36570-000 (Brazil); Robaina, Nicolle F. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil); Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. [Petrobras, Cenpes/PDEDS/QM, Av. Horacio Macedo 950, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-915 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de S.J. Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The present paper reports the optimization for Cu, Fe and Pb determination in naphtha by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) employing a strategy based on the injection of the samples as detergent emulsions. The method was optimized in relation to the experimental conditions for the emulsion formation and taking into account that the three analytes (Cu, Fe and Pb) should be measured in the same emulsion. The optimization was performed in a multivariate way by employing a three-variable Doehlert design and a multiple response strategy. For this purpose, the individual responses of the three analytes were combined, yielding a global response that was employed as a dependent variable. The three factors related to the optimization process were: the concentration of HNO{sub 3}, the concentration of the emulsifier agent (Triton X-100 or Triton X-114) in aqueous solution used to emulsify the sample and the volume of solution. At optimum conditions, it was possible to obtain satisfactory results with an emulsion formed by mixing 4 mL of the samples with 1 mL of a 4.7% w/v Triton X-100 solution prepared in 10% v/v HNO{sub 3} medium. The resulting emulsion was stable for 250 min, at least, and provided enough sensitivity to determine the three analytes in the five samples tested. A recovery test was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimized procedure and recovery rates, in the range of 88-105%; 94-118% and 95-120%, were verified for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively.

  17. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-05-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L{sup −1} for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L{sup −1}, n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix.

  18. Comparison of two methods for blood lead analysis in cattle: graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and LeadCare(R) II system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Gaskill, Cynthia; Erb, Hollis N; Ebel, Joseph G; Hillebrandt, Joseph

    2010-09-01

    The current study compared the LeadCare(R) II test kit system with graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for blood lead (Pb) analysis in 56 cattle accidentally exposed to Pb in the field. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by LeadCare II within 4 hr of collection and after 72 hr of refrigeration. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, and samples that were coagulated (n = 12) were homogenized before analysis. There was strong rank correlation (R(2) = 0.96) between atomic absorption and LeadCare II (within 4 hr of collection), and a conversion formula was determined for values within the observed range (3-91 mcg/dl, although few had values >40 mcg/dl). Median and mean blood pb concentrations for atomic absorption were 7.7 and 15.9 mcg/dl, respectively; for LeadCare II, medians were 5.2 mcg/dl at 4 hr and 4.9 mcg/dl at 72 hr, and means were 12.4 and 11.7, respectively. LeadCare II results at 4 hr strongly correlated with 72 hr results (R(2) = 0.96), but results at 72 hr were lower (P atomic absorption. Although there have been several articles that compared LeadCare with other analytical techniques, all were for the original system, not LeadCare II. The present study indicated that LeadCare II results correlated well with atomic absorption over a wide range of blood Pb concentrations and that refrigerating samples for up to 72 hr before LeadCare II analysis was acceptable for clinical purposes.

  19. Determination of tellurium at ultra-trace levels in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, Juana; Stripekis, Jorge; Bonivardi, Adrian; Tudino, Mabel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two time-based flow injection (FI) separation pre-concentration systems coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for tellurium determination are studied and compared. The first alternative involves the pre-concentration of the analyte onto Dowex 1X8 employed as packaging material of a micro-column inserted in the flow system. The second set-up is based on the co-precipitation of tellurium with La(OH) 3 followed by retention onto XAD resins. Both systems are compared in terms of limit of detection, linear range, RSD%, sample throughput, micro-columns lifetime and aptitude for fully automatic operation. The features of the Dowex system are: 37% efficiency of retention and an enhancement factor of 42 for a pre-concentration time of 180 seconds (sample flow rate = 3 ml min -1 ) with acetic acid elution volumes of 80 μl. The detection limit (3 s) is 7 ng l -1 and the relative standard deviation (n = 7200 ng l -1 ) is 5.8%. The analytical performance of the XAD system is: 72% efficiency of retention and an enhancement factor of 25 for a pre-concentration time of 180 s (sample flow rate = 3 ml min -1 ) with nitric acid elution volumes of 300 μl. The detection limit is 66 ng l -1 and the relative standard deviation (n = 7200 ng l -1 ) is 8.3%. Applications to the determination of tellurium in tap water and the validation of the analytical methodology employing SRM 1643e as certified reference material are shown

  20. Determination of Pb (Lead, Cd (Cadmium, Cr (Chromium, Cu (Copper, and Ni (Nickel in Chinese tea with high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Si Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel were determined in 25 tea samples from China, including green, yellow, white, oolong, black, Pu'er, and jasmine tea products, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The methods used for sample preparation, digestion, and quantificational analysis were established, generating satisfactory analytical precisions (represented by relative standard deviations ranging from 0.6% to 2.5% and recoveries (98.91–101.32%. The lead contents in tea leaves were 0.48–10.57 mg/kg, and 80% of these values were below the maximum values stated by the guidelines in China. The contents of cadmium and chromium ranged from 0.01 mg/kg to 0.39 mg/kg and from 0.27 mg/kg to 2.45 mg/kg, respectively, remaining in compliance with the limits stipulated by China's Ministry of Agriculture. The copper contents were 7.73–63.71 mg/kg; only 64% of these values complied with the standards stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture. The nickel contents ranged from 2.70 mg/kg to 13.41 mg/kg. Consequently, more attention must be paid to the risks of heavy metal contamination in tea. The quantitative method established in this work lays a foundation for preventing heavy metal toxicity in human from drinking tea and will help establish regulations to control the contents of heavy metals in tea.

  1. Determination of tellurium in coal samples by means of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after coprecipitation with iron(III) hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, S.; Arikawa, Y. [Japan Womens University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    A simple and accurate method for the determination of tellurium in coal samples was investigated by the combustion of samples under a high pressure of oxygen and coprecipitation with Fe(OH){sub 3}, followed by a measurement by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). About 0.5 g of an accurately weighed ground coal sample and 0.5 g of starch were combusted in an oxygen combustion bomb filled with oxygen to 3 MPa and added with 3 ml of water as an absorbing solution. The formed tellurium trioxide TeOs dissolved in water as TeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, which was in turn reduced to TeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} by heating. After diluting the above-mentioned solution up to about 50 ml with water, Fe(OH){sub 3} is formed upon adding Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 8-9 and left standing overnight. After dissolving the precipitate by HCl, the solution was diluted to 10 ml with water and the concentration of tellurium was measured by GF-AAS at a wavelength of 214.3 nm. The standard addition method was employed for the determination of tellurium in real coal samples, because those processes for the formation of tellurium(VI) oxide and coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3 were interfered by matrices. For NIST SRM 1632c, the standard coal sample tellurium content of 0.057 {+-} 0.004 mg kg{sup -1} was in good agreement with the information value of 0.05 mg kg{sup -1} with 7% of RSD in five replicate analyses. The tellurium contents in 20 real coal samples given by Center for Coal Utilization, Japan were also determined. The tellurium contents in these samples were scattered over the narrow range between 0.032 and 0.100 mg kg{sup -1}.

  2. Novel ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of trace Cd followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Determination of trace Cd in environmental, biological and food samples is of great significance to toxicological research and environmental pollution monitoring. While the direct determination of Cd in real-world samples is difficult due to its low concentration and the complex matrix. Herein, a novel Cd(II)-ion imprinted magnetic mesoporous silica (Cd(II)-II-MMS) was prepared and was employed as a selective magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material for extraction of trace Cd in real-world samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of the proposed method was 6.1 ng L −1 for Cd with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.0% (c = 50 ng L −1 , n = 7), and the enrichment factor was 50-fold. To validate the proposed method, Certified Reference Materials of GSBZ 50009–88 environmental water, ZK018-1 lyophilized human urine and NIES10-b rice flour were analyzed and the determined values were in a good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method exhibited a robust anti-interference ability due to the good selectivity of Cd(II)-II-MMS toward Cd(II). It was successfully employed for the determination of trace Cd(II) in environmental water, human urine and rice samples with recoveries of 89.3–116%, demonstrating that the proposed method has good application potential in real world samples with complex matrix. - Highlights: • Novel Cd(II)-II-MMS was prepared by surface imprinting combined with a sol–gel process. • Cd(II)-II-MMS has a high selectivity and adsorption capacity for Cd(II). • A sensitive and selective method of Cd(II)-IIMSPE-GFAAS was developed for trace cadmium analysis. • The method can be applied to determine trace Cd in various samples with complicated matrix

  3. Facile synthesis of graphitic C3N4 nanoporous-tube with high enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ruiru; Gao, Jianping; Mei, Shunkang; Wu, Yongli; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhai, Xiangang; Yang, Jiangbing; Hao, Chaoyue; Yan, Jing

    2017-12-01

    A simple and convenient method was used to synthesize a graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanoporous-tube by using SiO2 nanoparticles as pore formers. The structure of the g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was characterized by the SEM and TEM images. Taking photodegradation of RhB as an example, the photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared g-C3N4 nanoporous-tube was investigated. It can photodegrade 90% RhB in 40 min under visible-light irradiation and obtain a k value of 0.04491 min-1, which is 8.16 times that of bulk g-C3N4, 3.09 times that of tubular g-C3N4 and 1.48 times that of tubular g-C3N4-SiO2. The significant enhancement in photocatalytic efficiency is due to the edge effect of the pores and the special structure of the tubes. In addition, the possible mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was also proposed based on the trapping experiment of active species, which indicated that the superoxide radicals ({{{{O}}}2}\\bullet -) and the holes (h +) were the main reactive species in this photocatalyst. This work may open up a new idea of innovation in g-C3N4 structure and inspire its follow-up study.

  4. Parameter optimization through performance analysis of model based control of a batch heat treatment furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Sanyal, Dipankar

    2005-01-01

    A model based control structure for heat treating a 0.5% C steel slab in a batch furnace with low NO x radiant tube burner is designed and tested for performance to yield optimal parameter values using the model developed in the companion paper. Combustion is considered in a highly preheated and product gas diluted mode. Controlled combustion with a proposed arrangement for preheating and diluting the air by recirculating the exhaust gas that can be retrofitted with an existing burner yields satisfactory performance and emission characteristics. Finally, the effect of variable property considerations are presented and critically analyzed

  5. Determinação direta de selênio em água de coco e em leite de coco utilizando espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização eletrotérmica em forno de grafite Direct determination of selenium in coconut water and coconut milk using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana C. Aleixo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is both essential and toxic to man and animals, depending on the concentration and the ingested form. Most fruits and vegetables are poor sources of selenium, but coconut can be a good selenium source. Samples were suspended (1 + 4 v/v in a mixture of tertiary amines soluble in water (10% v/v CFA-C. This simple sample treatment avoided contamination and decreased the analysis time. The standard additions method was adopted for quantification. The action of the autosampler was improved by the presence of the amines mixture in the suspension. A Varian model AA-800 atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a graphite furnace and a GTA 100 autosampler was used for selenium determination in coconut water and coconut milk. Background correction was performed by means of the Zeeman effect. Pyrolytically coated graphite tubes were employed. Using Pd as chemical modifier, the pyrolysis and the atomization temperatures were set at 1400 and 2200ºC, respectively. For six samples, the selenium concentration in coconut water varied from 6.5 to 21.0 mug L-1 and in coconut milk from 24.2 to 25.1 mug L-1. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by an addition-recovery experiment and all recovered values are in the 99.5-102.3% range. The main advantage of the proposed method is that it can be directly applied without sample decomposition.

  6. Simultaneous determination of cadmium, iron and tin in canned foods using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Danilo J; Junior, Mario M S; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-06-01

    A method was established to simultaneously determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned-food samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). The quantification step has been performed using the primary line (228.802nm) for cadmium and the adjacent secondary lines (228.725nm and 228.668nm) for iron and tin, respectively. The selected chemical modifier was an acid solution that contained a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) Pd and 0.05% (w/v) Mg. The absorbance signals were measured based on the peak area using 3 pixels for cadmium and 5 pixels for iron and tin. Under these conditions, cadmium, iron and tin have been determined in canned-food samples using the external calibration technique based on aqueous standards, where the limits of quantification were 2.10ngg(-1) for cadmium, 1.95mgkg(-1) for iron and 3.00mgkg(-1) for tin, and the characteristic masses were 1.0pg for cadmium, 0.9ng for iron and 1.1ng for tin. The precision was evaluated using two solutions of each metal ion, and the results, which were expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), were 3.4-6.8%. The method accuracy for cadmium and iron was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), which was supplied by NIST. However, for tin, the accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results of the proposed method and another analytical technique (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The proposed procedure was applied to determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned samples of peeled tomato and sardine. Eleven samples were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were 3.57-62.9ngg(-1), 2.68-31.48mgkg(-1) and 4.06-122.0mgkg(-1) for cadmium, iron and tin, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the cadmium and tin contents were lower than the permissible maximum levels for these metals in canned foods in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of methylmercury in human hair and sludge samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Hongmei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)], E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; Chen Beibei; Zu Wanqing [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Two methods, based on hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid (three phase) microextraction (HF-LLLME) and hollow fiber liquid phase (two phase) microextraction (HF-LPME), have been developed and critically compared for the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). In HF-LPME, methylmercury was extracted into the organic phase (toluene) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained as a free species in the sample solution. In HF-LLLME, methylmercury was first extracted into the organic phase (toluene) and then into the acceptor phase (4% thiourea in 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl) prior to its determination by GFAAS, while inorganic mercury remained in the sample solution. The total mercury was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the levels of inorganic mercury in both HF-LLLME and HF-LPME were obtained by subtracting methylmercury from total mercury. The factors affecting the microextraction of methylmercury, including organic solvent, extraction time, stirring rate and ionic strength, were investigated and the optimal extraction conditions were established for both HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME. With a consumption of 3.0 mL of the sample solution, the enrichment factors were 204 and 55 for HF-LLLPME and HF-LPME, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for methylmercury were 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg) with precisions (RSDs (%), c = 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} (as Hg), n = 5) of 13% and 11% for HF-LLLPME-GFAAS and HF-LPME-GFAAS, respectively. For ICP-MS determination of total mercury, a limit of detection of 39 ng L{sup -} {sup 1} was obtained. Finally, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was applied to the determination of methylmercury content in human hair and sludge, and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 99-113%. In order to validate the method, HF-LLLME-GFAAS was also applied to the analysis of a certified reference

  8. Spectrometer system using a modular echelle spectrograph and a laser-driven continuum source for simultaneous multi-element determination by graphite furnace absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Sebastian; Okruss, Michael; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao Dong, E-mail: huang@isas.de; Esser, Norbert; Florek, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    A multi-element absorption spectrometer system has been developed based on a laser-driven xenon continuum source and a modular simultaneous echelle spectrograph (MOSES), which is characterized by a minimized number of optical components resulting in high optical throughput, high transmittance and high image quality. The main feature of the new optical design is the multifunction usage of a Littrow prism, which is attached on a rotation stage. It operates as an order-sorter for the echelle grating in a double-pass mode, as a fine positioning device moving the echelle spectrum on the detector, and as a forwarder to address different optical components, e.g., echelle gratings, in the setup. Using different prisms, which are mounted back to back on the rotation stage, a multitude of different spectroscopic modes like broad-range panorama observations, specific UV–VIS and NIR studies or high resolution zoom investigations of variable spectral channels can be realized. In the UV panorama mode applied in this work, MOSES has simultaneously detectable wavelength coverage from 193 nm to 390 nm with a spectral resolution λ/Δλ of 55,000 (3-pixel criterion). In the zoom mode the latter can be further increased by a factor of about two for a selectable section of the full wavelength range. The applicability and the analytical performance of the system were tested by simultaneous element determination in a graphite furnace, using eight different elements. Compared to an instrument operating in the optimized single line mode, the achieved analytical sensitivity using the panorama mode was typically a factor of two lower. Using the zoom mode for selected elements, comparable sensitivities were obtained. The results confirm the influence of the different spectral resolutions. - Highlights: • Echelle spectrometer with a full frame CCD array detector • High and variable spectral resolution from λ/Δλ of 55,000 to 95,000 • Laser-driven continuum light source

  9. Determination of fluorine in copper concentrate via high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis - Comparison of three target molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorim, Heloisa R; de Gois, Jefferson S; Borges, Aline R; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Welz, Bernhard; Gleisner, Heike; Ott, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The chemical composition of complex inorganic materials, such as copper concentrate, may influence the economics of their further processing because most smelters, and particularly the producers of high-purity electrolyte copper, have strict limitations for the permissible concentration of impurities. These components might be harmful to the quality of the products, impair the production process and be hazardous to the environment. The goal of the present work is the development of a method for the determination of fluorine in copper concentrate using high-resolution graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The molecular absorption of the diatomic molecule CaF was measured at 606.440nm. The molecule CaF was generated by the addition of 200µg Ca as the molecule-forming reagent; the optimized pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures were 900°C and 2400°C, respectively. The characteristic mass and limit of detection were 0.5ng and 3ng, respectively. Calibration curves were established using aqueous standard solutions containing the major components Cu, Fe, S and the minor component Ag in optimized concentrations. The accuracy of the method was verified using certified reference materials. Fourteen copper concentrate samples from Chile and Australia were analyzed to confirm the applicability of the method to real samples; the concentration of fluorine ranged from 34 to 5676mgkg -1 . The samples were also analyzed independently at Analytik Jena by different operators, using the same equipment, but different target molecules, InF and GaF, and different operating conditions; but with a few exceptions, the results agreed quite well. The results obtained at Analytik Jena using the GaF molecule and our results obtained with CaF, with one exception, were also in agreement with the values informed by the supplier of the samples, which were obtained using ion selective electrode potentiometry after alkaline fusion. A comparison will

  10. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction and slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Aline R. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker, Emilene M.; Dessuy, Morgana B. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R., E-mail: mgrvale@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia do CNPq–INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    In this work, chemical modifiers in solution (Pd/Mg, NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd) were compared with permanent modifiers (Ir and Ru) for the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples using slurry sampling and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The analytical line at 283.3 nm was used due to some spectral interference observed at 217.0 nm. The NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} was abandoned due to severe spectral interference even at the 283.3-nm line. For Pd/Mg and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd the optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 °C and 1900 °C, respectively. For Ru and Ir, the integrated absorbance signal was stable up to pyrolysis temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively, and up to atomization temperature of 1700 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) was 17 ng g{sup −1} using Pd/Mg and 29 ng g{sup −1} using NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd. Among the permanent modifiers investigated, the LOD was 22 ng g{sup −1} Pb for Ir and 10 ng g{sup −1} Pb for Ru. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the certified reference material NIST SRM 695. Although Ru provided lower LOD, which can be attributed to a lower blank signal, only the modifiers in solution showed concordant values of Pb concentration for the NIST SRM 695 and the most of analyzed samples. Moreover, the Pd/Mg modifier provided the highest sensitivity and for this reason it is more suitable for the determination of Pb in fertilizers samples in slurry; besides this it presented a better signal-to-noise ratio than NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}/Pd. - Highlights: • Lead has been determined in fertilizers using slurry sampling GF AAS. • The mixture of palladium and magnesium nitrates was found to be the ideal chemical modifier. • Calibration could be carried out against aqueous standard solutions. • The proposed method is much faster than the EPA method, which includes sample digestion.

  11. Magnetic solid-phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-mei; Yang, Ting; Wang, Yan-hong; Lian, Hong-zhen; Hu, Xin

    2013-11-15

    A new approach of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) has been developed for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using zincon-immobilized silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Zincon-Si-MNPs) as the MSPE absorbent. Cr(III) was quantitatively reserved on the absorbent at pH 9.1 while total Cr was reserved at pH 6.5. The absorbed Cr species were eluted by using 2 mol/L HCl and detected by GFAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) could be calculated by subtracting Cr(III) from total Cr. All the parameters affecting the separation and extraction efficiency of Cr species such as pH, extraction time, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume and influence of co-existing ions were systematically examined and the optimized conditions were established accordingly. The detection limit (LOD) of the method was 0.016 and 0.011 ng mL(-1) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, with the enrichment factor of 100 and 150. The precisions of this method (Relative standard deviation, RSD, n=7) for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) at 0.1 ng mL(-1) were 6.0% and 6.2%, respectively. In order to validate the proposed method, a certified reference material of environmental water was analyzed, and the result of Cr speciation was in good agreement with the certified value. This MSPE-GFAAS method has been successfully applied for the speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in lake and tap waters with the recoveries of 88-109% for the spiked samples. Moreover, the MSPE separation mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) based on their adsorption-desorption on Zincon-Si-MNPs has been explained through various spectroscopic characterization. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Shaowei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a method of graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental waters. The adsorption behavior of inorganic Se(IV) and Se(VI) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite was investigated. It was found that Se(IV) was quantitatively retained on the GO-TiO2 composites within a wide pH range of 0.5-10, while Se(VI) was quantitatively adsorbed on GO-TiO2(1:1) composite at pH 0.5-2, and no obvious adsorption of Se(VI) within the pH range of 4-10 was found. By selecting pH 6.0, Se(IV) could be easily determined. After reduction of Se(VI), total Se was determined by the proposed method, and Se(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Se and Se(IV). The factors affecting the separation/preconcentration of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the isothermal adsorption of Se(IV) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite fitted Langmuir model; a linear range over 0.1-12ngmL(-1) was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) and precision of the method for Se(IV) was 0.04ngmL(-1) and 9.4% (cSe(IV)=0.5ngmL(-1), n=7), respectively. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a standard water sample (GSBZ50031-94) was analyzed, and the determined value was in a good agreement to the certified value. The established method was applied to inorganic Se speciation in environmental water samples and the recovery of 87.4-102% was obtained for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and properties of aluminum-clad graphite/epoxy tubes for space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the development and properties of seamless aluminum-clad P75/Epoxy tubes and the unique manufacturing method used in their production. Thermo-mechanical properties of the tubes were determined analytically and verified by tests. These properties were shown to be suitable for space structures that require high stiffness, low weight and thermal expansion, and dimensional stability during operational life. A special feature of the tubes is the ability to tune the tube for thermal expansion after fabrication by a chemical milling process. The tubes are also resistant to atomic oxygen and handling damage. The toughness of the tubes was demonstrated by impact testing. Cyclic thermal testing showed no adverse effects on the expansion and stiffness behavior of the tubes. The paper also includes a discussion of a joining method that uses aluminum end fittings and an efficient scarf joint configuration. Additional studies considered various adhesives and fitting materials. Joint allowables were higher for titanium and B4C particulate magnesium fittings. The effect of different adhesives under static loading conditions favored the high-strength adhesives.

  14. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite - moderated boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling channels in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement.

  15. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite-moderated boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling charmers in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement

  16. Análise direta de sólidos por espectrometria de absorção atômica com atomização em forno de grafite: uma revisão Solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Seimi Nomura

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of direct analysis using solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Greater emphasis is dedicated to sample preparation, sample homogeneity, calibration and its application to microanalysis and micro-homogeneity studies. The main advantages and some difficulties related to the applicability of this technique are discussed. A literature search on the application of solid sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry in trace element determination in many kinds of samples, including biological, clinical, technological and environmental ones, is also presented.

  17. Numerical analysis of mass transfer with graphite oxidation in a laminar flow of multi-component gas mixture through a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masuro

    1992-10-01

    In the present paper, mass transfer has been numerically studied in a laminar flow through a circular graphite tube to evaluate graphite corrosion rate and generation rate of carbon monoxide during a pipe rupture accident in a high temperature gas cooled reactor. In the analysis, heterogeneous (graphite oxidation and graphite/carbon dioxide reaction) and homogeneous (carbon monoxide combustion) chemical reactions were dealt in the multi-component gas mixture; helium, oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Multi-component diffusion coefficients were used in a diffusion term. Mass conservation equations of each gas component, mass conservation equation and momentum conservation equations of the gas mixture were solved by using SIMPLE algorism. Chemical reactions between graphite and oxygen, graphite and carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide combustion were taken into account in the present numerical analysis. An energy equation for the gas mixture was not solved and temperature was held to be constant in order to understand basic mass transfer characteristics without heat transfer. But, an energy conservation equation for single component gas was added to know heat transfer characteristics without mass transfer. The effects of these chemical reactions on the mass transfer coefficients were quantitatively and qualitatively clarified in the range of 50 to 1000 of inlet Reynolds numbers, 0 to 0.5 of inlet oxygen mass fraction and 800 to 1600degC of temperature. (author)

  18. Fabrication and Evaluation of Graphite Fiber-Reinforced Polyimide Composite Tube Forms Using Modified Resin Transfer Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exum, Daniel B.; Ilias, S.; Avva, V. S.; Sadler, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The techniques necessary for the fabrication of a complex three-dimensional tubular form using a PMR-type resin have been developed to allow for the construction of several tubes with good physical and mechanical properties. Employing established resin transfer molding practices, the relatively non-hazardous AMB-21 in acetone formulation was used to successfully impregnate four layers of AS4 braided graphite fiber preform previously loaded around an aluminum cylindrical core in an enclosed mold cavity. Using heat and vacuum, the solvent was evaporated to form a prepreg followed by a partial imidization and removal of condensation products. The aluminum core was replaced by a silicone rubber bladder and the cure cycle continued to the final stage of 550 F with a bladder internal pressure of 200 lbs/sq in while simultaneously applying a strong vacuum to the prepreg for removal of any additional imidization products. A combination of several modifications to the standard resin transfer molding methodology enabled the mold to 'breathe', allowing the imidization products a pathway for escape. AMB-21 resin was chosen because of the carcinogenic nature of the primary commercial polyimide PMR-15. The AMB-21 resin was formulated using commercially available monomers or monomer precursors and dissolved in a mixture of methyl alcohol and acetone. The viscosity of the resulting monomer solution was checked by use of a Brookfield rheometer and adjusted by adding acetone to an easily pumpable viscosity of about 600 cP. In addition, several types of chromatographic and thermal analyses were of the braids, and excess handling of the preforms broke some of the microscopic fibers, needlessly decreasing the strength of the finished part. In addition, three dimensional braided preforms with fibers along the length of the tube will be significantly stronger in tension than the braided preforms used in this study.

  19. Simultaneous determination of Cd and Fe in beans and soil of different regions of Brazil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Lisia M G; Welz, Bernhard; Araujo, Rennan G O; Jacob, Silvana do C; Vale, Maria Goreti R; Martens, Andreas; Gonzaga Martens, Irland B; Becker-Ross, Helmut

    2009-11-11

    A fast routine screening method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium and iron in bean and soil samples is proposed, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling. The primary absorption line at 228.802 nm has been used for the determination of cadmium, and an adjacent secondary line, at 228.726 nm, for iron. Fourteen bean samples and 10 soil samples from nine states all over Brazil have been analyzed. The limits of detection (3 sigma, n = 10) were 2.0 microg kg(-1) for Cd and 4.5 mg kg(-1) for Fe. The relative standard deviation ranged from 4 to 7% for Cd and from 5 to 28% for Fe, which is usually acceptable for a screening method. The accuracy of the method has been confirmed by the analysis of two certified reference materials; the results were in agreement with the certified values at a 95% confidence interval.

  20. Study on solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guangyu; Fen Weibo; Lei Chun; Xiao Weilie; Sun Handong

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for the determination of nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead with MCI GEL CHP 20Y as sorbent was studied. Trace amounts of chromium, nickel, silver, cobalt, copper, cadmium and lead were reacted with 2-(2-quinolinil-azo)-4-methyl-1,3-dihydroxidobenzene (QAMDHB) followed by adsorption onto MCI GEL CHP 20Y solid phase extraction column, and 1.0 mol L -1 HNO 3 was used as eluent. The metal ions in 300 mL solution can be concentrated to 1.0 mL, representing an enrichment factor of 300 was achieved. The recoveries of analytes at pH 8.0 with 1.0 g of resin were greater than 95% without interference from alkaline, earth alkaline and some metal ions. When detected with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, the detection limits in the original samples were 1.4 ng L -1 for Cr(III), 1.0 ng L -1 for Ni(II), 0.85 ng L -1 for Ag(I), 1.2 ng L -1 for Co(II), 1.0 ng L -1 for Cu(II), 1.2 ng L -1 for Cd(II) and 1.3 ng L -1 for Pb(II). The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials, and the presented procedure was applied to the determination of analytes in biological, water and soil samples with good results (recoveries range from 89 to 104%, and R.S.D.% lower than 3.2%. The results agreed with the standard value or reference method)

  1. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  2. Furnace Brazing Parameters Optimized by Taguchi Method and Corrosion Behavior of Tube-Fin System of Automotive Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guía-Tello, J. C.; Pech-Canul, M. A.; Trujillo-Vázquez, E.; Pech-Canul, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Controlled atmosphere brazing has a widespread industrial use in the production of aluminum automotive heat exchangers. Good-quality joints between the components depend on the initial condition of materials as well as on the brazing process parameters. In this work, the Taguchi method was used to optimize the brazing parameters with respect to corrosion performance for tube-fin mini-assemblies of an automotive condenser. The experimental design consisted of five factors (micro-channel tube type, flux type, peak temperature, heating rate and dwell time), with two levels each. The corrosion behavior in acidified seawater solution pH 2.8 was evaluated through potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to analyze the microstructural features in the joint zone. The results showed that the parameters that most significantly affect the corrosion rate are the type of flux and the peak temperature. The optimal conditions were: micro-channel tube with 4.2 g/m2 of zinc coating, standard flux, 610 °C peak temperature, 5 °C/min heating rate and 4 min dwell time. The corrosion current density value of the confirmation experiment is in excellent agreement with the predicted value. The electrochemical characterization for selected samples gave indication that the brazing conditions had a more significant effect on the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction than on the kinetics of the metal dissolution reaction.

  3. Experimental study of volatile-N conversion at O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere in a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huali; Sun, Shaozeng; Chen, Hao; Meng, Xianyu; Wang, Dong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Combustion Engineering Research Inst.; Wall, Terry F. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Chemical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    In coal combustion, NOx is largely formed from the oxidation of volatile nitrogen compounds such as HCN and NH{sub 3}. The experiments on the volatile-N conversion to NO at O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere were carried out in a drop tube furnace. The effects of the excess oxygen ratio {lambda} (0.6-1.4), temperature (1,000-1,300 C), O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} ratio, and as well as CH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3} mole ratio were investigated. To further understand the importance of NO reburn during volatile combustion, experiments were also performed with different concentrations of background NO (0-950 ppm). The results show that volatile-N conversion to NO is sensitive to excess oxygen ratio {lambda} at strongly oxidizing atmosphere. For volatile combustion, there is an optimal temperature and inlet O{sub 2} concentration to minimize the volatile-N conversion to NO. The CH{sub 4}/NH{sub 3} mole ratio plays an important role on the NO formation under oxidizing atmosphere. High levels of background NO prohibit the volatile-N conversion to NO significantly as the volatile-N conversion ratio decreases by 19-36%. The reburn fractions of recycle NO in fuel-rich and fuel-lean condition are 14.8 and 9.8% at 1,200 C, respectively.

  4. Brazing graphite to graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Graphite is joined to graphite by employing both fine molybdenum powder as the brazing material and an annealing step that together produce a virtually metal-free joint exhibiting properties similar to those found in the parent graphite. Molybdenum powder is placed between the faying surfaces of two graphite parts and melted to form molybdenum carbide. The joint area is thereafter subjected to an annealing operation which diffuses the carbide away from the joint and into the graphite parts. Graphite dissolved by the dispersed molybdenum carbide precipitates into the joint area, replacing the molybdenum carbide to provide a joint of graphite

  5. Poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized magnetic ion imprinted polymer for fast and selective extraction of trace gold in geological, environmental and biological samples followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingshan; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xu, Hongrun; Hu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, poly(1-vinylimidazole) functionalized gold ion imprinted polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP) were prepared and characterized. The adsorption behaviors of the prepared MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP toward gold ions (Au(III)) were studied, it was found that MNPs@PVIM-Au-IIP has good selectivity, high adsorption capacity (185.4 mg g-1) and fast adsorption kinetic for Au(III). Based on it, a new method of ion imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction (II-MSPE) coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the analysis of trace Au(III) in real samples with complicated matrix. Factors affecting MSPE including sample pH, desorption reagent, elution concentration and volume, elution time, sample volume and adsorption time were optimized. With high enrichment factor of 100-fold, the detection limit of the proposed method is 7.9 ng L-1 for Au(III) with the relative standard deviation of 7.4% (c = 50 ng L-1, n = 7). In order to validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the Certified Reference Material of GBW07293 geological sample (platinpalladium ore) was analyzed, and the determined value was in good agreement with the certified value. The proposed II-MSPE-GFAAS method is simple, fast, selective, sensitive and has been successfully applied in the determination of trace Au in ore, sediment, environmental water and human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Halloysite nanotubes as a solid sorbent in ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the determination of bismuth in water samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Coda, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this research, a simple, accurate, and inexpensive preconcentration procedure was developed for the determination of bismuth in water samples, using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR CS GFAAS). During the preconcentration step, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were used as a solid sorbent in ultrasound-assisted dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (USA DMSPE). The influence of the pH of the sample solution, amount of HNTs, and extraction time, as well as of the main parameters of HR CS GFAAS, on absorbance was investigated. The limit of detection was 0.005 μg L- 1. The preconcentration factor achieved for bismuth was 32. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 4%. The accuracy of this method was validated by analyses of NIST SRM 1643e (Trace elements in water) and TMDA-54.5 (A high level fortified sample for trace elements) certified reference materials. The measured bismuth contents in these certified reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of bismuth in five different real water samples (seawater, lake water, river water, stream water and rain water).

  7. Cobalt internal standard for Ni to assist the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry employing direct solid sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Babos, Diego Victor; Bechlin, Marcos André; Barros, Ariane Isis; Ferreira, Edilene Cristina; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta; de Oliveira, Silvana Ruella

    2016-05-15

    A new method is proposed for the simultaneous determination of Mo and Ni in plant materials by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GFAAS), employing direct solid sample analysis (DSS) and internal standardization (IS). Cobalt was used as internal standard to minimize matrix effects during Ni determinations, enabling the use of aqueous standards for calibration. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves were typically better than 0.9937. The performance of the method was checked by analysis of six plant certified reference materials, and the results for Mo and Ni were in agreement with the certified values (95% confidence level, t-test). Analysis was made of different types of plant materials used as renewable sources of energy, including sugarcane leaves, banana tree fiber, soybean straw, coffee pods, orange bagasse, peanut hulls, and sugarcane bagasse. The concentrations found for Mo and Ni ranged from 0.08 to 0.63 ng mg(-1) and from 0.41 to 6.92 ng mg(-1), respectively. Precision (RSD) varied from 2.1% to 11% for Mo and from 3.7% to 10% for Ni. Limits of quantification of 0.055 and 0.074 ng were obtained for Mo and Ni, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of Ultra-trace Rhodium in Water Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Cloud Point Extraction Using 2-(5-Iodo-2-Pyridylazo)-5-Dimethylaminoaniline as a Chelating Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Quan; Huo, Yanyan; Wu, Jiangyan; He, Yaping; Yang, Xiaohui; Yang, Longhu

    2017-03-24

    A highly sensitive method based on cloud point extraction (CPE) separation/preconcentration and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium in water samples. A new reagent, 2-(5-iodo-2-pyridylazo)-5-dimethylaminoaniline (5-I-PADMA), was used as the chelating agent and the nonionic surfactant TritonX-114 was chosen as extractant. In a HAc-NaAc buffer solution at pH 5.5, Rh(III) reacts with 5-I-PADMA to form a stable chelate by heating in a boiling water bath for 10 min. Subsequently, the chelate is extracted into the surfactant phase and separated from bulk water. The factors affecting CPE were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.1-6.0 ng/mL, the detection limit was 0.023 ng/mL for rhodium and relative standard deviation was 3.67% ( c = 1.0 ng/mL, n = 11).The method has been applied to the determination of trace rhodium in water samples with satisfactory results.

  9. Germanium Nanowires-in-Graphite Tubes via Self-Catalyzed Synergetic Confined Growth and Shell-Splitting Enhanced Li-Storage Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Jin, Shuaixing; Yang, Guowei; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chengxin

    2015-04-28

    Despite the high theoretical capacity, pure Ge has various difficulties such as significant volume expansion and electron and Li(+) transfer problems, when applied as anode materials in lithium ion battery (LIB), for which the solution would finally rely on rational design like advanced structures and available hybrid. Here in this work, we report a one-step synthesis of Ge nanowires-in-graphite tubes (GNIGTs) with the liquid Ge/C synergetic confined growth method. The structure exhibits impressing LIB behavior in terms of both cyclic stability and rate performance. We found the semiclosed graphite shell with thickness of ∼50 layers experience an interesting splitting process that was driven by electrolyte diffusion, which occurs before the Ge-Li alloying plateau begins. Two types of different splitting mechanism addressed as "inside-out"/zipper effect and "outside-in" dominate this process, which are resulted from the SEI layer growing longitudinally along the Ge-graphite interface and the lateral diffusion of Li(+) across the shell, respectively. The former mechanism is the predominant way driving the initial shell to split, which behaves like a zipper with SEI layer as invisible puller. After repeated Li(+) insertion/exaction, the GNIGTs configuration is finally reconstructed by forming Ge nanowires-thin graphite strip hybrid, both of which are in close contact, resulting in enormous enchantment to the electrons/Li(+) transport. These features make the structures perform well as anode material in LIB. We believe both the progress in 1D assembly and the structure evolution of this Ge-C composite would contribute to the design of advanced LIB anode materials.

  10. Special graphites; Graphites speciaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [French] Ameliorer les proprietes du graphite nucleaire pour empilements et ouvrir de nouveaux domaines d'application au graphite constituent une part importante de l'effort entrepris en commun par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) et la compagnie PECHINEY. Des procedes nouveaux de fabrication de carbones et graphites speciaux ont ete mis au point: graphite forge, pyrocarbone, graphite de haute densite, agglomeration de poudres de graphite par craquage de gaz naturel, graphites impermeables. Les proprietes physiques de ces produits ainsi que leur reaction avec differents gaz oxydants sont decrites. Les premiers resultats d'irradiation sont aussi donnes. (auteurs)

  11. Laser-excited atomic-fluorescence spectrometry with electrothermal tube atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, J A; Leong, M B; Stevenson, C L; Petrucci, G; Winefordner, J D

    1989-12-01

    The performance of graphite-tube electrothermal atomizers is evaluated for laser-excited atomic-fluorescence spectrometry for several elements. Three pulsed laser systems are used to pump tunable dye lasers which subsequently are used to excite Pb, Ga, In, Fe, Ir, and Tl atoms in the hot graphite tube. The dye laser systems used are pumped by nitrogen, copper vapour and Nd:YAG lasers. Detection limits in the femtogram and subfemtogram range are typically obtained for all elements. A commercial graphite-tube furnace is important for the successful utilization of the laser-based method when the determination of trace elements is intended, especially when complicated matrices may be present.

  12. Trace elements determination in high salinity petroleum produced formation water by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Aline Soares [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil); Santelli, Ricardo Erthal, E-mail: santelli@iq.ufrj.br [Departamento de Geoquimica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, 21941-909 (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    This study describes a procedure used for the determination of trace metals (Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) in high salinity petroleum produced formation water (PFW) employing high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for detection and Chelex-100 Registered-Sign resin for matrix elimination and analytes preconcentration. Using 15.0 mL of PFW for the separation/preconcentration, detection limits of 0.006, 0.07, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.02 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing three seawater certified reference materials and by recovery tests, and the data indicate that the methodology can be successfully applied to this kind of samples. The precision values, expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n = 10) for 2.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, were found to be 3.5, 4.0, 9.0, 5.3 and 5.9 for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. The proposed procedure was applied for the determination of these metals in medium and high salinity PFW samples obtained from Brazilian offshore petroleum exploration platforms. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Petroleum-produced formation water were analyzed for Co, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In batch analyte preconcentration/matrix separation using Chelex-100 Registered-Sign was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limits between 0.006 and 0.08 {mu}g L{sup -1} were found by using HR-CS-GFAAS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace elements characterization is possible using the developed method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum trace element concentrations found could support future Brazilian directives.

  13. Determination of diphenylarsinic acid, phenylarsonic acid and inorganic arsenic in drinking water by graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry after simultaneous separation and preconcentration with solid-phase extraction disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Kenta; Inui, Tetsuo; Koike, Yuya; Nakamura, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    A simple method of graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), phenylarsonic acid (PAA), and inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water. This method involves the simultaneous collection of DPAA, PAA, and iAs using three stacked SPE disks, i.e., an Empore SDB-XD disk (the upper layer), an activated carbon disk (the middle layer), and a Cation-SR disk loaded with Zr and Ca (ZrCa-CED; the lower layer). A 200-mL aqueous sample was adjusted to pH 3 with nitric acid and passed through the SPE disks at a flow rate of 15 mL min(-1), to concentrate DPAA on the SDB-XD disk, PAA on the activated carbon disk, and iAs on the ZrCa-CED. The As compounds were eluted from the disks with 10 mL of ethanol containing 0.5 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for DPAA, 20 mL of 1 mol L(-1) ammonia solution for PAA, and 20 mL of 6 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid for iAs. The eluates of DPAA, PAA, and iAs were diluted to 20, 25, and 25 mL, respectively, with deionized water, and then analyzed by GFAAS. The detection limits of As (three-times the standard deviation (n = 3) of the blank values) were 0.13 and 0.16 μg L(-1) at enrichment factors of 10 and 8, respectively, using a 200-mL water sample. Spike tests with 2 μg (10 μg L(-1)) of DPAA, PAA, and iAs in 200 mL of tap water and bottled drinking water showed good recoveries (96.1-103.8%).

  14. Development of a new green non-dispersive ionic liquid microextraction method in a narrow glass column for determination of cadmium prior to couple with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeemullah, E-mail: naeemullah433@yahoo.com [Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran [National Centre of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Citak, Demirhan [Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A novel and rapid non-dispersive ionic liquid based microextractions. •We used a long narrow glass column to provide more contact area between two media (aqueous and extractive). •APDC using as complexing agent and analyzed by GFAAS. •Introduced a novel approach that reduced solvent consumption, effort, time. •It was applied for determination of understudy analytes in real water sample. -- Abstract: Easy and innovative non-dispersive ionic liquid based microextraction (NDILME) has been developed for preconcentration of trace level of cadmium (Cd) in aqueous real surface water samples prior to couple with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A 200 cm long narrow glass column containing aqueous solution of standard/sample was used to increase phase transfer ratio by providing more contact area between two medium (aqueous and extractive), which drastically improve the recoveries of labile hydrophobic chelate of Cd ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC), into ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]. Different aspect of the desire method have been investigated and optimized. Under the optimized key experimental variables, limit of detection (LOD) and enhancement factor (EF) were achieved to be 0.5 ng L{sup −1} and 150, respectively. Reliability of the model method was checked by relative standard deviation (%RSD), which was found to be < 5%. Validity and accuracy of the developed method was checked by analysis of certified reference water samples (SLRS-4 Riverine water) using standard addition method. Application of the model method was productively performed by analysis of Cd in real surface water samples (tap and sea)

  15. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in water samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry after solid phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Nazir; Assadi, Yaghoub; Sadeghi, Marzieh; Sharafi, Kiomars

    2014-12-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic drop (DLLME-SFO) method, using diethyldithiphosphate (DDTP) as a proper chelating agent, has been developed as an ultra preconcentration technique for the determination of inorganic arsenic in water samples prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Variables affecting the performance of both steps were thoroughly investigated. Under optimized conditions, 100mL of As(ΙΙΙ) solution was first concentrated using a solid phase sorbent. The extract was collected in 2.0 mL of acetone and 60.0 µL of 1-undecanol was added into the collecting solvent. The mixture was then injected rapidly into 5.0 mL of pure water for further DLLME-SFO. Total inorganic As(III, V) was extracted similarly after reduction of As(V) to As(III) with potassium iodide and sodium thiosulfate and As(V) concentration was calculated by difference. A mixture of Pd(NO3)2 and Mg(NO3)2 was used as a chemical modifier in GFAAS. The analytical characteristics of the method were determined. The calibration graph was linear in the rage of 10-100 ng L(-1) with detection limit of 2.5 ng L(-1). Repeatability (intra-day) and reproducibility (inter-day) of method based on seven replicate measurements of 80 ng L(-1) of As(ΙΙΙ) were 6.8% and 7.5%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to speciation of As(III), As(V) and determination of the total amount of As in water samples and in a certified reference material (NIST RSM 1643e). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trapping interference effects of arsenic, antimony and bismuth hydrides in collection of selenium hydride within iridium-modified transversally-heated graphite tube atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furdikova, Zuzana [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 118, CZ-61200 Brno (Czech Republic); Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, CZ-60200, Brno (Czech Republic); Docekal, Bohumil [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, CZ-60200, Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: docekal@iach.cz

    2009-04-15

    Interference effects of co-generated hydrides of arsenic, antimony and bismuth on trapping behavior of selenium hydride (analyte) within an iridium-modified, transversely heated graphite tube atomizer (THGA) were investigated. A twin-channel hydride generation system was used for independent separate generation and introduction of analyte and interferent hydrides, i.e. in a simultaneous and/or sequential analyte-interferent and interferent-analyte mode of operation. The influence of the analyte and modifier mass, interferent amount, trapping temperature and composition of the gaseous phase was studied. A simple approach for the elimination of mutual interference effects by modification of the gaseous phase with oxygen in a substoichiometric ratio to chemically generated hydrogen is proposed and the suppression of these interference effects is demonstrated. A hypothesis on the mechanism of trapping and mutual interference effects is drawn.

  17. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of arsenic and selenium in water and sediment by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra R.; Garbarino, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is a sensitive, precise, and accurate technique that can be used to determine arsenic and selenium in samples of water and sediment. The GF-AAS method has been developed to replace the hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) methods because the method detection limits are similar, bias and variability are comparable, and interferences are minimal. Advantages of the GF-AAS method include shorter sample preparation time, increased sample throughput from simultaneous multielement analysis, reduced amount of chemical waste, reduced sample volume requirements, increased linear concentration range, and the use of a more accurate digestion procedure. The linear concentration range for arsenic and selenium is 1 to 50 micrograms per liter in solution; the current method detection limit for arsenic in solution is 0.9 microgram per liter; the method detection limit for selenium in solution is 1 microgram per liter. This report describes results that were obtained using stop-flow and low-flow conditions during atomization. The bias and variability of the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium by GF-AAS under both conditions are supported with results from standard reference materials--water and sediment, real water samples, and spike recovery measurements. Arsenic and selenium results for all Standard Reference Water Samples analyzed were within one standard deviation of the most probable values. Long-term spike recoveries at 6.25, 25.0, 37.5 micrograms per liter in reagent-, ground-, and surface-water samples for arsenic averaged 103 plus or minus 2 percent using low-flow conditions and 104 plus or minus 4 percent using stop-flow conditions. Corresponding recoveries for selenium were 98 plus or minus 13 percent using low-flow conditions and 87 plus or minus 24 percent using stop-flow conditions. Spike recoveries at 25 micrograms per liter in 120 water samples ranged from 97 to 99 percent

  18. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resano, Martín, E-mail: mresano@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Flórez, María del Rosario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Sole Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marguí, Eva [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH{sub 4}F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 8.3 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 9.3 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 0.15 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 0.10 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration.

  19. Application of Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with high-frequency modulation polarization for the direct determination of aluminum, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, manganese, nickel, lead, and thallium in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Natalya B; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Anatoly A; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2012-10-01

    Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH(4)NO(3) was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO(3))(2) as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L(-1) for Al, 0.08 μg L(-1) for Be, 0.10 μg L(-1) for Cd, 2.2 μg L(-1) for Cr, 7 μg L(-1) for Hg, 0.4 μg L(-1) for Mn, 2.3 μg L(-1) for Ni, 3.4 μg L(-1) for Pb, and 0.5 μg L(-1) for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure.

  20. Separation and preconcentration of platinum-group metals from spent autocatalysts solutions using a hetero-polymeric S, N-containing sorbent and determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskina, Vasilina V; Dalnova, Olga A; Filatova, Daria G; Baranovskaya, Vasilisa B; Karpov, Yuri A

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of Pt, Pd and Rh after separation and concentration by original in-house developed heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent. The methods of sample preparation of spent ceramic-based autocatalysts were considered, two of which were used: autoclave decomposition in mixture of acids HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and high-temperature melting with K2S2O7. Both methods anyway limit the direct determination of analytes by HR CS GFAAS. Using the first method it is an incomplete digestion of spent autocatalysts samples, since the precipitate is Si, and the rhodium metal dissolves with difficulty and partially passes into solution. In contrast to the first method, the second method allow to completely transfer analytes into solution, however, the background signal produced by the chemical composition of the flux, overlaps the analytical zone. It was found, that Pt, Pd and Rh contained in the spent ceramic automotive catalysts could be effectively separated and concentrated by heterochain polymer S, N-containing sorbent, which has high sorption capacity, selectivity and resistant to dilute acids. The chosen HR CS GFAAS analysis conditions enable us to determine Pt, Pd and Rh with good metrological characteristics. The concentrations of Pt, Pd and Rh in two samples of automobile exhaust catalysts were found in range of 0.00015-0.00050; 0.170-0.189; 0.0180-0.0210wt%, respectively. The relative standard deviation obtained by HR CS GFAAS was not more than 5%. Limits of detection by HR CS GFAAS achieved were 6.2·10(-6)wt% for Pt, 1.8·10(-6)wt% for Pd, and 3.4·10(-6)wt% for Rh. Limits of determination achieved by HR CS GFAAS were 1.1·10(-5)wt% for Pt, 6.9·10(-5)wt% for Pd, and 8.3·10(-5)wt% for Rh. To control the accuracy of PGM in sorption concentrates by HR CS GFAAS method, it was appropriate to conduct an inter-method comparative experiment. The

  1. Eletrodeposição de irídio em tubo de grafite como modificador químico permanente em espectrometria de absorção atômica Electrodeposition of iridium in graphite tube as permanent chemical modifier in atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Naozuka

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrochemical flow-cell for iridium deposition on the inner surface of pyrolytic graphite tube for permanent chemical modification is proposed. A transversal heated graphite tube was used as working electrode, a cylindrical piece of graphite inserted into the graphite tube as auxiliary electrode, and a micro Ag/AgCl(sat as reference electrode. Iridium solution in 1.0 mol L-1 HCl, flowing at 0.55 mL min-1 for 60 min was used to perform the electrochemical modification. The applied potential to the flow-cell was - 0.700 V vs Ag/AgCl. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken for thermal and electrochemical modified graphite surface in order to evaluate the iridium distribution. Selenium hydride trapping was used to verify the performance of the proposed permanent chemical modifier.

  2. Comparison of Oxidation Characteristics of Selected Nuclear Graphite Grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se Hwan; Kim, Gen Chan

    2010-02-01

    The oxidation behavior of some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) were compared in view of their filler coke type and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 ∼ 960 .deg. C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 L/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600 ∼ 950 .deg. C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5∼10 % weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 .deg. C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608 ∼ 808 .deg. C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control

  3. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  4. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Everleigh, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  5. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  6. Atomization mechanisms for barium in furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry are used simultaneously in order to elucidate atomization mechanisms of barium dichloride in pyrolytic graphite, vitreous carbon, and tantalum furnaces. Gas-phase barium dicarbide is observed to appear concurrently with the free barium. Barium oxide and barium dihydroxide precursors appear with the chlorides. Surface reactions involving species that are absorbed on the various furnaces are postulated to explain the appearances of the species that are observed in the gas phase. 49 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Comparison of the oxidation rate and degree of graphitization of selected IG and NBG nuclear graphite grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-10-01

    The oxidation rate and degree of graphitization (DOG) were determined for some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) and compared in view of their filler coke type (i.e., pitch or petroleum coke) and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 and 960 °C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 l/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. The DOG was determined based on the lattice parameter c determined from an X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600-950 °C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5-10% weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 °C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608-808 °C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control. A relationship between the oxidation rate and DOG was not observed.

  8. Comparison of the oxidation rate and degree of graphitization of selected IG and NBG nuclear graphite grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Se-Hwan; Kim, Gen-Chan

    2008-01-01

    The oxidation rate and degree of graphitization (DOG) were determined for some selected nuclear graphite grades (i.e., IG-110, IG-430, NBG-18, NBG-25) and compared in view of their filler coke type (i.e., pitch or petroleum coke) and the physical property of the grades. Oxidation rates were determined at six temperatures between 600 and 960 deg. C in air by using a three-zone vertical tube furnace at a 10 l/min air flow rate. The specimens were a cylinder with a 25.4 mm diameter and a 25.4 mm length. The DOG was determined based on the lattice parameter c determined from an X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that, even though the four examined nuclear graphite grades showed a highly temperature-sensitive oxidation behavior through out the test temperature range of 600-950 deg. C, the differences between the grades were not significant. The oxidation rates determined for a 5-10% weight loss at the six temperatures were nearly the same except for 702 and 808 deg. C, where the pitch coke graphites showed an apparent decrease in their oxidation rate, more so than the petroleum coke graphites. These effects of the coke type reduced or nearly disappeared with an increasing temperature. The average activation energy determined for 608-808 deg. C was 161.5 ± 7.3 kJ/mol, showing that the dominant oxidation reaction occurred by a chemical control. A relationship between the oxidation rate and DOG was not observed

  9. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  10. Tire containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A tire, tire lining or inner tube, containing a polymer composite, made of at least one rubber and/or at least one elastomer and a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g.

  11. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  12. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  13. Determinação de fósforo em aços por espectrometria de absorção atômica no forno de grafite Determination of phosphorus in steel samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson José Curtius

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for the determination of phosphorus in steel samples by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, using the Zeeman effect background correction and the STPF conditions is proposed. The effect of iron (III on the phosphorus signal was studied. It was verified, through the pyrolysis temperature curves, that iron (III is an efficient chemical modifier, thermically stabilizing phosphorus up to 1400ºC. The phosphorus signal increases with the iron (III concentration, but in the range, which corresponds to the usual concentrations of iron in the sample solutions, the increase is small. Phosphorus was determined in three standard reference materials, after its dissolution in a mixture of hydrochloric and perchloric acids in a PTFE bomb. The agreement with the certified concentration values was excellent. Iron (III was added to the reference analytical solutions prepared in the blank of the dissolution, while the sample solutions were measured directly, since they already contained the modifier. The detection limit (k = 2 was 0.0042% of phosphorus in the steel sample.

  14. Cloud point extraction of iron(III) and vanadium(V) using 8-quinolinol derivatives and Triton X-100 and determination of 10(-7)moldm(-3) level iron(III) in riverine water reference by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Akira; Ito, Hiromi; Kanai, Chikako; Imura, Hisanori; Ohashi, Kousaburo

    2005-01-30

    The cloud point extraction behavior of iron(III) and vanadium(V) using 8-quinolinol derivatives (HA) such as 8-quinolinol (HQ), 2-methyl-8-quinolinol (HMQ), 5-butyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO(4)Q), 5-hexyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO(6)Q), and 2-methyl-5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HMO(8)Q) and Triton X-100 solution was investigated. Iron(III) was extracted with HA and 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 in the pH range of 1.70-5.44. Above pH 4.0, more than 95% of iron(III) was extracted with HQ, HMQ, and HMO(8)Q. Vanadium(V) was also extracted with HA and 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 in the pH range of 2.07-5.00, and the extractability increased in the following order of HMQ HQ cloud point extraction was applied to the determination of iron(III) in the riverine water reference by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. When 1.25 x 10(-3)M HMQ and 1% (v/v) Triton X-100 were used, the found values showed a good agreement with the certified ones within the 2% of the R.S.D. Moreover, the effect of an alkyl group on the solubility of 5-alkyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol and 2-methyl-5-alkyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol in 4% (v/v) Triton X-100 at 25 degrees C was also investigated.

  15. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  16. Porous (Swiss-Cheese Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Abrahamson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous graphite was prepared without the use of template by rapidly heating the carbonization products from mixtures of anthracene, fluorene, and pyrene with a CO2 laser. Rapid CO2 laser heating at a rate of 1.8 × 106 °C/s vaporizes out the fluorene-pyrene derived pitch while annealing the anthracene coke. The resulting structure is that of graphite with 100 nm spherical pores. The graphitizablity of the porous material is the same as pure anthracene coke. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the interfaces between graphitic layers and the pore walls are unimpeded. Traditional furnace annealing does not result in the porous structure as the heating rates are too slow to vaporize out the pitch, thereby illustrating the advantage of fast thermal processing. The resultant porous graphite was prelithiated and used as an anode in lithium ion capacitors. The porous graphite when lithiated had a specific capacity of 200 mAh/g at 100 mA/g. The assembled lithium ion capacitor demonstrated an energy density as high as 75 Wh/kg when cycled between 2.2 V and 4.2 V.

  17. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  18. Dental Porcelain Furnaces: Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    D Q)L a ) a) C ) C C C C c *. . 3a)0. >4 a)->4 >4 -, Z 0 -a-’- 4-% a) ( nca )m m nU Cs C ) (3 ) 11) a) a) a3) Q) a) W) a2) C C~~ >4 L > > >1 >1 4 > 4...Fig. 1) is a computerized programmable porcelain furnace with 45 open programs. This unit has a large detachable cathode -ray tube (CRT) screen which

  19. Coupling sequential injection on-line preconcentration by means of a renewable microcolumn with ion-exchange beads with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparing the performance of eluting the loaded beads with transporting them directly into the graphite tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2001-01-01

    The design of a flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line preconcentration system incorporating a renewable microcolumn with ion-exchange beads and interfaced with an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) detector is described, and its practical applicability.......4% for the procedure in which the loaded beads are transported directly to the graphite furnace for pyrolysis and atomization, and even improved in comparison to the traditional unidirectional and bidirectional repetitive elution procedures which under comparable conditions yield R.S.D.-values of 5.8 and 4...

  20. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  1. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  2. Steam generators and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, E

    1978-04-01

    The documents published in 1977 in the field of steam generators for conventional thermal power plants are classified according to the following subjects: power industry and number of power plants, planning and operation, design and construction, furnaces, environmental effects, dirt accumulation and corrosion, conservation and scouring, control and automation, fundamental research, and materials.

  3. Review: BNL Tokamak graphite blanket design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The BNL minimum activity graphite blanket designs are reviewed, and three are discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a 30 cm or thicker graphite screen. Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy, which is then radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma. (Auth.)

  4. Chemically assisted release of transition metals in graphite vaporizers for atomic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katskov, Dmitri; Darangwa, Nicholas; Grotti, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The processes associated with the vaporization of microgram samples and modifiers in a graphite tube ET AAS were investigated by the example of transition metals. The vapor absorption spectra and vaporization behavior of μg-amounts Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn and Cr were studied using the UV spectrometer with CCD detector, coupled with a continuum radiation source. The pyrocoated, Ta or W lined tubes, with Ar or He as internal gases, and filter furnace were employed in the comparative experiments. It was found that the kinetics of atomic vapor release changed depending on the specific metal-substrate-gas combination; fast vaporization at the beginning was followed by slower 'tailing.' The absorption continuum, overlapped by black body radiation at longer wavelengths, accompanied the fast vaporization mode for all metals, except Cd and Zn. The highest intensity of the continuum was observed in the pyrocoated tube with Ar. For Cu and Ag the molecular bands overlapped the absorption continuum; the continuum and bands were suppressed in the filter furnace. It is concluded that the exothermal interaction of sample vapor with the material of the tube causes the energy evolution in the gas phase. The emitted heat is dispersed near the tube wall in the protective gas and partially transferred back to the surface of the sample, thus facilitating the vaporization. The increased vapor flow causes over-saturation and gas-phase condensation in the absorption volume at some distance from the wall, where the gas temperature is not affected by the reaction. The condensation is accompanied by the release of phase transition energy via black body radiation and atomic emission. The particles of condensate and molecular clusters cause the scattering of light and molecular absorption; slow decomposition of the products of the sample vapor-substrate reaction produces the 'tailing' of atomic absorption signal. The interaction of graphite with metal vapor or oxygen, formed in the

  5. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  6. Vapour pressure of caesium over nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, R.L.; Pummery, F.C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The vapour pressure of caesium over a fine-grained isotropic moulded gilsocarbon nuclear graphite intended for use in the manufacture of fuel tubes for the high temperature reactor has been determined as a function of temperature and concentration by means of the Knudsen effusion technique. The concentration range 0 to 10 μg caesium/g graphite was investigated and it was concluded that a Langmuir adsorption situation exists under these conditions. (author)

  7. Thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Abdala, Ahmed (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A modified graphite oxide material contains a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide displays no signature of the original graphite and/or graphite oxide, as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  8. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  9. Process for purifying graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausius, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A process for purifying graphite comprising: comminuting graphite containing mineral matter to liberate at least a portion of the graphite particles from the mineral matter; mixing the comminuted graphite particles containing mineral matter with water and hydrocarbon oil to form a fluid slurry; separating a water phase containing mineral matter and a hydrocarbon oil phase containing grahite particles; and separating the graphite particles from the hydrocarbon oil to obtain graphite particles reduced in mineral matter. Depending upon the purity of the graphite desired, steps of the process can be repeated one or more times to provide a progressively purer graphite

  10. Metal/graphite - composites in fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffler, R.; Kneringer, G.; Kny, E.; Reheis, N.

    1989-01-01

    Metal/graphite composites have been well known in medical industry for many years. X-ray tubes used in modern radiography, particularly in computerized tomography are equipped with rotating targets able to absorb a maximum of heat in a given time. Modern rotating targets consist of a refractory metal/graphite composite. Today the use of graphite as a plasma facing material is one predominant concept in fusion engineering. Depending on the thermal load, the graphite components have to be directly cooled (i.e. divertor plates) or inertially cooled (i.e. firstwall tiles). In case of direct cooling a metallurgical joining such as high temperature brazing between graphite and a metallic cooling structure shows the most promising results /1/. Inertially cooled graphite tiles have to be joined to a metallic backing plate in order to get a stable attachment to the supporting structure. The main requirements on the metallic partner of a metal/graphite composite used in the first wall area are: high melting point, high thermal strength, high thermal conductivity, low vapor pressure and a thermal expansion matching that of graphite. These properties are typical for the refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and their alloys. 4 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  11. Metal/graphite - composites in fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staffler, R.; Kneringer, G.; Kny, E.; Reheis, N.

    1995-01-01

    Metal/graphite composites have been well known in medical industry for many years. X-ray tubes used in modern radiography, particulary in computerized tomography are equipped with rotating targets able to absorb a maximum of heat in a given time. Modern rotating targets consist of a refractory metal/graphite composite. Today the use of graphite as a plasma facing material is one predominant concept in fusion engineering. Depending on the thermal load, the graphite components have to be directly cooled (i.e. divertor plates) or inertially cooled (i.e. firstwall tiles). In case of direct cooling a metallurgical joining such as high temperature brazing between graphite and a metalic cooling structure shows the most promising results /1/. Inertially cooled graphite tiles have to be joined to a metallic backing plate in order to get a stable attachment to the supporting structure. The main requirements on the metallic partner of a metal/graphite composite and in the first wall area are: high melting point, high thermal strength, high thermal conductivity, low vapour pressure and a thermal expansion matching that of graphite. These properties are typical for the refractory metals such as molybdenum, tungsten and their alloys. (author)

  12. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1965-01-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m 3 and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m 2 /g (graphite particles about 1 μ), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m 2 /g (all the particles less than 0.3 μ). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [fr

  13. Evaluation of ultrasound inspection of steel H K-40 tubes used in oil processing plant furnaces; Avaliacao da inspecao ultra-sonica de tubos de aco HK-40 usado em fornos de plantas de processamento de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staszczak, Eduardo Jose; Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado; Riguera, Glaucio [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Ensaios Nao-Destrutivos; Martins, Marcus Vinicius M.; Carneval, Ricardo de Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2003-06-01

    The ultra-sound inspection is usually an alternative to the techniques used for the inspection of tubes of steel H K-40. Even so up to now it was not very analyzed it remains so much to real potentiality of the technique in what it refers to the minimum size of discontinuities for its detection with relationship to the characterization of the size of discontinuities and the respective ultra-sound signal. This work besides reviewing fundamental aspects of the problems of inspection of these tubes tries to relate the form of the ultra-sound signal with the size of the found discontinuities. (author)

  14. Surface Modification of Exfoliated Graphite Nano-Reinforcements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nano forms of graphite and carbon, such as flakes, worms, and tubes, can significantly modify the properties of polymers when used as reinforcements. Challenges...

  15. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  16. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  17. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300 0 C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability

  18. Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavorin, A S; Khaustov, S A; Zaharushkin, Russia N A

    2014-01-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered

  19. Method of producing exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z.

    2010-11-02

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., graphite and graphite oxide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of graphite, graphite oxide, or a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  20. Reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998 (Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces). Volume 1; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    From the reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998, the report volume 1 was prepared as a research achievement report of each working group, detailing fundamental researches, heating furnaces, and heat treatment furnaces. The fundamental researches have researched combustion evaluating technology, characteristics of the area in the vicinity of a combustor, characteristics of combustion of high-temperature air, heating characteristics of a furnace to investigate effect of local heat absorption, and combustion evaluation. For the heating furnaces, the following subjects were studied: development of an in-furnace combustion model, summary of an experiment for evaluating high-temperature air combustion, furnace height relative to combustion heat transfer characteristics, heat loss minimizing technology, combustion heat transfer characteristics of liquid fuels, optimal operation of the high-temperature air combustion, basic control in heating control, and steel piece heating control. Studies were performed for the heat treatment furnaces on the case of a direct firing furnace in evaluating the heat transfer characteristics, the case of a radiant tube furnace, application of thermal fluid simulation technology, furnace averaging technology, soot reducing technology, control technology, and trial design on a high-performance heat treatment furnace. (NEDO)

  1. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  2. Phonon scattering in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1976-04-01

    Effects on graphite thermal conductivities due to controlled alterations of the graphite structure by impurity addition, porosity, and neutron irradiation are shown to be consistent with the phonon-scattering formulation 1/l = Σ/sub i equals 1/sup/n/ 1/l/sub i/. Observed temperature effects on these doped and irradiated graphites are also explained by this mechanism

  3. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  4. Fluorophotometric determination of uranium: an automated sintering furnace and factors affecting precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    The fusion furnace consists of four individually controlled, slotted-tube furnaces that automatically dry, sinter and anneal the fluoride or carbonate pellet used in the fluorometric determination of uranium. The furnace operates in air and prepares approximately 90 pellets per hour for fluorometric measurement. The factors that were thought to affect the precision of the method were investigated. The two factors that seem to be the most influential are (1) the manner in which the sample is loaded onto the pellet; and (2) the surface characteristics of the platinum dish in which the pellet is sintered and measured fluorometrically

  5. Furnace for treating bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1922-04-28

    A furnace with saw-teeth-like profiled hearth, which by means of a kind of shaking slide executes a backward and forward motion, for carrying out the process according to Patent 422,391. It is characterized in that the stroke of the hearth moving in the furnace is smaller than the length of the profile tooth and the height of the feed is held less than the tooth height.

  6. Reviewing the analysis of silicons produced in Iran; design and construction of furnaces to produce lead glass by sintering and analyzing the end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadar Qoochan, Sharam.

    1995-01-01

    In this project there was always the need of a furnace and cast; therefore, the work was concentrated on construction the furnace and designing the cast. Many numbers of graphites were prepared and by altering their dimensions it was tried to obtain the best conditions from point of view of material and dimensions. Because in this type of furnace having the proper graphite in fact prepared to work with the furnace, because graphite was the heat transfer to the body and also was the cast of the body. The advantage of using graphite furnaces was the heating up of graphite soon, and there was not the problem of sticking to the cast. The disadvantage was the restriction of dimensions. Therefore, the glass size was also limited. another disadvantage was the temperature range to melt the sample. By varying the glass formulation the melting point of the sample also varied. So that by reducing the lead percentage the melting point increased, and restricted to fabricate glass with low percentage of lead

  7. Mechanism of yttrium atom formation in electrothermal atomization from metallic and metal-carbide surfaces of a heated graphite atomizer in atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, H.S.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mechanism of Y atom formation from pyrocoated graphite, tantalum and tungsten metal surfaces of a graphite tube atomizer has been studied and a mechanism for the formation for Y atoms is proposed for the first time. (author)

  8. Direct determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in beer by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascentes, Clesia C.; Kamogawa, Marcos Y.; Fernandes, Kelly G.; Arruda, Marco A.Z.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was employed for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn determination in beer without any sample digestion. The system was optimized and calibration was based on the analyte addition technique. A sample volume of 300 μl was introduced into the hot Ni tube at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml min -1 using 0.14 mol l -1 nitric acid solution or air as carrier. Different Brazilian beers were directly analyzed after ultrasonic degasification. Results were compared with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The detection limits obtained for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in aqueous solution were 2.2, 18, 1.6, and 0.9 μg l -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.7% to 7.3% (n=8) for solutions containing the analytes in the 25-50 μg l -1 range. The concentration ranges obtained for analytes in beer samples were: Cu: 38.0-155 μg l -1 ; Mn: 110-348 μg l -1 , Pb: 13.0-32.9 μg l -1 , and Zn: 52.7-226 μg l -1 . Results obtained by TS-FF-AAS and GFAAS were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is fast and simple, since sample digestion is not required and sensitivity can be improved without using expensive devices. The TS-FF-AAS presented suitable sensitivity for determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the quality control of a brewery

  9. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, David J., E-mail: butcher@email.wcu.edu

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS.

  10. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  11. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  12. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  13. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2011-07-01

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the ∆ν = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X 1∑ + → A 1П, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd xS y molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel ± 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg -1 in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with sulphur content determined by X-ray fluorescence

  14. Feasibility of high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry in flame and furnace for sulphur determination in petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalewska, Zofia, E-mail: zofia.kowalewska@obr.pl

    2011-07-15

    For the first time, high-resolution molecular absorption spectrometry with a high-intensity xenon lamp as radiation source has been applied for the determination of sulphur in crude oil and petroleum products. The samples were analysed as xylene solutions using vaporisation in acetylene-air flame or in an electrothermally heated graphite furnace. The sensitive rotational lines of the CS molecule, belonging to the {Delta}{nu} = 0 vibrational sequence within the electronic transition X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +} {yields} A{sup 1}{Pi}, were applied. For graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry, the Pd + Mg organic modifier was selected. Strong interactions with Pd atoms enable easier decomposition of sulphur-containing compounds, likely through the temporal formation of Pd{sub x}S{sub y} molecules. At the 258.056 nm line, with the wavelength range covering central pixel {+-} 5 pixels and with application of interactive background correction, the detection limit was 14 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and 18 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. Meanwhile, application of 2-points background correction found a characteristic mass of 12 ng in graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and a characteristic concentration of 104 mg kg{sup -1} in flame molecular absorption spectrometry. The range of application of the proposed methods turned out to be significantly limited by the properties of the sulphur compounds of interest. In the case of volatile sulphur compounds, which can be present in light petroleum products, severe difficulties were encountered. On the contrary, heavy oils and residues from distillation as well as crude oil could be analysed using both flame and graphite furnace vaporisation. The good accuracy of the proposed methods for these samples was confirmed by their mutual consistency and the results from analysis of reference samples (certified reference materials and home reference materials with

  15. A graphite nanoeraser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ze; Bøggild, Peter; Yang, Jia-rui

    2011-01-01

    We present here a method for cleaning intermediate-size (up to 50 nm) contamination from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and graphene. Electron-beam-induced deposition of carbonaceous material on graphene and graphite surfaces inside a scanning electron microscope, which is difficult to remove...... by conventional techniques, can be removed by direct mechanical wiping using a graphite nanoeraser, thus drastically reducing the amount of contamination. We discuss potential applications of this cleaning procedure....

  16. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  17. Furnaces for destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A

    1897-12-04

    Shale or other material is dropped from a hopper F into an annular retort or kiln A/sup 3/, the walls of which enclose annular flues C, C/sup 1/ in which gas is burnt to heat it. Radial flues also extend across the kiln. The kiln is supported above the ground level by pillars B. The material rests at the bottom on an annular plate H, having a flat middle portion with inclined sides. This is supported within an annular hopper I, provided with counterweighted discharging doors I/sup 1/, held by latches and sealed by placing water on them; or a large conical hopper may be used, provided with a conveyer screw, and containing water. Four long scrapers J are reciprocated radially on the flat part of the plate H by rods J/sup 1/, passed through stuffing-boxes in the hopper, and engaged with eccentric K which are rotated by worm gearing. Doors M in the hopper I, and holes in the plate H, permit stirring-tools to be introduced. The upper part of the kiln consists of iron rings a, a/sup 1/; the products of combustion from the flues pass through openings a/sup 5/ into a central chimney a/sup 3/. The products of distillation are delivered through tubes G.

  18. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment

  19. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-10-01

    Presented in two parts, this paper is intended to provide an outline of the theoretical fundamentals for the design of rotating-hearth furnaces for heating round stock and deals with the characteristic design features of such furnaces.

  20. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  1. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  2. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  3. Graphite to Inconel brazing using active filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.F.; Baity, F.W.; Walls, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas are designed to supply large amounts of auxiliary heating power to fusion-grade plasmas in the Toroidal Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and Tore Supra fusion energy experiments. A single Faraday shield structure protects a pair of resonant double loops which are designed to launch up to 2 MW of power per loop. The shield consists of two tiers of actively cooled Inconel alloy tubes with the front tier being covered with semicircular graphite tiles. Successful operation of the antenna requires the making of high integrity bonds between the Inconel tubes and graphite tiles by brazing. This paper discusses this process

  4. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  5. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  6. Stable Carbon Isotope Ratio (δ13C Measurement of Graphite Using EA-IRMS System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Garbaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available δ13C values in non-irradiated natural graphite were measured. The measurements were carried out using an elemental analyzer combined with stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS. The samples were prepared with ground and non-ground graphite, the part of which was mixed with Mg (ClO42. The best combustion of graphite in the oxidation furnace of the elemental analyzer was achieved when the amount of pulverized graphite ranged from 200 to 490 µg and the mass ratio C:Mg(ClO42 was approximately 1:10. The method for the graphite burning avoiding the isotope fractionation is proposed.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6873

  7. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electrochemical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment, ECT of graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones with respect to the treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A small quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes.

  8. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electroche-- mical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment ECT graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones this is treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A sMall quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes

  9. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  10. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  11. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  12. Asymptomatic Intracorneal Graphite Deposits following Graphite Pencil Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Swetha Sara; John, Deepa; John, Sheeja Susan

    2012-01-01

    Reports of graphite pencil lead injuries to the eye are rare. Although graphite is considered to remain inert in the eye, it has been known to cause severe inflammation and damage to ocular structures. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl with intracorneal graphite foreign bodies following a graphite pencil injury.

  13. Use of graphite epoxy composites in the Solar-A Soft X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcevich, B. K.; Bruner, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the use of composite materials in the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT). One of the primary structural members of the telescope is a graphite epoxy metering tube. The metering tube maintains the structural stability of the telescope during launch as well as the focal length through various environmental conditions. The graphite epoxy metering tube is designed to have a negative coefficient of thermal expansion to compensate for the positive expansion of titanium structural supports. The focus is maintained to + or - 0.001 inch by matching the CTE of the composite tube to the remaining structural elements.

  14. Recent developments in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Overall, the HTGR graphite situation is in excellent shape. In both of the critical requirements, fuel blocks and support structures, adequate graphites are at hand and improved grades are sufficiently far along in truncation. In the aerospace field, GraphNOL N3M permits vehicle performance with confidence in trajectories unobtainable with any other existing material. For fusion energy applications, no other graphite can simultaneously withstand both extreme thermal shock and neutron damage. Hence, the material promises to create new markets as well as to offer a better candidate material for existing applications

  15. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  16. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  17. Global analysis of the temperature and flow fields in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Grande, I.; Rivas, D.; de Pablo, V.

    The temperature field in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces will be analyzed, using a global model where the temperature fields in the sample, the furnace and the insulation are coupled; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the furnace is formulated analytically, taking into account specular reflections at the sample; for the solid sample the reflectance is both diffuse and specular, and for the melt it is mostly specular. This behavior is modeled through the exchange view factors, which depend on whether the sample is solid or liquid, and, therefore, they are not known a priori. The effect of this specular behavior in the temperature field will be analyzed, by comparing with the case of diffuse samples. A parameter of great importance is the thermal conductivity of the insulation material; it will be shown that the temperature field depends strongly on it. A careful characterization of the insulation is therefore necessary, here it will be done with the aid of experimental results, which will also serve to validate the model. The heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions will be simulated; parameters like the Marangoni number or the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the temperature distribution in the silicon part will be studied, especially the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of suppresing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be also analyzed. Numerical results show that the thermocapillary flow can indeed be counterbalanced quite effectively.

  18. Behavior of an indigenously fabricated transferred arc plasma furnace for smelting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, K. MANDAL; R, K. DISHWAR; O, P. SINHA

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of industrial solid waste for metal recovery requires high-temperature tools due to the presence of silica and alumina, which is reducible at high temperature. In a plasma arc furnace, transferred arc plasma furnace (TAP) can meet all requirements, but the disadvantage of this technology is the high cost. For performing experiments in the laboratory, the TAP was fabricated indigenously in a laboratory based on the different inputs provided in the literature for the furnace design and fabrication. The observed parameters such as arc length, energy consumption, graphite electrode consumption, noise level as well as lining erosion were characterized for this fabricated furnace. The nitrogen plasma increased by around 200 K (200 °C) melt temperature and noise levels decreased by ∼10 dB compared to a normal arc. Hydrogen plasma offered 100 K (100 °C) higher melt temperature with ∼5 dB higher sound level than nitrogen plasma. Nitrogen plasma arc melting showed lower electrode and energy consumption than normal arc melting, whereas hydrogen plasma showed lower energy consumption and higher electrode consumption in comparison to nitrogen plasma. The higher plasma arc temperature resulted in a shorter meltdown time than normal arc with smoother arcing. Hydrogen plasma permitted more heats, reduced meltdown time, and lower energy consumption, but with increased graphite consumption and crucible wear. The present study showed that the fabricated arc plasma is better than the normal arc furnace with respect to temperature generation, energy consumption, and environmental friendliness. Therefore, it could be used effectively for smelting-reduction studies.

  19. Graphite behaviour in relation to the fuel element design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, M. R. [OECD High Temperature Reactor Project Dragon, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Manzel, R. [OECD High Temperature Reactor Project Dragon, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Blackstone, R. [Reactor Centrum, Petten (Netherlands); Delle, W. [Kernforschungsanlage, Juelich (Germany); Lungagnani, V. [Joint Nuclear Research Centre, Euratom, Petten (Netherlands); Krefeld, R. [Joint Nuclear Research Centre, Euratom, Petten (Netherlands)

    1969-09-01

    The first designs of H.T.R. power reactors will probably use a Gilsocarbon based graphite for both the moderator/carrier blocks and for the fuel tubes. The initial physical properties and changes of dimensions, thermal expansion coefficient, Young*s modulus, and thermal conductivity on irradiation of Gilsocarbon graphites to typical reactor dwell-time fast neutron doses of 4 * 1021 cm -2 Ni dose Dido equivalent are given and values for the irradiation creep constant are presented. The influence of these property changes and those of chemical corrosion are considered briefly in relation to the present fuel element designs. The selection of an eventual less costly replacement graphite for Gilsocarbon graphite is discussed in terms of materials properties.

  20. Determination of chlorine in graphite by combustion-ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianzhong; Watanabe, Kazuo; Itoh, Mitsuo.

    1995-09-01

    A combustion/ion chromatographic method has been studied for the sensitive determination of chlorine in graphite. A graphite sample was burnt at 900degC in a silica reaction tube at an oxygen flow rate of 200 ml/min. Chlorine evolved was absorbed in 20 ml of a 0.1 mM sodium carbonate solution. The solution was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved with a small volume of water. Chlorine in the solution was determined using ion chromatography. The method was applied to JAERI graphite certified reference materials and practical graphite materials. The detection limit was about 0.8 μgCl/g for a 2.0 g sample. The precision was about 2.5% (relative standard deviation) for samples with chlorine content of 70 μg/g level. The method is also usable for coal samples. (author)

  1. Carbon-14 Graphitization Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Collon, Philippe; Laverne, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a process that allows for the analysis of mass of certain materials. It is a powerful process because it results in the ability to separate rare isotopes with very low abundances from a large background, which was previously impossible. Another advantage of AMS is that it only requires very small amounts of material for measurements. An important application of this process is radiocarbon dating because the rare 14C isotopes can be separated from the stable 14N background that is 10 to 13 orders of magnitude larger, and only small amounts of the old and fragile organic samples are necessary for measurement. Our group focuses on this radiocarbon dating through AMS. When performing AMS, the sample needs to be loaded into a cathode at the back of an ion source in order to produce a beam from the material to be analyzed. For carbon samples, the material must first be converted into graphite in order to be loaded into the cathode. My role in the group is to convert the organic substances into graphite. In order to graphitize the samples, a sample is first combusted to form carbon dioxide gas and then purified and reduced into the graphite form. After a couple weeks of research and with the help of various Physics professors, I developed a plan and began to construct the setup necessary to perform the graphitization. Once the apparatus is fully completed, the carbon samples will be graphitized and loaded into the AMS machine for analysis.

  2. Melting temperature of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, V.N.; Savvatimskiy, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Pulse of electrical current is used for fast heating (∼ 1 μs) of metal and graphite specimens placed in dielectric solid media. Specimen consists of two strips (90 μm in thick) placed together with small gap so they form a black body model. Quasy-monocrystal graphite specimens were used for uniform heating of graphite. Temperature measurements were fulfilled with fast pyrometer and with composite 2-strip black body model up to melting temperature. There were fulfilled experiments with zirconium and tungsten of the same black body construction. Additional temperature measurements of liquid zirconium and liquid tungsten are made. Specific heat capacity (c P ) of liquid zirconium and of liquid tungsten has a common feature in c P diminishing just after melting. It reveals c P diminishing after melting in both cases over the narrow temperature range up to usual values known from steady state measurements. Over the next wide temperature range heat capacity for W (up to 5000 K) and Zr (up to 4100 K) show different dependencies of heat capacity on temperature in liquid state. The experiments confirmed a high quality of 2-strip black body model used for graphite temperature measurements. Melting temperature plateau of tungsten (3690 K) was used for pyrometer calibration area for graphite temperature measurement. As a result, a preliminary value of graphite melting temperature of 4800 K was obtained. (author)

  3. Remote maintenance techniques in the furnace cell of a high level waste vitrification plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, M.

    1983-01-01

    Remote controlled maintenance and changing techniques for the furnace of a vitrification plant for radioactive waste was developed and tested on a 1:1 model. The model was fitted out with imitation main components, remote control equipment, lead-ins and the complete tubing so that the trials could be carried out in a manner replicating as closely as possible the situation found under operating conditions. The development of remote-handled tube cable connectors, tube cable jumpers and plugs and sockets was an important aspect of the developmental programme. (orig.) [de

  4. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  5. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  6. Modeling and control of diffusion and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waard, H.; De Koning, W. L.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper a study is made of the heat transfer inside cylindrical resistance diffusion and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition furnaces, aimed at developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived which also covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. It is shown that currently used temperature controllers are highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the linear-quadratic-Gaussian type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  7. Technological indicators of operation of the rotating-hearth furnace in conditions of discontinued production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić, L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality heating of the steel charge to be rolled into seamless tubes in the rotating-hearth furnace requires continuous operation of the pilger mill. Interruption of the charging schedule leads to impaired charge heating process. Prolonged heating time causes a rise in the charge temperature above the limit values, and that in turn brings to a larger quantity of scale formed on the charge surface. Final result is loss of metal and overheating of the charge accompanied by increased fuel consumption and lower furnace productivity.

  8. Nuclear graphite ageing and turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Hall, G.N.; Smart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Graphite moderated reactors are being operated in many countries including, the UK, Russia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Japan. Many of these reactors will operate well into the next century. New designs of High Temperature Graphite Moderated Reactors (HTRS) are being built in China and Japan. The design life of these graphite-moderated reactors is governed by the ageing of the graphite core due to fast neutron damage, and also, in the case of carbon dioxide cooled reactors by the rate of oxidation of the graphite. Nuclear graphites are polycrystalline in nature and it is the irradiation-induced damage to the individual graphite crystals that determines the material property changes with age. The life of a graphite component in a nuclear reactor can be related to the graphite irradiation induced dimensional changes. Graphites typically shrink with age, until a point is reached where the shrinkage stops and the graphite starts to swell. This change from shrinkage to swelling is known as ''turnaround''. It is well known that pre-oxidising graphite specimens caused ''turnaround'' to be delayed, thus extending the life of the graphite, and hence the life of the reactor. However, there was no satisfactory explanation of this behaviour. This paper presents a numerical crystal based model of dimensional change in graphite, which explains the delay in ''turnaround'' in the pre-oxidised specimens irradiated in a fast neutron flux, in terms of crystal accommodation and orientation and change in compliance due to radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  9. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  10. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  11. Recompressed exfoliated graphite articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2013-08-06

    This invention provides an electrically conductive, less anisotropic, recompressed exfoliated graphite article comprising a mixture of (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite flakes; and (b) particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon, wherein the non-expandable graphite or carbon particles are in the amount of between about 3% and about 70% by weight based on the total weight of the particles and the expanded graphite flakes combined; wherein the mixture is compressed to form the article having an apparent bulk density of from about 0.1 g/cm.sup.3 to about 2.0 g/cm.sup.3. The article exhibits a thickness-direction conductivity typically greater than 50 S/cm, more typically greater than 100 S/cm, and most typically greater than 200 S/cm. The article, when used in a thin foil or sheet form, can be a useful component in a sheet molding compound plate used as a fuel cell separator or flow field plate. The article may also be used as a current collector for a battery, supercapacitor, or any other electrochemical cell.

  12. Bromine intercalated graphite for lightweight composite conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram; Patole, Archana

    2017-01-01

    A method of fabricating a bromine-graphite/metal composite includes intercalating bromine within layers of graphite via liquid-phase bromination to create brominated-graphite and consolidating the brominated-graphite with a metal nanopowder via a

  13. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of 137 Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of 137 Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000 0 C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ΔE of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon) 0 exp [-ΔE/RT] are about 4 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively

  14. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  15. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  16. Fluxless furnace brazing and its theoretical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lison, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical fundamental of fluxless furnace brazing are described. The necessary conditions for a wetting in the vacuum, under a inert-gas and with a reducing gas are discussed. Also other methods to reduce the oxygen partial pressure are described. Some applications of fluxless furnace brazing are outlined. (orig.) [de

  17. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  18. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  19. Intercomparison of graphite irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hering, H; Perio, P; Seguin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    While fast neutrons only are effective in damaging graphite, results of irradiations are more or less universally expressed in terms of thermal neutron fluxes. This paper attempts to correlate irradiations made in different reactors, i.e., in fluxes of different spectral compositions. Those attempts are based on comparison of 1) bulk length change and volume expansion, and 2) crystalline properties (e.g., lattice parameter C, magnetic susceptibility, stored energy, etc.). The methods used by various authors for determining the lattice constants of irradiated graphite are discussed. (author)

  20. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  1. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H 2 O and CO 2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O 2 . Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  2. Graphite fiber/copper composites prepared by spontaneous infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbao; Tao, Zechao; Li, Xiangfen; Yan, Xi; Liu, Zhanjun; Guo, Quangui

    2018-05-01

    The major bottleneck in developing graphite fiber reinforced copper (GF/Cu) composites is the poor wettability of Cu/graphite system. Alloying element of chromium (Cr) is introduced to improve the wettability of liquid copper on graphite. Sessile drop method experiments illustrate that the contact angle of liquid Cu-Cr (1.0 wt.%) alloy on graphite substrate decreases to 43° at 1300 °C. The improvement of wettability is related to the formation of chromium carbide layer at interface zone. Based on the wetting experiment, a spontaneous infiltration method for preparing GF/Cu composites is proposed. Unidirectional GF preforms are infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloys without external pressure in a tubular furnace. Results reveal that the GF preform can be fully infiltrated by Cu-Cr alloy (8 wt.%) spontaneously when fiber volume fraction is 40%. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of GF/Cu-Cr (8.0 wt.%) composites is 4.68 × 10-6/K along the longitudinal direction.

  3. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  4. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  5. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. Using top kiss risers, enlarging kissing areas and expanding covering width and making ingates to freeze earlier are the effective measures to eliminate shrinkage, blowhole and oxide inclusions in the vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads.

  6. Electronic properties of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.

    2010-10-01

    In this thesis, low-temperature magneto-transport (T ∼ 10 mK) and the de Haas-van Alphen effect of both natural graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) are examined. In the first part, low field magneto-transport up to B = 11 T is discussed. A Fourier analysis of the background removed signal shows that the electric transport in graphite is governed by two types of charge carriers, electrons and holes. Their phase and frequency values are in agreement with the predictions of the SWM-model. The SWM-model is confirmed by detailed band structure calculations using the magnetic field Hamiltonian of graphite. The movement of the Fermi at B > 2 T is calculated self-consistently assuming that the sum of the electron and hole concentrations is constant. The second part of the thesis deals with high field magneto-transport of natural graphite in the magnetic field range 0 ≤ B ≤ 28 T. Both spin splitting of magneto-transport features in tilted field configuration and the onset of the charge density wave (CDW) phase for different temperatures with the magnetic field applied normal to the sample plane are discussed. Concerning the Zeeman effect, the SWM calculations including the Fermi energy movement require a g-factor of g* equal to 2.5 ± 0.1 to reproduce the spin spilt features. The measurements of the charge density wave state confirm that its onset magnetic field can be described by a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type formula. The measurements of the de Haas-van Alphen effect are in agreement with the results of the magneto-transport measurements at low field. (author)

  7. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  8. A study on the formation of uranium carbide in an induction furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Young; Lee, Yoon Sang; Kim, Eung Soo; Lee, Don Bae; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2005-01-01

    Uranium is a typical carbide-forming element. Three carbides, UC, U 2 C 3 and UC 2 , are formed in the uranium-carbon system. The most important of these as fuel is uranium monocarbide UC. It is well known that Uranium carbides can be obtained by three basic methods: 1) by reaction of uranium metal with carbon; 2) by reaction of uranium metal powder with gaseous hydrocarbons; 3) by reaction of uranium oxides with carbon. The use of uranium monocarbide, or materials based on it, has great prospects as fuel for nuclear reactors. It is quite possible that uranium dicarbide UC 2 may also acquire great importance as a fuel, particularly in dispersion fuel elements with graphite matrix. In the present study, uranium carbides are obtained by direct reaction of uranium metal with graphite in a high frequency induction furnace

  9. Heat transfer simulation in a furnace for steam reformer. Gas kaishitsu ronai no dennetsu simulation ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, K; Taniguchi, H; Guo, K [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Katayama, T; Nagata, T [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-01-10

    This paper discusses the heat transfer analysis in a furnace for LPG reforming to produce gas enriched hydrogen. The three-dimensional combined radiative and convective heat transfer processes in a furnace for LPG reforming is simulated by introducing the radiosity concept into the radiative heat ray method for an accurate radiative heat transfer analysis. Together with an analysis of the chemical reaction in the reactor tubes of the furnace, the heat transfer simulation gives the three-dimensional profile of the combustion gas temperature in the furnace, the tube-surface heat-flux distribution and the composition of the reformed gas. From the results of the analysis, it was clarified that increasing the jet angle of the heating burner raises the gas temperature and the tube surface heat flux near the burner entrance, and that the flame shape is the most important factor for deciding the heat flux distribution of the tube surface because the heat transfer effect by flame radiation is much more than that by convection of the combustion gas. 18 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  11. Programmable temperature regulator of VAO-1 furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahalka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable temperature controller is described for a furnace for high-level waste processing. Furnace temperature is controlled by a program compiled from a combination of 3 parts with different linear increments or decrements of time dependent temperature and 2 parts with isothermal control for over a preset period. The equipment consists essentially of a programming unit, a programmed digital-to-analog converter and a power unit. The design is described in detail and its specifications are given. The maximum operating temperature of 1500 degC may be reached in the furnace charge section. (B.S.)

  12. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  13. Production technique of vermicular graphite iron cylinder head of vehicle diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Gen; Liu Wanhua

    2008-01-01

    The 25 years’production and application have proved that vermicular graphite iron cylinder heads with vermicularity ≥50% satisfy the machinability and performance demand of diesel engine. The method, in which using cupola-induction furnace duplex melting and pour-over process with rare earth-ferrosilicon or rare earthsilicon compound as vermicularizing alloy plus rare earth-magnesium-ferrosilicon as stirring alloy, is an optimal vermicularizing process for obtaining satisfi ed vermicularity. ...

  14. Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D.; Haya, R.

    The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.

  15. Graphite electrode dc arc technology development for treatment of buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1993-02-01

    A ''National Laboratory-University-Industrial'' three-way partnership has been established between the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI) to develop graphite electrode DC arc technology for the treatment of buried wastes. This paper outlines the PNL-MIT-EPI program describing a series of engineering-scale DC arc furnace tests conducted in an EPI furnace at the Plasma Fusion Center at MIT, and a description of the second phase of this program involving the design, fabrication, and testing of a pilot-scale DC arc furnace. Included in this work is the development and implementation of diagnostics to evaluate and optimize high temperature thermal processes such as the DC arc technology

  16. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  17. Harwell Graphite Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linacre, J.K.

    1970-01-01

    The calorimeter is of the steady state temperature difference type. It contains a graphite sample supported axially in a graphite outer jacket, the assembly being contained in a thin stainless steel outer can. The temperature of the jacket and the temperature difference between sample and jacket are measured by chromel-alumel thermocouples. The instrument is calibrated by means of an electric heater of low mass positioned on the axis of the sample. The resistance of the heater is known and both current through the heater and the potential across it may be measured. The instrument is filled with nitrogen at a pressure of one half atmosphere at room temperature. The calorimeter has been designed for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 600°C, and dose rates up to 1 Wg -1 , and instruments have been in use for periods in excess of one year

  18. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  19. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  20. Hopewell Furnace NHS : alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for an alternative transportation system (ATS) at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). The Volpe Center investigated internal circulation and potential partnerships with local historic, cultural, and recrea...

  1. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  2. A furnace for firing carbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudavskii, A M

    1979-12-05

    A furnace for firing carbon products is patented that consists of several chambers with a perforated hearth, which are interconnected by a lower and an upper reservoir with a locking fixture, and a flue. In order to intensify the firing process by increasing the specific hearth productivity, the flue is connected to the upper reservoir. A block diagram of the patented furnace is given, together with a description of its operation.

  3. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  4. Multiphase flow modelling of furnace tapholes

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Quinn G.; Erwee, Markus W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical furnaces of many varieties make use of tapholes in order to facilitate the removal of molten process material from inside the vessel. Correct understanding and operation of the taphole is essential for optimal performance of such furnaces. The present work makes use of computational fluid dynamics models generated using the OpenFOAM® framework in order to study flow behaviour in the taphole system. Single-phase large-eddy simulation models are used to quantify the discharge ...

  5. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  6. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  7. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  8. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, C

    1999-03-01

    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  9. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  10. Structural disorder of graphite and implications for graphite thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Martina; Toy, Virginia; Rooney, Jeremy S.; Giorgetti, Carolina; Gordon, Keith C.; Collettini, Cristiano; Takeshita, Toru

    2018-02-01

    Graphitization, or the progressive maturation of carbonaceous material, is considered an irreversible process. Thus, the degree of graphite crystallinity, or its structural order, has been calibrated as an indicator of the peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the host rocks. However, discrepancies between temperatures indicated by graphite crystallinity versus other thermometers have been documented in deformed rocks. To examine the possibility of mechanical modifications of graphite structure and the potential impacts on graphite thermometry, we performed laboratory deformation experiments. We sheared highly crystalline graphite powder at normal stresses of 5 and 25 megapascal (MPa) and aseismic velocities of 1, 10 and 100 µm s-1. The degree of structural order both in the starting and resulting materials was analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate structural disorder of graphite, manifested as changes in the Raman spectra. Microstructural observations show that brittle processes caused the documented mechanical modifications of the aggregate graphite crystallinity. We conclude that the calibrated graphite thermometer is ambiguous in active tectonic settings.

  11. Structural disorder of graphite and implications for graphite thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kirilova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphitization, or the progressive maturation of carbonaceous material, is considered an irreversible process. Thus, the degree of graphite crystallinity, or its structural order, has been calibrated as an indicator of the peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the host rocks. However, discrepancies between temperatures indicated by graphite crystallinity versus other thermometers have been documented in deformed rocks. To examine the possibility of mechanical modifications of graphite structure and the potential impacts on graphite thermometry, we performed laboratory deformation experiments. We sheared highly crystalline graphite powder at normal stresses of 5 and 25  megapascal (MPa and aseismic velocities of 1, 10 and 100 µm s−1. The degree of structural order both in the starting and resulting materials was analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate structural disorder of graphite, manifested as changes in the Raman spectra. Microstructural observations show that brittle processes caused the documented mechanical modifications of the aggregate graphite crystallinity. We conclude that the calibrated graphite thermometer is ambiguous in active tectonic settings.

  12. Investigation of in situ trapping of selenium and arsenic hydrides within a tungsten tube atomiser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dočekal, Bohumil; Marek, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2001), s. 831-837 ISSN 0267-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/98/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : graphite furnace * absorption spectrometry * atomization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.305, year: 2001

  13. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide; Suspension de graphite dans le gaz carbonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Moussez, C; Rouvillois, X; Brevet, R [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation (SNECMA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m{sup 3} and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m{sup 2}/g (graphite particles about 1 {mu}), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m{sup 2}/g (all the particles less than 0.3 {mu}). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [French] Depuis 1963 la Division Atomique de la SNECMA conduit, dans le cadre d'un contrat avec le Commissariat A l'Energie Atomique, l'etude experimentale d'une suspension de fines particules de graphite dans le gaz carbonique. L'objectif principal est d'obtenir des informations d'ordre mecanique et technologique sur la mise en oeuvre de l'ecoulement de ce fluide diphase. Le circuit experimental comprend principalement: un

  14. Bromine intercalated graphite for lightweight composite conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2017-07-20

    A method of fabricating a bromine-graphite/metal composite includes intercalating bromine within layers of graphite via liquid-phase bromination to create brominated-graphite and consolidating the brominated-graphite with a metal nanopowder via a mechanical pressing operation to generate a bromine-graphite/metal composite material.

  15. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  16. Graphite reactor physics; Physique des piles a graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P; Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Noc, B [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1964-07-01

    The study of graphite-natural uranium power reactor physics, undertaken ten years ago when the Marcoule piles were built, has continued to keep in step with the development of this type of pile. From 1960 onwards the critical facility Marius has been available for a systematic study of the properties of lattices as a function of their pitch, of fuel geometry and of the diameter of cooling channels. This study has covered a very wide field: lattice pitch varying from 19 to 38 cm. uranium rods and tubes of cross-sections from 6 to 35 cm{sup 2}, channels with diameters between 70 and 140 mm. The lattice calculation methods could thus be checked and where necessary adapted. The running of the Marcoule piles and the experiments carried out on them during the last few years have supplied valuable information on the overall evolution of the neutronic properties of the fuel as a function of irradiation. More detailed experiments have also been performed in Marius with plutonium-containing fuels (irradiated or synthetic fuels), and will be undertaken at the beginning of 1965 at high temperature in the critical facility Cesar, which is just being completed at Cadarache. Spent fuel analyses complement these results and help in their interpretation. The thermalization and spectra theories developed in France can thus be verified over the whole valid temperature range. The efficiency of control rods as a function of their dimensions, the materials of which they are made and the lattices surrounding them has been measured in Marius, and the results compared with calculation on the one hand and with the measurements carried out in EDF 1 on the other. Studies on the control proper of graphite piles were concerned essentially with the risks of spatial instability and the means of detecting and controlling them, and with flux distortions caused by the control rods. (authors) [French] Entreprise il y a dix ans a l'occasion de la construction des piles de Marcoule, l'etude de la

  17. Oxidation of graphites for core support post in air at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hisashi; Fujii, Kimio; Kurosawa, Takeshi

    1982-07-01

    Oxidation reactions of candidate graphites for core support post with atmospheric air were studied in a temperature range between 550 0 C and 1000 0 C. The reaction rates, temperature dependence of the rates and distribution of bulk density in the oxidized graphites were measured and the characters obtained were compared between the brand of graphites. On the basis of the experimental results, dimension and strength of the post after corrosion with air, which might be introduced in rupture accident of primary coolant tube, were discussed. In the case of IG-11 graphite, it was proved that the strength of post is still sufficient even 100 hours after the beginning of the accident and that, however, it is necessary to insert more deeply the post against graphite blocks. (author)

  18. Modern State and Efficiency Analysis of Heat Recovery in Fuel Furnaces Using High Temperature Recuperators. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes various factors that affect upon heat transfer in high temperature recuperators, namely: heat transfer enhancement, heat exchange surface increase and rise of temperature head between primary and secondary heat transfer fluids. Comparison of experimental data with the results of mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling has been performed in the paper. The paper considers some new designs of high temperature heat recovery plants: tube recuperator equipped with internal inserts – secondary emitters inside tubes for metallurgical furnaces and high-efficient two-way radiative recuperators for machinery engineering furnaces.  Advantages of new recuperators in comparison with existing analogues have been estimated in the paper. These advantages are:  provision of additional fuel saving due to increase of preheating temperature of the combustion air and improvement of design stability by decrease of tube wall temperature.

  19. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  20. Nonlinear seismic analysis of a graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laframboise, W.L.; Desmond, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Design and construction of the Department of Energy's N-Reactor located in Richland, Washington was begun in the late 1950s and completed in the early 1960s. Since then, the reactor core's structural integrity has been under review and is considered by some to be a possible safety concern. The reactor core is moderated by graphite. The safety concern stems from the degradation of the graphite due to the effects of long-term irradiation. To assess the safety of the reactor core when subjected to seismic loads, a dynamic time-history structural analysis was performed. The graphite core consists of 89 layers of numerous graphite blocks which are assembled in a 'lincoln-log' lattice. This assembly permits venting of steam in the event of a pressure tube rupture. However, such a design gives rise to a highly nonlinear structure when subjected to earthquake loads. The structural model accounted for the nonlinear interlayer sliding and for the closure and opening of gaps between the graphite blocks. The model was subjected to simulated earthquake loading, and the time-varying response of selected elements critical to safety were monitored. The analytically predicted responses (displacements and strains) were compared to allowable responses to assess margins of safety. (orig.)

  1. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for effecting improved heat transfer with in an industrial furnace having a cylindrical furnace section, a door at one end of the furnace section, an end plate at the opposite end of the section a circular fan plate concentrically positioned within the furnace section to define a cylindrical fan chamber between the plate and the end section with a fan there between and a heat treat chamber between the plate and the door, the fan plate defining a non-orificing annular space extending between the interior of the cylindrical furnace section and the outer edge of the plate, the plate having a centrally located under-pressure opening extending there through and a plurality of circumferentially spaced tubular heating elements extending through the annular space into the heat treating chamber, the method comprising the steps of: (a) heating the heating elements to a temperature which is hotter that the temperature of the work within the heat treating chamber; (b) rotating the fan at a speed sufficient to form a portion of the furnace atmosphere as a wind mass swirling about the fan chamber; (c) propagating the wind mass through the annular space into the heat treating chamber as a swirling wind mass in the form of an annulus, the wind mass impinging the heating elements to establish heat transfer contact therewith while the mass retains its annulus shape until contacting the door and without any significant movement of the wind mass into the center of the heat treating chamber; (d) drawing the wind mass through the under-pressure zone after the wind mass comes into heat transfer contact with the work in the heat treating chamber; and (e) thereafter heating the work by radiation from the beating elements at high furnace temperatures in excess of about 1,600 F.

  2. Application of thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for investigation of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirat, Natnicha; Tetbuntad, Kornrawee; Siripinyanond, Atitaya

    2017-03-01

    Thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was applied to investigate the time-dependent absorption peak profile of various forms of silver. The thermospray flame furnace was set up with a 10-cm-long nickel tube with six holes, each 2.0 mm in diameter, to allow the flame to enter, and this nickel tube acted as a furnace. A sample of 300 μL was introduced into this furnace by use of water as a carrier at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min -1 through the ceramic capillary (0.5-mm inner diameter and 2.0-mm outer diameter), which was inserted into the front hole of the nickel tube. The system was applied to examine atomization behaviors of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with particle sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm. The atomization rate of AgNPs was faster than that of the dissolved silver ion. With increased amount of silver, the decay time observed from the time-dependent absorption peak profile was shortened in the case of dissolved silver ion, but it was increased in the case of AgNPs. With the particle size ranging from 10 to 100 nm, the detection sensitivity was indirectly proportional to the particle size, suggesting that TS-FF-AAS may offer insights into the particle size of AgNPs provided that the concentration of the silver is known. To obtain quantitative information on AgNPs, acid dissolution of the particles was performed before TS-FF-AAS analysis, and recoveries of 80-110% were obtained.

  3. RBS investigations of high-temperature reactions on graphite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloi, C.C. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Robertson, J.D. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Majidi, V. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    While graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is one of the most powerful techniques for ultratrace analysis of Pb, it is often plagued by matrix interferences. These interferences are minimized by the addition of matrix modifiers which stabilize the analyte signal through unknown mechanisms. Using RBS, the high temperature reactions of nitrate salts of Pb were studied on pyrolytically coated graphite with and without matrix modifiers. The addition of an ammonium phosphate modifier was found to stabilize Pb through the formation of a metal oxy-phosphorus compound. Moreover, the depth profiles demonstrated that the pyrolytically coated graphite was not impervious as previously thought. Pre-treatment of the surface with O{sub 2} is also known to cause a delay in the vaporization of Pb. While a surface effect had previously been postulated, the 3.04 MeV resonance {sup 16}O({alpha}, {alpha}){sup 16}O elastic scattering measurements show that it proceeds through the formation of surface bound lead-oxygen species as the number of oxygen atoms chemisorbed and the number of lead atoms, present on the surface prior to vaporization, are nearly equal. (orig.).

  4. Product Evaluation Task Force Phase Two report for CAGR graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Davies, A.

    1991-01-01

    It has been proposed that all Intermediate Level Wastes arising at Sellafield should be encapsulated prior to ultimate disposal. The Product Evaluation Task Force (PETF) was set up to investigate possible encapsulants and to produce an adequate data base to justify the preferred matrices. This report details the work carried out under Phase 2 of the Product Evaluation Task Force programme, on CAGR graphite. Three possible types of encapsulants for CAGR graphites:-Inorganic cements, Polymer cements and Polymers are evaluated using the Kepner Tregoe decision analysis technique. This technique provides a methodology for scoring and ranking alternative options and evaluating any risks associated with an option. The analysis shows that for all four stages of waste management operations ie Storage, Transport, handling and emplacement, Disposal and Process, cement matrices are considerably superior to other potential matrices. A matrix, consisting of three parts Blast Furnace Slag (BFS) to one part Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is recommended as the preferred matrix for Phase 3 studies on CAGR graphite. (author)

  5. Purification and preparation of graphite oxide from natural graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panatarani, C., E-mail: c.panatarani@phys.unpad.ac.id; Muthahhari, N.; Joni, I. Made [Instrumentation Systems and Functional Material Processing Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia); Rianto, Anton [Grafindo Nusantara Ltd., Belagio Mall Lantai 2, Unit 0 L3-19, Kawasan Mega Kuningan, Kav. B4 No.3, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Graphite oxide has attracted much interest as a possible route for preparation of natural graphite in the large-scale production and manipulation of graphene as a material with extraordinary electronic properties. Graphite oxide was prepared by modified Hummers method from purified natural graphite sample from West Kalimantan. We demonstrated that natural graphite is well-purified by acid leaching method. The purified graphite was proceed for intercalating process by modifying Hummers method. The modification is on the reaction time and temperature of the intercalation process. The materials used in the intercalating process are H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KMNO{sub 4}. The purified natural graphite is analyzed by carbon content based on Loss on Ignition test. The thermo gravimetricanalysis and the Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy are performed to investigate the oxidation results of the obtained GO which is indicated by the existence of functional groups. In addition, the X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are also applied to characterize respectively for the crystal structure and elemental analysis. The results confirmed that natural graphite samples with 68% carbon content was purified into 97.68 % carbon content. While the intercalation process formed a formation of functional groups in the obtained GO. The results show that the temperature and reaction times have improved the efficiency of the oxidation process. It is concluded that these method could be considered as an important route for large-scale production of graphene.

  6. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  7. Management of UKAEA graphite liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    2001-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is responsible for managing its liabilities for redundant research reactors and other active facilities concerned with the development of the UK nuclear technology programme since 1947. These liabilities include irradiated graphite from a variety of different sources including low irradiation temperature reactor graphite (the Windscale Piles 1 and 2, British Energy Pile O and Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile at Harwell and the Material Testing Reactors at Harwell and Dounreay), advanced gas-cooled reactor graphite (from the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and graphite from fast reactor systems (neutron shield graphite from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor and Dounreay Fast Reactor). The decommissioning and dismantling of these facilities will give rise to over 6,000 tonnes of graphite requiring disposal. The first graphite will be retrieved from the dismantling of Windscale Pile 1 and the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor during the next five years. UKAEA has undertaken extensive studies to consider the best practicable options for disposing of these graphite liabilities in a manner that is safe whilst minimising the associated costs and technical risks. These options include (but are not limited to), disposal as Low Level Waste, incineration, or encapsulation and disposal as Intermediate Level Waste. There are a number of technical issues associated with each of these proposed disposal options; these include Wigner energy, radionuclide inventory determination, encapsulation of graphite dust, galvanic coupling interactions enhancing the corrosion of mild steel and public acceptability. UKAEA is currently developing packaging concepts and designing packaging plants for processing these graphite wastes in consultation with other holders of graphite wastes throughout Europe. 'Letters of Comfort' have been sought from both the Low Level Waste and the Intermediate Level Waste disposal organisations to support the

  8. Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, E. I.; Bubnenkov, I. A.; Dremov, V. V.; Samarin, S. I.; Pokrovsky, A. S.; Harkov, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    The monograph is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. The structure and electrical properties, the technological aspects of production of high-strength synthetic graphites, the dynamics of the graphite destruction, traditionally used in the nuclear industry are discussed. It is focuses on the characteristics of graphitization and properties of graphite composites based on carbon isotope 13C. The book is based, generally, on the original res...

  9. Thermal–hydraulic calculation and analysis of a 600 MW supercritical circulating fluidized bed boiler with annular furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Dong; Shen, Zhi; Mao, Kaiyuan; Long, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-linear model of supercritical CFB boiler with annular furnace is developed. • Many empirical correlations are used to solve the model. • The thermal–hydraulic characteristics of boiler are analyzed. • The results show that the design of the annular furnace is reasonable. - Abstract: The development of supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler has great economic and environmental value. An entirely new annular furnace structure with outer and inner ring sidewalls for supercritical CFB boiler has been put forward by Institute of Engineering Thermophysics (IET), Chinese Academy of Sciences and Dongfang Boiler Group Co., Ltd. (DBC). Its outer and inner ring furnace structure makes more water walls arranged and reduces furnace height availably. In addition, compared with other additional evaporating heating surface structures such as mid-partition and water-cooled panels, the integrative structure can effectively avoid the bed-inventory overturn and improve the penetrability of secondary air. The conditions of the 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler including capability, pressure and mass flux are harsh. In order to insure the safety of boiler operation, it is very necessary to analyze the thermal–hydraulic characteristics of water-wall system. The water-wall system with complicated pipe arrangement is regarded as a network consisting of series-parallel circuits, pressure nodes and linking circuits, which represent vertical water-wall tubes, different headers and linking tubes, respectively. Based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation, a mathematical model is built, which consists of some simultaneous nonlinear equations. The mass flux in circuits, pressure drop between headers, outer vapor temperature of water-wall system and metal temperature data of tubes at the boiler maximum continuous rating (BMCR), 75% BMCR and 30% BMCR loads are obtained by solving the mathematical model. The results show that the vertical water

  10. Characterization of core-drilled cokes in a working blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanning Dong; Nigel Paterson; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A batch of tuyere-level core-drilled cokes, taken from a blast furnace working with coal injection has been characterized using a battery of analytical techniques. These included size exclusion chromatography (SEC), FT-Raman Spectroscopy (FT-RS) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD). SEC tests on NMP-extracts of cokes taken from zones where temperatures were ca. 1500{sup o}C, showed the presence of heavy soot-like material (ca. 107-108 u apparent mass). By contrast, cokes in higher temperature zones (ca. 2000{sup o}C), only gave small amounts of extractable material with up to ca. 105 u apparent mass. The presence of soot-like material indicated the conversion-unfavoured locations at the tuyere-level. FT-Raman spectra of NMP-extracted cokes varied: the area ratios of D (at 1288-1295cm{sup -1}) to G (at ca. 1596cm{sup -1}) bands decreased as the exposure temperature increased. The random (r) fractions decreased with increasing exposure temperature, whereas, the graphitic (G) fractions increased whilst the defect (D) fraction showed a more complex variation with temperature. The latter is a likely indicator of graphitization of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. The Raman spectral results were validated by XRD analyses of the demineralised and NMP-extracted cokes. Raceway coke possessed the largest crystalline dimensions and closest inter-layer spacing because it had encountered highest temperatures as well as iron catalysis. The combination of SEC and Raman spectrometry on core-drill samples has provided information relevant for maintaining stable operation in a blast-furnace operating with coal injection. 13 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Modification of structural graphite machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrenev, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studied are machining procedures for structural graphites (GMZ, MG, MG-1, PPG) most widely used in industry, of the article mass being about 50 kg. Presented are dependences necessary for the calculation of cross sections of chip suction tappers and duster pipelines in machine shops for structural graphite machining

  12. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  13. Glass-Graphite Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayzan, M.Z.H.; Lloyd, J.W.; Heath, P.G.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C.; Hand, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A summary is presented of investigations into the potential of producing glass-composite materials for the immobilisation of graphite or other carbonaceous materials arising from nuclear power generation. The methods are primarily based on the production of base glasses which are subsequently sintered with powdered graphite or simulant TRISO particles. Consideration is also given to the direct preparation of glass-graphite composite materials using microwave technology. Production of dense composite wasteforms with TRISO particles was more successful than with powdered graphite, as wasteforms containing larger amounts of graphite were resistant to densification and the glasses tried did not penetrate the pores under the pressureless conditions used. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the production of dense glassgraphite composite wasteforms will require the application of pressure. (author)

  14. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  15. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  16. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  17. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  18. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  19. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [LOI Industrieofenanlagen G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-09-01

    Part I of this paper is intended to present a review of the theory of heating round stock of a length considerably exceeding the diameter. It is permissible to neglect heating from the ends of the cylinders. With short and thick ingots as used in pilgrim mills, for instance, such simplification is not possible. The method for calculating the waste gas temperature can also be used for the remaining furnace sections provided certain conditions are allowed for and computational procedures observed. Part II of the paper will deal with this and with the major design features of rotating-hearth furnaces.

  20. Process and furnace for working bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1921-06-28

    A process for working up bitumen-containing materials, such as coal, peat and shale is characterized in that the material in thin-height batches with constant shaking by means of forward and backward movement of an elongated horizontal hearth heated underneath on which the material freely lies and on which it is moved in the furnace, through a single narrow furnace space with zone-wise heating of the hearth. A drying zone, a spent-material removal zone, and a carbonization zone are provided. Under separate hoods the gases and vapors are removed from these zones.

  1. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  2. Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

  3. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  4. Research achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces and the like (2); 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Volume 2 named above contains part of research achievement reports and individual research achievement reports. The aluminum melting furnace working group research achievement report covers aluminum melting furnace operating patterns, concentrated impinging flame mode and dispersed impinging flame mode, and honeycomb and ball structures in heat storing bodies. The tubular heater working group report mentions the application of this facility to oil heating furnaces, studies and investigations for the embodiment of real systems using the tubular heater, and tests conducted in a furnace with plural heating tube lines. The individual research achievement reports elaborate on the development of technologies of heat transfer optimization under unsteady conditions in the steel material heating process, research and development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies, development of heating furnace geometry optimization technologies, research and development of a high-performance controlled atmosphere heat treatment furnace, development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies in high-temperature jet flame heating, development of heat uniformity improvement technologies for example for the steel material heating process, construction of optimum combustion control technologies for the regenerative burner furnace, research concerning laser-aided measurement in industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  5. 3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Wang Ninghui; Li Tie; Cao Yong

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making furnace, and the calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the published measurements. The behavior of arcs with different arc lengths is also studied in the furnace for MgO production. From the distribution of the arc pressure on the bath surface it is shown that the arc plasma impingement is large enough to cause a crater-like depression on the surface of the MgO bath. The circulation of the high temperature air under the electrode may enhance the arc efficiency, especially for a shorter arc.

  6. INPP Unit 1 1998 Graphite - Pressure Tube Gap Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Different analyses provide differing results depending upon criteria, assumptions and methodology used. Although the results are not directly comparable, they do not differ greatly in the low, medium and high estimate ranges. From 3 to 6 years it is likely more than one gap has closed and some may have been closed for several years. Beyond 6 years it is highly likely that many gaps are closed and have been for a long time

  7. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  8. Hypervelocity impacts into graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, S.; Cheesman, C.; Day, D.; Harrison, W.; Price, S.

    2011-03-01

    Studies have been conducted into the characterisation of the behaviour of commercial graphite (brittle) when subjected to hypervelocity impacts by a range of projectiles. The experiments were conducted with a two-stage gas gun capable of launching projectiles of differing density and strength to speeds of about 6kms-1 at right angles into target plates. The damage caused is quantified by measurements of the crater depth and diameters. From the experimental data collected, scaling laws were derived which correlate the crater dimensions to the velocity and the density of the projectile. It was found that for moderate projectile densities the crater dimensions obey the '2/3 power law' which applies to ductile materials.

  9. Hypervelocity impacts into graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latunde-Dada, S; Cheesman, C; Day, D; Harrison, W; Price, S

    2011-01-01

    Studies have been conducted into the characterisation of the behaviour of commercial graphite (brittle) when subjected to hypervelocity impacts by a range of projectiles. The experiments were conducted with a two-stage gas gun capable of launching projectiles of differing density and strength to speeds of about 6kms -1 at right angles into target plates. The damage caused is quantified by measurements of the crater depth and diameters. From the experimental data collected, scaling laws were derived which correlate the crater dimensions to the velocity and the density of the projectile. It was found that for moderate projectile densities the crater dimensions obey the '2/3 power law' which applies to ductile materials.

  10. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  11. Radiolytic graphite oxidation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.; Sadler, I.A.; Wickham, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of radiolytic oxidation in graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled reactors has long been recognised, especially in the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors where potential rates are higher because of the higher gas pressure and ratings than the earlier Magnox designs. In all such reactors, the rate of oxidation is partly inhibited by the CO produced in the reaction and, in the AGR, further reduced by the deliberate addition of CH 4 . Significant roles are also played by H 2 and H 2 O. This paper reviews briefly the mechanisms of these processes and the data on which they are based. However, operational experience has demonstrated that these basic principles are unsatisfactory in a number of respects. Gilsocarbon graphites produced by different manufacturers have demonstrated a significant difference in oxidation rate despite a similar specification and apparent equivalence in their pore size and distribution, considered to be the dominant influence on oxidation rate for a given coolant-gas composition. Separately, the inhibiting influence of CH 4 , which for many years had been considered to arise from the formation of a sacrificial deposit on the pore walls, cannot adequately be explained by the actual quantities of such deposits found in monitoring samples which frequently contain far less deposited carbon than do samples from Magnox reactors where the only source of such deposits is the CO. The paper also describes the current status of moderator weight-loss predictions for Magnox and AGR Moderators and the validation of the POGO and DIFFUSE6 codes respectively. 2 refs, 5 figs

  12. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This p...

  13. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  14. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  15. Thermal model of the whole element furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed thermal analysis was performed to calculate temperatures in the whole element test furnace that is used to conduct drying studies of N-Reactor fuel. The purpose of this analysis was to establish the thermal characteristics of the test system and to provide a basis for post-test analysis

  16. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  17. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  18. Aerosol and particle transport in biomass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Obernberger, G.

    2005-01-01

    The particulate emissions of solid fuel fired furnaces typically exhibit a bimodal distribution: a small peak in the range of 0.1 mm and a larger one above 10 mm. The particles with sizes above 10 mm are formed by a mechanical process like disintegration of the fuel after combustion, or erosion,

  19. Furnace for distillation of shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain-Clergault, M

    1863-07-09

    Practical experience and continuous operation of 55 retorts for 5 years of the system of vertical retorts patented in 1857 (French Patent 18,422) has shown the advantages resulting from this furnace which gives over a mean yield of 5% of Auton shale, which is /sup 1///sub 2/% more than the old systems with a fuel economy varying from 15 to 20%.

  20. Chemisputtering of interstellar graphite grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draine, B.T.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of erosion of interstellar graphite grains as a result of chemical reaction with H, N, and O is estimated using the available experiment evidence. It is argued that ''chemical sputtering'' yields for interstellar graphite grains will be much less than unity, contrary to earlier estimates by Barlow and Silk. Chemical sputtering of graphite grains in evolving H II regions is found to be unimportant, except in extremely compact (n/sub H/> or approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) H II regions. Alternative explanations are considered for the apparent weakness of the lambda=2175 A extinction ''bump'' in the direction of several early type stars

  1. Obtention of nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The impurity level of natural graphite found in some of the most important mines of the State of Minas Gerais - Brasil is determined. It is also concerned with the development and use of natural graphite in nuclear reactors. Standard methods for chemical and instrumentsal analysis such as Spectrografic Determination by Emission, Spectrografic Determination by X-Rays, Spectrografic Determination by Atomic Asorption, Photometric Determination, and also chemical and physical methods for separation of impurities as well standard method for Estimating the Thermal Neutron Absorption Cross Section of graphite were employed. Some aditionals methods of purification to the ordinary treatment such as the use of metanol and halogens are also described. (Author) [pt

  2. Dynamics and control of a gas-fired furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A non-linear model has been developed for a gas-fired furnace in which oil is heated. The model is applicable from minimum to maximum heat load of the furnace. The dynamics of the model have been compared to experimental results, which were obtained for a pilot-scale furnace. They are in good

  3. Characterization of Ignalina NPP RBMK Reactors Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, P.J.; Neighbour, G.B.; Levinskas, R.; Milcius, D.

    2001-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the investigations of the initial physical properties of graphite used in production of graphite bricks of Ignalina NPP. These graphite bricks are used as nuclear moderator and major core structural components. Graphite bulk density is calculated by mensuration, pore volumes are measured by investigation of helium gas penetration in graphite pore network, the Young's modulus is determined using an ultrasonic time of flight method, the coefficient of thermal expansion is determined using a Netzsch dilatometer 402C, the fractured and machined graphite surfaces are studied using SEM, impurities are investigated qualitatively by EDAX, the degree of graphitization of the material is tested using X-ray diffraction. (author)

  4. Reduction of interferences in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry by multiple linear regression modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Abelmoschi, Maria Luisa; Soggia, Francesco; Tiberiade, Christian; Frache, Roberto

    2000-12-01

    The multivariate effects of Na, K, Mg and Ca as nitrates on the electrothermal atomisation of manganese, cadmium and iron were studied by multiple linear regression modelling. Since the models proved to efficiently predict the effects of the considered matrix elements in a wide range of concentrations, they were applied to correct the interferences occurring in the determination of trace elements in seawater after pre-concentration of the analytes. In order to obtain a statistically significant number of samples, a large volume of the certified seawater reference materials CASS-3 and NASS-3 was treated with Chelex-100 resin; then, the chelating resin was separated from the solution, divided into several sub-samples, each of them was eluted with nitric acid and analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (for trace element determinations) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (for matrix element determinations). To minimise any other systematic error besides that due to matrix effects, accuracy of the pre-concentration step and contamination levels of the procedure were checked by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric measurements. Analytical results obtained by applying the multiple linear regression models were compared with those obtained with other calibration methods, such as external calibration using acid-based standards, external calibration using matrix-matched standards and the analyte addition technique. Empirical models proved to efficiently reduce interferences occurring in the analysis of real samples, allowing an improvement of accuracy better than for other calibration methods.

  5. Cadmium accumulation in the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Mayans, J.; Hernandez, F.; Medina, J.; Del Ramo, J.; Torreblanca, A.

    1986-11-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice-field waters are being subject to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals and pesticides) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. The American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii is native to the Louisiana marshes (USA). In 1978, the crayfish appeared in Lake Albufera near Valencia (Spain), and presently, without adequate sanitary controls, the crayfish is being fished commercially for human consumption. In view of this interest, it is important to have accurate information on concentrations of cadmium in natural waters and cadmium levels of tissues of freshwaters animals used as human food, as well as the accumulation rates of this metal in this animal. In the present study, the authors investigated the accumulation of cadmium in several tissues of the red crayfish, P clarkii (Girard) from Lake Albufera following cadmium exposure. Determinations of cadmium were made by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy and the standard additions method. Digestion of samples was made by wet ashing in open flasks with concentrated HNO/sub 3/ at 80-90/sup 0/C.

  6. Volatile release and particle formation characteristics of injected pulverized coal in blast furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Tsung-Han

    2007-01-01

    Volatiles release and particle formation for two kinds of pulverized coals (a high volatile bituminous coal and a low volatile bituminous coal) in a drop tube furnace are investigated to account for the reactions of pulverized coal injected in blast furnaces. Two different sizes of feed particles are considered; one is 100-200 mesh and the other is 200-325 mesh. By evaluating the R-factor, the devolatilization extent of the larger feed particles is found to be relatively poor. However, the swelling behavior of individual or two agglomerated particles is pronounced, which is conducive to gasification of the chars in blast furnaces. In contrast, for the smaller feed particles, volatiles liberated from the coal particles can be improved in a significant way as a result of the amplified R-factor. This enhancement can facilitate the performance of gas phase combustion. Nevertheless, the residual char particles are characterized by agglomeration, implying that the reaction time of the char particles will be lengthened, thereby increasing the possibility of furnace instability. Double peak distributions in char particle size are observed in some cases. This possibly results from the interaction of the plastic state and the blowing effect at the particle surface. Considering the generation of tiny aerosols composed of soot particles and tar droplets, the results indicate that their production is highly sensitive to the volatile matter and elemental oxygen contained in the coal. Comparing the reactivity of the soot to that of the unburned char, the former is always lower than the latter. Consequently, the lower is the soot formation, the better is the blast furnace stability

  7. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  8. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  9. Techniques for measurement of heat flux in furnace waterwalls of boilers and prediction of heat flux – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, G.; Chandrasekhara Rao, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat flux measurement techniques applicable to boiler water wall are elaborated. • Applications involving heat flux measurement in boiler water wall are discussed. • Appropriate technique for usage in high ash Indian coal fired boilers is required. • Usage of chordal thermocouple is suggested for large scale heat flux measurements. - Abstract: Computation of metal temperatures in a furnace waterwall of a boiler is necessary for the proper selection of tube material and thickness. An adequate knowledge of the heat flux distribution in the furnace walls is a prerequisite for the computation of metal temperatures. Hence, the measurement of heat flux in a boiler waterwall is necessary to arrive at an optimum furnace design, especially for high ash Indian coal fired boilers. Also, a thoroughly validated furnace model will result in a considerable reduction of the quantum of experimentation to be carried out. In view of the above mentioned scenario, this paper reviews the research work carried out by various researchers by experimentation and numerical simulation in the below mentioned areas: (i) furnace modeling and heat flux prediction, (ii) heat flux measurement techniques and (iii) applications of heat flux measurements.

  10. Graphite in Science and Nuclear Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in the science and technology. Structure and electrical properties, technological aspects of producing of high-strength artificial graphite and dynamics of its destruction are considered. These type of graphite are traditionally used in the nuclear industry, so author concentrates on actual problems of application and testing of graphite materials in modern science and technology. Translated from chapters 1 of monog...

  11. Mesostructure of graphite composite and its lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Zhmurikov, Evgenij

    2015-01-01

    This review is devoted to the application of graphite and graphite composites in science and technology. Structure and electrical properties, as so technological aspects of producing of high strength artificial graphite and dynamics of its destruction are considered. These type of graphite are traditionally used in the nuclear industry. Generally, the review relies, on the original results and concentrates on actual problems of application and testing of graphite materials in modern nuclear p...

  12. Graphite surveillance in N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    Graphite dimensional changes in N Reactor during its 24 yr operating history are reviewed. Test irradiation results, block measurements, stack profiles, top of reflector motion monitors, and visual observations of distortion are described. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  13. Graphite oxidation in HTGR atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Barry, J.J.; Finfrock, C.C.; Rivera, E.; Heiser, J.H. III

    1982-01-01

    On-going and recently completed studies of the effect of thermal oxidation on the structural integrity of HTGR candidate graphites are described, and some results are presented and discussed. This work includes the study of graphite properties which may play decisive roles in the graphites' resistance to oxidation and fracture: pore size distribution, specific surface area and impurity distribution. Studies of strength loss mechanisms in addition to normal oxidation are described. Emphasis is placed on investigations of the gas permeability of HTGR graphites and the surface burnoff phenomenon observed during recent density profile measurements. The recently completed studies of catalytic pitting and the effects of prestress and stress on reactivity and ultimate strength are also discussed

  14. Graphite materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Graphite materials have been used in the nuclear fission reactors from the beginning of the reactor development for the speed reduction and reflection of neutron. Graphite materials are used both as a moderator and as a reflector in the core of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and both as a radiation shielding material and as a reflector in the surrounding of the core for the fast breeder reactor. On the other hand, graphite materials are being positively used as a first wall of plasma as it is known that low Z materials are useful for holding high temperature plasma in the nuclear fusion devices. In this paper the present status of the application of graphite materials to the nuclear fission reactors and fusion devices (reactors) is presented. In addition, a part of results on the related properties to the structural design and safety evaluation and results examined on the subjects that should be done in the future are also described. (author)

  15. Graphite selection for the PBMR reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Preston, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    A high temperature, direct cycle gas turbine, graphite moderated, helium cooled, pebble-bed reactor (PBMR) is being designed and constructed in South Africa. One of the major components in the PBMR is the graphite reflector, which must be designed to last thirty-five full power years. Fast neutron irradiation changes the dimensions and material properties of reactor graphite, thus for design purposes a suitable graphite database is required. Data on the effect of irradiation on nuclear graphites has been gathered for many years, at considerable financial cost, but unfortunately these graphites are no longer available due to rationalization of the graphite industry and loss of key graphite coke supplies. However, it is possible, using un-irradiated graphite materials properties and knowledge of the particular graphite microstructure, to determine the probable irradiation behaviour. Three types of nuclear graphites are currently being considered for the PBMR reflector: an isostatically moulded, fine grained, high strength graphite and two extruded medium grained graphites of moderately high strength. Although there is some irradiation data available for these graphites, the data does not cover the temperature and dose range required for the PBMR. The available graphites have been examined to determine their microstructure and some of the key material properties are presented. (authors)

  16. Composition and microstructure of a furnace ash deposit from a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessler, R R

    1980-07-01

    An exploratory study of the structure and composition of furnace-ash deposits was carried out using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of these analyses were supplemented by studies of particulate melting temperature using hot-stage microscopy to measure melting temperature, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses to measure composition of melted particles. It was found that the general structure of the ash deposit was a matrix of glassy, spherical particles having a wide range of composition in which unfused particles containing iron oxide and calcium oxide were dispersed. At the imprint of the tube surface a considerable concentration of calcium, sulphur and iron was found. Near the fused outer surface of the deposit, the glassy materials had melted into a porous, glassy slag containing spherical globules of iron oxide combined with other materials. There were no systematic compositional gradients from the tube surface to the fused outer layer except for the sulfur layer found only at the tube surface. However, there were significant differences in composition from particle to particle and these differences were similar to those found in the coal mineral matter as isolated by low-temperature ashing. Single particles of low-temperature ash were found having low fusion temperatures, in the range of fusion temperatures for particles in furnance has. Thus, the glassy spheres found in furnace deposits could originate from single coal particles, without the need of interactions among coal particles or ash particles.

  17. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  18. Cooperative program for design, fabrication, and testing of graphite/epoxy composite helicopter shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. C.; Baker, D. J.; Corvelli, N.; Thurston, L.; Clary, R.; Illg, W.

    1971-01-01

    The fabrication of UH-1 helicopter tail rotor drive shafts from graphite/epoxy composite materials is discussed. Procedures for eliminating wrinkles caused by lack of precure compaction are described. The development of the adhesive bond between aluminum end couplings and the composite tube is analyzed. Performance tests to validate the superiority of the composite materials are reported.

  19. Oxidation Behavior of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 Graphites in Air Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Ki; Chi, Se Hwan

    2006-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), graphite is used as a moderator and a reflector as well as a major structural component. During operation or in the event of an accident, subsequent graphite oxidation due to the graphite out-gassing or heat exchanger tube leakage results in changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the components. For this reason, a lot of studies on oxidation have long been performed to understand the high temperature oxidation behavior and to find a proper countermeasure over the expected operating range. In this study, the oxidation rates of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 nuclear graphites were determined at high temperature and evaluated in view of the grades and the oxidation mechanisms at different temperature range

  20. Wear Behavior of Selected Nuclear Grade Graphites at Room Temperature in Ambient Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Seon; Park, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2008-01-01

    In a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), graphite will be used not only for as a moderator and reflector but also as a major structural component due to its excellent neutronic, thermal and mechanical properties. In the VHTR, wear of graphite components is inevitable due to a neutron irradiation-induced dimensional change, thermal gradient, relative motions of graphite components and a shock load such as an earthquake. Large wear particles accumulated at the bottom of a reactor can influence the cooling of the lower part and small wear particles accumulated on the primary circuit and heat exchanger tube can make it difficult to inspect the equipment, and also decrease the heat exchange rate. In the present work, preliminary wear tests were performed at room temperature in ambient air environment to understand the basic wear characteristics of selected nuclear grade graphites for the VHTR

  1. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  2. Investigation on wear behavior of graphite baII under different pneumatic conveying environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhipeng; Zheng Yanhua; Shi Lei; Yu Suyuan

    2014-01-01

    An experimental platform was built in the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET) to investigate the wear behavior of the graphite ball under the operational condition of the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel handling system. In this experimental platform, a series of experiments were carried out under different pneumatic conveying environments with the graphite balls, which were made of the material same as the fuel element matrix graphite (A3) of the 10 MW high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR-10). The effect of the pneumatic conveying condition on the wear rate of graphite ball has been investigated, and the results include: (1) There is an obvious linear relationship between the wear rate and the feeding velocity of graphite ball elevated in the stainless steel elevating tube, and the wear rate will increase with the increase of the feeding velocity. (2) The wear rate of graphite ball under helium environment is significantly greater than that under air and nitrogen environments, which is caused by the different effects of various gas environments on mechanical properties of graphite. (author)

  3. Heat transfer intensification within tube recuperator by inserting secondary emitters inside air channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, P.; Soroka, B.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Zgurskyy, V.

    2009-01-01

    The research program was stipulated by reduction the service life of the tube recuperators of reheating furnaces at DUNAFERR metallurgical works in Dunaujvaros (Hungary) while replacement the natural gas by coke - oven gas as a furnace fuel took place and air preheating temperature was increased. The tests procedure consists in comparison of temperature and pressure distributions by air flows preheating under air moving inside the tube loops. Advantages of new recuperator design compared to ordinary one have been proven by validation of concept for adequacy to the testing results. The first tests have demonstrated enhancement of local specific and total heat fluxes transferred from flue gases to air flow within the MD tube loops in comparison with those for BD loops by 25 to 45% - dependence on temperature level within the heating (furnace) chamber and on preheated air flow rate. (author)

  4. Monitoring device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Noboru; Asano, Naoki; Higuchi, Tatsuo; Koyama, Mayumi; Hanado, Shinji.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can monitor, from a remote place, a liquid surface in a glass melting furnace for use in a solidification treatment, for example, of high level radioactive wastes. Namely, a vertical sleeve is disposed penetrating a ceiling wall of a melting vessel. A reflection mirror is disposed above the vertical sleeve and flex an optical axis. A monitoring means is disposed on the optical axis of the reflecting mirror at a spaced position. The monitoring means may have an optical telescopic means, a monitoring camera by way of a half mirror and an illumination means. The reflection mirror may be made of a metal. The monitoring device thus constituted suffer from no effects of high temperature and high radiation dose rate, thereby enabling to easily monitor the liquid surface in the melting furnace. (I.S.)

  5. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system

  6. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  7. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  8. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  9. Exploring the electrochemical performance of graphitic paste electrodes: graphene vs. graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C S; Brownson, Dale A C; Gómez-Mingot, Maria; Iniesta, Jesús; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Banks, Craig E

    2013-11-07

    We report the fabrication, characterisation (SEM, TEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy) and electrochemical implementation of a graphene paste electrode. The paste electrodes utilised are constructed by simply mixing graphene with mineral oil (which acts as a binder) prior to loading the resultant paste into a piston-driven polymeric-tubing electrode-shell, where this electrode configuration allows for rapid renewal of the electrode surface. The fabricated paste electrode is electrochemically characterised using both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(ii), hexaammine-ruthenium(iii) chloride and hexachloroiridate(iii), in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, l-ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Comparisons are made with a graphite paste alternative and the benefits of graphene implementation as a paste electrode within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal no observable differences in the electrochemical performance and thus suggest that there are no advantages of using graphene over graphite in the fabrication of paste electrodes. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials.

  10. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  11. High temperature soldering of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikin, L.T.; Kravetskij, G.A.; Dergunova, V.S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect is studied of the brazing temperature on the strength of the brazed joint of graphite materials. In one case, iron and nickel are used as solder, and in another, molybdenum. The contact heating of the iron and nickel with the graphite has been studied in the temperature range of 1400-2400 ged C, and molybdenum, 2200-2600 deg C. The quality of the joints has been judged by the tensile strength at temperatures of 2500-2800 deg C and by the microstructure. An investigation into the kinetics of carbon dissolution in molten iron has shown that the failure of the graphite in contact with the iron melt is due to the incorporation of iron atoms in the interbase planes. The strength of a joint formed with the participation of the vapour-gas phase is 2.5 times higher than that of a joint obtained by graphite recrystallization through the carbon-containing metal melt. The critical temperatures are determined of graphite brazing with nickel, iron, and molybdenum interlayers, which sharply increase the strength of the brazed joint as a result of the formation of a vapour-gas phase and deposition of fine-crystal carbon

  12. Experience with graphite in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.A.; Celentano, G.; Deksnis, E.; Dietz, K.J.; Shaw, R.; Sonnenberg, K.; Walravens, M.

    1987-01-01

    During the current operational period of JET more than 50% of the internal area of the machine is covered in graphite tiles. This includes the 15 m 2 of carbon tiles installed in the new toroidal limiter, the 40 poloidal belts of graphite tiles covering the U-joints and bellows as well as a two metre high ring (-- 20 m 2 ) or carbon tiles on the inner wall of the Torus. A ring of tiles in the equatorial plane (3 tiles high) consists of carbon-carbon fibre tiles. Test bed results indicated that the fine grained graphite tiles cracked at ∼ 1 kW/cm 2 for 2s of irradiation whereas the carbon-carbon fibre tiles were able to sustain a flux, limited by the irradiation facility, of 3.5 kW for 3s without any damage. The authors report on the generally positive experience they have had had with the installed graphite during the present and previous in-vessel configurations. This includes the physical integrity of the tiles under severe conditions such as high energy run-away electron beams, plasma disruptions and high heat fluxes. They report on the importance of the precise positioning of the inner wall and x-point tiles at the very high power fluxes of JET and the effect of deviations on both graphite and carbon-fibre tiles

  13. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Smelting of high-quality boiler steel in large-load arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kablukovskij, A F; Breus, V M; Tyurin, E I; Khristich, V D; Dumchev, Ya P [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Chernoj Metallurgii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-02-01

    High-grade steel can be obtained in large-capacity furnaces if the smelting technology used takes account of the size of the aggregates, the course of the metal fusion process, interaction with slag, furnace atmosphere, reducing agents, and other process characteristics. 12Kh1MF boiler steel smelted in a 100-ton electric arc furnace by an oxidizing process with oxygen bath blow and cast by the siphon method into 6.5-ton ingots using a slag-forming mixture (240 mm diameter billets and 219 to 245 mm diameter tubes) is satisfactory with regard to macro and microstructure, oxygen and nonmetallic oxide inclusion content, and mechanical properties. The stress rupture strength of 10/sup 5/ h at 570/sup 0/C is similar to that of open-hearth steel. Sulfides larger than a 3.5 spheroid have been detected in it. The nitrogen content of the electric steel is 0.0090 to 0.0120%, which is somewhat greater than usual in open-hearth metal. Of the oxygen inclusions in the steel, spinel-alumina predominates. Large inclusions were represented mainly by brittle silicates which appeared to be of exogenous origin.

  15. Interaction of graphite with a hot, dense deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desko, J.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The erosion of ATJ-S graphite caused by a hot, dense deuterium plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma was produced in an electromagnetic shock tube. Plasma characteristics were typically: ion temperature approx. = 800 eV (approx. 1 x 10 7 0 K), number density approx. = 10 16 /cm 3 , and transverse magnetic field approx. = 1 tesla. The energetic ion flux, phi, to the sample surfaces was approx. 10 23 ions/cm 2 -sec for a single pulse duration of approx. 0.1 usec. Sample surfaces were metallographically prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope before and after exposure

  16. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  17. Thermal Pyrolytic Graphite Enhanced Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A thermally conductive composite material, a thermal transfer device made of the material, and a method for making the material are disclosed. Apertures or depressions are formed in aluminum or aluminum alloy. Plugs are formed of thermal pyrolytic graphite. An amount of silicon sufficient for liquid interface diffusion bonding is applied, for example by vapor deposition or use of aluminum silicon alloy foil. The plugs are inserted in the apertures or depressions. Bonding energy is applied, for example by applying pressure and heat using a hot isostatic press. The thermal pyrolytic graphite, aluminum or aluminum alloy and silicon form a eutectic alloy. As a result, the plugs are bonded into the apertures or depressions. The composite material can be machined to produce finished devices such as the thermal transfer device. Thermally conductive planes of the thermal pyrolytic graphite plugs may be aligned in parallel to present a thermal conduction path.

  18. Electrical properties of alkali-activated slag composite with combined graphite/CNT filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovnaník, P.; Míková, M.; Kusák, I.

    2017-10-01

    Alkali-activated industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag are known to possess properties which are comparable to or even better than those observed for ordinary Portland cement. The combination of alkali-activated slag matrix with conductive filler introduces new functionalities which are commonly known for self-sensing or self-heating concrete. The present paper discusses the effect of the mixture of two different conductive fillers, graphite powder and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), on the electrical properties of alkali-activated slag mortars. Prepared samples were also tested for their mechanical properties and microstructure was investigated by means of mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The percolation threshold for the resistance was reached for the mixture containing 0.1% CNTs and 8% graphite powder.

  19. Use of Different Furnaces to Study Repeatability and Reproducibility of Three Pd-C Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Florio, M.; Girard, F.

    2010-09-01

    Three different Pd-C eutectic fixed-point cells were prepared and investigated at INRIM. Several tens of phase transition runs were carried out and recorded with both a Si-based radiation thermometer at 950 nm and a precision InGaAs-based thermometer at 1.6 μm. Two of the cells were of the same design with an inner volume of 12 cm3. The third one was smaller with a useful inner volume of 3.6 cm3. The three cells were filled with palladium powder 4N5 or 4N8 pure and graphite powder 6N pure. The repeatability and stability of the inflection point were investigated over a period of 1 year. The noticeably different external dimensions of the two cells, namely, 110 mm and 40 mm in length, allowed the influence of the longitudinal temperature distribution to be investigated. For this purpose, two different furnaces, a single-zone with SiC heaters and a three-zone with MoSi2 heaters, were used. Different operative conditions, namely, temperature steps, melting rate, longitudinal temperature distributions, and position of cells within the furnace, were tested to investigate the reproducibility of the cells. Effects on the duration and shape of the plateaux were also studied. This article gives details of the measurement setup and analyses of the melting plateaux obtained with the different conditions.

  20. Properties and application of carbon composite brick for blast furnace hearth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao K.X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of carbon composite brick was produced via the microporous technique using natural flack graphite, α-Al2O3 and high-quality bauxite chamotte (Al2O3≥87 mass% as raw materials with fine silicon powder as additive. The composition and microstructure of the obtained carbon composite were characterized using chemical analysis, XRD and SEM with EDS. The high temperature properties of thermal conductivity, oxidization and corrosion by molten slag and hot metal of the composite were analyzed. Based on these, the type of carbon composite brick worked in a blast furnace hearth for six years was further sampled at different positions. The protective layer was found and its chemical composition and microscopic morphology were investigated. It is found that the carbon composite brick combines the good properties of both the conventional carbon block and ceramic cup refractory. The protective layer near the hot face consists of two separated sublayers, i.e. the slag layer and the carbon layer. A certain amount of slag phase is contained in the carbon layer, which is caused by the reaction of coke ash with the refractory. No obvious change in the chemical composition of the protective layer along the depth of the sidewall is found. This work provides a useful guidance for the extension of the lifetime of blast furnace hearths.

  1. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A.T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient

  2. Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.

  3. Addition of electric arc furnace dust in hot metal changing the form of addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Vieira, Estefano Aparecido; Telles, Victor Bridi; Grillo, Felipe Fardin; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the incorporation of the mass of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), by addition in hot metal (1.78% Si) at a temperature of 1,400 degrees Celsius. The EAFD is from a steel plant producing long steel. The addition of the EAFD was as received, in the form of briquettes without agitation of the hot metal and in the form of briquettes with agitation of the hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale, took place in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. The fusion experiments to assess the incorporation of EAFD mass used graphite crucibles. After cooling, the hot metal and the slag, remaining in the crucible, were weighed to do a mass balance. A flow of inert gas (argon) was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. Results show that the experiment with addition of EAFD as received presents the best result of incorporating the mass of the final hot metal (1.73%) combined with the lowest percentage of volatilized mass of EAFD (46.52%). The experiment addition of EAFD in the form of briquette with agitation of hot metal presents the lowest percentage of slag mass (4.58%). The zinc content of volatilized EAFD (64.30%) is higher than the zinc content of the imported ore concentrate (52%) and zinc content of the national ore concentrate (12% to 39%). The presence of lead and cadmium in the slag characterizing it as a hazardous solid waste. (author)

  4. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  5. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  6. Non-slag co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaya, Yoshinori; Suami, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobusuke

    2018-02-01

    Gasification is a promising candidate of processes to upgrade biomass and to yield clean gaseous fuel for utilization of renewable energy resources. However, a sufficient amount of biomass is not always available to operate a large scale of the plant. Co-gasification of biomass with coal is proposed as a solution of the problem. Tar emission is another subject during operation in shaft or kiln type of gasifiers employed conventionally for biomass. The present authors proposed co-gasification of biomass and coal in entrained-bed furnace, which is a representative process without tar emission under high temperature, but operated so to collect dust as flyash without molten slag formation. This paper presents the works performed on co-gasification performance of biomass and pulverized coal to apply to entrained-bed type of furnaces. At first, co-gasification of woody powder and pulverized coal examined using the lab-scale test furnace of the down-flow entrained bed showed that the maximum temperatures in the furnace was over 1500 K and the carbon conversion to gas achieved at higher efficiency than 80-90 percent although the residence time in the furnace was as short as a few seconds. Non-slag co-gasification was carried out successfully without slag formation in the furnace if coal containing ash with high fusion temperature was employed. The trend suggesting the effect of reaction rate enhancement of co-gasification was also observed. Secondary, an innovative sewage sludge upgrading system consisting of self-energy recovery processes was proposed to yield bio-dried sludge and to sequentially produce char without adding auxiliary fuel. Carbonization behavior of bio-dried sludge was evaluated through pyrolysis examination in a lab-scale quartz tube reactor. The thermal treatment of pyrolysis of sludge contributed to decomposition and removal of contaminant components such as nitrogen and sulfur. The gasification kinetics of sludge and coal was also determined by a

  7. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, James P.; Johnson, Beverly E.; Beri, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  8. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  9. Raman characterization of bulk ferromagnetic nanostructured graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Helena; Divine Khan, Ngwashi; Faccio, Ricardo; Araújo-Moreira, F.M.; Fernández-Werner, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize bulk ferromagnetic graphite samples prepared by controlled oxidation of commercial pristine graphite powder. The G:D band intensity ratio, the shape and position of the 2D band and the presence of a band around 2950 cm -1 showed a high degree of disorder in the modified graphite sample, with a significant presence of exposed edges of graphitic planes as well as a high degree of attached hydrogen atoms.

  10. Fabrication of Graphene by Cleaving Graphite Chemically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu-hua; ZHAO Xiao-ting; FAN Hou-gang; YANG Li-li; ZHANG Yong-jun; YANG Jing-hai

    2011-01-01

    Graphite was chemically cleaved to graphene by Billups Reaction,and the morphologies and microstructures of graphene were characterized by SEM,Raman and AFM.The results show that the graphite was first functionalized by l-iodododecane,which led to the cleavage of the graphene layer in the graphite.The second decoration cleaved the graphite further and graphene was obtained.The heights of the graphene layer were larger than 1 nm due to the organic decoration.

  11. Lead determination in uranium mineralization soils by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite oven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Gleber Tacio

    2001-01-01

    The contamination of soils by lead has a great environmental importance due to its toxicity to vegetables, animals and humans. In general, the mobility of the lead is small due to its low solubility and strong adsorption in the soil. However, its solubility can be altered by several conditions (pH, redox potential and ionic stronger). Consequently, lead can migrate through the soil and can contaminate superficial and underground waters. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of total lead in soil samples with uranium mineralization, in an area at Ipora/GO, having been evaluated as economically insuitable the extraction of that mineral. The radiogenic lead appears as a product of natural radioactive elements decay. In the decay series of uranium-238 we found the isotope lead-214 (half-life of 26,8 min), lead-210 (half-life of 22,3 min), and lead-206 that is stable. The sampling was done in profiles around north, south, east and west directions, starting from a reference point (FT), chosen by presenting the largest radiation of that place (4800 cps). A mass of 1 Kg of superficial soil was collected to each 20 m, in each profile, until 150 m of FT. Approximately, 1 g of dry soil, fraction 2 mm, was digested with a mixture of acids HNO 3 /HClO 4 2:1 (v/v), and the resulting solution was analyzed by atomic absorption. An atomic absorption spectrometer was used with graphite furnace, with deuterium arc to background correction and pyrolytic coated tube. Phosphoric acid was used as chemical modifier. The obtained results, using the standard additions method, presented a decrease of the lead concentration, in all profiles, when the distance of FT was increased. It was also made a radiometric screening in each sampling point. The lead concentration variate from 115,1 μg.g -1 in FT, to less than 40 μg.g -1 at 150 m of distance of FT ( 3 ) 2 was used. The method was applied to a certified sample, showing a good agreement between certified and

  12. Fouling of heat exchanger surfaces by dust particles from flue gases of glass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutsaers, P.L.M.; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Waal, H. de (Nederlandse Centrale Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk Onderzoek, Delft. Inst. of Applied Physics)

    1989-08-01

    Fouling by dust particles generally leads to a reduction of the heat transfer and causes corrosion of secondary heat exchangers. A deposition model, including thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, has been derived and applied to describe the deposition (i.e. fouling) process and the nature of the deposition products in a secondary heat exchanger. The deposition model has been verified by means of laboratory experiments, for the case of flue gases from soda-lime glass furnaces. Corrosion of iron-containing metallic materials, caused by the deposition products, has been briefly investigated with the same equipment. There is a close similarity between the experimental results and model calculations. The largest deposition rates from flue gases on cylindrical tubes in cross-flow configuration, are predicted and measured at the upstream stagnation point. The lowest deposition rates are determined at downstream stagnation point locations. At tube surface temperatures of approximately 520 to 550 K, the fouling rate on the tube reaches a maximum. In this temperature region NaHSO{sub 4} is the most important deposition product. This component is mainly formed at temperatures from 470 up to 540 K. The compound Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} seems to be stable up to 570 K, for even higher temperatures Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} has been found. These deposition products react with iron, SO{sub 3}, oxygen and water vapour forming the complex corrosion product Na{sub 3}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. NaHSO{sub 4}, which is formed at tube surface temperatures below 540 K, causes more severe corrosion of iron-containing materials than Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Maintaining temperatures of the heat exchanger surfaces above 550 to 600 K reduces the fouling tendency and corrosion in case of flue gases from oil-fired soda-lime glass furnaces. (orig.).

  13. Method of Joining Graphite Fibers to a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Durwood M. (Inventor); Caron, Mark E. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor); Gleason, Brian P. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of assembling a metallic-graphite structure includes forming a wetted graphite subassembly by arranging one or more layers of graphite fiber material including a plurality of graphite fibers and applying a layer of metallization material to ends of the plurality of graphite fibers. At least one metallic substrate is secured to the wetted graphite subassembly via the layer of metallization material.

  14. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  15. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, Pratibha; Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 X 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium (He) glow discharge cleaning (GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nanometers from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.48. In this paper, the results of effect of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (author)

  16. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semwal, P; Khan, Z; Raval, D C; Dhanani, K R; George, S; Paravastu, Y; Prakash, A; Thankey, P; Ramesh, G; Khan, M S; Saikia, P; Pradhan, S

    2017-01-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10 -5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail. (paper)

  17. Baking and helium glow discharge cleaning of SST-1 Tokamak with graphite plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, P.; Khan, Z.; Raval, D. C.; Dhanani, K. R.; George, S.; Paravastu, Y.; Prakash, A.; Thankey, P.; Ramesh, G.; Khan, M. S.; Saikia, P.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-04-01

    Graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) were installed inside the SST-1 vacuum vessel. Prior to installation, all the graphite tiles were baked at 1000 °C in a vacuum furnace operated below 1.0 × 10-5 mbar. However due to the porous structure of graphite, they absorb a significant amount of water vapour from air during the installation process. Rapid desorption of this water vapour requires high temperature bake-out of the PFCs at ≥ 250 °C. In SST-1 the PFCs were baked at 250 °C using hot nitrogen gas facility to remove the absorbed water vapour. Also device with large graphite surface area has the disadvantage that a large quantity of hydrogen gets trapped inside it during plasma discharges which makes density control difficult. Helium glow discharge cleaning (He-GDC) effectively removes this stored hydrogen as well as other impurities like oxygen and hydrocarbon within few nano-meters from the surface by particle induced desorption. Before plasma operation in SST-1 tokamak, both baking of PFCs and He-GDC were carried out so that these impurities were removed effectively. The mean desorption yield of hydrogen was found to be 0.24. In this paper the results of baking and He-GDC experiments of SST-1 will be presented in detail.

  18. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Howe, Jane Y [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Yoon, Steve [A123 Systems, Inc.; Denlinger, Matthew [A123 Systems, Inc.; Wood III, David L [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  19. Photoemission study of K on graphite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennich, P.; Puglia, C.; Brühwiler, P.A.; Nilsson, A.; Sandell, A.; Mårtensson, N.; Rudolf, P.

    1999-01-01

    The physical and electronic structure of the dispersed and (2×2) phases of K/graphite have been characterized by valence and core-level photoemission. Charge transfer from K to graphite is found to occur at all coverages, and includes transfer of charge to the second graphite layer. A rigid band

  20. Separation medium containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A separation medium, such as a chromatography filling or packing, containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g, wherein the thermally exfoliated graphite oxide has a surface that has been at least partially functionalized.

  1. NMR studies on graphite-methanol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Akkad, T.M.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic relaxation times for protons of methanol on graphite have been studied. The perpendicular and the transversal magnetization as a function of temperature were measured. The results show that the presence of graphite slowed down the methanol movement compared with that in the pure alcohol, and that the methanol molecules are attached to the graphite surface via methyl groups. (author)

  2. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  3. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  4. Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C.; Caron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation

  5. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  6. Formation mechanism of the protective layer in a blast furnace hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Xu, Meng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A variety of techniques, such as chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were applied to characterize the adhesion protective layer formed below the blast furnace taphole level when a certain amount of titanium- bearing burden was used. Samples of the protective layer were extracted to identify the chemical composition, phase assemblage, and distribution. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the protective layer was determined after clarifying the source of each component. Finally, a technical strategy was proposed for achieving a stable protective layer in the hearth. The results show that the protective layer mainly exists in a bilayer form in the sidewall, namely, a titanium-bearing layer and a graphite layer. Both the layers contain the slag phase whose major crystalline phase is magnesium melilite (Ca2MgSi2O7) and the main source of the slag phase is coke ash. It is clearly determined that solid particles such as graphite, Ti(C,N) and MgAl2O4 play an important role in the formation of the protective layer, and the key factor for promoting the formation of a stable protective layer is reasonable control of the evolution behavior of coke.

  7. Continuous denitration device using a microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    1982-04-01

    A continuous denitration device is described that enables to obtain dried U or Pu dioxide or a mixture of these from a solution of uranyl or plutonium nitrate or a mixed solution of these by irradiation with microwaves. This device allows uranyl or plutonium nitrate to crystallize and the resulting crystals to be separated from the solution. A belt conveyer carries the crystals to a microwave heating furnace for denitration. Approximately 2.4 kg dried cake of U dioxide per hour is obtained [fr

  8. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  9. Advances in chemical and physical properties of electric arc furnace carbon steel slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Ioannis; Papayianni, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    Slags are recognised as a highly efficient, cost effective tool in the metal processing industry, by minimising heat losses, reducing metal oxidation through contact with air, removing metal impurities and protecting refractories and graphite electrodes. When compared to natural aggregates for use in the construction industry, slags have higher specific weight that acts as an economic deterrent. A method of altering the specific weight of EAFC slag by hot stage processing and mineral mixing, during steel production is presented in this article. The method has minimal interference with the production process of steel, even by limited additions of appropriate minerals at high temperatures. Five minerals are examined, namely perlite, ladle furnace slag, bauxite, diatomite and olivine. Measurements of specific weight are accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence (XRF) analysis and scanning electron microscopy spectral images. It is also shown how altering the chemical composition is expected to affect the furnace refractory lining. Additionally, the process has been repeated for the most suitable mix in gas furnace and physical properties (FI, SI, LA, PSV, AAV, volume stability) examined. Alteration of the specific weight can result in tailoring slag properties for specific applications in the construction sector. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon nanostructures obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darias Gonzalez, J. G.; Hernandez Tabare, L.; Herrera Palma, V.; Sierra Trujillo, J. S.; Desdin Garcia, L. F.; Codorniu Pujals, D.; Bermudez Martinez, A.; Arias de Fuentes, O.; Maury Toledo, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the application of the method of underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes for obtaining several carbon nano structures is described. The analysis of the obtained products by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the samples collected from the material floating on the water surface were composed mainly by polyhedral onion-like particles, while those taken from the precipitate were a mixture multi walled nano-tubes, onion-like particles and other graphitic structures. The main features of the obtained nano structures are discussed. (Author)

  11. Growth of carbon nanotubes in arc plasma treated graphite disc: microstructural characterization and electrical conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B. B.; Sahu, R. K.; Dash, T.; Pradhan, S.

    2018-03-01

    Circular graphite discs were treated in arc plasma by varying arcing time. Analysis of the plasma treated discs by field emission scanning electron microscope revealed globular grain morphologies on the surfaces, but when the same were observed at higher magnification and higher resolution under transmission electron microscope, growth of multiwall carbon nanotubes of around 2 nm diameter was clearly seen. In situ growth of carbon nanotube bundles/bunches consisting of around 0.7 nm tube diameter was marked in the case of 6 min treated disc surface. Both the untreated and the plasma treated graphite discs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectra of X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy and BET surface area measurement. From Raman spectra, BET surface area and microstructure observed in transmission electron microscope, growth of several layers of graphene was identified. Four-point probe measurements for electrical resistivity/conductivity of the graphite discs treated under different plasma conditions showed significant increase in conductivity values over that of untreated graphite conductivity value and the best result, i.e., around eightfold increase in conductivity, was observed in the case of 6 min plasma treated sample exhibiting carbon nanotube bundles/bunches grown on disc surface. By comparing the microstructures of the untreated and plasma treated graphite discs, the electrical conductivity increase in graphite disc is attributed to carbon nanotubes (including bundles/bunches) growth on disc surface by plasma treatment.

  12. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  13. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P.M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC 6 and YbC 6 in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition

  14. Graphite oral tattoo: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-10-16

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more frequently in the region of the alveolar ridge. Graphite tattoos occur in younger patients when compared with the amalgam type. Histologically, amalgam lesions represent impregnation of the reticular fibers of vessels and nerves with silver, whereas in cases of graphite tattoos, this impregnation is not observed, but it is common to observe a granulomatous inflammatory response, less evident in cases of amalgam tattoos. Both types of lesions require no treatment, but in some cases a biopsy may be done to rule out melanocytic lesions.

  15. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  16. Oxidation parameters of nuclear graphite for HTGR air-ingress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.S.; No, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate chemical behaviors of the graphite during an air-ingress accident in HTGR, the kinetic tests on nuclear graphite IG-110 were performed in chemical reaction dominant regime. In the present experiment, inlet gas flow rate ranged between 8 and 18 SLPM, graphite temperatures and oxygen mole fraction ranged from 540 to 630degC and from 3 to 30% respectively. The test section was made of a quartz tube having 75 mm diameter and 750 mm length and the test specimen machined to the size of 21 mm diameter and 30 mm length was supported at the center of it by the alumina rod. The 15 kW induction heater was installed around the outside of test section to heat the specimen and its temperature was measured by 2 infrared thermometers. The oxidation rate was calculated from the gas concentration analysis between inlet and outlet using NDIR (non-dispersive infrared) gas analyzer. As a result the activation energy (Ea) and the order of reaction (n) were determined within 95% confidence level and the qualitative characteristics of the two parameters were also widely investigated by experimental and analytical methods. (author)

  17. Graphite nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki

    Nanocomposites composed of polymer matrices with clay reinforcements of less than 100 nm in size, are being considered for applications such as interior and exterior accessories for automobiles, structural components for portable electronic devices, and films for food packaging. While most nanocomposite research has focused on exfoliated clay platelets, the same nanoreinforcement concept can be applied to another layered material, graphite, to produce nanoplatelets and nanocomposites. Graphite is the stiffest material found in nature (Young's Modulus = 1060 GPa), having a modulus several times that of clay, but also with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The key to utilizing graphite as a platelet nanoreinforcement is in the ability to exfoliate this material. Also, if the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with not only excellent mechanical properties but electrical properties as well, opening up many new structural applications as well as non-structural ones where electromagnetic shielding and high thermal conductivity are requirements. In this research, a new process to fabricate exfoliated nano-scale graphite platelets was established (Patent pending). The size of the resulted graphite platelets was less than 1 um in diameter and 10 nm in thickness, and the surface area of the material was around 100 m2/g. The reduction of size showed positive effect on mechanical properties of composites because of the increased edge area and more functional groups attached with it. Also various surface treatment techniques were applied to the graphite nanoplatelets to improve the surface condition. As a result, acrylamide grafting treatment was found to enhance the dispersion and adhesion of graphite flakes in epoxy matrices. The resulted composites showed better mechanical properties than those with commercially available carbon fibers, vapor grown carbon fibers

  18. A simple method for preparing superconducting FeSe pellets without sealing in evacuated silica tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting tetragonal FeSe pellets were made by reacting mixtures of elemental Fe and Se powders in argon atmosphere without sealing in evacuated silica tubes. A simple tube furnace has been used. Although the tube's material consisted of quartz, an alumina tube could be used as well. X......-ray pure samples with onset of superconducting transition between 8.0K and 8.5K were obtained under specific heat treatment conditions. Residual, unreacted Fe particles could be virtually eliminated through prolonged annealing. A key factor for the synthesis of good samples consists in using processing...

  19. Characterisation of Chlorine Behavior in French Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, A.; Moncoffre, N.; Toulhoat, N.; Bererd, N.; Petit, L.; Laurent, G.; Lamouroux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine 36 is one of the main radionuclides of concern for French graphite waste disposal. In order to help the understanding of its leaching behaviour under disposal conditions, the respective impact of temperature, irradiation and gas radiolysis on chlorine release in reactor has been studied. Chlorine 36 has been simulated through chlorine 37 ion implantation in virgin nuclear graphite samples. Results show that part of chlorine is highly mobile in graphite in the range of French reactors operating temperatures in relation with graphite structural recovering. Ballistic damage generated by irradiation also promotes chlorine release whereas no clear impact of the coolant gas radiolysis was observed in the absence of graphite radiolytic corrosion. (author)

  20. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  1. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  2. Emission spectroscopy for coal-fired cyclone furnace diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrmeyer, J.A.; Boll, D.E.; Smith, R. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    Using a spectrograph and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, ultraviolet and visible light emission spectra were obtained from a coal-burning electric utility's cyclone furnaces operating at either fuel-rich or fuel-lean conditions. The aim of this effort is to identify light emission signals that can be related to a cyclone furnace's operating condition in order to adjust its air/fuel ratio to minimize pollutant production. Emission spectra at the burner and outlet ends of cyclone furnaces were obtained. Spectra from all cyclone burners show emission lines for the trace elements Li, Na, K, and Rb, as well as the molecular species OH and CaOH. The Ca emission line is detected at the burner end of both the fuel-rich and fuellean cyclone furnaces but is not detected at the outlet ends of either furnace type. Along with the disappearance of Ca is a concomitant increase in the CaOH signal at the outlet end of both types of furnaces. The OH signal strength is in general stronger when viewing at the burner end rather than the exhaust end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces, probably due to high, non-equilibrium amounts of OH present inside the furnace. Only one molecular species was detected that could be used as a measure of air/fuel ratio: MgOH. It was detected at the burner end of fuel-rich cyclone furnaces but not detected in fuel-lean cyclone furnaces. More direct markers of air/fuel ratio, such as CO and 02 emission, were not detected, probably due to the generally weak nature of molecular emission relative to ambient blackbody emission present in the cyclone furnaces, even at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  3. Materials tests and analyses of Faraday shield tubes for ICRF [ion cyclotron resonant frequency] antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.F.; Baity, F.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Walls, J.C.; Taylor, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) antennas for heating fusion plasmas require careful analysis of the materials selected for the design and the successful fabrication of high integrity braze bonds. Graphite tiles are brazed to Inconel 625 Faraday shield tubes to protect the antenna from the plasma. The bond between the graphite and Inconel tube is difficult to achieve due to the different coefficients of thermal expansion. A 2-D stress analysis showed the graphite could be bonded to Inconel with a Ag-Cu-Ti braze alloy without cracking the graphite. Brazing procedures and nondestructive examination methods have been developed for these joints. This paper presents the results of our joining development and proof testing. 2 refs., 3 figs

  4. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  5. Fire-tube boiler optimization criteria and efficiency indicators rational values defining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrakov, P. A.; Mikhailov, A. G.; Ignatov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Technical and economic calculations problems solving with the aim of identifying the opportunity to recommend the project for industrial implementation are represented in the paper. One of the main determining factors impacting boiler energy efficiency is the exhaust gases temperature, as well as the furnace volume thermal stress. Fire-tube boilers with different types of furnaces are considered in the study. The fullest analysis of the boiler performance thermal and technical indicators for the following engineering problem: Q=idem, M=idem and evaluation according to η, B is presented. The furnace with the finned ellipse profile application results in the fuel consumption decrease due to a more efficient heat exchange surface of the furnace compared to other examined ones.

  6. Progress in radioactive graphite waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive graphite constitutes a major waste stream which arises during the decommissioning of certain types of nuclear installations. Worldwide, a total of around 250 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite, comprising graphite moderators and reflectors, will require management solutions in the coming years. 14 C is the radionuclide of greatest concern in nuclear graphite; it arises principally through the interaction of reactor neutrons with nitrogen, which is present in graphite as an impurity or in the reactor coolant or cover gas. 3 H is created by the reactions of neutrons with 6 Li impurities in graphite as well as in fission of the fuel. 36 Cl is generated in the neutron activation of chlorine impurities in graphite. Problems in the radioactive waste management of graphite arise mainly because of the large volumes requiring disposal, the long half-lives of the main radionuclides involved and the specific properties of graphite - such as stored Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility and the potential for radioactive gases to be released. Various options for the management of radioactive graphite have been studied but a generally accepted approach for its conditioning and disposal does not yet exist. Different solutions may be appropriate in different cases. In most of the countries with radioactive graphite to manage, little progress has been made to date in respect of the disposal of this material. Only in France has there been specific thinking about a dedicated graphite waste-disposal facility (within ANDRA): other major producers of graphite waste (UK and the countries of the former Soviet Union) are either thinking in terms of repository disposal or have no developed plans. A conference entitled 'Solutions for Graphite Waste: a Contribution to the Accelerated Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Nuclear Reactors' was held at the University of Manchester 21-23 March 2007 in order to stimulate progress in radioactive graphite waste management

  7. Voronoi-Tessellated Graphite Produced by Low-Temperature Catalytic Graphitization from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leyi; Zhao, Xiuyun; Burke, Luke T; Bennett, J Craig; Dunlap, Richard A; Obrovac, Mark N

    2017-09-11

    A highly crystalline graphite powder was prepared from the low temperature (800-1000 °C) graphitization of renewable hard carbon precursors using a magnesium catalyst. The resulting graphite particles are composed of Voronoi-tessellated regions comprising irregular sheets; each Voronoi-tessellated region having a small "seed" particle located near their centroid on the surface. This suggests nucleated outward growth of graphitic carbon, which has not been previously observed. Each seed particle consists of a spheroidal graphite shell on the inside of which hexagonal graphite platelets are perpendicularly affixed. This results in a unique high surface area graphite with a high degree of graphitization that is made with renewable feedstocks at temperatures far below that conventionally used for artificial graphites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  9. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  10. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Claus Unit Reaction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pahlavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction furnace is the most important part of the Claus sulfur recovery unit and its performance has a significant impact on the process efficiency. Too many reactions happen in the furnace and their kinetics and mechanisms are not completely understood; therefore, modeling reaction furnace is difficult and several works have been carried out on in this regard so far. Equilibrium models are commonly used to simulate the furnace, but the related literature states that the outlet of furnace is not in equilibrium and the furnace reactions are controlled by kinetic laws; therefore, in this study, the reaction furnace is simulated by a kinetic model. The predicted outlet temperature and concentrations by this model are compared with experimental data published in the literature and the data obtained by PROMAX V2.0 simulator. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed kinetic model and PROMAX simulator is almost similar, but the kinetic model used in this paper has two importance abilities. Firstly, it is a distributed model and can be used to obtain the temperature and concentration profiles along the furnace. Secondly, it is a dynamic model and can be used for analyzing the transient behavior and designing the control system.

  12. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K; Oeini, J; Koskiahde, A; Jokiniemi, J; Pyykkoenen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  13. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  14. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  15. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  16. Non-polluting steam generators with fluidized-bed furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H [Deutsche Babcock A.G., Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-07-01

    The author reports on a 35 MW steam generator with hard coal fluidized-bed furnace a planned 35 MW steam generator with flotation-dirt fluidized-bed furnace, and on planned steam generators for fluidized-bed firing of hard coal up to a steam power of about 200 MW.

  17. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  18. Graphite structure and magnetic parameters of flake graphite cast iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, T.; Tomáš, Ivan; Kage, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 442, Nov (2017), s. 397-402 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic NDE * magnetic adaptive testing * cast iron * graphite structure * pearlite content Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  19. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  20. The radioactivity estimation of 14C and 3H in graphite waste samples of the KRR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyoung Kim, Hee

    2013-09-01

    The radioactivity of (14)C and (3)H in graphite samples from the dismantled Korea Research Reactor-2 (the KRR-2) site was analyzed by high-temperature oxidation and liquid scintillation counting, and the graphite waste was suggested to be disposed of as a low-level radioactive waste. The graphite samples were oxidized at a high temperature of 800 °C, and their counting rates were measured by using a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The combustion ratio of the graphite was about 99% on the sample with a maximum weight of 1g. The recoveries from the combustion furnace were around 100% and 90% in (14)C and (3)H, respectively. The minimum detectable activity was 0.04-0.05 Bq/g for the (14)C and 0.13-0.15 Bq/g for the (3)H at the same background counting time. The activity of (14)C was higher than that of (3)H over all samples with the activity ratios of the (14)C to (3)H, (14)C/(3)H, being between 2.8 and 25. The dose calculation was carried out from its radioactivity analysis results. The dose estimation gave a higher annual dose than the domestic legal limit for a clearance. It was thought that the sampled graphite waste from the dismantled research reactor was not available for reuse or recycling and should be monitored as low-level radioactive waste. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in the graphitization protocol at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Kita D., E-mail: kitamacario@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Instituto deFísica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n°, Niterói, RJ, 24210-346 (Brazil); Oliveira, Fabiana M. [Departamento de Física, Instituto deFísica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n°, Niterói, RJ, 24210-346 (Brazil); Carvalho, Carla [Departamento de Geoquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Outeiro São João Batista, s/n°, Niterói, RJ, 24020-150 (Brazil); Santos, Guaciara M.; Xu, Xiaomei [Department of Earth System Science, B321 Croul Hall, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697-3100 (United States); Chanca, Ingrid S.; Alves, Eduardo Q.; Jou, Renata M.; Oliveira, Maria Isabela; Pereira, Bruna B.; Moreira, Vinicius; Muniz, Marcelo C.; Linares, Roberto; Gomes, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Meigikos dos Anjos, Roberto [Departamento de Física, Instituto deFísica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus da Praia Vermelha, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n°, Niterói, RJ, 24210-346 (Brazil); and others

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we summarize the sample preparation methods currently used at the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil. We also report on a series of results with regards to the graphitization protocol. Tests with different temperatures and baking times were performed, and carbon stable isotope ratios of graphite were measured by an EA–IRMS (elemental analyzer coupled with an isotopic ratio mass spectrometer) to infer the completeness of the graphitization reaction. We monitored the muffle furnace temperature using an independent thermocouple and found a −60 °C offset, which may have caused the lower graphitization yields (detected from the large isotopic fractionation on several reference materials targets). At a temperature of 520 °C, the isotopic fractionation in the graphitization reaction was systematically lower (−5‰ in average) and the overall scattering was reduced. As long as isotopic fractionation corrections are made using the online stable isotopes ratios provided by the AMS system, the accuracy of the {sup 14}C results should be maintained.

  2. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  3. Modeling, Prediction, and Control of Heating Temperature for Tube Billet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Annular furnaces have multivariate, nonlinear, large time lag, and cross coupling characteristics. The prediction and control of the exit temperature of a tube billet are important but difficult. We establish a prediction model for the final temperature of a tube billet through OS-ELM-DRPLS method. We address the complex production characteristics, integrate the advantages of PLS and ELM algorithms in establishing linear and nonlinear models, and consider model update and data lag. Based on the proposed model, we design a prediction control algorithm for tube billet temperature. The algorithm is validated using the practical production data of Baosteel Co., Ltd. Results show that the model achieves the precision required in industrial applications. The temperature of the tube billet can be controlled within the required temperature range through compensation control method.

  4. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  5. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  6. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe 3 O 4 . Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe 2 O 3 . Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs

  7. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  8. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252 Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252 Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  9. Fission Product Sorptivity in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, Jr., Robert V. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Loyalka, Sudarshan [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Ghosh, Tushar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Viswanath, Dabir [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Walton, Kyle [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Haffner, Robert [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Both adsorption and absorption (sorption) of fission product (FP) gases on/into graphite are issues of interest in very high temperature reactors (VHTRs). In the original proposal, we proposed to use packed beds of graphite particles to measure sorption at a variety of temperatures and to use an electrodynamic balance (EDB) to measure sorption onto single graphite particles (a few μm in diameter) at room temperature. The use of packed beds at elevated temperature is not an issue. However, the TPOC requested revision of this initial proposal to included single particle measurements at elevated temperatures up to 1100 °C. To accommodate the desire of NEUP to extend the single particle EDB measurements to elevated temperatures it was necessary to significantly revise the plan and the budget. These revisions were approved. In the EDB method, we levitate a single graphite particle (the size, surface characteristics, morphology, purity, and composition of the particle can be varied) or agglomerate in the balance and measure the sorption of species by observing the changes in mass. This process involves the use of an electron stepping technique to measure the total charge on a particle which, in conjunction with the measured suspension voltages for the particle, allows for determinations of mass and, hence, of mass changes which then correspond to measurements of sorption. Accommodating elevated temperatures with this type of system required a significant system redesign and required additional time that ultimately was not available. These constraints also meant that the grant had to focus on fewer species as a result. Overall, the extension of the original proposed single particle work to elevated temperatures added greatly to the complexity of the proposed project and added greatly to the time that would eventually be required as well. This means that the bulk of the experimental progress was made using the packed bed sorption systems. Only being able to recruit one

  10. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  11. Graphite for high-temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, W.; Leushacke, D.F.; Nickel, H.; Theymann, W.

    1976-01-01

    The different graphites necessary for HTRs are being developed, produced and tested within the Federal German ''Development Programme Nuclear Graphite''. Up to now, batches of the following graphite grades have been manufactured and fully characterized by the SIGRI Company to demonstrate reproducibility: pitch coke graphite AS2-500 for the hexagonal fuel elements and exchangeable reflector blocks; special pitch coke graphite ASI2-500 for reflector blocks of the pebble-bed reactor and as back-up material for the hexagonal fuel elements; graphite for core support columns. The material data obtained fulfill most of the requirements under present specifications. Production of large-size blocks for the permanent side reflector and the core support blocks is under way. The test programme covers all areas important for characterizing and judging HTR-graphites. In-pile testing comprises evaluation of the material for irradiation-induced changes of dimensions, mechanical and thermal properties - including behaviour under temperature cycling and creep behaviour - as well as irradiating fuel element segments and blocks. Testing out-of-pile includes: evaluation of corrosion rates and influence of corrosion on strength; strength measurements; including failure criteria. The test programme has been carried out extensively on the AS2-graphite, and the results obtained show that this graphite is suitable as HTGR fuel element graphite. (author)

  12. Chapter 5: Exponential experiments on natural uranium graphite moderated systems. II: Correlation of results with the method of Syrett (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.G.F.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    The results are given of exponential experiments on graphite moderated systems with fuel elements consisting of single rods and tubes of natural uranium metal. A correlation is given with the method of calculation proposed by Syrett (1961) and new consistent values of neutron yield and effective resonance integral are derived. (author)

  13. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  14. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  15. Developments in natural uranium - graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, J.

    1964-01-01

    The French natural uranium-graphite power-reactor programme has been developing - from EDF 1 to EDF 4 - in the direction of an increase of the unit power of the installations, of the specific and volume powers, and of an improvement in the operational security conditions. The high power of EDF 4 (500 MWe) and the integration of the primary circuit into the reactor vessel, which is itself made of pre-stressed concrete, make it possible to make the most of the annular fuel elements already in use in EDF 1, and to arrive thus at a very satisfactory solution. The use of an internally cooled fuel element (an annular element) has led to a further step forward: it now becomes possible to increase the pressure of the cooling gas without danger of causing creep in the uranium tube. The use of a pre-stressed concrete vessel makes this pressure increase possible, and the integration of the primary circuit avoids the risk of a rapid depressurization which would be in this case a major danger. This report deals with the main problems presented by this new type of nuclear power station, and gives the main lines of research and studies now being carried out in France. - Neutronic and thermal research has made it possible to consider using large size fuel elements (internal diameter = 77 mm, external diameter 95 mm) while still using natural uranium. - The problems connected with the production of these elements and with their in pile behaviour are the subject of a large programme, both out of pile and in power reactors (EDF 2) and test reactors (Pegase). - The increase in the size of the element leads to a large lattice pitch (35 to 40 cm). This makes it possible to consider having one charging aperture per channel or for a small number of channels, whether the charge machine be inside or outside the pressure vessel. In conclusion are given the main characteristics of a project for a 500 MWe power station using such a fuel element. In particular this project is compared to EDF 4

  16. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  17. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  18. Electrochemical Ultracapacitors Using Graphitic Nanostacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical ultracapacitors (ECs) have been developed using graphitic nanostacks as the electrode material. The advantages of this technology will be the reduction of device size due to superior power densities and relative powers compared to traditional activated carbon electrodes. External testing showed that these materials display reduced discharge response times compared to state-of-the-art materials. Such applications are advantageous for pulsed power applications such as burst communications (satellites, cell phones), electromechanical actuators, and battery load leveling in electric vehicles. These carbon nanostructures are highly conductive and offer an ordered mesopore network. These attributes will provide more complete electrolyte wetting, and faster release of stored charge compared to activated carbon. Electrochemical capacitor (EC) electrode materials were developed using commercially available nanomaterials and modifying them to exploit their energy storage properties. These materials would be an improvement over current ECs that employ activated carbon as the electrode material. Commercially available graphite nanofibers (GNFs) are used as precursor materials for the synthesis of graphitic nanostacks (GNSs). These materials offer much greater surface area than graphite flakes. Additionally, these materials offer a superior electrical conductivity and a greater average pore size compared to activated carbon electrodes. The state of the art in EC development uses activated carbon (AC) as the electrode material. AC has a high surface area, but its small average pore size inhibits electrolyte ingress/egress. Additionally, AC has a higher resistivity, which generates parasitic heating in high-power applications. This work focuses on fabricating EC from carbon that has a very different structure by increasing the surface area of the GNF by intercalation or exfoliation of the graphitic basal planes. Additionally, various functionalities to the GNS

  19. Burner for a wood burning furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolting, H

    1981-12-10

    The burner according to the invention consists of a horizontal tube, whose front wall is penetrated by an intake pipe, which is surrounded by a pipe duct and several divided shells, which are arranged below the pipe duct. The front wall is also provided with air openings. The intake pipe is provided with a spiral and moves chopped wood into the burner.

  20. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.