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Sample records for graphite electrode dc

  1. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600 degrees C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation

  2. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  3. Development of a DC-plasma torch constructed with graphite electrodes and an integrated nebulization system for decomposition of CCl4

    OpenAIRE

    Cubas,Anelise L.V.; Carasek,Eduardo; Debacher,Nito A.; Souza,Ivan G. de

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the development of a continuous flow plasma torch with graphite electrodes and an integrated nebulization system for the elimination of organochlorine liquid waste (carbon tetrachloride) on a small scale. The gases resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbon tetrachloride by the plasma were collected and identified by gas chromatography, coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Monitoring was carried out by gas chromotography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). It was ...

  4. Porous graphite electrodes for rechargeable ion-transfer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, P.; Scheifele, W.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The influence of preparation pressure and pore-forming additives on the properties of graphite-based, Li{sup +}-intercalating electrodes for ion-transfer batteries have been investigated. The electrochemical performance of graphite electrodes could be improved by adjusting the porosity. Specific charge of >300 Ah/kg (with respect to the graphite mass) could be achieved. (author) 4 figs., 2 refs.

  5. Recent advances in graphite powder-based electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido-Milla, Dolores; Cubillana-Aguilera, Laura Ma; El Kaoutit, Mohammed; Hernández-Artiga, Ma Purificación; Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, José Luis; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Ignacio; Palacios-Santander, José Ma

    2013-04-01

    Graphite powder-based electrodes have the electrochemical performance of quasi-noble metal electrodes with intrinsic advantages related to the possibility of modification to enhance selectivity and their easily renewable surface, with no need for hazardous acids or bases for their cleaning. In contrast with commercial electrodes, for example screen-printed or sputtered-chip electrodes, graphite powder-based electrodes can also be fabricated in any laboratory with the form and characteristics desired. They are also readily modified with advanced materials, with relatively high reproducibility. All these characteristics make them a very interesting option for obtaining a large variety of electrodes to resolve different kinds of analytical problems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, advantages, and disadvantages of graphite powder-based electrodes in electrochemical analysis in the 21st century. It includes recent trends in carbon paste electrodes, devoting special attention to the use of emergent materials as new binders and to the development of other composite electrodes. The most recent advances in the use of graphite powder-modified sol-gel electrodes are also described. The development of sonogel-carbon electrodes and their use in electrochemical sensors and biosensors is included. These materials extend the possibilities of applications, especially for industrial technology-transfer purposes, and their development could affect not only electroanalytical green chemistry but other interesting areas also, for example catalysis and energy conversion and storage.

  6. Direct measurement of lithium transport in graphite electrodes using neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owejan, Jon P.; Gagliardo, Jeffrey J.; Harris, Stephen J.; Wang, Howard; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spatiotemporal measurements of lithium through the electrode thickness were quantified with high resolution neutron imaging. ► A nonuniform lithium distribution was observed early in the first intercalation cycle but relaxed as the electrode filled with lithium. ► Through-plane transport resistance in the bulk of the graphite composite electrode was measured. ► The distribution of lost capacity associated with trapped lithium was quantified and linked to regions with low intercalation rates. - Abstract: Lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes is widely studied, but few direct in situ diagnostic methods exist. Such diagnostic methods are desired to probe the influence of factors such as charge rate, electrode structure and solid electrolyte interphase layer transport resistance as they relate to lithium-ion battery performance and durability. In this work, we present a continuous measurement of through-plane lithium distributions in a composite graphite/lithium metal electrochemical cell. Capacity change in a thick graphite electrode was measured during several charge/discharge cycles with high resolution (14 μm) neutron imaging. A custom test fixture and a method for quantifying lithium are described. The measured lithium distribution within the graphite electrode is given as a function of state of charge. Bulk transport resistance is considered by comparing intercalation rates through the thickness of the electrode near the separator and current collector. The residual lithium content associated with irreversible capacity loss that results from cycling is also measured.

  7. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscope study on graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, K.A.; Sato, Tomohiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on graphite electrodes has increased recently in the quest to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Topographic and frictional changes on the surface of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1 M LiCiO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1) electrolyte were examined during charge and discharge by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy simultaneously in real-time. Solid electrolyte interphase film formation commenced at approximately 2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and stable film formation with an island-like morphology was observed below approximately 0.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Further experiments on a KS-44 graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride binder composite electrode showed similar phenomena.

  8. NDT of DC-10 graphite-epoxy rudder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of visual and ultrasonic nondestructive tests (NDT) on a DC-10 rudder constructed of Thornel 300/5208 graphite-epoxy are presented. A viscous couplant was used for both contact pulse-echo ultrasonics and the Fokker bondtester. Attention is given to the stiffness of cohesive bond structures (the rudder is assembled primarily in a basic six-ply pattern), and to possible delamination. A piezoelectric transducer is employed to sense changes in impedance and signal amplitude. In all, four rudder units were evaluated. The main problems found in the units were porosity and cracking. It is noted that rudder unit four was able to be sufficiently cured to permit static tests on all rib, spar, and skin panel interfaces.

  9. Anodic stripping voltammetry using graphite composite solid electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Barek, J.; Kopanica, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, 11-12 (2009), s. 1807-1826 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Graphite composite solid electrode * voltammetry * metals Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  10. Fabrication and electrochemical behavior of single-walled carbon nanotube/graphite-based electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Abdolmajid Bayandori; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Razavi, Taherehsadat; Riahi, Siavash; Rezaei-Zarchi, Saeed; Norouzi, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical method for determining the dihydroxybenzene derivatives on glassy carbon (GC) has been developed. In this method, the performance of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/graphite-based electrode, prepared by mixing SWCNTs and graphite powder, was described. The resulting electrode shows an excellent behavior for redox of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DBA). SWCNT/graphite-based electrode presents a significant decrease in the overvoltage for DBA oxidation as well as a dramatic improvement in the reversibility of DBA redox behavior in comparison with graphite-based and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) procedures performed for used SWCNTs

  11. Electrochemical oxidation of textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Rajendra; Joshi, Himanshu; Mall, Indra D; Srivastava, Vimal C

    2014-01-01

    In the present article, studies have been performed on the electrochemical (EC) oxidation of actual textile industry wastewater by graphite electrodes. Multi-response optimization of four independent parameters namely initial pH (pHo): 4-10, current density (j): 27.78-138.89 A/m(2), NaCl concentration (w): 0-2 g/L and electrolysis time (t): 10-130 min have been performed using Box-Behnken (BB) experimental design. It was aimed to simultaneously maximize the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiencies and minimize specific energy consumption using desirability function approach. Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high coefficient of determination value for COD (R(2) = 0.8418), color (R(2) = 0.7010) and specific energy (R(2) = 0.9125) between the experimental values and the predicted values by a second-order regression model. Maximum COD and color removal and minimum specific energy consumed was 90.78%, 96.27% and 23.58 kWh/kg COD removed, respectively, were observed at optimum conditions. The wastewater, sludge and scum obtained after treatment at optimum condition have been characterized by various techniques. UV-visible study showed that all azo bonds of the dyes present in the wastewater were totally broken and most of the aromatic rings were mineralized during EC oxidation with graphite electrode. Carbon balance showed that out of the total carbon eroded from the graphite electrodes, 27-29.2% goes to the scum, 71.1-73.3% goes into the sludge and rest goes to the treated wastewater. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the generated sludge and scum can be dried and used as a fuel in the boilers/incinerators.

  12. DC breakdown experiments with cobalt electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, Antoine; Nordlund, Kai

    2009-01-01

    RF accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of DC and RF breakdown, a DC breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultra-high vacuum in a simple setup. The conditioning speed, breakdown field and field enhancement factor of cobalt have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning reaches 615 MV/m, which places cobalt amongst the best materials tested so far. By comparison with results and properties of other metals, the high breakdown field of Co could be due to its high work function and maybe also to its hexagonal crystal structure. Geneva, Switzerland (June 2009) CLIC – Note – 875

  13. Direct reform of graphite oxide electrodes by using ambient plasma for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2017-10-01

    Ambient plasma is applied to graphite oxide electrodes directly to improve electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. Surface morphology of the electrodes after the plasma treatment changes dramatically and amount of oxygen reduced significantly, demonstrating a reduction effect on the graphite oxide electrode by the ambient plasma. Equivalent series resistance of the electrode also reduced from 108 Ω to 84 Ω after the plasma treatment. Corresponding specific capacitance, therefore, increases from 0.45 F cm-2 to 0.85 F cm-2, proving that the ambient plasma treatment is very efficient, clean, economic, and environment-friendly method to reform the graphite oxide electrodes directly for the supercapacitor applications.

  14. Stripping voltammetry of thallium, indium and gallium on mercury-graphite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenev, A.I.; Kharitonova, O.I.; Chernova, N.A.; Agasyan, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical Tl(1), In(3) and Ga(3) behaviour in mercury-graphite electrodes by the method of direct-current and alternating-current voltammetry is studied. Comparison of mathematical models and their experimental check are carried out. Possibility to forecast the investigation results is shown, and the procedure for mercury-graphite electrode surface formation necessary in measurements is chosen

  15. 77 FR 37873 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... graphite electrodes are engaged in circumvention of the SDGE Order by exporting graphite electrodes that... constitutes circumvention of the SDGE Order, as defined in section 781(c) of the Act. The petitioners...(j), to determine whether the importation of alleged SDGEs from the PRC constitutes circumvention of...

  16. Molecular simulations of the electric double layer structure, differential capacitance, and charging kinetics for N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide at graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatamanu, Jenel; Borodin, Oleg; Smith, Grant D

    2011-03-31

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed on N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (pyr(13)FSI) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) confined between graphite electrodes as a function of applied potential at 393 and 453 K using an accurate force field developed in this work. The electric double layer (EDL) structure and differential capacitance (DC) of pyr(13)FSI was compared with the results of the previous study of a similar RTIL pyr(13)bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (pyr(13)TFSI) with a significantly larger anion [ Vatamanu, J.; Borodin, O.; Smith, G. D. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 14825]. Intriguingly, the smaller size of the FSI anion compared to TFSI did not result in a significant increase of the DC on the positive electrode. Instead, a 30% higher DC was observed on the negative electrode for pyr(13)FSI compared to pyr(13)TFSI. The larger DC observed on the negative electrode for pyr(13)FSI compared to pyr(13)TFSI was associated with two structural features of the EDL: (a) a closer approach of FSI compared to TFSI to the electrode surface and (b) a faster rate (vs potential decrease) of anion desorption from the electrode surface for FSI compared to TFSI. Additionally, the limiting behavior of DC at large applied potentials was investigated. Finally, we show that constant potential simulations indicate time scales of hundreds of picoseconds required for electrode charge/discharge and EDL formation.

  17. Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation, All-Graphite Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Dyatkin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes. We subjected coreshell spherical particles and synthetic graphite flakes to high-temperature air oxidation, and hydrogenation to introduce, respectively, –OH, and –H surface functional groups. We identified noticeable influences of electrode surface chemistry on first-cycle efficiencies and charge storage densities of anion and cation intercalation into graphite electrodes. We matched oxidized cathodes and hydrogenated anodes in dual-ion batteries and improved their overall performance. Our approach provides novel fundamental insight into the anion intercalation process and suggests inexpensive and environmentally sustainable methods to improve performance of these grid-scale energy storage systems

  18. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau`s Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of {open_quotes}as-received{close_quotes} heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process.

  19. Graphite electrode arc melter demonstration Phase 2 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Anderson, G.L.; O'Connor, W.K.; Oden, L.L.; Turner, P.C.

    1996-06-01

    Several U.S. Department of Energy organizations and the U.S. Bureau of Mines have been collaboratively conducting mixed waste treatment process demonstration testing on the near full-scale graphite electrode submerged arc melter system at the Bureau's Albany (Oregon) Research Center. An initial test series successfully demonstrated arc melter capability for treating surrogate incinerator ash of buried mixed wastes with soil. The conceptual treatment process for that test series assumed that buried waste would be retrieved and incinerated, and that the incinerator ash would be vitrified in an arc melter. This report presents results from a recently completed second series of tests, undertaken to determine the ability of the arc melter system to stably process a wide range of open-quotes as-receivedclose quotes heterogeneous solid mixed wastes containing high levels of organics, representative of the wastes buried and stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Phase 2 demonstration test results indicate that an arc melter system is capable of directly processing these wastes and could enable elimination of an up-front incineration step in the conceptual treatment process

  20. Suppressing propylene carbonate decomposition by coating graphite electrode foil with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.P.; Fu, L.J.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y.P.; Takamura, T.; Wu, H.Q.; Holze, R.

    2007-01-01

    A method has been developed to suppress the decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) by coating graphite electrode foil with a layer of silver. Results from electrochemical impedance measurements show that the Ag-coated graphite electrode presents lower charge transfer resistance and faster diffusion of lithium ions in comparison with the virginal one. Cyclic voltammograms and discharge-charge measurements suggest that the decomposition of propylene carbonate and co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions are prevented, and lithium ions can reversibly intercalate into and deintercalate from the Ag-coated graphite electrode. These results indicate that Ag-coating is a good way to improve the electrochemical performance of graphitic carbon in PC-based electrolyte solutions

  1. Electrochemical Oxidation and Determination of Oxalic Acid at an Exfoliated Graphite-Polystyrene Composite Electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, J.; Manea, F.; Radovan, C.; Corb, I.; Pop, A.; Burtica, G.; Malchev, P.G.; Picken, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    An exfoliated graphite-polystyrene composite electrode was evaluated as analternative electrode in the oxidation and the determination of oxalic acid in 0.1 M Na2SO4supporting electrolyte. Using CV, LSV, CA procedures, linear dependences I vs. C wereobtained in the concentrations range of oxalic

  2. Determination of picogram quantities of oligodeoxynucleotides by stripping voltammetry at mercury modified graphite electrode surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Jelen, František; Fojt, Lukáš; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 577, č. 2 (2005), s. 263-272 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004404; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB4004305; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS5004107; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : pyrolitic graphite electrode * glassy carbon electrode * mercury film electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2005

  3. On the ''memory'' effect and its relation to the mechanism of formation of mercury-graphite electrode in inversion voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, E.Ya.; Petrova, L.G.; Dolgopolova, G.M.; Ignatov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous discharge ionization of lead-copper and cadmium-copper systems on the surface of mercury-plated graphite and graphite electrodes has been studied. A model is suggested of the preparation process of a mercury-plated graphite electrode obtained in simultaneous electroposition of mercury and elements determined as microimpurities. Processes, which occur on the electrode during relaxation time between electrolysis beginning and formation of the mercury phase, may be probable reasons for mutual effects of elements of the mercury-plated graphite electrode

  4. Potassium-Based Dual Ion Battery with Dual-Graphite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Liu, Qian; Chen, Suhua; Lin, Kairui; Xu, Zhi; Lu, Bingan

    2017-08-01

    A potassium ion battery has potential applications for large scale electric energy storage systems due to the abundance and low cost of potassium resources. Dual graphite batteries, with graphite as both anode and cathode, eliminate the use of transition metal compounds and greatly lower the overall cost. Herein, combining the merits of the potassium ion battery and dual graphite battery, a potassium-based dual ion battery with dual-graphite electrode is developed. It delivers a reversible capacity of 62 mA h g -1 and medium discharge voltage of ≈3.96 V. The intercalation/deintercalation mechanism of K + and PF 6 - into/from graphite is proposed and discussed in detail, with various characterizations to support. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Graphite as negative electrode in Li-ion batteries; Le graphite comme electrode negative dans les accumulateurs Li-ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.; Monnier, A. [Timcal SA (France)

    1996-12-31

    The last developments in lithium batteries design have demonstrated the advantages of graphite: competitive cost, flat output curve, high capacity thanks to the obtention of a final compound close to LiC{sub 6}, good behaviour during cycling and a high mass energy. However, these advantages are slightly tarnished by parasite secondary reactions during the evolution of the element. Two different cases are encountered: the formation of a passivation layer (loss of Li ions and formation of irreversible bounds) and the formation of a passivation layer with a reaction between graphite and the solvent (partial destruction of the graphite crystal lattice). In the first case, the theoretical graphite insertion capacity remains at 372 mAh/g while in the second case the insertion capacity is greatly reduced. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  6. Paper Electrodes Coated with Partially-Exfoliated Graphite and Polypyrrole for High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible paper electrodes for supercapacitors were prepared with partially-exfoliated graphite and polypyrrole as the active materials. Graphite was coated on paper with pencil drawing and then electrochemically exfoliated using the cyclic voltammetry (CV technique to obtain the exfoliated graphite (EG-coated paper (EG-paper. Polypyrrole (PPy doped with β-naphthalene sulfonate anions was deposited on EG-paper through in-situ polymerization, leading to the formation of PPy-EG-paper. The as-prepared PPy-EG-paper showed a high electrical conductivity of 10.0 S·cm−1 and could be directly used as supercapacitor electrodes. The PPy-EG-paper electrodes gave a remarkably larger specific capacitance of 2148 F∙g−1 at a current density of 0.8 mA∙cm−2, compared to PPy-graphite-paper (848 F∙g−1. The capacitance value of PPy-EG-paper could be preserved by 80.4% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. In addition, the PPy-EG-paper electrodes demonstrated a good rate capability and a high energy density of 110.3 Wh∙kg−1 at a power density of 121.9 W∙kg−1. This work will pave the way for the discovery of efficient paper-based electrode materials.

  7. Effect of the graphite electrode material on the characteristics of molten salt electrolytically produced carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamali, Ali Reza; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical erosion of a graphite cathode during the electrolysis of molten lithium chloride salt may be used for the preparation of nano-structured carbon materials. It has been found that the structures and morphologies of these carbon nanomaterials are dependent on those of the graphite cathodes employed. A combination of tubular and spherical carbon nanostructures has been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of predominantly planar micro-sized grains and a minor fraction of more irregular nano-sized grains, whilst only spherical carbon nanostructures have been produced from a graphite with a microstructure of primarily nano-sized grains. Based on the experimental results, a best-fit regression equation is proposed that relates the crystalline domain size of the graphite reactants and the carbon products. The carbon nanomaterials prepared possess a fairly uniform mesoporosity with a sharp peak in pore size distribution at around 4 nm. The results are of crucial importance to the production of carbon nanomaterials by way of the molten salt electrolytic method. - Highlights: → Carbon nanomaterials are synthesised by LiCl electrolysis with graphite electrodes. → The degree of crystallinity of graphite reactant and carbon product are related. → A graphite reactant is identified that enables the preparation of carbon nanotubes. → The carbon products possess uniform mesoporosity with narrow pore size distribution.

  8. NO2 Sensor with a Graphite Nanopowder Working Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blechta, Václav; Mergl, Martin; Drogowska, Karolina; Valeš, Václav; Kalbáč, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 226, APR 2016 (2016), s. 299-304 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * graphite nanopowder * ionic liquid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.401, year: 2016

  9. DC graphite arc furnace, a simple system to reduce mixed waste volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Trescot, J. [and others

    1995-12-31

    The volume of low-level radioactive waste can be reduced by the high temperature in a DC Graphite Arc Furnace. This volume reduction can take place with the additional benefit of having the solid residue being stabilized by the vitrified product produced in the process. A DC Graphite Arc Furnace is a simple system in which electricity is used to generate heat to vitrify the material and thermally decompose any organic matter in the waste stream. Examples of this type of waste are protective clothing, resins, and grit blast materials produced in the nuclear industry. The various Department of Energy (DOE) complexes produce similar low-level waste streams. Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. and Svedala/Kennedy Van Saun are engineering and building small 50-kg batch and up to 3,000 kg/hr continuous feed DC furnaces for the remediation, pollution prevention, and decontamination and decommissioning segments of the treatment community. This process has been demonstrated under DOE sponsorship at several facilities and has been shown to produce stable waste forms from surrogate waste materials.

  10. All-Carbon Electrode Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes on Graphite Foil for Flexible Electrochemical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Hwang Ryu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the fabrication of an all-carbon electrode by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use in flexible electrochemical applications. The electrode is composed of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes that are grown directly on a flexible graphite foil. Being all-carbon, the simple fabrication process and the excellent electrochemical characteristics present an approach through which high-performance, highly-stable and cost-effective electrochemical applications can be achieved.

  11. Mechanical Degradation of Graphite/PVDF Composite Electrodes: A Model-Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Higa, K; Mair, S; Chintapalli, M; Balsara, N; Srinivasan, V

    2015-12-11

    Mechanical failure modes of a graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries were investigated by combining realistic stress-stain tests and mathematical model predictions. Samples of PVDF mixed with conductive additive were prepared in a similar way to graphite electrodes and tested while submerged in electrolyte solution. Young's modulus and tensile strength values of wet samples were found to be approximately one-fifth and one-half of those measured for dry samples. Simulations of graphite particles surrounded by binder layers given the measured material property values suggest that the particles are unlikely to experience mechanical damage during cycling, but that the fate of the surrounding composite of PVDF and conductive additive depends completely upon the conditions under which its mechanical properties were obtained. Simulations using realistic property values produced results that were consistent with earlier experimental observations.

  12. Voltammetric Determination of Phenylglyoxylic Acid in Urine Using Graphite Composite Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šenholdová, Z.; Shanmugam, K.; Barek, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2006), s. 201-206 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42; GA ČR GA203/03/0182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphite composite electrode * voltammetry * styrene * vinylbenzene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  13. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  14. High-temperature solid electrolyte interphases (SEI) in graphite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F.; Sayed, Farheen N.; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal fragility of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a major source of performance decay in graphite anodes, and efforts to overcome the issues offered by extreme environments to Li-ion batteries have had limited success. Here, we demonstrate that the SEI can be extensively reinforced by carrying the formation cycles at elevated temperatures. Under these conditions, decomposition of the ionic liquid present in the electrolyte favored the formation of a thicker and more protective layer. Cells in which the solid electrolyte interphase was cast at 90 °C were significantly less prone to self-discharge when exposed to high temperature, with no obvious damages to the formed SEI. This additional resilience was accomplished at the expense of rate capability, as charge transfer became growingly inefficient in these systems. At slower rates, however, cells that underwent SEI formation at 90 °C presented superior performances, as a result of improved Li+ transport through the SEI, and optimal wetting of graphite by the electrolyte. This work analyzes different graphite hosts and ionic liquids, showing that this effect is more pervasive than anticipated, and offering the unique perspective that, for certain systems, temperature can actually be an asset for passivation.

  15. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B12 in real samples.

  16. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B{sub 12} analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Institute of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Vural, Tayfun [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Kuralay, Filiz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Ordu University, 52200 Ordu (Turkey); Çırak, Tamer [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Institute of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denkbaş, Emir Baki, E-mail: denkbas@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-06-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B{sub 12} analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B{sub 12} concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B{sub 12} in real samples.

  17. A high-performance carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhao, G.; An, L.; Zeng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for VRFBs. • The energy efficiency is up to 84.8% at 100 mA cm −2 . • The new electrode allows the peak power density to reach 508 mW cm −2 . - Abstract: Increasing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), especially the energy efficiency and power density, is critically important to reduce the system cost to a level for widespread commercialization. Unlike conventional VRFBs with flow-through structure, in this work we create a VRFB featuring a flow-field structure with a carbon nanoparticle-decorated graphite felt electrode for the battery. This novel structure, exhibiting a significantly reduced ohmic loss through reducing electrode thickness, an increased surface area and improved electrocatalytic activity by coating carbon nanoparticles, allows the energy efficiency up to 84.8% at a current density of as high as 100 mA cm −2 and the peak power density to reach a value of 508 mW cm −2 . In addition, it is demonstrated that the battery with this proposed structure exhibits a substantially improved rate capability and capacity retention as opposed to conventional flow-through structured battery with thick graphite felt electrodes.

  18. Disposable pencil graphite electrode modified with peptide nanotubes for Vitamin B12 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pala, Betül Bozdoğan; Vural, Tayfun; Kuralay, Filiz; Çırak, Tamer; Bolat, Gülçin; Abacı, Serdar; Denkbaş, Emir Baki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, peptide nanostructures from diphenylalanine were synthesized in various solvents with various polarities and characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) techniques. Formation of peptide nanofibrils, nanovesicles, nanoribbons, and nanotubes was observed in different solvent mediums. In order to investigate the effects of peptide nanotubes (PNT) on electrochemical behavior of disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGE), electrode surfaces were modified with fabricated peptide nanotubes. Electrochemical activity of the pencil graphite electrode was increased with the deposition of PNTs on the surface. The effects of the solvent type, the peptide nanotube concentration, and the passive adsorption time of peptide nanotubes on pencil graphite electrode were studied. For further electrochemical studies, electrodes were modified for 30 min by immobilizing PNTs, which were prepared in water at 6 mg/mL concentration. Vitamin B 12 analyses were performed by the Square Wave (SW) voltammetry method using modified PGEs. The obtained data showed linearity over the range of 0.2 μM and 9.50 μM Vitamin B 12 concentration with high sensitivity. Results showed that PNT modified PGEs were highly simple, fast, cost effective, and feasible for the electro-analytical determination of Vitamin B 12 in real samples.

  19. Disposable screen printed graphite electrode for the direct electrochemical determination of ibuprofen in surface water

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Sidra

    2014-08-01

    The potential of square wave voltammetry (SWV) for the determination of ibuprofen in aqueous solution, applying baseline correction, is reported. A screen printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs), especially pretreated for this purpose, were used to investigate the electrochemical oxidation and detection of ibuprofen. After optimization of SWV parameters, measurements were carried out at 200 Hz modulation frequency, 4 mV step potential and 40 mV pulse amplitude for the determination of ibuprofen. The surfaces of both untreated and pretreated SPGEs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electro-catalytic properties of both the electrodes were correlated with the surface treatment. The pretreated screen printed graphite electrode exhibited a high sensitivity toward ibuprofen even in low concentration. The developed method was found rapid, cost-effective and reproducible for in-field ibuprofen detection.

  20. Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharoeun Thap

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead (GPL, a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type (PLS electrode and a pencil lead powder type (PLP electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with/without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with/without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag/AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with/without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  1. Chitosan, a new and environmental benign electrode binder for use with graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Lili; Qu, Qunting; Zhang, Longfei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Honghe

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan is used as a new electrode binder for graphite anode. • Electrochemical properties of the chitosan-based electrode are compared with that of PVDF-based one. • Electrochemical performances of the graphite anode are improved by using chitosan binder. • Chitosan binder facilitates the formation of a thin, homogenous and stable SEI film of the electrode. -- Abstract: Chitosan was applied as the electrode binder material for a spherical graphite anode in lithium-ion batteries. Compared to using poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) binder, the graphite anode using chitosan exhibited enhanced electrochemical performances in terms of the first Columbic efficiency, rate capability and cycling behavior. With similar specific capacity, the first Columbic efficiency of the chitosan-based anode is 95.4% compared to 89.3% of the PVDF-based anode. After 200 charge–discharge cycles at 0.5C, the capacity retention of the chitosan-based electrode showed to be significantly higher than that of the PVDF-based electrode. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the graphite electrodes. The results show that a thin, homogenous and stable SEI layer is formed on the graphite electrode surface with chitosan binder compared with that using the conventional PVDF binder

  2. Carbon nanostructures obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes: Synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darias Gonzalez, J. G.; Hernandez Tabare, L.; Herrera Palma, V.; Sierra Trujillo, J. S.; Desdin Garcia, L. F.; Codorniu Pujals, D.; Bermudez Martinez, A.; Arias de Fuentes, O.; Maury Toledo, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, the application of the method of underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes for obtaining several carbon nano structures is described. The analysis of the obtained products by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showed that the samples collected from the material floating on the water surface were composed mainly by polyhedral onion-like particles, while those taken from the precipitate were a mixture multi walled nano-tubes, onion-like particles and other graphitic structures. The main features of the obtained nano structures are discussed. (Author)

  3. Diamond detectors with laser induced surface graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komlenok, M. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, A. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 Xidazhi Str., 150001 Harbin (China); Ralchenko, V. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 Xidazhi Str., 150001 Harbin (China); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoye shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Konov, V. [A.M. Prokorhov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilova Str., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Kashirskoye shosse, 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Conte, G. [Department of Sciences, University Roma Tre and INFN, Via Vasca Navale, 84-00148 Rome (Italy); CNR-ISM, Institute for Structure of Matter, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29, 300, Montelibretti (Italy); Girolami, M. [CNR-ISM, Institute for Structure of Matter, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29, 300, Montelibretti (Italy); Oliva, P. [University Niccolò Cusano, Via don Carlo Gnocchi, 3-00166 Rome (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics ‘MIFP’, Via Appia Nuova, 31-00040 Marino (Rome) (Italy); Salvatori, S. [University Niccolò Cusano, Via don Carlo Gnocchi, 3-00166 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-21

    We report on the response of metal-less CVD polycrystalline-diamond pixel sensors under β-particles irradiation. A 21×21 array of 0.18×0.18 mm{sup 2} pixels was realized on one side of a 10.0×10.0×0.5 mm{sup 3} polycrystalline diamond substrate by means of laser induced surface graphitization. With the same technique, a large graphite contact, used for detector biasing, was fabricated on the opposite side. A coincidence detecting method was used with two other reference polycrystalline diamond detectors for triggering, instead of commonly used scintillators, positioned in the front and on the back of the sensor-array with respect to the impinging particles trajectory. The collected charge distribution at each pixel was analyzed as a function of the applied bias. No change in the pulse height distribution was recorded by inverting the bias voltage polarity, denoting contacts ohmicity and symmetry. A fairly good pixel response uniformity was obtained: the collected charge most probable value saturates for all the pixels at an electric field strength of about ±0.6 V/μm. Under saturation condition, the average collected charge was equal to =1.64±0.02 fC, implying a charge collection distance of about 285 µm. A similar result, within 2%, was also obtained for 400 MeV electrons at beam test facility at INFN Frascati National Laboratory. Experimental results highlighted that more than 84% of impinging particles involved only one pixel, with no significant observed cross-talk effects.

  4. Effects of atmospheric air plasma treatment of graphite and carbon felt electrodes on the anodic current from Shewanella attached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifanio, Monica; Inguva, Saikumar; Kitching, Michael; Mosnier, Jean-Paul; Marsili, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    The attachment of electrochemically active microorganisms (EAM) on an electrode is determined by both the chemistry and topography of the electrode surface. Pre-treatment of the electrode surface by atmospheric air plasma introduces hydrophilic functional groups, thereby increasing cell attachment and electroactivity in short-term experiments. In this study, we use graphite and carbon felt electrodes to grow the model EAM Shewanella loihica PV-4 at oxidative potential (0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Cell attachment and electroactivity are measured through electrodynamic methods. Atmospheric air plasma pre-treatment increases cell attachment and current output at graphite electrodes by 25%, while it improves the electroactivity of the carbon felt electrodes by 450%. Air plasma pre-treatment decreased the coulombic efficiency on both carbon felt and graphite electrodes by 60% and 80%, respectively. Microbially produced flavins adsorb preferentially at the graphite electrode, and air plasma pre-treatment results in lower flavin adsorption at both graphite and carbon felt electrodes. Results show that air plasma pre-treatment is a feasible option to increase current output in bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of an exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet-modified electrode for the determination of quintozen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, Ion; Ion, Alina Catrinel, E-mail: ac_ion@yahoo.com; Culetu, Alina

    2011-10-10

    A chitosan-grafted exfoliated graphite nanoplatelet (xGnP) hybrid chemically modified electrode was developed and characterized for the determination of organochlorine pesticides with nitro groups using quintozen as a representative. The hybrid material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the chitosan-xGnP modified electrode were characterized by a physical deposition method for depositing it on a graphite electrode. Because of the affinity of the xGnP for nitro groups, nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticides are attached to the surface, allowing the extraction of quintozen within a short time (4 min). The differential pulse response was linear over the quintozen concentration range of 10{sup -12}-10{sup -6} M, and the current linearly increased with the quintozen concentrations in two concentration ranges: from 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -8} M with the linear regression equation of y = 0.0423x + 0.6451, R{sup 2} = 0.9964 and from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -6} M with the linear regression equation of y = 0.0085x + 0.303, R{sup 2} = 0.9952, with a detection limit of 10{sup -11} M. Highlights: {yields} The first attempt to use graphitic nanoplatelets in an electrochemical sensor for quintozen and to characterize the obtained electrode. {yields} The studied sensor exhibits good sensitivity and stability, xGnP representing a good candidate of advanced electrode materials. {yields} We concluded that a simple method for the production of cheap xGnP-chit/GC modified electrodes for pesticides with nitro groups can be established, further study on developing this methods being envisaged.

  6. Effect of Graphite Electrode to Surface’s Characteristic of EDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muttamara Apiwat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical discharge machining process (EDM is a process for removing material by the thermal of electrical discharge. Some of the melted and all of the evaporated material is then quenched and flushed away by dielectric liquid and the remaining melt recast on the finished surface. The recast layer is called as white layer. Beneath the recast layer, a heat affected zone is formed. The quality of an EDM product is usually evaluated in terms of its surface integrity, which is characterized by the surface roughness, existence of surface cracks and residual stresses. This paper presents a study of surface’s characteristics by EDM in de-ionized water due to decarbonisation. The machining tests were conducted on mild steel JIS grade SS400 with copper and graphite electrodes. The workpiece surfaces are analyzed by scanning electron microscope and XRD technique. The carbon transfers from graphite electrode to the white layer relating to martensitic phrase of recast layer.

  7. Electroactive cytochrome P450BM3 cast polyion films on graphite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo-Jacques, Aurelie; Basseguy, Regine; Bergel, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Films of electrochemically active cytochrome P450 BM 3 were constructed on graphite electrodes using alternate assembly with polyethyleneimine (PEI). The original layer-by-layer adsorption method was slightly modified here to form so-called 'cast polyion' films. The cast polyion films were elaborated by immobilizing two successive layers of PEI and protein in very large excess with respect to a monolayer, without any intermediate washing step. Following the immobilization steps by SEM showed that uniform films of a few micrometers were deposited on the graphite surface. The electrochemically activity of the immobilized cytP450 was tested with regard to the reduction of oxygen and the one-electron reduction of the heme. Cyclic voltammetry indicated surface concentration of electrochemically active cytP450 around 0.6nmol/cm 2 , which corresponded to 5% of the total amount of protein that was consumed by the immobilisation process. Adapting the procedure to a graphite felt electrode with the view of scaling up porous electrodes for large scale synthesis increased the concentration to 0.9nmol/cm 2 . Cast polyion films may represent a simple technique to immobilize high amount of electrochemically active protein, keeping the advantage of the electrostatic interactions of the regular layer-by-layer method

  8. Surface passivation of natural graphite electrode for lithium ion battery by chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Mazej, Zoran; Zemva, Boris; Ohzawa, Yoshimi; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Surface lattice defects would act as active sites for electrochemical reduction of propylene carbonate (PC) as a solvent for lithium ion battery. Effect of surface chlorination of natural graphite powder has been investigated to improve charge/discharge characteristics of natural graphite electrode in PC-containing electrolyte solution. Chlorination of natural graphite increases not only surface chlorine but also surface oxygen, both of which would contribute to the decrease in surface lattice defects. It has been found that surface-chlorinated natural graphite samples with surface chlorine concentrations of 0.5-2.3 at% effectively suppress the electrochemical decomposition of PC, highly reducing irreversible capacities, i.e. increasing first coulombic efficiencies by 20-30% in 1 mol L-1 LiClO4-EC/DEC/PC (1:1:1 vol.). In 1 mol L-1 LiPF6-EC/EMC/PC (1:1:1 vol.), the effect of surface chlorination is observed at a higher current density. This would be attributed to decrease in surface lattice defects of natural graphite powder by the formation of covalent C-Cl and C=O bonds.

  9. Nonlinear DC conduction behavior in epoxy resin/graphite nanosheets composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongfei; Lu, Wei; Chen, Guohua

    2007-11-01

    Epoxy resin (ER)/graphite nanosheet (GN) composites with a low percolation threshold (owing to particular geometry of GN with the high aspect ratio) were fabricated. The nonlinear conduction behavior of ER/GN composites above the percolation threshold by the action of variable DC electrical field was investigated. For specimens, the current density or current reduces with decreasing graphite nanosheets concentrations, and the J- E curves are well fitted by a cubic, J= σ1E+ σ3E3. Moreover, the crossover current density Jc, at which nonlinearity takes place, scales with the linear conductivity σ1 as J∼σ1x, with x≈1.390 and the third-order conductivity, σ3, also scales with Jc as J∼σ3y, with y≈1.175. Through the discussion of the nonlinearity within the framework of two theoretical models, the nonlinear random resistor network (NLRRN) and the dynamic random resistor network (DRRN), it is indicated that neither of these two models can fully explain our experimental results. Taking into account the microscopic structures and conduction processes of the composites, it is likely that a combination of these two models explain the nonlinear characteristics better.

  10. Nonlinear DC conduction behavior in epoxy resin/graphite nanosheets composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Hongfei; Lu Wei [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China); Chen Guohua [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362021 (China)], E-mail: hdcgh@hqu.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    Epoxy resin (ER)/graphite nanosheet (GN) composites with a low percolation threshold (owing to particular geometry of GN with the high aspect ratio) were fabricated. The nonlinear conduction behavior of ER/GN composites above the percolation threshold by the action of variable DC electrical field was investigated. For specimens, the current density or current reduces with decreasing graphite nanosheets concentrations, and the J-E curves are well fitted by a cubic, J={sigma}{sub 1}E+{sigma}{sub 3}E{sup 3}. Moreover, the crossover current density J{sub c}, at which nonlinearity takes place, scales with the linear conductivity {sigma}{sub 1} as J{sub c}{approx}{sigma}{sub 1}{sup x}, with x{approx}1.390 and the third-order conductivity, {sigma}{sub 3}, also scales with J{sub c} as J{sub c}{approx}{sigma}{sub 3}{sup y}, with y{approx}1.175. Through the discussion of the nonlinearity within the framework of two theoretical models, the nonlinear random resistor network (NLRRN) and the dynamic random resistor network (DRRN), it is indicated that neither of these two models can fully explain our experimental results. Taking into account the microscopic structures and conduction processes of the composites, it is likely that a combination of these two models explain the nonlinear characteristics better.

  11. Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Olson, Donald W.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Graphite is a form of pure carbon that normally occurs as black crystal flakes and masses. It has important properties, such as chemical inertness, thermal stability, high electrical conductivity, and lubricity (slipperiness) that make it suitable for many industrial applications, including electronics, lubricants, metallurgy, and steelmaking. For some of these uses, no suitable substitutes are available. Steelmaking and refractory applications in metallurgy use the largest amount of produced graphite; however, emerging technology uses in large-scale fuel cell, battery, and lightweight high-strength composite applications could substantially increase world demand for graphite.Graphite ores are classified as “amorphous” (microcrystalline), and “crystalline” (“flake” or “lump or chip”) based on the ore’s crystallinity, grain-size, and morphology. All graphite deposits mined today formed from metamorphism of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks, and the ore type is determined by the geologic setting. Thermally metamorphosed coal is the usual source of amorphous graphite. Disseminated crystalline flake graphite is mined from carbonaceous metamorphic rocks, and lump or chip graphite is mined from veins in high-grade metamorphic regions. Because graphite is chemically inert and nontoxic, the main environmental concerns associated with graphite mining are inhalation of fine-grained dusts, including silicate and sulfide mineral particles, and hydrocarbon vapors produced during the mining and processing of ore. Synthetic graphite is manufactured from hydrocarbon sources using high-temperature heat treatment, and it is more expensive to produce than natural graphite.Production of natural graphite is dominated by China, India, and Brazil, which export graphite worldwide. China provides approximately 67 percent of worldwide output of natural graphite, and, as the dominant exporter, has the ability to set world prices. China has significant graphite reserves, and

  12. Boron-Doped Graphite for High Work Function Carbon Electrode in Printable Hole-Conductor-Free Mesoscopic Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Miao; Tian, Chengbo; Hu, Yue; Mei, Anyi; Rong, Yaoguang; Xiong, Yuli; Xu, Mi; Sheng, Yusong; Jiang, Pei; Hou, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Xiaotong; Qin, Fei; Han, Hongwei

    2017-09-20

    Work function of carbon electrodes is critical in obtaining high open-circuit voltage as well as high device performance for carbon-based perovskite solar cells. Herein, we propose a novel strategy to upshift work function of carbon electrode by incorporating boron atom into graphite lattice and employ it in printable hole-conductor-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells. The high-work-function boron-doped carbon electrode facilitates hole extraction from perovskite as verified by photoluminescence. Meanwhile, the carbon electrode is endowed with an improved conductivity because of a higher graphitization carbon of boron-doped graphite. These advantages of the boron-doped carbon electrode result in a low charge transfer resistance at carbon/perovskite interface and an extended carrier recombination lifetime. Together with the merit of both high work function and conductivity, the power conversion efficiency of hole-conductor-free mesoscopic perovskite solar cells is increased from 12.4% for the pristine graphite electrode-based cells to 13.6% for the boron-doped graphite electrode-based cells with an enhanced open-circuit voltage and fill factor.

  13. Roll-to-Roll Laser-Printed Graphene-Graphitic Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sangmin; Lim, Kyungmi; Park, Hyeokjun; Park, Jong Bo; Park, Seong Chae; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Kang, Kisuk; Hong, Byung Hee

    2018-01-10

    Carbon electrodes including graphene and thin graphite films have been utilized for various energy and sensor applications, where the patterning of electrodes is essentially included. Laser scribing in a DVD writer and inkjet printing were used to pattern the graphene-like materials, but the size and speed of fabrication has been limited for practical applications. In this work, we devise a simple strategy to use conventional laser-printer toner materials as precursors for graphitic carbon electrodes. The toner was laser-printed on metal foils, followed by thermal annealing in hydrogen environment, finally resulting in the patterned thin graphitic carbon or graphene electrodes for supercapacitors. The electrochemical cells made of the graphene-graphitic carbon electrodes show remarkably higher energy and power performance compared to conventional supercapacitors. Furthermore, considering the simplicity and scalability of roll-to-roll (R2R) electrode patterning processes, the proposed method would enable cheaper and larger-scale synthesis and patterning of graphene-graphitic carbon electrodes for various energy applications in the future.

  14. Reprint of 'Suppressing propylene carbonate decomposition by coating graphite electrode foil with silver'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, J.; Zhang, H.P.; Fu, L.J.; Zhang, T.; Takamura, T.; Wu, H.Q. [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Y.P. [Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institut fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Holze, R. [Institut fuer Chemie, AG Elektrochemie, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, D-09111 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2007-12-20

    A method has been developed to suppress the decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) by coating graphite electrode foil with a layer of silver. Results from electrochemical impedance measurements show that the Ag-coated graphite electrode presents lower charge transfer resistance and faster diffusion of lithium ions in comparison with the virginal one. Cyclic voltammograms and discharge-charge measurements suggest that the decomposition of propylene carbonate and co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions are prevented, and lithium ions can reversibly intercalate into and deintercalate from the Ag-coated graphite electrode. These results indicate that Ag-coating is a good way to improve the electrochemical performance of graphitic carbon in PC-based electrolyte solutions. (author)

  15. In-situ electrochemical coating of Ag nanoparticles onto graphite electrode with enhanced performance for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Yan; Gao, Tian; Zheng, Huiyuan; Shen, Ming; Qu, Qunting; Zheng, Honghe

    2015-01-01

    The effects of silver hexafluorophosphate (AgPF 6 ) as an electrolyte additive on the electrochemical behaviors of graphite anode are systematically studied by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface structure and composition of graphite electrode after electrochemical cycles are investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is found that Ag nanoparticles derived from electrochemical reduction of Ag + are homogenously distributed on the graphite surface. Significant improvements on the discharge capacity, rate behavior, and low-temperature performance of graphite electrode are obtained. The reasons are associated with the decreased resistances of solid-electrolyte interface and charge-transfer process, which improve the electrode kinetics for Li + intercalation/deintercalation

  16. Ruthenium(III) diphenyldithiocarbamate as mediator for the electrocatalytic oxidation of sulfhydryl compounds at graphite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalini, B.; Sriman Narayanan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ruthenium(III) diphenyldithiocarbamate was used as mediator to modify graphite electrode by abrasive method. The modified electrode was characterized electrochemically by cyclic voltammetry. The electrode was scanned between 0.0 V to +0.8 V. An anodic peak at + 0.39 V and a cathodic peak at +0.24 V have been observed for a scan rate of 100 mV/s. The electrode has been characterized at various scan rate and pHs in 0.1 M KNO 3 solution. Sulfhydryl compounds, cysteine and glutathione, were electro catalytically oxidised at the modified electrode. pH variation was studied to optimize the conditions for their estimation. Linear response for cysteine is in the range of 0.00-15.20 ppm, with a correlation coefficient (r), of 0.9993. The linear range for glutathione is 0.00-30.40 ppm, with a value of 0.999 for r. The electrocatalytic oxidation of both cysteine and glutathione gave reproducible current values with a standard deviation of 0.1686 for 10 repetitive determinations. The stability and reproducibility of the electrode for the determination of cysteine and glutathione were also discussed. The electrocatalytic oxidation of the sulfhydryl compounds were also studied in hydrodynamic environment. (author)

  17. Evaluation of niobium as candidate electrode material for dc high voltage photoelectron guns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BastaniNejad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The field emission characteristics of niobium electrodes were compared to those of stainless steel electrodes using a DC high voltage field emission test apparatus. A total of eight electrodes were evaluated: two 304 stainless steel electrodes polished to mirrorlike finish with diamond grit and six niobium electrodes (two single-crystal, two large-grain, and two fine-grain that were chemically polished using a buffered-chemical acid solution. Upon the first application of high voltage, the best large-grain and single-crystal niobium electrodes performed better than the best stainless steel electrodes, exhibiting less field emission at comparable voltage and field strength. In all cases, field emission from electrodes (stainless steel and/or niobium could be significantly reduced and sometimes completely eliminated, by introducing krypton gas into the vacuum chamber while the electrode was biased at high voltage. Of all the electrodes tested, a large-grain niobium electrode performed the best, exhibiting no measurable field emission (<10  pA at 225 kV with 20 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to a field strength of 18.7  MV/m.

  18. Effect of binders on natural graphite powder-based gas diffusion electrode for Mg-air cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinton, Ghenadi; Rianto, Anton; Faizal, Ferry; Hidayat, Darmawan; Hidayat, Sahrul; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    This paper mainly discussed the electrical performance of gas diffusion electrode of Mg-Air Cell. The gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) use a natural graphite powder as catalyst material. The effect of additional binders to the GDE have been investigated to improve electrode performances. Several types of GDE have been developed using binder materials such as epoxy resin, natural clay, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and urea-formaldehyde (UF). By using discharge performance measurement, the characteristics of the as-prepared GDEs are reported.

  19. Differential Pulse Voltammetric Determination of Selected Nitro-Compounds on Silver, Solid Silver Composite, and Solid Graphite Composite Electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Barek, J.; Fašinová-Šebková, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, 3-5 (2009), s. 309-315 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : silver electrode * silver composite electrode * graphite composite electrode * differential pulse voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  20. Enhancing biodegradation and energy generation via roughened surface graphite electrode in microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Atieh; Yousefi Kebria, Daryoush; Najafpour Darzi, Ghasem

    2017-09-01

    The microbial desalination cell (MDC) is known as a newly developed technology for water and wastewater treatment. In this study, desalination rate, organic matter removal and energy production in the reactors with and without desalination function were compared. Herein, a new design of plain graphite called roughened surface graphite (RSG) was used as the anode electrode in both microbial fuel cell (MFC) and MDC reactors for the first time. Among the three type of anode electrodes investigated in this study, RSG electrode produced the highest power density and salt removal rate of 10.81 W/m 3 and 77.6%, respectively. Such a power density was 2.33 times higher than the MFC reactor due to the junction potential effect. In addition, adding the desalination function to the MFC reactor enhanced columbic efficiency from 21.8 to 31.4%. These results provided a proof-of-concept that the use of MDC instead of MFC would improve wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation, with an added benefit of water desalination. Furthermore, RSG can successfully be employed in an MDC or MFC, enhancing the bio-electricity generation and salt removal.

  1. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based high-performance ionic actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guan; Hu, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Xueli; Whoehling, Vincent; Plesse, Cédric; Nguyen, Giao T. M.; Vidal, Frédéric; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ionic actuators have attracted attention due to their remarkably large strain under low-voltage stimulation. Because actuation performance is mainly dominated by the electrochemical and electromechanical processes of the electrode layer, the electrode material and structure are crucial. Here, we report a graphitic carbon nitride nanosheet electrode-based ionic actuator that displays high electrochemical activity and electromechanical conversion abilities, including large specific capacitance (259.4 F g−1) with ionic liquid as the electrolyte, fast actuation response (0.5±0.03% in 300 ms), large electromechanical strain (0.93±0.03%) and high actuation stability (100,000 cycles) under 3 V. The key to the high performance lies in the hierarchical pore structure with dominant size <2 nm, optimal pyridinic nitrogen active sites (6.78%) and effective conductivity (382 S m−1) of the electrode. Our study represents an important step towards artificial muscle technology in which heteroatom modulation in electrodes plays an important role in promoting electrochemical actuation performance. PMID:26028354

  2. Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron using Ni / Ni-Fe electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual, M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Weldability of spheroidal graphite ductile cast iron was established using a cheap Ni-Fe and a high purity Ni electrode. A preheating treatment at 350 °C and an annealing treatment at 850 °C were carried out to improve mechanical properties of welded pieces. The pure Ni electrode showed graphite diffusion in the bead with a uniform distribution of phases, improving weldability and decreasing fragility. Preheating and annealing treatments increased ductility and improved weldability.

    Se establece la soldabilidad de funciones dúctiles de grafito según las características mecánicas alcanzadas, utilizando un electrodo puro de Ni mientras se compara con uno más económico de Ni-Fe. Diferentes tratamientos t��rmicos son propuestos y analizados. El electrodo de Ni puro mostró difusión de grafito desde el material original al cordón de soldadura, dando como resultado una fase homogénea que mejoró la soldabilidad y redujo la fragilidad. Un pre tratamiento a 350 °C y un recocido a 850 °C incrementaron la ductilidad y mejoró la soldabilidad.

  3. Catalase-Based Modified Graphite Electrode for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection in Different Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Fusco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalase-based (NAF/MWCNTs nanocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 detection was developed. The developed biosensor was characterized in terms of its bioelectrochemical properties. Cyclic voltammetry (CV technique was employed to study the redox features of the enzyme in the absence and in the presence of nanomaterials dispersed in Nafion® polymeric solution. The electron transfer coefficient, α, and the electron transfer rate constant, ks, were found to be 0.42 and 1.71 s−1, at pH 7.0, respectively. Subsequently, the same modification steps were applied to mesoporous graphite screen-printed electrodes. Also, these electrodes were characterized in terms of their main electrochemical and kinetic parameters. The biosensor performances improved considerably after modification with nanomaterials. Moreover, the association of Nafion with carbon nanotubes retained the biological activity of the redox protein. The enzyme electrode response was linear in the range 2.5–1150 μmol L−1, with LOD of 0.83 μmol L−1. From the experimental data, we can assess the possibility of using the modified biosensor as a useful tool for H2O2 determination in packaged beverages.

  4. Extracellular electron transfer mechanism in Shewanella loihica PV-4 biofilms formed at indium tin oxide and graphite electrodes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Connolly, J.O.; Woolley, R.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Marsili, E.

    to the defined medium, and 15 mM (mmol/L) lactate (final concentration) was added to the medium as electron donor [6]. The cells were grown aerobically in defined medium at 30 ºC for 2 days, under shaking condition at 150 rpm. Following centrifugation for 20... mechanism depends also on other factors, such as surface properties of the electrode material. Graphite/carbon electrode has high adsorption affinity for the biomolecules such as flavins [9]. Adsorbed flavins at the graphite interface might decrease...

  5. MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanosphere electrode for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Jing; Yang, Xing; Zhou, Haiyan; Kang, Liping; Lei, Zhibin [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China); Liu, Zong-Huai, E-mail: zhliu@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry (Shaanxi Normal University), Ministry of Education, Xi’an 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres possess large specific surface area. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanospheres are benefit for transmission of ions and electrons. • MnO{sub 2}/HGC electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance. - Abstract: MnO{sub 2}-wrapped hollow graphitized carbon nanospheres (MnO{sub 2}/HGC) electrodes are prepared by a cooperative template wrapping method. hollow Graphitized carbon nanospheres (HGC) are firstly obtained by carbonizing phenolic resin followed by etching the SiO{sub 2} template, then the MnO{sub 2} ultrathin nanoplates are coated on the surfaces of the HGC nanospheres through a redox reaction between KMnO{sub 4} and HGC nanospheres. The as-prepared MnO{sub 2}/HGC hollow nanospheres possess porous structure and large specific surface area (∼230 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The specific capacitances of MnO{sub 2}/HGC nanosphere electrodes with different mass ratios of MnO{sub 2} to HGC are about 340–380 F g{sup −1} at a scan rate of 5 mV s{sup −1} in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and shows relative good cycling performance of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. The good specific capacitance is ascribed to the novel hollow nanosphere structure, which possesses high surface-to-volume ratio, and makes it easy for the mass diffusion of electrolyte and transmission of ions and electrons and also maintains the mechanical integrality.

  6. Machining of insulation ZrO2 ceramics by EDM using graphite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, T.; Okada, M.; Fukuzawa, Y.; Mohri, N.

    1998-01-01

    As we proposed and reported before, insulating ceramics may be made into machinable materials with electrical discharge machining method by using an assisting electrode method. The machining properties depend on the formation mechanism of carbonization layer which has electrical conductivity on the ceramics surface during discharge. A big difference in machinability occurs between oxide and non-oxide ceramics. When ZrO 2 ceramics are machined with a copper tool electrode which was used for a machining of the non-oxide ceramics Si 3 N 4 , the electrical conductive layer is not formed on the machined surface uniformly. In this paper, in order to activate a carbonization reaction on the ceramics surface during discharge, the use of a porous graphite tool electrode is described. As a result of that, carbonized reaction occurs actively on the discharge gap and the uniform carbonized layer adheres to the machined surface. The surface roughness is much improved compared with previous machining conditions. Copyright (1998) Australasian Ceramic Society

  7. A Pencil Graphite Electrode In Situ Modified by Monovalent Copper: a Promising Tool for the Determination of Methylxanthines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, R.; Jelen, František; Kayran, Y.U.; Trnková, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 952-961 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Methylxanthines * Pencil graphite electrode * Elimination voltammetry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2014

  8. Carbon nanostructures reduced from graphite oxide as electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii M. Shulga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present information about obtaining and properties of carbon nanomaterials (graphite oxide, grapheme oxide, reduced graphene oxide, which are used as electrodes for supercapacitors (SC. This review describes methods of obtaining graphite oxide, followed by separation of graphene oxide and reducing graphene oxide by thermal, photochemical and chemical methods. Information on the composition and concentration of functional groups in graphene oxide and the elemental composition is described in detail. Results of the analysis of еру physical, electrochemical, thermal and optical properties of the graphene oxide and its derivatives are shown. The ratio of oxygen-containing functional groups was estimated by XPS. The presence of partial surface reduction is found. Hydroge-containing functional groups are characterized by IR spectroscopy. Method of estimating the size of graphene crystallites by Raman spectroscopy is shown. Mass loss upon heating is analyzed by thermogravimetry. The gassing of graphene oxide at thermal and photochemical reduction is studied by mass spectrometry. The difference between the abovementioned reduction methods is clearly demonstrated by the difference in the composition of the evolved gases. Also the chemical method of graphene oxide reduction with hydrazine is described. Review considers the literature data which illustrate the most interesting, from the Authors׳ point of view, aspects of that field of research.

  9. Charge transport in films of Geobacter sulfurreducens on graphite electrodes as a function of film thickness

    KAUST Repository

    Jana, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing, and understanding the mechanisms of growth and activity of, biofilms of electroactive bacteria (EAB) on solid electrodes is of increasing interest, for application to microbial fuel and electrolysis cells. Microbial electrochemical cell technology can be used to generate electricity, or higher value chemicals, from organic waste. The capability of biofilms of electroactive bacteria to transfer electrons to solid anodes is a key feature of this emerging technology, yet the electron transfer mechanism is not fully characterized as yet. Acetate oxidation current generated from biofilms of an EAB, Geobacter sulfurreducens, on graphite electrodes as a function of time does not correlate with film thickness. Values of film thickness, and the number and local concentration of electrically connected redox sites within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as well as a charge transport diffusion co-efficient for the biofilm can be estimated from non-turnover voltammetry. The thicker biofilms, of 50 ± 9 μm, display higher charge transport diffusion co-efficient than that in thinner films, as increased film porosity of these films improves ion transport, required to maintain electro-neutrality upon electrolysis. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  10. Functionalized-graphene modified graphite electrode for the selective determination of dopamine in presence of uric acid and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallesha, Malledevaru; Manjunatha, Revanasiddappa; Nethravathi, C; Suresh, Gurukar Shivappa; Rajamathi, Michael; Melo, Jose Savio; Venkatesha, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2011-06-01

    Graphene is chemically synthesized by solvothermal reduction of colloidal dispersions of graphite oxide. Graphite electrode is modified with functionalized-graphene for electrochemical applications. Electrochemical characterization of functionalized-graphene modified graphite electrode (FGGE) is carried out by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The behavior of FGGE towards ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) has been investigated by CV, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and chronoamperommetry (CA). The FGGE showed excellent catalytic activity towards electrochemical oxidation of AA, DA and UA compared to that of the bare graphite electrode. The electrochemical oxidation signals of AA, DA and UA are well separated into three distinct peaks with peak potential separation of 193mv, 172mv and 264mV between AA-DA, DA-UA and AA-UA respectively in CV studies and the corresponding peak potential separations in DPV mode are 204mv, 141mv and 345mv. The FGGE is successfully used for the simultaneous detection of AA, DA and UA in their ternary mixture and DA in serum and pharmaceutical samples. The excellent electrocatalytic behavior of FGGE may lead to new applications in electrochemical analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pseudocapacitive performance of electrodeposited porous Co3O4 film on electrophoretically modified graphite electrodes with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazazi, Mahdi; Sedighi, Ali Reza; Mokhtari, Mohammad Amin

    2018-05-01

    A facile and efficient two-step procedure was developed for the fabrication of a high-performance and binder-free cobalt oxide-carbon nanotubes (CO/CNT) pseudocapacitive electrode. First, CNTs were deposited on the surface of a chemically activated graphite sheet by cathodic electrophoretic deposition technique from their ethanolic suspension. In the next step, a thin film of cobalt oxide was electrodeposited on the CNTs coated graphite substrate by a galvanostatic method, followed by a thermal treatment in air. The structure and morphology of the prepared cobaltite electrode with and without CNT interlayer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. The results indicated that Co3O4 nanoparticles were uniformly attached on the surface of CNTs, to form a porous-structured CO/CNT composite electrode with a high specific surface area of 144.9 m2 g-1. Owing to the superior electrical conductivity of CNTs, high surface area and open porous structure, and improved integrity of the electrode structure, the composite electrode delivered a high areal capacitance of 4.96F cm-2 at a current density of 2 mA cm-2, a superior rate performance (64.7% capacitance retention from 2 mA cm-2 to 50 mA cm-2), as well as excellent cycling stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles), which are higher than those of the pure cobaltite electrode.

  12. Structures, Compositions, and Activities of Live Shewanella Biofilms Formed on Graphite Electrodes in Electrochemical Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Miho; Koga, Ryota; Kasai, Takuya; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    An electrochemical flow cell equipped with a graphite working electrode (WE) at the bottom was inoculated with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 expressing an anaerobic fluorescent protein, and biofilm formation on the WE was observed over time during current generation at WE potentials of +0.4 and 0 V (versus standard hydrogen electrodes), under electrolyte-flow conditions. Electrochemical analyses suggested the presence of unique electron-transfer mechanisms in the +0.4-V biofilm. Microscopic analyses revealed that, in contrast to aerobic biofilms, current-generating biofilm (at +0.4 V) was thin and flat (∼10 μm in thickness), and cells were evenly and densely distributed in the biofilm. In contrast, cells were unevenly distributed in biofilm formed at 0 V. In situ fluorescence staining and biofilm recovery experiments showed that the amounts of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) in the +0.4-V biofilm were much smaller than those in the aerobic and 0-V biofilms, suggesting that Shewanella cells suppress the production of EPSs at +0.4 V under flow conditions. We suggest that Shewanella cells perceive electrode potentials and modulate the structure and composition of biofilms to efficiently transfer electrons to electrodes. IMPORTANCE A promising application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is to save energy in wastewater treatment. Since current is generated in these MFCs by biofilm microbes under horizontal flows of wastewater, it is important to understand the mechanisms for biofilm formation and current generation under water-flow conditions. Although massive work has been done to analyze the molecular mechanisms for current generation by model exoelectrogenic bacteria, such as Shewanella oneidensis , limited information is available regarding the formation of current-generating biofilms over time under water-flow conditions. The present study developed electrochemical flow cells and used them to examine the electrochemical and structural features of current

  13. Interfacial reactions between graphite electrodes and propylene carbonate-based solutions: Electrolyte-concentration dependence of electrochemical lithium intercalation reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Soon-Ki [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-745 (Korea); Inaba, Minoru [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Ogumi, Zempachi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2008-01-03

    This study examines the electrochemical reactions occurring at graphite negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries in a propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte that contains different concentrations of lithium salts such as, LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6} or LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}. The electrode reactions are significantly affected by the electrolyte concentration. In concentrated solutions, lithium ions are reversibly intercalated within the graphite to form stage 1 lithium-graphite intercalation compounds (Li-GICs), regardless of the lithium salt used. On the other hand, electrolyte decomposition and exfoliation of the graphene layers occur continuously in the low-concentration range. In situ analysis with atomic force microscopy reveals that a thin film (thickness of {proportional_to}8 nm) forms on the graphite surface in a concentrated solution, e.g., 3.27 mol kg{sup -1} LiN(SO{sub 2}C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 2}/PC, after the first potential cycle between 2.9 and 0 V versus Li{sup +}/Li. There is no evidence of the co-intercalation of solvent molecules in the concentrated solution. (author)

  14. Vitrification of surrogate mixed wastes in a graphite electrode arc melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Chambers, A.G.; Ball, L.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstration tests for vitrifying mixed wastes and contaminated soils have been conducted using a small (800 kVA), industrial-scale, three-phase AC, graphite electrode furnace located at the Albany Research Center of the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM). The feed mixtures were non-radioactive surrogates of various types of mixed (radioactive and hazardous), transuranic-contaminated wastes stored and buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The feed mixtures were processed with added soil from the INEL. Objectives being evaluated include (1) equipment capability to achieve desired process conditions and vitrification products for different feed compositions, (2) slag and metals tapping capability, (3) partitioning of transuranic elements and toxic metals among the furnace products, (4) slag, fume, and metal products characteristics, and (5) performance of the feed, furnace and air pollution control systems. The tests were successfully completed in mid-April 1995. A very comprehensive process monitoring, sampling and analysis program was included in the test program. Sample analysis, data reduction, and results evaluation are currently underway. Initial results indicate that the furnace readily processed around 20,000 lb of widely ranging feed mixtures at feedrates of up to 1,100 lb/hr. Continuous feeding and slag tapping was achieved. Molten metal was also tapped twice during the test program. Offgas emissions were efficiently controlled as expected by a modified air pollution control system

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of biointeraction by graphene-based material modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksin, Ece; Zor, Erhan; Erdem, Arzum; Bingol, Haluk

    2017-06-15

    Recently, the low-cost effective biosensing systems based on advanced nanomaterials have received a key attention for development of novel assays for rapid and sequence-specific nucleic acid detection. The electrochemical biosensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified disposable pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs) were developed herein for electrochemical monitoring of DNA, and also for monitoring of biointeraction occurred between anticancer drug, Daunorubicin (DNR), and DNA. First, rGO was synthesized chemically and characterized by using UV-Vis, TGA, FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy and SEM techniques. Then, the quantity of rGO assembling onto the surface of PGE by passive adsorption was optimized. The electrochemical behavior of rGO-PGEs was examined by cyclic voltammetry (CV). rGO-PGEs were then utilized for electrochemical monitoring of surface-confined interaction between DNR and DNA using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique. Additionally, voltammetric results were complemented with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. Electrochemical monitoring of DNR and DNA was resulted with satisfying detection limits 0.55µM and 2.71µg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cr (VI electromechimal reduction using RVG 4OOO graphite felt as the electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Vilar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in at very low concentrations, heavy metals in industrial waste constitute environmental and health risks. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has recognized as chromium compounds and defined carcinogens the level acceptable in drinking water as being only 0.05 ppm. The objective of this work was the electrochemical reduction of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI to Cr (III ions in a dilute synthetic solution of K2Cr2O7 and Na2SO4 (0.05N. A plug-flow reactor with an RVG 4000 graphite felt (Le Carbone Lorraine, France electrode was used for this work. Its morphological characteristics such as specific variables surface, porosity, average fibre diameter and permeability were determined. The influencing process selectivity such as initial concentration of Cr (VI, solution pH, current intensity and conversion yield are considered. The fractional conversion achieved in the plug-flow reactor in the present work, was about 90%.

  17. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electroche...

  18. Effects of Propylene Carbonate Content in CsPF6-Containing Electrolytes on the Enhanced Performances of Graphite Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Cao, Ruiguo; Xiang, Hongfa; Engelhard, Mark H.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-10

    Cesium salt has been demonstrated as an efficient electrolyte additive in suppressing the lithium (Li) dendrite formation and directing the formation of an ultrathin and stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) even in propylene carbonate (PC)-ethylene carbonate (EC)-based electrolytes. Here, we further investigate the effect of PC content in the presence of CsPF6 additive (0.05 M) on the performances of graphite electrode in Li||graphite half cells and in graphite||LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) full cells. It is found that the performance of graphite electrode is also affected by PC content even though CsPF6 additive is present in the electrolytes. An optimal PC content of 20% by weight in the solvent mixtures is identified. The enhanced electrochemical performance of graphite electrode is attributed to the synergistic effects of the Cs+ additive and the PC solvent. The formation of a robust, ultrathin and compact SEI layer containing lithium-enriched species on the graphite electrode, directed by Cs+, effectively suppresses the PC co-intercalation and thus prevents the graphite exfoliation. This SEI layer is only permeable for de-solvated Li+ ions and allows fast Li+ ion transport through it, which therefore largely alleviates the Li dendrite formation on graphite electrode during lithiation even at high current densities. The presence of low-melting-point PC solvent also enables the sustainable operation of the graphite||NCA full cells under a wide spectrum of temperatures. The fundamental findings of this work shed light on the importance of manipulating/maintaining the electrode/electrolyte interphasial stability in a variety of energy storage devices.

  19. Electrochemical Preparation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole-modified Pencil Graphite Electrode for Determination of Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yücel Sahin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP polypyrrole (PPy-based film was fabricated for the determination of ascorbic acid. The film was prepared by incorporation of a template molecule (ascorbic acid during the electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a pencil graphite electrode (PGE in aqueous solution using a cyclic voltammetry method. The performance of the imprinted and non-imprinted (NIP films was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV. The effect of pH, monomer and template concentrations, electropolymerization cycles and interferents on the performance of the MIP electrode was investigated and optimized. The molecularly imprinted film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward ascorbic acid. The DPV peak current showed a linear dependence on the ascorbic acid concentration and a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 0.25 to 7.0 mM of ascorbic acid with a correlation coefficient of 0.9946. The detection limit (3σ was determined as 7.4x10-5 M (S/N=3. The molecularly-imprinted polypyrrole-modified pencil graphite electrode showed a stable and reproducible response, without any influence of interferents commonly existing in pharmaceutical samples. The proposed method is simple and quick. The PPy electrodes have a low response time, good mechanical stability and are disposable simple to construct.

  20. Effect of an electrolyte salt dissolving in polysiloxane-based electrolyte on passive film formation on a graphite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroshi; Nutt, Steven

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed during the first charge of a graphite/lithium metal test cell to determine the effect of an electrolyte salt on passive film formation in a polysiloxane-based electrolyte. The graphite electrode was separated from the lithium metal electrode by a porous polyethylene membrane immersed in a polysiloxane-based electrolyte with the dissolved lithium bis(oxalato) borate (LiBOB) or lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). In case of LiTFSI, the conductivity of system decreased at 1.2 V. In contrast, for the case of LiBOB, the conductivity decreased at 1.7 V. The magnitudes of charge transfer resistance and film resistance for LiTFSI were smaller than that for LiBOB. Passive films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) after charging (lithiating) in polysiloxane-based electrolyte were inspected microscopically. Gel-like film and island-like films were observed for LiBOB [H. Nakahara, A. Masias, S.Y. Yoon, T. Koike, K. Takeya, Proceedings of the 41st Power Sources Conference, vol. 165, Philadelphia, June 14-17, 2004; H. Nakahara, S.Y. Yoon, T. Piao, S. Nutt, F. Mansfeld, J. Power Sources, in press; H. Nakahara, S.Y. Yoon, S. Nutt, J. Power Sources, in press]. However, for LiTFSI, there was sludge accumulation on the HOPG surface. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of silicon on both HOPG specimens with LiBOB and with LiTFSI. The electrolyte salt dissolved in the polysiloxane-based electrolyte changed the electrochemical and morphological nature of passive films on graphite electrode.

  1. Improvement of the Performance of Graphite Felt Electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries by Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hammer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the present contribution oxidizing plasma pretreatment is used for the improvement of the electrocatalytic activity of graphite felt electrodes for Vanadium-Redox-Flow-Batteries (VRB. The influence of the working gas media on the catalytic activity and the surface morphology is demonstrated. The electrocatalytical properties of the graphite felt electrodes were examined by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that a significant improvement of the redox reaction kinetics can be achieved for all plasma modified samples using different working gasses (Ar, N2 and compressed air in an oxidizing environment. Nitrogen plasma treatment leads to the highest catalytical activities at the same operational conditions. Through a variation of the nitrogen plasma treatment duration a maximum performance at about 14 min cm-2 was observed, which is also represented by a minimum of 90 Ω in the charge transfer resistance obtained by EIS measurements. The morphology changes of the graphitized surface were followed using SEM.

  2. A High Performance Lithium-Ion Capacitor with Both Electrodes Prepared from Sri Lanka Graphite Ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Changzhen; Yu, Xiaoliang; Liang, Qinghua; Lv, Ruitao; Gai, Guosheng; Shen, Wanci; Kang, Feiyu; Huang, Zheng-Hong

    2017-04-14

    The natural Sri Lanka graphite (vein graphite) is widely-used as anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), due to its high crystallinity and low cost. In this work, graphitic porous carbon (GPC) and high-purity vein graphite (PVG) were prepared from Sri Lanka graphite ore by KOH activation, and high temperature purification, respectively. Furthermore, a lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is fabricated with GPC as cathode, and PVG as anode. The assembled GPC//PVG LIC shows a notable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of 86 W·h·kg -1 at 150 W·kg -1 , and 48 W·h·kg -1 at a high-power density of 7.4 kW·kg -1 . This high-performance LIC based on PVG and GPC is believed to be promising for practical applications, due to its low-cost raw materials and industrially feasible production.

  3. Electrochemistry and sensitive determination of a metal complex azo dye using graphite paste electrode modified with Na-bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ortaboy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphite and its composites have gained considerable attention in electrochemical applications due to their excellent structural, electrical and chemical properties. In this study, a graphite paste electrode (GPE modified with natural Na-bentonite (BGPE is fabricated and utilized for the sensitive determination of Lanaset Red G (LRG which is a kind of azo containing metal complex dye. The BGPE shows excellent enhancement in peak currents as compared to that of the GPE. The detection limit of LRG is determined to be as low as 0.65±0.08 when utilizing the BGPE as the working electrode in square wave voltammetry experiments (SWV. The electrochemical behavior of LRG is also investigated using a cyclic voltammetry (CV technique to propose reaction mechanisms. Effects of pH and scan rate on the electrochemical behavior of LRG are studied to calculate transfer coefficients, the number of protons and electrons transferred in the redox reaction. The results show that a quasi-reversible reaction occurs on the BGPE surface/electrolyte interface. The morphology and the chemical characterization of both BGPE and GPE electrodes are investigated by the atomic force microscopy (AFM technique and the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT, respectively.

  4. Glucose biosensor based on functionalized ZnO nanowire/graphite films dispersed on a Pt electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, P.; Tosi, E.; Madrid, R.; Tirado, M.; Comedi, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a glucose biosensor based on ZnO nanowire self-sustained films grown on compacted graphite flakes by the vapor transport method. Nanowire/graphite films were fragmented in water, filtered to form a colloidal suspension, subsequently functionalized with glucose oxidase and finally transferred to a metal electrode (Pt). The obtained devices were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The electrochemical responses of the devices were determined in buffer solutions with successive glucose aggregates using a tripolar electrode system. The nanostructured biosensors showed excellent analytical performance, with linear response to glucose concentrations, high sensitivity of up to ≈17 μA cm-2 mM-1 in the 0.03-1.52 mM glucose concentration range, relatively low Michaelis-Menten constant, excellent reproducibility and a fast response. The detection limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than those achievable in commercial biosensors for glucose control, which is promising for the development of glucose monitoring methods that do not require blood extraction from potentially diabetic patients. The strong detection enhancements provided by the functionalized nanostructures are much larger than the electrode surface-area increase and are discussed in terms of the physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the detection and transduction processes.

  5. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode as electrochemical sensor on microfluidic chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinchun; Chen Zuanguang; Zhong Yuwen; Yang Fan; Pan Jianbin; Liang Yajing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CoHCF nanoparticles modified MWCNTs/graphite electrode use for electrochemistry on electrophoresis microchip for the first time. ► Simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrazine and isoniazid in real samples. ► An exemplary work of CME sensor assembly onto microchip for determination of analytes with environmental significance. ► Manifestation of the applicability and flexibility of CME sensor for electroanalysis on microfluidic chip. - Abstract: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensor has received significant interest. In this work, cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode was electrochemically prepared and exploited as an amperometric detector for microchip electrophoresis. The prepared sensor displayed rapid and sensitive response towards hydrazine and isoniazid oxidation, which was attributed to synergetic electrocatalytic effect of cobalt hexacyanoferrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The sensitivity enhancement with nearly two orders of magnitude was gained, compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, with the detection limit of 0.91 μM (S/N = 3) for hydrazine. Acceptable repeatability of the microanalysis system was verified by consecutive eleven injections of hydrazine without chip and electrode treatments, the RSDs for peak current and migration time were 3.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, well-shaped electrophoretic peaks were observed, mainly due to fast electron transfer of electroactive species on the modified electrode. The developed microchip-electrochemistry setup was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine and isoniazid in river water and pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Several merits of the novel electrochemical sensor coupled with microfluidic platform, such as comparative stability, easy fabrication and high sensitivity, hold great potential for hydrazine compounds assay in the lab-on-a-chip system.

  6. Numerical simulation of dc high-pressure discharge lamps including electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, P.; Neiger, M.

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a novel modelling method for dc operated high-pressure discharge lamps including both electrodes. No subdivisions of the discharge space into different regions (e.g. space charge layer, ionization zone, plasma column) is necessary. Starting from general diffusion equations, this goal is achieved by using a differential equation for a non-LTE electrical conductivity which is applicable for local thermal equilibrium (LTE) regions as well as non-LTE plasma regions close to electrodes. This novel approach is valid only for high-pressure conditions, where the product of electron mean free path and electric field is such that the mean energy gain of electrons is considerably less than the ionization energy of the discharge gas, so that the same local kinetic energy distribution can be assumed for the electron, the ion, and the neutral gas components anywhere within the discharge. Boundary conditions for this non-LTE electrical conductivity at cathode and anode are derived. We present modelling results for Hg- and Xe-discharge lamps (p≥1 MPa). Comparison with results from traditional models using plasma layers will be presented and discussed. Convective flow within the lamp is not included yet, as the emphasis of this paper is on the regions close to anode and cathode. (author)

  7. CoSn-graphite electrode material prepared by using the polyol method and high-intensity ultrasonication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Jose R. [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Alcantara, Ricardo, E-mail: iq2alror@uco.es [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Nacimiento, Francisco; Tirado, Jose L. [Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Cordoba, Edificio C3, Campus de Rabanales, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: > New anode materials are prepared by combined polyol and ultrasonication methods. > Highly-dispersed, amorphous nano-CoSn/ultrathin graphite composites can be obtained. > Ultrasonication under Ar-flow and LiPAA-binder leads to high Coulombic efficiency. - Abstract: Composite electrode materials containing nanoparticles of nearly amorphous CoSn and ultrathin layers of graphite are prepared here. For this purpose, Sn(II) and Co(II) ions in tetraethyleneglycol are reduced with NaBH{sub 4} in the presence of ball-milled graphite while high-intensity ultrasonication is continuously applied. The followed preparative route is a combination of the polyol and sonochemical methods. The observed capacity value for CoSn-ball milled graphite is over 400 mAh/g after 40 cycles (this is superior to graphite). The good electrochemical cycling behavior is connected to the small particle size of CoSn, the low crystallinity of CoSn and the dispersion of the CoSn particles in an optimized carbon matrix. The selected binder (polyvinylidene fluoride or lithium polyacrylate) also can contribute to improve the cycling behavior. The low electrochemical efficiency, particularly in the first cycles, may be related to the spontaneous oxidation of the metallic particles surface and irreversible electrolyte consumption. The use of inert atmosphere (Ar-flow) results in a decrease of the tin oxide content, as determined by using {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy, an increase of the initial electrochemical efficiency up to a maximum of 90.4%, and higher capacities (507 mAh/g after 40 cycles).

  8. Investigations on the use of graphite electrodes using a Hull-type growth cell for the electrochemically-assisted protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Montero, Patricio J.; Moreno-Narváez, María Esther; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A.; Stojanoff, Vivian; Moreno, Abel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an electrochemical Hull type cell adapted for protein crystallization evaluating three inclination angles (45°, 60° and 90°). For optimization experiments, classical platinum wire electrodes were used and once the best geometry was known, they were replaced with 0.5 mm diameter low-cost graphite automatic pencil leads. Using Pt and graphite, the cell with electrodes fitted at 90° showed the most favorable geometry for promoting the growth of lysozyme crystals with enough size for protein crystallography (between 200–250 μm in solution, and between 500–650 μm in gel). The crystalline quality (mosaicity and I/σ(I) ratio) of crystals obtained at different current values, was studied using these graphite electrodes and was compared with those protein crystals grown using platinum wire electrodes in solution as well as in gel experiments. These studies showed that it is possible to efficiently substitute the platinum electrodes by the low-cost graphite electrodes. This cell could be a first approach to a disposable cell for a large-scale use of electrochemically-assisted crystal growth method. PMID:24659923

  9. Nitrite electrochemical sensor based on prussian blue/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified pyrolytic graphite electrode

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adekunle, AS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available that single-walled carbon nanotubes-Prussian blue hybrid (SWCNT-PB) modified electrode demonstrated greater sensitivity and catalysis towards nitrite compared to PB or a SWCNT modified electrode. The current response of the electrode was reduced...

  10. A novel mechanism for the oxidation reaction of VO2+ on a graphite electrode in acidic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Fan, Xinzhuang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Chuanwei; Zeng, Chaoliu

    2014-09-01

    With the consideration of optimizing the performance of the all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB), the oxidation reaction mechanism of VO2+ on a rotating graphite disk electrode has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization in sulfuric acid solutions with various pH and vanadium concentrations. Furthermore, the reaction orders of VO2+ and H+ for the oxidation reaction of VO2+ have been calculated from the polarization results and compared with the theoretical results according to the possible reaction mechanisms available in the literature. However, a new oxidation reaction mechanism has been proposed to describe the oxidation of VO2+ at last, and the theoretic reaction orders of VO2+ and H+ based on the new mechanism are consistent with the experimental results when the electrochemical reaction is the rate-limited process. Moreover, a corresponding kinetic equation has been established for the oxidation reaction of VO2+ on a spectroscopically pure graphite electrode, and can be well used to predict the polarization behavior in V (IV) acidic solutions.

  11. Excimer laser assisted very fast exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide at room temperature under air ambient for Supercapacitors electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Hosseini, S. M. B.; Baizaee, S. M.; Naderi, Hamid Reza; Dare Kordi, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Excimer laser was used for reduction and exfoliation of graphite oxide (GO) at room temperature under air ambient. The prepared excimer laser reduced graphite oxide (XLRGO) is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis absorption techniques for surface, structural functional groups and band gap analysis. Electrochemical properties are investigated using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV) in 0.5 M Na2SO4 as electrolyte. Electrochemical investigations revealed that XLRGO electrode has enhanced supercapacitive performance including specific capacitance of 299 F/g at a scan rate of 2 mV/s. Furthermore, CCV measurement showed that XLRGO electrode kept 97.8% of its initial capacitance/capacity after 4000 cycles. The obtained results from electrochemical investigations confirm that the reduction of GO by using an excimer laser produces high-quality graphene for supercapacitor applications without the need for additional operations.

  12. Electrochemical Determination of Brilliant Blue and Tartrazine Based on an Ionic Liquid-Modified Expanded Graphite Paste Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Ye; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xue; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of Brilliant Blue (BB) and tartrazine (Tz) using an ionic liquid-modified expanded graphite paste electrode (IL-EGPE). The IL-EGPE was prepared by mixing ionic liquid-expanded graphite composite (IL-EG) with solid paraffin. Compared with the EGPE, the IL-EGPE remarkably enhanced the electrocatalytic oxidation signals of BB and Tz. Under optimal experimental conditions, the designed IL-EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to BB and Tz ranging from 5.0×10(-9) to 4.0×10(-6) M and 1.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-6) M, respectively. The detection limits for BB and Tz were 2.0×10(-9) M (1.6 ng/mL) and 3.3×10(-9) M (1.8 ng/mL) at an S/N of 3, respectively. This electrode showed good reproducibility, stability, and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the simultaneous determination of BB and Tz in a soft drink with satisfactory results.

  13. Investigation of Electrolysis Process Performance by Graphite Electrodes for De-Colorization of Phenolphthalein and Phenol Red from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Massoudinejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidates the de-colorization of phenolphthalein and phenol red from aqueous solution through electrochemical oxidation technique. An electrochemical reactor had 1 liter volume that used 2 graphite electrodes. Effect of electric power voltage, inter electrode distance and electrolyte concentration was investigated in this system. It was found that the optimum conditions for completely removal of phenolphthalein was at voltage of 48 V, retention time of 9 minutes, distance between the electrode of 5 cm, and the salt concentration of 1.5 g/l. Also completely removal of phenol red was at voltage of 48 V, retention time of 8 minutes, distance between the electrode of 5 cm, and the salt concentration of 2 g/l. Phenol red and phenolphthalein COD removal efficiency was 85 and 80 percent respectively. The results suggest that the electrolysis process is an effective way to removal of phenolphthalein and phenol red color from effluent, because of it can completely remove the color in a short time.

  14. Eletrodo compósito à base de grafite-araldite®: aplicações didáticas Graphite-araldite® composite electrode: didactic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Fioramonti Calixto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A composite electrode prepared by mixing a commercial epoxy resin Araldite® and graphite powder is proposed to be used in didactic experiments. The electrode is prepared by the students and applied in simple experiments to demonstrate the effect of the composite composition on the conductivity and the voltammetric response of the resulting electrode, as well as the response in relation to the scan rate dependence on mass transport. The possibility of using the composite electrode in quantitative analysis is also demonstrated.

  15. Electrochemical Characterization a New Epoxy Graphite Composite Electrode as Transducer for Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel I. Balbín Tamayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new graphite epoxy composite composition was developed by the manufacturer of transducer for DNA biosensor, which were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy field emission (FESEM. The dependence of peak potential, the anode current relationship, and cathodic current with scan rate was evaluated by voltammetry for the redox system Fe(CN63-/4- Well-defined voltammograms were obtained using the graphite-epoxy composite 3.3/2.5/1 m/m/v graphite/araldite/hardener (GEC II. The electrochemical characterization showed a quasi-reversible electrochemical behavior under the control of the linear diffusion system for Fe(CN63-/4-. The GEC III was also successfully used in the detection of the signal oxidation guanine monophosphate (GMF and adenine (AMF by square wave voltammetry. These results demonstrate the potential of GEC II in the electrochemical detection of DNA.

  16. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2010-01-01

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 1 ) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L 2 ) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10 -8 mol L -1 for PME and 7.7 x 10 -9 mol L -1 for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  17. Horseradish peroxidase immobilized in TiO2 nanoparticle films on pyrolytic graphite electrodes: direct electrochemistry and bioelectrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; He Pingli; Hu Naifei

    2004-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-TiO 2 film electrodes were fabricated by casting the mixture of HRP solution and aqueous titania nanoparticle dispersion onto pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes and letting the solvent evaporate. The HRP incorporated in TiO 2 films exhibited a pair of well-defined and quasi-reversible cyclic voltammetric peaks at about -0.35 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in pH 7.0 buffers, characteristic of HRP-Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple. The electron exchange between the enzyme and PG electrodes was greatly enhanced in the TiO 2 nanoparticle film microenvironment. The electrochemical parameters such as apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k s ) and formal potential (E deg. ') were estimated by fitting the data of square wave voltammetry with nonlinear regression analysis. The HRP-TiO 2 film electrodes were quite stable and amenable to long-time voltammetric experiments. The UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that the position and shape of Soret absorption band of HRP in TiO 2 films kept nearly unchanged and were different from those of hemin or hemin-TiO 2 films, suggesting that HRP retains its native-like tertiary structure in TiO 2 films. The electrocatalytic activity of HRP embedded in TiO 2 films toward O 2 and H 2 O 2 was studied. Possible mechanism of catalytic reduction of H 2 O 2 with HRP-TiO 2 films was discussed. The HRP-TiO 2 films may have a potential perspective in fabricating the third-generation biosensors based on direct electrochemistry of enzymes

  18. 76 FR 14910 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Anti...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... correct grade of petroleum coke mix, and have been baked, formed, carbonized, impregnated, and graphitized... U.K. authorities examined the issue at hand and determined that the unfinished SDGE components in...) and we will closely examine the nature of the materials sourced from the PRC and whether those...

  19. Construction and performance characteristics of polymeric membrane electrode and coated graphite electrode for the selective determination of Fe³⁺ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi, Koteswara Rao; Singh, Ashok K; Upadhyay, Anjali

    2014-03-01

    Novel Fe(3+) ion-selective polymeric membrane electrodes (PMEs) were prepared using three different ionophores N-(4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene)thiazol-2-amine [L1], 5-((3-methylthiophene-2yl) methyleneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol [L2] and N-((3-methylthiophene-2yl)methylene)thiazol-2-amine [L3] and their potentiometric characteristics were discussed. Effect of various plasticizers and anion excluders was also studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane electrode having a composition of L2:PVC:o-NPOE:NaTPB as 3:38.5:56:2.5 (w/w; mg). A coated graphite electrode (CGE) was also prepared with the same composition and compared. CGE is found to perform better as it shows a wider working concentration range of 8.3×10(-8)-1.0×10(-1)molL(-1), a lower detection limit of 2.3×10(-8)molL(-1), and a near Nernstian slope of 19.5 ± 0.4 mVdecade(-1) of activity with a response time of 10s. The CGE shows a shelf life of 6 weeks and in view of high selectivity, it can be used to quantify Fe(3+) ion in water, soil, vegetable and medicinal plants. It can also be used as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of EDTA with Fe(3+) ion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Self-Supporting GaN Nanowires/Graphite Paper: Novel High-Performance Flexible Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shouzhi; Sun, Changlong; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2017-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest as energy storage devices because of their promise in applications such as wearable and smart electronic devices. Herein, a novel flexible supercapacitor electrode based on gallium nitride nanowire (GaN NW)/graphite paper (GP) nanocomposites is reported. The outstanding electrical conductivities of the GaN NW (6.36 × 10 2 S m -1 ) and GP (7.5 × 10 4 S m -1 ) deliver a synergistically enhanced electrochemical performance that cannot be achieved by either of the components alone. The composite electrode exhibits excellent specific capacitance (237 mF cm -2 at 0.1 mA cm -2 ) and outstanding cycling performance (98% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles). The flexible symmetric supercapacitor also manifests high energy and power densities (0.30 mW h cm -3 and 1000 mW cm -3 ). These findings demonstrate that the GaN/GP composite electrode has significant potential as a candidate for the flexible energy storage devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Sensitive Adsorptive Voltammetric Method for Determination of Bisphenol A by Gold Nanoparticle/Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Modified Pencil Graphite Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Tugce Yaman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor gold nanoparticle (AuNP/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP modified pencil graphite electrode (PGE was developed for the ultrasensitive determination of Bisphenol A (BPA. The gold nanoparticles were electrodeposited by constant potential electrolysis and PVP was attached by passive adsorption onto the electrode surface. The electrode surfaces were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The parameters that affected the experimental conditions were researched and optimized. The AuNP/PVP/PGE sensor provided high sensitivity and selectivity for BPA recognition by using square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit was found to be 1.0 nM. This new sensor system offered the advantages of simple fabrication which aided the expeditious replication, low cost, fast response, high sensitivity and low background current for BPA. This new sensor system was successfully tested for the detection of the amount of BPA in bottled drinking water with high reliability.

  2. Surface properties and graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based fiber electrodes affecting the negative half-cell reaction in vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Dixon, D.; Nefedov, A.; Wöll, Ch.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.; Roth, C.; Melke, J.

    2016-07-01

    Carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries are obtained by the graphitization of polyacrylonitrile based felts at different temperatures. Subsequently, the surface of the felts is modified via thermal oxidation at various temperatures. A single-cell experiment shows that the voltage efficiency is increased by this treatment. Electrode potentials measured with reference electrode setup show that this voltage efficiency increase is caused mainly by a reduction of the overpotential of the negative half-cell reaction. Consequently, this reaction is investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and the electrode activity is correlated with structural and surface chemical properties of the carbon fibers. By Raman, X-ray photoelectron and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy the role of edge sites and oxygen containing functional groups (OCFs) for the electrochemical activity are elucidated. A significant activity increase is observed in correlation with these two characteristics. The amount of OCFs is correlated with structural defects (e.g. edge sites) of the carbon fibers and therefore decreases with an increasing graphitization degree. Thus, for the same thermal oxidation temperature carbon fibers graphitized at a lower temperature show higher activities than those graphitized at a higher temperature.

  3. A ternary hybrid of carbon nanotubes/graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets/gold nanoparticles used as robust substrate electrodes in enzyme biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Panpan; Song, Rongbin; Zhu, Cheng; Ji, Yusheng; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-10-11

    A novel ternary hybrid of carbon nanotubes/graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets/gold nanoparticles was prepared and used as robust substrate electrodes for fabricating membrane-less glucose/O2 enzyme biofuel cells (EBFCs), and a remarkably improved power output was observed for the prepared EBFC.

  4. A simple electroanalytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of dopamine, serotonin and ascorbic acid using an unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachoosangi, Roohollah Torabi; Compton, Richard G

    2007-04-01

    A simple method using an unmodified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE) is reported for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (ST) and ascorbic acid (AA). The performance of this electrode is superior to other unmodified carbon-based electrodes and also to many modified electrodes in terms of detection limit, sensitivity and peak separation for determination of DA, ST and AA. Using this method, detection limits of 90 nM, 60 nM and 200 nM were obtained for DA, ST and AA respectively. No electrode fouling is observed during a set of experiments and good sensitivity is obtained for the simultaneous determination of DA, ST and AA. The peaks for the three species are well resolved from each other and the electrode is successfully utilised for their determination in standard and real samples.

  5. Oxygenated edge plane sites slow the electron transfer of the ferro-/ferricyanide redox couple at graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaobo; Banks, Craig E; Crossley, Alison; Compton, Richard G

    2006-06-12

    The electron transfer kinetics of ferrocyanide, potassium hexachloroiridate(III), hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) have been examined at basal plane and edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes which have been allowed to oxidise in air for various periods of time. It is demonstrated via voltammetric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis that oxygenated species formed at edge plane sites/defects decrease the electron transfer kinetics of ferrocyanide but that the rates for potassium hexachloroiridate(III), hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride and TMPD are insensitive to the oxygenated species. The behaviour of the ferro-/ferricyanide couple contrasts with that seen on single-walled carbon nanotubes where oxygenation of the tube ends is known to speed up the electron transfer kinetics (A. Chou, T. Bocking, N. K. Singh, J. J. Gooding, Chem. Commun. 2005, 842); the possible reasons for this contrasting behaviour are discussed.

  6. Graphite electrodes modified by 8-hydroxyquinolines and its application for the determination of copper in trace levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa Eliane R. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification by 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (8-HQS or 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ on a graphite electrode through irreversible adsorption is reported in this paper. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the surface behavior. The modified surface exhibited an affinity to chelating Cu(II in the solution, forming a Cu(II complex, which was employed for Cu(II trace analysis. Of the metals Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, and Cd, none presented interference until excess concentration of 10 times. Significant interference could be observed from Co(II, Cd(II and Fe(II for an excess concentration of 100 times on the analyte. A differential pulse voltammetry, combined with a preconcentrating-stripping process and a standard addition method was used for the analysis. A detection limit for trace copper determination in water, such as 5.110-9 mol L-1, was obtained.

  7. Manganese dioxide graphite composite electrodes: application to the electroanalysis of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Cathryn E; Sljukić, Biljana; Banks, Craig E; Compton, Richard G

    2007-02-01

    The modification of carbon powder with manganese dioxide using a wet impregnation procedure with electrochemical characterisation of the modified powder is described. The process involves saturation of the carbon powder with manganese(II) nitrate followed by thermal treatment at ca. 773 K leading to formation of manganese(IV) oxide on the surface of the carbon powder. The construction of composite electrodes based on manganese dioxide modified carbon powder and epoxy resin is also described, including optimisation of the percentage of the modified carbon powder. Composite electrodes showed attractive performances for electroanalytical applications, proving to be suitable for the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide, ascorbic acid and nitrite ions with limits of detection comparable to the detection limits achieved by other analytical techniques. The results obtained for detection of these analytes, together with composite electrodes flexible design and low cost offers potential application of composite electrodes in biosensors.

  8. In-situ synthesis of Co3O4/graphite nanocomposite for high-performance supercapacitor electrode applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Gopalakrishnan; G, Srikesh; A, Mohan; V, Arivazhagan

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a low cost and pollution free in-situ synthesis of phase pure Co3O4 nanoparticles and Co3O4/graphite nanocomposite have been successfully developed via co-precipitation method followed by the thermal treatment process. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolytic solution. The results show the excellent maximum specific capacitive behavior of 239.5 F g-1 for pure and 395.04 F g-1 for Co3O4/graphite nanocomposite at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. This composite exhibits a good cyclic stability, with a small loss of 2.68% of maximum capacitance over a consecutive 1000 cycles. The investigation indicates that the prepared electrode material could be a potential and promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  9. Electrochemically induced chemical sensor properties in graphite screen-printed electrodes: The case of a chemical sensor for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostaki, Vasiliki T.; Florou, Ageliki B.; Prodromidis, Mamas I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Electrochemical treatment endows analytical characteristics to SPEs. → A sensitive chemical sensor for uranium is described. → Performance is due to a synergy between electrochemical treatment and ink's solvents. → The amount of the solvent controls the achievable sensitivity. - Abstract: We report for the first time on the possibility to develop chemical sensors based on electrochemically treated, non-modified, graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). The applied galvanostatic treatment (5 μA for 6 min in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 ) is demonstrated to be effective for the development of chemical sensors for the determination of uranium in aqueous solutions. A detailed study of the effect of various parameters related to the fabrication of SPEs on the performance of the resulting sensors along with some diagnostic experiments on conventional graphite electrodes showed that the inducible analytical characteristics are due to a synergy between electrochemical treatment and ink's solvents. Indeed, the amount of the latter onto the printed working layer controls the achievable sensitivity. The preconcentration of the analyte was performed in an electroless mode in an aqueous solutions of U(VI), pH 4.6, and then, the accumulated species was reduced by means of a differential pulse voltammetry scan in 0.1 M H 3 BO 3 , pH 3. Under selected experimental conditions, a linear calibration curve over the range 5 x 10 -9 to 10 -7 M U(VI) was constructed. The 3σ limit of detection at a preconcentration time of 30 min, and the relative standard deviation of the method were 4.5 x 10 -9 M U(VI) and >12% (n = 5, 5 x 10 -8 M U(VI)), respectively. The effect of potential interferences was also examined.

  10. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  11. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  12. Capacity Fade and Its Mitigation in Li-Ion Cells with Silicon-Graphite Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareño, Javier [Chemical; Shkrob, Ilya A. [Chemical; Gilbert, James A. [Chemical; Klett, Matilda [Chemical; Abraham, Daniel P. [Chemical

    2017-09-15

    In this study we scrutinize the causes for capacity fade in lithium-ion cells containing silicongraphite (Si-Gr) blends in the negative electrode and examine approaches for minimizing this fade. The causal mechanisms are inferred from data obtained by electrochemistry, microscopy, spectroscopy and thermogravimetry techniques. The presence of SiOxFy signals in the Si-Gr electrode, LixPOyFz compounds in the electrolyte, and SiO2 species on the NCM523 positive electrode, highlight the crucial role of hydrolytically generated HF, which accelerates the degradation of Si particles. The hydrolysis could result from residual moisture in the current electrode fabrication process, which uses aqueous binders. Water can also be released when silanol groups on the Si nanoparticles react with HF to form Si-F compounds. We note that the primary cause of capacity fade in the full cells is the loss of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) integrity resulting from volume changes in Si particles during electrochemical cycling. Adding fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) to the conventional electrolyte slows capacity fade through the formation of a cross linked polymer with elastomeric properties. Further gains in cell longevity are possible by excluding water during electrode fabrication, using hydrolytically stable lithium salts, and adopting electrolyte systems that provide more elasticity to the SEI layers.

  13. Electrochemical label-free and sensitive nanobiosensing of DNA hybridization by graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahour, F; Shamsi, A

    2017-09-01

    Based on the strong interaction between single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) and graphene material, we have constructed a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor for rapid and facile detection of short sequences ss-DNA molecules related to hepatitis C virus 1a using graphene oxide modified pencil graphite electrode. The sensing mechanism is based on the superior adsorption of single-stranded DNA to GO over double stranded DNA (ds-DNA). The intrinsic guanine oxidation signal measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been used for duplex DNA formation detection. The probe ss-DNA adsorbs onto the surface of GO via the π- π* stacking interactions leading to a strong background guanine oxidation signal. In the presence of complementary target, formation of helix which has weak binding ability to GO induced ds-DNA to release from the electrode surface and significant variation in differential pulse voltammetric response of guanine bases. The results indicated that the oxidation peak current was proportional to the concentration of complementary strand in the range of 0.1 nM-0.5 μM with a detection limit of 4.3 × 10 -11  M. The simple fabricated electrochemical biosensor has high sensitivity, good selectivity, and could be applied as a new platform for a range of target molecules in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High performance nano-Ni/Graphite electrode for electro-oxidation in direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed B.; Abdel-Samad, Hesham S.; Abdel Rehim, Sayed S.; Ahmed, Mohamed A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2016-09-01

    Ni/Graphite electrocatalysts (Ni/G) are successfully prepared through electrodeposition of Ni from acidic (pH = 0.8) and feebly acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous Ni (II) baths. The efficiencies of such electrodes are investigated as anodes for direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells through their ethanol electrooxidation cyclic voltammetric (CV) response in alkaline medium. A direct proportionality between the amount of the electrodeposited Ni and its CV response is found. The amounts of the deposited Ni from the two baths are recorded using the Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (eQCM). The Ni/G electrodes prepared from the feebly acidic bath show a higher electrocatalytic response than those prepared from the acidic bath. Surface morphology of the Ni particles electrodeposited from feebly acidic bath appears in a nano-scale dimension. Various electrochemical experiments are conducted to confirm that the Ni/G ethanol electrooxidation CV response greatly depends on the pH rather than nickel ion concentration of the deposition bath. The eQCM technique is used to detect the crystalline phases of nickel as α-Ni(OH)2/γ-NiOOH and β-Ni(OH)2/β-NiOOH and their in-situ inter-transformations during the potentiodynamic polarization.

  15. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Picollo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3 to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  16. 78 FR 56864 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of the... Circumvention of the Antidumping Duty Order and Intent To Rescind Later-Developed Merchandise Circumvention... affirmative circumvention determination \\5\\ and on August 2, 2013, we formally notified the ITC of our...

  17. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L(2)) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L(2):PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3x10(-8) mol L(-1) for PME and 7.7x10(-9) mol L(-1) for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of cerium ion by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode based on novel pendant armed macrocycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2010-08-24

    Plasticized membranes using 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 1}) and 2,3,4:12,13,14-dipyridine-1,5,8,11,15,18-hexamethylacrylate- 1,3,5,8,11,13,15,18-octaazacycloicosa-2,12-diene (L{sub 2}) have been prepared and explored as Ce(III) selective sensors. Effect of various plasticizers viz. dibutylphthalate (DBP), tri-n-butylphthalate (TBP), o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), dioctylphthalate (DOP), benzylacetate (BA) and anion excluders, sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and potassium tetrakis p-(chlorophenyl) borate was studied in detail and improved performance was observed. Optimum performance was observed for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB in the ratio of 6:34:58:2 (w/w, mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Ce(III) ions with limits of detection of 8.3 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} for PME and 7.7 x 10{sup -9} mol L{sup -1} for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 12 s and 10 s respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.5-7.5 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE could be used for a period of 5 months. The practical utility of the CGE has been demonstrated by its usage as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of oxalate and fluoride ions with Ce(III) solution. The proposed electrode was also successfully applied to the determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash solution and oxalate ions in real samples.

  19. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huizar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Rivera, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH4)2SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR) were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the activ...

  1. Improved sensitivity and selectivity of uric acid voltammetric sensing with mechanically grinded carbon/graphite electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Vetterl, Vladimír; Jelen, František; Fojta, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2009), s. 1864-1873 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200040651; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1195; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/08/1688; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : grinded carbon electrodes * voltammetry * uric acid Subject RIV: AQ - Safety, Health Protection, Human - Machine Impact factor: 3.325, year: 2009

  2. Screen-Printed Graphite Electrodes as Low-Cost Devices for Oxygen Gas Detection in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiao Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs have been used for the first time as platforms to detect oxygen gas in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs. Up until now, carbon-based SPEs have shown inferior behaviour compared to platinum and gold SPEs for gas sensing with RTIL solvents. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen (O2 in a range of RTILs has therefore been explored on home-made SPGEs, and is compared to the behaviour on commercially-available carbon SPEs (C-SPEs. Six common RTILs are initially employed for O2 detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV, and two RTILs ([C2mim][NTf2] and [C4mim][PF6] chosen for further detailed analytical studies. Long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA was also performed to test the ability of the sensor surface for real-time gas monitoring. Both CV and LTCA gave linear calibration graphs—for CV in the 10–100% vol. range, and for LTCA in the 0.1–20% vol. range—on the SPGE. The responses on the SPGE were far superior to the commercial C-SPEs; more instability in the electrochemical responses were observed on the C-SPEs, together with some breaking-up or dissolution of the electrode surface materials. This study highlights that not all screen-printed ink formulations are compatible with RTIL solvents for longer-term electrochemical experiments, and that the choice of RTIL is also important. Overall, the low-cost SPGEs appear to be promising platforms for the detection of O2, particularly in [C4mim][PF6].

  3. Screen-Printed Graphite Electrodes as Low-Cost Devices for Oxygen Gas Detection in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junqiao; Hussain, Ghulam; Banks, Craig E; Silvester, Debbie S

    2017-11-26

    Screen-printed graphite electrodes (SPGEs) have been used for the first time as platforms to detect oxygen gas in room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Up until now, carbon-based SPEs have shown inferior behaviour compared to platinum and gold SPEs for gas sensing with RTIL solvents. The electrochemical reduction of oxygen (O₂) in a range of RTILs has therefore been explored on home-made SPGEs, and is compared to the behaviour on commercially-available carbon SPEs (C-SPEs). Six common RTILs are initially employed for O₂ detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV), and two RTILs ([C₂mim][NTf₂] and [C₄mim][PF₆]) chosen for further detailed analytical studies. Long-term chronoamperometry (LTCA) was also performed to test the ability of the sensor surface for real-time gas monitoring. Both CV and LTCA gave linear calibration graphs-for CV in the 10-100% vol. range, and for LTCA in the 0.1-20% vol. range-on the SPGE. The responses on the SPGE were far superior to the commercial C-SPEs; more instability in the electrochemical responses were observed on the C-SPEs, together with some breaking-up or dissolution of the electrode surface materials. This study highlights that not all screen-printed ink formulations are compatible with RTIL solvents for longer-term electrochemical experiments, and that the choice of RTIL is also important. Overall, the low-cost SPGEs appear to be promising platforms for the detection of O₂, particularly in [C₄mim][PF₆].

  4. Cyclic voltammetry deposition of copper nanostructure on MWCNTs modified pencil graphite electrode: An ultra-sensitive hydrazine sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hamid [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholivand, Mohammad B., E-mail: mbgholivand@razi.ac.ir [Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Abbas [Department of Chemistry, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Copper (Cu) nanostructures (CuNS) were electrochemically deposited on a film of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified pencil graphite electrode (MWCNTs/PGE) by cyclic voltammetry method to fabricate a CuNS–MWCNTs composite sensor (CuNS–MWCNT/PGE) for hydrazine detection. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used for the characterization of CuNS on the MWCNTs matrix. The composite of CuNS-MWCNTs was characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The preliminary studies showed that the proposed sensor have a synergistic electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine in phosphate buffer. The catalytic currents of square wave voltammetry had a linear correlation with the hydrazine concentration in the range of 0.1 to 800 μM with a low detection limit of 70 nM. Moreover, the amperometric oxidation current exhibited a linear correlation with hydrazine concentration in the concentration range of 50–800 μM with the detection limit of 4.3 μM. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in real samples and the results were promising. Empirical results also indicated that the sensor had good reproducibility, long-term stability, and the response of the sensor to hydrazine was free from interferences. Moreover, the proposed sensor benefits from simple preparation, low cost, outstanding sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility for hydrazine determination. - Highlights: • The Copper nanostructures (CuNS) were prepared by cyclic voltammetry deposition. • The CuNS-MWCNT/PGE sensor shows high activity toward hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}). • The proposed sensor exhibits a wide linear range (0.1 to 800 μM), low detection limit (70 nM), high sensitivity and stability for hydrazine.

  5. Aging in lithium-ion batteries: Model and experimental investigation of harvested LiFePO4 and mesocarbon microbead graphite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavalis, Tommy Georgios; Klett, Matilda; Kjell, Maria H.; Behm, Mårten; Lindström, Rakel Wreland; Lindbergh, Göran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aging in LiFePO 4 /mesocarbon microbead graphite cells that have been subjected to either a synthetic hybrid drive cycle or calendar aging, at 22 °C. The investigation involves detailed examination and comparison of harvested fresh and aged electrodes. The electrode properties are determined using a physics-based electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) model that is fitted to three-electrode EIS measurements, with input from measured electrode capacity and scanning electrode microscopy (SEM). Results from the model fitting provide a detailed insight to the electrode degradation and is put into context with the behavior of the full cell aging. It was established that calendar aging has negligible effect on cell impedance, while cycle aging increases the impedance mainly due to structural changes in the LiFePO 4 porous electrode and electrolyte decomposition products on both electrodes. Further, full-cell capacity fade is mainly a consequence of cyclable lithium loss caused by electrolyte decomposition

  6. Temperature effects on the capacitance of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid on a graphite electrode: a molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Yining; Yan, Tianying

    2014-08-25

    Temperature-dependent electric double layer (EDL) and differential capacitance-potential (C(d)-U) curves of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM(+)/PF6(-)) were studied on a graphite electrode by molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that all C(d)-U curves were asymmetric camel-shaped with higher C(d) at negative polarization, attributed to the specific adsorption of BMIM(+). In addition, the maxima of Cd at the negative polarization decrease monotonically with temperature due to the thicker EDL, whereas at the positive polarization they gradually increase from 450 to 550 K and decrease at 600 K. Such temperature effects at positive polarization may be understood in terms of the competition between two aspects: the weakening specific adsorption of BMIM(+) allows more effective screening to the positive charge and overall increasing EDL thickness. Although the former dominates from 450 to 550 K, the latter becomes dominant at 600 K. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Frequency dependence of electrical properties of polyvinylidene fluoride/graphite electrode waste/natural carbon black composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insiyanda, D. R.; Indayaningsih, N.; Prihandoko, B.; Subhan, A.; Khaerudini, D. S.; Widodo, H.; Destyorini, F.; Chaer, A.

    2018-03-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic material with remarkably high piezoelectric coefficient and an attractive polymer matrix for micro-composite with superior mechanical and electrical properties. The conductive filler is obtained from Graphite Electrode Waste (GEW) and Natural Carbon Black (NCB). The variation of composite content (%) of PVdF/NCB/GEW were 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 95/0/5, 95/2.5/2.5. This experiment employed dry dispersion method for material mixing. The materials were then moulded using hot press machine with compression parameters of P = 5.5 MPa, T = 150 °C, t = 60 minutes, A = 5×5×(0.2 - 0.4) cm3. The electrical conductivity properties of pure PVdF, as well as PVdF/GEW, PVdF/NCB, and PVdF/NCB/GEW composites were investigated in a frequency range of 100 to 100000 Hz. The PVdF/GEW sample obtained the highest electrical conductivity. It is concluded that GEW and NCB can be incorporated into PVdF as a conductive filler to increase the conductivity of conductive material composite without solvent.

  8. Electroanalysis of cardioselective beta-adrenoreceptor blocking agent acebutolol by disposable graphite pencil electrodes with detailed redox mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atmanand M. Bagoji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple economic graphite pencil electrode (GPE was used for analysis of cardioselective, hydrophilic-adrenoreceptor blocking agent, acebutolol (ACBT using the cyclic voltammetric, linear sweep voltammetric, differential pulse voltammetric (DPV, and square-wave voltammetric (SWV techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration, and scan rate was investigated to optimize the experimental condition for determination of ACBT. The electrochemical behavior of the ACBT at GPE was a diffusion-controlled process. A probable electro-redox mechanism was proposed. Under the optimal conditions, the anodic peak current was linearly proportional to the concentration of ACBT in the range from 1.00 to 15.0 μM with a limit of detection 1.26 × 10−8 M for DPV and 1.28 × 10−8 M for the SWV. This method was applied for quantitative determination of the ACBT levels in urine as real samples. The obtained recovery ranges for ACBT in urine were from 95.4 to101% as found by the standard addition technique. Further interference study was also carried with some common interfering substances.

  9. EDM of Aluminum Alloy 6061 Using Graphite Electrode Using Paraffin Oil and Distilled Water as Dielectric Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available EDM machining of Al 6061 was performed under varying condition of pulse current and pulse duration. Graphite was used as an electrode material with distilled water and paraffin oil as two different dielectric mediums. The aim is to characterize the surface integrity produced as a result of EDM machining under varying both electrical and non-electrical parameters as it is important in determining the service life of EDM machined components. The vertical, horizontal and corner surfaces are independently studied for each single set of conditions. The average white layer thickness (AWLT and surface roughness was found to be dependent on pulse current values and pulse duration. Dielectric medium has also influence on the thickness and nature of white layer. It was found that the thickness and nature of white layer formed for distilled water is different from that of paraffin oil. New methods of AWLT and surface roughness measurement through optical microscope are described. The surface roughness method developed was also calibrated against an identical surface roughness tester. Finally material removal rate, tool wear rate, the presence of micro cracks, voids and globules were compared for different conditions and conclusions were drawn according to the actual physical conditions during machining.

  10. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  11. Cobalt electrodeposition onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG electrode from ammonium sulfate solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humberto Mendoza-Huizar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH42SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the active sites on the surface. The ΔG energy calculated for the formation of stable nucleus was 8.21x10-21 J/nuclei. The AFM study indicated the formation of small clusters of 50-400 nm in diameter and 2-120 nm in height.

  12. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan: Application to the highly sensitive electrochemical determination of Azathioprine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahrokhian, Saeed, E-mail: shahrokhian@sharif.ed [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Technology, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghalkhani, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A novel modified glassy carbon electrode with a film of nanodiamond-graphite/chitosan is constructed and used for the sensitive voltammetric determination of azathioprine (Aza). The surface morphology and thickness of the film modifier are characterized using atomic force microscopy. The electrochemical response characteristics of the electrode toward Aza are investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode showed an efficient catalytic role for the electrochemical reduction of Aza, leading to a remarkable decrease in reduction overpotential and enhancement of the kinetics of the electrode reaction with a significant increase of peak current. The effects of experimental variables, such as the deposited amount of modifier suspension, the pH of the supporting electrolyte, the accumulation potential and time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the modified electrode showed a wide linear response to the concentration of Aza in the range of 0.2-100 muM with a detection limit of 65 nM. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages: simple preparation method, high stability and uniformity in the composite film, high sensitivity, excellent catalytic activity in physiological conditions and good reproducibility. The modified electrode can be successfully applied to the accurate determination of trace amounts of Aza in pharmaceutical and clinical preparations.

  13. Modelling and simulation of unsteady dc electric arcs and their interactions with electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemartin, L.; Lalande, P.; Delalondre, C.; Cheron, B.; Lago, F.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of unsteady electric arcs and the effects of electrodes on their dynamics. One of the objectives is to simulate and understand the three-dimensional behaviour of arcs in complex geometries, which create important fluctuations of the column and reattachments on the electrodes. The usual methods to solve the problem of arc-electrodes coupling are not suitable to simulate three-dimensional unsteady arcs. We propose a numerical development to simulate both steady-state and unsteady arcs without additional assumptions. The method is based on the incorporation of electrodes into the computational domain. It is validated with measurements from the literature, in the case of a point-plane steady-state argon arc. The model is used to study the lightning certification test device, which simulates in laboratory the effects of lightning arcs on fuselage panels. The results bring to light, in agreement with the observations in laboratory, the fundamental role of the electrodes on the three-dimensional behaviour of the arc column. The model is also used to simulate the development of the free jet of a plasma on an aluminium planar anode. The objective is to characterize the interaction region and the thermal constraint of the arc.

  14. Trace and Essential Elements Analysis in Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf Samples by Graphite Furnace-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Its Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasha Momo H. Anal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf commonly known as lemon grass is used extensively as green tea and even as herbal tea ingredient across the world. Plants have the ability to uptake metals as nutrient from the soil and its environment which are so essential for their physiological and biochemical growth. Concentrations of these twelve trace elements, namely, Mg, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Cd, and Pb, are analysed by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS and are compared with the permissible limits of FAO/WHO, ICMR, and NIH, USA, which are found to be within permissible limits. Toxic metals like As, Cd, and Pb, analysed are within the tolerable daily diet limit and at low concentration.

  15. Flow Injection Potentiometric Determination of Cd2+ Ions Using a Coated Graphite Plasticized PVC-Membrane Electrode Based on 1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Sahari, Shokat; Payehghadr, Mahmood; Alizadeh, Kamal

    2011-09-01

    1, 3-Bis(2-cyanobenzene)triazene, L, was used as a suitable ionophore for the fabrication of a new PVC-based polymeric membrane coated graphite electrode for selective sensing of Cd2+ ion. The electrode exhibited a selective linear Nernstian response to Cd2+ ion at an optimal pH range of 6-9 with a limit of detection of 8.0 × 10-6 M and a fast response time of about 2 s. The electrode was used as a proper detection system in flow-injection potentiometry of cadmium ion and resulted in well defined peaks for cadmium ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and high sampling rates of over 100 injections per hour. It showed good stability, reproducibility and fast response time. The practical utility of the proposed system has also been reported.

  16. In-situ synthesis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite for high-performance supercapacitor electrode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Gopalakrishnan, E-mail: gopalkphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Vivekanandha College of Arts and Science for Women, Tiruchengode, Namakkal, 637205, Tamilnadu (India); G, Srikesh [Department of Chemistry, Material Electrochemistry Lab, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); A, Mohan [Department of Physics, Thin Film Laboratory, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114, Tamilnadu (India); V, Arivazhagan [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • High surface area, which governs the specific capacitance. • High chemical and thermal stability. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite electrode shows lower resistance. - Abstract: In this work, a low cost and pollution free in-situ synthesis of phase pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite have been successfully developed via co-precipitation method followed by the thermal treatment process. The prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements such as cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge–discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were carried out in 6 M KOH aqueous electrolytic solution. The results show the excellent maximum specific capacitive behavior of 239.5 F g{sup −1} for pure and 395.04 F g{sup −1} for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/graphite nanocomposite at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. This composite exhibits a good cyclic stability, with a small loss of 2.68% of maximum capacitance over a consecutive 1000 cycles. The investigation indicates that the prepared electrode material could be a potential and promising candidate for electrochemical supercapacitors.

  17. Performance evaluation of thermally treated graphite felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow battery and their four-point single cell characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazúr, P.; Mrlík, J.; Beneš, J.; Pocedič, J.; Vrána, J.; Dundálek, J.; Kosek, J.

    2018-03-01

    In our contribution we study the electrocatalytic effect of oxygen functionalization of thermally treated graphite felt on kinetics of electrode reactions of vanadium redox flow battery. Chemical and morphological changes of the felts are analysed by standard physico-chemical characterization techniques. A complex method four-point method is developed and employed for characterization of the felts in a laboratory single-cell. The method is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and load curves measurements of positive and negative half-cells using platinum wire pseudo-reference electrodes. The distribution of ohmic and faradaic losses within a single-cell is evaluated for both symmetric and asymmetric electrode set-up with respect to the treatment conditions. Positive effect of oxygen functionalization is observed only for negative electrode, whereas kinetics of positive electrode reaction is almost unaffected by the treatment. This is in a contradiction to the results of typically employed cyclovoltammetric characterization which indicate that both electrodes are enhanced by the treatment to a similar extent. The developed four-point characterization method can be further used e.g., for the component screening and in-situ durability studies on single-cell scale redox flow batteries of various chemistries.

  18. Oxygen Transfer on Substituted ZrO2, Bi2O3, and CeO2 Electrolytes with Platinum Electrodes. I. Electrode Resistance by D-C Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, M.J.; Hammink, W.J.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The electrode behavior of Pt-sputtered and PT-gauze electrodes on ZrO2-Y2O3, Bi2O3-Er2O3, and CeO2-Gd2O3 solid electrolyteswas investigated by means of d-c measurements in the temperature region of 770–1050 K and in the oxygen partialpressure region of 10–5 – 1 atm O2 using N2-O2 mixtures. On these

  19. Hysteresis in amplitudes of self-excited oscillations for co-axial electrode-geometry DC glow discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Narayanan, R.; Prasad, Awadhesh

    2014-12-01

    Hysteresis in amplitudes of the self-excited oscillations of the floating potential and discharge current is observed in an unmagnetized co-axial electrode-geometry DC glow discharge plasma system. The nonlinearities of these oscillations are studied using standard dynamical analysis tools. The characterization revealed the transition of low-amplitude high-frequency period-n oscillations to a large amplitude low frequency period-1 oscillations through a chaotic intermediate route. The transition of the low amplitude, high frequency period-n oscillations to chaotic type is observed to be linked to the dynamical change in the plasma system, i.e., after a negative differential resistance (NDR) region, whereas the transition from chaotic to period-1 is observed to be linked to a discharge current threshold.

  20. 77 FR 6060 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... the petitioners, SGL Carbon LLC and Superior Graphite, Co. Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... require additional time to analyze the comments submitted by SGL Carbon LLC and Superior Graphite, Co...) of the Act and 19 CFR 351.213(h)(2). Dated: January 31, 2012, Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant...

  1. Ultrasonic irradiation preparation of graphitic-C3N4/polyaniline nanocomposites as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Mohaddeseh; Dinari, Mohammad; Momeni, Mohamad Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    In this research, polyaniline/graphitic carbon nitride (PANI/g-C 3 N 4 ) nanocomposites were synthesized via in-situ electrochemical polymerization of aniline monomer whit different number of cyclic voltammetry scans (10, 20 and 30 cycles) after electrode surface pre-preparation using a potential shock under ultrasonic irradiation. PANI/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposites with two values of g-C 3 N 4 (0.010 wt% and 0.015 wt%) were deposited on the surface of the transparent conducting film (FTO glass) by immersing FTO into the aniline solution and g-C 3 N 4 during the electro-polymerization. The resulting PANI/g-C 3 N 4 films were characterized by Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR), power X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The prepared electrodes were applied as counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. Among them, the prepared electrode with 10 cycles and 0.01 wt% g-C 3 N 4 showed the best efficiency. These hybrids show good catalytic activity in elevating tri-iodide reduction and due to the synergistic effect of PANI and g-C 3 N 4 , PANI/g-C 3 N 4 nanocomposite electrode shows power conversion efficiency about 1.8%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fabrication of novel coated graphite electrodes for the selective nano-level determination of Cd{sup 2+} ions in biological and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jitendra [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Singh, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Jain, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667 (India)

    2011-10-30

    Novel cadmium selective coated graphite electrodes were prepared using three different ionophores N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-dicyanoethyl-N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)benzene-1, 2-diamine [L{sub 1}], N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-dicyanoethyl-N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-bis(thiophen-2-ylmethyl) benzene-1, 2-diamine [L{sub 2}] and N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-dicyanoethyl-N{sup 1}, N{sup 2}-bis(furan-2-ylmethyl)benzene-1, 2-diamine [L{sub 3}], and their potentiometric characteristics were determined. Membranes having different compositions of poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), the plasticizer o-nitrophenyloctylether (o-NPOE), sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) as an anionic additive and ionophores were coated onto the graphite surface. The potential response measurements showed that the best performance was exhibited by the electrodes with membranes having the composition L{sub 1}: o-NPOE:NaTPB:PVC as 4:51:2.5:42.5 (wt.%), L{sub 2}: o-NPOE:NaTPB:PVC as 3:52.5:1.5:43 (wt.%) and L{sub 3}: o-NPOE:NaTPB:PVC as 7:49:3.5:40.5 (wt.%). These electrodes had the widest working concentration range, Nernstian slope and fast response times of 12 s, 7 s and 17 s for L{sub 1}, L{sub 2} and L{sub 3}, respectively. The selectivity studies showed that these electrodes have higher selectivity towards Cd{sup 2+} over a large number of cations and could tolerate up to 20 vol.% non-aqueous impurities. Furthermore, the electrodes generated constant potentials in the pH range 2.0-8.0, with a shelf life of approximately four to six weeks. The high selectivity of these electrodes permits their use in the detection of the Cd{sup 2+} content in some medicinal plants, soil and industrial wastewater samples. The electrodes could also be used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Cd{sup 2+} with EDTA.

  3. An improved amperometric triglyceride biosensor based on co-immobilization of nanoparticles of lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol 3-phosphate oxidase onto pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Vinay; Pundir, C S

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of commercial lipase from Candida rugosa, of glycerol kinase (GK) from Cellulomonas species, of glycerol-3- phosphate oxidase (GPO) from Aerococcus viridans were prepared, characterized and co-immobilized onto a pencil graphite (PG) electrode. The morphological and electrochemical characterization of PG electrode was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) before and after co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). An improved amperometric triglyceride (TG) biosensor was fabricated using Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode as the working electrode, Ag/AgCl as the standard electrode and Pt wire as auxiliary electrode. The biosensor showed optimum response within 2.5s at a pH 7.0 and temperature of 35°C. The biosensor measured current due to electrons generated at 0.1V against Ag/AgCl, from H 2 O 2 , which is produced from triolein by co-immobilized ENPs. A linear relationship was obtained over between a wide triolein concentration range (0.1mM-45mM) and current (mA) under optimal conditions. The Lipase NPs/GKNPs/GPONPs/PG electrode showed high sensitivity (1241±20mAcm -2 mM -1 ); a lower detection limit (0.1nM) and good correlation coeficient (R 2 =0.99) with a standard enzymic colorimetric method. Analytical recovery of added triolein in serum was 98.01%, within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.05% and 0.06% respectively. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for determination of TG in the serum of apparently healthy subject and persons suffering from hypertriglyceridemia. The biosensor lost 20% of its initial activity after its continued uses over a period of 240days, while being stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 76 FR 67411 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Carbon LLC and Superior Graphite, Co. The preliminary results of the review are currently due no later... 351.213(h)(2). Dated: October 26, 2011. Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Antidumping...

  5. Rhodium nanoparticle-modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in tea extracts in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatselou, Vasiliki A; Giokas, Dimothenis L; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2015-03-01

    In this work we describe the fabrication of nanostructured electrocatalytic surfaces based on polyethyleneimine (PEI)-supported rhodium nanoparticles (Rh-NP) over graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. Rh-NP, electrostatically stabilized by citrate anions, were immobilized over graphite SPEs, through coulombic attraction on a thin film of positively charged PEI. The functionalized sensors, polarized at 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl, exhibited a linear response to H2O2 over the concentration range from 5 to 600 μmol L(-1) H2O2 in the presence of oxygen. The 3σ limit of detection was 2 μmol L(-1) H2O2, while the reproducibility of the method at the concentration level of 10 μmol L(-1) H2O2 (n=10) and between different sensors (n=4) was lower than 3 and 5%, respectively. Most importantly, the sensors showed an excellent working and storage stability at ambient conditions and they were successfully applied to the determination of H2O2 produced by autooxidation of polylphenols in tea extracts with ageing. Recovery rates ranged between 97 and 104% suggesting that the as-prepared electrodes can be used for the development of small-scale, low-cost chemical sensors for use in on-site applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DC source assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  7. Computing anode heating voltage in high-pressure arc discharges and modelling rod electrodes in dc and ac regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, N A; Cunha, M D; Benilov, M S

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling of near-anode layers in arc discharges in several gases (Ar, Xe and Hg) is performed in a wide range of current densities, anode surface temperatures, and plasma pressures. It is shown that the density of energy flux to the anode is only weakly affected by the anode surface temperature and varies linearly with the current density. This allows one to interpret the results in terms of anode heating voltage (volt equivalent of the heat flux to the anode). The computed data may be useful in different ways. An example considered in this work concerns the evaluation of thermal regime of anodes in the shape of a thin rod operating in the diffuse mode. Invoking the model of nonlinear surface heating for cathodes, one obtains a simple and free of empirical parameters model of thin rod electrodes applicable to dc and ac high-pressure arcs provided that no anode spots are present. The model is applied to a variety of experiments reported in the literature and a good agreement with the experimental data found. (paper)

  8. Fluctuation-Coupling of Cathode Cavity Pressure and Arc Voltage in a dc Plasma Torch with a Long Inter-Electrode Channel at Reduced Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jin-Wen; Huang He-Ji; Pan Wen-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Fluctuations of cathode cavity pressure and arc voltage are observed experimentally in a dc plasma torch with a long inter-electrode channel. The results show that they have the same frequency of around 4 kHz under typical experimental conditions. The observed phase difference between the pressure and the voltage, which is influenced by the path length between the pressure sensor and the cathode cavity, varies with different input powers. Combined with numerical simulation, the position of the pressure perturbation origin is estimated, and the results show that it is located at 0.01–0.05 m upstream of the inter-electrode channel outlet

  9. Lithium loss in the solid electrolyte interphase: Lithium quantification of aged lithium ion battery graphite electrodes by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Timo; Evertz, Marco; Mense, Maximilian; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present a new method using LA-ICP-MS to quantitatively determine the lithium content in aged graphite electrodes of a lithium ion battery (LIB) by performing total depth profiling. Matrix matched solid external standards are prepared using a solid doping approach to avoid elemental fractionation effects during the measurement. The results are compared and matched to the established ICP-OES technique for bulk quantification after performing a microwave assisted acid digestion. The method is applied to aged graphite electrodes in order to determine the lithium immobilization (= "Li loss") in the solid electrolyte interphase after the first cycle of formation. For this, different samples including a reference sample are created to obtain varying thicknesses of the SEI covering the electrode particles. By applying defined charging voltages, an initial lithiation process is performed to obtain specific graphite intercalation compounds (GICs, with target stoichiometries of LiC30, LiC18, LiC12 and LiC6). Afterwards, the graphite electrode is completely discharged to obtain samples without mobile, thus active lithium in its lattice. Taking the amount of lithium into account which originates from the residues of the LiPF6 (dissolved in the carbon components containing electrolyte), it is possible to subtract the amount of lithium in the SEI.

  10. 3-D DC resistivity modelling with arbitrary long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liu, Yuanying; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    We present a 3-D electrical resistivity modelling with long electrode sources using finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The radius and resistivity of the electrode is neglected and the electrode can be regarded as a line source with finite length in our modelling. An approximated equation for determining the current density along the electrode is derived for current density correction in heterogeneous media. Electrical fields excited by arbitrary long electrode sources in heterogeneous conductive media can be simulated. Both total- and secondary-potential methods are implemented in the simulation. The analytic electrical potentials of an arbitrary long electrode source in a conductive half-space is derived and used for accuracy analysis in the numerical simulations. The apparent resistivities for survey arrays with long electrode sources are proposed based on the analytic solution of the half-space model. The responses of electrical fields excited by point electrode and long electrode sources to resistivity anomalies are compared with ground and borehole simulations, which shows that the arrays with long electrode sources are more sensitive to the anomalies than those with point electrode sources. A time-lapsed monitoring for hydraulic fracturing in oil field using the production wells as long electrode sources is also simulated, which indicates that the borehole potential data of the long electrode source array can help assess the location of the fracture zone.

  11. Development of Ionic Liquid Modified Disposable Graphite Electrodes for Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization Related to Microcystis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Sengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL modified pencil graphite electrode (IL-PGEs was developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization related to Microcystis spp. (MYC. The characterization of IL-PGEs was performed using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. DNA hybridization related to MYC was then explored at the surface of IL-PGEs using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV technique. After the experimental parameters were optimized, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization related to MYC was performed in the case of hybridization between MYC probe and its complementary DNA target, noncomplementary (NC or mismatched DNA sequence (MM, or and in the presence of mixture of DNA target: NC (1:1 and DNA target: MM (1:1.

  12. Influence of the lithium salt nature over the surface film formation on a graphite electrode in Li-ion batteries: An XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, S.; Martinez, H.; Dedryvere, R.; Lemordant, D.; Gonbeau, D.

    2007-01-01

    The formation of a passivation film (solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) at the surface of the negative electrode of full LiCoO 2 /graphite lithium-ion cells using different salts (LiBF 4 , LiPF 6 , LiTFSI, LiBETI) in carbonate solvents as electrolyte was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The analyzes were carried out at different potential stages of the first cycle, showing the potential-dependent character of the surface film species formation and the specificity of each salt. At 3.8 V, for all salts, we have mainly identified carbonated species. Beyond this potential, the specific behavior of LiPF 6 was identified with a high LiF deposit, whereas for other salts, the formation process of the SEI appears controlled by the solvent decomposition of the electrolyte

  13. Sensitive electrochemical detection of NADH and ethanol at low potential based on pyrocatechol violet electrodeposited on single walled carbon nanotubes-modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Shan, Dan; Yuan, Pei-Xin; Zhang, Xue-Ji

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the electrodeposition of pyrocatechol violet (PCV) was initially investigated by the electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (ESPR) technique. Subsequently, PCV was used as redox-mediator and was electrodeposited on the surface of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Owing to the remarkable synergistic effect of SWCNTs and PCV, PGE/SWCNTs/PCV exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards dihydronicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidation at low potential (0.2V vs. SCE) with fast amperometric response (low detection limit (1.3 μM) at signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Thus, this PGE/SWCNTs/PCV could be further used to fabricate a sensitive and economic ethanol biosensor using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) via a glutaraldehyde/BSA cross-linking procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation on Electrochemical Properties of Polythiophene Nanocomposite with Graphite Derivatives as Supercapacitor Material on Breath Figure-Decorated PMMA Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Mona; Abbaspour, Mohsen; Fazli, Ali; Setoodeh, Hamideh; Pourabbas, Behzad

    2018-03-01

    Breath figures have been formed by the direct breath figure method on polymethyl methacrylate electrode sand hexagonal oriented holes with 0.5- to 10- μm2 surface area have been created. Deposition of materials on the electrodes has been performed by the spray-coating method. polythiophene (PTh) nanoparticles, polythiophene-graphene oxide (PTh-GO) and polythiophene-reduced graphene oxide (PTh-G) nanocomposites were synthesized by emulsion polymerization, while characterization of synthetic materials have been carried out by Fourier transform infrared, Χ-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy techniques. Also, the electrochemical properties of the designed electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Specific capacitance of porous electrodes coated by PTh nanoparticles, PTh-GO and PTh-G nanocomposites were calculated from cyclic voltammetry curves at 5 mV/s scan rate, andthe values are 3.5 F/g, 16.39 F/g, and 28.68 F/g, respectively. Also, the energy density of each electrode at 5 mV/s scan rate has been calculated and the results show that incorporation of GO and G nanolayers with PTh nanoparticles enhances the electrochemical properties of electrodes.

  15. Determination of cobalt ions at nano-level based on newly synthesized pendant armed macrocycle by polymeric membrane and coated graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Prerna; Bhattacharjee, G

    2009-12-15

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membranes of macrocycles 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(1)) and 2,3,4:9,10,11-dipyridine-1,5,8,12-tetramethylacrylate-1,3,5,8,10,12-hexaazacyclotetradeca-2,9-diene (L(2)) with NaTPB and KTpClPB as anion excluders and dibutylphthalate (DBP), benzyl acetate (BA), dioctylphthalate (DOP), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as plasticizing solvent mediators were prepared and investigated as Co(2+) selective electrodes. The best performance was observed with the membranes having the composition L(2):PVC:TBP:NaTPB in the ratio of 6:39:53:2 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L(2) was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) and coated graphite electrode (CGE). The PME exhibits detection limit of 4.7x10(-8)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.7 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.5 and 8.5 whereas CGE exhibits the detection limit of 6.8x10(-9)M with a Nernstian slope of 29.5 mV decade(-1) of activity between pH 2.0 and 9.0. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 11 and 8s, respectively. The CGE has been found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media up to 35% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 25% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 4 months. The CGE was successfully applied for the determination of Co(2+) in real and pharmaceutical samples and as an indicator electrode in potentiometric titration of cobalt ion.

  16. Polypyrrole and graphene quantum dots @ Prussian Blue hybrid film on graphite felt electrodes: Application for amperometric determination of l-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tricard, Simon; Yue, Pengwei; Zhao, Jihua; Fang, Jian; Shen, Weiguo

    2016-03-15

    A novel polypyrrole (PPy) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) @ Prussian Blue (PB) nanocomposite has been grafted on a graphite felt (GF) substrate (PPy/GQDs@PB/GF), and has been proven to be an efficient electrochemical sensor for the determination of l-cysteine (l-cys). GQDs, which were fabricated by carbonization of citric acid and adsorbed on GF surface ultrasonically, played an important role for promoting the synthesis process of PB via a spontaneous redox reaction between Fe(3+) and [Fe(CN)6](3-). The PPy film has been electro-polymerized to improve the electrochemical stability of the PPy/GQDs@PB/GF electrode. The as-prepared electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical methods. It exhibited an excellent activity for the electrocatalytic oxidation of l-cys, with a detection sensitivity equal to 0.41 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 0.2-50 μmolL(-1), and equal to 0.15 Amol(-1) L for a concentration range of 50-1000 μmolL(-1). A low detection limit of 0.15 μmolL(-1), as well as a remarkable long-time stability and a negligible sensitivity to interfering analytes, were also ascertained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Novel High-Frequency Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio-Based Grounding Electrode Line Fault Supervision in Ultra-High Voltage DC Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Teng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the fault monitoring performance of grounding electrode lines in ultra-high voltage DC (UHVDC transmission systems, a novel fault monitoring approach based on the high-frequency voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR is proposed in this paper. The VSWR is defined considering a lossless transmission line, and the characteristics of the VSWR under different conditions are analyzed. It is shown that the VSWR equals 1 when the terminal resistance completely matches the characteristic impedance of the line, and when a short circuit fault occurs on the grounding electrode line, the VSWR will be greater than 1. The VSWR will approach positive infinity under metallic earth fault conditions, whereas the VSWR in non-metallic earth faults will be smaller. Based on these analytical results, a fault supervision criterion is formulated. The effectiveness of the proposed VSWR-based fault supervision technique is verified with a typical UHVDC project established in Power Systems Computer Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC(PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results indicate that the proposed strategy can reliably identify the grounding electrode line fault and has strong anti-fault resistance capability.

  18. Electrochemically deposited Pd-Pt and Pd-Au codeposits on graphite electrodes for electrocatalytic H2O2 reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiah, Tharamani Chikka; Schäfer, Dominik; Schuhmann, Wolfgang; Dimcheva, Nina

    2013-08-20

    Improved electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for the reduction of H2O2 were obtained by electrodepositing Pd-Pt and Pd-Au on spectrographic graphite from solutions containing salts of the two metals at varying ratio. The electrocatalytic activity of the resulting binary codeposits for H2O2 reduction was evaluated by means of the redox-competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and voltammetric methods. In a potential range from 0 to -600 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl) at pH 7.0 in 0.1 M phosphate citrate buffer, the electrocatalytic activity of both Pd-Pt and Pd-Au codeposits was substantially improved as compared with the identically deposited single metals suggesting an electrocatalytic synergy of the codeposits. Pd-Pt and Pd-Au codeposits were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Codepositing with Au caused a change of hedgehog-like shaped Pd nanoparticles into cauliflower-like nanoparticles with the particle size decreasing with increasing Au concentration. Codepositing Pd with Pt caused the formation of oblong structures with the size initially increasing with increasing Pt content. However, the particle size decreases with further increase in Pt concentration. The improved electrocatalytic capability for H2O2 reduction of the Pd-Pt electrodeposits on graphite was further demonstrated by immobilizing glucose oxidase as a basis for the development of an interference-free amperometric glucose biosensor.

  19. Characterization of the 3-dimensional microstructure of a graphite negative electrode from a Li-ion battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearing, P.R.; Howard, L.E.; Jørgensen, Peter Stanley

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional microstructure of a porous electrode from a lithium-ion battery has been characterized for the first time. We use X-ray tomography to reconstruct a 43 × 348 × 478 μm sample volume with voxel dimensions of 480 nm, subsequent division of the reconstructed volumes into sub...

  20. 76 FR 56397 - Small Diameter Graphite Electrodes from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... days allowed under section 751(a)(3)(A) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''), to... electrodes that are subject to this order are currently classified under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... Department Incorrectly Valued Fushun Jinly's Coal Consumption Comment 15: Whether Fushun Jinly's Reported...

  1. Pencil graphite electrodes for improved electrochemical detection of oleuropein by the combination of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Federico J V; Spisso, Adrian; Fernanda Silva, María

    2017-11-01

    A novel methodology is presented for the enhanced electrochemical detection of oleuropein in complex plant matrices by Graphene Oxide Pencil Grahite Electrode (GOPGE) in combination with a buffer modified with a Natural Deep Eutectic Solvent, containing 10% (v/v) of Lactic acid, Glucose and H 2 O (LGH). The electrochemical behavior of oleuropein in the modified-working buffer was examined using differential pulse voltammetry. The combination of both modifications, NADES modified buffer and nanomaterial modified electrode, LGH-GOPGE, resulted on a signal enhancement of 5.3 times higher than the bare electrode with unmodified buffer. A calibration curve of oleuropein was performed between 0.10 to 37 μM and a good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.989. Detection and quantification limits of the method were obtained as 30 and 102 nM, respectively. In addition, precision studies indicated that the voltammetric method was sufficiently repeatable, %RSD 0.01 and 3.16 (n = 5) for potential and intensity, respectively. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to the determination of oleuropein in an olive leaf extract prepared by ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results obtained with the proposed electrochemical sensor were compared with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis analysis with satisfactory results. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-07-15

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize "high-definition" electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 min on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of five types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring and Ag/AgCl disc) and seven conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, rubber and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrodes for high-definition transcutaneous DC stimulation for applications in drug-delivery and electrotherapy, including tDCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Preet; Bansal, Varun; Patel, Jinal; Ho, Johnson S.; Diaz, Julian; Datta, Abhishek; Bikson, Marom

    2010-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is applied in a range of biomedical applications including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). tDCS is a non-invasive procedure where a weak direct current (<2 mA) is applied across the scalp to modulate brain function. High-Definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) is a technique used to increase the spatial focality of tDCS by passing current across the scalp using <12 mm diameter electrodes. The purpose of this study was to design and optimize “high-definition” electrode-gel parameters for electrode durability, skin safety, and subjective pain. Anode and cathode electrode potential, temperature, pH, and subjective sensation over time were assessed during application of 2 mA direct current, for up to 22 minutes on agar gel or subject forearms. A selection of 5 types of solid-conductors (Ag pellet, Ag/AgCl pellet, Rubber pellet, Ag/AgCl ring, and Ag/AgCl disc) and 7 conductive gels (Signa, Spectra, Tensive, Redux, BioGel, Lectron, and CCNY-4) were investigated. The Ag/AgCl ring in combination with CCNY-4 gel resulted in the most favorable outcomes. Under anode stimulations, electrode potential and temperature rises were generally observed in all electrode-gel combinations except for Ag/AgCl ring and disc electrodes. pH remained constant for all solid-conductors except for both Ag and Rubber pellet electrodes with Signa and CCNY-4 gels. Sensation ratings were independent of stimulation polarity. Ag/AgCl ring electrodes were found to be the most comfortable followed by Ag, Rubber, and Ag/AgCl pellet electrodes across all gels. PMID:20488204

  4. Bioelectrocatalytic dechlorination of trichloroacetic acid at gel-immobilized hemoglobin on multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified graphite electrode: Kinetic modeling and reaction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Yu, Jianming; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Jiade; Ying, Le; Song, Xinxin; Zhou, Gendi; Chen, Jianmeng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electrons transfer from enzyme in the electrode to COCs was the key step. ► The average current efficiency was influenced by pH and temperature of the systems. ► The most favourable degradation conditions for TCA were found to be pH 3 and 310 K. ► The activation energy of 26.2 kJ mol −1 was also calculated by the Arrhenius equation. ► Bioelectrocatalytic mechanism of TCA was verified by kinetic expressions. -- Abstract: In bioelectrochemically reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs), the electrons transfer from enzyme in the electrode to COCs was the key step, which determined the average current efficiency (CE) and was influenced by the pH and temperature of the systems. In this work, the effect of temperature (288–318 K) and pH (2–11) of the electrolyte on decholrination of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was investigated in the sodium alginate/hemoglobin-multiwalled carbon nanotubes-graphite composite electrode (Hb/SA–MWCNT–GE). The results showed that the most favourable degradation conditions for TCA by Hb/SA–MWCNT–GE were found to be pH 3 and 310 K. By varying the pH of the systems, it was found that a proton accompanied with an electron transfer between the electrode and heme Fe(III)/Fe(II) of Hb during the reaction. Additionally, the activation energy of 26.2 kJ mol −1 was also calculated by the Arrhenius equation for the reaction. The total mass balance of the reactant and the products was in the range of 97–105% during the bioelectrochemically reductive reaction. The CE only decreased from 87% to 83% when the Hb/SA–MWCNT–GE was used 5 times. Based on the intermediates detected, a pathway was proposed for TCA degradation in which it underwent dechlorination process. The main degradation mechanism described by a parallel reaction rather than by a sequential reaction for dechlorination of TCA in Hb/SA–MWCNT–GE system was proposed. These data provided relevant information about the

  5. Nano-level monitoring of Yb(III) by fabrication of coated graphite electrode based on newly synthesized hexaaza macrocyclic ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K., E-mail: akscyfcy@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Singh, Prerna [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology-Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2009-06-08

    The two macrocyclic ligands 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline){sub 2}-4,14-Me{sub 2}-[20]-1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N{sub 6} (L{sub 1}) and 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline){sub 2}-4,14-Me{sub 2}-8,18-dimethylacrylate-[20] -1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N{sub 6} (L{sub 2}) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Yb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L{sub 2}:PVC:BA:NaTPB in the ratio of 5: 40: 52: 3 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L{sub 2} was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Yb{sup 3+} ions with limits of detection of 4.3 x 10{sup -8} M for PME and 5.8 x 10{sup -9} M for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-8.0 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Yb{sup 3+} ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash samples. It can be used for determination of sulfite in red and white wine samples and also in determination of Yb{sup 3+} in various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  6. Nano-level monitoring of Yb(III) by fabrication of coated graphite electrode based on newly synthesized hexaaza macrocyclic ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Singh, Prerna

    2009-01-01

    The two macrocyclic ligands 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline) 2 -4,14-Me 2 -[20]-1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N 6 (L 1 ) and 2,12-(2-methoxyaniline) 2 -4,14-Me 2 -8,18-dimethylacrylate-[20] -1,4,11,14-tetraene-1,5,8,11,15,18-N 6 (L 2 ) have been synthesized and explored as neutral ionophores for preparing poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) based membrane sensors selective to Yb(III) ions. Effects of various plasticizers and anion excluders were studied in detail and improved performance was observed. The best performance was obtained for the membrane sensor having a composition of L 2 :PVC:BA:NaTPB in the ratio of 5: 40: 52: 3 (w/w; mg). The performance of the membrane based on L 2 was compared with polymeric membrane electrode (PME) as well as with coated graphite electrode (CGE). The electrodes exhibit Nernstian slope for Yb 3+ ions with limits of detection of 4.3 x 10 -8 M for PME and 5.8 x 10 -9 M for CGE. The response time for PME and CGE was found to be 10 s and 8 s, respectively. The potentiometric responses are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 3.0-8.0 for PME and 2.5-8.5 for CGE. The CGE has found to work satisfactorily in partially non-aqueous media upto 30% (v/v) content of methanol, ethanol and 20% (v/v) content of acetonitrile and could be used for a period of 5 months. The CGE was used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Yb 3+ ions with EDTA and in determination of fluoride ions in mouthwash samples. It can be used for determination of sulfite in red and white wine samples and also in determination of Yb 3+ in various binary mixtures with quantitative results.

  7. A solvent-free microbial-activated air cathode battery paper platform made with pencil-traced graphite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ban, Ju Yeon; Oh, Chung-Hun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Choi, Samjin

    2016-06-01

    We present the fabrication of an ultra-low cost, disposable, solvent-free air cathode all-paper microbial fuel cell (MFC) that does not utilize any chemical treatments. The anode and cathode were fabricated by depositing graphite particles by drawing them on paper with a pencil (four strokes). Hydrophobic parchment paper was used as a proton exchange membrane (PEM) to allow only H+ to pass. Air cathode MFC technology, where O2 was used as an electron acceptor, was implemented on the paper platform. The bioelectric current was generated by an electrochemical process involving the redox couple of microbial-activated extracellular electron transferred electrons, PEM-passed H+, and O2 in the cathode. A fully micro-integrated pencil-traced MFC showed a fast start-time, producing current within 10 s after injection of bacterial cells. A single miniaturized all-paper air cathode MFC generated a maximum potential of 300 mV and a maximum current of 11 μA during 100 min after a single injection of Shewanella oneidensis. The micro-fabricated solvent-free air cathode all-paper MFC generated a power of 2,270 nW (5.68 mW/m2). The proposed solvent-free air cathode paper-based MFC device could be used for environmentally-friendly energy storage as well as in single-use medical power supplies that use organic matter.

  8. Primary DNA damage and genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1, EPHX and GSTM1 in workers at a graphite electrode manufacturing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airoldi Luisa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The results of a cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate whether genetic polymorphisms (biomarkers of susceptibility for CYP1A1, EPHX and GSTM1 genes that affect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH activation and detoxification might influence the extent of primary DNA damage (biomarker of biologically effective dose in PAH exposed workers are presented. PAH-exposure of the study populations was assessed by determining the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP in urine samples (biomarker of exposure dose. Methods The exposed group consisted of workers (n = 109 at a graphite electrode manufacturing plant, occupationally exposed to PAH. Urinary 1OHP was measured by HPLC. Primary DNA damage was evaluated by the alkaline comet assay in peripheral blood leukocytes. Genetic polymorphisms for CYP1A1, EPHX and GSTM1 were determined by PCR or PCR/RFLP analysis. Results 1OHP and primary DNA damage were significantly higher in electrode workers compared to reference subjects. Moreover, categorization of subjects as normal or outlier highlighted an increased genotoxic risk OR = 2.59 (CI95% 1.32–5.05 associated to exposure to PAH. Polymorphisms in EPHX exons 3 and 4 was associated to higher urinary concentrations of 1OHP, whereas none of the genotypes analyzed (CYP1A1, EPHX, and GSTM1 had any significant influence on primary DNA damage as evaluated by the comet assay. Conclusion The outcomes of the present study show that molecular epidemiology approaches (i.e. cross-sectional studies of genotoxicity biomarkers can play a role in identifying common genetic risk factors, also attempting to associate the effects with measured exposure data. Moreover, categorization of subjects as normal or outlier allowed the evaluation of the association between occupational exposure to PAH and DNA damage highlighting an increased genotoxic risk.

  9. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  10. Development of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified pencil graphite electrode for the electrochemical investigation of aceclofenac present in pharmaceutical and biological samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manjunatha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and novel chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified pencil graphite electrode (MCPGE has been developed for the electrochemical investigation of aceclofenac (ACF. MCPGE was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cyclic voltammetry (CV and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Phosphate buffer solution (PBS of pH 7.0 was used as a suitable electrolytic medium, in which aceclofenac (ACF exhibited a sensitive adsorption controlled oxidation peaks at +0.12, +0.32 and +0.51 V and a reduction peak at −0.26 V (vs Ag/AgCl. The experimental conditions were optimised by means of investigating the dependence of peak current on solution pH, concentration and scan rate etc. The electrochemical parameters such as surface concentration (Γ, electron transfer coefficient (α and the standard rate constant (ks were investigated at MCPGE. The oxidative peak currents were varied linearly with concentration in the range between 1 × 10−6 to 60 × 10−6 M with a detection limit of 2.6 × 10−9 M. The UV–Vis absorption spectrum of ACF gave the λmax at 272–273 nm and is attributed to the presence of ACF. The applicability of the MCPGE was illustrated by the determination of ACF present in pharmaceutical and human urine samples.

  11. Carbon quantum dots directly generated from electrochemical oxidation of graphite electrodes in alkaline alcohols and the applications for specific ferric ion detection and cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengli; Xu, Yuanhong; Niu, Fushuang; Gooding, J Justin; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-04-25

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are attracting tremendous interest owing to their low toxicity, water dispersibility, biocompatibility, optical properties and wide applicability. Herein, CQDs with an average diameter of (4.0 ± 0.2) nm and high crystallinity were produced simply from the electrochemical oxidation of a graphite electrode in alkaline alcohols. The as-formed CQDs dispersion was colourless but the dispersion gradually changed to bright yellow when stored in ambient conditions. Based on UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), this colour change appeared to be due to oxygenation of surface species over time. Furthermore, the CQDs were used in specific and sensitive detection of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) with broad linear ranges of 10-200 μM with a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM (S/N = 3). The application of the CQDs for Fe(3+) detection in tap water was demonstrated and the possible mechanism was also discussed. Finally, based on their good characteristics of low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility, the CQDs were successfully applied to cell imaging.

  12. Development of a simple, low cost chronoamperometric assay for fructose based on a commercial graphite-nanoparticle modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Phil; Pittson, Robin; Hart, John P

    2018-02-15

    This paper describes the development of a simple, low cost chronoamperometric assay, for the measurement of fructose, using a graphite-nanoparticle modified screen-printed electrode (SPCE-G-COOH). Cyclic voltammetry showed that the response of the SPCE-G-COOH enhanced the sensitivity and precision, towards the enzymatically generated ferrocyanide species, over a plain SPCE; therefore the former was employed in subsequent studies. Calibration studies were carried out using chronoamperometry with a 40µl mixture containing fructose, mediator and FDH, deposited onto the SPCE-G-COOH. The response was linear from 0.1mM to 1.0mM. A commercial fruit juice sample was analysed using the developed assay and the fructose concentration was calculated to be 477mM with a precision of 3.03% (n=5). Following fortification (477mM fructose) the mean recovery was found to be 97.12% with a coefficient of variation of 6.42% (n=5); consequently, the method holds promise for the analysis of commercial fruit juices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Caffeine electrochemical sensor using imprinted film as recognition element based on polypyrrole, sol-gel, and gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposite modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Behzad; Khalili Boroujeni, Malihe; Ensafi, Ali A

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, a novel sensitive and selective nanocomposite imprinted electrochemical sensor for the indirect determination of caffeine has been prepared. The imprinted sensor was fabricated on the surface of pencil graphite electrode (PGE) via one-step electropolymerization of the imprinted polymer composed of conductive polymer, sol-gel, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and caffeine. Due to such combination like the thin film of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with specific binding sites, the sensor responded quickly to caffeine. AuNPs were introduced for the enhancement of electrical response by facilitating charge transfer processes of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) which was used as an electrochemical active probe. The fabrication process of the sensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimized. The imprinted sensor has the advantages of high porous surface structure, inexpensive, disposable, excellent stability, good reproducibility and repeatability. The linear ranges of the MIP sensor were in the range from 2.0 to 50.0 and 50.0 to 1000.0 nmol L(-1), with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.9 nmol L(-1) (S/N=3). Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully intended for the determination of caffeine in real samples (urine, plasma, tablet, green tea, energy and soda drink). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impedance of electrochemically modified graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdić, Katja; Kvastek, Krešimir; Horvat-Radošević, Višnja

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, EIS, has been applied for characterization of electrochemically modified graphite electrodes in the sulphuric acid solution. Graphite modifications were performed by potential cyclization between potentials of graphite oxide formation/reduction, different number of cycles, and prolonged reduction steps after cyclization. Impedance spectra measured at two potential points within double-layer region of graphite have been successfully modeled using the concept of porous electrodes involving two different electrolyte diffusion paths, indicating existence of two classes of pores. The evaluated impedance parameter values show continuous changes with stages of graphite modification, indicating continuous structural changes of pores by number of potential cycles applied. Differences of impedance parameter values at two potential values indicate the potential induced changes of solution properties within the pores of modified graphite.

  15. Electrical Characteristics, Electrode Sheath and Contamination Layer Behavior of a Meso-Scale Premixed Methane-Air Flame Under AC/DC Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Yan, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Li, Guoxiu

    2016-05-01

    Electrical characteristics of a nozzle-attached meso-scale premixed methane-air flame under low-frequency AC (0-4300 V, 0-500 Hz) and DC (0-3300 V) electric fields were studied. I-V curves were measured under different experimental conditions to estimate the magnitude of the total current 100-102 μA, the electron density 1015-1016 m-3 and further the power dissipation ≤ 0.7 W in the reaction zone. At the same time, the meso-scale premixed flame conductivity 10-4-10-3 Ω-1·m-1 as a function of voltage and frequency was experimentally obtained and was believed to represent a useful order-of magnitude estimate. Moreover, the influence of the collision sheath relating to Debye length (31-98 μm) and the contamination layer of an active electrode on measurements was discussed, based on the combination of simulation and theoretical analysis. As a result, the electrode sheath dimension was evaluated to less than 0.5 mm, which indicated a complex effect of the collision sheath on the current measurements. The surface contamination effect of an active electrode was further analyzed using the SEM imaging method, which showed elements immigration during the contamination layer formation process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51376021), and the Fundamental Research Fund for Major Universities (No. 2013JBM079)

  16. A New Sensor Based on Graphite Screen Printed Electrode Modified With Cu-Nanocomplex for Determination of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Beitollai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of paracetamol can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of paracetamol receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the paracetamol based on screen-printed modified electrode (SPE with Cu nanocomplex (Cu in pH=7.0. The paracetamol is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, and is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of paracetamol. The kinetics of the paracetamol oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the characterization of Cu nanocomplex was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Moreover, the voltammetry determined the paracetamol with the linear concentration ranging from 10.0 to 1000.0 μM and the lower detection limit of 1.0 μM. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

  17. Simultaneous quantification of arginine, alanine, methionine and cysteine amino acids in supplements using a novel bioelectro-nanosensor based on CdSe quantum dot/modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode via Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshmand, Sara; Es'haghi, Zarrin

    2017-11-30

    A number of four amino acids have been simultaneously determined at CdSe quantum dot-modified/multi-walled carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode in different bodybuilding supplements. CdSe quantum dots were synthesized and applied to construct a modified carbon nanotube hollow fiber pencil graphite electrode. FT-IR, TEM, XRD and EDAX methods were applied for characterization of the synthesized CdSe QDs. The electro-oxidation of arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) at the surface of the modified electrode was studied. Then the Taguchi's method was applied using MINITAB 17 software to find out the optimum conditions for the amino acids determination. Under the optimized conditions, the differential pulse (DP) voltammetric peak currents of Arg, Ala, Met and Cys increased linearly with their concentrations in the ranges of 0.287-33670μM and detection limits of 0.081, 0.158, 0.094 and 0.116μM were obtained for them, respectively. Satisfactory results were achieved for calibration and validation sets. The prepared modified electrode represents a very good resolution between the voltammetric peaks of the four amino acids which makes it suitable for the detection of each in presence of others in real samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Special graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1964-01-01

    A large fraction of the work undertaken jointly by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and the Pechiney Company has been the improvement of the properties of nuclear pile graphite and the opening up of new fields of graphite application. New processes for the manufacture of carbons and special graphites have been developed: forged graphite, pyro-carbons, high density graphite agglomeration of graphite powders by cracking of natural gas, impervious graphites. The physical properties of these products and their reaction with various oxidising gases are described. The first irradiation results are also given. (authors) [fr

  19. Microfabricated disposable nanosensor based on CdSe quantum dot/ionic liquid-mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode for simultaneous electrochemical quantification of uric acid and creatinine in human samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooshmand, Sara; Es' haghi, Zarrin, E-mail: eshaghi@pnu.ac.ir

    2017-06-15

    In this research, a novel sensitive electrochemical nanosensor based on the cadmium selenide quantum dots (QDs)/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber-pencil graphite electrode (HF-PGE) was prepared and applied for simultaneous determination of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. The electrocatalytic oxidation of the analytes was investigated via differential pulse (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The experiments were designed, in two different steps, according to Taguchi's method; OA9 L9 (3{sup 3}) and OA9 L9 (3{sup 4}) orthogonal array to optimize experimental runs. The results revealed that the electrode response was initially influenced by the types of sensor and types of ionic liquids and their ratios. The amount of QD, buffer pH, equilibration time and scan rate also influenced electrode response efficiency. According to the results of Taguchi analysis, the amount of tetra phenyl phosphonium chloride (TPPC) and QD were the most influencing parameters on the yield response of the modified electrodes. Linear ranges were obtained between 0.297–2.970 × 10{sup 3} and 0.442–8.840 × 10{sup 3} μM, with the detection limits of 0.083 and 0.229 μM and relative standard deviations (RSD) of 2.4% and 1.8%, for UA and Crn, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully examined for simultaneous determination of UA and Crn in human urine and serum samples. - Highlights: • Sensor based on modified CdSe quantum dot/ionic liquid mediated hollow fiber graphite electrode. • One-step simultaneous purification, pre-concentration, extraction, back-extraction and determination of electroactive analytes. • Target analyte uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Crn) in urine and serum samples. • Disposable nature of sensor reduced risk of carry-over.

  20. Fabrication of novel coated pyrolytic graphite electrodes for the selective nano-level monitoring of Cd²⁺ ions in biological and environmental samples using polymeric membrane of newly synthesized macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, Manoj Kumar; Singh, A K; Jain, A K; Upadhyay, Anjali; Kumar, Amit; Singh, Udai P; Narang, Shikha

    2015-02-20

    Novel 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol unit based macrocyclic ionophore 5,11,17-trithia-1,3,7,9,13,15,19,20,21-nonaazatetracyclo[14.2.1.1(4,7).1(10,13)]henicosa-4(20),10(21),16(19)-triene-6,12,18-trithione (M1), was synthesized and characterized. Preliminary studies on M1 have showed that it has more the affinity toward Cd(2+) ion. Thus, the macrocyclic ionophore (M1) was used as electroactive material in the fabrication of PVC-membrane electrodes such as polymeric membrane electrode (PME), coated graphite electrode (CGE) and coated pyrolytic graphite electrode (CPGE) were prepared and its performance characteristic were compared with. The electroanalytical studies performed on PME, CGE and CPGE revealed that CPGE having membrane composition M1:PVC:1-CN:NaTPB in the ratio of 7:37:54:2 exhibits the best potentiometric characteristics in terms of detection limit of 7.58×10(-9) mol L(-1), Nernstian slope of 29.6 mV decade(-1) of activity. The sensor was found to be independent of pH in the range 2.5-8.5. The sensor showed a fast response time of 10s and could be used over a period of 4 months without any significant divergence in its potentiometric characteristics. The sensor has been employed for monitoring of the Cd(2+) ion in real samples and also used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Cd(2+) ion with EDTA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Microstructural and optical properties of A-Si: H deposited by DC plasma glow discharge of electrode polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, R.; Danker, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    A method for deducing the density of valence electrons and the average atomic separation of Si atoms in a-Si:H are presented. Refractive index and optical absorption experimental data on a variety of dc glow discharge deposited a-Si:H samples are utilized to deduce the two parameters. The density of valence electrons depict values in the range (1.47-6.15)x10 22 cm -3 while the average atomic spacing varies within 3.13-4.61 A. The existence of microvoids and regions of rich silicon-hydride phase are proposed to account for this. Comparisons of the electrical conductivity, optical parameters and vibrational modes are done for cathode and anode deposited a-Si:H samples. Conductivity for both types of samples are the same at around 1.3x10 -9 (Ωcm) -1 , but significant differences are observed in the values of the refractive index n and the optical gap Eg of the cathode (4.06, 1.95 eV) and anode (3.13, 2.34 eV) samples. Observations on the infrared spectrum of the two a-Si:H samples suggests that the anode sample contain appreciable amount and a higher proportion of oxygen, as identified by the 2080cm -1 shift of the Si-H stretching mode, while a strong Si-H 3 symmetric deformation mode is proposed to occur in the cathode sample

  2. Graphite Composite Electrode in Voltammetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebková, Světlana; Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2005), s. 1747-1758 ISSN 0003-2719 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : 2-aminonaphtalene * adenine * guanine * manganese * EVLS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.036, year: 2005

  3. The Effect of Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of a-SiC:H Films Produced by DC Sputtering Methods: I. Graphite Target Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusitra Munisa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the annealing effect on optical properties and disorder of hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films was undertaken. The films were prepared by sputtering technique using graphite target and silicon wafer in argon and hydrogen gas mixture, and then characterized by uv-vis (ultra violet-visible spectroscopy before and after annealing. Index of refraction n and absorption coefficient α of films have been determined from measurements of transmittance. The optical gap show small variation with annealing temperature, increasing with increasing annealing temperature up to 500 °C. An increase of annealing temperature leads to reduced film density and the amorphous network disorder. The experimental results are discussed in terms of deposition condition and compared to other experimental results.

  4. Preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers modified pencil graphite electrode and investigation of over-oxidation conditions for the selective and sensitive determination of uric acid in body fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özcan, Ali; İlkbaş, Salih

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have performed the preparation of over-oxidized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers modified pencil graphite electrode (Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE) to develop a selective and sensitive voltammetric uric acid (UA) sensor. It was noted that the over-oxidation potential and time had a prominent effect on the UA response of the Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE. Characterizations of PEDOT-nf/PGE and Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE have been performed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The highest voltammetric response of UA was obtained at pH 2.0. A linear relationship between the concentration of UA and oxidation peak currents was observed in the concentration range of 0.01–20.0 μM. The detection limit (1.3 nM according to S/N = 3) and reproducibility (RSD: 4.6 % for N:10) have also been determined. The effects of different substances on the determination of UA have been investigated. A very high peak separation value of 423 mV was obtained between UA and ascorbic acid which is the major interfering substance for UA. The use of Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE has been successfully tested in the determination of UA in human blood serum and urine samples for the first time in the literature. - Highlights: • Modification of pencil graphite with over-oxidized PEDOT nanofibers was performed. • The prepared electrodes were used in the voltammetric determination of uric acid. • The over-oxidation potential and time has a prominent effect on the responses. • A very high peak separation (463 mV) was obtained between ascorbic and uric acids. • Analytical application of the electrodes was successfully tested in real samples.

  5. Preparation of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers modified pencil graphite electrode and investigation of over-oxidation conditions for the selective and sensitive determination of uric acid in body fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özcan, Ali, E-mail: aozcan3@anadolu.edu.tr; İlkbaş, Salih

    2015-09-03

    In this study, we have performed the preparation of over-oxidized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers modified pencil graphite electrode (Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE) to develop a selective and sensitive voltammetric uric acid (UA) sensor. It was noted that the over-oxidation potential and time had a prominent effect on the UA response of the Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE. Characterizations of PEDOT-nf/PGE and Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE have been performed by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The highest voltammetric response of UA was obtained at pH 2.0. A linear relationship between the concentration of UA and oxidation peak currents was observed in the concentration range of 0.01–20.0 μM. The detection limit (1.3 nM according to S/N = 3) and reproducibility (RSD: 4.6 % for N:10) have also been determined. The effects of different substances on the determination of UA have been investigated. A very high peak separation value of 423 mV was obtained between UA and ascorbic acid which is the major interfering substance for UA. The use of Ox-PEDOT-nf/PGE has been successfully tested in the determination of UA in human blood serum and urine samples for the first time in the literature. - Highlights: • Modification of pencil graphite with over-oxidized PEDOT nanofibers was performed. • The prepared electrodes were used in the voltammetric determination of uric acid. • The over-oxidation potential and time has a prominent effect on the responses. • A very high peak separation (463 mV) was obtained between ascorbic and uric acids. • Analytical application of the electrodes was successfully tested in real samples.

  6. DC sputtering assisted nano-branched core–shell TiO2/ZnO electrodes for application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zengming; Hu, Yong; Qin, Fuyu; Ding, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An effective method of combining chemical growth and physical decoration to investigate the effect of the energy barrier layer on the efficiency of DSSCs were presented. • High surface area photo-anodes can be achieved through fine-tuning material growth processes. • The branched composite structure shows a set of advantages in electronic transportation, dye adsorption and energy barrier. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of nano-branched core–shell TiO 2 /ZnO electrodes and SEM images of the photoanodes at each step. - Abstract: TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell photo-anodes with a large surface area were synthesised by a combination of chemical growth and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering (MS). The use of these combined methods for the advancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was discussed. An understanding of the morphology and structure of this core–shell material was obtained from the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the thickness of the ZnO nanoshells (as assessed by using TEM), prepared by MS, has a significant effect on improvements in the conversion efficiency. The conversion efficiency can be greatly improved from 0.06% to 0.72% by optimising different experimental conditions, such as ZnO nanoshell MS time and chemical bath deposition time. The enhanced efficiency may be attributed to the emergence of a ZnO energy barrier and the improvement of the photo-anode surface area.

  7. Determination of subnanomolar levels of mercury (II) by using a graphite paste electrode modified with MWCNTs and Hg(II)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Hamidi, Negin; Ganjali, Mohamad Reza; Rafiei, Faride

    2017-12-05

    Mercury ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles (Hg-IP-NPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization by using itaconic acid as a functional monomer. A carbon paste electrode was impregnated with the synthesized Hg-IP-NPs and MWCNTs to obtain a highly sensitive and selective electrode for determination of Hg(II). Mercury ion is first accumulated on the electrode surface via an open circuit procedure. After reduction of Hg(II) ions to its metallic form at a negative pre-potential, square wave anodic stripping voltammetry was applied to generate the electrochemical signal. The high affinity of the Hg-IP-NPs for Hg(II) was substantiated by comparing of the signals of electrodes with imprinted and non-imprinted polymer. The beneficial effect of MWCNTs on the voltammetric signal is also demonstrated. Under the optimized conditions and at a typical working potential of +0.05 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the electrode has a linear response in the 0.1-20 nmol L -1 Hg(II) concentration range and a 29 pM detection limit. The electrochemical sensitivity is as high as 1441 A·M -1 ·cm -2 which is among the best values known. The electrode was applied to the determination of Hg(II) in water samples. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the sensor electrode modified with mercury-imprinted polymer nanoparticles, and the recognition and voltammetric determination steps.

  8. Estudo voltamétrico do complexo de cobre(II com o ligante vermelho de alizarina S, adsorvido na superfície do eletrodo de grafite pirolítico Voltammetric study of complex of copper (II with alizarin red S ligand, absorbed on surface of pyrolytic graphite electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Mouchrek Filho

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The alizarin red S (ARS has been used as a spectrophotometric reagent of several metals for a long time. Now this alizarin has been used as modifier agent of electrodes, for voltammetric analyses. In this work cyclic voltammetry experiments was accomplished on closed circuit, with the objective of studying the voltammetric behavior of alizarin red S adsorbed and of its copper complex, on the surface of the pyrolytic graphite electrode. These studies showed that ARS strongly adsorbs on the surface of this electrode. This adsorption was used to immobilize ions copper(II from the solution.

  9. Artificial graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maire, J.

    1984-01-01

    Artificial graphites are obtained by agglomeration of carbon powders with an organic binder, then by carbonisation at 1000 0 C and graphitization at 2800 0 C. After description of the processes and products, we show how the properties of the various materials lead to the various uses. Using graphite enables us to solve some problems, but it is not sufficient to satisfy all the need of the application. New carbonaceous material open application range. Finally, if some products are becoming obsolete, other ones are being developed in new applications [fr

  10. Surface amplification of pencil graphite electrode with polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide for fabrication of a guanine/adenine DNA based electrochemical biosensors for determination of didanosine anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Bananezhad, Asma; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Norouzi, Parviz; Sadrnia, Abdolhossein

    2018-05-01

    Didanosine is nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors with many side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, tingling, burning and numbness and determination of this drug is very important in biological samples. This paper presents a DNA biosensor for determination of didanosine (DDI) in pharmaceutical samples. A pencil graphite electrode modified with conductive materials such as polypyrrole (PPy) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (PGE/PPy/rGO) was used for this goal. The double-stranded DNA was successfully immobilized on PGE/PPy/rGO. The PGE/PPy/rGO was characterized by microscopic and electrochemical methods. Then, the interaction of DDI with DNA was identified by decreases in the oxidation currents of guanine and adenine by differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. The dynamic range of DDI identified in the range of 0.02-50.0 μM and this electrode provided a low limit of detection (LOD = 8.0 nM) for DDI. The PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA was utilized for the measurement of DDI in real samples and obtained data were compared with HPLC method. The statistical tests such as F-test and t-test were used for confirming ability of PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA for analysis of DDI in real samples.

  11. Wiring of Glucose Oxidizing Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent Enzymes by Methylene Blue-Modified Third Generation Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers Attached to Spectroscopic Graphite Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaing, Victor; Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    , characterized by the heterogeneous ET rate constant of 7.1 0.1 s1; they can be used for electronic wiring of glucose-oxidizing FAD-containing enzymes, such as hexose oxidase (HOX), and further bioelectrocatalysis of glucose oxidation, starting, at pH 7, from -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, dendrimer......-templated electronic wires, comprising MB molecules conjugated to the periphery of the PAMAM and anchored to the surface of cost-effective Gr electrodes represent an efficient and robust tool for protein wiring to electrodes for their perspective bioelectronic applications in biosensors and biofuel cells....

  12. Electrochemistry of parent and exo-skeletally substituted icosahedral monocarba and dicarbaboranes and their derivatives at the graphite carbon electrode in aqueous phosphate buffers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojt, Lukáš; Fojta, Miroslav; Grüner, Bohumír; Vespalec, Radim

    Roč. 730, SEP15 ( 2014 ), s. 16-19 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G151 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : Boranes * Carboranes * Glassy carbon electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.729, year: 2014

  13. An improved amperometric L-lactate biosensor based on covalent immobilization of microbial lactate oxidase onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/copper nanoparticles/polyaniline modified pencil graphite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Kusum; Pundir, C S

    2017-01-01

    An improved amperometric l-lactate biosensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of lactate oxidase (LOx) from Pediococcus species onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNT)/copper nanoparticles (CuNPs)/polyaniline (PANI) hybrid film electrodeposited on the surface of a pencil graphite electrode (PGE). The enzyme electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), while CuNPs synthesized by chemical reduction method, were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV spectrascopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The biosensor showed maximum response within 5s at pH 8.0 in 0.05M sodium phosphate buffer and 37°C, when operated at 20mVs -1 . The biosensor had a detection limit of 0.25μM with a wide working range between 1μM-2500μM. The biosensor was employed for measurement of l-lactic acid level in plasma of apparently healthy and diseased persons. Analytical recovery of added lactic acid in plasma was 95.5%. Within- and between-batch coefficients of variations were 6.24% and 4.19% respectively. There was a good correlation (R 2 =0.97) between plasma lactate values as measured by standard enzymatic spectrophotometric method and the present biosensor. The working enzyme electrode was used 180 times over a period of 140 days, when stored at 4°C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Silicon-Carbon Composite Electrode Materials Prepared by Pyrolysis of a Mixture of Manila Hemp, Silicon Powder, and Flake Artificial Graphite for Lithium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Si

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A high performance lithium anode is a key component for high energy density lithium batteries. Silicon based lithium anode materials are attractive for the lithium anode due to their high theoretical capacity. However, a severe problem is the huge volume change that occurs during cycling, resulting in a poor capacity retention. We have developed a silicon based anode that disperses silicon particles on a carbon paper made from Manila hemp. The composite silicon electrode materials showed a high initial coulombic efficiency of 83%. The initial capacity of 566 mAh g−1 based on the total weight of the electrode was retained at 491 mAh g−1 after 70 cycles at the charge and discharge rate of 100 mA g−1 and at room temperature.

  15. Studies on the heterogeneous electron transport and oxygen reduction reaction at metal (Co, Fe) octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanines supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuru, Solomon A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Ozoemena, Kenneth I., E-mail: kozoemena@csir.co.z [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)] [Energy and Processes Unit, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Fukuda, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Nagao [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nyokong, Tebello [Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)

    2010-09-01

    Heterogeneous electron transfer dynamics and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities using octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanine complexes of iron (FeOBSPc) and cobalt (CoOBSPc) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) platforms have been described. The MWCNT-based electrodes (MWCNT-CoOBSPc and MWCNT-FeOBSPc) showed larger Faradaic current responses than the electrodes without the MWCNTs, interpreted as a consequence of the trapped electrolyte species within the porous layers of MWCNTs undergoing a redox process. The EPPGE-MWCNT-FeOBSPc showed onset potential (-0.01 V vs Ag|AgCl) which is comparable and even much lower than recent reports. The MWCNT-FeOBSPc showed the best ORR activity involving a direct 4-electron mechanism, with a Tafel slope of about 124 mV, indicating a 1-electron process in the rate-determining step.

  16. Electrochemistry of different boranes, carbaboranes and their exo-skeletal hydroxy derivatives at the graphite carbon electrode in aqueous phosphate buffers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojt, Lukáš; Fojta, Miroslav; Holub, Josef; Grüner, Bohumír; Vespalec, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 205, JUL 2016 (2016), s. 8-14 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G151; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05677S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : boranes * carbaboranes * glassy carbon electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 4.798, year: 2016

  17. Optimization of simultaneous electrochemical determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) at carbon nanotube-modified graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikna, L'ubomír; Heželová, Mária; Kováčová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The health of the environment is worsening every day. Monitoring of potentially toxic elements and remediation of environmental pollution are necessary. Therefore, the research and development of simple, inexpensive, portable and effective sensors is important. Electrochemistry is a useful component of the field of environment monitoring. The present study focuses on evaluating and comparing three types of electrodes (PIGE, PIGE/MWCNT/HNO3 and PIGE/MWCNT/EDTA/HNO3) employed for the simultaneous electrochemical determination of four potentially toxic elements: Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). Cyclic voltammograms were measured in an acetate buffer. The LOD, LOQ, the standard and relative precisions of the method and a prediction intervals were calculated (according to the technical procedure DIN 32 645) for the three electrodes and for each measured element. The LOD for PIGE/CNT/HNO3 (the electrode with narrowest calculated prediction intervals) was 2.98 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cd(II), 4.83 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Pb(II), 3.81 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Cu(II), 6.79 × 10(-7) mol L(-1) for Hg(II). One of the benefits of this study was the determination of the amount of Hg(II) in the mixture of other elements.

  18. Comparison of the characteristics of a plasma generated by a d.c. arc plasmatron and a high-voltage a.c. plasmatron with rail-shaped electrodes (gliding arc) as applied to the synthesis of carbon nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublievskii, A. F.; Galinovskii, A. A.; Gorbunov, A. V.; Zhdanok, S. A.; Koval', V. A.; Sharakhovskii, L. I.; Dolgolenko, G. V.; Skomorokhov, D. S.

    2006-07-01

    Comparative results of investigating the parameters of plasmas generated by atmospheric-pressure electric-arc plasmatrons of two types operating in the regime of simultaneous partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and their pyrolysis, have been given. It has been established by spectral and thermophysical measurements that the component composition of the plasma and its thermal characteristics at exit from a d.c. plasmatron significantly differ from the parameters of a plasmatron of the second type — an a.c. plasmatron with rail-shaped electrodes of the gliding-arc type. The temperature nonequilibrium and the presence of the carbon dimers C2 in the plasma (in the absence of the monomer C) generated by the rail-shaped-electrode plasmatron point to the fact that realization of the synthesis of fullerene-containing particles and, probably, particles containing nanotubes is, in principle, possible in reactors based on it, just as in more energy-intensive reactors with low-voltage d.c. arc plasmatrons.

  19. Advanced DC/DC converters

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Fang Lin

    2003-01-01

    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of these authors, DC/DC converters have now moved into their sixth generation. This book offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion tecnologies and presentingmany new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced, and nowhere else can readers find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae facilitate understand and provide precise data.

  20. Neutronographic investigations into homogeneity and crystalline anisotropy of graphite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajzar, F.; Oles, A.; Pawpowski, K.; Szudek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A numerical methods is proposed for evaluating the share of components having various graphitization degree in the graphite material. This method consists in adjusting the diffraction lines of separated components characterized by a different graphitization degree to the profile of an experimental diffraction line. Results are also given which were obtained by this method for some selected graphite materials manufactured at the Coal Electrodes Factory in Nowy Sacz. Using the technique of neutron diffraction, investigation were carried out in like manner into crystalline anisotropy in the semi-conducting graphite and in the connecting material. (author)

  1. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation behaviour of graphite for HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtrombakh, Ya.I.; Platonov, P.A.; Gurovich, B.A.; Alekseev, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the results of investigations of different graphite materials, among with the standard reactor graphite manufacturing by electrode technology and a number of advanced graphites of new generation. During the investigation of radiation stability of standard reactor graphite the basic mechanisms of radiation damage of its structure were studied. With the help of transmission electron microscopy deformations and cracking of filler and binder were detected in the vicinity of the boundaries, separating these two components. Cracking begins with crystallite splitting and ends in full fracture of boundary layers. Such process of degradation can be explained by disjoint deformations resulting from difference in growth rate of filler and binder crystallites, in its turn caused by considerable difference between their sizes. It has been concluded that radiation stability of graphite may be improved by creating such graphite materials, in which the difference in sizes of crystallites of different structure components would be the minimal possible. When developing production technology of isotropic graphite for high temperature reactors, some progress was made towards the solution of this problem. Despite considerable swelling at high temperature this type of graphite appeared to be substantially less susceptible to the degradation of the structure and to deterioration of physico-mechanical properties. In addition to graphites manufactured by tradition technology, the graphite was investigated, in which pyrocarbon precipitated from gas phase under 1000 deg. C was used as binder. Carbon precipitated in such a way was non-graphitized at high temperatures and therefore it demonstrated sharp shrinkage under irradiation at high temperature, and shrinkage rate correlated with pyrocarbon quota in graphite structure. (author). 5 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  3. The electrochemical properties of graphite and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, E.; Gupta, S.; Molla, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon and graphite are often used as supports for electrocatalysts, but also have an electrocatalytic function in such electrode reactions as O 2 reduction in alkaline electrolytes, Cl 2 generation in brine and SOCl 2 reduction in lithium-thionyl chloride batteries. These catalytic functions involve specific chemical functional groups bound to the carbon and graphite surfaces. The factors controlling O 2 reduction with various types of carbon electrodes of both low and high surface area are reviewed. Of particular importance is the role of hydrogen peroxide. The role of the functionality of the carbon in the electrocatalysis will be discussed

  4. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  5. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) for oxidation of cadmium at graphite electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahrich, Sara [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire de Chimie et Modélisation Mathématique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire Sciences des Matériaux, des Milieux et de la Modélisation, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); Manoun, Bouchaib [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire Sciences des Matériaux, des Milieux et de la Modélisation, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco); El Mhammedi, Moulay Abderrahim, E-mail: elmhammedi@yahoo.fr [Univ Hassan 1, Laboratoire de Chimie et Modélisation Mathématique, Faculté Polydisciplinaire, 25000 Khouribga (Morocco)

    2017-02-15

    Chemically modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) for cadmium (II) analysis has been constructed by mixing KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) (CaLA) and graphite powder. The lacunar apatite was synthesized using solid reaction and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The refinement study was carried out using Rietveld method where the obtained results show a good agreement between the observed and calculated patterns. The detection of cadmium (II) was investigated in acetate buffer (pH 4.5) using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The limit of detection obtained under the optimized experimental conditions was 5.35 × 10{sup −7} mol L{sup −1} with a relative standard deviation of 2.37%. Possible interferences were tested and evaluated in 5.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} cadmium (II) in the presence of other inorganic ions. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine cadmium (II) in seawater and mussel samples. Hence, the satisfactory results confirm the applicability of this sensor in practical analysis. - Highlights: • Synthesis and characterization of new lacunar apatites KPb{sub 4−x}Ca{sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5). • Structural refinement of these compounds using Rietveld method. • A study of Ca doping effect in lacunar apatites for detecting Cd (II). • The electrochemical oxidation of Cd (II) was performed at CaLA-CPE using DPASV. • The proposed method was evaluated to detect cadmium in seawater and mussel samples.

  6. RESONANT STEP-DOWN DC-DC POWER CONVERTERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier by a semiconductor switch arrangement in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The resonant step-down DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short...... and an input capacitor coupled between the positive and negative input terminals and the secondary side circuit comprises an output capacitor chargeable to a converter output voltage between a first positive electrode and a second negative electrode. A resonant network is con- figured for alternatingly being......-circuit connection across the galvanic isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal...

  7. Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic...... capacitor coupled between the positive and negative input terminals and the secondary side circuit comprises an output capacitor chargeable to a converter output voltage between a first positive electrode and a second negative electrode. A switched energy storage network is configured for alternatingly...... isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal of the primary side circuit...

  8. Influence of water contamination and conductive additives on the intercalation of lithium into graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joho, F.; Rykart, B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Spahr, M.E.; Monnier, A. [Timcal AG, Sins (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The irreversible charge loss in the first cycle of lithium intercalation into graphite electrodes for lithium-ion batteries is discussed as a function of water contamination of the electrolyte solution. Furthermore, the improvement of the electrode cycle life due to conductive additives to graphite is demonstrated. (author) 5 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  10. Self-supported carbon electrodes obtained by tape casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio-Marcos, F.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the preparation and electrochemical response of self-supported carbon electrodes prepared by tape casting. The dc electrical conductivity, σ, of the electrodes was determined by four-wire resistance measurements and a relation between the graphite/organic additives ratio and the electrical conductivity was established. The application of these self-supported carbon electrodes as working electrodes in analytical techniques was also evaluated using norepinephrine as electroactive substance in cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The results were compared with the traditional electrodes, carbon paste electrodes (CPEs, showing that the new self-supported carbon electrodes had both lower background noise and higher analytical response.

    Este artículo describe la preparación y respuesta electroquímica de electrodos de carbono autosoportados preparados mediante colado en cinta. La conductividad eléctrica en corriente continua de este nuevo tipo de electrodos de carbono se ha determinado usando el método de cuatro puntas y se ha establecido una relación ente la relación grafito/aditivos orgánicos y la conductividad eléctrica. La aplicación de estos electrodos autosoportados como electrodos de trabajo en diversas técnicas electroanalíticas también se ha evaluado, empleando norepinefrina como analito en voltametría cíclica y en cronoamperometría. Los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos empleando los electrodos de pasta de carbono tradicionales como electrodos de trabajo, viéndose que la señal de los nuevos electrodos autosoportados poseía menor ruido de fondo y mayor respuesta analítica.

  11. Electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shazly, O.; El-Wahidy, E.F.; Elanany, N.; Saad, N.A.

    1992-06-01

    The electrical properties of Egyptian natural graphite flakes, obtained from the graphite schists of Wadi Bent, Eastern Desert, were measured. The flakes were ground and compressed into pellets. The standard four probe dc method was used to measure the temperature dependence of the electric resistivity from room temperature down to 12 K. The transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance were measured in the low magnetic field range at temperatures 300 K, 77 K and 12 K. The transverse magnetoresistance data was used to estimate the average mobility, assuming a simple two-band model. (author). 20 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  12. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  13. Pulsed-DC DBD Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Alan; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint

    2017-11-01

    A power system for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators that utilizes a pulsed-DC waveform is presented. The plasma actuator arrangement is identical to most typical AC-DBD designs with staggered electrodes that are separated by a dielectric insulator. A key difference is that the pulsed-DC actuator utilizes a DC voltage source to drive the actuator instead of an AC voltage input. The DC source is supplied to both electrodes. The exposed electrode remains constant in time while the encapsulated electrode is periodically grounded for short instances then is allowed to rise to the source DC level. Further investigation of the pulsed-DC plasma actuator was conducted. Time-resolved velocity measurements were done to characterize the induced velocity field generated by the pulsed-DC plasma actuator. A model of the pulsed-DC plasma actuator is developed in LTspice for further study. The work presented are intended in developing a model to be used in CFD flow control simulations. NASA SBIR NNX14CC12C.

  14. Facile electrochemical synthesis of few layered graphene from discharged battery electrode and its

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Tiwari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous route for synthesis of few-layered graphene from waste zinc carbon battery (ZCB electrodes via electrochemical expansion (ECE has been reported. In this synthesis, we have electrochemically exfoliated the graphene layers, by intercalating sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS surfactant into graphitic layers at different D.C. voltages with a constant SDBS concentration. The graphene sheets were isolated, purified and characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectrometry, Ultraviolet absorption (UV, Selected area electron diffraction (SAED and Cyclic voltammetry. Best result was obtained at 4.5 V of D.C. A possible mechanism for the intercalation process has been proposed. A promising application of the produced material for supercapacitor application has also been explored in combination with polyaniline.

  15. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca Adell, M.; Becerro Ruiz, E.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.

    1964-01-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs

  16. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; M.Carroll

    2010-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. This development has resulted in graphite being established as a viable structural material for HTGRs. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermomechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. This Technology Development Plan outlines the research and development (R&D) activities and associated rationale necessary to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor.

  17. Radiation damage in graphite

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons, John Harry Walrond

    1965-01-01

    Nuclear Energy, Volume 102: Radiation Damage in Graphite provides a general account of the effects of irradiation on graphite. This book presents valuable work on the structure of the defects produced in graphite crystals by irradiation. Organized into eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the description of the methods of manufacturing graphite and of its physical properties. This text then presents details of the method of setting up a scale of irradiation dose. Other chapters consider the effect of irradiation at a given temperature on a physical property of graphite. This

  18. Optimising carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaisiwamongkhol, K; Batchelor-McAuley, C; Sokolov, S; Holter, J; Young, N; Compton, R

    2017-01-01

    Different types of carbon electrode materials for adsorptive stripping voltammetry are studied through the use of cyclic voltammetry. Capsaicin is utilised as a model compound for adsorptive stripping voltammetry using unmodified and modified basal plane pyrolytic graphite (BPPG) electrodes modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon black or graphene nanoplatelets, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPE), carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrodes, and carbon paste electrodes....

  19. Performance of a multistage depressed collector with machined titanium electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramins, Peter; Ebihara, Ben T.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of a multistage depressed collector (MDC) with machined titanium electrodes was evaluated in conjunction with an 800-W, 8- to 18-GHz travelling-wave tube (TWT) and was compared with the performances of geometrically identical copper and isotropic graphite electrode MDC's operated with the same TWT. The titanium electrode MDC produced a modest (about 3 percent) improvement in the MDC and the TWT overall efficiencies as compared with the copper electrode MDC, but its performance was substantially lower than that of the isotropic graphite electrode MDC.

  20. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  1. Properties of DLC coatings deposited by dc and dc with superimposed pulsed vacuum arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaleyev, V.; Walkowicz, J.; Aksyonov, D.S.; Luchaninov, A.A.; Reshetnyak, E.N.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies of the structure, mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings deposited in DC and DC with superimposed high current pulse modes of operation vacuum-arc plasma source with the graphite cathode are presented. Imposition the pulses of high current on DC vacuum-arc discharge allows both increase the deposition rate of DLC coating and reduce the residual compressive stress in the coatings what promotes substantial improvement the adhesion to the substrate. Effect of vacuum arc plasma filtration with Venetian blind filter on the deposition rate and tribological characteristics of the coatings analyzed.

  2. Properties of screen-printed modified graphite layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Walter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available During last years protection of the environment is one of the important problems that should be solved by modern technology. Theimportant problems are toxic gases emitted by conventional power plants. One of the methods that contribute to decreasing air pollution is manufacturing of cheap solar energy devices that could be applied in households. Among different type of fabrication technology of solar cells, DSSC technology looks like one of the interesting because it is relatively simple and low cost technology. Nowadays a lot of researcher groups making investigations to improve its setup, to get the cost reduction. The methods to achieve this goal were proposed in ISE (Germany as a concept of monolithic dye sensitised solar cell. One of the ideas of this solar cells setup is replacing expensive TCO electrode by much cheaper graphite electrode. Replacing TCO glass by graphite layer has to be done only in case of comparable properties of those both electrodes. There are some tested ideas of manufacturing that electrode and some of them are successfully applied. Presented work has been focused on preparation graphite conductive electrode for DSSC technology application, fabricated by screen–printing technique. Investigations concern new graphite past composition suitable for graphite layer preparation. It was been found that applying additive of titanium organic compound (Tyzor GBA to the past composition result in good properties, characterised by low resistance and good adhesion between graphite particles in the printed layer. Some tested layers prepared from proposed paste compositions characterised by better conductivity then applied in conventional DSSC cells counter electrode. The optimal addition of the modifier has not fixed yet.Among tested pastes the most promising results has been achieved for paste contained the biggest amount of Tyzor GBA.

  3. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  4. Modeling of Impedance of Porous Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasia, Andrzej

    Porous electrodes are very important in practical applications of electrocatalysis, where an increase in the real surface area leads to an increase in catalytic activity. Porous electrodes are used in gas evolution (water electrolysis, hydrogen and oxygen evolution, chlorine evolution), electrocatalytic hydrogenation or oxidation of organic compounds, in batteries, fuel cells, etc. Good knowledge of the porous electrode theory permits for the construction of the electrodes with optimal utilization of the active electrode material. The porous electrode model was first developed by several authors for dc conditions (1-6) and later applied to the impedance studies.

  5. Method for producing dustless graphite spheres from waste graphite fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappano, Peter J [Oak Ridge, TN; Rogers, Michael R [Clinton, TN

    2012-05-08

    A method for producing graphite spheres from graphite fines by charging a quantity of spherical media into a rotatable cylindrical overcoater, charging a quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater thereby forming a first mixture of spherical media and graphite fines, rotating the overcoater at a speed such that the first mixture climbs the wall of the overcoater before rolling back down to the bottom thereby forming a second mixture of spherical media, graphite fines, and graphite spheres, removing the second mixture from the overcoater, sieving the second mixture to separate graphite spheres, charging the first mixture back into the overcoater, charging an additional quantity of graphite fines into the overcoater, adjusting processing parameters like overcoater dimensions, graphite fines charge, overcoater rotation speed, overcoater angle of rotation, and overcoater time of rotation, before repeating the steps until graphite fines are converted to graphite spheres.

  6. A graphite nanoeraser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ze; Bøggild, Peter; Yang, Jia-rui

    2011-01-01

    We present here a method for cleaning intermediate-size (up to 50 nm) contamination from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and graphene. Electron-beam-induced deposition of carbonaceous material on graphene and graphite surfaces inside a scanning electron microscope, which is difficult to remove...

  7. Graphite targets at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Grisham, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Rotating polycrystalline and stationary pyrolytic graphite target designs for the LAMPF experimental area are described. Examples of finite element calculations of temperatures and stresses are presented. Some results of a metallographic investigation of irradiated pyrolytic graphite target plates are included, together with a brief description of high temperature bearings for the rotating targets

  8. Electrochemical treatment of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podlovilin, V.I.; Egorov, I.M.; Zhernovoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the course of investigating various modes of electroche-- mical treatment (ECT) it has been found that graphite anode treatment begins under the ''glow mode''. A behaviour of some marks of graphite with the purpose of ECT technique development in different electrolytes has been tested. Electrolytes have been chosen of three types: highly alkaline (pH 13-14), neutral (pH-Z) and highly acidic (pH 1-2). For the first time parallel to mechanical electroerosion treatment ECT graphite and carbon graphite materials previously considered chemically neutral is proposed. ECT of carbon graphite materials has a number of advantages as compared with electroerrosion and mechanical ones this is treatment rate and purity (ronghness) of the surface. A sMall quantity of sludge (6-8%) under ECT is in highly alkali electrolytes

  9. Li4Ti5O12-coated graphite anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu Han; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Jin-Ming; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-sized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite core–shell prepared by sol–gel process. • LTO-coated graphite is used in Li-ion battery to improve the cycle life under 55 °C. • Graphite coated with LTO shows smaller resistance than graphite after cell cycling. • The LTO coating suppress the disorder of SP 2 structure in graphite during cycling. • Resistance and structure stabilization results in good cycle life of the Li-ion cell. - Abstract: In this study, we synthesized and characterized Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO)-coated graphite as an anode material for Li-batteries. The surface of graphite powders was uniformly coated by the LTO nanoparticles to form a core–shelled structure via a sol–gel process, followed by calcination. The average size of graphite core was 20 μm while the thickness of LTO shell was 60 nm to 100 nm. We found that LTO-coated graphite has better rate-capability and cycle life at RT and 55 °C, compared with the pristine graphite. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results of the cell with LTO-coated graphite anode showed a significant suppression of the impedance rise after 60 cycles. In addition, the Raman spectrum showed that after 60 charge–discharge cycles at 55 °C, the I D /I G ratio of the LTO-coated graphite electrode increased slightly, while that of the pristine graphite electrode increased significantly. The batteries with LTO-coated graphite anode exhibited excellent cyclic ability and high temperature performance

  10. Spectroscopical determination of impurities in nuclear graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lordello, A.R.; Tognini, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    A spectrochemical method for the direct determination of B, Cd, Si, Hg, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Ni, Al, Mo, Ti, Sr, Na, Zn, and As in nuclear grade graphite is described. A 9:1 ratio of graphite to copper difluoride is used in the preparation of samples and standards. The excitation is carried out in a d-c at 10 amperes. The copper fluoride used as spectrographic buffer serves to increase the volatilization rate of the impurities and to diminish the differences in the nature of the analytical and calibration samples. The relative standard deviations for the determination of the 16 trace elements, except Sr, Fe, Cd, Al and Si, are in the range of 8 - 20% in their appropriate calibration levels. For the latter five elements they are approximately 20-40%

  11. Irradiation creep of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    Displacement damage of graphite by neutron irradiation causes graphite to change dimensions. This dimensional instability requires careful attention when graphite is used as as moderator and reflector material in nuclear devices. Natural gradients in flux and temperature result in time-varying differential growth generating stresses similar to thermal stresses with an ever increasing temperature gradient. Graphite, however, does have the ability to creep under irradiation, allowing the stress intensity to relax below the fracture strength of the material. Creep strain also serves to average the radiation-induced strains, thus contributing to the stability of the core. As the dimensional instability is a function of temperature, so are the creep characteristics of graphite, and it is of interest to generalize the available data for extension to more extreme conditions of fluence and temperature. Irradiation creep of graphite is characterized by two stages of creep; a primary stage that saturates with time and a secondary stage that is generally assumed to be linear and constant with time. Virtually all past studies have not considered primary creep in detail primarily because there is limited available data at the very low fluences required to saturate primary creep. It is the purpose of this study to carefully examine primary creep in detail over the irradiation temperature range of 150 to 1000 degree C. These studies also include the combined effects of creep, differential growth, and structural changes in graphite by irradiation. 3 refs., 5 figs

  12. Graphite for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eatherly, W.P.; Clausing, R.E.; Strehlow, R.A.; Kennedy, C.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1987-03-01

    Graphite is in widespread and beneficial use in present fusion energy devices. This report reflects the view of graphite materials scientists on using graphite in fusion devices. Graphite properties are discussed with emphasis on application to fusion reactors. This report is intended to be introductory and descriptive and is not intended to serve as a definitive information source

  13. Lithium intercalation and interfacial kinetics of composite anodes formed by oxidized graphite and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, M.; Nobili, F.; Dsoke, S.; Tossici, R.; Marassi, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Camerino, Via S. Agostino, 1, 62032 Camerino (MC) (Italy); D' Amico, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 9, 62032 Camerino (MC) (Italy); Croce, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Universita degli Studi ' ' G. D' Annunzio' ' , Via dei Vestini, 31, 66013 Chieti (Italy)

    2009-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior of composite anodes prepared either by mixing partially oxidized graphite and Cu powders or by coating the pristine partially oxidized graphite electrodes with few-nanometer-thick Cu layers has been studied by slow-scan-rate cyclic voltammetry (SSCV) and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles over the temperature range of -30 C to 20 C. The interfacial intercalation/deintercalation kinetics has also been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The role of the Cu in improving low-temperature performances and kinetics of graphite electrodes is discussed. (author)

  14. Recent developments in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Overall, the HTGR graphite situation is in excellent shape. In both of the critical requirements, fuel blocks and support structures, adequate graphites are at hand and improved grades are sufficiently far along in truncation. In the aerospace field, GraphNOL N3M permits vehicle performance with confidence in trajectories unobtainable with any other existing material. For fusion energy applications, no other graphite can simultaneously withstand both extreme thermal shock and neutron damage. Hence, the material promises to create new markets as well as to offer a better candidate material for existing applications

  15. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  16. Fracture toughness of reactor grade graphites, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Sennosuke; Awaji, Hideo; Akuzawa, Hironobu; Kon, Junichi.

    1979-01-01

    In our recent papers, we presented a new technique for determining the thermal shock fracture toughness, using a disk specimen with an edge crack. The thermal shock fracture toughness is defined as K sub( ic)k/Eα(K sub( ic) standing for fracture toughness; k for thermal conductivity; E for Young's modulus; α for thermal expansion coefficient) and it can be determined en bloc by measuring the threshold electric power of the arc discharge heating produced when an edge crack propagates in the disk. The value obtained is the fracture toughness corresponding to the thermal shock resistance defined as σk/Eα (σ standing for tensile strength). The experimental data shown in the following discussion concern themselves with four kinds of reactor grade graphite and some varieties of electrode graphite. (author)

  17. "Forback" Dc-To-Dc Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukemire, Alan T.

    1992-01-01

    Dc-to-dc power-converter circuits called "forback" resemble circuits of standard configurations called "forward", "flyback", and "Cuk". Circuit employs minor modifications to existing topologies, combines advantages, while eliminating disadvantages, of older circuits.

  18. Carbon-14 Graphitization Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James; Collon, Philippe; Laverne, Jay

    2014-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is a process that allows for the analysis of mass of certain materials. It is a powerful process because it results in the ability to separate rare isotopes with very low abundances from a large background, which was previously impossible. Another advantage of AMS is that it only requires very small amounts of material for measurements. An important application of this process is radiocarbon dating because the rare 14C isotopes can be separated from the stable 14N background that is 10 to 13 orders of magnitude larger, and only small amounts of the old and fragile organic samples are necessary for measurement. Our group focuses on this radiocarbon dating through AMS. When performing AMS, the sample needs to be loaded into a cathode at the back of an ion source in order to produce a beam from the material to be analyzed. For carbon samples, the material must first be converted into graphite in order to be loaded into the cathode. My role in the group is to convert the organic substances into graphite. In order to graphitize the samples, a sample is first combusted to form carbon dioxide gas and then purified and reduced into the graphite form. After a couple weeks of research and with the help of various Physics professors, I developed a plan and began to construct the setup necessary to perform the graphitization. Once the apparatus is fully completed, the carbon samples will be graphitized and loaded into the AMS machine for analysis.

  19. Graphite Technology Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; T. Burchell; R. Bratton

    2007-09-01

    This technology development plan is designed to provide a clear understanding of the research and development direction necessary for the qualification of nuclear grade graphite for use within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor. The NGNP will be a helium gas cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. Graphite physically contains the fuel and comprises the majority of the core volume. Considerable effort will be required to ensure that the graphite performance is not compromised during operation. Based upon the perceived requirements the major data needs are outlined and justified from the perspective of reactor design, reatcor performance, or the reactor safety case. The path forward for technology development can then be easily determined for each data need. How the data will be obtained and the inter-relationships between the experimental and modeling activities will define the technology development for graphite R&D. Finally, the variables affecting this R&D program are discussed from a general perspective. Factors that can significantly affect the R&D program such as funding, schedules, available resources, multiple reactor designs, and graphite acquisition are analyzed.

  20. Melting temperature of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, V.N.; Savvatimskiy, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Pulse of electrical current is used for fast heating (∼ 1 μs) of metal and graphite specimens placed in dielectric solid media. Specimen consists of two strips (90 μm in thick) placed together with small gap so they form a black body model. Quasy-monocrystal graphite specimens were used for uniform heating of graphite. Temperature measurements were fulfilled with fast pyrometer and with composite 2-strip black body model up to melting temperature. There were fulfilled experiments with zirconium and tungsten of the same black body construction. Additional temperature measurements of liquid zirconium and liquid tungsten are made. Specific heat capacity (c P ) of liquid zirconium and of liquid tungsten has a common feature in c P diminishing just after melting. It reveals c P diminishing after melting in both cases over the narrow temperature range up to usual values known from steady state measurements. Over the next wide temperature range heat capacity for W (up to 5000 K) and Zr (up to 4100 K) show different dependencies of heat capacity on temperature in liquid state. The experiments confirmed a high quality of 2-strip black body model used for graphite temperature measurements. Melting temperature plateau of tungsten (3690 K) was used for pyrometer calibration area for graphite temperature measurement. As a result, a preliminary value of graphite melting temperature of 4800 K was obtained. (author)

  1. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  2. DC electric springs with DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qingsong; Cheng, Ming; Jiang, Yunlei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi-directio......The concept of DC electric spring (DCES) was recently proposed to solve the stability issue caused by integrating intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) to DC microgrids. In this paper, a new topology of DCES is proposed based on DC/DC converters. The proposed DCES consists of a bi...... and/or constant discharging for batteries is adopted and four operating modes are analyzed as charging-positive, charging-negative, discharging-positive and discharging-negative modes. An additional mechanism for fast charging or fast discharging is also designed to secure normal operation...... of batteries. With the proposed DCES, the power fluctuations due to intermittent RESs can be passed to non-critical loads (NCLs) and batteries while power on critical loads (CLs) is kept stable. This is possibly the first attempt to design a DCES with only DC/DC converters. The performances of the proposed...

  3. Spark-erosion characteristics of graphite and CO gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, K.J.; Hanks, K.W.; Willis, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The spark erosion characteristic of high-purity graphite and CO for 1-kHz gas blown rail-gap applications has been experimentally evaluated. The test configuration simulates a single channel, 1650-A arc discharge per linear inch of electrode length, with a 44-kV self-breakdown voltage and a transverse gas flow of 98 m/s. The dielectric gas was seeded with a small quantity of azulene vapor and a downstream uv preionization spark was used to assist the self-breakdown of the test electrodes. The erosion characteristics of other, more conventional electrode materials and dielectric gases were also examined and the results are presented graphically. Commerically pure tungsten in air was determined to exhibit the least erosion rate (2.1 x 10 -6 cc/C) for this duty, as compared to graphite and CO

  4. Pulsed DC sputtered DLC based nanocomposite films : controlling growth dynamics, microstructure and frictional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaha, K.P.; Pei, Y.T.; Chen, C.Q.; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    Surface smoothness of diamond-like carbon based thin films becomes a crucial property for developing nearly frictionless protective coatings. Surface roughness and the dynamic growth behaviour of TiC/a-C nanocomposite films, deposited by non-reactive pulsed DC (p-DC) sputtering of graphite targets,

  5. Nuclear graphite ageing and turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Hall, G.N.; Smart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Graphite moderated reactors are being operated in many countries including, the UK, Russia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Japan. Many of these reactors will operate well into the next century. New designs of High Temperature Graphite Moderated Reactors (HTRS) are being built in China and Japan. The design life of these graphite-moderated reactors is governed by the ageing of the graphite core due to fast neutron damage, and also, in the case of carbon dioxide cooled reactors by the rate of oxidation of the graphite. Nuclear graphites are polycrystalline in nature and it is the irradiation-induced damage to the individual graphite crystals that determines the material property changes with age. The life of a graphite component in a nuclear reactor can be related to the graphite irradiation induced dimensional changes. Graphites typically shrink with age, until a point is reached where the shrinkage stops and the graphite starts to swell. This change from shrinkage to swelling is known as ''turnaround''. It is well known that pre-oxidising graphite specimens caused ''turnaround'' to be delayed, thus extending the life of the graphite, and hence the life of the reactor. However, there was no satisfactory explanation of this behaviour. This paper presents a numerical crystal based model of dimensional change in graphite, which explains the delay in ''turnaround'' in the pre-oxidised specimens irradiated in a fast neutron flux, in terms of crystal accommodation and orientation and change in compliance due to radiolytic oxidation. (author)

  6. Direct formation of a current collector layer on a partially reduced graphite oxide film using sputter-assisted metal deposition to fabricate high-power micro-supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Segi; Yu, Jin

    2016-03-01

    When a reduced graphite oxide (RGO) freestanding film is fabricated on a supercapacitor cell via compression onto a current collector, there are gaps between the film and the current collector, even if the cell is carefully assembled. These gaps can induce increases in the electrical series resistance (ESR) of the cell, resulting in degradation of the cell's electrochemical performance. Here, to effectively reduce the ESR of the supercapacitor, metal sputtering deposition is introduced. This enables the direct formation of the current collector layer on a partially reduced GO (pRGO) film, the model system. Using metal sputtering, a nickel (Ni) layer with a thickness formed on the pRGO film. The pRGO film sustains its film form with high packing density (∼1.31 g cm-3). Furthermore, the Ni-sputtered pRGO film with optimized Ni thickness exhibits remarkable enhancement of its electrochemical performance. This includes a superior rate capability and semi-permanent cycle life compared with the untreated pRGO film. This is due to the significant decrease in the ESR of the film.

  7. Redox Control and Hydrogen Production in Sediment Caps Using Carbon Cloth Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Ruiling; Reible, Danny D.; Lowry, Gregory V.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment caps that degrade contaminants can improve their ability to contain contaminants relative to sand and sorbent-amended caps, but few methods to enhance contaminant degradation in sediment caps are available. The objective of this study was to determine if, carbon electrodes emplaced within a sediment cap at poised potential could create a redox gradient and provide electron donor for the potential degradation of contaminants. In a simulated sediment cap overlying sediment from the Anacostia River (Washington, DC), electrochemically induced redox gradients were developed within 3 days and maintained over the period of the test (~100 days). Hydrogen and oxygen were produced by water electrolysis at the electrode surfaces and may serve as electron donor and acceptor for contaminant degradation. Electrochemical and geochemical factors that may influence hydrogen production were studied. Hydrogen production displayed zero order kinetics with ~75% coulombic efficiency and rates were proportional to the applied potential between 2.5V to 5V and not greatly affected by pH. Hydrogen production was promoted by increasing ionic strength and in the presence of natural organic matter. Graphite electrode-stimulated degradation of tetrachlorobenzene in a batch reactor was dependent on applied voltage and production of hydrogen to a concentration above the threshold for biological dechlorination. These findings suggest that electrochemical reactive capping can potentially be used to create “reactive” sediments caps capable of promoting chemical or biological transformations of contaminants within the cap. PMID:20879761

  8. Foundations of DC plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Gudmundsson, Jon; Hecimovic, Ante

    2017-12-01

    A typical dc discharge is configured with the negative cathode at one end and a positive anode at the other end, separated by a gas filled gap, placed inside a long glass cylinder. A few hundred volts between the cathode and anode is required to maintain the discharge. The type of discharge that is formed between the two electrodes depends upon the pressure of the working gas, the nature of the working gas, the applied voltage and the geometry of the discharge. We discuss the current–voltage characteristics of the discharge as well as the distinct structure that develops in the glow discharge region. The dc glow discharge appears in the discharge current range from μA to mA at 0.5–300 Pa pressure. We discuss the various phenomena observed in the dc glow discharge, including the cathode region, the positive column, and striations. The dc glow discharge is maintained by the emission of secondary electrons from the cathode target due to the bombardment of ions. For decades, the dc glow discharge has been used as a sputter source. Then it is often operated as an obstructed abnormal glow discharge and the required applied voltage is in the range 2–5 kV. Typically, the cathode target (the material to be deposited) is connected to a negative voltage supply (dc or rf) and the substrate holder faces the target. The relatively high operating pressure, in the range from 2 to 4 Pa, high applied voltages, and the necessity to have a conductive target limit the application of dc glow discharge as a sputter source. In order to lower the discharge voltage and expand the operation pressure range, the lifetime of the electrons in target vicinity is increased through applying magnetic field, by adding permanent magnets behind the cathode target. This arrangement is coined the magnetron sputtering discharge. The various configurations of the magnetron sputtering discharge and its applications are described. Furthermore, the use of dc discharges for chemical analysis, the

  9. Expansion and exfoliation of graphite to form graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Patole, Shashikan P.

    2017-07-27

    Graphene production methods are described based on subjecting non- covalent graphite intercalated compounds, such as graphite bisulfate, to expansion conditions such as shocks of heat and/or microwaves followed by turbulence-assisted exfoliation to produce few-layer, high quality graphene flakes. Depending on the approach selected for the exfoliation step, free-flowing graphene powder, graphene slurry, or an aqueous graphene mixture can be obtained. Surfactants can aid in dispersion, and graphene inks can be formed. The parameters of the process are simple, efficient and low-cost enabling therefore the scale- up of production. Applications include electrodes and energy storage devices.

  10. Preparation of carbonaceous electrodes and evaluation of their performance by electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.S.; Manolkar, R.B.; Kamat, J.V.; Marathe, S.G.; Biswas, A.R.; Kulkarni, P.G.

    1994-01-01

    Carbonaceous electrodes, from glassy carbon (GC), graphite rod or graphite powder, have been prepared for coulometric and voltammetric investigation. Beaker type graphite electrode of larger surface area was used as working electrode for the analysis of uranium and plutonium in solution by coulometry. Results have shown usefulness of the electrode for both uranium and plutonium analysis. Thus the graphite electrode can be used in place of mercury for uranium analysis and in place of platinum gauze for plutonium analysis. GC electrode ( from French and Indian material ), graphite or carbon paste electrode of smaller surface area prepared here have also been found to give satisfactory performance as could be observed from cyclic voltammetric (cv) patterns for standard K 9 Fe(CN) 6 /K 4 Fe(CN) 6 redox system. Especially the GC electrode, (French) polished to 1μ finish with diamond paste gave very low values (1μ amp.) of background current in 1M KCl and the difference in cathodic and anodic peak potentials (δE values) was close to 60 mV from one electron transfer. Therefore the electrode can be used for various types of electrochemical studies relating to redox potentials, reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters etc. of different electrode processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs., 8 photographs

  11. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  12. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of 137 Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of 137 Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000 0 C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ΔE of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon) 0 exp [-ΔE/RT] are about 4 x 10 -2 cm 2 /s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively

  13. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  14. SEI film formation on highly crystalline graphitic materials in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buqa, H.; Würsig, A.; Vetter, J.; Spahr, M. E.; Krumeich, F.; Novák, P.

    In situ differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) was used to study the SEI film formation on highly crystalline TIMREX ® SLX50 graphite negative electrodes during the first electrochemical lithium insertion using either 1 M LiPF 6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) with either dimethyl carbonate (DMC) or propylene carbonate (PC) as co-solvent. In the case of the propylene and ethylene carbonate containing electrolyte, DEMS measurements indicate strong formation of ethylene and propylene gas below 0.75 V versus Li/Li +, which does not decrease at lower cell potential and in the subsequent charge/discharge cycles. Whereas for the dimethyl carbonate containing electrolyte, ethylene gas formation could be observed already above 1 V versus Li/Li +. Post mortem scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of the electrodes show strong exfoliation of the graphite electrode when they are discharged in the ethylene/propylene carbonate electrolyte, indicating the formation of an unstable SEI layer. The addition of vinylene carbonate (VC) as a film forming additive significantly decreases the gas formation at the graphite electrode in the propylene carbonate containing electrolyte. The exfoliation was suppressed by the vinylene carbonate additive. We show that the combination of different in situ and ex situ methods can provide new useful information about the passivation process of graphite, as well as the solid electrolyte interphase layer formed, during the first electrochemical insertion of lithium into graphite negative electrode materials.

  15. Graphite technology development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This document presents the plan for the graphite technology development required to support the design of the 350 MW(t) Modular HTGR within the US National Gas-Cooled Reactor Program. Besides descriptions of the required technology development, cost estimates, and schedules, the plan also includes the associated design functions and design requirements.

  16. (Irradiation creep of graphite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, C.R.

    1990-12-21

    The traveler attended the Conference, International Symposium on Carbon, to present an invited paper, Irradiation Creep of Graphite,'' and chair one of the technical sessions. There were many papers of particular interest to ORNL and HTGR technology presented by the Japanese since they do not have a particular technology embargo and are quite open in describing their work and results. In particular, a paper describing the failure of Minor's law to predict the fatigue life of graphite was presented. Although the conference had an international flavor, it was dominated by the Japanese. This was primarily a result of geography; however, the work presented by the Japanese illustrated an internal program that is very comprehensive. This conference, a result of this program, was better than all other carbon conferences attended by the traveler. This conference emphasizes the need for US participation in international conferences in order to stay abreast of the rapidly expanding HTGR and graphite technology throughout the world. The United States is no longer a leader in some emerging technologies. The traveler was surprised by the Japanese position in their HTGR development. Their reactor is licensed and the major problem in their graphite program is how to eliminate it with the least perturbation now that most of the work has been done.

  17. Characterization of an hrp-aox-polyaniline-graphite composite biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina O. Santana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an increasing demand to develop new and robust biosensors in order to detect low concentrations of different chemicals, in practical and small devices, giving fast and confident responses. The electrode material was a polyaniline-graphite-epoxy composite (PANI/GEC. Alcohol oxidase (AOX and horseradish peroxidase (HRP enzymes were immobilized and the responses were tested by cyclic voltammetry. The conductivities for the composites of graphite/polyaniline were determined. The cyclic voltammograms allowed detecting ethanol in pure diluted samples in a range from 0.036 to 2.62 M. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA were used to verify the thermal characteristics of the composites (0, 10, 20, 30 and 100 % of graphite. The Imax value was determined for the dual enzyme biosensor (0.0724 mA, and the Kapp m  as 1.41 M (with R2 =0.9912.

  18. Investigation of the DC vacuum breakdown mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, A; Calatroni, S; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2009-01-01

    Breakdowns occurring in rf accelerating structures will limit the ultimate performance of future linear colliders such as the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Because of the similarity of many aspects of dc and rf breakdown, a dc breakdown study is underway at CERN to better understand the vacuum breakdown mechanism in a simple setup. Measurements of the field enhancement factor β show that the local breakdown field is constant and depends only on the electrode material. With copper electrodes, the local breakdown field is around 10:8 GV/m, independent of the gap distance. The β value characterizes the electrode surface state, and the next macroscopic breakdown field can be well predicted. In breakdown rate experiments, where a constant field is applied to the electrodes, clusters of consecutive breakdowns alternate with quiet periods. The occurrence and lengths of these clusters and quiet periods depend on the evolution of β. The application of a high field can even modify the electrode surface in the abse...

  19. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Luis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Reed, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Nie, Zimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Schwarz, Ashleigh M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Kizewski, James P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Wang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Thomsen, Edwin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Li, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-05-17

    We decorated the surfaces of graphite felts with some oxygen-containing functional groups, such as C-OH, O=C and HO-C=O. And the mole ratios and amounts of these functional groups were effectively adjusted on the graphite surface by a particular method. The catalytic effects of amounts and mole ratio of different kinds of functional groups on VRB electrode performances were investigated in detail.

  20. 76 FR 31462 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Model DC-10-10, DC- 10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to all The Boeing Company Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10- 40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F airplanes...

  1. HVDC Ground Electrodes and Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ground electrodes in HVDC transmission are huge grounding systems for the DC part of the converter substation, about 1 km wide, sized to inject in the ground DC currents up to 3.5 kA. This work presents an analysis of how the tectonic setting at converter substation location is determinant for the search of the best electrode location (Site Selection) and on its design and performance. It will briefly present the author experience on HVDC electrode design, summarized as follows: Itaipu - Foz do Iguaçu electrodes (transmitter side) located in the middle of Paraná Sedimentary Basin, and Ibiúna electrodes (receiving side) on the border of the basin, 6 km from the geological strike, where the crystalline basement outcrops in São Paulo state; Madeira River - North electrodes (transmitting side) located on the Northwest border of South Amazon Craton, where the crystalline basement is below a shallow sediments layer, and South electrodes (receiving side) located within Paraná Sedimentary Basin; Chile - electrodes located on the Andean forearc, where the Nazca Plate plunges under the South American Plate; Kenya - Ethiopia - electrodes located in the African Rift; Belo Monte - North electrodes (transmitter side) located within the Amazonian Sedimentary Basin, about 35 km of its South border, and South electrodes (receiving side) within Paraná Sedimentary Basin (bipole 1) and on crystalline metamorphic terrain "Brasília Belt" (bipole 2). This diversity of geological conditions results on ground electrodes of different topologies and dimensions, with quite different electrical and thermal performances. A brief study of the geology of the converter stations regions, the so-called Desktop Study, allows for the preview of several important parameters for the site selection and design of the electrodes, such as localization, type, size and estimate of the interference area, which are important predictors of the investment to be made and indications of the design to be

  2. Sensitive Voltammetric Determination of Natural Flavonoid Quercetin on a Disposable Graphite Lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Long Vu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a pencil graphite electrode was pretreated using chronoamperometry technique in phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0 for sensitive determination of quercetin. Oxidation of quercetin was investigated using pretreated pencil graphite electrode and anodic stripping differential pulse voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the anodic current of quercetin exhibited linear response to its concentration in the range from 0.001 to 1.5 μmol/L with the limit of detection of 0.3·10–3 μmol/L. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of quercetin in cranberry and blackcurrant juices with recovery rate from 93.2 to 94.7 %. Solid-phase extraction was found to be necessary prior to voltammetric determination of quercetin in fruit juice samples using pretreated pencil graphite electrode.

  3. Graphites for nuclear applications; Les graphites pour les applications nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.P.; Gosmain, L. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DMN), Lab. de Microscopie et d' Etudes de l' Endommagement, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-03-15

    Being an excellent neutron moderator, graphite is used as a structural material in many nuclear reactor types. By the end of the 50's, the French gas-cooled reactor development needed manufacturing of a nuclear-grade graphite. Graphite irradiation can lead to in-lattice energy accumulation, dimensional changes and physical properties modification. Moreover, the radiolytic corrosion induced by the coolant (CO{sub 2}) may generate mechanical properties degradation. Today, French gas-cooled reactors are all in their decommissioning phase that requires the knowledge of the radiological inventory of the irradiated graphites. At present time, graphite is still foreseen as a future material for hydrogen production by high temperature gas cooled nuclear plants. In the future, graphite will be the necessary moderator material for high temperature reactors with thermal neutron spectrum dedicated to hydrogen and electricity production. (authors)

  4. Harwell Graphite Calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linacre, J.K.

    1970-01-01

    The calorimeter is of the steady state temperature difference type. It contains a graphite sample supported axially in a graphite outer jacket, the assembly being contained in a thin stainless steel outer can. The temperature of the jacket and the temperature difference between sample and jacket are measured by chromel-alumel thermocouples. The instrument is calibrated by means of an electric heater of low mass positioned on the axis of the sample. The resistance of the heater is known and both current through the heater and the potential across it may be measured. The instrument is filled with nitrogen at a pressure of one half atmosphere at room temperature. The calorimeter has been designed for prolonged operation at temperatures up to 600°C, and dose rates up to 1 Wg -1 , and instruments have been in use for periods in excess of one year

  5. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  6. An experimental study of dynamic behaviour of graphite-polycarbonatediol polyurethane composites for protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, C. M.; Culebras, M.; Cantarero, A.; Redondo-Foj, B.; Ortiz-Serna, P.; Carsí, M.; Sanchis, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Segmented polycarbonatediol polyurethane (PUPH) has been synthesized and modified with different amounts of graphite conductive filler (from 0 to 50 wt%). Thermal and dynamical thermal analysis of the composites clearly indicates changes in the polyurethane relaxations upon addition of graphite. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy has been used to study the dielectric properties of the (PUPH) and one composite in the frequency range from 10-2 to 107 Hz and in the temperature window of -140 to 170 °C. Relaxation processes associated with different molecular motions and conductivity phenomena (Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars and electrode polarization) are discussed and related to the graphite content.

  7. Carbon-based Composite Electrodes : Preparation, Characterization and Application in Electroanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corb, I.; Manea, F.; Radovan, C.; Pop, A.; Burtica, G.; Malchev, P.G.; Picken, S.J.; Schoonman, J.

    2007-01-01

    Electrodes based on carbon, i.e., expanded graphite (20%, wt.)-epoxy composite (20EG-Epoxy) and expanded graphite (20%, wt.)-polystyrene composite (20EG-PS) have been prepared, characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and tested as anodic sensors. The

  8. Structural disorder of graphite and implications for graphite thermometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kirilova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphitization, or the progressive maturation of carbonaceous material, is considered an irreversible process. Thus, the degree of graphite crystallinity, or its structural order, has been calibrated as an indicator of the peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the host rocks. However, discrepancies between temperatures indicated by graphite crystallinity versus other thermometers have been documented in deformed rocks. To examine the possibility of mechanical modifications of graphite structure and the potential impacts on graphite thermometry, we performed laboratory deformation experiments. We sheared highly crystalline graphite powder at normal stresses of 5 and 25  megapascal (MPa and aseismic velocities of 1, 10 and 100 µm s−1. The degree of structural order both in the starting and resulting materials was analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy. Our results demonstrate structural disorder of graphite, manifested as changes in the Raman spectra. Microstructural observations show that brittle processes caused the documented mechanical modifications of the aggregate graphite crystallinity. We conclude that the calibrated graphite thermometer is ambiguous in active tectonic settings.

  9. Field Emission Measurements from Niobium Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. BastaniNejad, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, S. Covert, J. Hansknecht, C. Hernandez-Garcia, R. Mammei, M. Poelker

    2011-03-01

    Increasing the operating voltage of a DC high voltage photogun serves to minimize space charge induced emittance growth and thereby preserve electron beam brightness, however, field emission from the photogun cathode electrode can pose significant problems: constant low level field emission degrades vacuum via electron stimulated desorption which in turn reduces photocathode yield through chemical poisoning and/or ion bombardment and high levels of field emission can damage the ceramic insulator. Niobium electrodes (single crystal, large grain and fine grain) were characterized using a DC high voltage field emission test stand at maximum voltage -225kV and electric field gradient > 10MV/m. Niobium electrodes appear to be superior to diamond-paste polished stainless steel electrodes.

  10. Study on conventional carbon characteristics as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar, Muhammad Noer; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC), black carbon (BC), and graphite were deposited onto ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) glass for counter electrode application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. SEM-EDX was used to observe and analyse the morphology and composition of electrodes. The results showed that the particle distribution of the graphite electrode observed was approximately 34% with a size of 1 to 2 µm and BC electrode about 20% have a size of 0.5 to 1 µm, while AC electrode has a size of 0 – 0.5 µm observed around 20%. AC electrode has a more porous and uniform particle aggregates compared to BC and graphite electrodes. The efficiency of the counter electrode was measured using the solar simulator. The highest efficiency was at 0.011516% for the counter electrode that was fabricated by AC. Meanwhile, black carbon and graphite electrodes were achieved at 0.008744% and 0.010561%, respectively. The results proved that the porosity and the uniform aggregate of the particles were the most significant factors to improve the performance of DSSC. (paper)

  11. Electrocatalytic activity of cobalt phosphide-modified graphite felt toward VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Zhijun; Wang, Ling; He, Zhangxing; Li, Yuehua; Jiang, Yingqiao; Meng, Wei; Dai, Lei

    2018-04-01

    A novel strategy for improving the electro-catalytic properties of graphite felt (GF) electrode in vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is designed by depositing cobalt phosphide (CoP) onto GF surface. The CoP powder is synthesized by direct carbonization of Co-based zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) followed by phosphidation. Cyclic voltammetry results confirm that the CoP-modified graphite felt (GF-CoP) electrode has excellent reversibility and electro-catalytic activity to the VO2+/VO2+ cathodic reaction compared with the pristine GF electrode. The cell using GF-CoP electrode shows apparently higher discharge capacity over that based on GF electrode. The cell using GF-CoP electrode has the capacity of 67.2 mA h at 100 mA cm-2, 32.7 mA h larger than that using GF electrode. Compared with cell using GF electrode, the voltage efficiency of the cell based on GF-CoP electrode increases by 5.9% and energy efficiency by 5.4% at a current density of 100 mA cm-2. The cell using GF-CoP electrode can reach 94.31% capacity retention after 50 cycles at a current density of 30 mA cm-2. The results show that the CoP can effectively promote the VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction, implying that metal phosphides are a new kind of potential catalytic materials for VRFB.

  12. Bromine intercalated graphite for lightweight composite conductors

    KAUST Repository

    Amassian, Aram

    2017-07-20

    A method of fabricating a bromine-graphite/metal composite includes intercalating bromine within layers of graphite via liquid-phase bromination to create brominated-graphite and consolidating the brominated-graphite with a metal nanopowder via a mechanical pressing operation to generate a bromine-graphite/metal composite material.

  13. Chemical stabilization of graphite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bistrika, Alexander A.; Lerner, Michael M.

    2018-04-03

    Embodiments of a device, or a component of a device, including a stabilized graphite surface, methods of stabilizing graphite surfaces, and uses for the devices or components are disclosed. The device or component includes a surface comprising graphite, and a plurality of haloaryl ions and/or haloalkyl ions bound to at least a portion of the graphite. The ions may be perhaloaryl ions and/or perhaloalkyl ions. In certain embodiments, the ions are perfluorobenzenesulfonate anions. Embodiments of the device or component including stabilized graphite surfaces may maintain a steady-state oxidation or reduction surface current density after being exposed to continuous oxidation conditions for a period of at least 1-100 hours. The device or component is prepared by exposing a graphite-containing surface to an acidic aqueous solution of the ions under oxidizing conditions. The device or component can be exposed in situ to the solution.

  14. Development of Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbon Electrodes for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    37 A. ELECTRODE PRODUCTION ............................................................ 37 1. Electrode Powder Preparation...10 2.64 Sterling 2700 Graphitized Carbon Black 200 152 0.075 30 XP30 Petroleum Coke 220 55 45 N/A Repsol LQNC Needle Coke 234 104 45 6.7...fabrication methods and optimize the individual process steps. A. ELECTRODE PRODUCTION Both anode and cathode electrodes were made from their respective

  15. Heat exchanger using graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Michael Joseph; Callas, James John

    2012-09-25

    A heat exchanger is disclosed. The heat exchanger may have an inlet configured to receive a first fluid and an outlet configured to discharge the first fluid. The heat exchanger may further have at least one passageway configured to conduct the first fluid from the inlet to the outlet. The at least one passageway may be composed of a graphite foam and a layer of graphite material on the exterior of the graphite foam. The layer of graphite material may form at least a partial barrier between the first fluid and a second fluid external to the at least one passageway.

  16. Blunt indentation of core graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, M.; McEnaney, B.

    1996-01-01

    Blunt indentation experiments were carried out on unoxidized and thermally oxidised IM1-24 graphite as a model to simulate local point stresses acting on graphite moderator bricks. Blunt indentation of unoxidized graphite initiates cracks close to the region of maximum tensile stress at the edge of the indentation. Cracks propagate and converge to form a cone of material. Failure is catastrophic, typically forming three pieces of graphite and ejecting the cone referred to above. The failure mode under indentation loading for highly oxidised graphite (weigh loss > 40%) is different from that for the unoxidized graphite. There is no longer a distinct crack path, the indentation is much deeper than in the case of the unoxidized graphite, and there is a region of crushed debris beneath the indentation, producing a crater-like structure. The reduction in the compressive fracture stress, σ cf , under indentation loading with increasing fractional weight loss on oxidation, x, can be fitted to σ cf /σ 0 = exp-[5.2x] where σ 0 is the compressive fracture stress of the unoxidized graphite. This indicates that the effect of thermal oxidation on indentation fracture stress is more severe than the effects of radiolytic oxidation on conventional strengths of nuclear graphites. (author). 8 refs, 12 figs

  17. Graphitic packing removal tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  18. Steam activation of boron doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Tatsuya; Zhang Junfeng; Takasu, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steam activation of boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. → Steam activated BDD has a porous columnar texture. → Steam activated BDD has a wide potential window. - Abstract: Boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were activated in steam at various temperatures, resulting in high quality BDD electrodes with a porous microstructure. Distinct columnar structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemically active surface area of the steam-activated BDD was up to 20 times larger than the pristine BDD electrode owing to the porous texture. In addition, a widening of the potential window was observed after steam activation, suggesting that the quality of BDD was enhanced due to oxidative removal of graphitic impurities during the activation process.

  19. 75 FR 63040 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10-40F Airplanes AGENCY...-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10- 40F airplanes, certificated in any category...

  20. Evaluation of corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete from potential measurements of embedded reference electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrdal, R. [Rescon AS, Sagstua (Norway); Videm, K. [Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Centre for Materials Research

    1995-12-01

    The potentials of manganese dioxide electrodes, lead, graphite and some other metals have been measured in the laboratory in synthetic pore water solutions and when the electrodes were embedded in concrete. Measurements have been carried out with the aim of determining the potentials of manganese dioxide, lead and graphite electrodes permanently installed in a large bridge. The measurements were carried out a year after the installation. The latter measurements indicate a significant divergence of the potentials of the electrodes of the same type. The changes with time appeared to be rather small. It is difficult to establish whether a 10 mV change in the potential between the reinforcement steel and a single reference electrode originates from a change of the corrosion potential or drift in the reference electrodes. The much larger response of the potential i that takes place if the corrosion process changes significantly is detectable with all three types of electrodes.

  1. Glass-Graphite Composite Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayzan, M.Z.H.; Lloyd, J.W.; Heath, P.G.; Stennett, M.C.; Hyatt, N.C.; Hand, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    A summary is presented of investigations into the potential of producing glass-composite materials for the immobilisation of graphite or other carbonaceous materials arising from nuclear power generation. The methods are primarily based on the production of base glasses which are subsequently sintered with powdered graphite or simulant TRISO particles. Consideration is also given to the direct preparation of glass-graphite composite materials using microwave technology. Production of dense composite wasteforms with TRISO particles was more successful than with powdered graphite, as wasteforms containing larger amounts of graphite were resistant to densification and the glasses tried did not penetrate the pores under the pressureless conditions used. Based on the results obtained it is concluded that the production of dense glassgraphite composite wasteforms will require the application of pressure. (author)

  2. Carbon-carbon electrodes for the water capacitive deionization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudyin, D.V.; Guryin, Yi.V.; Taran, G.V.; Golota, V.Yi.; Bukolov, O.M.; Zavada, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    New method of the carbon/carbon electrodes with the frame from the thermal expanded graphite and titanium electrical lamellas is developed. It is shown that the electrodes have high mechanical and electrical properties. It is experimentally improved that transitional contact resistance through ''contact titanium - carbon framer - carbon cloth'' is 0.2...0.3 OMEGA , which is approximately the resistance of the carbon material.

  3. DC photoemission electron guns as ERL sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, Charles K.

    2006-01-01

    Very-high-voltage DC electron guns, delivering moderate duration bunches from photoemission cathodes, and followed by conventional drift bunching and acceleration, offer a practical solution for an ERL injector. In a variant of this scheme, a DC gun is placed in close proximity to a superconducting RF accelerator cavity, with few or no active elements between the gun and cavity. The principal technical challenge with such electron guns arises from field emission from the cathode electrode and its support structure. Field emission may result in voltage breakdown across the cathode-anode gap, or a punch-through failure of the insulator holding off the cathode potential, as well as lesser though still serious problems. Various means to mitigate these problems are described. The operational lifetime of high quantum efficiency photocathodes in these guns is determined by the vacuum conditions, through phenomena such as chemical poisoning and ion back-bombardment. Minimization of the field strength on electrode structures pushes high-voltage DC guns toward large dimensions and, correspondingly, large outgassing loads, but it is also true that these guns offer many opportunities for achieving excellent vacuum conditions. Good solutions to vacuum problems that had previously limited cathode lifetime have been demonstrated in recent years. Designs for DC guns presently in use and planned for the near future will be described. The parameters necessary for a 100 mA average current, very-high-voltage DC gun with a photocathode operational lifetime greater than 100 h appear to be within reach, but have yet to be demonstrated. A 1 A average current source with good cathode operational lifetime will require developments beyond the present state-of-the-art

  4. Programmable dc motor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, J. E.

    1982-11-01

    A portable programmable dc motor controller, with features not available on commercial instruments was developed for controlling fixtures during welding processes. The controller can be used to drive any dc motor having tachometer feedback and motor requirements not exceeding 30 volts, 3 amperes. Among the controller's features are delayed start time, upslope time, speed, and downslope time.

  5. Performance Study of Graphite Anode Slurry in Lithium-ion Flow Battery by Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Cai-mei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphite anode slurry of lithium-ion flow battery was prepared by the method of ball milling. The morphology, conductivity, specific capacity and cycle performance of graphite anode slurry were studied. Results show that the addition of conductive carbon material can improve the suspension stability of the electrode slurry; the ball milling process can not only improve the suspension stability but also reduce the resistivity of the mixed powders of graphite and conductive carbon materials, the ball milling effect is satisfactory when the mass ratio of the balls and the solid particles is 5:1, but too high ratio of the milling ball and the solid materials can destroy the layer structure of the graphite and affect the stability of the slurry. Increasing the fraction of the graphite and conductive carbon materials can form stable electrical network structure in the slurry and improve the reversible capacity; at the premise of keeping the flowability of the electrode slurry, the reversible specific capacity can be more than 40mAh/g. The capacity loss of graphite anode slurry mainly occurs in the first charging-discharging process, as the increase of the cycles, the capacity loss rate decreases, the capacity goes stable after 5 cycles.

  6. Multilevel DC link inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  7. Southeast Alaska intertie dc transmission system: reconnaissance design and cost estimate. Appendix I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-11-01

    The detailed costs of the schemes are given in this Appendix. The conceptual designs of the sea electrodes for the schemes are also described. The cost estimates for the electrodes were based on these conceptual designs. A cost comparison of ac and dc transmission for 10 MW from Ketchikan to Tolstoi Bay is given along with an example outlining the procedure for selecting the optimum dc cable size.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention is the provision of a material capable of withstanding a high-temperature, corrosive and erosive environment for use as a ceramic-metal composite electrode current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic generator. (U.K.)

  9. Alternate electrode materials for the SP100 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randich, E.

    1992-05-01

    This work was performed in response to a request by the Astro-Space Division of the General Electric Co. to develop alternate electrodes materials for the electrodes of the PD2 modules to be used in the SP100 thermoelectric power conversion system. Initially, the project consisted of four tasks: (1) development of a ZrB 2 (C) CVD coating on SiMo substrates, (2) development of a ZrB 2 (C) CVD coating on SiGe substrates, (3) development of CVI W for porous graphite electrodes, and (4) technology transfer of pertinent developed processes. The project evolved initially into developing only ZrB 2 coatings on SiGe and graphite substrates, and later into developing ZrB 2 coatings only on graphite substrates. Several sizes of graphite and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite substrates were coated with ZrB 2 during the project. For budgetary reasons, the project was terminated after half the allotted time had passed. Apart from the production of coated specimens for evaluation, the major accomplishment of the project was the development of the CVD processing to produce the desired coatings

  10. 75 FR 38943 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10-40, and DC-10-40F Airplanes AGENCY... propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KDC-10), DC-10- 40, and DC-10-40F airplanes. This proposed AD would require installing a support...

  11. Acoustic emission from polycrystalline graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, I.; Yoda, S.; Oku, T.; Miyamoto, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Acoustic emission was monitored from polycrystalline graphites with different microstructure (pore size and pore volume) subjected to compressive loading. The graphites used in this study comprised five brands, that is, PGX, ISEM-1, IG-11, IG-15, and ISO-88. A root mean square (RMS) voltage and event counts of acoustic emission for graphites were measured during compressive loading. The acoustic emission was measured using a computed-based data acquisition and analysis system. The graphites were first deformed up to 80 % of the average fracture stress, then unloaded and reloaded again until the fracture occured. During the first loading, the change in RMS voltage for acoustic emission was detected from the initial stage. During the unloading, the RMS voltage became zero level as soon as the applied stress was released and then gradually rose to a peak and declined. The behavior indicated that the reversed plastic deformation occured in graphites. During the second loading, the RMS voltage gently increased until the applied stress exceeded the maximum stress of the first loading; there is no Kaiser effect in the graphites. A bicrystal model could give a reasonable explanation of this results. The empirical equation between the ratio of σ AE to σ f and σ f was obtained. It is considered that the detection of microfracture by the acoustic emission technique is effective in macrofracture prediction of polycrystalline graphites. (author)

  12. Hypervelocity impacts into graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, S.; Cheesman, C.; Day, D.; Harrison, W.; Price, S.

    2011-03-01

    Studies have been conducted into the characterisation of the behaviour of commercial graphite (brittle) when subjected to hypervelocity impacts by a range of projectiles. The experiments were conducted with a two-stage gas gun capable of launching projectiles of differing density and strength to speeds of about 6kms-1 at right angles into target plates. The damage caused is quantified by measurements of the crater depth and diameters. From the experimental data collected, scaling laws were derived which correlate the crater dimensions to the velocity and the density of the projectile. It was found that for moderate projectile densities the crater dimensions obey the '2/3 power law' which applies to ductile materials.

  13. Radiolytic graphite oxidation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minshall, P.C.; Sadler, I.A.; Wickham, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of radiolytic oxidation in graphite-moderated CO 2 -cooled reactors has long been recognised, especially in the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors where potential rates are higher because of the higher gas pressure and ratings than the earlier Magnox designs. In all such reactors, the rate of oxidation is partly inhibited by the CO produced in the reaction and, in the AGR, further reduced by the deliberate addition of CH 4 . Significant roles are also played by H 2 and H 2 O. This paper reviews briefly the mechanisms of these processes and the data on which they are based. However, operational experience has demonstrated that these basic principles are unsatisfactory in a number of respects. Gilsocarbon graphites produced by different manufacturers have demonstrated a significant difference in oxidation rate despite a similar specification and apparent equivalence in their pore size and distribution, considered to be the dominant influence on oxidation rate for a given coolant-gas composition. Separately, the inhibiting influence of CH 4 , which for many years had been considered to arise from the formation of a sacrificial deposit on the pore walls, cannot adequately be explained by the actual quantities of such deposits found in monitoring samples which frequently contain far less deposited carbon than do samples from Magnox reactors where the only source of such deposits is the CO. The paper also describes the current status of moderator weight-loss predictions for Magnox and AGR Moderators and the validation of the POGO and DIFFUSE6 codes respectively. 2 refs, 5 figs

  14. Graphite reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Cogne, F.

    1964-01-01

    The study of graphite-natural uranium power reactor physics, undertaken ten years ago when the Marcoule piles were built, has continued to keep in step with the development of this type of pile. From 1960 onwards the critical facility Marius has been available for a systematic study of the properties of lattices as a function of their pitch, of fuel geometry and of the diameter of cooling channels. This study has covered a very wide field: lattice pitch varying from 19 to 38 cm. uranium rods and tubes of cross-sections from 6 to 35 cm 2 , channels with diameters between 70 and 140 mm. The lattice calculation methods could thus be checked and where necessary adapted. The running of the Marcoule piles and the experiments carried out on them during the last few years have supplied valuable information on the overall evolution of the neutronic properties of the fuel as a function of irradiation. More detailed experiments have also been performed in Marius with plutonium-containing fuels (irradiated or synthetic fuels), and will be undertaken at the beginning of 1965 at high temperature in the critical facility Cesar, which is just being completed at Cadarache. Spent fuel analyses complement these results and help in their interpretation. The thermalization and spectra theories developed in France can thus be verified over the whole valid temperature range. The efficiency of control rods as a function of their dimensions, the materials of which they are made and the lattices surrounding them has been measured in Marius, and the results compared with calculation on the one hand and with the measurements carried out in EDF 1 on the other. Studies on the control proper of graphite piles were concerned essentially with the risks of spatial instability and the means of detecting and controlling them, and with flux distortions caused by the control rods. (authors) [fr

  15. Crystalline CoFeB/graphite interfaces for carbon spintronics fabricated by solid phase epitaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, P.K.J.; van Geijn, Elmer; van Geijn, E.; Zhang, W.; Starikov, A.A.; Tran, T. Lan Ahn; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Siekman, Martin Herman; Brocks, Gerardus H.L.A.; Kelly, Paul J.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Structurally ordered interfaces between ferromagnetic electrodes and graphene or graphite are of great interest for carbon spintronics, since they allow spin-filtering due to k-vector conservation. By solid phase epitaxy of amorphous/nanocrystalline CoFeB at elevated temperatures, the feasibility of

  16. Electroenzymatic Reactions With Oxygen on Laccase-Modified Electrodes in Anhydrous (Pure) Organic Solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarapolov, A.; Shleev, S.; Zaitseva, E.

    2007-01-01

    glassy carbon and graphite electrodes with adsorbed laccase. The influence of the time for drying the laccase solution at the electrode surface on the electroreduction of oxygen was studied. Investigating the electroenzymatic oxidation reaction of catechol and hydroquinone in DMSO reveals the formation...

  17. Graphite structure and magnetic parameters of flake graphite cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, T.; Tomáš, I.; Kage, H.

    2017-11-01

    Different matrix and graphite morphologies were generated by a special heat treatment in three chemically different series of flake graphite cast iron samples. As cast, furnace cooled and air cooled samples were investigated. The length of graphite particles and the pearlite volume of samples were determined by metallographic examination and these parameters were compared with the nondestructively measured magnetic parameters. Magnetic measurements were performed by the method of Magnetic Adaptive Testing, which is based on systematic measurement and evaluation of minor magnetic hysteresis loops. It was shown that linear correlation existed between the magnetic quantities and the graphite length, and also between the magnetic quantities and the relative pearlite content in the investigated cast iron. A numerical expression was also determined between magnetic descriptors and relative pearlite content, which does not depend on the detailed experimental conditions.

  18. Eutectic solidification mode of spheroidal graphite cast iron and graphitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nakae

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The shrinkage and chilling tendency of spheroidal graphite (abbreviated SG cast iron is much greater than that of the flake graphite cast iron in spite of its higher amount of C and Si contents. Why? The main reason should be the difference in their graphitization during the eutectic solidification. In this paper, we discuss the difference in the solidification mechanism of both cast irons for solving these problems using unidirectional solidification and the cooling curves of the spheroidal graphite cast iron. The eutectic solidification rate of the SG cast iron is controlled by the diffusion of carbon through the austenite shell, and the final thickness is 1.4 times the radius of the SG, therefore, the reduction of the SG size, namely, the increase in the number, is the main solution of these problems.

  19. Obtention of nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.L.

    1984-01-01

    The impurity level of natural graphite found in some of the most important mines of the State of Minas Gerais - Brasil is determined. It is also concerned with the development and use of natural graphite in nuclear reactors. Standard methods for chemical and instrumentsal analysis such as Spectrografic Determination by Emission, Spectrografic Determination by X-Rays, Spectrografic Determination by Atomic Asorption, Photometric Determination, and also chemical and physical methods for separation of impurities as well standard method for Estimating the Thermal Neutron Absorption Cross Section of graphite were employed. Some aditionals methods of purification to the ordinary treatment such as the use of metanol and halogens are also described. (Author) [pt

  20. The progress of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews research at the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, on the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydride electrode materials. Nanocrystalline materials have been synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) followed by annealing. Examples of the materials include TiFe - , ZrV 2- , LaNi 5 and Mg 2 Ni-type phases. Details on the process used and the enhancement of properties due to the nanoscale structures are presented. The synthesized alloys were used as negative electrode materials for Ni-MH battery. The properties of hydrogen host materials can be modified substantially by alloying to obtain the desired storage characteristics. For example, it was found that the respective replacement of Fe in TiFe by Ni and/or by Cr, Co, Mo improved not only the discharge capacity but also the cycle life of these electrodes. The hydrogen storage properties of nanocrystalline ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type powders prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing show no big difference with those of melt casting (polycrystalline) alloys. On the other hand, a partial substitution of Mg by Mn or Al in Mg 2 Ni alloy leads to an increase in discharge capacity, at room temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the nickel and graphite coating on the structure of some nanocrystalline alloys and the electrodes characteristics were investigated. In the case of Mg 2 Ni-type alloy mechanical coating with graphite effectively reduced the degradation rate of the studied electrode materials. The combination of a nanocrystalline TiFe - , ZrV 2 - and LaNi 5 -type hydride electrodes and a nickel positive electrode to form a Ni-MH battery, has been successful. (authors)

  1. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED ELECTROPOLYMERIZED CARBON ELECTRODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) selective for fluorescein, rhodamine or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were electropolymerized onto graphite electrodes using an aqueous solution equimolar in resorsinol/ortho-phenylenediamine and in the presence of the template mole...

  2. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Chengxian; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC). In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy. PMID:28773929

  3. Applications of Graphene-Modified Electrodes in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-modified materials have captured increasing attention for energy applications due to their superior physical and chemical properties, which can significantly enhance the electricity generation performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC. In this review, several typical synthesis methods of graphene-modified electrodes, such as graphite oxide reduction methods, self-assembly methods, and chemical vapor deposition, are summarized. According to the different functions of the graphene-modified materials in the MFC anode and cathode chambers, a series of design concepts for MFC electrodes are assembled, e.g., enhancing the biocompatibility and improving the extracellular electron transfer efficiency for anode electrodes and increasing the active sites and strengthening the reduction pathway for cathode electrodes. In spite of the challenges of MFC electrodes, graphene-modified electrodes are promising for MFC development to address the reduction in efficiency brought about by organic waste by converting it into electrical energy.

  4. Carbon in bifunctional air electrodes in alkaline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryk, D.; Aldred, W.; Yeager, E.

    1983-01-01

    Bifunctional O 2 electrodes can be used both to reduce and to generate O 2 in rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. The factors controlling the O 2 reduction and generation reactions in gas-diffusional bifunctional O 2 electrodes are discussed. The resistance of such electrodes, as established from voltammetry curves, has been found to increase markedly during anodic polarization and to be dependent upon the electrode fabrication technique. Carbon blacks with more graphitic structure than Shawinigan black have been found to be more resistant to electro-oxidation. The further extension of cycle life of bifunctional electrodes using carbon is critically dependent on finding more oxidation-resistant carbons that at the same time have other surface properties meeting the requirements for catalyzed gas-diffusion electrodes

  5. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  6. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  7. Graphite oxidation in HTGR atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growcock, F.B.; Barry, J.J.; Finfrock, C.C.; Rivera, E.; Heiser, J.H. III

    1982-01-01

    On-going and recently completed studies of the effect of thermal oxidation on the structural integrity of HTGR candidate graphites are described, and some results are presented and discussed. This work includes the study of graphite properties which may play decisive roles in the graphites' resistance to oxidation and fracture: pore size distribution, specific surface area and impurity distribution. Studies of strength loss mechanisms in addition to normal oxidation are described. Emphasis is placed on investigations of the gas permeability of HTGR graphites and the surface burnoff phenomenon observed during recent density profile measurements. The recently completed studies of catalytic pitting and the effects of prestress and stress on reactivity and ultimate strength are also discussed

  8. Graphite surveillance in N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, E.M.

    1991-09-01

    Graphite dimensional changes in N Reactor during its 24 yr operating history are reviewed. Test irradiation results, block measurements, stack profiles, top of reflector motion monitors, and visual observations of distortion are described. 18 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  9. Graphite materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Graphite materials have been used in the nuclear fission reactors from the beginning of the reactor development for the speed reduction and reflection of neutron. Graphite materials are used both as a moderator and as a reflector in the core of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and both as a radiation shielding material and as a reflector in the surrounding of the core for the fast breeder reactor. On the other hand, graphite materials are being positively used as a first wall of plasma as it is known that low Z materials are useful for holding high temperature plasma in the nuclear fusion devices. In this paper the present status of the application of graphite materials to the nuclear fission reactors and fusion devices (reactors) is presented. In addition, a part of results on the related properties to the structural design and safety evaluation and results examined on the subjects that should be done in the future are also described. (author)

  10. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukemire, Alan T.

    1995-05-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  11. Graphite oral tattoo: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Renata Mendonça; Gouvêa Lima, Gabriela de Morais; Guilhermino, Marinaldo; Vieira, Mayana Soares; Carvalho, Yasmin Rodarte; Anbinder, Ana Lia

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented oral lesions compose a large number of pathological entities, including exogenous pigmentat oral tattoos, such as amalgam and graphite tattoos. We report a rare case of a graphite tattoo on the palate of a 62-year-old patient with a history of pencil injury, compare it with amalgam tattoos, and determine the prevalence of oral tattoos in our Oral Pathology Service. We also compare the clinical and histological findings of grafite and amalgam tattoos. Oral tattoos affect women more f...

  12. A DC Transformer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project was to demonstrate a true direct current (DC) transformer, a new electro-mechanical component with potentially high power applications; in...

  13. Preparation of Graphene Sheets by Electrochemical Exfoliation of Graphite in Confined Space and Their Application in Transparent Conductive Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wei, Can; Zhu, Kaiyi; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Zhang, Jiwei; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2017-10-04

    A novel electrochemical exfoliation mode was established to prepare graphene sheets efficiently with potential applications in transparent conductive films. The graphite electrode was coated with paraffin to keep the electrochemical exfoliation in confined space in the presence of concentrated sodium hydroxide as the electrolyte, yielding ∼100% low-defect (the D band to G band intensity ratio, I D /I G = 0.26) graphene sheets. Furthermore, ozone was first detected with ozone test strips, and the effect of ozone on the exfoliation of graphite foil and the microstructure of the as-prepared graphene sheets was investigated. Findings indicate that upon applying a low voltage (3 V) on the graphite foil partially coated with paraffin wax that the coating can prevent the insufficiently intercalated graphite sheets from prematurely peeling off from the graphite electrode thereby affording few-layer (graphene sheets in a yield of as much as 60%. Besides, the ozone generated during the electrochemical exfoliation process plays a crucial role in the exfoliation of graphite, and the amount of defect in the as-prepared graphene sheets is dependent on electrolytic potential and electrode distance. Moreover, the graphene-based transparent conductive films prepared by simple modified vacuum filtration exhibit an excellent transparency and a low sheet resistance after being treated with NH 4 NO 3 and annealing (∼1.21 kΩ/□ at ∼72.4% transmittance).

  14. Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets doped graphene oxide for electrochemical simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hanqiang; Huang, Qitong; Huang, Yihong; Li, Feiming; Zhang, Wuxiang; Wei, Chan; Chen, Jianhua; Dai, Pingwang; Huang, Lizhang; Huang, Zhouyi; Kang, Lianping; Hu, Shirong; Hao, Aiyou

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic drawing of electrochemical oxidize AA, DA and UA on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode. - Highlights: • Synthesize g-C 3 N 4 , GO and CNNS-GO composite. • CNNS-GO composite was the first time for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE displays fantastic selectivity and sensitivity for AA, DA and UA. • CNNS-GO/GCE was applied to detect real sample with satisfactory results. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets with a graphite-like structure have strong covalent bonds between carbon and nitride atoms, and nitrogen atoms in the carbon architecture can accelerate the electron transfer and enhance electrical properties effectually. The graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite was synthesized. And the electrochemical performance of the composite was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry ulteriorly. Due to the synergistic effects of layer-by-layer structures by π-π stacking or charge-transfer interactions, graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite can improved conductivity, electro-catalytic and selective oxidation performance. The proposed graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-graphene oxide composite modified electrode was employed for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid in their mixture solution, it exhibited distinguished sensitivity, wide linear range and low detection limit. Moreover, the modified electrode was applied to detect urine and dopamine injection sample, and then the samples were spiked with certain concentration of three substances with satisfactory recovery results

  15. Synchronous DC Power Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent describes a synchronous direct current (dc) power supply which has the power supply input drive synchronized with the pulse repetition...frequency (PRF) of the amplifying or load circuit requiring the dc power for operation. This limits the occurrence of ripple components in the power ... supply output to the spectral positions of the PRF lines, eliminating ripple interference with signal processing in the load. An astable multivibrator is

  16. Three new DC-to-DC Single-Switch Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry W. Williams

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new family of three previously unidentified dc-to-dc converters, buck, boost, and buck-boost voltage-transfer-function topologies, which offer advantageous transformer coupling features and low capacitor dc voltage stressing. The three single-switch, single-diode, converters offer the same features as basic dc-to-dc converters, such as the buck function with continuous output current and the boost function with continuous input current. Converter time-domain simulations and experimental results (including transformer coupling support and extol the dc-to-dc converter concepts and analysis presented.

  17. Electroanalytical Sensing of Flunitrazepam Based on Screen Printed Graphene Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Garcia-Gutierrez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new electrochemical sensor for Flunitrazepam using disposable and economic Screen Printed Graphene Electrodes. It was found that the electrochemical response of this sensor was improved compared to Screen Printed Graphite Electrodes and displayed an excellent analytical performance for the detection of Flunitrazepam. Those characteristics could be attributed to the high Flunitrazepam loading capacity on the electrode surface and the outstanding electric conductivity of graphene. The methodology is shown to be useful for quantifying low levels of Flunitrazepam in a buffer solution. The protocol is also shown to be applicable for the sensing of Flunitrazepam in an alcoholic beverage e.g., Gordon’s Gin & Tonic.

  18. Glass-like carbon, pyrolytic graphite or nanostructured carbon for electrochemical sensing of bismuth ion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Milikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Different carbon electrodes were explored for application in electroanalysis, namely for sensing of bismuth ion as model analyte. Carbon materials tested included glassy carbon, basal and edge plane pyrolytic graphite, as well as nanostructured carbonized polyaniline prepared in the presence of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. Bismuth ion was chosen as model analyte as protocol for its detection and quantifications is still to be determined. Herein, anodic stripping voltammetry was used with study of effect of several parameters such as scan rate and deposition time. Electrode based on carbonized polyaniline showed the highest activity for bismuth ion sensing in terms of the highest current densities recorded both in a laboratory and in real sample, while basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrode gave the lowest limit of detection.

  19. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  20. Micro Li-ion capacitor with activated carbon/graphite configuration for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents an asymmetric micro Li-ion capacitor which is the integration of a supercapacitor electrode and a Li-ion battery electrode. It exploits the power of supercapacitor and the capacity of Li-ion battery, together with an extended cell potential. Activated carbon (AC) of the supercapacitor material is used to construct the positive electrode, graphite of the anode material in Li-ion battery is adopted in the negative electrode, and an electrolyte used in Li-ion battery, 1 M LiPF6 in organic solvent serves as the electrolyte in the device. The micro three-dimensional (3D) electrodes with separator are fabricated by using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication technology. A pre-lithiation of graphite electrode is then carried out to reduce the electrolyte needed when packaging the prototype and improve its performance. Measurements show that the Li-ion capacitor prototype with 100-μm-thick interdigital electrodes has a capacity of 180 μA h/cm2 and an energy density of about 1750 mJ/cm2 at a charge/discharge current of 0.5 mA/cm2. The energy density is much higher than the symmetric AC supercapacitor at the same size.

  1. In-situ Raman spectroscopy as a characterization tool for carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.-C.; Joho, F.B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Lithium intercalation and de-intercalation into/from graphite electrodes in a nonaqueous electrolyte has been studied using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Our experiments give information on the electrode-electrolyte interface with improved spatial resolution. The spectra taken from the electrode surface change with electrode potential. In this way, information on the nature of the chemical species present during charging and discharging half cycles is gained. For the first time, mapping techniques were applied to investigate if lithium intercalation proceeds homogeneously on the carbon electrode. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  2. Fabrication of TiO2/Carbon Photocatalyst using Submerged DC Arc Discharged in Ethanol/Acetic Acid Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, T. E.; Nandika, A. O.; Andhika, I. F.; Patiha; Purnawan, C.; Wahyuningsih, S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to fabricate a modified photocatalyst of TiO2/C to enhance its performance. The fabrication was achieved using the submerged direct current (DC) arc-discharge method employing two graphite electrodes, one of which was filled with a mixture of carbon powder, TiO2, and binder, in ethanol with acetic acid added in various concentrations. The arc-discharge method was conducted by flowing a current of 10-20 A (~20 V). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed significant placements of the main peak characteristics of TiO2, C graphite, and titanium carbide. The surface analysis using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that fabricated TiO2/C nanoparticles had stretching vibrations of Ti-O, C-H, C═O, C-O, O-H and C═C in the regions of 450-550 cm-1, 2900-2880 cm-1, 1690-1760 cm-1, 1050-1300 cm-1, 3400-3700 cm-1 and ~1600 cm-1, respectively. In addition, the study investigated the photocatalysts of unmodified and modified TiO2/C for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) dye solution under mercury lamp irradiation. The effectiveness of the degradation was defined by the decrease in 60-minute absorbance under a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Modified TiO2/C proved to be significantly more efficient in reducing dye concentrations, reaching ~70%. It indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups have been successfully attached to the surface of the nanoparticles and played a role in enhancing photocatalytic activity.

  3. 75 FR 68246 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F... to supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10- 10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11...

  4. 75 FR 20790 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F... (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F airplanes. This proposed AD would require...

  5. 75 FR 23571 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD...

  6. 75 FR 60602 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD...

  7. Prediction of DC current flow between the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions, using 3D DC resistivity forward modelling and magnetotelluric and audio-magnetotelluric data recorded during SAMTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, P.; Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Fourie, S.; Webb, S. J.; Thunehed, H.

    2009-12-01

    SAMTEX (Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment) is a multinational project initiated in 2003 to study the regional-scale electrical conductivity substructure of southern Africa and to infer from it the tectonic processes involved in the formation and deformation of the southern African subcontinental lithosphere. As an additional opportunistic component to SAMTEX, audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data were acquired during the most recent phase of the experiment (Phase IV) to investigate the local-scale conductivity substructure in the Otjiwarongo and Katima Mulilo regions (northern and north-eastern Namibia), where in future the installation of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) earth electrodes will commence. Both of the AMT surveys are situated close to the edge of the orogenic Neo-Proterozoic Ghanzi-Chobe/Damara belts (collectively termed the Damara Mobile Belt, DMB), which represents in part the collision between the Congo and Kalahari cratons during the amalgamation of South Gondwana. Previous studies using magnetotellurics (MT), magnetometer arrays and geomagnetic observatory data all point to the existence of a highly conductive mid-crustal zone which correlates well with the spatial location of the DMB. Preliminary modelling of the Otjiwarongo AMT data confirms the existence of a high conductive zone at mid-crustal depths (10-15 km), whereas in Katima Mulilo insufficient penetration of electromagnetic energy in the AMT frequency band, due to conductive sediment cover, prevents information being obtained of the conductivity at mid-crustal depths. However, at Katima Mulilo there are sparser broadband MT (BBMT) and long period MT (LMT) measurements that can be incorporated. The high conductivity of the DMB is explained by the presence of conductive materials (graphites, sulphides). In contrast, the lithospheric structure of the neighbouring Archaean cratons, the Congo and Kalahari, are generally found to be electrically resistive and therefore it is

  8. Ni-Al Protective Coating of Steel Electrodes in Dc Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production / Ni-Al Pārklājuma Ietekme Uz Tērauda Elektrodiem Līdzstrāvas Elektrolīzē Ūdeņraža Ražošanai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurietis, P.; Vanags, M.; Kleperis, J.; Bajars, G.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen can be a good alternative to fossil fuels under the conditions of world's crisis as an effective energy carrier derived from renewable resources. Among all the known methods of hydrogen production, water electrolysis gives the ecologically purest hydrogen, so it is of importance to maximize the efficiency of this process. The authors consider the influence of plasma sprayed Ni-Al protective coating of 316L steel anode-cathode electrodes in DC electrolysis. In a long-term (24 h) process the anode corrodes strongly, losing Cr and Ni ions which are transferred to the electrolyte, while only minor corrosion of the cathode occurs. At the same time, the composition of anode and cathode electrodes protected by Ni-Al coating changes only slightly during a prolonged electrolysis. As the voltammetry and Tafel plots evidence, the Ni-Al coating protects both the anode and cathode from the corrosion and reduces the potential of hydrogen evolution. The results obtained show that such a coating works best in the case of steel electrodes. Darbā pētīts, kā līdzstrāvas elektrolīzē tērauda 316L elektrodus (anods un katods) ietekmē ar plazmas izputināšanas metodi iegūts Ni-Al pārklājums. Tikko uznestam pārklājumam ir mikrostrukturēta virsma, kas kodināšanas laikā mainās, gan pēc reljefa, gan elementu sastāva. Veicot ilgstošu (24 stundas elektrolīzi), atrasts, ka tikai tērauda elektrods anoda lomā intensīvi korodē un zaudē hroma un niķeļa jonus, kas pāriet elektrolītā, turpretī katods mainās relatīvi maz. Pārklājums Ni-Al pēc uznešanas tiek kodināts karstā sārmā, kad tiek izšķīdināta daļa sastāvā esošo elementu (Al, Si, Cd), bet ilgstošas elektrolīzes laikā pārklājuma sastāvs mainās maz gan anodam, gan katodam. Elektrodu elektroķīmiskie raksturlielumi noteikti ar voltamperometrijas un Tāfeļa līkņu analīzes metodēm. Atrasts, ka Ni-Al pārklājums aizsargā gan anodu, gan katodu no korozijas un samazina

  9. A dimensionally stable and fast-discharging graphite-silicon composite Li-ion battery anode enabled by electrostatically self-assembled multifunctional polymer-blend coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shiang; Chou, Jackey; Wu, Nae-Lih

    2015-05-18

    A high-performance graphite-Si composite anode for Li-ion batteries containing Si nanoparticles (NPs) attached onto graphite microparticles was synthesized by adopting a polymer-blend of poly(diallyl dimethyl-ammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). The polymer-blend enabled uniform distribution of Si NPs during synthesis and served as a robust artificial solid-electrolyte interphase that substantially enhanced the cycle stability and rate performance of the composite electrode. The electrode exhibited a specific capacity of 450 mA h g(-1), 96% capacity retention at a 10 C-rate, 95% retention after 200 cycles, and the same electrode expansion behavior as a pristine graphite electrode.

  10. Graphite Formation in Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    In the first phase of the project it was proven that by changing the ratio between the thermal gradient and the growth rate for commercial cast iron samples solidifying in a Bridgman type furnace, it is possible to produce all types of graphite structures, from flake to spheroidal, and all types of matrices, from ferritic to white at a certain given level of cerium. KC-135 flight experiments have shown that in a low-gravity environment, no flotation occurs even in spheroidal graphite cast irons with carbon equivalent as high as 5%, while extensive graphite flotation occurred in both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons, in high carbon samples solidified in a high gravity environment. This opens the way for production of iron-carbon composite materials, with high carbon content (e.g., 10%) in a low gravity environment. By using KC-135 flights, the influence of some basic elements on the solidification of cast iron will be studied. The mechanism of flake to spheroidal graphite transition will be studied, by using quenching experiments at both low and one gravity for different G/R ratios.

  11. Experience with graphite in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pick, M.A.; Celentano, G.; Deksnis, E.; Dietz, K.J.; Shaw, R.; Sonnenberg, K.; Walravens, M.

    1987-01-01

    During the current operational period of JET more than 50% of the internal area of the machine is covered in graphite tiles. This includes the 15 m 2 of carbon tiles installed in the new toroidal limiter, the 40 poloidal belts of graphite tiles covering the U-joints and bellows as well as a two metre high ring (-- 20 m 2 ) or carbon tiles on the inner wall of the Torus. A ring of tiles in the equatorial plane (3 tiles high) consists of carbon-carbon fibre tiles. Test bed results indicated that the fine grained graphite tiles cracked at ∼ 1 kW/cm 2 for 2s of irradiation whereas the carbon-carbon fibre tiles were able to sustain a flux, limited by the irradiation facility, of 3.5 kW for 3s without any damage. The authors report on the generally positive experience they have had had with the installed graphite during the present and previous in-vessel configurations. This includes the physical integrity of the tiles under severe conditions such as high energy run-away electron beams, plasma disruptions and high heat fluxes. They report on the importance of the precise positioning of the inner wall and x-point tiles at the very high power fluxes of JET and the effect of deviations on both graphite and carbon-fibre tiles

  12. Design and Testing of Boost Type DC/DC Converter for DC Motor Control Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Samman, Faizal Arya; Akil, Yusri Syam; Noor, Nirwan A.

    2017-01-01

    in The Proceeding of The 2nd International Symposium on Smart Material and Mechatronics 2015 This paper presents the design and testing of a boost type DC/DC converter circuit, which can be used for DC motor control applications. The Boost converter is designed using DC chopper and DC chopper cascade configurations. The experimental setup was made by connecting the boost converter circuit with four types of DC motor, i.e. self-excited DC motor shunt, series, compound and separately exci...

  13. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2017-08-01

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of nuclear graphite; Analisis espectroquimico de lectura directa de grafito nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Adell, M.; Becerro Ruiz, E.; Alvarez Gonzalez, F.

    1964-07-01

    A description is given about the application of a direct-reading spectrometer the Quantometer, to the determination of boron. calcium, iron, titanium and vanadium in nuclear grade graphite. for boron the powdered sample is mixed with 1% cupric fluoride and excited in a 10-amperes direct current arc and graphite electrodes with a crater 7 mm wide and 10 mm deep. For the other elements a smaller crater has been used and dilution with a number of matrices has been investigated; the best results are achieved by employing 25% cupric fluoride. The sensitivity limit for boron is 0,15 ppm. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge with Liquid Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2013-09-01

    Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in contact with liquid are widely studied aiming variety of plasma applications. DC glow discharge with liquid electrode is an easy method to obtain simple and stable plasma-liquid interface. When we focus attention on liquid-phase reaction, the discharge system is considered as electrolysis with plasma electrode. The plasma electrode will supply electrons and positive ions to the liquid surface in a different way from the conventional metal electrode. However, the phenomena at plasma-liquid interface have not been understood well. In this work, we studied physical and chemical effect in liquid induced by dc atmospheric pressure glow discharge with liquid electrode. The experiment was carried out using H-shaped Hoffman electrolysis apparatus filled with electrolyte, to separate the anodic and cathodic reactions. Two nozzle electrodes made of stainless steel are set about 2 mm above the liquid surface. By applying a dc voltage between the nozzle electrodes, dc glow discharges as plasma electrodes are generated in contact with liquid. As electrolyte, we used aqueous solutions of NaCl, Na2SO4, AgNO3 and HAuCl4. AgNO3 and HAuCl4 are to discuss the reduction process of metal ions for synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). OH radical generation yield in liquid was measured by chemical probe method using terephthalic acid. Discharge-induced liquid flow was visualized by Schlieren method. Electron irradiation to liquid surface (plasma cathode) generated OH- and OH radical in liquid while positive ion irradiation (plasma anode) generated H+ and OH radical. The generation efficiency of OH radical was better with plasma anode. Both Ag NPs in AgNO3 and Au NPs in HAuCl4 were synthesized with plasma cathode while only Au NPs were generated with plasma anode. Possible reaction process is qualitatively discussed. The discharge-induced liquid flow such as convection pattern was strongly influenced by the gas flow on the liquid surface. This work

  17. Mechanical properties of graphites and carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouquet, Gilbert.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of graphites and artificial carbons is related to the structure of these materials. The influence of structural modifications in a graphite monocrystal on the deformation and fracture properties is studied [fr

  18. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of stable colloidal suspension of graphene using two-electrode cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danial, Wan Hazman, E-mail: hazmandanial@gmail.com; Majid, Zaiton Abdul, E-mail: zaiton@kimia.fs.utm.my; Aziz, Madzlan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Chutia, Arunabhiram [Institute of Fluid Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sahnoun, Riadh [Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The present work reports the synthesis and characterization of graphene via electrochemical exfoliation of graphite rod using two-electrode system assisted by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) as a surfactant. The electrochemical process was carried out with sequence of intercalation of SDS onto the graphite anode followed by exfoliation of the SDS-intercalated graphite electrode when the anode was treated as cathode. The effect of intercalation potential from 5 V to 9 V and concentration of the SDS surfactant of 0.1 M and 0.01 M were investigated. UV-vis Spectroscopic analysis indicated an increase in the graphene production with higher intercalation potential. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a well-ordered hexagonal lattice of graphene image and indicated an angle of 60° between two zigzag directions within the honeycomb crystal lattice. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows the graphitic information effects after the exfoliation process.

  19. Non-activated high surface area expanded graphite oxide for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermisoglou, E.C.; Giannakopoulou, T.; Romanos, G.E.; Boukos, N.; Giannouri, M. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece); Lei, C.; Lekakou, C. [Division of Mechanical, Medical, and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Trapalis, C., E-mail: c.trapalis@inn.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology “Demokritos”, 153 43 Ag. Paraskevi, Attikis (Greece)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One-step exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide via microwave irradiation. • Effect of pristine graphite (type, flake size) on the microwave expanded material. • Effect of pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the produced expanded material. • Expanded graphene materials with high BET surface areas (940 m{sup 2}/g–2490 m{sup 2}/g). • Non-activated graphene based materials suitable for supercapacitors. - Abstract: Microwave irradiation of graphite oxide constitutes a facile route toward production of reduced graphene oxide, since during this treatment both exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide occurs. In this work, the effect of pristine graphite (type, size of flakes), pretreatment and oxidation cycles on the finally produced expanded material was examined. All the types of graphite that were tested afforded materials with high BET surface areas ranging from 940 m{sup 2}/g to 2490 m{sup 2}/g, without intervening an activation stage at elevated temperature. SEM and TEM images displayed exfoliated structures, where the flakes were significantly detached and curved. The quality of the reduced graphene oxide sheets was evidenced both by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrode material capacitance was determined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The materials with PEDOT binder had better performance (∼97 F/g) at low operation rates while those with PVDF binder performed better (∼20 F/g) at higher rates, opening up perspectives for their application in supercapacitors.

  20. Improvement on the electrochemical characteristics of graphite anodes by coating of the pyrolytic carbon using tumbling chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Soo; Lee, Jai-Young

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical characteristics of graphite coated with pyrolytic carbon materials using tumbling chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process have been studied for the active material of anodes in lithium ion secondary batteries. Coating of pyrolytic carbons on the surface of graphite particles, which tumble in a rotating reactor tube, was performed through the pyrolysis of liquid propane gas (LPG). The surface morphology of these graphite particles coated with pyrolytic carbon has been observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface of graphite particles can well be covered with pyrolytic carbon by tumbling CVD. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image of these carbon particles shows that the core part is highly ordered carbon, while the shell part is disordered carbon. We have found that the new-type carbon obtained from tumbling CVD has a uniform core (graphite)-shell (pyrolytic carbon) structure. The electrochemical property of the new-type carbons has been examined using a charge-discharge cycler. The coating of pyrolytic carbon on the surface of graphite can effectively reduce the initial irreversible capacity by 47.5%. Cyclability and rate-capability of theses carbons with the core-shell structure are much better than those of bare graphite. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) spectra, it is found that the coating of pyrolytic carbon on the surface of graphite causes the decrease of the contact resistance in the carbon electrodes, which means the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer is suppressed. We suggest that coating of pyrolytic carbon by the tumbling CVD is an effective method in improving the electrochemical properties of graphite electrodes for lithium ion secondary batteries

  1. Exploring the origins of the apparent "electrocatalytic" oxidation of kojic acid at graphene modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C S; Brownson, Dale A C; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Banks, Craig E

    2013-08-21

    We explore the recent reports that the use of graphene modified electrodes gives rise to the electrocatalytic oxidation of kojic acid. It is demonstrated that large quantifiable voltammetric signatures are observed on bare/unmodified graphitic electrodes, which are shown to be analytically useful and superior to those observed at graphene modified alternatives. This work is of importance as it shows that control experiments are critical and must be undertaken before "electrocatalysis" is conferred when investigating graphene in electrochemistry. In terms of the electroanalytical response of graphene modified electrodes, a bare edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode is shown to give rise to an improved linear range and limit of detection, questioning the need to modify electrodes with graphene.

  2. RECOVERY OF VALUABLE MATERIAL FROM GRAPHITE BODIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, L.W. Jr.

    1959-09-01

    An electrolytic process for recovering uranium from a graphite fuel element is described. The uraniumcontaining graphite body is disposed as the anode of a cell containing a nitric acid electrolyte and a 5 amp/cm/sup 2/ current passed to induce a progressive disintegration of the graphite body. The dissolved uranium is quickly and easily separated from the resulting graphite particles by simple mechanical means, such as centrifugation, filtration, and decontamination.

  3. Metal modified graphite. An innovative material for systems converting electro-chemical energy; Metallmodifizierter Graphit. Ein innovativer Werkstoff fuer Systeme zur elektrochemischen Energieumwandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Peter

    2007-07-23

    The work deals with metal modification of graphite electrodes in a water-acid electrolyte solution. The target is to improve the catalytic properties of graphite electrodes as they are applied in redox storage batteries for storing electric energy. Different carbon and graphite materials were used and coated electro-chemically with different metals. After being coated with metal the graphite and carbon electrodes were investigated in terms of changing their catalytic properties by means of impedance measurements. It was shown, a metal coating without a prior activation with electro-chemical oxidation-reduction cycles only results in a low or zero increase of the catalytic properties. Investigations at the electrode material glass carbon showed, a prior activation of the electrode surface by means of electro-chemical oxidation-reduction cycles decreases the penetration resistance. The activation of the glass carbon surface prior to the surface coating with metal is favourable to the electro-chemical properties of the metal-modified electrode. All carbon types, which were used in this work, could be activated at a different level by means of electro-chemical oxidation-reduction cycles depending on the carbon type. The investigations further showed that the edge levels of the carbon were activated by means of the electro-chemical oxidation-reduction cycles. The metal precipitation favourably occurs at the activated positions. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit befasst sich mit der Metallmodifizierung von Graphitelektroden in waessriger saurer Elektrolytloesung. Ziel ist es die katalytischen Eigenschaften von Graphitelektroden wie sie in Redoxspeicherbatterien zur Speicherung von elektrischer Energie eingesetzt werden zu verbessern. Fuer die Untersuchungen wurden unterschiedliche Kohlenstoff und Graphitmaterialien eingesetzt, die elektrochemisch mit verschiedenen Metallen belegt wurden. Die Graphit- und Kohlenstoffelektroden wurden nach der Metallbelegung durch

  4. Double plasma arc in a graphite tube - application of discharge atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, C.; Nickel, H.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Vukanovic, D.

    1981-01-01

    With a view to safety and economic efficiency element-specific limits are required for permissible impurities in reactor graphite. This leads to the necessity of developing suitable methods of analysis. Emission spectroscopy has proved to be a method of analysis featuring a high detection capability and offering the possibility of determining several elements simultaneously. A prolongation of the particle residence time in the plasma (and, thus, an increase in radiation intensity) was the objective when developing a novel spectrochemical source of excitation. The method uses two d.c. arcs burning in a horizontally arranged graphite tube. The double plasma arc in a graphite tube has proved to be an excellent source of excitation for the analysis of powder and solutions. (orig./IHOE)

  5. Work function modifications of graphite surface via oxygen plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duch, J.; Kubisiak, P.; Adolfsson, K. H.; Hakkarainen, M.; Golda-Cepa, M.; Kotarba, A.

    2017-10-01

    The surface modification of graphite by oxygen plasma was investigated experimentally (X-ray diffraction, nanoparticle tracking analysis, laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, water contact angle) and by molecular modelling (Density Functional Theory). Generation of surface functional groups (mainly sbnd OHsurf) leads to substantial changes in electrodonor properties and wettability gauged by work function and water contact angle, respectively. The invoked modifications were analyzed in terms of Helmholtz model taking into account the theoretically determined surface dipole moment of graphite-OHsurf system (μ = 2.71 D) and experimentally measured work function increase (from 0.75 to 1.02 eV) to determine the sbnd OH surface coverage (from 0.70 to 1.03 × 1014 groups cm-2). Since the plasma treatment was confined to the surface, the high thermal stability of the graphite material was preserved as revealed by the thermogravimetric analysis. The obtained results provide a suitable quantitative background for tuning the key operating parameters of carbon electrodes: electronic properties, interaction with water and thermal stability.

  6. DC arc weld starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  7. Understanding the crack formation of graphite particles in cycled commercial lithium-ion batteries by focused ion beam - scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Jia, Zhe; Wang, Zhihui; Zhao, Hui; Ai, Guo; Song, Xiangyun; Bai, Ying; Battaglia, Vincent; Sun, Chengdong; Qiao, Juan; Wu, Kai; Liu, Gao

    2017-10-01

    The structure degradation of commercial Lithium-ion battery (LIB) graphite anodes with different cycling numbers and charge rates was investigated by focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cross-section image of graphite anode by FIB milling shows that cracks, resulted in the volume expansion of graphite electrode during long-term cycling, were formed in parallel with the current collector. The crack occurs in the bulk of graphite particles near the lithium insertion surface, which might derive from the stress induced during lithiation and de-lithiation cycles. Subsequently, crack takes place along grain boundaries of the polycrystalline graphite, but only in the direction parallel with the current collector. Furthermore, fast charge graphite electrodes are more prone to form cracks since the tensile strength of graphite is more likely to be surpassed at higher charge rates. Therefore, for LIBs long-term or high charge rate applications, the tensile strength of graphite anode should be taken into account.

  8. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As an atomic layer of graphite, graphene has ultrahigh optical transparency and superior electron mobility. We plan to develop graphene transparent conductive...

  9. dc Arc Fault Effect on Hybrid ac/dc Microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Zahra

    The advent of distributed energy resources (DER) and reliability and stability problems of the conventional grid system has given rise to the wide spread deployment of microgrids. Microgrids provide many advantages by incorporating renewable energy sources and increasing the reliability of the grid by isolating from the main grid in case of an outage. AC microgrids have been installed all over the world, but dc microgrids have been gaining interest due to the advantages they provide over ac microgrids. However the entire power network backbone is still ac and dc microgrids require expensive converters to connect to the ac power network. As a result hybrid ac/dc microgrids are gaining more attention as it combines the advantages of both ac and dc microgrids such as direct integration of ac and dc systems with minimum number of conversions which increases the efficiency by reducing energy losses. Although dc electric systems offer many advantages such as no synchronization and no reactive power, successful implementation of dc systems requires appropriate protection strategies. One unique protection challenge brought by the dc systems is dc arc faults. A dc arc fault is generated when there is a gap in the conductor due to insulation degradation and current is used to bridge the gap, resulting in an arc with very high temperature. Such a fault if it goes undetected and is not extinguished can cause damage to the entire system and cause fires. The purpose of the research is to study the effect of the dc arc fault at different locations in the hybrid ac/dc microgrid and provide insight on the reliability of the grid components when it is impacted by arc faults at various locations in the grid. The impact of dc arc fault at different locations on the performance of the PV array, wind generation, and constant power loads (CPL) interfaced with dc/dc converters is studied. MATLAB/Simulink is used to model the hybrid ac/dc microgrid and arc fault.

  10. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  11. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.

  12. 75 FR 6160 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... Douglas Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F, MD-10-10F, MD-10-30F, MD-11, and MD-11F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and...

  13. Graphite nanoreinforcements in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki

    Nanocomposites composed of polymer matrices with clay reinforcements of less than 100 nm in size, are being considered for applications such as interior and exterior accessories for automobiles, structural components for portable electronic devices, and films for food packaging. While most nanocomposite research has focused on exfoliated clay platelets, the same nanoreinforcement concept can be applied to another layered material, graphite, to produce nanoplatelets and nanocomposites. Graphite is the stiffest material found in nature (Young's Modulus = 1060 GPa), having a modulus several times that of clay, but also with excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. The key to utilizing graphite as a platelet nanoreinforcement is in the ability to exfoliate this material. Also, if the appropriate surface treatment can be found for graphite, its exfoliation and dispersion in a polymer matrix will result in a composite with not only excellent mechanical properties but electrical properties as well, opening up many new structural applications as well as non-structural ones where electromagnetic shielding and high thermal conductivity are requirements. In this research, a new process to fabricate exfoliated nano-scale graphite platelets was established (Patent pending). The size of the resulted graphite platelets was less than 1 um in diameter and 10 nm in thickness, and the surface area of the material was around 100 m2/g. The reduction of size showed positive effect on mechanical properties of composites because of the increased edge area and more functional groups attached with it. Also various surface treatment techniques were applied to the graphite nanoplatelets to improve the surface condition. As a result, acrylamide grafting treatment was found to enhance the dispersion and adhesion of graphite flakes in epoxy matrices. The resulted composites showed better mechanical properties than those with commercially available carbon fibers, vapor grown carbon fibers

  14. An Investigation of the Effect of Graphite Degradation on the Irreversible Capacity in Lithium-ion Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Hardwick, Laurence J.; Marcinek, Marek; Beer, Leanne; Kerr, John B.; Kostecki, Robert

    2008-03-03

    The effect of surface structural damage on graphitic anodes, commonly observed in tested Li-ion cells, was investigated. Similar surface structural disorder was artificially induced in Mag-10 synthetic graphite anodes using argon-ion sputtering. Raman microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) measurements confirmed that Ar-ion sputtered Mag-10 electrodes display similar degree of surface degradation as the anodes from tested Li-ion cells. Artificially modified Mag-10 anodes showed double the irreversible charge capacity during the first formation cycle, compared to fresh un-altered anodes. Impedance spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy on surface modified graphite anodes indicated the formation of a thicker and slightly more resistive SEI layer. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis of solvent extracts from the electrodes detected the presence of new compounds with M{sub w} on the order of 1600 g mol{sup -1} for the surface modified electrode with no evidence of elevated M{sub w} species for the unmodified electrode. The structural disorder induced in the graphite during long-term cycling maybe responsible for the slow and continuous SEI layer reformation, and consequently, the loss of reversible capacity due to the shift of lithium inventory in cycled Li-ion cells.

  15. Environmentally-friendly oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation technology for in situ recycling cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite from spent LiCoO{sub 2}/graphite lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • The idea of “waste + waste → resources.” was used on this study. • Based on thermodynamic analysis, the possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained. • The residues of oxygen-free roasting are cobalt, lithium carbonate and graphite. • The recovery rate of Co and Li is 95.72% and 98.93% after wet magnetic separation. • It provides the rationale for environmental-friendly recycling spent LIBs in industrial-scale. - Abstract: The definite aim of the present paper is to present some novel methods that use oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation to in situ recycle of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite from mixed electrode materials. The in situ recycling means to change waste into resources by its own components, which is an idea of “waste + waste → resources.” After mechanical scraping the mixed electrode materials enrich powders of LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite. The possible reaction between LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite was obtained by thermodynamic analysis. The feasibility of the reaction at high temperature was studied with the simultaneous thermogravimetry analysis under standard atmospheric pressure. Then the oxygen-free roasting/wet magnetic separation method was used to transfer the low added value mixed electrode materials to high added value products. The results indicated that, through the serious technologies of oxygen-free roasting and wet magnetic separation, mixture materials consist with LiCoO{sub 2} and graphite powders are transferred to the individual products of cobalt, Lithium Carbonate and Graphite. Because there is not any chemical solution added in the process, the cost of treating secondary pollution can be saved. This study provides a theoretical basis for industrial-scale recycling resources from spent LIBs.

  16. A split-cavity design for the incorporation of a DC bias in a 3D microwave cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.A.; Yuan, M.; de Jong, B.W.A.; Beukers, Ewout; Bosman, S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a technique for applying a DC bias in a 3D microwave cavity. We achieve this by isolating the two halves of the cavity with a dielectric and directly using them as DC electrodes. As a proof of concept, we embed a variable capacitance diode in the cavity and tune the resonant

  17. Seismic Study of TMSR Graphite Core Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Derek; Huang Chao Chao

    2014-01-01

    Graphite plays an important role in the thorium based molten salt reactor (TMSR) nuclear energy system. The graphite core acts as reflector, moderator and structural material in the TMSR core. The graphite core assembly has hundreds of graphite bricks interconnected with graphite keys and dowels. In other words, the graphite core is a kind of discrete stack structure with highly nonlinear dynamic behaviour, and it will show totally different dynamics responses comparing with welded structure or bolted structure when subjected to the seismic loading. Hence it is important to investigate the dynamics characteristics of the TMSR graphite core assembly and to meet the seismic design requirement. The most popular way to investigate the nonlinearity of graphite core is to do finite element analyses. Due to the large number of nonlinear behaviour caused by contacts, collisions and impacts between the graphite bricks and keys, the computational costs on seismic analysis of the whole core would be very high. Many methods have been developed in the past 20 years to conquer this difficulty. In this work substructure method and finite element method have been used to study the dynamic behaviour of a stack of graphite bricks under seismic loading. The numerical results of these two methods will be compared. The results show that the super element method is an efficient method for graphite core seismic analyses. (author)

  18. Mesoscopic modeling and parameter estimation of a lithium-ion battery based on LiFePO4/graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, Ali; Désilets, Martin; Lacroix, Marcel; Zaghib, Karim

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical model for simulating the behavior of lithium-ion batteries based on LiFePO4(LFP)/graphite is presented. The model is based on the modified Single Particle Model (SPM) coupled to a mesoscopic approach for the LFP electrode. The model comprises one representative spherical particle as the graphite electrode, and N LFP units as the positive electrode. All the SPM equations are retained to model the negative electrode performance. The mesoscopic model rests on non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions and uses a non-monotonic open circuit potential for each unit. A parameter estimation study is also carried out to identify all the parameters needed for the model. The unknown parameters are the solid diffusion coefficient of the negative electrode (Ds,n), reaction-rate constant of the negative electrode (Kn), negative and positive electrode porosity (εn&εn), initial State-Of-Charge of the negative electrode (SOCn,0), initial partial composition of the LFP units (yk,0), minimum and maximum resistance of the LFP units (Rmin&Rmax), and solution resistance (Rcell). The results show that the mesoscopic model can simulate successfully the electrochemical behavior of lithium-ion batteries at low and high charge/discharge rates. The model also describes adequately the lithiation/delithiation of the LFP particles, however, it is computationally expensive compared to macro-based models.

  19. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Swank; Joseph Lord; David Rohrbaugh; William Windes

    2012-10-01

    The NGNP Graphite R&D program is currently establishing the safe operating envelope of graphite core components for a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design. The program is generating quantitative data necessary for predicting the behavior and operating performance of the new nuclear graphite grades. To determine the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic designs, the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) experiment is underway. This experiment is examining the properties and behavior of nuclear grade graphite over a large spectrum of temperatures, neutron fluences and compressive loads. Each experiment consists of over 400 graphite specimens that are characterized prior to irradiation and following irradiation. Six experiments are planned with the first, AGC-1, currently being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and pre-irradiation characterization of the second, AGC-2, completed. This data package establishes the readiness of 512 specimens for assembly into the AGC-2 capsule.

  20. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  1. Atomic force microscopy study of anion intercalation into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliata, D.; Haering, P.; Haas, O.; Koetz, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H. [University of Berne (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the context of ion transfer batteries, we studied highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in perchloric acid, as a model to elucidate the mechanism of electrochemical intercalation in graphite. Aim of the work is the local and time dependent investigation of dimensional changes of the host material during electrochemical intercalation processes on the nanometer scale. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), combined with cyclic voltammetry, as in-situ tool of analysis during intercalation and expulsion of perchloric anions into the HOPG electrodes. According to the AFM measurements, the HOPG interlayer spacing increases by 32% when perchloric anions intercalate, in agreement with the formation of stage IV of graphite intercalation compounds. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  2. Flexible Temperature Sensor Array Based on a Graphite-Polydimethylsiloxane Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Pin Shih

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to fabricate temperature sensor arrays by dispensing a graphite-polydimethylsiloxane composite on flexible polyimide films. The fabricated temperature sensor array has 64 sensing cells in a 4 × 4 cm2 area. The sensor array can be used as humanoid artificial skin for sensation system of robots. Interdigitated copper electrodes were patterned on the flexible polyimide substrate for determining the resistivity change of the composites subjected to ambient temperature variations. Polydimethylsiloxane was used as the matrix. Composites of different graphite volume fractions for large dynamic range from 30 ºC to 110 ºC have been investigated. Our experiments showed that graphite powder provided the composite high temperature sensitivity. The fabricated temperature sensor array has been tested. The detected temperature contours are in good agreement with the shapes and magnitudes of different heat sources.

  3. Determination of lanthanides in yttrium and praseodymium oxides by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using a graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modenesi, C.R.; Abrao, A.

    1984-01-01

    The operational conditions for the graphite furnace, the instrumental parameters and the sensitivity for the determination of Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Y, Gd, Dy, Er, Ho, Tm, and Yb in Y 2 O 3 and Pr 2 O 3 by atomic absorption spectrophotometry are presented. The analyses were carried out into a highly pure argon atmosphere and using pyrolytic graphite tube and graphite supporting electrodes. The accuracy and precision of the method were checked through analyses of synthetic lanthanides mixtures. The concentration range of the lanthanides varied from 0,003 to 3,5% in Y 2 O 3 and from 0,001 to 3,5% in Pr 2 O 3 . (Author) [pt

  4. TOPOLOGICAL REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF DC-DC BOOST CONVERTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. INDRA GANDHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available DC voltage boost up is essential in numerous applications; especially considering Photovoltaic (PV based renewable power generation system. The conventional DC-DC boost converter is the most admired configuration for this scheme, even if the converter efficiency is restricted at duty cycle near to maximum value. In order to find solution to the problem and improve its conversion capability, many converter configurations have been implemented so far. With this circumstance, this research work proposes to give overview of a few most imperative research works related to DC-DC boost converters. Some configurations are covered and classified basically based on the application. The major benefits and disadvantages related to the available techniques are also briefly conveyed. At last, a proper evaluation is recognized among the important types of DC-DC boost converters in terms of efficiency, number of components, and stability.

  5. Voronoi-Tessellated Graphite Produced by Low-Temperature Catalytic Graphitization from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Leyi; Zhao, Xiuyun; Burke, Luke T; Bennett, J Craig; Dunlap, Richard A; Obrovac, Mark N

    2017-09-11

    A highly crystalline graphite powder was prepared from the low temperature (800-1000 °C) graphitization of renewable hard carbon precursors using a magnesium catalyst. The resulting graphite particles are composed of Voronoi-tessellated regions comprising irregular sheets; each Voronoi-tessellated region having a small "seed" particle located near their centroid on the surface. This suggests nucleated outward growth of graphitic carbon, which has not been previously observed. Each seed particle consists of a spheroidal graphite shell on the inside of which hexagonal graphite platelets are perpendicularly affixed. This results in a unique high surface area graphite with a high degree of graphitization that is made with renewable feedstocks at temperatures far below that conventionally used for artificial graphites. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Progress in radioactive graphite waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Radioactive graphite constitutes a major waste stream which arises during the decommissioning of certain types of nuclear installations. Worldwide, a total of around 250 000 tonnes of radioactive graphite, comprising graphite moderators and reflectors, will require management solutions in the coming years. 14 C is the radionuclide of greatest concern in nuclear graphite; it arises principally through the interaction of reactor neutrons with nitrogen, which is present in graphite as an impurity or in the reactor coolant or cover gas. 3 H is created by the reactions of neutrons with 6 Li impurities in graphite as well as in fission of the fuel. 36 Cl is generated in the neutron activation of chlorine impurities in graphite. Problems in the radioactive waste management of graphite arise mainly because of the large volumes requiring disposal, the long half-lives of the main radionuclides involved and the specific properties of graphite - such as stored Wigner energy, graphite dust explosibility and the potential for radioactive gases to be released. Various options for the management of radioactive graphite have been studied but a generally accepted approach for its conditioning and disposal does not yet exist. Different solutions may be appropriate in different cases. In most of the countries with radioactive graphite to manage, little progress has been made to date in respect of the disposal of this material. Only in France has there been specific thinking about a dedicated graphite waste-disposal facility (within ANDRA): other major producers of graphite waste (UK and the countries of the former Soviet Union) are either thinking in terms of repository disposal or have no developed plans. A conference entitled 'Solutions for Graphite Waste: a Contribution to the Accelerated Decommissioning of Graphite Moderated Nuclear Reactors' was held at the University of Manchester 21-23 March 2007 in order to stimulate progress in radioactive graphite waste management

  7. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmani, S. D.; Mondal, N. K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V. M.

    2009-05-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12-10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ˜800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ˜18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ˜ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing machine

  8. Development of conductive coated polyester film as RPC electrodes using screen printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Mondal, N.K.; Satyanarayana, B.; Verma, P.; Datar, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Each of the three 16 kton ICAL detector modules at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will use RPCs as the active element, sandwiched between 6 cm thick soft iron plates, for measurements on atmospheric neutrinos. The electrodes of the RPC are float glass sheets having a volume resistivity of about 10 12 -10 13 Ω cm (at room temperature) covered with carbon/graphite or a conductive paint with a surface resistivity of ∼800 kΩ/square to 1 MΩ/square to apply high voltage on the glass surface, so that this surface does not shield the discharge signal from the external pickup plates and is small compared to the resistivity of the glass to provide a uniform potential across the entire surface. We initially coated the surface with locally available graphite powder, mixed with lacquer and thinner, and were able to get a few hundred kΩ/square resistivity. However, we observed a drastic reduction in surface resistivity with time and it came unstuck from the glass. Subsequently a conductive paint developed by Kansai-Nerolac was used. This paint uses modified acrylic resin as binder, conductive black pigment and solvents, which include aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. At room temperature, the surface dries in 10 minutes, while complete drying takes ∼18 hours. The spraying is done at a pressure of 4 kg/cm 2 with the glass plate kept at a distance of 8-10 in. Using this paint, we are able to achieve the required resistance of ∼ few hundred kΩ/square. We still need to study the long term stability and best curing method. We need to automate the procedure to get a uniform coat and to coat a large number of glasses for the final detector. While robotic systems are available abroad costing about 5 000 000 rupees, we are exploring other alternatives. In particular, we are in the process of developing a polyester film, with a conductive coating on one side, which can be glued on to the glass. The coating was done using on a local commercial screen printing

  9. Carbon coated stainless steel as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    A new type of counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated using a stainless steel sheet as substrate and graphite, graphene and multiwall carbon nanotubes as the catalytic material which applied by screen printing technique. The sheet resistances of the substrates and there influence on the dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. The fabricated counter electrodes i.e. SS-graphite, SS-graphene SS-MWCNT and SS-platinum were tested for their photovoltaic response in the form of dye sensitized solar cells.

  10. Performance of glass RPC with industrial silk-screen-printed electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Candela, A.; De Deo, M.; D'Incecco, M.; Gamba, D.; Giuliano, A.; Gustavino, C.; Morganti, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchero, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we describe the performance of several Glass RPCs, where the water-based graphite coating is replaced by a synthetic coating applied using the screen printing technique. As expected, the performance of the detectors is good and reproducible due to the accurate control of the coating resistivity value. The resistance of the coating to the action of mechanical and chemical agents permits an easy electrode cleaning and mounting with respect to the RPC coated with the graphite varnish. This coating, together with the use of float glass as electrode material, allows an industrial production, where the detector characteristics can be tailored as a function of the experiment requirements

  11. Graphite structure and magnetic parameters of flake graphite cast iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, T.; Tomáš, Ivan; Kage, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 442, Nov (2017), s. 397-402 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic NDE * magnetic adaptive testing * cast iron * graphite structure * pearlite content Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  12. Graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical cell electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-11-19

    A composite composition for electrochemical cell electrode applications, the composition comprising multiple solid particles, wherein (a) a solid particle is composed of graphene platelets dispersed in or bonded by a first matrix or binder material, wherein the graphene platelets are not obtained from graphitization of the first binder or matrix material; (b) the graphene platelets have a length or width in the range of 10 nm to 10 .mu.m; (c) the multiple solid particles are bonded by a second binder material; and (d) the first or second binder material is selected from a polymer, polymeric carbon, amorphous carbon, metal, glass, ceramic, oxide, organic material, or a combination thereof. For a lithium ion battery anode application, the first binder or matrix material is preferably amorphous carbon or polymeric carbon. Such a composite composition provides a high anode capacity and good cycling response. For a supercapacitor electrode application, the solid particles preferably have meso-scale pores therein to accommodate electrolyte.

  13. Noteworthy ekectroanalytical features of the stage 4 to stage 3 phase transition in lithiated graphite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levi, M. D.; Wang, C.; Markevich, E.; Aurbach, D.; Chvoj, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2003), s. 40-43 ISSN 1432-8488. [International Meeting on Advanced Batteries and Accumulators. Brno, 16.06.2002-20.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : electrochemical lithiation * graphite electrode * potentiostatic intermittent titration Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2003

  14. Graphite moderated 252Cf source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo B, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-08-01

    The thorium molten salt reactor is an attractive and affordable nuclear power option for developing countries with insufficient infrastructure and limited technological capability. In the aim of personnel training and experience gathering at the Universidad Simon Bolivar there is in progress a project of developing a subcritical thorium liquid fuel reactor. The neutron source to run this subcritical reactor is a 252 Cf source and the reactor will use high-purity graphite as moderator. Using the MCNP5 code the neutron spectra of the 252 Cf in the center of the graphite moderator has been estimated along the channel where the liquid thorium salt will be inserted; also the ambient dose equivalent due to the source has been determined around the moderator. (Author)

  15. AGC-3 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the third Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-3) irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule is third in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. The general design of AGC-3 test capsule is similar to the AGC-2 test capsule, material property tests were conducted on graphite specimens prior to loading into the AGC-3 irradiation assembly. However the 6 major nuclear graphite grades in AGC-2 were modified; two previous graphite grades (IG-430 and H-451) were eliminated and one was added (Mersen’s 2114 was added). Specimen testing from three graphite grades (PCEA, 2114, and NBG-17) was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and specimen testing for two grades (IG-110 and NBG-18) were conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from May 2011 to July 2013. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-3 irradiation capsule. The AGC-3 capsule design requires "matched pair" creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-3 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce "matched pairs" of graphite samples above and below the AGC-3 capsule elevation mid-point to

  16. High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

  17. Electrode wells for powerline-frequency electrical heating of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Harley M.; Daily, William D.; Aines, Roger D.; Newmark, Robin L.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Siegel, William H.

    1999-01-01

    An electrode well for use in powerline-frequency heating of soils for decontamination of the soil. Heating of soils enables the removal of volatile organic compounds from soil when utilized in combination with vacuum extraction. A preferred embodiment of the electrode well utilizes a mild steel pipe as the current-carrying conductor to at least one stainless steel electrode surrounded by a conductive backfill material, preferably graphite or steel shot. A covering is also provided for electrically insulating the current-carrying pipe. One of the electrode wells is utilized with an extraction well which is under subatmospheric pressure to withdraw the volatile material, such as gasoline and trichioroethylene (TCE) as it is heated.

  18. Direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP) monitoring of active layer dynamics at high temporal resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Christiansen, Anders V.

    2015-01-01

    With permafrost thawing and changes in active layer dynamics induced by climate change, interactions between biogeochemical and thermal processes in the ground are of great importance. Here, active layer dynamics have been monitored using direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarization (IP...... and subsurface temperatures supplemented the DC-IP measurements. A time-lapse DC-IP monitoring system has been acquiring at least six datasets per day on a 42-electrode profile with 0.5. m electrode spacing since July 2013. Remote control of the data acquisition system enables interactive adaptation...

  19. Metal | polypyrrole battery with the air regenerated positive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgur, Branimir N.

    2014-12-01

    Recharge characteristics of the battery based on the electrochemically synthesized polypyrrole cathode and aluminum, zinc, or magnesium anode in 2 M NH4Cl are investigated. It is shown that polypyrrole electrode can be regenerated by the reoxidation with the dissolved oxygen from the air. Using the polypyrrole synthesized on high surface graphite-felt electrode under modest discharge conditions, stable discharge voltage of 1.1 V is obtained. Such behavior is explained by the complex interaction of polypyrrole and hydrogen peroxide produced by the oxygen reduction reaction. The electrochemical characteristics are compared with the zinc-manganese dioxide and zinc-air systems.

  20. All-Carbon Electrodes for Flexible Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zexia Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrodes based on carbon nanomaterials have recently emerged as new alternatives to indium tin oxide (ITO or noble metal in organic photovoltaics (OPVs due to their attractive advantages, such as long-term stability, environmental friendliness, high conductivity, and low cost. However, it is still a challenge to apply all-carbon electrodes in OPVs. Here, we report our efforts to develop all-carbon electrodes in organic solar cells fabricated with different carbon-based materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs and graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Flexible and semitransparent solar cells with all-carbon electrodes are successfully fabricated. The best power conversion efficiency achieved for the devices with all-carbon electrodes is 0.63%, comparable to the reported performance of OPVs using pristine CVD graphene films as anodes on rigid substrates (glass. Moreover, the current densities of as-obtained devices are comparable to those assembled with all-carbon active layers and standard electrodes (e.g., ITO and metal, which indicates that the all-carbon electrodes made of CNT and graphene films are suitably effective for carrier collection and extraction. Our results present the feasibility and potential of applying all-carbon electrodes based on graphitic nanomaterials in next-generation carbon-based photovoltaics.

  1. Electricity generation using continuously recirculated flow electrodes in reverse electrodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Coronell, Orlando; Call, Douglas F.

    2017-07-01

    Capacitive flow electrode systems that generate electricity from salinity gradients are limited by low power densities, inefficient electrical current collection, and complex system operation. We show here the proof-of-concept that a single reverse electrodialysis cell using continuously recirculated activated carbon flow electrodes can generate uninterrupted electricity from an artificial sea/river water gradient. Power densities reached 61 ± 5.7 mW m-2 (normalized to total membrane surface area) and current densities 2.4 ± 0.13 A m-2 when a 10% by weight carbon loading was used with graphite plate current collectors. Using high-surface area graphite brush current collectors, maximum power densities increased more than 320% to 260 ± 8.7 mW m-2 and maximum current densities more than 400% to 14 ± 0.59 A m-2. The performance improvements were attributed to a more than 80% decrease in electrode resistances when brushes were used instead of plates. A control static capacitive electrode system obtained slightly higher average power densities (290 ± 8.7 mW m-2), but could not produce it continuously, highlighting the operational advantage of the recirculated flow electrode design.

  2. In situ formation of graphene layers on graphite surfaces for efficient anodes of microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahuan; Chen, Shanshan; Yuan, Yong; Cai, Xixi; Zhou, Shungui

    2015-09-15

    Graphene can be used to improve the performance of the anode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) due to its good biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity and large surface area. However, the chemical production and modification of the graphene on the anode are environmentally hazardous because of the use of various harmful chemicals. This study reports a novel method based on the electrochemical exfoliation of a graphite plate (GP) for the in situ formation of graphene layers on the surface of a graphite electrode. When the resultant graphene-layer-based graphite plate electrode (GL/GP) was used as an anode in an MFC, a maximum power density of 0.67 ± 0.034 W/m(2) was achieved. This value corresponds to 1.72-, 1.56- and 1.26-times the maximum power densities of the original GP, exfoliated-graphene-modified GP (EG/GP) and chemically-reduced-graphene-modified GP (rGO/GP) anodes, respectively. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the high performance of the GL/GP anode was attributable to its macroporous structure, improved electron transfer and high electrochemical capacitance. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis technique for the fabrication of high-performance graphene-based electrodes for use in microbial energy harvesting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of Reversible Solid Electrolyte Interface on Graphite Surface from Concentrated Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongping; Tao, Jinhui; Yan, Pengfei; Henderson, Wesley A.; Li, Qiuyan; Shao, Yuyan; Helm, Monte L.; Borodin, Oleg; Graff, Gordon L.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong-Min; Engelhard, Mark; Zhang, Ji-Guang; De Yoreo, James J.; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Interfacial phenomena have always been key determinants for the performance of energy storage technologies. The solid electrolyte interfacial (SEI) layer, pervasive on the surfaces of battery electrodes for numerous chemical couples, directly affects the ion transport, charge transfer and lifespan of the entire energy system. Almost all SEI layers, however, are unstable resulting in the continuous consumption of the electrolyte. Typically, this leads to the accumulation of degradation products on/restructuring of the electrode surface and thus increased cell impedance, which largely limits the long-term operation of the electrochemical reactions. Herein, a completely new SEI formation mechanism has been discovered, in which the electrolyte components reversibly self-assemble into a protective surface coating on a graphite electrode upon changing the potential. In contrast to the established wisdom regarding the necessity of employing the solvent ethylene carbonate (EC) to form a protective SEI layer on graphite, a wide range of EC-free electrolytes are demonstrated for the reversible intercalation/deintercalation of Li+ cations within a graphite lattice, thereby providing tremendous flexibility in electrolyte tailoring for battery couples. This novel finding is broadly applicable and provides guidance for how to control interfacial reactions through the relationship between ion aggregation and solvent decomposition at polarized interfaces.

  4. Voltammetry of Os(VI)-modified polysaccharides at carbon electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 15 (2009), s. 1763-1766 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/0490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemical modification of polysaccharides * Os(VI)L-polysaccharide adducts * pyrolytic graphite electrodes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2009

  5. Scalable Preparation of Ternary Hierarchical Silicon Oxide-Nickel-Graphite Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang , Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Bao, Wurigumula [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Ma, Lu [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Tan, Guoqiang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; Su , Yuefeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Chen , Shi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Wu , Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 China; National Development Center of High Technology Green Materials, Beijing 100081 China; Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles, Beijing 100081 China; Lu, Jun [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA; Amine, Khalil [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Lemont Illinois 60439 USA

    2015-11-09

    Silicon monoxide is a promising anode candidate because of its high theoretical capacity and good cycle performance. To solve the problems associated with this material, including large volume changes during charge-discharge processes, we report a ternary hierarchical silicon oxide–nickel–graphite composite prepared by a facile two-step ball-milling method. The composite consists of nano-Si dispersed silicon oxides embedded in nano-Ni/graphite matrices (Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite). In the composite, crystalline nano-Si particles are generated by the mechanochemical reduction of SiO by ball milling with Ni. These nano-Si dispersed oxides have abundant electrochemical activity and can provide high Li-ion storage capacity. Furthermore, the milled nano-Ni/graphite matrices stick well to active materials and interconnect to form a crosslinked framework, which functions as an electrical highway and a mechanical backbone so that all silicon oxide particles become electrochemically active. Owing to these advanced structural and electrochemical characteristics, the composite enhances the utilization efficiency of SiO, accommodates its large volume expansion upon cycling, and has good ionic and electronic conductivity. The composite electrodes thus exhibit substantial improvements in electrochemical performance. This ternary hierarchical Si@SiOx/Ni/graphite composite is a promising candidate anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Additionally, the mechanochemical ball-milling method is low cost and easy to reproduce, indicating potential for the commercial production of the composite materials.

  6. Untreated Natural Graphite as a Graphene Source for High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Simón

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanosheets (GNS are synthesized from untreated natural graphite (NG for use as electroactive materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs, which avoids the pollution-generating steps of purifying graphite. Through a modified Hummer method and subsequent thermal exfoliation, graphitic oxide and graphene were synthesized and characterized structurally, morphologically and chemically. Untreated natural graphite samples contain 45–50% carbon by weight; the rest is composed of different elements such as aluminium, calcium, iron, silicon and oxygen, which are present as calcium carbonate and silicates of aluminium and iron. Our results confirm that in the GO and GNS synthesized, calcium is removed due to oxidation, though other impurities are maintained because they are not affected by the synthesis. Despite the remaining mineral phases, the energy storage capacity of GNS electrodes is very promising. In addition, an electrochemical comparison between GNS and NG demonstrated that the specific capacity in GNS is higher during the whole cycling process, 770 mA·g−1 at 100th cycle, which is twice that of graphite.

  7. Environmentally benign graphite intercalation compound composition for exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, and nano-scaled graphene platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2014-06-17

    A carboxylic-intercalated graphite compound composition for the production of exfoliated graphite, flexible graphite, or nano-scaled graphene platelets. The composition comprises a layered graphite with interlayer spaces or interstices and a carboxylic acid residing in at least one of the interstices, wherein the composition is prepared by a chemical oxidation reaction which uses a combination of a carboxylic acid and hydrogen peroxide as an intercalate source. Alternatively, the composition may be prepared by an electrochemical reaction, which uses a carboxylic acid as both an electrolyte and an intercalate source. Exfoliation of the invented composition does not release undesirable chemical contaminants into air or drainage.

  8. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  9. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM; Wessendorf, Kurt O [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  10. Micromachined electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  11. PENGGUNAAN FUZZY LOGIC UNTUK KONTROL PARALLEL CONVERTER DC-DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Prio Hartono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Using system fuzzy logic as control  technology have been used on low load dc-dc converter with combined parallel compiled  dc-dc converter can  obtain big load.   With existence of differrence of component parameter and each parallel compiled converter can obtained different current  and voltage output.  Function of controller  for to do adjustment, so that current which is applied  to  load by each converter  can be obtained  difference error as small as possible or same. The object of research is developing design of large signal dc-dc converter which is  combined with using  FLC so that  obtain  better performance.  To get better performance have been made plant model and simulation with CDE method.  The more systematic  system and design is needed to overcome bigger load  on dc-dc converter, so that parallel  compiled current master slave control system on dc-dc converter with using fuzzy logic  controller is used. Result of  research showed that error or difference of  current  which is applied to load can handled by fuzzy logic  controller.  Technic of current and voltage controller co to do adjustment current and voltage distribution  equally to load.  Distribution of iL1,iL2 and  output voltage Vo on dc-dc  converter with load 2,25 until  7,875 and voltage  100  until 120 volt,  load current beetwen  12 until 48, % relatif  error  Vo  0,4% until  0,9%.

  12. Time-dependent simulation of plasma and electrodes in high-intensity discharge lamps with different electrode shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, P; Neiger, M

    2003-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the modelling of d.c. and a.c. high-intensity Hg-discharge lamps with differently shaped electrodes. Different arc attachments on the electrodes are studied and insight for the development of new electrodes is gained. The model includes the entire discharge plasma (plasma column, hot plasma spots in front of electrodes, near-electrode non-LTE-plasma) as well as anode and cathode. No subdivision of the discharge space into different regions is necessary (like space charge layer, ionization zone, plasma column). This is achieved by using a differential equation for a non-LTE electrical conductivity which is applicable for local thermal equilibrium (LTE-)regions as well as for non-LTE plasma regions close to the electrodes in a high pressure plasma. Modelling results for a 0.6 MPa mercury discharge considering six different electrode shapes (anode and cathode) are presented and compared with experimental results. The electrodes have different diameters and different electrode tips, such as hemispherical, flat, or conical tip with 60 deg. or 90 deg. apex angle. Furthermore, an electrode with a larger diameter in the mid section of the rod is investigated

  13. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  14. Uranium Oxide Aerosol Transport in Porous Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jeremy; Gerlach, David C.; Scheele, Randall D.; Stewart, Mark L.; Reid, Bruce D.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Bagaasen, Larry M.; Brown, Charles C.; Iovin, Cristian; Delegard, Calvin H.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-23

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the transport of uranium oxide particles that may be present in carbon dioxide (CO2) gas coolant, into the graphite blocks of gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors. The transport of uranium oxide in the coolant system, and subsequent deposition of this material in the graphite, of such reactors is of interest because it has the potential to influence the application of the Graphite Isotope Ratio Method (GIRM). The GIRM is a technology that has been developed to validate the declared operation of graphite moderated reactors. GIRM exploits isotopic ratio changes that occur in the impurity elements present in the graphite to infer cumulative exposure and hence the reactor’s lifetime cumulative plutonium production. Reference Gesh, et. al., for a more complete discussion on the GIRM technology.

  15. Eletrodeposição de irídio em tubo de grafite como modificador químico permanente em espectrometria de absorção atômica Electrodeposition of iridium in graphite tube as permanent chemical modifier in atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Naozuka

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrochemical flow-cell for iridium deposition on the inner surface of pyrolytic graphite tube for permanent chemical modification is proposed. A transversal heated graphite tube was used as working electrode, a cylindrical piece of graphite inserted into the graphite tube as auxiliary electrode, and a micro Ag/AgCl(sat as reference electrode. Iridium solution in 1.0 mol L-1 HCl, flowing at 0.55 mL min-1 for 60 min was used to perform the electrochemical modification. The applied potential to the flow-cell was - 0.700 V vs Ag/AgCl. Scanning electron microscopy images were taken for thermal and electrochemical modified graphite surface in order to evaluate the iridium distribution. Selenium hydride trapping was used to verify the performance of the proposed permanent chemical modifier.

  16. ISX-A graphite limiter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Isler, R.C.; Murakami, M.; Simpkins, J.E.; Cecchi, J.L.; Corso, V.L.; Dylla, H.F.; Ellis, R.A. Jr.; Nishi, M.

    1979-01-01

    Graphite limiters were installed and tested in the ISX-A tokamak as part of the ISX-A surface physics program and the TFTR materials research program. The puropse of the experiment was to compare plasma performance using graphite limiters as opposed to the standard ISX-A stainless steel limiters. Heaters were installed in the graphite limiters so that the effects of operation at elevated temperatures could be evaluated

  17. Sealing nuclear graphite with pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shanglei; Xu, Li; Li, Li; Bai, Shuo; Yang, Xinmei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coatings were deposited on IG-110 nuclear graphite by thermal decomposition of methane at ∼1830 °C. The PyC coatings are anisotropic and airtight enough to protect IG-110 nuclear graphite against the permeation of molten fluoride salts and the diffusion of gases. The investigations indicate that the sealing nuclear graphite with PyC coating is a promising method for its application in Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)

  18. Graphitic Carbon Nitride Materials for Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Belen Jorge, A.; Dedigama, I.; Mansor, N.; Jervis, R.; Corà, F.; McMillan, P. F.; Brett, D.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric layered carbon nitrides were investigated for use as catalyst support materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and water electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Three different carbon nitride materials were prepared: a heptazine-based graphitic carbon nitride material (gCNM), poly (triazine) imide carbon nitride intercalated with LiCl component (PTI-Li+Cl-) and boron-doped graphitic carbon nitride (B-gCNM). Following accelerated corrosion testing, all graphitic carbon nitride mate...

  19. Dynamics of graphite flake on a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, K.; Tsuda, D.; Kaneta, Y.; Harada, R.; Ishikawa, M.; Sasaki, N.

    2006-11-01

    One-directional motion, where graphite flakes are driven by a nanotip on an octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS) liquid surface, is presented. A transition from quasiperiodic to chaotic motions occurs in the dynamics of a graphite flake when its velocity is increased. The dynamics of graphite flakes pulled by the nanotip on an OMCTS liquid surface can be treated as that of a nanobody on a liquid.

  20. Graphite-to-metal bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, L.O.; Mah, R.

    1977-11-01

    The results of various bonding methods to join graphite to different metals are reported. Graphite/metal bonds were tested for thermal flux limits and thermal flux cycling lifetimes. The most successful bond transferred a heat flux of 6.50 MW/m 2 in more than 500 thermal cycles. This bond was between pyrolytic graphite and copper with Ti-Cu-Sil as the bonding agent

  1. DC field response of one-dimensional flames using an ionized layer model

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-11-18

    We develop a simplified model to better explain electric current response when direct current (DC) is applied to a flame. In particular, different current responses have been observed by changing the polarity of the DC in a sub-saturated current regime that results from the presence of ions and electrons in the flame zone. A flame zone was modeled as a thin, ionized layer located in one-dimensional DC electric fields. We derived simplified model-governing equations from species equations by implementing mobility differences dependent on the type of charged particle, particularly between ions and electrons; we performed experiments to substantiate the model. Results showed that the sub-saturated current and local field intensity were significantly influenced by the polarity of the DC because of the combined effect of unequal mobility of charged particles and the position of the ionized layer in the gap relative to two electrodes. When an energized electrode is close to the ionized layer, applying a negative DC causes a more rapid increase in current than by applying a positive DC to the same electrode. Results from our experimental measurement of current using counterflow diffusion flames agreed qualitatively well with the model predictions. A sensitivity analysis using dimensional and non-dimensional parameters also supported the importance of the mobility difference and the relative location of the ionized layer on the electric current response.

  2. The Fracture Toughness of Nuclear Graphites Grades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erdman, III, Donald L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, Rick R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunter, James A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hannel, Cara C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    New measurements of graphite mode I critical stress intensity factor, KIc (commonly referred to as the fracture toughness) and the mode II critical shear stress intensity, KIIc, are reported and compared with prior data for KIc and KIIc. The new data are for graphite grades PCEA, IG-110 and 2114. Variations of KIc and acoustic emission (AE) data with graphite texture are reported and discussed. The Codes and Standards applications of fracture toughness, KIc, data are also discussed. A specified minimum value for nuclear graphite KIc is recommended.

  3. AC induction field heating of graphite foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Rios, Orlando; Kisner, Roger

    2017-08-22

    A magneto-energy apparatus includes an electromagnetic field source for generating a time-varying electromagnetic field. A graphite foam conductor is disposed within the electromagnetic field. The graphite foam when exposed to the time-varying electromagnetic field conducts an induced electric current, the electric current heating the graphite foam. An energy conversion device utilizes heat energy from the heated graphite foam to perform a heat energy consuming function. A device for heating a fluid and a method of converting energy are also disclosed.

  4. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  5. Production of nuclear graphite in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, P.; Mondet, L.; Arragon, Ph.; Cornuault, P.; Gueron, J.; Hering, H.

    1955-01-01

    The graphite intended for the construction of the reactors is obtained by the usual process: confection of a cake from coke of oil and tar, cooked (in a electric oven) then the product of cook is graphitized, also by electric heating. The use of the air transportation and the control of conditions cooking and graphitization have permitted to increase the nuclear graphite production as well as to better control their physical and mechanical properties and to reduce to the minimum the unwanted stains. (M.B.) [fr

  6. Study of corrosion resistance graphite in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, V.F.; Odejchuk, N.P.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Ryzhov, V.P.; Yakovlev, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the corrosion resistance of MPG, ARV and GSP graphite grades in oxygen at temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 o C. The oxidation kinetics of graphites is defined. It is shown, that interaction process of graphites with oxygen is characterized by a decrease of sample weights. The description of installation for carrying out of tests and a technique of carrying out of tests and researches is resulted. It is shown that the best corrosion resistance in the investigated temperature range has GSP graphite with density of 1.8-1.9 g/cm 3 of NSC KIPT production.

  7. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  8. NGNP Graphite Selection and Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, T.; Bratton, R.; Windes, W.

    2007-09-30

    The nuclear graphite (H-451) previously used in the United States for High-Temperature Reactors (HTRs) is no longer available. New graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A complete properties database for these new, available, candidate grades of graphite must be developed to support the design and licensing of NGNP core components. Data are required for the physical, mechanical (including radiation-induced creep), and oxidation properties of graphites. Moreover, the data must be statistically sound and take account of in-billet, between billets, and lot-to-lot variations of properties. These data are needed to support the ongoing development1 of the risk-derived American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) graphite design code (a consensus code being prepared under the jurisdiction of the ASME by gas-cooled reactor and NGNP stakeholders including the vendors). The earlier Fort St. Vrain design of High-Temperature Reactor (HTRs) used deterministic performance models for H-451, while the NGNP will use new graphite grades and risk-derived (probabilistic) performance models and design codes, such as that being developed by the ASME. A radiation effects database must be developed for the currently available graphite materials, and this requires a substantial graphite irradiation program. The graphite Technology Development Plan (TDP)2 describes the data needed and the experiments planned to acquire these data in a timely fashion to support NGNP design, construction, and licensing. The strategy for the selection of appropriate grades of graphite for the NGNP is discussed here. The final selection of graphite grades depends upon the chosen reactor type and vendor because the reactor type (pebble bed or prismatic block) has a major influence on the graphite chosen by the designer. However, the time required to obtain the needed irradiation data for the selected NGNP graphite is sufficiently

  9. Nuclear graphite for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The cores and reflectors in modern High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTRs) are constructed from graphite components. There are two main designs; the Pebble Bed design and the Prism design. In both of these designs the graphite not only acts as a moderator, but is also a major structural component that may provide channels for the fuel and coolant gas, channels for control and safety shut off devices and provide thermal and neutron shielding. In addition, graphite components may act as a heat sink or conduction path during reactor trips and transients. During reactor operation, many of the graphite component physical properties are significantly changed by irradiation. These changes lead to the generation of significant internal shrinkage stresses and thermal shut down stresses that could lead to component failure. In addition, if the graphite is irradiated to a very high irradiation dose, irradiation swelling can lead to a rapid reduction in modulus and strength, making the component friable.The irradiation behaviour of graphite is strongly dependent on its virgin microstructure, which is determined by the manufacturing route. Nevertheless, there are available, irradiation data on many obsolete graphites of known microstructures. There is also a well-developed physical understanding of the process of irradiation damage in graphite. This paper proposes a specification for graphite suitable for modern HTRs. (author)

  10. Shock efficacy of single and dual coil electrodes-new insights from the NORDIC ICD Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan

    2017-01-01

    efficacy (FSE) after implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods and results: One thousand and seventy-seven patients of the NORDIC ICD trial were randomly assigned to first time ICD implantation with or without defibrillation (DF) testing. The electrode configuration was determined...... before randomization. One thousand and sixty-seven patients eventually received an ICD, 516 (48.4%) with a SC- and 551 (51.6%) with a DC-electrode. DC-electrodes were preferentially selected in older patients, renal failure, atrial fibrillation, dual chamber, Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT...

  11. Electrode Induced Removal and Recovery of Uranium (VI) from Acidic Subsurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Kelvin [Carnegie Mellon University

    2013-08-12

    The overarching objective of this research is to provide an improved understanding of how aqueous geochemical conditions impact the removal of U and Tc from groundwater and how engineering design may be utilized to optimize removal of these radionuclides. Experiments were designed to address the unique conditions in Area 3 of ORNL while also providing broader insight into the geochemical effectors of the removal rates and extent for U and Tc. The specific tasks of this work were to: 1) quantify the impact of common aqueous geochemical and operational conditions on the rate and extent of U removal and recovery from water, 2) investigate the removal of Tc with polarized graphite electrode, and determine the influence of geochemical and operational conditions on Tc removal and recovery, 3) determine whether U and Tc may be treated simultaneous from Area 3 groundwater, and examine the bench-scale performance of electrode-based treatment, and 4) determine the capacity of graphite electrodes for U(VI) removal and develop a mathematical, kinetic model for the removal of U(VI) from aqueous solution. Overall the body of work suggests that an electrode-based approach for the remediation of acidic subsurface environments, such as those observed in Area 3 of ORNL may be successful for the removal for both U(VI) and Tc. Carbonaceous (graphite) electrode materials are likely to be the least costly means to maximize removal rates and efficiency by maximizing the electrode surface area.

  12. Electrochemical pre anodization of glassy carbon electrode and application to determine chloramphenicol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truc, Nguyen Minh; Mortensen, John; Anh, Nguyen Ba Hoai

    2008-01-01

    This paper suggested a method to enhance the performance of carbon electrodes for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The sensitivity and the reproducibility of the carbon electrodes could be enhanced easily by electrochemical pretreatment. Some kinds of carbon material were studied including glassy carbon, graphite carbon and pyrolytic carbon. Numerous kinds of supporting electrolyte have been tried. For glassy carbon electrode, the acidic solution, H 2 SO 4 5 mM, resulted in best performance at pretreated voltage of +2.1V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 250 second. However, for graphite and pyrolytic carbon electrodes, the phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0 gave the best performance at +1.7V (vs. Ag/ AgCl) in duration of 20 seconds. The detection limit could be at very low concentration of CAP: 0.8 ng/ ml for glassy carbon electrode, 3.5 ng/ ml for graphite carbon electrode. The method was successful applied to aqua-agriculture water sample and milk sample with simple extraction as well as direct ointment sample analysis. (author)

  13. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  14. KOH etched graphite felt with improved wettability and activity for vanadium flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengyang; Xi, Jingyu; Zhou, Haipeng; Qiu, Xinping

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GF electrode is activated by KOH etching method for VFB application. • The wettability and activity of eGF electrode towards VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ couples are improved. • VFB with eGF electrode can run stable at current densities range from 50 to 250 mA cm −2 . • Cycling test at current density of 150 mA cm −2 confirms the superior durability of eGF electrode. - Abstract: In this work, a simple and effective method to activate graphite felt (GF) electrode by using KOH as etching agent is studied for vanadium flow battery (VFB) application. The surface of GF is etched by KOH at 800 °C to generate micropores and attain oxygen-containing functional groups, resulting in greatly improved electrolyte accessibility. Surface morphology, oxygen distribution and microstructure of the KOH etched graphite felts (eGFs) are characterized by SEM, EDX, XPS, XRD and Raman techniques. Due to the abundant exposed edge carbon sites and oxygen-containing functional groups introduced by KOH activation, electrochemical activity of eGFs towards both VO 2+ /VO 2 + and V 2+ /V 3+ redox couples are remarkably improved comparing with GF. In particular, eGF-2 (mass ratio of KOH/GF = 1.25) exhibits the best electrochemical activity and VFB performance among all eGFs. Moreover, the VFB with eGF-2 electrode can run at current density up to 250 mA cm −2 with the energy efficiency of 64%. Long-term cycle life test at higher current density of 150 mA cm −2 confirms the outstanding stability of eGF-2 electrode.

  15. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  16. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Michael [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  17. Kinetic Studies on Ni-YSZ Composite Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Hjelm, Johan

    2015-01-01

    AC and DC techniques were applied to investigate the electrochemical reaction kinetics of porous composite Ni/8-mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (Ni/8YSZ) solid oxide cell (SOC) electrodes using a novel pseudo-3-electrode cell geometry. From OCV impedance spectra an activation energy Ea of 1.13 e......V, prefactor yan of 3.7·105·T, hydrogen and steam partial pressure dependencies a and b respectively of -0.07 and 0.22 were determined. DC current density vs. overpotential curves compared with those predicted using the determined kinetic parameters. Apparent Butler-Volmer charge transfer coefficients α were...... branch and the need for different α values for each branch suggests that a simple BV model of the measured electrode kinetics is insufficient and/or different reaction mechanisms might be occurring in anodic vs cathodic polarization....

  18. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification...

  19. SCM Handbooks for dc-to-dc Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F.; Mohmoud, M.; Yu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Two documents aid in design of control modules for dc-to-dc converters. Features of SCM include: Adaptive stability, power component stress limiting, implementation of various control laws, unified design approach. Analysis and quidelines contained in handbooks enable engineer to design SCM circuit and confidently predict resulting overall performance.

  20. Sheppard-Taylor Isolated High Boost DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chub, Andrii; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Vinnikov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new galvanically isolated step-up dc-dc converter intended for low-power but high step-up applications. The proposed converter is capable of regulating output voltage within a wide range of the input voltage or load variations. In contrast to competitors, the converter can b...

  1. Very High Frequency Half Bridge DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first, off chip, class DE (resonant half bridge) converter working in the Very High Frequency (VHF) range. The benefits of using half bridge circuits both in the inverter and rectifier part of a VHF resonant dc/dc converter are analyzed and design equations for all...

  2. Electrode processes at mercury in the far cathodic potential region II. The reduction of Li+ and mM Na+ from aqueous 1 M LiCl solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeves, R.M.; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    The reduction of Li+ ions in 1 M concentration and the reduction of Na+ ions in mM concentration in aqueous solution, has been studied at the dropping mercury electrode, using d.c. polarography and electrode impedance measurements, as a function of frequency and electrode potential. The reduction of

  3. Control of improved full-bridge three-level DC/DC converter for wind turbines in a DC grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved full-bridge three-level (IFBTL) dc/dc converter for a wind turbine in a dc grid by inserting a passive filter into the dc/dc converter to improve the performance of the converter. The passive filter can effectively reduce the voltage stress of the medium frequency...

  4. A DC Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  5. An improved dc SQUID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.; Goubau, W.M.; Ketchen, M.B.

    1975-01-01

    Cylindrical thin film dc SQUIDS that make use of resistively shunted Nb-NbOx-Pb tunnel junctions have been constructed and tested. These junctions are very robust: the SQUIDs can be thermally cycled repeatedly and stored at room temperature indefinitely. The weak temperature dependence of the critical current allows SQUID operation at any temperature below about 6K. The resolution is typically 4x10 -5 phi 0 /√Hz above 2x10 -2 Hz; at lower frequencies the noise power spectrum is 1/f. The long-term drift is less than 2x10 -5 phi 0 /hr. The 1/f noise and drift are lower than any values reported for other types of SQUIDs. (Auth.)

  6. Effects of Interlayer Distance and van der Waals Energy on Electrochemical Activation of Partially Reduced Graphite Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Jang, Jong Hyun; Cho, Kyeongjae; Zheng, Yongping; Park, Yuwon; Ryu, Ji Heon; Oh, Seung M.

    2015-01-01

    Partially reduced graphite oxide (GOpr) inherits expanded interlayer distance from the parent, graphite oxide (GO), and electronic conductivity from the grandparent, graphite. Indebted to the dual properties, GOpr shows unique behavior so-called electrochemical activation in organic electrolytes; when GOpr is polarized over a certain electrode potential, graphitic layers in GOpr are injected by solvated ions and become ion adsorbing sites permanently. Resultant gravimetric or volumetric capacitance (up to 200 F g −1 or 150 F ml −1 ) exceeds that of commercially available activated carbon electrodes for electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). Previous literatures have reported that larger interlayer distance (d) lowers the on-set potential of electrochemical activation of graphitic carbons. However, the reason of this phenomenon has not yet been studied. In this paper, we combined experimental and theoretical approaches to reveal the effect of interlayer distance and van der Waals energy (U vdW ) on the electrochemical activation of graphitic carbon. More specifically, we compared the energy for the electrochemical activation (U EA ) and the van der Waals energy with respect to the interlayer distance. For this purpose, we devised an experimental method to measure U EA from cyclic voltammogram, and this method was verified by in-situ electrochemical dilatometry. The theoretical value of U vdW was calculated by semi-empirical density functional theory (DFT) and those experimental and theoretical values were linearly in accordance with each other. This finding signifies that (1) the electrochemical activation of graphitic carbon occurs by overcoming van der Waals energy to expand the interlayer distance, (2) and the on-set potential for electrochemical activation is varied by the interlayer distance because of the different van der Waals energy

  7. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  8. The Composite Insertion Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlung, Sven; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; West, Keld

    1984-01-01

    The specific energy obtainable by discharge of porous insertion electrodes is limited by electrolyte depletion in thepores. This can be overcome using a solid ion conductor as electrolyte. The term "composite" is used to distinguishthese electrodes from porous electrodes with liquid electrolyte...

  9. Three-port DC-DC converter with new integrated transformer for DC Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    A new integrated transformer for three-port dc-dc converter is proposed to overcome the power coupling effect existed in some known multiple inputs dc-dc converters. Orthogonal primary windings arrangement and in series connection of diagonal secondary Windings enables a fully power decoupling...... between the multiple inputs while the output power is still coupled with all inputs. The energy is accordingly allowed to deliver into the output load simultaneously or at any time-multiplexing scheme. 1-kW experimental prototypes have been built to demonstrate a well-managed power flow for photovoltaic...... (PV) and battery standalone system....

  10. The performance of the DC motor by the PID controlling PWM DC-DC boost converter

    OpenAIRE

    Can, Erol; Sayan, Hasan Hüseyin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the PID controlling direct current (DC) to the direct current boost converter feds DC motor which has a 3.68 kW and 240 V of DC voltage input on its characteristics. What is first formed is the boost converter mathematical model at the design stage. Secondly, a mathematical model of the DC motor is created so that the boost converter with the machine can be established and modeled at the Matlab Simulink. The PID controller is considered for arranging a pulse width modulati...

  11. Nucleation and aggregative growth of palladium nanoparticles on carbon electrodes: Experiment and kinetic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yang-Rae; Lai, Stanley; McKelvey, Kim; Zhang, Guohui; Perry, David; Miller, Thomas S.; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the electrochemical nucleation and growth of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles (NPs) on carbon electrodes have been investigated using a microscale meniscus cell on both highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and a carbon-coated transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  12. Electrochemical Activity of Wedelolactone and Probing its Interaction with DNA Using Voltammetry at a Carbon Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červen, J.; Havran, Luděk; Pečinka, Petr; Fojta, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2015), s. 2268-2271 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/1638 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Wedelolactone * Electrochemistry * Graphite electrode Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.471, year: 2015

  13. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Luis; Reed, David; Nie, Zimin; Schwarz, Ashleigh M; Nandasiri, Manjula I; Kizewski, James P; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent; Li, Bin

    2016-06-22

    A dual oxidative approach using O2 plasma followed by treatment with H2 O2 to impart oxygen functional groups onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode. When used as electrodes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system, the energy efficiency of the cell is enhanced by 8.2 % at a current density of 150 mA cm(-2) compared with one oxidized by thermal treatment in air. More importantly, by varying the oxidative techniques, the amount and type of oxygen groups was tailored and their effects were elucidated. It was found that O-C=O groups improve the cells performance whereas the C-O and C=O groups degrade it. The reason for the increased performance was found to be a reduction in the cell overpotential after functionalization of the graphite felt electrode. This work reveals a route for functionalizing carbon electrodes to improve the performance of VRB cells. This approach can lower the cost of VRB cells and pave the way for more commercially viable stationary energy storage systems that can be used for intermittent renewable energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An Electrode-based approach for monitoring in situ microbial activity during subsurface bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.H.; Nevin, K.P.; Franks, A.; Englert, A.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2009-11-15

    Current production by microorganisms colonizing subsurface electrodes and its relationship to substrate availability and microbial activity was evaluated in an aquifer undergoing bioremediation. Borehole graphite anodes were installed downgradient from a region of acetate injection designed to stimulate bioreduction of U(VI); cathodes consisted of graphite electrodes embedded at the ground surface. Significant increases in current density ({<=}50 mA/m{sup 2}) tracked delivery of acetate to the electrodes, dropping rapidly when acetate inputs were discontinued. An upgradient control electrode not exposed to acetate produced low, steady currents ({<=}0.2 mA/m{sup 2}). Elevated current was strongly correlated with uranium removal but minimal correlation existed with elevated Fe(II). Confocal laser scanning microscopy of electrodes revealed firmly attached biofilms, and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the electrode surfaces were dominated (67-80%) by Geobacter species. This is the first demonstration that electrodes can produce readily detectable currents despite long-range (6 m) separation of anode and cathode, and these results suggest that oxidation of acetate coupled to electron transfer to electrodes by Geobacter species was the primary source of current. Thus it is expected that current production may serve as an effective proxy for monitoring in situ microbial activity in a variety of subsurface anoxic environments.

  15. Effect of graphite target power density on tribological properties of graphite-like carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Jiang, Bailing; Li, Hongtao; Du, Yuzhou; Yang, Chao

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the tribological performance, a series of graphite-like carbon (GLC) films with different graphite target power densities were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The valence bond and microstructure of films were characterized by AFM, TEM, XPS and Raman spectra. The variation of mechanical and tribological properties with graphite target power density was analyzed. The results showed that with the increase of graphite target power density, the deposition rate and the ratio of sp2 bond increased obviously. The hardness firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of graphite target power density, whilst the friction coefficient and the specific wear rate increased slightly after a decrease with the increasing graphite target power density. The friction coefficient and the specific wear rate were the lowest when the graphite target power density was 23.3 W/cm2.

  16. Flexible PVC flame retarded with expandable graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The utility of expandable graphite as a flame retardant for PVC, plasticized with 60 phr of a phosphate ester, was investigated. Cone calorimeter results, at a radiant flux of 35 kW m 2, revealed that adding only 5 wt.% expandable graphite lowered...

  17. Mechanical properties of graphite and carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouquet, G.

    1976-01-01

    The elastic properties of the graphite monocrystal, the role of internal characteristics (texture, porosity) on the mechanical behavior of carbons, effects caused by the gaseous environment and neutron irradiation, and the resistance of graphites to cyclic mechanical stresses are discussed [fr

  18. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, C

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux...

  19. DC Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    A qualitative overview of different hardware topologies and control systems for DC MGs has been presented in this chapter. Some challenges and design considerations of DC protections systems have also been discussed. Finally, applications of DC MGs in emerging smart grid applications have been su...... in different industries and gradually lead to new ways of rethinking of the future power distribution philosophies, especially with the emergence of SSTs. Research in DC systems, especially in the power electronics-based technologies will be highly attractive in the future.......A qualitative overview of different hardware topologies and control systems for DC MGs has been presented in this chapter. Some challenges and design considerations of DC protections systems have also been discussed. Finally, applications of DC MGs in emerging smart grid applications have been...... summarized. Due to its attractive characteristics in terms of compliance with modern generation, storage and electronic load technologies, high reliability and current carrying capacity, as well as simple control, DC systems are already an indispensable part of power systems. Moreover, the existing...

  20. Investigating continuous co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and graphite exfoliation in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee-Youb; Jeong, Soon-Ki

    2018-01-01

    Forming an effective solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is a significant issue in lithium ion batteries that utilize graphite as a negative electrode material, because the SEI determines the reversibility of the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into graphite for secondary batteries. In propylene carbonate (PC)-based electrolyte solutions, ceaseless co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions takes place because no effective SEI is formed. It is indisputable that this continuous co-intercalation leads to graphite exfoliation; however, the reason for this is currently not well understood. In this study, we investigate interfacial reactions that contribute to SEI formation on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in ethylene carbonate (EC) and PC-based electrolyte solutions by in situ atomic force microscopy. The blisters formed on HOPG after the decomposition of solvated lithium ions within the graphite layers do not change over the course of ten electrochemical cycles in an EC-based electrolyte solution. In contrast, when cycling in PC-based electrolytes, the blisters continually change, and the height at the vicinity of the graphite edge plane increases. These morphological changes are attributed to the continuous co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions in PC-based electrolyte solutions.

  1. Comparative investigation on electrochemical behavior of hydroquinone at carbon ionic liquid electrode, ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode and carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ya; Zheng, Jian Bin

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquid, 1-heptyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (HMIMPF 6 ), has been used to fabricate two new electrodes, carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) and ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (IL/CPE), using graphite powder mixed with HMIMPF 6 or the mixture of HMIMPF 6 /paraffin liquid as the binder, respectively. The electrochemical behaviors of hydroquinone at the CILE, the IL/CPE and the CPE were investigated in phosphate buffer solution. At all these electrodes, hydroquinone showed a pair of redox peaks. The order of the current response and the standard rate constant of hydroquinone at these electrodes were as follows: CILE > IL/CPE > CPE, while the peak-to-peak potential separation was in an opposite sequence: CILE < IL/CPE < CPE. The results show the superiority of CILE to IL/CPE and CPE, and IL/CPE to CPE in terms of promoting electron transfer, improving reversibility and enhancing sensitivity. The CILE was chosen as working electrode to determine hydroquinone by differential pulse voltammetry, which can be used for sensitive, simple and rapid determination of hydroquinone in medicated skin cosmetic cream

  2. Methane generated from graphite--tritium interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, D.O.; Walthers, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    When hydrogen isotopes are separated by cryogenic distillation, as little as 1 ppM of methane will eventually plug the still as frost accumulates on the column packings. Elemental carbon exposed to tritium generates methane spontaneously, and yet some dry transfer pumps, otherwise compatible with tritium, convey the gas with graphite rotors. This study was to determine the methane production rate for graphite in tritium. A pump manufacturer supplied graphite samples that we exposed to tritium gas at 0.8 atm. After 137 days we measured a methane synthesis rate of 6 ng/h per cm 2 of graphite exposed. At this rate methane might grow to a concentration of 0.01 ppM when pure tritium is transferred once through a typical graphite--rotor transfer pump. Such a low methane level will not cause column blockage, even if the cryogenic still is operated continuously for many years

  3. Microstructural Characterization of Next Generation Nuclear Graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthik Chinnathambi; Joshua Kane; Darryl P. Butt; William E. Windes; Rick Ubic

    2012-04-01

    This article reports the microstructural characteristics of various petroleum and pitch based nuclear graphites (IG-110, NBG-18, and PCEA) that are of interest to the next generation nuclear plant program. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy imaging was used to identify and understand the different features constituting the microstructure of nuclear graphite such as the filler particles, microcracks, binder phase, rosette-shaped quinoline insoluble (QI) particles, chaotic structures, and turbostratic graphite phase. The dimensions of microcracks were found to vary from a few nanometers to tens of microns. Furthermore, the microcracks were found to be filled with amorphous carbon of unknown origin. The pitch coke based graphite (NBG-18) was found to contain higher concentration of binder phase constituting QI particles as well as chaotic structures. The turbostratic graphite, present in all of the grades, was identified through their elliptical diffraction patterns. The difference in the microstructure has been analyzed in view of their processing conditions.

  4. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex, multiple-output, DC-DC converter systems can be configured through use of only 2 standard product hybrid DC-DC...

  5. Enhancing the electrochemical response of myoglobin with carbon nanotube electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplandiu, M J; Pacios, M; Cyganek, L; Bartroli, J; del Valle, M

    2009-09-02

    In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of different myoglobin-modified carbon electrodes is evaluated. In particular, the performance of voltammetric biosensors made of forest-like carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube composites and graphite composites is compared by monitoring mainly the electrocatalytic reduction of H(2)O(2) by myoglobin and their corresponding electroanalytical characteristics. Graphite composites showed the worst electroanalytical performance, exhibiting a small linear range, a limit of detection (LOD) of 9 x 10(-5) M and low sensitivity. However, it was found that the electrochemical response was enhanced with the use of carbon nanotube-based electrodes with LOD up to 5 x 10(-8) M, higher sensitivities and wider linear range response. On the one hand, in the case of the CNT epoxy composite, the improvement in the response can be mainly attributed to its more porous surface which allows the immobilization of higher amounts of the electroactive protein. On the other hand, in the case of the forest-like CNT electrodes, the enhancement is due to an increase in the electron transfer kinetics. These findings encourage the use of myoglobin-modified carbon nanotube electrodes as potential (bio)sensors of H(2)O(2) or O(2) in biology, microbiology and environmental fields.

  6. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  7. Electrode voltage fall and total voltage of a transient arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensi, F.; Ratovoson, L.; Razafinimanana, M.; Masquère, M.; Freton, P.; Gleizes, A.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with an experimental study of the components of a transient arc total voltage with duration of a few tens of ms and a current peak close to 1000 A. The cathode tip is made of graphite whereas the flat anode is made either of copper or of graphite; the electrodes gap is a few mm. The analysis of the electrical parameters is supported and validated by fast imaging and by two models: the first one is a 2D physical model of the arc allowing to calculate both the plasma temperature field and the arc voltage; the second model is able to estimate the transient heating of the graphite electrode. The main aim of the study was to detect the possible change of the cathode voltage fall (CVF) during the first instants of the arc. Indeed it is expected that during the first ms the graphite cathode is rather cool and the main mechanism of the electron emission should be the field effect emission, whereas after several tens of ms the cathode is strongly heated and thermionic emission should be predominant. We have observed some change in the apparent CVF but we have shown that this apparent change can be attributed to the variation of the solid cathode resistance. On the other hand, the possible change of CVF corresponding to the transition between a ‘cold’ and a ‘hot’ cathode should be weak and could not be characterized considering our measurement uncertainty of about 2 V. The arc column voltage (ACV) was estimated by subtracting the electrode voltage fall from the total arc voltage. The experimental transient evolution of the ACV is in very good agreement with the theoretical variation predicted by the model, showing the good ability of the model to study this kind of transient arc.

  8. Protrusion of the Rod Electrode in the Electrospinning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valtera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the influence of the protrusion of the rod electrode on critical voltage in the DC electrospinning process. On the testing and industrial DC electrospinning devices, electrodes of any kind are extended towards the counter electrode. This provides the maximal, that is, supercritical, electric field intensity on the spinning-electrode orifice that is found to be higher than on the other supplementary parts. The principal study and experiments with basic apparatus were carried out and presented by Taylor in 1966. This study is focused on the arrangement closely related to the design of the real electrospinning device with respect to the safety and technological aspects. Results of the carried out experiments of the rod spinning-electrode are compared with the electrostatic simulation and analytical calculation. The presented effect of the electrode protrusion on the potential difference and the critical field strength introduces valuable information for the designers of electrospinning machines as well as for the setting up of the optimal technological parameters for producing modern nonwoven textile products.

  9. Protrusion of the Rod Electrode in the Electro spinning Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtera, J.; Komarek, J.; Skrivanek, J.; Zabka, P.; Beran, J.; Vyslouzilova, L.; Lukas, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on the influence of the protrusion of the rod electrode on critical voltage in the DC electro spinning process. On the testing and industrial DC electro spinning devices, electrodes of any kind are extended towards the counter electrode. This provides the maximal, that is, supercritical, electric field intensity on the spinning-electrode orifice that is found to be higher than on the other supplementary parts. The principal study and experiments with basic apparatus were carried out and presented by Taylor in 1966. This study is focused on the arrangement closely related to the design of the real electro spinning device with respect to the safety and technological aspects. Results of the carried out experiments of the rod spinning-electrode are compared with the electrostatic simulation and analytical calculation. The presented effect of the electrode protrusion on the potential difference and the critical field strength introduces valuable information for the designers of electro spinning machines as well as for the setting up of the optimal technological parameters for producing modern nonwoven textile products.

  10. AGC-2 Graphite Preirradiation Data Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Windes; W. David Swank; David Rohrbaugh; Joseph Lord

    2013-08-01

    This report described the specimen loading order and documents all pre-irradiation examination material property measurement data for the graphite specimens contained within the second Advanced Graphite Capsule (AGC-2) irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule is the second in six planned irradiation capsules comprising the Advanced Graphite Creep (AGC) test series. The AGC test series is used to irradiate graphite specimens allowing quantitative data necessary for predicting the irradiation behavior and operating performance of new nuclear graphite grades to be generated which will ascertain the in-service behavior of the graphite for pebble bed and prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) designs. Similar to the AGC-1 specimen pre-irradiation examination report, material property tests were conducted on specimens from 18 nuclear graphite types but on an increased number of specimens (512) prior to loading into the AGC-2 irradiation assembly. All AGC-2 specimen testing was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from October 2009 to August 2010. This report also details the specimen loading methodology for the graphite specimens inside the AGC-2 irradiation capsule. The AGC-2 capsule design requires “matched pair” creep specimens that have similar dose levels above and below the neutron flux profile mid-plane to provide similar specimens with and without an applied load. This document utilized the neutron flux profile calculated for the AGC-2 capsule design, the capsule dimensions, and the size (length) of the selected graphite and silicon carbide samples to create a stacking order that can produce “matched pairs” of graphite samples above and below the AGC-2 capsule elevation mid-point to provide specimens with similar neutron dose levels.

  11. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products

  12. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szlufarska, Izabela [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-04-08

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high- temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission

  13. The fracture of graphite; La rupture des graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouby, D. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Groupe d' Etudes de Metallurgie Physique et de Physique des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 5510, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Monchaux, St. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Dept. Science et Genie des Materiaux, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Tahon, B. [Laboratoire SGL Carbon SAS, 74 - Passy (France)

    2006-03-15

    By mechanical loading, the behaviour of poly-granular graphites for industrial uses is globally brittle: when a pre-existing flaw becomes critical a crack initiates and then propagates more or less catastrophically. This scheme implies several features which are described in the present paper. First, as the crack will be initiated at a critical flaw, the ultimate stress appears as largely dispersed and the strength is not an intrinsic material's parameter. Secondly, the processing route introduces in the material some microstructure anisotropy, largely influencing the strength dispersion. Finally, the crack propagation is controlled by a bridging mechanism of the lips which depends on the microstructure. This effect can be described by the so-called crack growth resistance curve: the R-curve. (authors)

  14. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  15. single-phase dc phase dc-ac boost converter ac boost converter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    supply (UPS) AC motor drives and other power sup systems, need to step-up the DC input voltage. increase the output voltage level in order requirements, DC-DC boost converter is used provide DC bus voltage for PWM inverters. Hence, conventional design always cascades DC and a separate DC-AC converter.

  16. Performance characteristics of lead oxides in pasted lead/acid battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, S.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Saba, A.E. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt)); Shenouda, A.Y. (Electrometallurgy Lab., Central Metallurgical Research and Development Inst., Cairo (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The performance characteristics of lead oxides used for the pasted type of lead/acid battery plate have been investigated. The [alpha]- and [beta]-PbO polymorphs have been prepared carefully and used for pasting model electrodes. The factors that may affect the electrical capacity of such electrodes have been studied. These are: the type of oxide; percentage of free lead; additives such as carboxymethyl cellulose, zeolite and graphite. Lead hydroxide has also been studied with special attention. Photomicrographs have been taken to examine the crystal forms that develop on the electrode surface. Finally, some industrial samples have been investigated. (orig.)

  17. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested

  18. Simulating Supercapacitors: Can We Model Electrodes As Constant Charge Surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlet, Céline; Péan, Clarisse; Rotenberg, Benjamin; Madden, Paul A; Simon, Patrice; Salanne, Mathieu

    2013-01-17

    Supercapacitors based on an ionic liquid electrolyte and graphite or nanoporous carbon electrodes are simulated using molecular dynamics. We compare a simplified electrode model in which a constant, uniform charge is assigned to each carbon atom with a realistic model in which a constant potential is applied between the electrodes (the carbon charges are allowed to fluctuate). We show that the simulations performed with the simplified model do not provide a correct description of the properties of the system. First, the structure of the adsorbed electrolyte is partly modified. Second, dramatic differences are observed for the dynamics of the system during transient regimes. In particular, upon application of a constant applied potential difference, the increase in the temperature, due to the Joule effect, associated with the creation of an electric current across the cell follows Ohm's law, while unphysically high temperatures are rapidly observed when constant charges are assigned to each carbon atom.

  19. Supersonic Cavity-Based Flow Control Using a Quasi-DC Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, A.; Leonov, S.; Hedlund, B.; Ombrello, T.; Carter, C.

    2017-10-01

    The Quasi-DC (Q-DC) discharge is studied as an active flow control authority on a rear-facing cavity in a supersonic duct by creating an oblique shockwave that impinges the cavity. This geometry simulates the geometry of a typical scramjet flameholding scheme. The tests were performed at the University of Notre Dame in the SBR-50 supersonic blowdown rig with dried air at M=2. Schlieren imaging is used to view the flow field with and without the Q-DC discharge in operation. A significant change in the flow field structure is observed. Pressure sensors detect a pressure increase throughout the entire rear-facing cavity while the Q-DC discharge is operating. This reveals that the cavity redistributes the pressure increase from the shockwave as a result of the flow within the cavity being subsonic. As a result of this pressure absorption and redistribution, the impinging shockwave created by the Q-DC is almost completely absorbed. This absorption is confirmed by the schlieren images. The data reveal that the discharge power is the dominating influence, as compared to electrode/discharge geometry, on the pressure increase produced in the cavity. There is a nearly linear correlation between the power of the discharge and the pressure increase produced directly behind the discharge, in the cavity, and on the ramp of the cavity (to varying magnitudes). It is suggested that the 11 electrode system may be slightly more effective than the 7 electrode system.

  20. 3D-printed conductive static mixers enable all-vanadium redox flow battery using slurry electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Korcan; Rommerskirchen, Alexandra; Sengpiel, Robert; Gendel, Youri; Wessling, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    State-of-the-art all-vanadium redox flow batteries employ porous carbonaceous materials as electrodes. The battery cells possess non-scalable fixed electrodes inserted into a cell stack. In contrast, a conductive particle network dispersed in the electrolyte, known as slurry electrode, may be beneficial for a scalable redox flow battery. In this work, slurry electrodes are successfully introduced to an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Activated carbon and graphite powder particles are dispersed up to 20 wt% in the vanadium electrolyte and charge-discharge behavior is inspected via polarization studies. Graphite powder slurry is superior over activated carbon with a polarization behavior closer to the standard graphite felt electrodes. 3D-printed conductive static mixers introduced to the slurry channel improve the charge transfer via intensified slurry mixing and increased surface area. Consequently, a significant increase in the coulombic efficiency up to 95% and energy efficiency up to 65% is obtained. Our results show that slurry electrodes supported by conductive static mixers can be competitive to state-of-the-art electrodes yielding an additional degree of freedom in battery design. Research into carbon properties (particle size, internal surface area, pore size distribution) tailored to the electrolyte system and optimization of the mixer geometry may yield even better battery properties.

  1. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-09-01

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel connected dc-dc buck converters without communication. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work represents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving of paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  2. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  3. Fuzzy Control of DC-DC Converters with Input Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saifia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for designing fuzzy control of DC-DC converters under actuator saturation. Because linear control design methods do not take into account the nonlinearity of the system, a T-S fuzzy model and a controller design approach is used. The designed control not only handles the external disturbance but also the saturation of duty cycle. The input constraint is first transformed into a symmetric saturation which is represented by a polytopic model. Stabilization conditions for the state feedback system of DC-DC converters under actuator saturation are established using the Lyapunov approach. The proposed method has been compared and verified with a simulation example.

  4. DC Microgrids—Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    distribution applications such as traction, telecom, vehicular and distributed power systems can be classified under DC MG framework and ongoing development and expansion of the field is largely influenced by concepts used over there. This paper aims firstly to shed light on the practical design aspects of DC...... MG technology concerning typical power hardware topologies and their suitability for different emerging smart grid applications. Then, an overview of the state of the art in DC MG protection and grounding is provided. Owing to the fact that there is no zero current crossing, an arc that appears upon...

  5. Hybrid battery with bi-directional DC/DC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUDRIK Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bi-directional buck-boost DC/DC converterfor hybrid battery is described in this paper. The firstpart of the paper is aimed at concept of hybrid battery;main advance compared to conventional accumulatoris explained there. Control circuit with UC3637 andpower circuit of the converter are described in thesecond part of the paper. Experimental results frommeasuring of converter are mentioned in the last part.

  6. Graphite Oxidation Thermodynamics/Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propp, W.A.

    1998-01-01

    The vulnerability of graphite-matrix spent nuclear fuel to oxidation by the ambient atmosphere if the fuel canister is breached was evaluated. Thermochemical and kinetic data over the anticipated range of storage temperatures (200 to 400 C) were used to calculate the times required for a total carbon mass loss of 1 mgcm-2 from a fuel specimen. At 200 C, the time required to produce even this small loss is large, 900,000 yr. However, at 400 C the time required is only 1.9 yr. The rate of oxidation at 200 C is negligible, and the rate even at 400 C is so small as to be of no practical consequence. Therefore, oxidation of the spent nuclear fuel upon a loss of canister integrity is not anticipated to be a concern based upon the results of this study

  7. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  8. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  9. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  10. A high-rate aqueous symmetric pseudocapacitor based on highly graphitized onion-like carbon/birnessite-type manganese oxide nanohybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgopa, K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study on the pseudocapacitive properties of birnessite-type MnO(sub2) grafted on highly graphitized onion-like carbon (OLC/MnO(sub2)). In a three-electrode setup, we evaluated two different substrates, namely a platinum disc and nickel...

  11. Isolated step-down DC -DC converter for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovinets, O. V.; Sidorov, K. M.; Yutt, V. E.

    2018-02-01

    Modern motor-vehicle industrial sector is moving rapidly now towards the electricity-driving cars production, improving their range and efficiency of components, and in particular the step-down DC/DC converter to supply the onboard circuit 12/24V of electric vehicle from the high-voltage battery. The purpose of this article - to identify the best circuitry topology to design an advanced step-down DC/DC converters with the smallest mass, volume, highest efficiency and power. And this will have a positive effect on driving distance of electric vehicle (EV). On the basis of computational research of existing and implemented circuit topologies of step-down DC/DC converters (serial resonant converter, full bridge with phase-shifting converter, LLC resonant converter) a comprehensive analysis was carried out on the following characteristics: specific volume, specific weight, power, efficiency. The data obtained was the basis for the best technical option - LLC resonant converter. The results can serve as a guide material in the process of components design of the traction equipment for electric vehicles, providing for the best technical solutions in the design and manufacturing of converting equipment, self-contained power supply systems and advanced driver assistance systems.

  12. Influence of various Activated Carbon based Electrode Materials in the Performance of Super Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, K. M.; Dinesh, M. N.

    2018-02-01

    Various activated carbon based electrode materials with different surface areas was prepared on stainless steel based refillable super capacitor model using spin coating. Bio Synthesized Activated Carbon (BSAC), Activated Carbon (AC) and Graphite powder are chosen as electrode materials in this paper. Electrode materials prepared using binder solution which is 6% by wt. polyvinylidene difluoride, 94% by wt. dimethyl fluoride. 3M concentrated KOH solution is used as aqueous electrolyte with PVDF thin film as separator. It is tested for electrochemical characterizations and material characterizations. It is observed that the Specific capacitance of Graphite, Biosynthesized active carbon and Commercially available activated carbon are 16.1F g-1, 53.4F g-1 and 107.6F g-1 respectively at 5mV s-1 scan rate.

  13. Nitrogen-Rich Polyacrylonitrile-Based Graphitic Carbons for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Brandon; Holmberg, Sunshine; George, Derosh; Tran, Ich; Madou, Marc; Ghazinejad, Maziar

    2017-10-21

    Catalytic substrate, which is devoid of expensive noble metals and enzymes for hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), reduction reactions can be obtained via nitrogen doping of graphite. Here, we report a facile fabrication method for obtaining such nitrogen doped graphitized carbon using polyacrylonitrile (PAN) mats and its use in H₂O₂ sensing. A high degree of graphitization was obtained with a mechanical treatment of the PAN fibers embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNT) prior to the pyrolysis step. The electrochemical testing showed a limit of detection (LOD) 0.609 µM and sensitivity of 2.54 µA cm -2 mM -1 . The promising sensing performance of the developed carbon electrodes can be attributed to the presence of high content of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens in the pyrolytic carbons, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reported results suggest that, despite their simple fabrication, the hydrogen peroxide sensors developed from pyrolytic carbon nanofibers are comparable with their sophisticated nitrogen-doped graphene counterparts.

  14. A graphite-coated carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ha Na; Lim, Jun Woo; Suh, Jung Do; Lee, Dai Gil

    A PEMFC (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell or proton exchange membrane fuel cell) stack is composed of GDLs (gas diffusion layers), MEAs (membrane electrode assemblies), and bipolar plates. One of the important functions of bipolar plates is to collect and conduct the current from cell to cell, which requires low electrical bulk and interfacial resistances. For a carbon fiber epoxy composite bipolar plate, the interfacial resistance is usually much larger than the bulk resistance due to the resin-rich layer on the composite surface. In this study, a thin graphite layer is coated on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate to decrease the interfacial contact resistance between the bipolar plate and the GDL. The total electrical resistance in the through-thickness direction of the bipolar plate is measured with respect to the thickness of the graphite coating layer, and the ratio of the bulk resistance to the interfacial contact resistance is estimated using the measured data. From the experiment, it is found that the graphite coating on the carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate has 10% and 4% of the total electrical and interfacial contact resistances of the conventional carbon/epoxy composite bipolar plate, respectively, when the graphite coating thickness is 50 μm.

  15. Nitrogen-Rich Polyacrylonitrile-Based Graphitic Carbons for Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Pollack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic substrate, which is devoid of expensive noble metals and enzymes for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, reduction reactions can be obtained via nitrogen doping of graphite. Here, we report a facile fabrication method for obtaining such nitrogen doped graphitized carbon using polyacrylonitrile (PAN mats and its use in H2O2 sensing. A high degree of graphitization was obtained with a mechanical treatment of the PAN fibers embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNT prior to the pyrolysis step. The electrochemical testing showed a limit of detection (LOD 0.609 µM and sensitivity of 2.54 µA cm−2 mM−1. The promising sensing performance of the developed carbon electrodes can be attributed to the presence of high content of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogens in the pyrolytic carbons, as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reported results suggest that, despite their simple fabrication, the hydrogen peroxide sensors developed from pyrolytic carbon nanofibers are comparable with their sophisticated nitrogen-doped graphene counterparts.

  16. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, E.; Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography

  17. Exploration of coal-based pitch precursors for ultra-high thermal conductivity graphite fibers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, G.V. [Amoco Performance Products, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1996-12-27

    Goal was to explore the utility of coal-based pitch precursors for use in ultra high thermal conductivity carbon (graphite) fibers. From graphite electrode experience, it was established that coal-based pitches tend to form more highly crystalline graphite at lower temperatures. Since the funding was limited to year 1 effort of the 3 year program, the goal was only partially achieved. The coal-base pitches can form large domain mesophase in spite of high N and O contents. The mesophase reactivity test performed on one of the variants of coal-based pitch (DO84) showed that it was not a good candidate for carbon fiber processing. Optimization of WVU`s isotropic pitch process is required to tailor the pitch for carbon fiber processing. The hetero atoms in the coal pitch need to be reduced to improve mesophase formation.

  18. Graphite Fluoride Fiber Composites For Heat Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Long, Martin; Stahl, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Graphite fluoride fiber/polymer composite materials consist of graphite fluoride fibers in epoxy, polytetrafluoroethylene, or polyimide resin. Combines high electrical resistivity with high thermal conductivity and solves heat-transfer problems of many electrical systems. Commercially available in powder form, for use as dry lubricant or cathode material in lithium batteries. Produced by direct fluorination of graphite powder at temperature of 400 to 650 degree C. Applications include printed-circuit boards for high-density power electronics, insulators for magnetic-field cores like those found in alternators and transformers, substrates for thin-film resistors, and electrical-protection layers in aircraft de-icers.

  19. Synthesis of soluble graphite and graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K F; Billups, W E

    2013-01-15

    Because of graphene's anticipated applications in electronics and its thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, many scientists and engineers are interested in this material. Graphene is an isolated layer of the π-stacked hexagonal allotrope of carbon known as graphite. The interlayer cohesive energy of graphite, or exfoliation energy, that results from van der Waals attractions over the interlayer spacing distance of 3.34 Å (61 meV/C atom) is many times weaker than the intralayer covalent bonding. Since graphene itself does not occur naturally, scientists and engineers are still learning how to isolate and manipulate individual layers of graphene. Some researchers have relied on the physical separation of the sheets, a process that can sometimes be as simple as peeling of sheets from crystalline graphite using Scotch tape. Other researchers have taken an ensemble approach, where they exploit the chemical conversion of graphite to the individual layers. The typical intermediary state is graphite oxide, which is often produced using strong oxidants under acidic conditions. Structurally, researchers hypothesize that acidic functional groups functionalize the oxidized material at the edges and a network of epoxy groups cover the sp(2)-bonded carbon network. The exfoliated material formed under these conditions can be used to form dispersions that are usually unstable. However, more importantly, irreversible defects form in the basal plane during oxidation and remain even after reduction of graphite oxide back to graphene-like material. As part of our interest in the dissolution of carbon nanomaterials, we have explored the derivatization of graphite following the same procedures that preserve the sp(2) bonding and the associated unique physical and electronic properties in the chemical processing of single-walled carbon nanotubes. In this Account, we describe efficient routes to exfoliate graphite either into graphitic nanoparticles or into graphene without

  20. Status of Chronic Oxidation Studies of Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mee, Robert W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Graphite will undergo extremely slow, but continuous oxidation by traces of moisture that will be present, albeit at very low levels, in the helium coolant of HTGR. This chronic oxidation may cause degradation of mechanical strength and thermal properties of graphite components if a porous oxidation layer penetrates deep enough in the bulk of graphite components during the lifetime of the reactor. The current research on graphite chronic oxidation is motivated by the acute need to understand the behavior of each graphite grade during prolonged exposure to high temperature chemical attack by moisture. The goal is to provide the elements needed to develop predictive models for long-time oxidation behavior of graphite components in the cooling helium of HTGR. The tasks derived from this goal are: (1) Oxidation rate measurements in order to determine and validate a comprehensive kinetic model suitable for prediction of intrinsic oxidation rates as a function of temperature and oxidant gas composition; (2) Characterization of effective diffusivity of water vapor in the graphite pore system in order to account for the in-pore transport of moisture; and (3) Development and validation of a predictive model for the penetration depth of the oxidized layer, in order to assess the risk of oxidation caused damage of particular graphite grades after prolonged exposure to the environment of helium coolant in HTGR. The most important and most time consuming of these tasks is the measurement of oxidation rates in accelerated oxidation tests (but still under kinetic control) and the development of a reliable kinetic model. This report summarizes the status of chronic oxidation studies on graphite, and then focuses on model development activities, progress of kinetic measurements, validation of results, and improvement of the kinetic models. Analysis of current and past results obtained with three grades of showed that the classical Langmuir-Hinshelwood model cannot reproduce all

  1. Facile in-situ fabrication of graphene/riboflavin electrode for microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Yu, Yang-Yang; Sun, De-Zhen; Jia, Hong-Hua; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A novel graphene/riboflavin (RF) composite electrode was developed and its potential application as microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was demonstrated. Graphene layers were first grown on the surface of graphite electrode by a one-step in-situ electrochemical exfoliation approach. Then, noncovalent functionalization of the graphene layers with RF was achieved by a simple spontaneous adsorption process. The graphene/RF electrode was extensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman analysis, and cyclic voltammetry analysis. Remarkably, when applied as the anode of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 inoculated MFCs, the graphene/RF electrode significantly decreased charge transfer over-potential and enhanced cell attachment, which in turn delivered about 5.3- and 2.5-fold higher power output, when compared with that produced by the bare graphite paper electrode and graphene electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that electron shuttle immobilization on the electrode surface could be a promising and practical strategy for improving the performance of microbial electrochemical systems.

  2. Investigation of PF6(-) and TFSI(-) anion intercalation into graphitized carbon blacks and its influence on high voltage lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Blizanac, Berislav; DuPasquier, Aurelien; Meister, Paul; Placke, Tobias; Oljaca, Miodrag; Li, Jie; Winter, Martin

    2014-12-14

    Graphitized carbon blacks have shown a more promising electrochemical performance than the non-treated ones when being applied in small amounts as conductive additives in composite cathode electrodes for lithium ion batteries, due to the absence of surface functional groups which contribute to detrimental side-reactions with the electrolyte. Here, we report that at high potentials of >4.5 V vs. Li/Li(+), graphitic structures in carbon black can provide host sites for the partially reversible intercalation of electrolyte salt anions. This process is in analogy to the charge reaction of graphite positive electrodes in dual-ion cells. A standard furnace carbon black with small graphitic structural units, as well as slightly and highly graphitized carbon blacks, were characterized and analyzed with regard to anion intercalation. A LiPF6 containing organic solvent based electrolyte as well as a state-of-the-art ionic liquid based electrolyte composed of LiTFSI in PYR14TFSI were applied. The intercalation of both PF6(-) and TFSI(-) could be confirmed by cyclic voltammetry in electrodes made of carbon blacks. When exposed to high potentials, carbon blacks experienced strong activation in the 1st cycle, which promotes the perception for anion intercalation, and thus increases the anion intercalation capacity in the following cycles. The specific capacity from anion intercalation was evaluated by constant current charge-discharge cycling. The obtained capacity was proportional to the graphitization degree. As anion intercalation might be accompanied by decomposition reactions of the electrolyte, e.g., by co-intercalation of solvent molecules, it could induce the decomposition of the electrolyte inside the carbon and thus degradation of the carbon black graphitic structure. In order to avoid side reactions from surface groups and from anion intercalation, the thermal treatment of carbon blacks must be optimized.

  3. Stable dispersions of polymer-coated graphitic nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Nguyen, Sonbinh T. (Inventor); Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of making a dispersion of reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets involves providing a dispersion of graphite oxide nanoplatelets and reducing the graphite oxide nanoplatelets in the dispersion in the presence of a reducing agent and a polymer. The reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets are reduced to an extent to provide a higher C/O ratio than graphite oxide. A stable dispersion having polymer-treated reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets dispersed in a dispersing medium, such as water or organic liquid is provided. The polymer-treated, reduced graphite oxide nanoplatelets can be distributed in a polymer matrix to provide a composite material.

  4. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  5. Method for uniformly distributing carbon flakes in a positive electrode, the electrode made thereby and compositions. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, F.C.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1981-01-19

    A positive electrode for a secondary electrochemical cell is described wherein an electrically conductive current collector is in electrical contact with a particulate mixture of gray cast iron and an alkali metal sulfide and an electrolyte including alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides. Also present may be a transition metal sulfide and graphite flakes from the conversion of gray cast iron to iron sulfide. Also disclosed is a method of distributing carbon flakes in a cell wherein there is formed an electrochemical cell of a positive electrode structure of the type described and a suitable electrolyte and a second electrode containing a material capable of alloying with alkali metal ions. The cell is connected to a source of electrical potential to electrochemically convert gray cast iron to an iron sulfide and uniformly to distribute carbon flakes formerly in the gray cast iron throughout the positive electrode while forming an alkali metal alloy in the negative electrode. Also disclosed are compositions useful in preparing positive electrodes.

  6. Synthesis of graphene nanoplatelets from peroxosulfate graphite intercalation compounds

    OpenAIRE

    MELEZHYK A.V.; TKACHEV A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic exfoliation of expanded graphite compound obtained by cold expansion of graphite intercalated with peroxodisulfuric acid was shown to allow the creation of graphene nanoplatelets with thickness of about 5-10 nm. The resulting graphene material contained surface oxide groups. The expanded graphite intercalation compound was exfoliated by ultrasound much easier than thermally expanded graphite. A mechanism for the cleavage of graphite to graphene nanoplatelets is proposed. It include...

  7. Hierarchically Macroporous Graphitic Nanowebs Exhibiting Ultra-fast and Stable Charge Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    The macro/microstructures of carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitor applications play a key role in their electrochemical performance. In this study, hierarchically macroporous graphitic nanowebs (HM-GNWs) were prepared from bacterial cellulose by high-temperature heating at 2400 °C. The HM-GNWs were composed of well-developed graphitic nanobuilding blocks with a high aspect ratio, which was entangled as a nanoweb structure. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the HM-GNWs resulted in remarkable charge storage performance. In particular, the HM-GNWs exhibited very fast charge storage behaviors at scan rates ranging from 5 to 100 V s-1, in which area capacitances ranging from 8.9 to 3.8 mF cm-2 were achieved. In addition, 97% capacitance retention was observed after long-term cycling for more than 1,000,000 cycles.

  8. Preparation and characterization of graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating on magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renhui; Liang, Jun; Wang, Qing

    2012-03-01

    In this work, an electrically conductive, corrosion resistant graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating on AZ91D magnesium alloy was successfully produced by the method of anodic deposition. The microstructure, composition and conductivity of the composite coating were characterized using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and four electrode volume resistivity instrument, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the coating was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization measurements and salt spray tests. It is found that the graphite-dispersed styrene-acrylic emulsion composite coating was layered structure and displayed good electrical conductivity. The potentiodynamic polarization tests and salt spray tests reveal that the composite coating was successful in providing superior corrosion resistance to AZ91D magnesium alloy.

  9. Optical motion control of maglev graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masayuki; Abe, Jiro

    2012-12-26

    Graphite has been known as a typical diamagnetic material and can be levitated in the strong magnetic field. Here we show that the magnetically levitating pyrolytic graphite can be moved in the arbitrary place by simple photoirradiation. It is notable that the optical motion control system described in this paper requires only NdFeB permanent magnets and light source. The optical movement is driven by photothermally induced changes in the magnetic susceptibility of the graphite. Moreover, we demonstrate that light energy can be converted into rotational kinetic energy by means of the photothermal property. We find that the levitating graphite disk rotates at over 200 rpm under the sunlight, making it possible to develop a new class of light energy conversion system.

  10. Large Scale Reduction of Graphite Oxide

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction...

  11. Graphite Oxide and Aromatic Amines : Size Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, Konstantinos; Calvaresi, Matteo; Diamanti, Evmorfi A. K.; Tsoufis, Theodoros; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies are performed in order to illuminate, for first time, the intercalation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic molecules into graphite oxide. Two representative molecules of this family, aniline and naphthalene amine are investigated. After intercalation, aniline

  12. Review: BNL Tokamak graphite blanket design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    The BNL minimum activity graphite blanket designs are reviewed, and three are discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a 30 cm or thicker graphite screen. Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy, which is then radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma. (Auth.)

  13. Analysis of Picosecond Pulsed Laser Melted Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Huang, C. Y.; Malvezzi, A. M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-12-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm{sup -1} and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm{sup -1}, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nanosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  14. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm/sup -1/ and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm/sup -1/, the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence.

  15. Analysis of picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbeck, J.; Braunstein, G.; Speck, J.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Huang, C.Y.; Malvezzi, A.M.; Bloembergen, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Raman microprobe and high resolution TEM have been used to analyze the resolidified region of liquid carbon generated by picosecond pulse laser radiation. From the relative intensities of the zone center Raman-allowed mode for graphite at 1582 cm -1 and the disorder-induced mode at 1360 cm -1 , the average graphite crystallite size in the resolidified region is determined as a function of position. By comparison with Rutherford backscattering spectra and Raman spectra from nonosecond pulsed laser melting experiments, the disorder depth for picosecond pulsed laser melted graphite is determined as a function of irradiating energy density. Comparisons of TEM micrographs for nanosecond and picosecond pulsed laser melting experiments show that the structure of the laser disordered regions in graphite are similar and exhibit similar behavior with increasing laser pulse fluence

  16. Immobilization of Rocky Flats Graphite Fines Residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the immobilization process for graphite fines has proceeded through a series of experimental programs. The experimental procedures and results from each series of experiments are discussed in this report

  17. Poly (propylene carbonate)/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    propylene carbonate)/exfoliated graphite nanocomposites: selective adsorbent for the extraction and detection of gold(III). Sher Bahadar Khan Hadi M Marwani Jongchul Seo Esraa M Bakhsh Kalsoom Akhtar Dowan Kim Abdullah M Asiri. Volume 38 ...

  18. Seismic research on graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shigang; Sun Libin; Zhang Zhengming

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reactors with graphite core structure include production reactor, water-cooled graphite reactor, gas-cooled reactor, high-temperature gas-cooled reactor and so on. Multi-body graphite core structure has nonlinear response under seismic excitation, which is different from the response of general civil structure, metal connection structure or bolted structure. Purpose: In order to provide references for the designing and construction of HTR-PM. This paper reviews the history of reactor seismic research evaluation from certain countries, and summarizes the research methods and research results. Methods: By comparing the methods adopted in different gas-cooled reactor cores, inspiration for our own HTR seismic research was achieved. Results and Conclusions: In this paper, the research ideas of graphite core seismic during the process of designing, constructing and operating HTR-10 are expounded. Also the project progress of HTR-PM and the research on side reflection with the theory of similarity is introduced. (authors)

  19. Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-07-20

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  20. Improved Control Strategy for T-type Isolated DC/DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Wang, Yanbo

    2017-01-01

    T-type isolated DC/DC converters have recently attracted attention due to their numerous advantages, including few components, low cost, and symmetrical operation of transformers. This study proposes an improved control strategy for increasing the efficiency of T-type isolated DC/DC converters....../DC converters. The operation principles and performances of T-type isolated DC/DC converters under the proposed control strategy are analyzed in detail and verified through the simulation and experimental results....