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Sample records for graphene oxide highly

  1. Highly controllable and green reduction of graphene oxide to flexible graphene film with high strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wubo; Zhao, Zongbin; Hu, Han; Gogotsi, Yury; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highly controllable and green reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film, of which the tensile strength strongly depends on the deoxygenation degree of graphene sheets. - Highlights: • Graphene was synthesized by an effective and environmentally friendly approach. • We introduced a facile X-ray diffraction analysis method to investigate the reduction process from graphene oxide to graphene. • Flexible graphene films were prepared by self-assembly of the graphene sheets. • The strength of the graphene films depends on the reduction degree of graphene. - Abstract: Graphene film with high strength was fabricated by the assembly of graphene sheets derived from graphene oxide (GO) in an effective and environmentally friendly approach. Highly controllable reduction of GO to chemical converted graphene (CCG) was achieved with sodium citrate as a facile reductant, in which the reduction process was monitored by XRD analysis and UV–vis absorption spectra. Self-assembly of the as-made CCG sheets results in a flexible CCG film. This method may open an avenue to the easy and scalable preparation of graphene film with high strength which has promising potentials in many fields where strong, flexible and electrically conductive films are highly demanded

  2. High Performance Graphene Oxide Based Rubber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yingyan; Wen, Shipeng; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Fazhong; Panine, Pierre; Chan, Tung W.; Zhang, Liqun; Liang, Yongri; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications. PMID:23974435

  3. Reduced graphene oxide synthesis by high energy ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, O. [Department of Physics, M.U.C Women' s College, Burdwan 713104 (India); Mitra, S. [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, M. [CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Datta, A. [University School of Basic and Applied Science (USBAS), Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110075 (India); Dhara, S. [Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chakravorty, D., E-mail: mlsdc@iacs.res.in [MLS Prof' s Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. The process of ball milling introduces defects and removes oxygen functional groups, thereby creating the possibility of fine tuning the band gap of all intermediate stages of the structural evolution. A limit of the backbone sp{sup 2} network structure has been found which should be able to accommodate defects, before amorphization sets in. The amorphization of graphene oxide is achieved rather quickly in comparison to that of graphite. From thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis along with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic studies, it is found that the number of oxygen-containing groups decreases at a faster rate than that of aromatic double bonds with increasing ball milling time with a maximum limit of 3 h. Several characterization techniques (FTIR, Raman, UV–Visible and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) have confirmed that the material synthesized is, indeed, reduced graphene oxide. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide is transformed to reduced graphene oxide by high energy ball milling in inert atmosphere. • Fine tuning the band gap by introducing defects and removing oxygen functional groups. • Introduction of excess defects leads to amorphization. • Photoluminescence has been observed in the UV-blue region.

  4. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  5. Liquid crystallinity driven highly aligned large graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Oh, Jung Jae; Yun, Taeyeong [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Ouk, E-mail: sangouk.kim@kaist.ac.kr [Center for Nanomaterials and Chemical Reactions, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Graphene is an emerging graphitic carbon materials, consisting of sp{sup 2} hybridized two dimensinal honeycomb structure. It has been widely studied to incorporate graphene with polymer to utilize unique property of graphene and reinforce electrical, mechanical and thermal property of polymer. In composite materials, orientation control of graphene significantly influences the property of composite. Until now, a few method has been developed for orientation control of graphene within polymer matrix. Here, we demonstrate facile fabrication of high aligned large graphene oxide (LGO) composites in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix exploiting liquid crystallinity. Liquid crystalline aqueous dispersion of LGO is parallel oriented within flat confinement geometry. Freeze-drying of the aligned LGO dispersion and subsequent infiltration with PDMS produce highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites. Owing to the large shape anisotropy of LGO, liquid crystalline alignment occurred at low concentration of 2 mg/ml in aqueous dispersion, which leads to the 0.2 wt% LGO loaded composites. - Graphical abstract: Liquid crystalline LGO aqueous dispersions are spontaneous parallel aligned between geometric confinement for highly aligned LGO/polymer composite fabrication. - Highlights: • A simple fabrication method for highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites is proposed. • LGO aqueous dispersion shows nematic liquid crystalline phase at 0.8 mg/ml. • In nematic phase, LGO flakes are highly aligned by geometric confinement. • Infiltration of PDMS into freeze-dried LGO allows highly aligned LGO/PDMS composites.

  6. Riboflavin enhanced fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliut, Maria; Gabudean, Ana-Maria; Leordean, Cosmin; Simon, Timea; Teodorescu, Cristian-Mihail; Astilean, Simion

    2013-10-01

    The improvement of graphene derivates' fluorescence properties is a challenging topic and very few ways were reported up to now. In this Letter we propose an easy method to enhance the fluorescence of highly reduced graphene oxide (rGO) through non-covalent binding to a molecular fluorophore, namely the riboflavin (Rb). While the fluorescence of Rb is quenched, the Rb - decorated rGO exhibits strong blue fluorescence and significantly increased fluorescence lifetime, as compared to its pristine form. The data reported here represent a promising start towards tailoring the optical properties of rGOs, having utmost importance in optical applications.

  7. Highly Conductive One-Dimensional Manganese Oxide Wires by Coating with Graphene Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojo, Tomohiro; Shinohara, Masaki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Ahm Kim, Yoong; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-10-01

    Through coating with graphene oxides, we have developed a chemical route to the bulk production of long, thin manganese oxide (MnO2) nanowires that have high electrical conductivity. The average diameter of these hybrid nanowires is about 25 nm, and their average length is about 800 nm. The high electrical conductivity of these nanowires (ca. 189.51+/-4.51 µS) is ascribed to the homogeneous coating with conductive graphene oxides as well as the presence of non-bonding manganese atoms. The growth mechanism of the nanowires is theoretically supported by the initiation of morphological conversion from graphene oxide to wrapped structures through the formation of covalent bonds between manganese and oxygen atoms at the graphene oxide edge.

  8. Highly crumpled solar reduced graphene oxide electrode for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, K.; Ahirrao, Dinesh J.; Jha, Neetu

    2018-04-01

    Highly crumpled solar reduced graphene oxide (CSRGO) was synthesized by simple and rapid method through freezing the solar reduced graphene oxide aqueous suspension using liquid nitrogen and used as electrode material for supercapacitor application. This electrode material was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy techniques to understand the morphology and structure. The electrochemical performance was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using 6M KOH electrolyte. The CSRGO exhibit high specifc capacitance of 210.1 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 and shows excellent rate capability. These features make the CSRGO material as promising electrode for high-performance supercapacitors.

  9. Manganese oxide/graphene oxide composites for high-energyaqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jafta, CJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A high-energy aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor was developed using manganese diox-ide ( -MnO2)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites. The nanostructured -MnO2was prepared frommicron-sized commercial electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) via...

  10. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. New insight of high temperature oxidation on self-exfoliation capability of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhang; Zeng, Jie; Han, Di; Wu, Kai; Yu, Bowen; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of graphene oxide (GO) via Hummers method is usually divided into two steps: low temperature oxidation at 35 °C (step I oxidation) and high temperature oxidation at 98 °C (step II oxidation). However, the effects of these two steps on the exfoliation capability and chemical structure of graphite oxide remain unclear. In this study, both the functional group content of graphite oxide and the entire evolution of interlayer spacing were investigated during the two steps. Step I oxidation is a slowly inhomogeneous oxidation step to remove unoxidized graphite flakes. The prepared graphite oxide can be easily self-exfoliated but contains a lot of organic sulfur. During the first 20 min of step II oxidation, the majority of organic sulfur can be efficiently removed and graphite oxide still remains a good exfoliation capability due to sharp increasing of carboxyl groups. However, with a longer oxidation time at step II oxidation, the decrease of organic sulfur content is slowed down apparently but without any carboxyl groups forming, then graphite oxide finally loses self-exfoliation capability. It is concluded that a short time of step II oxidation can produce purer and ultralarge GO sheets via self-exfoliation. The pure GO is possessed with better thermal stability and liquid crystal behavior. Besides, reduced GO films prepared from step II oxidation show better mechanical and electric properties after reducing compared with that obtained only via step I oxidation.

  12. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-19

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4 · 7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  13. A high-performance flexible fibre-shaped electrochemical capacitor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingru; Sheng, Kaixuan; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-01-11

    A fibre-shaped solid electrochemical capacitor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide has been fabricated, exhibiting high specific capacitance and rate capability, long cycling life and attractive flexibility.

  14. Laser effects on graphene oxide irradiated in high vacuum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Silipigni, L.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1-2 (2018), s. 73-84 ISSN 1042-0150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA16-05167S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : graphene oxide * laser irradiation * laser-generated plasma * radiation effects Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.443, year: 2016

  15. Graphene oxide immobilized enzymes show high thermal and solvent stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, S.; Zarevúcka, Marie; Bouša, D.; Pumera, M.; Sofer, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 13 (2015), s. 5852-5858 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200551203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : graphene oxide * lipase * immobilization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 7.760, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/nr/c5nr00438a

  16. Superlubricating graphene and graphene oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Erdemir, Ali; Choi, Junho; Berman, Diana

    2018-02-13

    A system and method for forming at least one of graphene and graphene oxide on a substrate and an opposed wear member. The system includes graphene and graphene oxide formed by an exfoliation process or solution processing method to dispose graphene and/or graphene oxide onto a substrate. The system further includes an opposing wear member disposed on another substrate and a gas atmosphere of an inert gas like N2, ambient, a humid atmosphere and a water solution.

  17. An investigation on high-temperature electrical transport properties of graphene-oxide nano-thinfilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, Gunasekaran; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature electrical transport properties are investigated for graphene-oxide nano thinfilms. The graphene-oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by modified Hummers method and characterized by UV–vis, Raman and X-ray diffraction techniques. The surface morphology of graphene-oxide film is analyzed using scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. The experimental results on high-temperature electrical studies of thinfilms exhibit metallic behavior followed by three-dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. The current–voltage characteristics at various temperatures (from 293 K to 573 K) were investigated. The effect of high-temperature on the functional groups of graphene-oxide film is evidently examined using X-ray photoelectron, thermal gravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Transistor characteristics were performed after heat treatment resulting ambipolar behavior with holes and electron mobility of 127 and 66.9 cm 2 V −1 s −1 respectively. Our results are comparable to reduced graphene-oxide, indicating the advantage of our approach requires no further reduction to develop graphene-based transparent and conductive electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells and ultra-capacitor applications.

  18. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhang; Xinxin Yu; Hongrui Hu; Yang Li; Mingzai Wu; Zhongzhu Wang; Guang Li; Zhaoqi Sun; Changle Chen

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4?7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, ?-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from ?-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via ?-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide ...

  19. 3D nanoporous graphene films converted from liquid-crystalline holey graphene oxide for thin and high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Jinzhang; Zhao, Yi; Zheng, Dezhi; Li, Yan; Sha, Jiangbo

    2018-01-01

    Holey graphene oxide (HGO) is prepared and its liquid crystal (LC) formation in water is investigated. The blade-coated LC-HGO hydrogel is hydrothermally reduced to form 3D nanoporous films used as supercapacitor electrodes. Holey graphene sheets are rumpled and interconnected to form a cellular structure with pore size around 100 nm during the reduction process. Reduced HGO films with different thicknesses are integrated into solid-state symmetric supercapacitors and their electrochemical performances are studied. High specific capacitance up to 304 F g-1 and high volumetric capacitance around 400 F cm-3 are achieved from our thin and flexible devices.

  20. A graphene oxide-carbon nanotube grid for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lina; Zhang Haoxu; Zhou Ruifeng; Chen Zhuo; Li Qunqing; Fan Shoushan; Jiang Kaili; Ge Guanglu; Liu Renxiao

    2011-01-01

    A novel grid for use in transmission electron microscopy is developed. The supporting film of the grid is composed of thin graphene oxide films overlying a super-aligned carbon nanotube network. The composite film combines the advantages of graphene oxide and carbon nanotube networks and has the following properties: it is ultra-thin, it has a large flat and smooth effective supporting area with a homogeneous amorphous appearance, high stability, and good conductivity. The graphene oxide-carbon nanotube grid has a distinct advantage when characterizing the fine structure of a mass of nanomaterials over conventional amorphous carbon grids. Clear high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images of various nanomaterials are obtained easily using the new grids.

  1. A highly efficient graphene oxide absorber for Q-switched Nd:GdVO4 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Wen Xiaoming; Tang Jau; Chen, Hou Ren; Hsieh, Wen Feng

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated that graphene oxide material could be used as a highly efficient saturable absorber for the Q-switched Nd:GdVO 4 laser. A novel and low-cost graphene oxide (GO) absorber was fabricated by a vertical evaporation technique and high viscosity of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) aqueous solution. A piece of GO/PVA absorber, a piece of round quartz, and an output coupler mirror were combined to be a sandwich structure passive component. Using such a structure, 104 ns pulses and 1.22 W average output power were obtained with the maximum pulse energy at 2 µJ and a slope efficiency of 17%.

  2. Hydrophilic Graphene Preparation from Gallic Acid Modified Graphene Oxide in Magnesium Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lei; Li, Zhenhuan; Su, Kunmei; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-10-01

    Hydrophilic graphene sheets were synthesized from a mixture of magnesium and gallic acid (GA) modified graphene oxide (GO) in a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process, and hydrophilic graphene sheets displayed the higher C/O ratio (16.36), outstanding conductivity (~88900 S/m) and excellent water-solubility. GO sheets were connected together by GA, and GA was captured to darn GO structure defects through the formation of hydrogen bonds and ester bonds. In SHS process, the most oxygen ions of GO reacted with magnesium to prevent the escape of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide to from the structure defects associated with vacancies, and GA could take place the high-temperature carbonization, during which a large-area graphene sheets formed with a part of the structure defects being repaired. When only GO was reduced by magnesium in SHS process, and the reduced GO (rGO) exhibited the smaller sheets, the lower C/O ratio (15.26), the weaker conductivity (4200 S/m) and the poor water-solubility because rGO inevitably left behind carbon vacancies and topological defects. Therefore, the larger sheet, less edge defects and free structure defects associated with vacancies play a key role for graphene sheets good dispersion in water.

  3. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-06-06

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  4. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-12-26

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  5. Graphene Oxide Bionanocomposite Coatings with High Oxygen Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Uysal Unalan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present the development of bionanocomposite coatings on poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET with outstanding oxygen barrier properties. Pullulan and graphene oxide (GO were used as main polymer phase and nanobuilding block (NBB, respectively. The oxygen barrier performance was investigated at different filler volume fractions (ϕ and as a function of different relative humidity (RH values. Noticeably, the impermeable nature of GO was reflected under dry conditions, in which an oxygen transmission rate (OTR, mL·m−2·24 h−1 value below the detection limit of the instrument (0.01 mL·m−2·24 h−1 was recorded, even for ϕ as low as 0.0004. A dramatic increase of the OTR values occurred in humid conditions, such that the barrier performance was totally lost at 90% RH (the OTR of coated PET films was equal to the OTR of bare PET films. Modelling of the experimental OTR data by Cussler’s model suggested that the spatial ordering of GO sheets within the main pullulan phase was perturbed because of RH fluctuations. In spite of the presence of the filler, all the formulations allowed the obtainment of final materials with haze values below 3%, the only exception being the formulation with the highest loading of GO (ϕ ≈ 0.03. The mechanisms underlying the experimental observations are discussed.

  6. High-performance symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene foam and nanostructured manganese oxide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bello, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a symmetric electrochemical capacitor with high energy and power densities based on a composite of graphene foam (GF) with 80 wt% of manganese oxide (MnO(sub2)) deposited by hydrothermal synthesis. Raman spectroscopy and X...

  7. Improving superconducting properties of YBCO high temperature superconductor by Graphene Oxide doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadras, S., E-mail: dadras@alzahra.ac.ir; Dehghani, S.; Davoudiniya, M.; Falahati, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, we report the synthesis and characterization of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (YBCO) high temperature superconductor prepared by sol-gel method and doped with Graphene Oxide (GO) in different weight percentages, 0, 0.1, 0.7 and 1 % wt. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of orthorhombic phase of superconductivity for all the prepared samples. We found that GO doping reduces the crystalline size of the samples. We evaluated the effects of GO doping on the normal state resistivity (ρ), superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) and critical current density (J{sub c}). The results show that the GO doping has a positive effect on these properties. Also, the highest J{sub c} is obtained for the 0.7 %wt GO doped YBCO compound that its critical current density is about 15 times more than the J{sub c} of pure one in 0.4 T magnetic field. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows that there are better connections between the grains of GO doped samples. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide doping increased the YBCO critical current density. • Graphene Oxide creates a better connection between the YBCO grains. • The normal resistivity of samples were decreased by GO doping to YBCO compounds. • Graphene Oxide doping has a positive effect on the critical transition temperature.

  8. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  9. Biological applications of graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürel, Hikmet Hakan; Salmankurt, Bahadır

    2016-01-01

    Graphene as a 2D material has unique chemical and electronic properties. Because of its unique physical, chemical, and electronic properties, its interesting shape and size make it a promising nanomaterial in many biological applications. However, the lower water-solubility and the irreversible aggregation due to the strong π-π stacking hinder the wide application of graphene nanosheets in biomedical field. Thus, graphene oxide (GO), one derivative of graphene, has been used more frequently in the biological system owing to its relatively higher water solubility and biocompatibility. Recently, it has been demonstrated that nanomaterials with different functional groups on the surface can be used to bind the drug molecules with high affinity. GO has different functional groups such as H, OH and O on its surface; it can be a potential candidate as a drug carrier. The interactions of biomolecules and graphene like structures are long-ranged and very weak. Development of new techniques is very desirable for design of bioelectronics sensors and devices. In this work, we present first-principles spin polarized calculations within density functional theory to calculate effects of charging on DNA/RNA nucleobases on graphene oxide. It is shown that how modify structural and electronic properties of nucleobases on graphene oxide by applied charging.

  10. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-26

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp 2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL -1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  11. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  12. Effect of friction on oxidative graphite intercalation and high-quality graphene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Steffen; Halbig, Christian E; Grote, Fabian; Rietsch, Philipp; Börrnert, Felix; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Bernd; Eigler, Siegfried

    2018-02-26

    Oxidative wet-chemical delamination of graphene from graphite is expected to become a scalable production method. However, the formation process of the intermediate stage-1 graphite sulfate by sulfuric acid intercalation and its subsequent oxidation are poorly understood and lattice defect formation must be avoided. Here, we demonstrate film formation of micrometer-sized graphene flakes with lattice defects down to 0.02% and visualize the carbon lattice by transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution. Interestingly, we find that only well-ordered, highly crystalline graphite delaminates into oxo-functionalized graphene, whereas other graphite grades do not form a proper stage-1 intercalate and revert back to graphite upon hydrolysis. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that ideal stacking and electronic oxidation of the graphite layers significantly reduce the friction of the moving sulfuric acid molecules, thereby facilitating intercalation. Furthermore, the evaluation of the stability of oxo-species in graphite sulfate supports an oxidation mechanism that obviates intercalation of the oxidant.

  13. High Efficient Reduction of Graphene Oxide via Nascent Hydrogen at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Zhuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop a green and efficient method to synthesize graphene in relative milder conditions is prerequisite for graphene applications. A chemical reducing method has been developed to high efficiently reduce graphene oxide (GO using Fe2O3 and NH3BH3 as catalyst and reductants, respectively. During the process, environmental and strong reductive nascent hydrogen were generated surrounding the surface of GO sheets by catalyst hydrolysis reaction of NH3BH3 and were used for reduction of GO. The reduction process was studied by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. The structure and morphology of the reduced GO were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Compared to metal (Mg/Fe/Zn/Al particles and acid system which also use nascent hydrogen to reduce GO, this method exhibited higher reduction efficiency (43.6%. Also the reduction was carried out at room temperature condition, which is environmentally friendly. As a supercapacitor electrode, the reversible capacity of reduced graphene oxide was 113.8 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 and the capacitance retention still remained at 90% after 200 cycles. This approach provides a new method to reduce GO with high reduction efficiency by green reductant.

  14. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie Li; Weixia Zhang; Ting-Fung Chung; Mikhail N. Slipchenko; Yong P. Chen; Ji-Xin Cheng; Chen Yang

    2015-01-01

    We report a transient absorption (TA) imaging method for fast visualization and quantitative layer analysis of graphene and GO. Forward and backward imaging of graphene on various substrates under ambient condition was imaged with a speed of 2??s per pixel. The TA intensity linearly increased with the layer number of graphene. Real-time TA imaging of GO in vitro with capability of quantitative analysis of intracellular concentration and ex vivo in circulating blood were demonstrated. These re...

  15. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  16. Nanocellulose coupled flexible polypyrrole@graphene oxide composite paper electrodes with high volumetric capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-02-01

    A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes.A robust and compact freestanding conducting polymer-based electrode material based on nanocellulose coupled polypyrrole@graphene oxide paper is straightforwardly prepared via in situ polymerization for use in high-performance paper-based charge storage devices, exhibiting stable cycling over 16 000 cycles at 5 A g-1 as well as the largest specific volumetric capacitance (198 F cm-3) so far reported for flexible polymer-based electrodes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07251k

  17. Highly sensitive transient absorption imaging of graphene and graphene oxide in living cells and circulating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Zhang, Weixia; Chung, Ting-Fung; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Chen, Yong P; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Yang, Chen

    2015-07-23

    We report a transient absorption (TA) imaging method for fast visualization and quantitative layer analysis of graphene and GO. Forward and backward imaging of graphene on various substrates under ambient condition was imaged with a speed of 2 μs per pixel. The TA intensity linearly increased with the layer number of graphene. Real-time TA imaging of GO in vitro with capability of quantitative analysis of intracellular concentration and ex vivo in circulating blood were demonstrated. These results suggest that TA microscopy is a valid tool for the study of graphene based materials.

  18. Bioinspired, Ultrastrong, Highly Biocompatible, and Bioactive Natural Polymer/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Kun; Cong, Huai-Ping; Yao, Hong-Bin; Mao, Li-Bo; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alamry, Khalid A; Marwani, Hadi M; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2015-09-09

    Tough and biocompatible nanocomposite films: A new type of bioinspired ultrastrong, highly biocompatible, and bioactive konjac glucomannan (KGM)/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite film is fabricated on a large scale by a simple solution-casting method. Such KGM-GO composite films exhibit much enhanced mechanical properties under the strong hydrogen-bonding interactions, showing great potential in the fields of tissue engineering and food package. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Anti-solvent derived non-stacked reduced graphene oxide for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Keunsik; Baik, Chul; Yoo, Heejoun; Min, Misook; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-08-27

    An anti-solvent for graphene oxide (GO), hexane, is introduced to increase the surface area and the pore volume of the non-stacked GO/reduced GO 3D structure and allows the formation of a highly crumpled non-stacked GO powder, which clearly shows ideal supercapacitor behavior. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Electrorheology of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Sang Guk

    2012-04-01

    Novel polarizable graphene oxide (GO) particles with oxidized groups on their edge and basal planes were prepared by a modified Hummers method, and their electro-responsive electrorheological (ER) characteristics when dispersed in silicone oil were examined with and without an electric field applied. The fibrillation phenomenon of this GO-based electro-responsive fluid was also observed via an optical microscope under an applied electric field. Both flow curves and dielectric spectra of the ER fluid were measured using a rotational rheometer and a LCR meter, respectively. Its viscoelastic properties of both storage and loss moduli were also examined using a vertical oscillation rheometer equipped with a high voltage generator, finding that the GO-based smart ER system behaves as a viscoelastic material under an applied electric field.

  1. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-08-01

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm-2 (specific capacitance of 50 F g-1) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm-2 and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg-1 (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm-2, with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  2. High energy density asymmetric supercapacitors with a nickel oxide nanoflake cathode and a 3D reduced graphene oxide anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Feng; Wang, Gongming; Ling, Yichuan; Lu, Xihong; Wang, Hanyu; Tong, Yexiang; Liu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Yat

    2013-09-07

    Here we demonstrate a high energy density asymmetric supercapacitor with nickel oxide nanoflake arrays as the cathode and reduced graphene oxide as the anode. Nickel oxide nanoflake arrays were synthesized on a flexible carbon cloth substrate using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The reduced graphene oxide sheets were deposited on three-dimensional (3D) nickel foam by hydrothermal treatment of nickel foam in graphene oxide solution. The nanostructured electrodes provide a large effective surface area. The asymmetric supercapacitor device operates with a voltage of 1.7 V and achieved a remarkable areal capacitance of 248 mF cm(-2) (specific capacitance of 50 F g(-1)) at a charge/discharge current density of 1 mA cm(-2) and a maximum energy density of 39.9 W h kg(-1) (based on the total mass of active materials of 5.0 mg). Furthermore, the device showed an excellent charge/discharge cycling performance in 1.0 M KOH electrolyte at a current density of 5 mA cm(-2), with a capacitance retention of 95% after 3000 cycles.

  3. Graphene oxide papers with high water adsorption capacity for air dehumidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renlong; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Kan; Lee, Changgu

    2017-08-29

    Graphene oxide (GO) has shown a high potential to adsorb and store water molecules due to the oxygen-containing functional groups on its hydrophilic surface. In this study, we characterized the water absorbing properties of graphene oxide in the form of papers. We fabricated three kinds of graphene oxide papers, two with rich oxygen functional groups and one with partial chemical reduction, to vary the oxygen/carbon ratio and found that the paper with high oxygen content has higher moisture adsorption capability. For the GO paper with reduction, the overall moisture absorbance was reduced. However, the absorbance at high humidity was significantly improved due to direct formation of multilayer water vapor in the system, which derived from the weak interaction between the adsorbent and the adsorbate. To demonstrate one application of GO papers as a desiccant, we tested grape fruits with and without GO paper. The fruits with a GO paper exhibited longer-term preservation with delayed mold gathering because of desiccation effect from the paper. Our results suggest that GO will find numerous practical applications as a desiccant and is a promising material for moisture desiccation and food preservation.

  4. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han,Jae Woong; Abdal Daye,Ahmed; Eppakayala,Vasuki; Kim,Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan, Jae Woong Han, Ahmed Abdal Dayem, Vasuki Eppakayala, Jin-Hoi KimDepartment of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, South KoreaBackground: Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxid...

  5. Facile synthesis of polyaniline/TiO2/graphene oxide composite for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Haifang; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Shengyi; Song, Jiming; Mao, Changjie; Niu, Helin; Jin, Baokang; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2012-06-01

    The polyaniline/TiO2/graphene oxide (PANI/TiO2/GO) composite, as a novel supercapacitor material, is synthesized by in situ hydrolyzation of tetrabutyl titanate and polymerization of aniline monomer in the presence of graphene oxide. The morphology, composition and structure of the composites as-obtained are characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and TGA. The electrochemical property and impedance of the composites are studied by cyclic voltammetry and Nyquist plot, respectively. The results show that the introduction of the GO and TiO2 enhanced the electrode conductivity and stability, and then improved the supercapacitive behavior of PANI/TiO2/GO composite. Significantly, the electrochemical measurement results show that the PANI/TiO2/GO composite has a high specific capacitance (1020 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1, 430 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and long cycle life (over 1000 times).

  6. Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensor Chips with Graphene-Oxide Linking Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stebunov, Yury V.; Aftenieva, Olga A.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.

    2015-01-01

    sensor chip for SPR biosensors based on graphene-oxide linking layers. The biosensing assay model was based on a graphene oxide film containing streptavidin. The proposed sensor chip has three times higher sensitivity than the carboxymethylated dextran surface of a commercial sensor chip. Moreover...

  7. Apoptosis inducing ability of silver decorated highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites in A549 lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Merajuddin Khan,1 Mujeeb Khan,1 Abdulhadi H Al-Marri,1 Abdulrahman Al-Warthan,1 Hamad Z Alkhathlan,1 Mohammed Rafiq H Siddiqui,1 Vadithe Lakshma Nayak,2 Ahmed Kamal,2 Syed F Adil1 1Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad, India Abstract: Recently, graphene and graphene-based materials have been increasingly used for various biological applications due to their extraordinary physicochemical properties. Here, we demonstrate the anticancer properties and apoptosis-inducing ability of silver doped highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites synthesized by employing green approach. These nano­composites (PGE-HRG-Ag were synthesized by using Pulicaria glutinosa extract (PGE as a reducing agent and were evaluated for their anticancer properties against various human cancer cell lines with tamoxifen as the reference drug. A correlation between the amount of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG and the anticancer activity of nanocomposite was observed, wherein an increase in the concentration of Ag nanoparticles on the surface of HRG led to the enhanced anticancer activity of the nanocomposite. The nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than standard drug in A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. A detailed investigation was undertaken and Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS analysis demonstrated that the nanocomposite PGE-HRG-Ag-2 showed G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in A549 cells. Studies such as, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and Annexin V-FITC staining assay suggested that this compound induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. Keywords: plant extract, graphene/silver nanocomposites, anticancer, apoptosis

  8. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Gold Nanoparticle Nanoframework as a Highly Selective Separation Material for Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbo; Wu, Lidong; Fan, Kai; Nie, Dongxia; He, Weijing; Yang, Junhua; Zhao, Zhihui; Han, Zheng

    2017-11-03

    Graphene-based materials have been studied in many applications, owing to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties of graphene. In the current study, an environmentally friendly approach to the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (rGO-AuNP) nanocomposite was developed by using L-cysteine and vitamin C as reductants under mild reaction conditions. The rGO-AuNP material showed a highly selective separation ability for 6 naturally occurring aflatoxins, which are easily adsorbed onto traditional graphene materials but are difficult to be desorbed. The specificity of the nanocomposite was evaluated in the separation of 6 aflatoxin congeners (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin M2) from 23 other biotoxins (including, ochratoxin A, citrinin, and deoxynivalenol). The results indicated that this material was specific for separating aflatoxin congeners. The synthesized material was further validated by determining the recovery (77.6-105.0%), sensitivity (limit of detection in the range of 0.05-0.21 μg kg -1 ), and precision (1.5-11.8%), and was then successfully applied to the separation of aflatoxins from real-world maize, wheat and rice samples.

  9. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Daeha; Chunder, A; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  10. Synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets for high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles based on the reduction of graphene oxide via 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yinjie; Zheng, Xingliang; Zhou, Qionghua; Lu, Cuihong; Chen, Jinhua; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    A one-step reduction/functionalization strategy for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported in this paper. 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde (PCA) is introduced as a new reductant for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), serving three roles: reducing GO to graphene nanosheets (GNs), stabilizing the as-prepared GNs due to the electrostatic repulsion of the oxidation products of PCA (1-pyrenecarboxylate, PC − ) on the surface of the GNs and anchoring Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with high dispersion and small particle size. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Pt NPs with an average diameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the PC − -functionalized GNs (PC − -GNs). The obtained Pt NPs/PC − -GNs nanohybrids have higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol oxidation in comparison with Pt NPs supported on GNs obtained by the chemical reduction of GO with the typical reductant, hydrazine. (paper)

  11. High-performance symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene foam and nanostructured manganese oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Bello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated a symmetric electrochemical capacitor with high energy and power densities based on a composite of graphene foam (GF with ∼80 wt% of manganese oxide (MnO2 deposited by hydrothermal synthesis. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements showed the presence of nanocrystalline MnO2 on the GF, while scanning and transmission electron microscopies showed needle-like manganese oxide coated and anchored onto the surface of graphene. Electrochemical measurements of the composite electrode gave a specific capacitance of 240 Fg−1 at a current density of 0.1 Ag−1 for symmetric supercapacitors using a two-electrode configuration. A maximum energy density of 8.3 Whkg−1 was obtained, with power density of 20 kWkg−1 and no capacitance loss after 1000 cycles. GF is an excellent support for pseudo-capacitive oxide materials such as MnO2, and the composite electrode provided a high energy density due to a combination of double-layer and redox capacitance mechanisms.

  12. Searching for magnetism in hydrogenated graphene: Using highly hydrogenated graphene prepared via birch reduction of graphite oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, A.Y.S.; Poh, H. L.; Šaněk, F.; Maryško, Miroslav; Matějková, Stanislava; Šofer, Z.; Pumera, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 7 (2013), s. 5930-5939 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogenated graphene * graphane * graphite oxide * ferromagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 12.033, year: 2013

  13. Development of highly faceted reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles on a copper foil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ortega-Amaya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the formation of reduced graphene oxide-coated copper oxide and copper nanoparticles (rGO-Cu2ONPs, rGO-CuNPs on the surface of a copper foil supporting graphene oxide (GO at annealing temperatures of 200–1000 °C, under an Ar atmosphere. These hybrid nanostructures were developed from bare copper oxide nanoparticles which grew at an annealing temperature of 80 °C under nitrogen flux. The predominant phase as well as the particle size and shape strongly depend on the process temperature. Characterization with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicates that Cu or Cu2O nanoparticles take rGO sheets from the rGO network to form core–shell Cu–rGO or Cu2O–rGO nanostructures. It is noted that such ones increase in size from 5 to 800 nm as the annealing temperature increases in the 200–1000 °C range. At 1000 °C, Cu nanoparticles develop a highly faceted morphology, displaying arm-like carbon nanorods that originate from different facets of the copper crystal structure.

  14. Self-assembled high-strength hydroxyapatite/graphene oxide/chitosan composite hydrogel for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Bao, Rui-Ying; Shi, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Wei; Yang, Ming-Bo

    2017-01-02

    Graphene hydrogel has shown greatly potentials in bone tissue engineering recently, but it is relatively weak in the practical use. Here we report a facile method to synthesize high strength composite graphene hydrogel. Graphene oxide (GO), hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) and chitosan (CS) self-assemble into a 3-dimensional hydrogel with the assistance of crosslinking agent genipin (GNP) for CS and reducing agent sodium ascorbate (NaVC) for GO simultaneously. The dense and oriented microstructure of the resulted composite gel endows it with high mechanical strength, high fixing capacity of HA and high porosity. These properties together with the good biocompatibility make the ternary composite gel a promising material for bone tissue engineering. Such a simultaneous crosslinking and reduction strategy can also be applied to produce a variety of 3D graphene-polymer based nanocomposites for biomaterials, energy storage materials and adsorbent materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  16. Molecular theory of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheka, Elena F; Popova, Nadezhda A

    2013-08-28

    Applied to graphene oxide, the molecular theory of graphene considers its oxide as a final product in the succession of polyderivatives related to a series of oxidation reactions involving different oxidants. The graphene oxide structure is created in the course of a stepwise computational synthesis of polyoxides of the (5,5) nanographene molecule governed by an algorithm that takes into account the molecule's natural radicalization due to the correlation of its odd electrons, the extremely strong influence of the structure on properties, and a sharp response of the molecule behavior on small actions of external factors. Taking these together, the theory has allowed for a clear, transparent and understandable explanation of the hot points of graphene oxide chemistry and suggesting reliable models of both chemically produced and chemically reduced graphene oxides.

  17. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  18. Fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Honglu; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Mi, Xianqiang

    2017-03-15

    During the past few years, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted numerous attentions for the potential applications in various fields from energy technology, biosensing to biomedical diagnosis and therapy due to their various functionalization, high volume surface ratio, unique physical and electrical properties. Among which, graphene and graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensors enabled by their fluorescence-quenching properties have attracted great interests. The fluorescence of fluorophore or dye labeled on probes (such as molecular beacon, aptamer, DNAzymes and so on) was quenched after adsorbed on to the surface of graphene. While in the present of the targets, due to the strong interactions between probes and targets, the probes were detached from the surface of graphene, generating dramatic fluorescence, which could be used as signals for detection of the targets. This strategy was simple and economy, together with great programmable abilities of probes; we could realize detection of different kinds of species. In this review, we first briefly introduced the history of graphene and graphene oxide, and then summarized the fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and GO, with a detailed account of the design mechanism and comparison with other nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles). Following that, different sensing platforms for detection of DNAs, ions, biomolecules and pathogens or cells as well as the cytotoxicity issue of graphene and GO based in vivo biosensing were further discussed. We hope that this review would do some help to researchers who are interested in graphene related biosening research work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Graphene decorated with Pd nanoparticles via electrostatic self-assembly: A highly active alcohol oxidation electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shujing; Li, Shuwen; Hu, Tengyue; Gou, Galian; Ren, Ren; Huang, Jingwei; Xie, Miao; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Novel perylene-connected ionic liquids (PTCDI-ILs) have been successfully synthesized in a convenient approach and used as linkers for three-component Pd/PTCDI-ILs/GS heterostructure when non-covalently attached on graphene. The obtained nano-hybrids represented high electrochemical surface area and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for DAFCs in alkaline media. -- Highlights: • A novel preparation of three-component Pd/ionic liquids/graphene heterostructure has been constructed. • The Pd-based nano-catalysts have relatively low price and higher resistance to CO poisoning when compared with Pt-based catalysts. • The nano-catalysts represent high electrochemical surface area and enhanced electrocatalytic activity for DAFCs in alkaline media. -- Abstract: Graphene nanosheets (GS) are non-covalently functionalized with novel N,N-bis-(n-butylimidazolium bromide salt)-3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide (PTCDI-ILs) via the π–π stacking, and then employed as the support of Pd nanoparticles. The negatively charged Pd precursors are adsorbed on positively charged imidazolium ring moiety of PTCDI-ILs wrapping GS surface via electrostatic self-assembly and then in situ reduced by NaBH 4 . X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope images reveal that Pd nanoparticles with an average size of 2.7 nm are uniformly dispersed on GS surface. The Pd/PTCDI-ILs/GS exhibits unexpectedly high activity toward alcohol oxidation reaction, which can be attributed to the large electrochemical surface area of Pd nanoparticles. It also shows enhanced electrochemical stability due to the structural integrity of PTCDI-ILs/GS. This provides a facile approach to synthesize GS-based nanoelectrocatalysts

  20. Mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide and its high-temperature coefficient of resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Liang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has been made to study the formation mechanisms of photocurrents in graphene and reduced graphene oxide films under visible and near-infrared light irradiation. A built-in field and photo-thermal electrons have been applied to explain the experiments. However, much less attention has been paid to clarifying the mid-infrared response of reduced graphene oxide films at room temperature. Thus, mid-infrared photoresponse and annealing temperature-dependent resistance experiments were carried out on reduced graphene oxide films. A maximum photocurrent of 75 μA was observed at room temperature, which was dominated by the bolometer effect, where the resistance of the films decreased as the temperature increased after they had absorbed light. The electrons localized in the defect states and the residual oxygen groups were thermally excited into the conduction band, forming a photocurrent. In addition, a temperature increase of 2 °C for the films after light irradiation for 2 minutes was observed using absorption power calculations. This work details a way to use reduced graphene oxide films that contain appropriate defects and residual oxygen groups as bolometer-sensitive materials in the mid-infrared range.

  1. Fabrication of highly catalytic silver nanoclusters/graphene oxide nanocomposite as nanotag for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiamian; Wang, Xiuyun; Wu, Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn; Song, Jie; Zhao, Yanqiu; Ge, Yanqiu; Meng, Changgong

    2016-02-04

    Silver nanoclusters and graphene oxide nanocomposite (AgNCs/GRO) is synthesized and functionalized with detection antibody for highly sensitive electrochemical sensing of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a model tumor marker involved in many cancers. AgNCs with large surface area and abundant amount of low-coordinated sites are synthesized with DNA as template and exhibit high catalytic activity towards the electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. GRO is employed to assemble with AgNCs because it has large specific surface area, super electronic conductivity and strong π-π stacking interaction with the hydrophobic bases of DNA, which can further improve the catalytic ability of the AgNCs. Using AgNCs/GRO as signal amplification tag, an enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensing protocol is designed for the highly sensitive detection of CEA on the capture antibody functionalized immunosensing interface. Under optimal conditions, the designed immunosensor exhibits a wide linear range from 0.1 pg mL{sup −1} to 100 ng mL{sup −1} and a low limit of detection of 0.037 pg mL{sup −1}. Practical sample analysis reveals the sensor has good accuracy and reproducibility, indicating the great application prospective of the AgNCs/GRO in fabricating highly sensitive immunosensors, which can be extended to the detection of various kinds of low abundance disease related proteins. - Highlights: • An enzyme-free electrochemical immunosensor is reported for detecting proteins. • A silver nanocluster/graphene oxide composite is synthesized as nanotag. • The nanotags exhibit highly catalytic activity to the electro-reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The as-fabricated immunosensor could detect protein in serum samples.

  2. Reduced graphene oxide aerogel with high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijiang; Wu, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Jin; Guo, Feifei; Zhuo, Shuping; Cui, Hongyou; Xing, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide aerogel (RGOA) is synthesized successfully through a simultaneous self-assembly and reduction process using hypophosphorous acid and I2 as reductant. Nitrogen sorption analysis shows that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of RGOA could reach as high as 830 m2 g-1, which is the largest value ever reported for graphene-based aerogels obtained through the simultaneous self-assembly and reduction strategy. The as-prepared RGOA is characterized by a variety of means such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests show that RGOA exhibits a high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes. The specific capacitance of RGOA is calculated to be 211.8 and 278.6 F g-1 in KOH and H2SO4 electrolytes, respectively. The perfect supercapacitive performance of RGOA is ascribed to its three-dimensional structure and the existence of oxygen-containing groups.

  3. Supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole-reduced graphene oxide composite with a folded surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Zhou, Xi; Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole particles were decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composite, which obtained a folded surface, shows remarkable performance as the electrode material of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance reaches 564.1 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and maintains 86.4 % after 1000 charging-discharging cycles at a current density of 20 A g-1, which indicates a good cycling stability. Furthermore, the prepared supercapacitor demonstrates an ultrahigh energy density of 50.13 Wh kg-1 at power density of 0.40 kW kg-1, and remains of 45.33 Wh kg-1 even at high power density of 8.00 kW kg-1, which demonstrate that the hybrid supercapacitor can be a promising energy storage system for fast and efficient energy storage in the future.

  4. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  5. Graphene oxide as efficient high-concentration formaldehyde scavenger and reutilization in supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hongyu; Bu, Yongfeng; Zhang, Yutian; Zhang, Junyan

    2015-04-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) was investigated as a low-cost and high-efficient scavenger for high-concentration formaldehyde in alkali media. It showed very high removal capacity, 411 mg of formaldehyde per milligram of GO, and strong resistant to temperature changes. Additionally, the used GO can be easily renewed by a simple electrochemical method. By analyzing the componential and electrochemical characterizations of GO before and after use, the results showed that the degradation mechanism of formaldehyde is a collaborative process of chemical oxidation and physical adsorption, and the former dominates the degradation process. With the aid of oxygen-containing groups in GO, most formaldehyde can be easily oxidized by GO in alkaline media (this is equivalent to GO was reduced by formaldehyde). On the other hand, the used GO (reduced GO, noted as rGO) exhibits more ideal electronic double-layer capacitor (EDLC) feature than GO, along with higher rate capacitance (up to 136 F g(-1) at 50 A g(-1)). In short, GO is not only an efficient formaldehyde scavenger, but the used GO (rGO) can serve as promising electrical energy storage material. This study provides new insights for us to reutilize the discarded adsorbents generated from the environmental protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A 1 V supercapacitor device with nanostructured graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyaniline and graphene oxide composite on activated carbon cum reduced graphene oxide-supported supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated and electrochemically characterized in a three-electrode cell assembly. Attractive supercapacitor performance, namely high-power capability and cycling stability for graphene ...

  7. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qunting; Yang, Shubin; Feng, Xinliang

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe(3)O(4). The Fe(3)O(4) @RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g(-1)), high energy density (85 Wh kg(-1)), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L(-1) LiOH solution. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Rheology and microstructure of dilute graphene oxide suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfai, Waka; Singh, Pawan; Shatilla, Youssef; Iqbal, Muhammad Z.; Abdala, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide are potential candidates as nanofluids for thermal management applications. Here, we investigate the rheological properties and intrinsic viscosity of aqueous suspension of graphene and use the measured intrinsic viscosity to determine the aspect ratio of graphene oxide. Dilute suspension of graphene oxide (0.05 to 0.5 mg/mL) exhibits a shear thinning behavior at low shear rates followed by a shear-independent region that starts at shear rate between 5 and 100/s depending on the concentration. This shear thinning behavior becomes more pronounced with the increase of particle loading. Moreover, AFM imaging of the dried graphene oxide indicates the evolution of irregular and thin low fractal aggregates of 0.3–1.8 nm thickness at lower concentrations to oblate compact structures of 1–18 nm thickness of nanosheets at higher concentration. These observations elucidate the microstructure growth mechanisms of graphene oxide in multiphase systems, which are important for nanofluids applications and for dispersing graphene and graphene oxide in composite materials. The suspension has a very high intrinsic viscosity of 1661 due to the high graphene oxide aspect ratio. Based on this intrinsic viscosity, we predict graphene oxide aspect ratio of 2445. While the classical Einstein and Batchelor models underestimate the relative viscosity of graphene oxide suspension, Krieger–Dougherty prediction is in a good agreement with the experimental measurement

  9. The Enzymatic Oxidation of Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchey, Gregg P.; Allen, Brett L.; Vedala, Harindra; Yanamala, Naveena; Kapralov, Alexander A.; Tyurina, Yulia Y.; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Kagan, Valerian E.; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphitic carbon is a new material with many emerging applications, and studying its chemical properties is an important goal. Here, we reported a new phenomenon – the enzymatic oxidation of a single layer of graphitic carbon by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). In the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (~40 µM), HRP catalyzed the oxidation of graphene oxide, which resulted in the formation of holes on its basal plane. During the same period of analysis, HRP failed to oxidize chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The enzymatic oxidation was characterized by Raman, UV-Vis, EPR and FT-IR spectroscopy, TEM, AFM, SDS-PAGE, and GC-MS. Computational docking studies indicated that HRP was preferentially bound to the basal plane rather than the edge for both graphene oxide and RGO. Due to the more dynamic nature of HRP on graphene oxide, the heme active site of HRP was in closer proximity to graphene oxide compared to RGO, thereby facilitating the oxidation of the basal plane of graphene oxide. We also studied the electronic properties of the reduced intermediate product, holey reduced graphene oxide (hRGO), using field-effect transistor (FET) measurements. While RGO exhibited a V-shaped transfer characteristic similar to a single layer of graphene that was attributed to its zero band gap, hRGO demonstrated a p-type semiconducting behavior with a positive shift in the Dirac points. This p-type behavior rendered hRGO, which can be conceptualized as interconnected graphene nanoribbons, as a potentially attractive material for FET sensors. PMID:21344859

  10. Lipase enzymes on graphene oxide support for high-efficiency biocatalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanová, S.; Zarevúcka, Marie; Bouša, D.; Mikulics, M.; Sofer, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, Dec (2016), s. 200-208 ISSN 2352-9407 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09001S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biocatalysis * graphene oxide * enzyme * acylglycerols Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  11. Plasma-induced high efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors ...

  12. Highly active bidirectional electron transfer by a self-assembled electroactive reduced-graphene-oxide-hybridized biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yang-Chun; Yu, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Xinhai; Song, Hao

    2014-04-22

    Low extracellular electron transfer performance is often a bottleneck in developing high-performance bioelectrochemical systems. Herein, we show that the self-assembly of graphene oxide and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 formed an electroactive, reduced-graphene-oxide-hybridized, three-dimensional macroporous biofilm, which enabled highly efficient bidirectional electron transfers between Shewanella and electrodes owing to high biomass incorporation and enhanced direct contact-based extracellular electron transfer. This 3D electroactive biofilm delivered a 25-fold increase in the outward current (oxidation current, electron flux from bacteria to electrodes) and 74-fold increase in the inward current (reduction current, electron flux from electrodes to bacteria) over that of the naturally occurring biofilms. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for label-free DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Pan, Genhua; Avent, Neil D; Lowry, Roy B; Madgett, Tracey E; Waines, Paul L

    2015-10-15

    A novel printed graphene electrode modified with electrochemically reduced graphene oxide was developed for the detection of a specific oligonucleotide sequence. The graphene oxide was immobilized onto the surface of a graphene electrode via π-π bonds and electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide was achieved by cyclic voltammetry. A much higher redox current was observed from the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode, a 42% and 36.7% increase, respectively, in comparison with that of a bare printed graphene or reduced graphene oxide electrode. The good electron transfer activity is attributed to a combination of the large number of electroactive sites in reduced graphene oxide and the high conductivity nature of graphene. The probe ssDNA was further immobilized onto the surface of the reduced graphene oxide-graphene double-layer electrode via π-π bonds and then hybridized with its target cDNA. The change of peak current due to the hybridized dsDNA could be used for quantitative sensing of DNA concentration. It has been demonstrated that a linear range from 10(-7)M to 10(-12)M is achievable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 gene with a detection limit of 1.58 × 10(-13)M as determined by three times standard deviation of zero DNA concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Reduction of Graphene Oxide to Graphene by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamellia Sharin; Irman Abdul Rahman; Ainee Fatimah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to gauge the ability of gamma radiation to induce the reduction of graphene oxide to graphene. Graphene oxide powders were dispersed into a mixture of alcohol and deionized water, and the mixture was then irradiated with a "6"0Co source using a GammaCell 220 Excel irradiator at absorbed doses of 0, 5, 15, 20 and 35 kGy. According to characterization using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), it can be seen that almost every oxygen-containing functional group has been removed after irradiation of the graphene oxide mixture. Reduction of graphene oxide was also proven from the characterization using UV-Vis Spectroscopy, in which the wavelength of graphene oxide at 237 nm was red-shifted to 277 nm after being irradiated and the peak at 292 nm, (indicating the carboxyl group) disappears in the UV-Vis spectrum of reduced graphene oxide. Morphology of graphene oxide also changed from a smooth and flat surface to crumpled. The ratio of carbon/ oxygen in the graphene oxide was lower than the carbon/ oxygen of reduced graphene oxide. At the end of the experiment, it can be deduced that graphene oxide underwent reduction, characterized before and after irradiation using Emission Scanned Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. Therefore, we postulate that the irradiation technique that induces reduction, can be used to obtain reduced graphene oxide from graphene oxide. (author)

  15. Cure kinetics and chemorheology of EPDM/graphene oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahbakhsh, Ahmad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh, E-mail: s.mazinani@aut.ac.ir [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalaee, Mohammad Reza [Department of Polymer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, 17776-13651 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Farhad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Graphene oxide content and dispersion as effective parameters on cure kinetics. • Graphene oxide as an effective controlling factor of crosslink density. • Interaction of graphene oxide with curing system (ZnO) during curing process. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of graphene oxide on cure behavior of ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) nanocomposite is studied. In this regard, the cure kinetics of nanocomposite is studied employing different empirical methods. The required activation energy of nth-order cure process shows about 160 kJ/mol increments upon 5 phr graphene oxide loading compared to 1 phr graphene oxide loading. However, the required activation energy is significantly reduced followed by incorporation of graphene oxide in nanocomposites compared to neat EPDM sample. Furthermore, the effect of graphene oxide on structural properties of nanocomposites during the cure process is studied using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry techniques. As the results show, graphene oxide interestingly affects the structure of zinc oxide during the vulcanization process. This behavior could be probably related to high tendency of zinc oxide to react with oxidized surface of graphene oxide.

  16. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we used a novel reducing agent, betamercaptoethanol (BME), for synthesis of graphene to avoid the use of toxic materials. To uncover the impacts of GO and rGO on human health, the antibacterial activity of two types of graphene-based material toward a bacterial model P. aeruginosa was studied and compared. The synthesized GO and rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Further, to explain the antimicrobial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, we employed various assays, such as cell growth, cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, and DNA fragmentation. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples confirmed the transition of GO into graphene. Dynamic light-scattering analyses showed the average size among the two types of graphene materials. X-ray diffraction data validated the structure of graphene sheets, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene. Raman spectroscopy data indicated the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and the formation of graphene. The exposure of cells to GO and rGO induced the production of superoxide radical anion and loss of cell viability. Results suggest that the antibacterial activities are contributed to by loss of cell viability, induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. The antibacterial activities of GO and rGO against P. aeruginosa were compared. The loss of P. aeruginosa viability increased in a dose- and

  17. Hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yue; Hill, James M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use applied mathematical modelling to investigate the storage of hydrogen molecules inside graphene-oxide frameworks, which comprise two parallel graphenes rigidly separated by perpendicular ligands. Hydrogen uptake is calculated for graphene-oxide frameworks using the continuous approximation and an equation of state for both the bulk and adsorption gas phases. We first validate our approach by obtaining results for two parallel graphene sheets. This result agrees well with an existing theoretical result, namely 1.85 wt% from our calculations, and 2 wt% arising from an ab initio and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculation. This provides confidence to the determination of the hydrogen uptake for the four graphene-oxide frameworks, GOF-120, GOF-66, GOF-28 and GOF-6, and we obtain 1.68, 2, 6.33 and 0 wt%, respectively. The high value obtained for GOF-28 may be partly explained by the fact that the benzenediboronic acid pillars between graphene sheets not only provide mechanical support and porous spaces for the molecular structure but also provide the higher binding energy to enhance the hydrogen storage inside graphene-oxide frameworks. For the other three structures, this binding energy is not as large in comparison to that of GOF-28 and this effect diminishes as the ligand density decreases. In the absence of conflicting data, the present work indicates GOF-28 as a likely contender for practical hydrogen storage.

  18. An economic route to mass production of graphene oxide solution for preparing graphene oxide papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Yan-Jia; Tsai, Bo-Da; Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide paper can be prepared from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials. • Graphene oxide paper can be used as a phase change materials for thermal storage. • To prepare graphene oxide paper from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials could highly reduce the cost. - Abstract: Graphene oxide paper (GOP) is a composite material fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) solution. In addition, it can be a novel and potential material for application on the separation of water vapor from gaseous steam or larger alkali ions from aqueous solution. GOP could be used as electricity and thermal storage materials. The preparation of GO commonly uses high purity natural or artificial graphite. It is difficult to prepare GOP from artificial graphite powder due to the cost of $1,450 US/ton. In this study, we tried to prepare GOPs from homemade graphene sheets containing carbon materials (GSCCMs) and evaluate the thermal properties of GSCCM derived GOPs. Results show that GSCCM derived GOPs have a higher phase transition temperature, and the average mesophase phase change enthalpy is 9.41 J/g, which is 2.87 times higher than graphite derived GOP. Therefore, to prepare GOP from GSCCMs could highly reduce the cost.

  19. In situ one-pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Nali; Ren, Yapeng; Kong, Peipei; Tan, Lin; Feng, Huixia; Luo, Yongchun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to prepare reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite is developed. • Aniline serves as a reduction for graphene oxide under weak alkali condition. • Different characterizations confirm that GO can be effectively reduced by aniline. • A high specific capacitance of 524.4 F·g"−"1 is obtained at 0.5 A·g"−"1. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (rGO/PANI) composites are prepared through an effective in situ one-pot synthesis route that includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by aniline under weak alkali condition via hydrothermal method and then followed by in situ polymerization of aniline. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to reveal that GO is successfully reduced by aniline under weak alkali condition and PANI can be deposited on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The effect of rGO is optimized by tuning the mass ratios of aniline to GO to improve the electrochemical performance of rGO/PANI composites. The maximum specific capacitance of rGO/PANI composites achieves 524.4 F/g with a mass ratio of aniline to GO 10:1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g, in comparison to the specific capacitance of 397 F/g at the same current density of pure PANI. Particularly, the specific capacity retention rate is 81.1% after 2000 cycles at 100 mv/s scan rate, which is an improvement over that of pure PANI (55.5%).

  20. In situ one-pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Nali [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Ren, Yapeng; Kong, Peipei; Tan, Lin [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Feng, Huixia, E-mail: fenghx@lut.cn [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Luo, Yongchun, E-mail: luoyc@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new method to prepare reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite is developed. • Aniline serves as a reduction for graphene oxide under weak alkali condition. • Different characterizations confirm that GO can be effectively reduced by aniline. • A high specific capacitance of 524.4 F·g{sup −1} is obtained at 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (rGO/PANI) composites are prepared through an effective in situ one-pot synthesis route that includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by aniline under weak alkali condition via hydrothermal method and then followed by in situ polymerization of aniline. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to reveal that GO is successfully reduced by aniline under weak alkali condition and PANI can be deposited on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The effect of rGO is optimized by tuning the mass ratios of aniline to GO to improve the electrochemical performance of rGO/PANI composites. The maximum specific capacitance of rGO/PANI composites achieves 524.4 F/g with a mass ratio of aniline to GO 10:1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g, in comparison to the specific capacitance of 397 F/g at the same current density of pure PANI. Particularly, the specific capacity retention rate is 81.1% after 2000 cycles at 100 mv/s scan rate, which is an improvement over that of pure PANI (55.5%).

  1. Phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide, a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Golbon Haghighi, Mohsen; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Here, a new approach for the synthesis of phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PPh2) was developed. Using a simple method, diphenylphosphine group was linked to the hydroxyl group of OH-functionalized graphene that existing at the graphene surface. The electrochemical activity of GO-PPh2 for electrochemical oxygen reduction was checked. The results demonstrated that the new carbon hybrid material has a powerful potential for electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, GO-PPh2 as an electrocatalyst for ORR exhibited tolerance for methanol or ethanol as a result of crossover effect. In comparison with commercial Pt/C and Pt/rGO electrocatalysts, results showed that GO-PPh2 has a much higher selectivity, better durability, and much better electrochemical stability towards the ORR. The proposed method based on GO-PPh2 introduce an efficient electrocatalyst for further application in fuel cells.

  2. Quantum confinement-induced tunable exciton states in graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongwook; Seo, Jiwon; Zhu, Xi; Lee, Jiyoul; Shin, Hyeon-Jin; Cole, Jacqueline M; Shin, Taeho; Lee, Jaichan; Lee, Hangil; Su, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Graphene oxide has recently been considered to be a potential replacement for cadmium-based quantum dots due to its expected high fluorescence. Although previously reported, the origin of the luminescence in graphene oxide is still controversial. Here, we report the presence of core/valence excitons in graphene-based materials, a basic ingredient for optical devices, induced by quantum confinement. Electron confinement in the unreacted graphitic regions of graphene oxide was probed by high resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Using experiments and simulations, we were able to tune the core/valence exciton energy by manipulating the size of graphitic regions through the degree of oxidation. The binding energy of an exciton in highly oxidized graphene oxide is similar to that in organic electroluminescent materials. These results open the possibility of graphene oxide-based optoelectronic device technology.

  3. Structural Engineering for High Sensitivity, Ultrathin Pressure Sensors Based on Wrinkled Graphene and Anodic Aluminum Oxide Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Gui, Xuchun; Liang, Binghao; Yang, Rongliang; Zheng, Yongjia; Zhao, Chengchun; Li, Xinming; Zhu, Hai; Tang, Zikang

    2017-07-19

    Nature-motivated pressure sensors have been greatly important components integrated into flexible electronics and applied in artificial intelligence. Here, we report a high sensitivity, ultrathin, and transparent pressure sensor based on wrinkled graphene prepared by a facile liquid-phase shrink method. Two pieces of wrinkled graphene are face to face assembled into a pressure sensor, in which a porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane with the thickness of only 200 nm was used to insulate the two layers of graphene. The pressure sensor exhibits ultrahigh operating sensitivity (6.92 kPa -1 ), resulting from the insulation in its inactive state and conduction under compression. Formation of current pathways is attributed to the contact of graphene wrinkles through the pores of AAO membrane. In addition, the pressure sensor is also an on/off and energy saving device, due to the complete isolation between the two graphene layers when the sensor is not subjected to any pressure. We believe that our high-performance pressure sensor is an ideal candidate for integration in flexible electronics, but also paves the way for other 2D materials to be involved in the fabrication of pressure sensors.

  4. Compositions comprising enhanced graphene oxide structures and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Priyank Vijaya; Bardhan, Neelkanth M.; Belcher, Angela; Grossman, Jeffrey

    2016-12-27

    Embodiments described herein generally relate to compositions comprising a graphene oxide species. In some embodiments, the compositions advantageously have relatively high oxygen content, even after annealing.

  5. Indocyanine green loaded graphene oxide for high-efficient photoacoustic tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic therapy, using the photoacoustic effect of agents for selectively killing tumor cells, has shown promising for treating tumor. Utilization of high optical absorption probes can help to effectively improve the photoacoustic therapy efficiency. Herein, we report a novel high-absorption photoacoustic probe that is composed of indocyanine green (ICG and graphene oxide (GO, entitled GO-ICG, for photoacoustic therapy. The attached ICG with narrow absorption spectral profile has strong optical absorption in the infrared region. The absorption spectrum of the GO-ICG solution reveals that the GO-ICG particles exhibited a 10-fold higher absorbance at 780nm (its peak absorbance as compared with GO. Importantly, ICG’s fluorescence is quenched by GO via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. As a result, GO-ICG can high-efficiently convert the absorbed light energy to acoustic wave under pulsed laser irradiation. We further demonstrate that GO-ICG can produce stronger photoacoustic wave than the GO and ICG alone. Moreover, we conjugate this contrast agent with integrin αvβ3 mono-clonal antibody to molecularly target the U87-MG human glioblastoma cells for selective tumor cell killing. Finally, our results testify that the photoacoustic therapy efficiency of GO-ICG is higher than the existing photoacoustic therapy agent. Our work demonstrates that GO-ICG is a high-efficiency photoacoustic therapy agent. This novel photoacoustic probe is likely to be an available candidate for tumor therapy.

  6. High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hee-Chang; Bak, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Seong; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Lee, Chang-Wook; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Roh, Kwang Chul; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2015-06-08

    A two-step method consisting of solid-state microwave irradiation and heat treatment under NH3 gas was used to prepare nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) with a high specific surface area (1007 m(2)  g(-1) ), high electrical conductivity (1532 S m(-1) ), and low oxygen content (1.5 wt %) for electrical double-layer capacitor applications. The specific capacitance of N-RGO was 291 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) , and a capacitance of 261 F g(-1) was retained at 50 A g(-1) , which indicated a very good rate capability. N-RGO also showed excellent cycling stability and preserved 96 % of the initial specific capacitance after 100 000 cycles. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy results provided evidenced for the recovery of π conjugation in the carbon networks with the removal of oxygenated groups and revealed chemical bonding of the nitrogen atoms in N-RGO. The good electrochemical performance of N-RGO is attributed to its high surface area, high electrical conductivity, and low oxygen content. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide studied by the XRD, TEM and electron spectroscopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, L.; Lesiak, B.; Malolepszy, A.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Mierzwa, B.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (FL-GOc) and reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc): XRD, TEM, XPS, REELS. • FL-GOc: stacking nanostructure—22 × 6 nm (DxH), 0.9 nm layers separation (XRD). • FL-RGOc: stacking nanostructure—8 × 1 nm (DxH), 0.4 nm layers separation (XRD). • Reduction: oxygen group degradation, decreasing distance between graphene layers. • Number of graphene layers in stacking nanostructure: 6–7 (FL-GOc), 2–3 (FL-RGOc). - Abstract: The commercial and synthesised few-layer graphene oxide, prepared using oxidation reactions, and few-layer reduced graphene oxide samples were structurally and chemically investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron spectroscopy methods, i.e. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The commercial graphene oxide (FL-GOc) shows a stacking nanostructure of about 22 × 6 nm average diameter by height with the distance of 0.9 nm between 6-7 graphene layers, whereas the respective reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc)—about 8 × 1 nm average diameter by height stacking nanostructure with the distance of 0.4 nm between 2-3 graphene layers (XRD). The REELS results are consistent with those by the XRD indicating 8 (FL-GOc) and 4 layers (FL-RGOc). In graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared from the graphite the REELS indicates 8–11 and 7–10 layers. All graphene oxide samples show the C/O ratio of 2.1–2.3, 26.5–32.1 at% of C sp 3 bonds and high content of functional oxygen groups (hydroxyl—C-OH, epoxy—C-O-C, carbonyl—C=O, carboxyl—C-OOH, water) (XPS). Reduction increases the C/O ratio to 2.8–10.3, decreases C sp 3 content to 11.4–20.3 at% and also the content of C-O-C and C=O groups, accompanied by increasing content of C-OH and C-OOH groups. Formation of additional amount of water due to functional oxygen group reduction leads to layer delamination. Removing of functional oxygen groups

  8. Graphene oxide - Polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite based electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pranav Bhagwan; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2016-07-01

    Supercapacitors are high capacitive energy storage devices and find applications where rapid bursts of power are required. Thus materials offering high specific capacitance are of fundamental interest in development of these electrochemical devices. Graphene oxide based nanocomposites are mechanically robust and have interesting electronic properties. These form potential electrode materials efficient for charge storage in supercapacitors. In this perspective, we investigate low cost graphene oxide based nanocomposites as electrode material for supercapacitor. Nanocomposites of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol were synthesized in solution phase by integrating graphene oxide as filler in polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Structural and optical characterizations suggest the formation of graphene oxide and polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. These nanocomposites were found to have high specific capacitance, were cyclable, ecofriendly and economical. Our studies suggest that nanocomposites prepared by adding 0.5% wt/wt of graphene oxide in polyvinyl alcohol can be used an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  9. Plasma Jet Printing and in Situ Reduction of Highly Acidic Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Bowen, James; Nordlund, Dennis; Meyyappan, M; Gandhiraman, Ram P

    2018-05-23

    Miniaturization of electronic devices and the advancement of Internet of Things pose exciting challenges to develop technologies for patterned deposition of functional nanomaterials. Printed and flexible electronic devices and energy storage devices can be embedded onto clothing or other flexible surfaces. Graphene oxide (GO) has gained much attention in printed electronics due its solution processability, robustness, and high electrical conductivity in the reduced state. Here, we introduce an approach to print GO films from highly acidic suspensions with in situ reduction using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Low-temperature plasma of a He and H 2 mixture was used successfully to reduce a highly acidic GO suspension (pH < 2) in situ during deposition. This technique overcomes the multiple intermediate steps required to increase the conductivity of deposited GO. X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed that the reaction intermediates and the concentration of oxygen functionalities bonded to GO have been reduced significantly by this approach without any additional steps. Moreover, the reduced GO films showed enhanced conductivity. Hence, this technique has a strong potential for printing conducting patterns of GO for a range of large-scale applications.

  10. Metal chloride-treated graphene oxide to produce high-performance polymer solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun-Su; Noh, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In, E-mail: nsi12@jbnu.ac.kr [Professional Graduate School of Flexible and Printable Electronics and Polymer Materials Fusion Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, Deokjin-dong, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Ye-Jin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok-Soon, E-mail: sskim@kunsan.ac.kr [Department of Nano and Chemical Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, Jeollabuk-do 753-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Wook [Soft Innovative Materials Research Center, Institute of Advanced Composite Materials, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, San 101, Eunha-ri, Bongdong-eup, Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 565-905 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-13

    We introduce a simple but effective graphene oxide (GO) modification with metal chloride treatments to produce high-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs). The role of various metal chlorides on GO and their effects on device performances of PSCs was investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, and current-voltage measurement studies demonstrated that metal chloride can induce a p-doping effect and increase the GO work-function, thus resulting in an improved built-in potential and interfacial resistance in PSCs. The resultant PSCs with metal chloride exhibited improved device efficiency than those with the neat GO. Furthermore, with the metal chloride-doped GO, we finally achieved an excellent PSC-efficiency of 6.58% and a very desirable device stability, which constitute a highly similar efficiency but much better PSC life-time to conventional device with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). This study could be a valuable way to produce various PEDOT:PSS alternatives and beneficial for producing high-performance and cost-efficient polymeric devices.

  11. Application of graphene oxide in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongchen

    2017-11-01

    Graphene oxide has good hydrophilicity and has been tried to use it into thin films for water treatment in recent years. In this paper, the preparation methods of graphene oxide membrane are reviewed, including vacuum suction filtration, spray coating, spin coating, dip coating and the layer by layer method. Secondly, the mechanism of mass transfer of graphene membrane is introduced in detail. The application of the graphene oxide membrane, modified graphene oxide membrane and graphene hybrid membranes were discussed in RO, vaporization, nanofiltration and other aspects. Finally, the development and application of graphene membrane in water treatment were discussed.

  12. [Solidification of volatile oil with graphene oxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Mei; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Sun, E; Xu, Yi-Hao

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the properties of solidifying volatile oil with graphene oxide, clove oil and zedoary turmeric oil were solidified by graphene oxide. The amount of graphene oxide was optimized with the eugenol yield and curcumol yield as criteria. Curing powder was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of graphene oxide on dissolution in vitro and thermal stability of active components were studied. The optimum solidification ratio of graphene oxide to volatile oil was 1:1. Dissolution rate of active components had rare influence while their thermal stability improved after volatile oil was solidified. Solidifying herbal volatile oil with graphene oxide deserves further study.

  13. Graphene oxide quantum dot-derived nitrogen-enriched hybrid graphene nanosheets by simple photochemical doping for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjie; Li, Xinyu; Hu, Guanghui; Wu, Ting; Luo, Yi; Sun, Lang; Tang, Tao; Wen, Jianfeng; Wang, Heng; Li, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen-enriched graphene was fabricated via a facile strategy. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) were used as a structure-directing agent and in situ activating agent, respectively, after photoreduction under NH3 atmosphere. The combination of photoreduction and NH3 not only reduced GO and GQD composites (GO/GQDs) within a shorter duration but also doped a high level of nitrogen on the composites (NrGO/GQDs). The nitrogen content of NrGO/GQDs reached as high as 18.86 at% within 5 min of irradiation. Benefiting from the nitrogen-enriched GO/GQDs hybrid structure, GQDs effectively prevent the agglomeration of GO sheets and increased the numbers of ion channels in the material. Meanwhile, the high levels of nitrogen improved electrical conductivity and strengthened the binding energy between GQD and GO sheets. Compared with reduced GO and low nitrogen-doped reduced GO, NrGO/GQD electrodes exhibited better electrochemical characteristics with a high specific capacitance of 344 F g-1 at a current density of 0.25 A g-1. Moreover, the NrGO/GQD electrodes exhibited 82% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles at a current density of 0.8 A g-1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte. More importantly, the NrGO/GQD electrodes deliver a high energy density of 43 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 417 W kg-1 in 1 M Li2SO4 electrolyte. The nitrogen-doped graphene and corresponding supercapacitor presented in this study are novel materials with potential applications in advanced energy storage systems.

  14. Plasma-induced highly efficient synthesis of boron doped reduced graphene oxide for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaobo; Wang, Zhaofeng; Jiang, Hanmei; Zhang, Limei; Ren, Jingzheng; Zheng, Mingtao; Dong, Lichun; Sun, Luyi

    2016-09-21

    In this work, we presented a novel route to synthesize boron doped reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma technology under ambient conditions. The doping of boron (1.4 at%) led to a significant improvement in the capacitance of rGO and supercapacitors based on the as-synthesized B-rGO exhibited an outstanding specific capacitance.

  15. Alkali reduction of graphene oxide in molten halide salts: production of corrugated graphene derivatives for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, Amr M; Vallés, Cristina; Cooper, Adam J; Kinloch, Ian A; Dryfe, Robert A W

    2014-11-25

    Herein we present a green and facile approach to the successful reduction of graphene oxide (GO) materials using molten halide flux at 370 °C. GO materials have been synthesized using a modified Hummers method and subsequently reduced for periods of up to 8 h. Reduced GO (rGO) flakes have been characterized using X-ray-diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), all indicating a significantly reduced amount of oxygen-containing functionalities on the rGO materials. Furthermore, impressive electrical conductivities and electrochemical capacitances have been measured for the rGO flakes, which, along with the morphology determined from scanning electron microscopy, highlight the role of surface corrugation in these rGO materials.

  16. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  17. Graphene supported silver@silver chloride & ferroferric oxide hybrid, a magnetically separable photocatalyst with high performance under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Suting; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com; Han, Mei; Liu, Gongzong; Zhang, Na; Lu, Yue

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The composites were synthesized via a facile and effective process. • Plenty of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ag@AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets. • The catalyst exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic performance and magnetic property. • The catalyst is stable under the visible light irradiation. - Abstract: A stable magnetic separable plasmonic photocatalyst was successfully fabricated by grafting silver@silver chloride (Ag@AgCl) and ferroferric oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The composite exhibited high activity degrading methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RB) under visible light irradiation: decomposition 97.4% of MB in 100 min and 97.9% of RB in 120 min. The enhanced photocatalytic activities can be attributed to synergistic effect between Ag@AgCl and graphene: the effective charge transfer from Ag@AgCl to graphene thus promotes the separation of electron–hole pairs. Moreover, the excellent magnetic property gives a more convenient way to recycle the photocatalysts.

  18. Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu SY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Si-Ying Wu, Seong Soo A An, John Hulme Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnamsi, Republic of Korea Abstract: Graphene has attracted the attention of the entire scientific community due to its unique mechanical and electrochemical, electronic, biomaterial, and chemical properties. The water-soluble derivative of graphene, graphene oxide, is highly prized and continues to be intensely investigated by scientists around the world. This review seeks to provide an overview of the currents applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine, focusing on delivery systems, tissue engineering, cancer therapies, imaging, and cytotoxicity, together with a short discussion on the difficulties and the trends for future research regarding this amazing material. Keywords: imaging, green, cancer, therapy, diagnostics, antibacterial, cytotoxicity, contrast agent, biofunctionalization

  19. Photoconductivity of reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Haifeng; Ren, Wen; Su, Junhong; Cai, Changlong

    2012-01-01

    A photoconductive device was fabricated by patterning magnetron sputtered Pt/Ti electrode and Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)/Graphene Oxide (GO) composite films with a sensitive area of 10 × 20 mm 2 . The surface morphology of as-deposited GO films was observed by scanning electronic microscopy, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The absorption properties and chemical structure of RGO/GO composite films were obtained using a spectrophotometer and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photoconductive properties of the system were characterized under white light irradiation with varied output power and biased voltage. The results show that the resistance decreased from 210 kΩ to 11.5 kΩ as the irradiation power increased from 0.0008 mW to 625 mW. The calculated responsiveness of white light reached 0.53 × 10 −3 A/W. Furthermore, the device presents a high photo-conductivity response and displays a photovoltaic response with an open circuit voltage from 0.017 V to 0.014 V with irradiation power. The sources of charge are attributed to efficient excitation dissociation at the interface of the RGO/GO composite film, coupled with cross-surface charge percolation.

  20. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  1. Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide as a highly efficient catalyst for direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza-Aghayan, Maryam; Tavana, Mahdieh Molaee; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-03-01

    Sulfonated reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (rGO-SO3H) were prepared by grafting sulfonic acid-containing aryl radicals onto chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) under sonochemical conditions. rGO-SO3H catalyst was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). rGO-SO3H catalyst was successfully applied as a reusable solid acid catalyst for the direct amidation of carboxylic acids with amines into the corresponding amides under ultrasonic irradiation. The direct sonochemical amidation of carboxylic acid takes place under mild conditions affording in good to high yields (56-95%) the corresponding amides in short reaction times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Highly Sensitive DNA Sensor Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, P; Vilela, P; El-Sagheer, A; Lopez-Cabarcos, E; Brown, T; Muskens, O L; Rubio-Retama, J; Kanaras, A G

    2015-06-17

    In this work we demonstrate a DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO). Monodisperse NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 29.1 ± 2.2 nm were synthesized and coated with a SiO2 shell of 11 nm, which allowed the attachment of single strands of DNA. When these DNA-functionalized NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles were in the proximity of the GO surface, the π-π stacking interaction between the nucleobases of the DNA and the sp(2) carbons of the GO induced a FRET fluorescence quenching due to the overlap of the fluorescence emission of the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 and the absorption spectrum of GO. By contrast, in the presence of the complementary DNA strands, the hybridization leads to double-stranded DNA that does not interact with the GO surface, and thus the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles remain unquenched and fluorescent. The high sensitivity and specificity of this sensor introduces a new method for the detection of DNA with a detection limit of 5 pM.

  3. In-situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of graphene oxide for high electrochemical capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinlu; Zhong, Qineng; Zhang, Xinlin; Li, Tongtao; Huang, Jiamu

    2015-01-01

    Conducting polymer polyaniline (PANI) was in-situ polymerized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) to form PANI encapsulating GO nanocomposites. The morphology and microstructure were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and N 2 absorption/desorption analysis. Electrochemical properties were tested by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that ethanol assisted the dispersion of GO in water and facilitated the diffusion of polymer monomers on GO. GO as a support material can provide sufficient reaction sites for the deposition of aniline to form the film-like GO/PANI composites. Capacitive performance illustrated that the in-situ polymerization of PANI on GO was effective in improving the specific capacitance and cycling stability. - Highlights: • GO/PANI nanocomposites were achieved by in-situ polymerization. • PANI was uniformly coated on the surface of GO with addition of ethanol. • GO/PANI show high specific capacitance and cycling stability

  4. Fabrication of highly oriented reduced graphene oxide microbelts array for massive production of sensitive ammonia gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Rongfu; Wang, Xiaona; Feng, Wei; Hu, PingAn; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William

    2013-01-01

    Patterning oriented reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into functional structures is significant for its application in electronics and sensors. A large array of highly oriented rGO microbelts are prepared by a soft lithography process. These rGO microbelts have a uniform structure that enables the massive production of graphene electronics using a simple mask shielding process. A high performance NH 3 sensor array which was fabricated from rGO microbelts exhibits a reproducible performance with the relative resistance response (ΔR/R 0 ) reaching 0.35, whilst offering a large concentration range response of 10 ppm ∼38%, showing these sensors to be both highly sensitive and responsive. The impact of working temperature on the response to NH 3 in low and high concentration ranges of NH 3 is also discussed. (paper)

  5. Investigation of the Reduction of Graphene Oxide by Lithium Triethylborohydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical reduction of a wet colloidal suspension of graphene oxide is a cost-effective and adaptable method for large scale production of “quasi” graphene for a wide variety of optoelectronic applications. In this study, modified Hummers’ procedure was used to synthesize high quality graphene oxide at 50°C. This modified protocol thus eliminates the potentially hazardous second high-temperature step in Hummers’ method for the production of GO. Furthermore, the reduction of graphene oxide by lithium triethylborohydride is demonstrated for the first time. According to FT-IR, UV-Vis, TGA, Raman, SEM/EDS, and AFM results, the reduced graphene oxide (LiEt3BH-RGO has properties comparable to other reduced graphene oxide products reported in the literature.

  6. High-performance flexible supercapacitors based on electrochemically tailored three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkait, Taniya; Singh, Guneet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mandeep; Dey, Ramendra Sundar

    2018-01-12

    A simple approach for growing porous electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (pErGO) networks on copper wire, modified with galvanostatically deposited copper foam is demonstrated. The as-prepared pErGO networks on the copper wire are directly used to fabricate solid-state supercapacitor. The pErGO-based supercapacitor can deliver a specific capacitance (C sp ) as high as 81±3 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 with polyvinyl alcohol/H 3 PO 4 gel electrolyte. The C sp per unit length and area are calculated as 40.5 mF cm -1 and 283.5 mF cm -2 , respectively. The shape of the voltammogram retained up to high scan rate of 100 V s -1 . The pErGO-based supercapacitor device exhibits noticeably high charge-discharge cycling stability, with 94.5% C sp retained even after 5000 cycles at 5 A g -1 . Nominal change in the specific capacitance, as well as the shape of the voltammogram, is observed at different bending angles of the device even after 5000 cycles. The highest energy density of 11.25 W h kg -1 and the highest power density of 5 kW kg -1 are also achieved with this device. The wire-based supercapacitor is scalable and highly flexible, which can be assembled with/without a flexible substrate in different geometries and bending angles for illustrating promising use in smart textile and wearable device.

  7. Mass spectrometry of graphene and graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarova, L.; Mawale, R.; Pazdera, P.; Havel, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the ionization of graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) by laser desorption ionization MS equipped with a combination of quadrupole ion trap and time-of flight 140 analyser was studied. The purpose was to understand processes of GO ionisation. This knowledge might help to understand the structure of GO. In conclusion, it was found that GO preparative consist of many various sizes GO fragments forming a complex aggregate of single layers of GO 'leaves' which are incorporating various GO molecules in between the layers and carrying varied number of oxo, hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. Some of GO fragments can be exfoliated using different solvents. In addition, carbon clusters C n (n up to 350) were observed. The(authors)

  8. In-situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide modified lithium vanadium phosphate for high-rate lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaozhi; Guo, Haifu; Yan, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-decorated Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 is synthesized via microwave irradiation. • Both Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 and RGO can be simultaneously achieved through this route. • The GO is reduced by microwave irradiation not the carbon. • Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /RGO displays excellent high-rate ability and cyclic stability. - Abstract: We report a simple and rapid method to synthesize graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 as cathode material for lithium-ion batteries via microwave irradiation. By treating graphene oxide and the precursor of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 in a commercial microwave oven, both reduced graphene oxide and Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 could be simultaneously synthesized within 5 min. The structure, morphology and electrochemical performances of as-synthesized graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 are investigated systematically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, charge/discharge tests, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The XRD result indicates that single-phase graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 with monoclinic structure can be obtained. Both SEM and TEM images show that Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocrystals are embedded in the reduced graphene oxide sheets which could provide an easy path for the electrons and Li-ions during the cycling process. Compared with the pristine Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 electrode, graphene-modified Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exhibits a better high-rate ability and cyclic stability. These superior electrochemical performances are attributed to the good conductivity of reduced graphene oxide which enhances the electrons and Li-ions transport on the surface of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . Thus, this simple and rapid method could be promising to synthesize graphene-modified electrode materials

  9. Graphene oxide-based benzimidazole-crosslinked networks for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Cheng, Qian-Yi; Wu, Haiping; Wei, Zhixiang; Han, Bao-Hang

    2013-08-01

    The synthesis of graphene oxide (GO)-based benzimidazole-crosslinked network (GOBIN) materials is presented. These materials are prepared by the covalent crosslinking of GO sheets using a condensation reaction between the carboxylic acid moieties on the GO surface and the o-aminophenyl end groups of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (or 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride). An efficient one-pot catalyst- and template-free synthesis was performed. The obtained porous GO-based materials possess a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area ranging from 260 to 920 m2 g-1. Electrochemical testing indicates that the GOBIN materials display a specific capacitance up to 370 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1 and about 90% of the original capacitance is retained after 5000 cycles at a current density of 3 A g-1. Therefore, GOBIN materials can be employed as promising electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitors with outstanding cycling stability. Furthermore, owing to their significantly high specific surface area, these materials also show hydrogen uptake (up to 1.24 wt%, at 77 K and 1.0 bar) and carbon dioxide capture (up to 14.2 wt%, at 273 K and 1.0 bar) properties. As a result, these GO-based porous materials improve both the supercapacitor performance and gas sorption property, which demonstrate an excellent performance in the practical application of energy storage.The synthesis of graphene oxide (GO)-based benzimidazole-crosslinked network (GOBIN) materials is presented. These materials are prepared by the covalent crosslinking of GO sheets using a condensation reaction between the carboxylic acid moieties on the GO surface and the o-aminophenyl end groups of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (or 1,2,4,5-benzenetetraamine tetrahydrochloride). An efficient one-pot catalyst- and template-free synthesis was performed. The obtained porous GO-based materials possess a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area ranging from 260 to 920 m2 g-1. Electrochemical testing

  10. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qunting; Feng, Xinliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Yang, Shubin [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rate at RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g{sup -1}), high energy density (85 Wh kg{sup -1}), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L{sup -1} LiOH solution. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Copper sulfide microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide for high-capacity lithium-ion storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiyong; Li, Kun; Wang, Yunhui; Zeng, Jing; Ji, Panying; Zhao, Jinbao, E-mail: jbzhao@xmu.edu.cn

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We prepare the nanocomposites of Cu{sub x}S microspheres wrapped with rGO. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO can effectively accommodate large volume changes. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO supply a 2D conductive network. • As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO trap the polysulfides generated during the discharge–charge. • The Cu{sub x}S/rGO has high capacity, cycle stability and excellent rate capability. - Abstract: In this study, a facile two-step approach was developed to prepare the nanocomposites (Cu{sub x}S/rGO) of copper sulfide (Cu{sub x}S) microspheres wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The morphology and structure of Cu{sub x}S/rGO materials were researched by using SEM, XRD and laser Raman spectroscopy. As-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites, as an active anode material in LIBs, showed distinctly improved electrochemical characteristics, superior cycling stability and high rate capability. Due to the synergistic effect between the Cu{sub x}S microspheres and the rGO nanosheets, as-prepared Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites could effectively alleviate large volume changes, provide a 2D conductive network and trap the diffusion of polysulfides during the discharge–charge processes, therefore, the Cu{sub x}S/rGO nanocomposites showed excellent electrochemical characteristics.

  12. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  13. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  14. Highly sensitive detection for proteins using graphene oxide-aptamer based sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Li, Qin; Li, Raoqi; Yan, Lirong; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Keping; Shi, Haixia

    2015-07-07

    In recent years, the detection of proteins by using bare graphene oxide (GO) to quench the fluorescence of fluorescein-labeled aptamers has been reported. However, the proteins can be adsorbed on the surface of bare GO to prevent the sensitivity from further being improved. In order to solve this problem, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-protected GO was used to prevent the proteins using thrombin as an example from nonspecific binding. The detection limit was improved compared to bare GO under the optimized ratio of GO to PEG concentration. The results show that our method is a promising technique for the detection of proteins.

  15. Highly Sensitive and Fast Response Colorimetric Humidity Sensors Based on Graphene Oxides Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hong; Liu, Yan Jun; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2015-09-16

    Uniform graphene oxide (GO) film for optical humidity sensing was fabricated by dip-coating technique. The resulting GO thin film shows linear optical shifts in the visible range with increase of humidity in the whole relative humidity range (from dry state to 98%). Moreover, GO films exhibit ultrafast sensing to moisture within 250 ms because of the unique atomic thinness and superpermeability of GO sheets. The humidity sensing mechanism was investigated using XRD and computer simulation. The ultrasensitive humidity colorimetric properties of GOs film may enable many potential applications such as disposable humidity sensors for packaging, health, and environmental monitoring.

  16. One-step synthesis of Pt-reduced graphene oxide composites based on high-energy radiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuqiang; Jiang, Shubin; Huang, Wei; Song, Hongtao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel 60 Co-ray-irradiation-based one-step synthesis method of Pt-reduced graphene oxide composites (Pt-RGO) in acid aqueous solution. The compositional distribution of the particles in the samples was characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite has been determined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersion X-ray (EDS) analyzer. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of graphene deposited by the Pt nanoparticles were investigated with the 514.5 nm excitation. It was found that small-sized and highly-dispersed Pt nanoparticles could easily grow on the RGO surface under acidic conditions. In addition, the obtained homogeneous dispersions exhibit long-term stability, which will facilitate the production of homogeneous composites. (orig.)

  17. Ultrafine tin oxide on reduced graphene oxide as high-performance anode for sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yandong; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A nanohybrid based on ultrafine SnO 2 and few-layered rGO has been prepared. • The nanohybrid exhibits excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties. • The rGO supplies combined conducting, buffering and dispersing effects. - Abstract: Na-ion Battery is attractive alternative to Li-ion battery due to the natural abundance of sodium resource. Searching for suitable anode materials is one of the critical issues for Na-ion battery due to the low Na-storage activity of carbon materials. In this work, we synthesized a nanohybrid anode consisting of ultrafine SnO 2 anchored on few-layered reduced graphene oxide (rGO) by a facile hydrothermal route. The SnO 2 /rGO hybrid exhibits a high capacity, long cycle life and good rate capability. The hybrid can deliver a high charge capacity of 324 mAh g SnO2 −1 at 50 mA g −1 . At 1600 mA g −1 (2.4C), it can still yield a charge capacity of 200 mAh g SnO2 −1 . After 100 cycles at 100 mA g −1 , the hybrid can retain a high charge capacity of 369 mAh g SnO2 −1 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ex situ transmission electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the origin of the excellent electrochemical Na-storage properties of SnO 2 /rGO

  18. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, D. A.; Hui, K. S.; Hui, K. N.; Cho, Y. R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-04-01

    A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles-graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO3 and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N2/H2 gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of hydrous ruthenium oxide/graphene sheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Na; Tian, Jianhua; Shan, Zhongqiang; Chen, Kuan; Liao, Wenming

    2013-01-01

    Ruthenium oxide particles were supported on graphene sheets (GS) by hydrothermal and low temperature annealing process. The GS was prepared from graphene oxide by an expansion process and different expanding temperatures were studied and polystyrene sulfonate sodium was used as dispersion agent of hydrophobic GS. Different Ru content of the RuO 2 /GS composites on the influence of the electrochemical properties was studied. Atomic force microscope analysis was applied to test the layers of GS. The morphology of GS and RuO 2 /GS composites were confirmed by field emission transmission electron microscopy analysis. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and liquid-nitrogen cryosorption were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the GS and RuO 2 /GS. The RuO 2 /GS (Ru:40 wt%) composites used as electrode materials of supercapacitors exhibited a specific capacitance of 551 F/g at 1 A/g in 1 M H 2 SO 4 electrolyte. Besides, both the rate capability and cycle performance of RuO 2 /GS composites had a great improvement compared with GS

  20. Graphene oxide-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle composite with high transverse proton relaxivity value for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesha, N.; Srivastava, Chandan, E-mail: csrivastava@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Poojar, Pavan; Geethanath, Sairam [Medical Imaging Research Centre, Dayananda Sagar Institutions, Bangalore 560078 (India); Qurishi, Yasrib [Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2015-04-21

    The potential of graphene oxide–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle (GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite as an image contrast enhancing material in magnetic resonance imaging has been investigated. Proton relaxivity values were obtained in three different homogeneous dispersions of GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites synthesized by precipitating Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in three different reaction mixtures containing 0.01 g, 0.1 g, and 0.2 g of graphene oxide. A noticeable difference in proton relaxivity values was observed between the three cases. A comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization revealed discrete differences in the extent of reduction of the graphene oxide and spacing between the graphene oxide sheets in the three composites. The GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite framework that contained graphene oxide with least extent of reduction of the carboxyl groups and largest spacing between the graphene oxide sheets provided the optimum structure for yielding a very high transverse proton relaxivity value. It was found that the GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites possessed good biocompatibility with normal cell lines, whereas they exhibited considerable toxicity towards breast cancer cells.

  1. “Turn on” fluorescence enhancement of Zn octacarboxyphthaloyanine-graphene oxide conjugates by hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumba, Munyaradzi; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello, E-mail: t.nyokong@ru.ac.za

    2016-02-15

    Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis and X-ray photon spectroscopy. The presence of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide resulted in the quenching (turn on) of Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine fluorescence which can be explained by photoinduced electron transfer. Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates “turned on” fluorescence showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide hence their potential to be used as sensors. The nanoprobe developed showed high selectivity towards hydrogen peroxide in the presence of physiological interferences.

  2. “Turn on” fluorescence enhancement of Zn octacarboxyphthaloyanine-graphene oxide conjugates by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, Munyaradzi; Mashazi, Philani; Nyokong, Tebello

    2016-01-01

    Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis and X-ray photon spectroscopy. The presence of reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide resulted in the quenching (turn on) of Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine fluorescence which can be explained by photoinduced electron transfer. Zn octacarboxy phthalocyanine-reduced graphene oxide or graphene oxide conjugates “turned on” fluorescence showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide hence their potential to be used as sensors. The nanoprobe developed showed high selectivity towards hydrogen peroxide in the presence of physiological interferences.

  3. Green reduction of graphene oxide via Lycium barbarum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com; Wang, Sen, E-mail: wscumtb@163.com

    2017-02-15

    The synthesis of graphene from graphene oxide (GO) usually involves toxic reducing agents that are harmful to human health and the environment. Here, we report a facile approach for effective reduction of GO, for the first time, using Lycium barbarum extract as a green and natural reducing agent. The morphology and de-oxidation efficiency of the reduced graphene were characterized and results showed that Lycium barbarum extract can effectively reduce GO into few layered graphene with a high carbon to oxygen ratio (6.5), comparable to that of GO reduced by hydrazine hydrate (6.6). The possible reduction mechanism of GO may be due to the active components existing in Lycium barbarum fruits, which have high binding affinity to the oxygen containing groups to form their corresponding oxides and other by-products. This method avoided the use of any nocuous chemicals, thus facilitating the mass production of graphene and graphene-based bio-materials. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the preparation of reduced graphene by Lycium barbarum extract. - Highlights: • The Lycium barbarum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  4. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide by Oxidation of Graphite with Ferrate(VI) Compounds: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Zdeněk; Luxa, Jan; Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Bystroň, Tomáš; Pumera, Martin

    2016-09-19

    It is well established that graphene oxide can be prepared by the oxidation of graphite using permanganate or chlorate in an acidic environment. Recently, however, the synthesis of graphene oxide using potassium ferrate(VI) ions has been reported. Herein, we critically replicate and evaluate this new ferrate(VI) oxidation method. In addition, we test the use of potassium ferrate(VI) for the synthesis of graphene oxide under various experimental routes. The synthesized materials are analyzed by a number of analytical methods in order to confirm or disprove the possibility of synthesizing graphene oxide by the ferrate(VI) oxidation route. Our results confirm the unsuitability of using ferrate(VI) for the oxidation of graphite on graphene oxide because of its high instability in an acidic environment and low oxidation power in neutral and alkaline environments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Assembly of tin oxide/graphene nanosheets into 3D hierarchical frameworks for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshan; Wu, Dongqing; Han, Sheng; Li, Shuang; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-08-01

    3D hierarchical tin oxide/graphene frameworks (SnO2 /GFs) were built up by the in situ synthesis of 2D SnO2 /graphene nanosheets followed by hydrothermal assembly. These SnO2 /GFs exhibited a 3D hierarchical porous architecture with mesopores (≈3 nm), macropores (3-6 μm), and a large surface area (244 m(2) g(-1) ), which not only effectively prevented the agglomeration of SnO2 nanoparticles, but also facilitated fast ion and electron transport in 3D pathways. As a consequence, the SnO2 /GFs exhibited a high capacity of 830 mAh g(-1) for up to 70 charge-discharge cycles at 100 mA g(-1) . Even at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1) , a reversible capacity of 621 mAh g(-1) could be maintained for SnO2 /GFs with excellent cycling stability. Such performance is superior to that of previously reported SnO2 /graphene and other SnO2 /carbon composites with similar weight contents of SnO2 . Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, D.A. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.S., E-mail: kshui@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hui, K.N., E-mail: bizhui@pusan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Y.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hong, Xiaoting [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chun, Ho-Hwan [Global Core Research Center for Ships and Offshore Plants (GCRC-SOP), Pusan National University, San 30 Jangjeon-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed at room temperature. • With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. • The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. • The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). - Abstract: A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO{sub 3} and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips.

  7. Green synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, D.A.; Hui, K.S.; Hui, K.N.; Cho, Y.R.; Zhou, Wei; Hong, Xiaoting; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed at room temperature. • With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. • The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N 2 /H 2 gas flow for 1 h. • The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). - Abstract: A green facile chemical approach to control the dimensions of Ag nanoparticles–graphene oxide (AgNPs/GO) composites was performed by the in situ ultrasonication of a mixture of AgNO 3 and graphene oxide solutions with the assistance of vitamin C acting as an environmentally friendly reducing agent at room temperature. With decreasing ultrasonication time, the size of the Ag nanoparticles decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the GO nanosheets. The as-prepared AgNPs/rGO composite films were then formed using a spin coating method and reduced at 500 °C under N 2 /H 2 gas flow for 1 h. Four-point probe measurements showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistance of 270 Ω/sq was obtained in the film corresponding to 1 min of ultrasonication, which showed a 40 times lower resistivity than the rGO film (10.93 kΩ/sq). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO films are proposed. This study provides a guide to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO films, which might hold promise as advanced materials for a range of analytical applications, such as catalysis, sensors and microchips

  8. SnO2 Quantum Dots@Graphene Oxide as a High-Rate and Long-Life Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kangning; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Rui; Dong, Yifan; Xu, Wangwang; Niu, Chaojiang; He, Liang; Yan, Mengyu; Qu, Longbin; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-02-03

    Tin-based electrode s offer high theoretical capacities in lithium ion batteries, but further commercialization is strongly hindered by the poor cycling stability. An in situ reduction method is developed to synthesize SnO2 quantum dots@graphene oxide. This approach is achieved by the oxidation of Sn(2+) and the reduction of the graphene oxide. At 2 A g(-1), a capacity retention of 86% is obtained even after 2000 cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Epitaxial-graphene/graphene-oxide junction: an essential step towards epitaxial graphene electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Ming, Fan; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2008-07-11

    Graphene-oxide (GO) flakes have been deposited to bridge the gap between two epitaxial-graphene electrodes to produce all-graphene devices. Electrical measurements indicate the presence of Schottky barriers at the graphene/graphene-oxide junctions, as a consequence of the band gap in GO. The barrier height is found to be about 0.7 eV, and is reduced after annealing at 180 degrees C, implying that the gap can be tuned by changing the degree of oxidation. A lower limit of the GO mobility was found to be 850 cm2/V s, rivaling silicon. In situ local oxidation of patterned epitaxial graphene has been achieved.

  10. General Synthesis of Transition-Metal Oxide Hollow Nanospheres/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hybrids by Metal-Ammine Complex Chemistry for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiayuan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yan; Wang, Pengfei; Li, Wenhui; Mo, Shengpeng; Peng, Shengpan; Tan, Qiangqiang; Chen, Yunfa

    2018-02-09

    We present a general and facile synthesis strategy, on the basis of metal-ammine complex chemistry, for synthesizing hollow transition-metal oxides (Co 3 O 4 , NiO, CuO-Cu 2 O, and ZnO)/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, potentially applied in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. The oxygen-containing functional groups of graphene oxide play a prerequisite role in the formation of hollow transition-metal oxides on graphene nanosheets, and a significant hollowing process occurs only when forming metal (Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , or Zn 2+ )-ammine complex ions. Moreover, the hollowing process is well correlated with the complexing capacity between metal ions and NH 3 molecules. The significant hollowing process occurs for strong metal-ammine complex ions including Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions, and no hollow structures formed for weak and/or noncomplex Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ions. Simultaneously, this novel strategy can also achieve the direct doping of nitrogen atoms into the graphene framework. The electrochemical performance of two typical hollow Co 3 O 4 or NiO/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids was evaluated by their use as anodic materials. It was demonstrated that these unique nanostructured hybrids, in contrast with the bare counterparts, solid transition-metal oxides/nitrogen-doped graphene hybrids, perform with significantly improved specific capacity, superior rate capability, and excellent capacity retention. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Highly Efficient Adsorption of Copper Ions by a PVP-Reduced Graphene Oxide Based On a New Adsorptions Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongji Zhang; HuiJuan Chi; WenHui Zhang; Youyi Sun; Qing Liang; Yu Gu; Riya Jing

    2014-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummers method and was used as adsorbent for removing Cu ions from wastewater. The effects of contact time and ions concentration on adsorption capacity were examined. The maximum adsorption capacity of 1689 mg/g was observed at an initial p H value of 3.5 after agitating for 10 min. It was demonstrated that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide had a huge adsorption capacity for Cu ions, which was 10 times higher than maximal value reported in previous works. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed by density functional theory. It demonstrates that Cu ions are attracted to surface of reduced graphene oxide by C atoms in reduced graphene oxide modified by polyvinylpyrrolidone through physisorption processes, which may be responsible for the higher adsorption capacity. Our results suggest that polyvinylpyrrolidone-reduced graphene oxide is an effective adsorbent for removing Cu ions in wastewater. It also provides a new way to improve the adsorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide for dealing with the heavy metal ion in wastewater.

  12. Preparation of Pt Ag alloy nanoisland/graphene hybrid composites and its high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites were prepared based on the self-organization of Au@PtAg nanorods on graphene sheets. Graphite oxides (GO were prepared and separated to individual sheets using Hummer's method. Graphene nano-sheets were prepared by chemical reduction with hydrazine. The prepared PtAg alloy nanomaterial and the hybrid composites with graphene were characterized by SEM, TEM, and zeta potential measurements. It is confirmed that the prepared Au@PtAg alloy nanorods/graphene hybrid composites own good catalytic function for methanol electro-oxidation by cyclic voltammograms measurements, and exhibited higher catalytic activity and more stability than pure Au@Pt nanorods and Au@AgPt alloy nanorods. In conclusion, the prepared PtAg alloy nanoislands/graphene hybrid composites own high stability and catalytic activity in methanol electro-oxidation, so that it is one kind of high-performance catalyst, and has great potential in applications such as methanol fuel cells in near future.

  13. Hollow reduced graphene oxide microspheres as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Riguo; Song, Xiaorui; Hu, Yan; Yang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jingjie

    2015-01-01

    Hollow reduced graphene oxide (RGO) microspheres are successfully synthesized in large quantities through spray-drying suspension of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and subsequent carbothermal reduction. With this new procedure, blighted-microspherical GO precursor is synthesized through the process of spray drying, afterwards the GO precursor is subsequently calcined at 800 °C for 5 h to obtain hollow RGO microspheres. A series of analyses, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are performed to characterize the structure and morphology of intermediates and as-obtained product. The as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres provide a high specific surface area (175.5 m 2 g −1 ) and excellent electronic conductivity (6.3 S cm −1 ), and facilitated high electrochemical performance as anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with the RGO nanosheets, the as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres exhibit superior specific capacity and outstanding cyclability. In addition, this spray drying and carbothermal reduction (SDCTR) method provided a facile route to prepare hollow RGO microspheres in large quantities

  14. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-05

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly-wrinkled reduced graphene oxide-conductive polymer fibers for flexible fiber-shaped and interdigital-designed supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cheng, Jianli; Wang, Zhuanpei; Li, Yinchuan; Ni, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors have attracted great interest due to outstanding flexibility and light weight. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) fibers have the great potential in using as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors due to the good flexibility. However, the reported conductivity and specific capacitance of these PEDOT: PSS fibers are not very high, which limit their electrochemical performances. In this work, composite fibers of reduced graphene oxide(rGO)-PEDOT: PSS with a highly-wrinkled structure on the surface and pores inside are prepared by wet spinning. The fibers with different ratios of graphene to PEDOT:PSS show a distinctly enhanced conductivity up to ca. 590 S·cm-1 and high strength up to ca. 18.4 MPa. Meanwhile, the composite fibers show an improved electrochemical performances, including a high specific areal capacitance of 131 mF cm-2 and high specific areal energy density of 4.55 μWh·cm-2. The flexible supercapacitors including fiber-shaped supercapacitors and interdigital designed supercapacitors not only could work in different bending states without obvious capacitance decay, but also have small leakage current. The interdigital design can further improve the performances of composite fibers with high capacitance and high utilization compared with traditional parallel connected structure.

  16. Controlling the formation of rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meili; Sun, Guoying; Yin, Pingping; Ruan, Changping; Ai, Kelong

    2013-11-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted much attention for energy storage application because of its high Faradaic activity and stable crystal structure, which make it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. However, the low electronic conductivity and small lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of V2O5 limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, a facile and efficient method is here demonstrated for the fabrication of V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. With this method, the reduction of graphene oxide can be achieved in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solvent, without the addition of any other toxic reducing agent. Importantly, this solvent can control the formation of the uniform rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on the surface of rGO. Compared to pure V2O5 microspheres, the V2O5/rGO nanocomposites exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 537 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in neutral aqueous electrolytes, a higher energy density of 74.58 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 500 W kg(-1), and better stability even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Their excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of rGO and rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals. Such impressive results may promote new opportunities for these electrode materials in high-energy-density storage systems.

  17. Graphene oxide-Fe2O3 hybrid nanoparticles: a highly efficient sorbent for Am (III) from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patre, D.K.; Gujar, R.B.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Gadly, T.; Ghosh, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, carbon nano materials such as carbon nano tubes and graphene oxide (GO) have been widely studied for the treatment of radioactive waste water. GO can be obtained after oxidization of graphene, and there are many oxygen containing surface functional groups such as epoxy (C-O-C), hydroxyl (OH) and carboxyl (COOH) groups on GO surfaces. As a result, GO showed high adsorption capacity for the removal of different kinds of metal ions and organic contaminants in practical applications. In addition to this, the existences of oxygen-containing functional groups make GO participate in various modifications, and thus lots of GO-based multifunctional materials have been prepared and used for the removal of environmental contaminants. The introduction of magnetic materials into GO can combine the high adsorption properties of GO and the separation convenience of magnetic materials. GO-based magnetic materials have caught more attentions in adsorption study due to their unique magnetic and structural characteristics. In this paper, the magnetic GO nanoparticles were used for the sorption of Am(III) from acidic feed solutions in the pH range of 1-6

  18. High Detectivity Graphene-Silicon Heterojunction Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinming; Zhu, Miao; Du, Mingde; Lv, Zheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Yuanchang; Yang, Yao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Fang, Ying

    2016-02-03

    A graphene/n-type silicon (n-Si) heterojunction has been demonstrated to exhibit strong rectifying behavior and high photoresponsivity, which can be utilized for the development of high-performance photodetectors. However, graphene/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors reported previously suffer from relatively low specific detectivity due to large dark current. Here, by introducing a thin interfacial oxide layer, the dark current of graphene/n-Si heterojunction has been reduced by two orders of magnitude at zero bias. At room temperature, the graphene/n-Si photodetector with interfacial oxide exhibits a specific detectivity up to 5.77 × 10(13) cm Hz(1/2) W(-1) at the peak wavelength of 890 nm in vacuum, which is highest reported detectivity at room temperature for planar graphene/Si heterojunction photodetectors. In addition, the improved graphene/n-Si heterojunction photodetectors possess high responsivity of 0.73 A W(-1) and high photo-to-dark current ratio of ≈10(7) . The current noise spectral density of the graphene/n-Si photodetector has been characterized under ambient and vacuum conditions, which shows that the dark current can be further suppressed in vacuum. These results demonstrate that graphene/Si heterojunction with interfacial oxide is promising for the development of high detectivity photodetectors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Decorating Graphene Oxide with Ionic Liquid Nanodroplets: An Approach Leading to Energy-Dense, High-Voltage Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Zimin; Ghosh, Debasis; Pope, Michael A

    2017-10-24

    A major stumbling block in the development of high energy density graphene-based supercapacitors has been maintaining high ion-accessible surface area combined with high electrode density. Herein, we develop an ionic liquid (IL)-surfactant microemulsion system that is found to facilitate the spontaneous adsorption of IL-filled micelles onto graphene oxide (GO). This adsorption distributes the IL over all available surface area and provides an aqueous formulation that can be slurry cast onto current collectors, leaving behind a dense nanocomposite film of GO/IL/surfactant. By removing the surfactant and reducing the GO through a low-temperature (360 °C) heat treatment, the IL plays a dual role of spacer and electrolyte. We study the effect of IL content and operating temperature on the performance, demonstrating a record high gravimetric capacitance (302 F/g at 1 A/g) for 80 wt % IL composites. At 60 wt % IL, combined high capacitance and bulk density (0.76 g/cm 3 ), yields one of the highest volumetric capacitances (218 F/cm 3 , at 1 A/g) ever reported for a high-voltage IL-based supercapacitor. While achieving promising rate performance and cycle-life, the approach also eliminates the long and costly electrolyte imbibition step of cell assembly as the electrolyte is cast directly with the electrode material.

  20. Mesoporous cobalt monoxide nanorods grown on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with high lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Huang, Hui; Gan, Yongping; Tao, Xinyong; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Wenkui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO NRs/rGO composite by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an unique 1D porous nanorods/2D sheets hybrid nanostructure. • The CoO NRs/rGO composite shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: Graphene-based hybrid nanostructures could offer many opportunities for improved lithium storage performance. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO nanorods (CoO NRs) on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) substrate by hydrothermal and calcination treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation reveals that the CoO NRs with a diameter of 20–60 nm are tightly anchored on the surface of rGO sheets. Compared to pure CoO NRs, the CoO NRs/rGO composite shows higher lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The CoO NRs/rGO composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1452 mAh g −1 , and it can still remains 960 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 A g −1 . After each 10 cycles at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 A g −1 , the specific capacities of the composite are about 1096, 1049, 934 and 513 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the composite is closely related to its unique structure, such as 1D mesoporous morphology of CoO NRs and its tightly-contacting with rGO nanosheets, which could shorten the transport pathway for both electrons and ions, enhance the electrical conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion during prolonged cycling

  1. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  2. Graphene oxide reduction recipes, spectroscopy, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a group of new materials labeled ""graphene oxides."" It provides a comprehensive overview of graphene oxide-based nanomaterials in terms of their synthesis, structures, properties, and extensive applications in catalysis, separation, filtration, energy storage and conversion. The book also covers emerging research on graphite oxides and the impact of the research on fundamental and applied sciences.

  3. Synthesis of Highly Effective Novel Graphene Oxide-Polyethylene Glycol-Polyvinyl Alcohol Nanocomposite Hydrogel For Copper Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Serag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel Graphene oxide-polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol (GO-PEG-PVA triple network hydrogel were prepared to remove Copper(II ion from its aqueous solution. The structures, morphologies, and properties of graphene oxide (GO, the composite GO-PEG-PVA and PEG-PVA were characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electronic Microscope and Thermal Gravimetric analysis. A series of systematic batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the adsorption property of GO, GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel and PEG-PVA hydrogel under different conditions (e.g. pH, contact time and Cu2+ ions concentration. The high adsorption capacity, easy regeneration, and effective adsorption–desorption results proved that the prepared GO-PEG-PVA composite hydrogel could be an effective adsorbent in removing Cu2+ ion from its aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities were found to be 917, 900 and 423 mg g–1 for GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel, GO and PEG-PVA hydrogel, respectively at pH 5, 25 °C and Cu2+ ions’ concentration 500 mg l–1. The removal efficiency of the recycled GO-PEG-PVA hydrogel were 83, 81, 80 and 79% for the first four times, which proved efficient reusability.

  4. A simple route to Develop Highly porous Nano Polypyrrole/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite film for Selective Determination of Dopamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Arulraj, Abraham; Arunkumar, Arumugam; Vijayan, Muthunanthevar; Balaji Viswanath, Kamatchirajan; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2016-01-01

    A highly selective sensor was developed for dopamine with electrochemically treated sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate doped nano polypyrrole (ET-SDBS-NPPy)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) film. First, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced on the electrode surface electrochemically and then, SDBS-NPPy film was polymerized electrochemically on the ERGO coated GCE and bare GCE also. The SDBS-NPPy/ERGO and SDBS-NPPy films were treated electrochemically in phosphate buffer solution to replace macro SDBS- anions by smaller phosphate anions. Then, the physical properties of the above composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and water wettability test. The replacement of SDBS- anions by phosphate anions leaves porous structure in the polymer films and also increases the hydrophobicity in the films. Then, these composite films were applied for the determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range for dopamine detection is 0.1 μM-100.0 μM with the detection limit of 20 nM at S/N = 3. Generally, conducting polypyrrole film could sense ascorbic acid and dopamine simultaneously. However, we have proposed a simple route to synthesis a porous and hydrophobic polypyrrole composite film for selective determination of dopamine in the presence of higher concentration (five orders) of ascorbic acid and uric acid.

  5. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-03-07

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  6. Realization of ppm-level CO detection with exceptionally high sensitivity using reduced graphene oxide-loaded SnO2 nanofibers with simultaneous Au functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Katoch, Akash; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2016-03-07

    We have realized the highly sensitive, selective ppm-level carbon monoxide (CO) detection based on graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets-loaded SnO2 nanofibers with simultaneous Au functionalization. The interplay between RGO/Au and SnO2 in terms of transfer of charge carriers and modulation of potential barriers is responsible for the exceptionally high CO detectability.

  7. Nanotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Amedea B; Paula, Amauri J; de Lima, Renata; Alves, Oswaldo L; Durán, Nelson

    2014-02-17

    Graphene and its derivatives are promising candidates for important biomedical applications because of their versatility. The prospective use of graphene-based materials in a biological context requires a detailed comprehension of the toxicity of these materials. Moreover, due to the expanding applications of nanotechnology, human and environmental exposures to graphene-based nanomaterials are likely to increase in the future. Because of the potential risk factors associated with the manufacture and use of graphene-related materials, the number of nanotoxicological studies of these compounds has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. These studies have researched the effects of the nanostructural/biological interactions on different organizational levels of the living system, from biomolecules to animals. This review discusses recent results based on in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies of graphene-related materials and critically examines the methodologies employed to evaluate their toxicities. The environmental impact from the manipulation and application of graphene materials is also reported and discussed. Finally, this review presents mechanistic aspects of graphene toxicity in biological systems. More detailed studies aiming to investigate the toxicity of graphene-based materials and to properly associate the biological phenomenon with their chemical, structural, and morphological variations that result from several synthetic and processing possibilities are needed. Knowledge about graphene-based materials could ensure the safe application of this versatile material. Consequently, the focus of this review is to provide a source of inspiration for new nanotoxicological approaches for graphene-based materials.

  8. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  9. Superhydrophilic graphene oxide@electrospun cellulose nanofiber hybrid membrane for high-efficiency oil/water separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Chenghong; Yuan, Wei; Zhao, Jiangqi; He, Xu; Zhang, Xiaofang; Li, Qingye; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Canhui

    2017-11-01

    Inspired from fishscales, membranes with special surface wettability have been applied widely for the treatment of oily waste water. Herein, a novel superhydrophilic graphene oxide (GO)@electrospun cellulose nanofiber (CNF) membrane was successfully fabricated. This membrane exhibited a high separation efficiency, excellent antifouling properties, as well as a high flux for the gravity-driven oil/water separation. Moreover, the GO@CNF membrane was capable to effectively separate oil/water mixtures in a broad pH range or with a high concentration of salt, suggesting that this membrane was quite promising for future real-world practice in oil spill cleanup and oily wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A 1 V supercapacitor device with nanostructured graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Attractive supercapacitor performance, namely high-power capability and cycling stability for graphene ... performance tested. A comparative study has also been conducted for polyaniline and graphene oxide/polyaniline composite-based 1 V supercapacitors for comprehending ..... Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers).

  11. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  12. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Yun, Kyusik; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml −1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml −1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml −1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside. (paper)

  13. A highly efficient flocculant for graphene oxide recycling and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Ruiying; Pan, Hui; Ma, Yuning; Mao, Lin; Li, Yao; Wang, Dawei; Zhang, Di; Zhu, Shenmin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we found a novel and efficient way of recycling graphene oxide (GO) by adding ZnO colloid into the GO solution. GO flocculates immediately when mixed with ZnO colloids. Interestingly, the flocculation would disappear and disperse homogeneously in solution if a certain amount of HCl is added. The study offers a solution to recover and reuse GO throughout its production procedures. More importantly, in the obtained reduced GO/ZnO (rGO/ZnO) flocculant, ZnO nanorods are observed self-assembled into an ordered structure in between the rGO sheets. This prevents the rGO sheets from re-stacking and facilitates the movement of the electrolyte into ZnO if the prepared rGO/ZnO is used as an electrode for supercapacitor. Electrochemical measurements have proved that the rGO/ZnO composite with a weight ratio of 1:1 exhibits a gravimetric specific capacitance of 175 F g-1 and the rGO/ZnO electrode maintains 89.6% of the initial capacitance after 5000 cycles of uses.

  14. High adhesion transparent conducting films using graphene oxide hybrid carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, Shi-Xun; Wang, Jie; Geng, Hong-Zhang; Jia, Song-Lin; Xu, Chun-Xia; Li, Lin-Ge; Shi, Pei-Pei; Li, Guangfen

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The GO hybrid CNTs to fabricate TCFs could dramatically enhance the conductivity, adhesion, flatness, and wettability of the films, all these improvements are advantageous for optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • TCFs were fabricated using GO/CNT hybrid inks by a simple spray method. • Conductivity of TCFs was improved through the hybrid of GO/CNT, sheet resistance of TCFs was 146 Ω/sq at the transmittance of 86.0% when the ratio of GO/CNT got 1.5:1.0. • The flatness and wettability of TCFs were improved dramatically, which is advantageous for the solution-based processing of organic electronics for spraying and printing. • The adhesion of the TCFs increased dramatically with the raise of the ratio GO/CNT hybrid. - Abstract: Flexible transparent conducting films (TCFs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted more and more attention for their wide range of potential applications. While, there are still some problems to be solved on several aspects. In this study, a graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (GO/CNT) hybrid TCF was fabricated through the simple spray coating method. GO sheets were introduced to form new electron transporting channels. It was found that the best optoelectronic property films were fabricated when the ratio of GO/CNT is 1.5:1.0, which the sheet resistance of the film was found to be 146 Ω/sq at the transmittance of 86.0%. Due to the two-dimensional structure and the oxidation groups of GO sheets, flatness and wettability of the electrode surface was improved obviously. Adhesion factor of the TCFs was calculated by the change of transparent and sheet resistance after trial test, the addition of GO sheets enhanced the adhesion dramatically and the mechanism was analyzed. Improvements of conductivity, flatness, wettability and adhesion above are all advantageous for the solution-based processing of organic electronics for spraying and printing.

  15. High adhesion transparent conducting films using graphene oxide hybrid carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Shi-Xun; Wang, Jie; Geng, Hong-Zhang, E-mail: genghz@tjpu.edu.cn; Jia, Song-Lin; Xu, Chun-Xia; Li, Lin-Ge; Shi, Pei-Pei; Li, Guangfen

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The GO hybrid CNTs to fabricate TCFs could dramatically enhance the conductivity, adhesion, flatness, and wettability of the films, all these improvements are advantageous for optoelectronic applications. - Highlights: • TCFs were fabricated using GO/CNT hybrid inks by a simple spray method. • Conductivity of TCFs was improved through the hybrid of GO/CNT, sheet resistance of TCFs was 146 Ω/sq at the transmittance of 86.0% when the ratio of GO/CNT got 1.5:1.0. • The flatness and wettability of TCFs were improved dramatically, which is advantageous for the solution-based processing of organic electronics for spraying and printing. • The adhesion of the TCFs increased dramatically with the raise of the ratio GO/CNT hybrid. - Abstract: Flexible transparent conducting films (TCFs) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted more and more attention for their wide range of potential applications. While, there are still some problems to be solved on several aspects. In this study, a graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (GO/CNT) hybrid TCF was fabricated through the simple spray coating method. GO sheets were introduced to form new electron transporting channels. It was found that the best optoelectronic property films were fabricated when the ratio of GO/CNT is 1.5:1.0, which the sheet resistance of the film was found to be 146 Ω/sq at the transmittance of 86.0%. Due to the two-dimensional structure and the oxidation groups of GO sheets, flatness and wettability of the electrode surface was improved obviously. Adhesion factor of the TCFs was calculated by the change of transparent and sheet resistance after trial test, the addition of GO sheets enhanced the adhesion dramatically and the mechanism was analyzed. Improvements of conductivity, flatness, wettability and adhesion above are all advantageous for the solution-based processing of organic electronics for spraying and printing.

  16. Three-dimensional activated reduced graphene oxide nanocup/nickel aluminum layered double hydroxides composite with super high electrochemical and capacitance performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yan; Ruiyi, Li; Zaijun, Li; Junkang, Liu; Yinjun, Fang; Guangli, Wang; Zhiguo, Gu

    2013-01-01

    The paper reported a three-dimensional activated reduced graphene oxide nanocup/nickel aluminum layered double hydroxides composite (3D-ARGON/NiAl-LDH) with super high electrochemical and capacitance performances. Graphene oxide was reduced by hydrazine in ammonia medium to form three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide nanocup using polystyrene colloidal particle as sacrificial template. The nanocup was then activated by the alkali corrosion and thermal annealing. The 3D-ARGON/NiAl-LDH was finally fabricated by the hydrothermal synthesis via in situ growth of ultrathin NiAl-LDH nanoflakes on the 3D-ARGON in an ethanol medium. The study demonstrated that the composite offers special 3D architecture with a macropore on the rim of a cup and large mesoporous structure on the wall of a cup, which will greatly boost the electron transfer and mass transport during the faradaic redox reaction, and displays excellent electrochemical and capactance performances, including high specific capacitance and rate capability, good charge/discharge stability and long-term cycling life. Its maximum specific capacitance was found to be 2712.7 F g −1 at the current density of 1 A g −1 , which is more than 7-fold that of pure NiAl-LDH, 3-fold that of common reduced graphene oxide/NiAl-LDH and 1.8-fold that of two-dimensional activated reduced graphene oxide/NiAl-LDH. The specific capacitance can remain 1174 F g −1 when the current density increases up to 50 A g −1 . After 5000 cycles at the current density of 30 A g −1 , the capacitance can keep at least 98.9%. This study provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of graphene-based materials with largely enhanced supercapacitor behaviors, which can be potentially applied in energy storage/conversion devices

  17. Small-sized PdCu nanocapsules on 3D graphene for high-performance ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    HuThese Authors Contributed Equally To This Work., Chuangang; Zhai, Xiangquan; Zhao, Yang; Bian, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Qu, Liangti; Zhang, Huimin; Luo, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells.A one-pot solvothermal process has been developed for direct preparation of PdCu nanocapsules (with a size of ca. 10 nm) on three-dimensional (3D) graphene. Due to the 3D pore-rich network of graphene and the unique hollow structure of PdCu nanocapsules with a wall thickness of ca. 3 nm, the newly-prepared PdCu/3D graphene hybrids activated electrochemically have great electrocatalytic activity towards ethanol oxidation in alkaline media, much better than single-phase Pd and commercial E-TEK 20% Pt/C catalysts promising for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05722d

  18. Raman spectroscopy of sputtered metal-graphene and metal-oxide-graphene interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Gajek, Marcin; Freitag, Marcus; Kuroda, Marcelo; Perebeinos, Vasili; Raoux, Simone

    2012-02-01

    In this talk, we report our recent development in sputtering deposition of magnetic and non-magnetic metal and metal-oxide thin films on graphene for applications in spintronics and nanoeleoctronics. TEM and SEM images demonstrate homogeneous coverage, uniform thickness, and good crystallinity of the sputtered films. Raman spectroscopy shows that the structure of the underlying graphene is well preserved, and the spectral weight of the defect D mode is comparable to that of the e-beam evaporated samples. Most significantly, we report the first observation of graphene-enhanced surface excitations of crystalline materials. Specifically, we discover two pronounced dispersive Raman modes at the interface of graphene and the nickel-oxide and cobalt-oxide films which we attribute to the strong light absorption and high-order resonant scattering process in the graphene layer. We will present the frequency-dependent, polarization-dependent Raman data of these two modes and discuss their microscopic origin.

  19. Graphene oxide reduction by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Angela; Carotenuto, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to prepare thermal reduced graphene oxide (Tr-GO) colloidal suspensions by microwave heating of graphene oxide (GO) suspensions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has been investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and absorption and emission spectroscopy characterization, such a type of thermal reduction does not lead to graphene quantum dots formation because only mono-functional oxygen-containing groups are removed.

  20. Graphene oxide reduction by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Angela; Carotenuto, Gianfranco [Institute for Polymers, Composites, and Biomaterials, National Research Council, Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    The possibility to prepare thermal reduced graphene oxide (Tr-GO) colloidal suspensions by microwave heating of graphene oxide (GO) suspensions in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) has been investigated. According to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and absorption and emission spectroscopy characterization, such a type of thermal reduction does not lead to graphene quantum dots formation because only mono-functional oxygen-containing groups are removed.

  1. Study of mechanism involved in synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide from graphene nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhasha; Shekhar, Shashank; Malik, Parul; Jain, Purnima

    2018-06-01

    Graphene, a wonder material has inspired quest among researchers due to its numerous applications and exceptional properties. This paper highlights the mechanism and chemistry behind the fabrication of graphene oxide by using phosphoric acid. Chemical functionalization is of prime importance which avoids agglomeration of nanoparticles to attain inherent properties. As non-homogeneous dispersion limits its utilization due to interfacial interactions which restrict reactive sites to produce intercalated network. Thus, chemically functionalized graphene leads to stable dispersion and enhances thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of the resultant polymer composite materials. Solubility of graphene in aqueous solution is the major issue because graphene is hydrophobic, to rectify this oxygen containing hydrophilic groups must be introduced to make it compatible and this can be attained by covalent functionalization. Among all nanofiller GO has shown average particle size i.e. 95 nm and highest surface charge density. The characteristic changes were estimated using Raman spectra.

  2. A facile synthesis of reduced holey graphene oxide for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinjun; Bai, Dongchen; Wu, Yiqi; Chen, Songbo; Ma, Yu; Lu, Yue; Chao, Yuanzhi; Bai, Yongxiao

    2017-12-12

    Hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) generated from a UV/O 3 solution reaction is used to efficiently etch graphene oxide nanosheets under moderate conditions. Reduced holey graphene oxide is directly used as a supercapacitor electrode material and exhibits high specific capacitance (224 F g -1 at a current density of 1 A g -1 ) and high volumetric capacitance (up to 206 F cm -3 ).

  3. Mesoporous anatase TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites: A simple template-free synthesis and their high photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhong, Yong-Hui; Chen, Xing; Huang, Xing-Jiu; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous TiO 2 nanoparticles with anatase phase were assembled on reduced graphene oxide via a template-free one-step hydrothermal method. • The TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites have better adsorption capacity and photocatalytic degradation efficiency for dyes removal. • Improved dye adsorption and photogenerated charge separation are responsible for enhanced activity. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase phase TiO 2 was assembled on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using a template-free one-step hydrothermal process. The nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area. Morphology of TiO 2 was related to the content of graphene oxide. TiO 2 /rGO nanocomposites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the photo-degradation of methyl orange. The degradation rate was 4.5 times greater than that of pure TiO 2 nanoparticles. This difference was attributed to the thin two-dimensional graphene sheet. The graphene sheet had a large surface area, high adsorption capacity, and acted as a good electron acceptor for the transfer of photo-generated electrons from the conduction band of TiO 2 . The enhanced surface adsorption characteristics and excellent charge transport separation were independent properties of the photocatalytic degradation process

  4. Hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere with reduced graphene oxide supporter for a highly efficient photodegradation of methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Centre of Research in Nanotechnology and Catalysis (NanoCat), Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2013-10-15

    A facile one-pot method for the fabrication of high quality self-assembled hierarchically ordered macro-mesoporous ZnS microsphere–reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite without the use of templates or surfactants is described. During the hydrothermal process, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was loaded into the ZnS microsphere by in situ reduction of graphene oxide added in the self-assembly system. The morphology and structure of the as-prepared composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Incorporation of reduced graphene oxide as an excellent electron-transporting material effectively suppresses the charge recombination. Hence, a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue was observed with the ZnS–RGO composite, compared to the pure ZnS. Overall, this research results may lay down new vistas for the in situ fabrication of the ZnS–RGO composite as a highly efficient photocatalysis under visible-light irradiation and their applications in environmental protection.

  5. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  6. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  7. Design of 3D Graphene-Oxide Spheres and Their Derived Hierarchical Porous Structures for High Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuangnan; Gadipelli, Srinivas; Yang, Yuchen; Guo, Zhengxiao

    2017-11-01

    Graphene-oxide (GO) based porous structures are highly desirable for supercapacitors, as the charge storage and transfer can be enhanced by advancement in the synthesis. An effective route is presented of, first, synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) assembly of GO sheets in a spherical architecture (GOS) by flash-freezing of GO dispersion, and then development of hierarchical porous graphene (HPG) networks by facile thermal-shock reduction of GOS. This leads to a superior gravimetric specific capacitance of ≈306 F g -1 at 1.0 A g -1 , with a capacitance retention of 93% after 10 000 cycles. The values represent a significant capacitance enhancement by 30-50% compared with the GO powder equivalent, and are among the highest reported for GO-based structures from different chemical reduction routes. Furthermore, a solid-state flexible supercapacitor is fabricated by constructing the HPG with polymer gel electrolyte, exhibiting an excellent areal specific capacitance of ≈220 mF cm -2 at 1.0 mA cm -2 with exceptional cyclic stability. The work reveals a facile but efficient synthesis approach of GO-based materials to enhance the capacitive energy storage. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Interconnected 3 D Network of Graphene-Oxide Nanosheets Decorated with Carbon Dots for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao; Li, Ming; Dong, Hanwu; Liu, Yingliang; Hu, Hang; Cai, Yijin; Liang, Yeru; Xiao, Yong; Zheng, Mingtao

    2017-06-22

    Interconnected 3 D nanosheet networks of reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (rGO/CDs) are successfully fabricated through a simple one-pot hydrothermal process. The as-prepared rGO/CDs present appropriate 3 D interconnectivity and abundant stable oxygen-containing functional groups, to which we can attribute the excellent electrochemical performance such as high specific capacitance, good rate capability, and great cycling stability. Employed as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors, the resulting rGO/CDs exhibit excellent long-term cycling stability (ca. 92 % capacitance retention after 20 000 charge/discharge cycles at current density of 10 A g -1 ) as well as a maximum specific capacitance of about 308 F g -1 at current density of 0.5 A g -1 , which is much higher than that of rGO (200 F g -1 ) and CDs (2.2 F g -1 ). This work provides a promising strategy to fabricate graphene-based nanomaterials with greatly boosted electrochemical performances by decoration of with CDs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Highly sensitive amperometric biosensor based on electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide-chitosan/hemoglobin nanocomposite for nitromethane determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yunping; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Xiuhua; Wang, Shengfu

    2016-05-15

    Nitromethane (CH3NO2) is an important organic chemical raw material with a wide variety of applications as well as one of the most common pollutants. Therefore it is pretty important to establish a simple and sensitive detection method for CH3NO2. In our study, a novel amperometric biosensor for nitromethane (CH3NO2) based on immobilization of electrochemically-reduced graphene oxide (rGO), chitosan (CS) and hemoglobin (Hb) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the Hb-CS/rGO-CS composite film. The effects of scan rate and pH of phosphate buffer on the biosensor have been studied in detail and optimized. Due to the graphene and chitosan nanocomposite, the developed biosensor demonstrating direct electrochemistry with faster electron-transfer rate (6.48s(-1)) and excellent catalytic activity towards CH3NO2. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibited fast amperometric response (<5s) to CH3NO2 with a wide linear range of 5 μM~1.46 mM (R=0.999) and a low detection limit of 1.5 μM (S/N=3). In addition, the biosensor had high selectivity, reproducibility and stability, providing the possibility for monitoring CH3NO2 in complex real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduction of graphene oxide and its effect on square resistance of reduced graphene oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Yin; Li, Guang Bin; Wang, Shaohong; Wang, Mei Han; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Siming [Liaoning Province Key Laboratory of New Functional Materials and Chemical Technology, School ofMechanical Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphite oxide was prepared via the modified Hummers’ method and graphene via chemical reduction. Deoxygenation efficiency of graphene oxide was compared among single reductants including sodium borohydride, hydrohalic acids, hydrazine hydrate, and vitamin C. Two-step reduction of graphene oxide was primarily studied. The reduced graphene oxide was characterized by XRD, TG, SEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Square resistance was measured as well. Results showed that films with single-step N2H4 reduction have the best transmittance and electrical conductivity with square resistance of ~5746 Ω/sq at 70% transmittance. This provided an experimental basis of using graphene for electronic device applications.

  11. In situ fabrication of nickel based oxide on nitrogen-doped graphene for high electrochemical performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denghui; Zhang, Mingmei; Wang, Ying; Yan, Zaoxue; Jing, Junjie; Xie, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we synthesize Ni(OH)2 homogeneous grown on nitrogen-doped graphene (Ni(OH)2/NG), subsequently, small and uniform nickel oxide nanoparticle (NiO/NG) is also successfully obtained through tube furnace calcination method. The high specific capacitance of the NiO/NG electrode can reach to 1314.1 F/g at a charge and discharge current density of 2 A/g, meanwhile the specific capacitance of Ni(OH)2/NG electrode is also 1350 F/g. The capacitance of NiO/NG can remain 93.7% of the maximum value after 1000 cycles, while the Ni(OH)2/NG electrode losses 16.9% of the initial capacitance after 1000 cycles. It can be attributed to nickel hydroxide instability during charge-discharge cycles.

  12. Micro-Spherical Sulfur/Graphene Oxide Composite via Spray Drying for High Performance Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Sun, Zhenghao; Zhang, Yongguang; Yin, Fuxing

    2018-01-01

    An efficient, industry-accepted spray drying method was used to synthesize micro-spherical sulfur/graphene oxide (S/GO) composites as cathode materials within lithium sulfur batteries. The as-designed wrapping of the sulfur-nanoparticles, with wrinkled GO composites, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The unique morphological design of this material enabled superior discharge capacity and cycling performance, demonstrating a high initial discharge capacity of 1400 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C. The discharge capacity remained at 828 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance indicates that the S/GO composite improves electrical conductivity and alleviates the shuttle effect. This study represents the first time such a facile spray drying method has been adopted for lithium sulfur batteries and used in the fabrication of S/GO composites. PMID:29346303

  13. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped Ag nanostructures for enhanced SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anju K.; Kala, M. S.; Thomas, Sabu; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar

    2018-04-01

    Graphene - metal nanoparticle hybrids have received great attention due to their unique electronic properties, large specific surface area, very high conductivity and more charge transfer. Thus, it is extremely advantages to develop a simple and efficient process to disperse metal nanostructures over the surface of graphene sheets. Herein, we report a hydrothermal assisted strategy for developing reduced graphene oxide /Ag nanomorphotypes (cube, wire) for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications, considering the advantages of synergistic effect of graphene and plasmonic properties of Ag nanomorphotypes.

  14. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenkun; Chen, Tao; Li, Yi; Lei, Jia; Chen, Xin; Yao, Weitang; Duan, Tao

    2017-05-16

    This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level 'brick-and-mortar' (B&M) structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car) nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young's modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  15. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  16. Graphene oxide and H2 production from bioelectrochemical graphite oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zeng, Cuiping; Wang, Luda; Yin, Xiaobo; Jin, Song; Lu, Anhuai; Jason Ren, Zhiyong

    2015-11-17

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an emerging material for energy and environmental applications, but it has been primarily produced using chemical processes involving high energy consumption and hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported a new bioelectrochemical method to produce GO from graphite under ambient conditions without chemical amendments, value-added organic compounds and high rate H2 were also produced. Compared with abiotic electrochemical electrolysis control, the microbial assisted graphite oxidation produced high rate of graphite oxide and graphene oxide (BEGO) sheets, CO2, and current at lower applied voltage. The resultant electrons are transferred to a biocathode, where H2 and organic compounds are produced by microbial reduction of protons and CO2, respectively, a process known as microbial electrosynthesis (MES). Pseudomonas is the dominant population on the anode, while abundant anaerobic solvent-producing bacteria Clostridium carboxidivorans is likely responsible for electrosynthesis on the cathode. Oxygen production through water electrolysis was not detected on the anode due to the presence of facultative and aerobic bacteria as O2 sinkers. This new method provides a sustainable route for producing graphene materials and renewable H2 at low cost, and it may stimulate a new area of research in MES.

  17. From Graphene Oxide to Reduced Graphene Oxide: Impact on the Physiochemical and Mechanical Properties of Graphene-Cement Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Aliakbar; Valizadeh Kiamahalleh, Meisam; Tran, Diana N H; Ozbakkaloglu, Togay; Losic, Dusan

    2017-12-13

    Graphene materials have been extensively explored and successfully used to improve performances of cement composites. These formulations were mainly optimized based on different dosages of graphene additives, but with lack of understanding of how other parameters such as surface chemistry, size, charge, and defects of graphene structures could impact the physiochemical and mechanical properties of the final material. This paper presents the first experimental study to evaluate the influence of oxygen functional groups of graphene and defectiveness of graphene structures on the axial tension and compression properties of graphene-cement mortar composites. A series of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) samples with different levels of oxygen groups (high, mild, and low) were prepared by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using different concentrations of hydrazine (wt %, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4%) and different reduction times (5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min) and were added to cement mortar composites at an optimal dosage of 0.1%. A series of characterization methods including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to determine the distribution and mixing of the prepared rGO in the cement matrix and were correlated with the observed mechanical properties of rGO-cement mortar composites. The measurement of the axial tension and compression properties revealed that the oxygen level of rGO additives has a significant influence on the mechanical properties of cement composites. An addition of 0.1% rGO prepared by 15 min reduction and 0.2% (wt %) hydrazine with mild level of oxygen groups resulted in a maximum enhancement of 45.0 and 83.7%, respectively, in the 28-day tensile and compressive strengths in comparison with the plain cement mortar and were higher compared to the composite prepared with GO (37.5 and 77.7%, respectively). These

  18. Electrical behavior of amide functionalized graphene oxide and graphene oxide films annealed at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Sumita; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Films of graphene oxide (GO) and amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were deposited on SiO 2 /Si(100) by spin coating and were thermally annealed at different temperatures. Sheet resistance of GO and AGOs films was measured using four probe resistivity method. GO an insulator at room temperature, exhibits decrease in sheet resistance with increase in annealing temperature. However, AGOs' low sheet resistance (250.43 Ω) at room temperature further decreases to 39.26 Ω after annealing at 800 °C. It was observed that the sheet resistance of GO was more than AGOs up to 700 °C, but effect was reversed after annealing at higher temperature. At higher annealing temperatures the oxygen functionality reduces in GO and sheet resistance decreases. Sheet resistance was found to be annealing time dependent. Longer duration of annealing at a particular temperature results in decrease of sheet resistance. - Highlights: • Amide functionalized graphene oxides (AGOs) were synthesized at room temperature (RT). • AGO films have low sheet resistance at RT as compared to graphene oxide (GO). • Fast decrease in the sheet resistance of GO with annealing as compared to AGOs • AGOs were found to be highly dispersible in polar solvents

  19. Hairy Graphenes: Wrapping Nanocellulose Nets around Graphene Oxide Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Kim, Ho Shin; Korolovych, Volodymyr F; Zhang, Shuaidi; Yingling, Yaroslava; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2018-04-17

    Constructing advanced functional nanomaterials with pre-designed organized morphologies from low-dimension synthetic and biological components is extremely challenging because of complex inter-component interactions, high-aspect ratios, flexible shapes, crumpling instabilities and limited common wet-chemistry processing conditions. Herein, we report an efficient and universal amphiphilicity-driven assembly strategy to construct "hairy" flexible hybrid nanosheets with the net of 1D cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) conformally wrapped around 2D graphene oxide (GO) monolayers. This interface-driven bio-synthetic assembly is facilitated by variable amphiphilic interfacial balance via tailoring the surface chemistry of flexible GO sheets as controllably pre-oxidized 2D template cores, resulting in individual sheets tightly surrounded by dense conformal nanocellulose network. These nanocellulose-net wrapped GO nanosheets demonstrate extremely high compressive elastic modulus above 180 GPa due to the strong bonding between nanofibers and GO sheets and arrest of the buckling events. This unique mechanical stability far exceeds the compressive instability limits of both individual components, 1D cellulose nanofibers and 2D graphene monolayers. Additionally, the presence of CNF reinforced nanocellulose network significantly enhances the wetting ability of initial hydrophobic reduced GO nanosheets, enabling the long-term stability of CNFs-rGO dispersion and allowing fast water transport combined with high filtration efficiency for CNFs-rGO membranes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Charge storage mechanisms of manganese oxide nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Seubsai, Anusorn; Chanlek, Narong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Sangthong, Winyoo; Maensiri, Santi; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Nilmoung, Sukanya; Pannopard, Panvika; Ittisanronnachai, Somlak; Kongpatpanich, Kanokwan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2016-11-01

    Although manganese oxide- and graphene-based supercapacitors have been widely studied, their charge storage mechanisms are not yet fully investigated. In this work, we have studied the charge storage mechanisms of K-birnassite MnO2 nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOae) using an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and an electrochemical quart crystal microbalance (EQCM). The oxidation number of Mn at the MnO2 electrode is +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the charging process and gets oxidized to +3.12 at +0.8 V vs. SCE and then reduced back to +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the discharging process. The mass change of solvated ions, inserted to the layers of MnO2 during the charging process is 7.4 μg cm-2. Whilst, the mass change of the solvated ions at the N-rGOae electrode is 8.4 μg cm-2. An asymmetric supercapacitor of MnO2//N-rGOae (CR2016) provides a maximum specific capacitance of ca. 467 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, a maximum specific power of 39 kW kg-1 and a specific energy of 40 Wh kg-1 with a wide working potential of 1.6 V and 93.2% capacity retention after 7,500 cycles. The MnO2//N-rGOae supercapacitor may be practically used in high power and energy applications.

  1. Charge storage mechanisms of manganese oxide nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Seubsai, Anusorn; Chanlek, Narong; Kidkhunthod, Pinit; Sangthong, Winyoo; Maensiri, Santi; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Nilmoung, Sukanya; Pannopard, Panvika; Ittisanronnachai, Somlak; Kongpatpanich, Kanokwan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2016-01-01

    Although manganese oxide- and graphene-based supercapacitors have been widely studied, their charge storage mechanisms are not yet fully investigated. In this work, we have studied the charge storage mechanisms of K-birnassite MnO2 nanosheets and N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOae) using an in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and an electrochemical quart crystal microbalance (EQCM). The oxidation number of Mn at the MnO2 electrode is +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the charging process and gets oxidized to +3.12 at +0.8 V vs. SCE and then reduced back to +3.01 at 0 V vs. SCE for the discharging process. The mass change of solvated ions, inserted to the layers of MnO2 during the charging process is 7.4 μg cm−2. Whilst, the mass change of the solvated ions at the N-rGOae electrode is 8.4 μg cm−2. An asymmetric supercapacitor of MnO2//N-rGOae (CR2016) provides a maximum specific capacitance of ca. 467 F g−1 at 1 A g−1, a maximum specific power of 39 kW kg−1 and a specific energy of 40 Wh kg−1 with a wide working potential of 1.6 V and 93.2% capacity retention after 7,500 cycles. The MnO2//N-rGOae supercapacitor may be practically used in high power and energy applications. PMID:27857225

  2. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Rakov, Eduard G; Deryabin, Dmitry G

    2015-01-01

    The plate-like graphene shells (GS) produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide paper (GO-P) were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials' toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., "membrane stress") as a clue to graphene oxide's mechanism of toxicity.

  3. A highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for catechol using conducting polymer reduced graphene oxide-metal oxide enzyme modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, V; Muthuraja, P; Anandha Raj, J; Manisankar, P

    2016-10-15

    The fabrication, characterization and analytical performances were investigated for a catechol biosensor, based on the PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO composite modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The graphene oxide (GO) doped conducting polymer poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) was prepared through electrochemical polymerization by potential cycling. Reduction of PEDOT-GO was carried out by amperometric method. Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized in ethanol by hydrothermal method. The mixture of Fe2O3, PPO and glutaraldehyde was casted on the PEDOT-rGO electrode. The surface morphology of the modified electrodes was studied by FE-SEM and AFM. Cyclic voltammetric studies of catechol on the enzyme modified electrode revealed higher reduction peak current. Determination of catechol was carried out successfully by Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) technique. The fabricated biosensor investigated shows a maximum current response at pH 6.5. The catechol biosensor exhibited wide sensing linear range from 4×10(-8) to 6.20×10(-5)M, lower detection limit of 7×10(-9)M, current maxima (Imax) of 92.55µA and Michaelis-Menten (Km) constant of 30.48µM. The activation energy (Ea) of enzyme electrode is 35.93KJmol(-1) at 50°C. There is no interference from d-glucose and l-glutamic acid, ascorbic acid and o-nitrophenol. The PEDOT-rGO-Fe2O3-PPO biosensor was stable for at least 75 days when stored in a buffer at about 4°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High degree reduction and restoration of graphene oxide on SiO2 at low temperature via remote Cu-assisted plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Seiji; Sato, Minoru; Akada, Keishi; Saiki, Koichiro

    2018-06-01

    A high throughput synthesis method of graphene has been required for a long time to apply graphene to industrial applications. Of the various synthesis methods, the chemical exfoliation of graphite via graphene oxide (GO) is advantageous as far as productivity is concerned; however, the quality of the graphene produced by this method is far inferior to that synthesized by other methods, such as chemical vapor deposition on metals. Developing an effective reduction and restoration method for GO on dielectric substrates has been therefore a key issue. Here, we present a method for changing GO deposited on a dielectric substrate into high crystallinity graphene at 550 °C this method uses CH4/H2 plasma and a Cu catalyst. We found that Cu remotely catalyzed the high degree reduction and restoration of GO on SiO2 and the effect ranged over at least 8 mm. With this method, field-effect transistor devices can be fabricated without any post treatment such as a transfer process. This plasma treatment increased electron and hole mobilities of GO to 480 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 and 460 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 respectively; these values were more than 50 times greater than that of conventional reduced GO. Furthermore, the on-site conversion ensured that the shape of the GO sheets remained unchanged after the treatment. This plasma treatment realizes the high throughput synthesis of a desired shaped graphene on any substrate without any residue and damage being caused by the transfer process; as such, it expands the potential applicability of graphene.

  5. Green reduction of graphene oxide using alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiabin; Salihi, Elif Caliskan; Šiller, Lidija

    2017-01-01

    There remains a real need for the easy, eco-friendly and scalable preparation method of graphene due to various potential applications. Chemical reduction is the most versatile method for the large scale production of graphene. Here we report the operating conditions for a one-step, economical and green synthesis method for the reduction of graphene oxide using a biomolecule (alanine). Graphene oxide was produced by the oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite flake with strong oxidants using Hummers method (Hummers and Offeman, 1958), but the method was revised in our laboratory to set up a safe and environmentally friendly route. The reduction of graphene oxide was investigated using alanine at various operating conditions in order to set up optimum conditions (treatment time, temperature and concentration of the reagent). Samples have been characterized by using UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • An environmentally friendly route was reported for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO). • Alanine could reduce GO to rGO (reduced graphene oxide) without using any stabilizer or alcaline medium. • Characterization studies confirmed the successful deoxygenation of GO.

  6. Green reduction of graphene oxide using alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiabin [Newcastle University, School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Salihi, Elif Caliskan, E-mail: caliskanelif@gmail.com [Newcastle University, School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Marmara University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, 34668 Istanbul (Turkey); Šiller, Lidija [Newcastle University, School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    There remains a real need for the easy, eco-friendly and scalable preparation method of graphene due to various potential applications. Chemical reduction is the most versatile method for the large scale production of graphene. Here we report the operating conditions for a one-step, economical and green synthesis method for the reduction of graphene oxide using a biomolecule (alanine). Graphene oxide was produced by the oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite flake with strong oxidants using Hummers method (Hummers and Offeman, 1958), but the method was revised in our laboratory to set up a safe and environmentally friendly route. The reduction of graphene oxide was investigated using alanine at various operating conditions in order to set up optimum conditions (treatment time, temperature and concentration of the reagent). Samples have been characterized by using UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. - Highlights: • An environmentally friendly route was reported for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO). • Alanine could reduce GO to rGO (reduced graphene oxide) without using any stabilizer or alcaline medium. • Characterization studies confirmed the successful deoxygenation of GO.

  7. Toxicity of Graphene Shells, Graphene Oxide, and Graphene Oxide Paper Evaluated with Escherichia coli Biotests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila V. Efremova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The plate-like graphene shells (GS produced by an original methane pyrolysis method and their derivatives graphene oxide (GO and graphene oxide paper (GO-P were evaluated with luminescent Escherichia coli biotests and additional bacterial-based assays which together revealed the graphene-family nanomaterials’ toxicity and bioactivity mechanisms. Bioluminescence inhibition assay, fluorescent two-component staining to evaluate cell membrane permeability, and atomic force microscopy data showed GO expressed bioactivity in aqueous suspension, whereas GS suspensions and the GO-P surface were assessed as nontoxic materials. The mechanism of toxicity of GO was shown not to be associated with oxidative stress in the targeted soxS::lux and katG::lux reporter cells; also, GO did not lead to significant mechanical disruption of treated bacteria with the release of intracellular DNA contents into the environment. The well-coordinated time- and dose-dependent surface charge neutralization and transport and energetic disorders in the Escherichia coli cells suggest direct membrane interaction, internalization, and perturbation (i.e., “membrane stress” as a clue to graphene oxide’s mechanism of toxicity.

  8. Graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor for synthesis of 3D graphene-supported ultrafine TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites for high-rate lithium-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Gu, Guifang; Ni, Wei; Guan, Qun; Li, Yinchuan; Wang, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional graphene-supported TiO2 nanorod nanocomposites (3D GS-TNR) are prepared using graphene oxide hydrogel as a restricted-area nanoreactor in the hydrothermal process, in which well-distributed TiO2 nanorods with a width of approximately 5 nm and length of 30 nm are conformally embedded in the 3D interconnected graphene network. The 3D graphene oxide not only works as a restricted-area nanoreactor to constrain the size, distribution and morphology of the TiO2; it also work as a highly interconnected conducting network to facilitate electrochemical reactions and maintain good structural integration when the nanocomposites are used as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Benefiting from the nanostructure, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show high capacity and excellent long-term cycling capability at high current rates. The 3D GS-TNR composites deliver a high initial charge capacity of 280 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and maintain a reversible capacity of 115 mAh g-1, with a capacity retention of 83% at 20 C after 1000 cycles. Meanwhile, compared with that of previously reported TiO2-based materials, the 3D GS-TNR nanocomposites show much better performance, including higher capacity, better rate capability and long-term cycling stability.

  9. One-Step Laser Patterned Highly Uniform Reduced Graphene Oxide Thin Films for Circuit-Enabled Tattoo and Flexible Humidity Sensor Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowoon Park

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of graphene oxide (GO into reduced graphene oxide (rGO is imperative for the electronic device applications of graphene-based materials. Efficient and cost-effective fabrication of highly uniform GO films and the successive reduction into rGO on a large area is still a cumbersome task through conventional protocols. Improved film casting of GO sheets on a polymeric substrate with quick and green reduction processes has a potential that may establish a path to the practical flexible electronics. Herein, we report a facile deposition process of GO on flexible polymer substrates to create highly uniform thin films over a large area by a flow-enabled self-assembly approach. The self-assembly of GO sheets was successfully performed by dragging the trapped solution of GO in confined geometry, which consisted of an upper stationary blade and a lower moving substrate on a motorized translational stage. The prepared GO thin films could be selectively reduced and facilitated from the simple laser direct writing process for programmable circuit printing with the desired configuration and less sample damage due to the non-contact mode operation without the use of photolithography, toxic chemistry, or high-temperature reduction methods. Furthermore, two different modes of the laser operating system for the reduction of GO films turned out to be valuable for the construction of novel graphene-based high-throughput electrical circuit boards compatible with integrating electronic module chips and flexible humidity sensors.

  10. Tuning inner-layer oxygen functional groups of reduced graphene oxide by potentiostatic oxidation for high performance electrochemical energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huixin; Feng, Bingmei; Ye, Yifan; Guo, Jinghua; Fang, Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Tuning inner-layer oxygen functional groups of reduced graphene oxide by potentiostatic oxidation in carbonate-based electrolyte improves the electrochemical performance. - Abstract: The electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of oxygen-containing functional groups (OCFGs) of nanocarbon materials, particularly graphene, have attracted intensive interest in recent years. Here, we propose a controllable potentiostatic oxidation approach to tune the OCFGs of as-prepared reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in a carbonate-based electrolyte to improve the specific capacity and rate capability. By X-Ray absorption spectroscopy in total fluorescence yield mode and X-Ray diffraction, we confirm that potentiostatic oxidations generate new OCFGs in the inner-layer of rGO. The content of OCFGs increases as oxidation potential being elevated. Such increasing of OCFGs in quantity significantly enhances the capacity. For instance, the specific capacity of 170.4 mAh g −1 for pristine rGO electrode is increased to 290.5 mAh g −1 after the oxidation at 5.0 V. We demonstrate that oxidations at moderate potentials can reduce the electrochemical and ohmic polarizations of rGO electrodes without deteriorating diffusion dynamic, thereby improving rate capability. After the optimal oxidation at 4.7 V, rGO electrode exhibits an excellent rate capability, delivering 58.4 mAh g −1 at 20 A g −1 .

  11. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  12. Binder-free graphene and manganese oxide coated carbon felt anode for high-performance microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Yang, Xufei; Jiang, Yong; Bian, Yanhong; Chen, Chengmeng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-07-15

    A novel anode was developed by coating reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and manganese oxide (MnO2) composite on the carbon felt (CF) surface. With a large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity, this binder-free anode was found to effectively enhance the enrichment and growth of electrochemically active bacteria and facilitate the extracellular electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) equipped with the rGO/MnO2/CF anode delivered a maximum power density of 2065mWm(-2), 154% higher than that with a bare CF anode. The internal resistance of the MFC with this novel anode was 79Ω, 66% lower than the regular one's (234Ω). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses affirmed that the rGO/MnO2 composite significantly increased the anodic reaction rates and facilitated the electron transfer from the bacteria to the anode. The findings from this study suggest that the rGO/MnO2/CF anode, fabricated via a simple dip-coating and electro-deposition process, could be a promising anode material for high-performance MFC applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped FeS2 Composite as Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Guo, Can; Zhu, Yuxuan; He, Jiapeng; Wang, Hongqiang

    2018-06-01

    Iron disulfide is considered to be a potential anode material for sodium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, its applications are seriously limited by the weak conductivity and large volume change, which results in low reversible capacity and poor cycling stability. Herein, reduced graphene oxide-wrapped FeS2 (FeS2/rGO) composite was fabricated to achieve excellent electrochemical performance via a facile two-step method. The introduction of rGO effectively improved the conductivity, BET surface area, and structural stability of the FeS2 active material, thus endowing it with high specific capacity, good rate capability, as well as excellent cycling stability. Electrochemical measurements show that the FeS2/rGO composite had a high initial discharge capacity of 1263.2 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and a high discharge capacity of 344 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1, demonstrating superior rate performance. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity remained at 609.5 mAh g-1, indicating the excellent cycling stability of the FeS2/rGO electrode.

  14. Oxidation-assisted graphene heteroepitaxy on copper foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Nicolas; Tang, Xiaohui; Joucken, Frédéric; Lajaunie, Luc; Arenal, Raul; Dubois, Emmanuel; Hackens, Benoît; Henrard, Luc; Colomer, Jean-François

    2016-11-10

    We propose an innovative, easy-to-implement approach to synthesize aligned large-area single-crystalline graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition on copper foil. This method doubly takes advantage of residual oxygen present in the gas phase. First, by slightly oxidizing the copper surface, we induce grain boundary pinning in copper and, in consequence, the freezing of the thermal recrystallization process. Subsequent reduction of copper under hydrogen suddenly unlocks the delayed reconstruction, favoring the growth of centimeter-sized copper (111) grains through the mechanism of abnormal grain growth. Second, the oxidation of the copper surface also drastically reduces the nucleation density of graphene. This oxidation/reduction sequence leads to the synthesis of aligned millimeter-sized monolayer graphene domains in epitaxial registry with copper (111). The as-grown graphene flakes are demonstrated to be both single-crystalline and of high quality.

  15. Graphene Oxide/Silver Nanohybrid as Multi-functional Material for Highly Efficient Bacterial Disinfection and Detection of Organic Dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tam, L.T.; Dinh, N. X.; Cuong, N. V.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a multi-functional hybrid system consisting of graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag NPs) was successfully synthesized by using a two-step chemical process. We firstly demonstrated noticeable bactericidal ability of the GO-Ag hybrid system. We provide more chemo-physical ev......In this work, a multi-functional hybrid system consisting of graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles (GO-Ag NPs) was successfully synthesized by using a two-step chemical process. We firstly demonstrated noticeable bactericidal ability of the GO-Ag hybrid system. We provide more chemo...... media. With the aforementioned properties, the GO-Ag hybrid system is found to be very promising as a multi-functional material for advanced biomedicine and environmental monitoring applications....

  16. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Christine H. J.; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ˜124% (237 F g-1) with excellent cycling stability (˜93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors.

  17. Graphene oxide as a dual-function conductive binder for PEEK-derived microporous carbons in high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Christine H J; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Microporous carbons (MPCs) are promising electrode materials for supercapacitors because of their high surface area and accessible pores. However, their low electrical conductivity and mechanical instability result in limited power density and poor cycle life. This work proposes a unique two-layered film made of polyetheretherketone-derived MPCs and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterizations of films show that such a layered structure is more effective in increasing the accessibility of ions to the hydrophilic MPCs and establishing conductive paths through the rGO network than a simple mixed composite film. The two-layered structure increases the capacitance by ∼124% (237 F g −1 ) with excellent cycling stability (∼93% after 6000 cycles). More importantly, we demonstrate that such performance improvements result from an optimal balance between electrical conductivity and ion accessibility, which maximizes the synergistic effects of MPC and rGO. The MPCs, which are exposed to the surface, provide a highly accessible surface area for ion adsorption. The rGO serves a dual function as a conductive filler to increase the electrical conductivity and as a binder to interconnect individual MPC particles into a robust and flexible film. These findings provide a rational basis for the design of MPC-based electrodes in high performance supercapacitors. (paper)

  18. Thin, High-Flux, Self-Standing, Graphene Oxide Membranes for Efficient Hydrogen Separation from Gas Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouša, Daniel; Friess, Karel; Pilnáček, Kryštof; Vopička, Ondřej; Lanč, Marek; Fónod, Kristián; Pumera, Martin; Sedmidubský, David; Luxa, Jan; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-08-22

    The preparation and gas-separation performance of self-standing, high-flux, graphene oxide (GO) membranes is reported. Defect-free, 15-20 μm thick, mechanically stable, unsupported GO membranes exhibited outstanding gas-separation performance towards H 2 /CO 2 that far exceeded the corresponding 2008 Robeson upper bound. Remarkable separation efficiency of GO membranes for H 2 and bulky C 3 or C 4 hydrocarbons was achieved with high flux and good selectivity at the same time. On the contrary, N 2 and CH 4 molecules, with larger kinetic diameter and simultaneously lower molecular weight, relative to that of CO 2 , remained far from the corresponding H 2 /N 2 or H 2 /CH 4 upper bounds. Pore size distribution analysis revealed that the most abundant pores in GO material were those with an effective pore diameter of 4 nm; therefore, gas transport is not exclusively governed by size sieving and/or Knudsen diffusion, but in the case of CO 2 was supplemented by specific interactions through 1) hydrogen bonding with carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups and 2) the quadrupole moment. The self-standing GO membranes presented herein demonstrate a promising route towards the large-scale fabrication of high-flux, hydrogen-selective gas membranes intended for the separation of H 2 /CO 2 or H 2 /alkanes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qifeng; Cai, Zhiyong; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-11

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated without any binders, current collectors, or electroactive additives. Because of the porous structure of the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes and the excellent electrolyte absorption properties of the CNFs present in the aerogel electrodes, the resulting flexible supercapacitors exhibited a high specific capacitance (i.e., 252 F g(-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g(-1)) and a remarkable cycle stability (i.e., more than 99.5% of the capacitance was retained after 1000 charge-discharge cycles at a current density of 1 A g(-1)). Furthermore, the supercapacitors also showed extremely high areal capacitance, areal power density, and energy density (i.e., 216 mF cm(-2), 9.5 mW cm(-2), and 28.4 μWh cm(-2), respectively). In light of its excellent electrical performance, low cost, ease of large-scale manufacturing, and environmental friendliness, the CNF/RGO/CNT aerogel electrodes may have a promising application in the development of flexible energy-storage devices.

  20. Supporting Information Synthesis Procedure: Graphene oxide (GO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SS

    Synthesis Procedure: Graphene oxide (GO) was prepared by a modified Hummers method using expandable .... anode material for Li ion batteries, J. Solid State Electrochem. ... coupling, doping and nonadiabatic effects, Solid State Commun.

  1. Self-Assembled Hierarchical Formation of Conjugated 3D Cobalt Oxide Nanobead-CNT-Graphene Nanostructure Using Microwaves for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dubey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Dinesh Pratap; Yadav, Ram Manohar

    2015-07-15

    Here we report the electrochemical performance of a interesting three-dimensional (3D) structures comprised of zero-dimensional (0D) cobalt oxide nanobeads, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional (2D) graphene, stacked hierarchically. We have synthesized 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure comprised of cobalt oxide nanobeads (Co-nb), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene nanosheets (GNSs) for high-performance supercapacitor electrode application. This 3D self-assembled hierarchical nanostructure Co3O4 nanobeads-CNTs-GNSs (3D:Co-nb@CG) is grown at a large scale (gram) through simple, facile, and ultrafast microwave irradiation (MWI). In 3D:Co-nb@CG nanostructure, Co3O4 nanobeads are attached to the CNT surfaces grown on GNSs. Our ultrafast, one-step approach not only renders simultaneous growth of cobalt oxide and CNTs on graphene nanosheets but also institutes the intrinsic dispersion of carbon nanotubes and cobalt oxide within a highly conductive scaffold. The 3D:Co-nb@CG electrode shows better electrochemical performance with a maximum specific capacitance of 600 F/g at the charge/discharge current density of 0.7A/g in KOH electrolyte, which is 1.56 times higher than that of Co3O4-decorated graphene (Co-np@G) nanostructure. This electrode also shows a long cyclic life, excellent rate capability, and high specific capacitance. It also shows high stability after few cycles (550 cycles) and exhibits high capacitance retention behavior. It was observed that the supercapacitor retained 94.5% of its initial capacitance even after 5000 cycles, indicating its excellent cyclic stability. The synergistic effect of the 3D:Co-nb@CG appears to contribute to the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  2. Microwave exfoliated graphene oxide/TiO{sub 2} nanowire hybrid for high performance lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishtiaque Shuvo, Mohammad Arif; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Karim, Hasanul; Lin, Yirong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Islam, Md Tariqul; Noveron, Juan C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ramabadran, Navaneet [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lithium ion battery (LIB) is a key solution to the demand of ever-improving, high energy density, clean-alternative energy systems. In LIB, graphite is the most commonly used anode material; however, lithium-ion intercalation in graphite is limited, hindering the battery charge rate and capacity. To date, one of the approaches in LIB performance improvement is by using porous carbon (PC) to replace graphite as anode material. PC's pore structure facilitates ion transport and has been proven to be an excellent anode material candidate in high power density LIBs. In addition, to overcome the limited lithium-ion intercalation obstacle, nanostructured anode assembly has been extensively studied to increase the lithium-ion diffusion rate. Among these approaches, high specific surface area metal oxide nanowires connecting nanostructured carbon materials accumulation have shown promising results for enhanced lithium-ion intercalation. Herein, we demonstrate a hydrothermal approach of growing TiO{sub 2} nanowires (TON) on microwave exfoliated graphene oxide (MEGO) to further improve LIB performance over PC. This MEGO-TON hybrid not only uses the high surface area of MEGO but also increases the specific surface area for electrode–electrolyte interaction. Therefore, this new nanowire/MEGO hybrid anode material enhances both the specific capacity and charge–discharge rate. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for materials characterization. Battery analyzer was used for measuring the electrical performance of the battery. The testing results have shown that MEGO-TON hybrid provides up to 80% increment of specific capacity compared to PC anode.

  3. Reverse microemulsion synthesis of nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for high-performance supercapacitors and sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaoming; Liu, Yongchang; Wang, Luning; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Prussian blue analogues with tunable open channels are of fundamental and technological importance for energy storage systems. Herein, a novel facile synthesis of nickel-cobalt hexacyanoferrate/reduced graphene oxide (denoted as Ni-CoHCF/rGO) nanocomposite is realized by a reverse microemulsion method. The very fine Ni-CoHCF nanoparticles (10-20 nm) are homogeneously anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide by electrostatic adsorption and reduced graphene oxide is well-separated by Ni-CoHCF particles. Benefiting from the combined advantages of this structure, the Ni-. It CoHCF/rGO nanocomposite can be used as electrodes for both supercapacitors and sodium ion batteries exhibits excellent pseudocapacitve performance in terms of high specific capacitance of 466 F g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 and 350 F g-1 at 10 A g-1, along with high cycling stabilities. As a cathode material for sodium ion batteries, it also demonstrates a high reversible capacity of 118 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, good rate capability, and superior cycling stability. These results suggest its potential as an efficient electrode for high-performance energy storage and renewable delivery devices.

  4. A reduced graphene oxide-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor for highly sensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Gaina; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescence nanoprobe (reduced nano-graphene oxide [nrGO]/fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide [Pep-FITC]) for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the Pep-FITC comprising the specific MMP2 substrate domain (PLGVR) onto the surface of nrGO particles through non-covalent linkage. The nrGO was obtained by water bathing nano-graphene oxide under 90°C for 4 hours. After mixing the nrGO and Pep-FITC for 30 seconds, the fluorescence from Pep-FITC was almost completely quenched due to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and nrGO. Upon cleavage of the amide bond between Leu and Gly in the Pep-FITC by protease-MMP2, the FITC bound to nrGO was separated from nrGO surface, disrupting the fluorescence resonance energy transfer process and resulting in fluorescence recovery of FITC. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence recovery of nrGO/Pep-FITC was found to be directly proportional to the concentration of MMP2 within 0.02-0.1 nM. The detection limit of the nrGO/Pep-FITC was determined to be 3 pM, which is approximately tenfold lower than that of the unreduced carboxylated nano-graphene oxide/Pep-FITC probe.

  5. Decoration of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide with cobalt tungstate nanoparticles for use in high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Hamid Reza; Sobhani-Nasab, Ali; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    A composite of cobalt tungstate nanoparticles coated on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CoWO4/NRGO) was prepared through an in situ sonochemical approach. The composite was next evaluated as an electrode material for use supercapacitors electrodes. The characterization of the various CoWO4/NRGO nanocomposite samples was carried out through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Raman spectroscopy. Complementary studies were also performed through cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV). The electrochemical evaluations were carried out in a 2 M H2SO4 solution as the electrolyte. The electrochemical evaluations on the nano-composite samples indicated that CoWO4/NRGO-based electrodes reveal enhanced supercapacitive characteristics (i.e. a high specific capacitance (SC) of 597 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1, an energy density (ED) value of 67.9 W h kg-1, and high rate capability). CCV studies indicated that CoWO4/NRGO-based electrodes keep 97.1% of their original capacitance after 4000 cycles. The results led to the conclusion that CoWO4/NRGO effectively merge the merits of CoWO4 and CoWO4/RGO in one new nanocomposite material.

  6. Nanodiamond decorated liposomes as highly biocompatible delivery vehicles and a comparison with carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Juewen

    2013-12-21

    Studying interactions between nano-carbons and lipid membranes is important for multiplexed drug delivery, device fabrication and for understanding toxicity. Herein, we report that nanodiamond (ND, sp(3) carbon) forms a complex with highly biocompatible zwitterionic liposomes based on hydrogen bonding, which is confirmed by pH-dependent and urea-dependent assays. Despite such weak interaction, the complex is highly stable. Comparisons were made with two sp(2) carbons: nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), where CNT adsorption is the weakest. Adsorption of the nano-carbons does not induce liposome leakage or affect lipid phase transition temperature. Therefore, the potential toxicity of nano-carbons is unlikely to be related to direct membrane damage. ND facilitates cellular uptake of liposomes and co-delivery of negatively charged calcein and positively charged doxorubicin has been demonstrated. ND has the lowest toxicity, while CNTs and NGO are slightly more toxic. The effect of introducing fusogenic lipids and cholesterol was further studied to understand the effect of lipid formulation.

  7. Self-supporting activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide flexible electrode for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Yao; Song, Junhua; Yang, Wei; Wang, Mingshan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhao, Wengao; Zheng, Jianming; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-04-30

    A self-supporting and flexible activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AC/CNT/RGO) film has been rationally designed for constructing high- performance supercapacitor. The AC/CNT/RGO film is prepared by anchoring the AC particles with a 3D and porous framework built by hierarchically weaving the 1 D CNT and 2D RGO using their intrinsic van der Waals force. The CNT network is beneficial for improving the electronic conductivity of the electrode, while the AC particles could effectively suppress the aggregation of RGO and CNT due to their blocking effect. The synergistic effects among the AC, CNT and RGO validate the AC/CNT/RGO as a promising electrode for supercapacitor, exhibiting greatly enhanced electrochemical performances in comparison with the pure RGO film, pure CNT film and AC electrode. The AC/CNT/RGO electrode delivers a high specific capacitance of 101 F g-1 at the current density of 0.2 A g-1, offering a maximum energy density of 30.0 W h kg-1 in organic electrolyte at the cut-off voltage range of 0.001~3.0 V. The findings of this work open a new avenue for the design of self-supporting electrodes for the development of flexible and light weight energy storage supercapacitor.

  8. High performance dye-sensitized solar cells using graphene modified fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Ki-Min [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Eun-Hee; Chang, Hankwon [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Tae Hee [Department of Organic and Nano Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hee Dong, E-mail: hdjang@kigam.re.kr [Rare Metals Research Center, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Nanomaterials Science and Engineering Major, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Since the introduction of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with low fabrication cost and high power conversion efficiency, extensive studies have been carried out to improve the charge transfer rate and performance of DSSCs. In this paper, we present DSSCs that use surface modified fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates with reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) sheets prepared using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique to decrease the charge recombination at the TiO{sub 2}/FTO interface. R-GO sheets were excellently attached on FTO surface without physical deformations such as wrinkles; effects of the surface coverage of r-GO on the DSSC performance were also investigated. By using graphene modified FTO substrates, the resistance at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/FTO was reduced and the power conversion efficiency was increased to 8.44%. - Graphical abstract: DSSCs with graphene modified FTO glass were fabricated with the Langmuir Blodgett technique. GO sheets were transferred to FTO at various surface pressures in order to change the surface density of graphene and the highest power conversion efficiency of the DSSC was 8.44%. - Highlights: • By LB technique, r-GO sheets were coated on FTO without physical deformation. • DSSCs were fabricated with, r-GO modified FTO substrates. • With surface modification by r-GO, the interface resistance of DSSC decreased. • Maximum PCE of the DSSC was increased up to 8.44%.

  9. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenshuo; He, Dawei; Zhang, Xiqing; Duan, Jiahua; Wu, Hongpeng; Xu, Haiteng; Wang, Yongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Single sheets of functionalized graphene oxide are derived through chemical exfoliation of natural flake graphite. We present an effective synthetic method of graphene-gold nanoparticles hybrid nanocomposites. AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) was used to measure the thickness of the individual GO nanosheet. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy was used to verify the attachment of oxygen functionalities on the surface of graphene oxide. TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) data revealed the average diameters of the gold colloids and characterized the composite particles situation. Absorption spectroscopy showed that before and after synthesis the gold particle size did not change. Our studies indicate that the hybrid is potential substrates for catalysts and biosensors.

  10. Highly sensitive and selective detection of Bis-phenol A based on hydroxyapatite decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Mohammad K.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Elzwawy, Amir; Torati, Sri Ramulu; Islam, Mohammad S.; Todo, Mitsugu; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Kim, Dojin; Kim, CheolGi

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Simple chemical reduction method was used for preparation of reduced graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite (rGO/HAp) nanocomposites. •The rGO/HAp nanocomposites exhibited good biocompatibility with hMSCs. •Selective chemical sensor based on rGO/HAp nanocomposites was developed for detection of Bis-phenol A. •The fabricated rGO/HAp/Nafion/GCE sensor exhibited good detection limit of 60 pmol L −1 . -- Abstract: A facile and cost effective chemical reduction method is employed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite (rGO/HAp) nanocomposites. The transmission electron microscopy images revealed that the HAp flakes are well decorated on the surface of rGO. The morphological structure of the as-synthesized rGO/HAp nanocomposites was confirmed through X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, while the composition and thermal stability were analyzed by energy dispersive spectra and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of rGO/HAp nanocomposites for the proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell (hMSC) was performed to confirm the biocompatibility. A selective chemical sensor based on rGO/HAp modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for sensitive detection of Bis-phenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the BPA chemi-sensor were investigated and optimized at room conditions. The rGO/HAp/Nafion/GCE sensor offers a fast response and highly sensitive BPA detection. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 0.2 nmol L −1 to 2.0 mmol L −1 for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 60.0 pmol L −1 (signal-to-noise ratio, at an SNR of 3) and sensitivity of 18.98 × 10 4 μA.L/μmol.m 2 . Meanwhile, the fabricated chemi-sensor showed an excellent, specific and selective recognition to target BPA molecules among coexistence of other analytes in the buffer system. This novel effort initiated

  11. Casein mediated green synthesis and decoration of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Tammina, Sai Kumar; Kiran Kumar, H. A.

    This research is mainly focusing on one-step biosynthesis of graphene from graphene oxide and its stabilization using naturally occurring milk protein, casein. The synthesis of casein reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) was completed within 7 h under reflux at 90 °C with the formation of few layered fine graphene nanosheets. UV-Vis, XRD, XPS analysis data revealed the reduction process of the graphene oxide. Results of FT-IR, HPLC and TEM analysis have shown that the ensuing material consists of graphene decorated with casein molecules. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid residue present in casein molecules are responsible for the reduction of graphene oxide.

  12. Nematic phase formation in suspensions of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, Nathalie; Campidelli, Stéphane

    The last decade has seen the rise of graphene. Graphene is a single layer of graphite; it can be obtained by direct liquid phase exfoliation of the latter through harsh sonication. This technique presents the disadvantage to produce small graphene flakes (typically in the 0.05 to 0.4 μm2 range for the monolayers) and multilayer graphene with uncontrolled thickness distributions. In order to improve the exfoliation process, one has to counter the strong van der Waals interactions between the carbon planes of graphite. This implies to increase the distance between two planes and it can be done, for example, by oxidizing graphite to introduce oxygen species in the graphenic planes. The fabrication of graphite oxide is known for almost 150 years, and it became popular again these last ten years. Generally, the oxidation of graphite is performed following a method described by Hummers in the 1950's and the material produced by this technique exfoliates quasi-spontaneously into monolayer species called graphene oxide (GO). The highly anisotropic shape of GO (several μm in length and width for a thickness of ca. 1 nm) combined with the presence of oxygenated functions on the sp2 carbon structure of graphene lead to the formation of a lyotropic liquid crystalline phase in water. Above a certain concentration of graphene flakes the gain in translational entropy for a long-range ordered phase outweighs the loss in rotational entropy, and the liquid crystal phase then forms. The value of the threshold is affected by the aspect ratio of the graphene flakes but other factors such as the interactions also play a strong role.

  13. Corrosion study of the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide-based epoxy coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghauri, Faizan Ali; Raza, Mohsin Ali; Saad Baig, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Shoaib

    2017-12-01

    This work aims to determine the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) incorporation as filler on the corrosion protection ability of epoxy coatings in saline media. GO was derived from graphite powder following modified Hummers’ method, whereas rGO was obtained after reduction of GO with hydrazine solution. About 1 wt.% of GO or rGO were incorporated in epoxy resin by solution mixing process followed by ball milling. GO and rGO-based epoxy composite coatings were coated on mild steel substrates using film coater. The coated samples were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization tests after 1 and 24 h immersion in 3.5% NaCl. The results suggested that GO-based epoxy composite coatings showed high impedance and low corrosion rate.

  14. Fe2O3/Reduced Graphene Oxide/Fe3O4 Composite in Situ Grown on Fe Foil for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chongjun; Shao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yuxiao; Qian, Xiuzhen

    2016-11-09

    A Fe 2 O 3 /reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite in situ grown on Fe foil was synthesized via a simple one-step hydrothermal growth process, where the iron foil served as support, reductant of graphene oxide, Fe source of Fe 3 O 4 , and also the current collector of the electrode. When it directly acted as the electrode of a supercapacitor, as-synthesized Fe 2 O 3 /RGO/Fe 3 O 4 @Fe exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a high capability of 337.5 mF/cm 2 at 20 mA/cm 2 and a superior cyclability with 2.3% capacity loss from the 600th to the 2000th cycle.

  15. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated with Chitosan Oligosaccharide as Electrode Material for Enhancing the Direct Electron Transfer of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhimin; Yang, Dongliang; Qi, Guangqin; Yuwen, Lihui; Zhang, Yuqian; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei

    2015-04-29

    Water-dispersed reduced graphene oxide/chitosan oligosaccharide (RGO-CTSO) was prepared by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and synchronous functionalization with biocompatible chitosan oligosaccharide (CTSO). ζ potential measurement indicated that RGO-CTSO was highly stable in the acidic aqueous solution. RGO-CTSO was used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) as the growth template of Escherichia coli (E. coli). The enhanced direct electron transfer of E. coli on the RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Compared with GCE or RGO-modified GCE, RGO-CTSO-modified GCE was more suitable for the adhesion growth of E. coli to improve direct electron transfer. The biocompatibility and versatility of RGO-CTSO made it promising for use as an anode material in microbial fuel cells.

  16. Graphene Oxide flakes: methods and techniques for properties at interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Paola, Zuppella; Sara, Zuccon; Marco, Nardello; Jody, Corso Alain; Simone, Silvestrini; Michele, Maggini; Guglielmina, Pelizzo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Graphene Oxide and reduced Graphene Oxide are intriguing materials for photonics and electronic devices both for intrinsic characteristics and as precursors for the synthesis of graphene. Whatever the application and the engineering purpose, a fine control of the chemical and physical properties is required since the performances of graphene based systems depend on the reduction state of Graphene Oxide and can be strongly affected by interfaces interactions and neighboring effects. Then, a me...

  17. Reduced Graphene Oxide Joins Graphene Oxide to Teach Undergraduate Students Core Chemistry and Nanotechnology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratowicz, Izabela; Nadolska, Malgorzata; Z?elechowska, Kamila

    2018-01-01

    Novel carbon nanomaterials such as reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and graphene oxide (GO) can be easily incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum to discuss basic chemistry and nanotechnology concepts. This paper describes a laboratory experiment designed to study the differences between GO and rGO regarding their physicochemical properties…

  18. Flexible Metal Oxide/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Neuromorphic Devices on Flexible Conducting Graphene Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Li Qiang; Liu, Yang Hui; Feng, Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flexible metal oxide/graphene oxide hybrid multi-gate neuron transistors were fabricated on flexible graphene substrates. Dendritic integrations in both spatial and temporal modes were successfully emulated, and spatiotemporal correlated logics were obtained. A proof-of-principle visual system model for emulating lobula giant motion detector neuron was investigated. Our results are of great interest for flexible neuromorphic cognitive systems.

  19. Gel spinning of PVA composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Yizhe; Lai, Dengpan; Zou, Liming; Ling, Xinlong; Lu, Hongwei; Xu, Yongjing

    2015-01-01

    In this report, poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) composite fibers with high content of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide (MWCNTs-GO) hybrids were prepared by gel spinning, and were characterized by TGA, DSC, SEM, XL-2 yarn strength tester and electrical conductivity measurement. The total content of MWCNTs-GO hybrids in the PVA composite fibers, which is up to 25 wt%, was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DSC measurement shows that the melting and crystallization peaks decreased after the addition of nano-fillers. This is due to the reason that the motion of PVA chains is completely confined by strong hydrogen bonding interaction between PVA and nano-fillers. After the addtion of GO, the dispersibility of MWCNTs in composite fibers improved slightly. And the tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 38% and 67%, respectively. This is caused by the increased hydrogen bonding interaction and synergistic effect through hybridization of MWCNTs and GO. More significantly, the electrical conductivity of PVA/MWCNTs/GO composite fibers enhanced by three orders of magnitude with the addition of GO. (paper)

  20. Graphene oxide: an adsorbent for the extraction and quantification of aflatoxins in peanuts by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiupin

    2013-11-29

    In this paper, graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized and specifically selected by centrifugation to extract four aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) as an effective adsorbent. Then, the amount of aflatoxins was quantitatively measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency, including the GO amount, methanol concentration in the extraction solvent, spiked amount, extraction time, and elution cycle, were also investigated and optimized in this work. Under optimal conditions, good linear relationships were achieved with the correlation coefficient (r) ranging from 0.99217 to 0.99995. The detection limit of this method for the four aflatoxins ranged from 0.08 to 0.65ng/g. Finally, the proposed method has been successfully applied to determine aflatoxins in peanut samples. The results show that the recoveries of the four aflatoxins range from 85.1% to 100.8% with the relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 7.9%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The nanostructure of microbially-reduced graphene oxide fosters thick and highly-performing electrochemically-active biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Bernardino; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms of electrochemically-active organisms are used in microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) to catalyze bioreactions otherwise not possible at bare electrodes. At present, however, achievable current outputs are still below levels considered sufficient for economic viability of large-scale METs implementations. Here, we report three-dimensional, self-aggregating biofilm composites comprising of microbial cells embedded with microbially-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles to form a thick macro-porous network with superior electrochemical properties. In the presence of metabolic substrate, these hybrid biofilms are capable of producing up to five times more catalytic current than the control biofilms. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, show that in spite of the increased thickness, the biofilms amended with GO display lower polarization/charge transfer resistance compared to the controls, which we ascribe to the incorporation of rGO into the biofilms, which (1) promotes fast electron transfer, yet conserving a macroporous structure that allows free diffusion of reactants and products, and (2) enhances the interfacial dynamics by allowing a higher load of microbial cells per electrode surface area. These results suggest an easy-to-apply and cost-effective method to produce high-performing electrochemically-active biofilms in situ.

  2. High-performance SERS substrate based on hybrid structure of graphene oxide/AgNPs/Cu film@pyramid Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Xu, Shi Cai; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Xiao Yun; Gao, Sai Sai; Hu, Li Tao; Guo, Jia; Ma, Yong; Jiang, Shou Zhen; Si, Hai Peng

    2016-12-01

    We present a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles/copper film covered silicon pyramid arrays (GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si) by a low-cost and simple method. The GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrate presents high sensitivity, good homogeneity and well stability with R6G molecules as a probe. The detected concentration of Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) is as low as 10-15 M. These sensitive SERS behaviors are also confirmed in theory via a commercial COMSOL software, the electric field enhancement is not only formed between the AgNPs, but also formed between the AgNPs and Cu film. And the GO/AgNPs/PCu@Si substrates also present good property on practical application for the detection of methylene blue (MB) and crystal violet (CV). This work may offer a novel and practical method to facilitate the SERS applications in areas of medicine, food safety and biotechnology.

  3. Strength-controllable graphene oxide amphiprotic aerogels as highly efficient carrier for anionic and cationic azo molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiaqing; Jiao, Chenlu; Xu, Sijun; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Desuo; Lin, Hong; Chen, Yuyue

    2015-06-01

    Ice-bath self-assembly was employed to fabricate the GO/AP-MCC/CS aerogel based on natural materials. The components are amphiprotic microcrystalline cellulose (AP-MCC), chitosan (CS), and graphene oxide (GO), which act as the main framework, auxiliary framework and adhesive, respectively. The results of characterization determines the components form the GO/AP-MCC/CS aerogel according to chemical interactions. The mechanical properties depend largely on the mass ratio of AP-MCC/CS, which can be regulated by controlling the contents of AP-MCC and CS. The resultant GO/AP-MCC/CS aerogel was observed possessing three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating porous networks with wrinkled structure on the inner wall, which provide a good encapsulation capacity for the guest molecules. As expected, owing to the amphiprotic properties and large specific surface area, GO/AP-MCC/CS aerogel exhibits high-efficiency load capacity for both anionic (CR) and cationic azo molecules (MB), which can reach up to about 132.2 mg/g for CR and 123.2 mg/g for MB, respectively.

  4. Self-assembled 3D ZnSnO3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels as high capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yankun; Li, Dan; Liu, Yushan; Zhang, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reducedgrapheneoxideaerogels(ZGAs) were fabricated. • The electrochemical properties of ZGAs were investigated for LIBs. • ZGAs demonstrated superior lithium storage performance. - Abstract: 3D ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes@reduced graphene oxide aerogels (ZGAs) were fabricated via a colloid electrostatic self-assembly method between the graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes colloid, followed by hydrothermal and freeze-drying treatments. The unique porous architecture of ZnSnO 3 hollow cubes encapsulated by flexible reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets not only effectively retarded the huge volume expansion during repeated charge-discharge cycles, but also facilitated fast lithium ion and electron transport through 3D networks. The ZGAs exhibited significantly enhanced cycling stability (745.4 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles at a current of 100 mA g −1 ) and superior rate capability (as high as 552.6 mAh g −1 at 1200 mA g −1 ). The results indicate that the ZGAs are promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Chemical gating of epitaxial graphene through ultrathin oxide layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Rosanna; Lacovig, Paolo; Orlando, Fabrizio; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Omiciuolo, Luca; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano

    2015-08-07

    We achieved a controllable chemical gating of epitaxial graphene grown on metal substrates by exploiting the electrostatic polarization of ultrathin SiO2 layers synthesized below it. Intercalated oxygen diffusing through the SiO2 layer modifies the metal-oxide work function and hole dopes graphene. The graphene/oxide/metal heterostructure behaves as a gated plane capacitor with the in situ grown SiO2 layer acting as a homogeneous dielectric spacer, whose high capacity allows the Fermi level of graphene to be shifted by a few hundreds of meV when the oxygen coverage at the metal substrate is of the order of 0.5 monolayers. The hole doping can be finely tuned by controlling the amount of interfacial oxygen, as well as by adjusting the thickness of the oxide layer. After complete thermal desorption of oxygen the intrinsic doping of SiO2 supported graphene is evaluated in the absence of contaminants and adventitious adsorbates. The demonstration that the charge state of graphene can be changed by chemically modifying the buried oxide/metal interface hints at the possibility of tuning the level and sign of doping by the use of other intercalants capable of diffusing through the ultrathin porous dielectric and reach the interface with the metal.

  6. Graphene oxide-MnO2 nanocomposite for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed Shafi, P.; Vishal, Jose K.; Chandra Bose, A.

    2016-09-01

    Increased depletion of fossil fuels along with global warming and climate change made the society to think about alternate green and sustainable energy sources and better energy storage devices. Extensive research has been performed on the development of solar cells, fuel cells, Lithium- ion battery and supercapacitors to combat the green house effect and its consequences, and to meet the increased energy crisis. Supercapacitors, also known as electrochemical capacitors are gained a great attention because of their pulse power supply, long cycle life (>100,000), simple principle and high dynamic of charge propagation. Its greater power density than lithium- ion battery and much larger energy density than conventional capacitors brought super capacitors to a promising energy storage device to meet the increased energy demands. Here we demonstrate supercapacitor electrode materials with graphene oxide (electric double layer capacitor) and α-MnO2 nanomaterial (pseudo-capacitor), as well as composite of these materials, which means that the bulk of the material undergoes a fast redox reaction to provide the capacitive response and they exhibit superior specific energies in addition to the carbon-based supercapacitors (double-layer capacitors). A simple soft chemical route is utilized to synthesize graphene oxide, α-MnO2 and graphene oxide-MnO2 composite. The phase and the structure of the synthesized materials are studied using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The functional group and the presence of impurities are understood from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The capacitive properties of the graphene oxide, graphene oxide - MnO2 nanocomposite and α-MnO2 are tested with the help of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge - discharge techniques using 1 M Na2SO4 in aqueous solution as electrolyte. It was found that graphene oxide - MnO2 nanocomposite shows better electrochemical behaviour compared to individual graphene oxide and α-MnO2 nanomaterial.

  7. Graphene-graphite oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Brian; Mendez, Anthony; Schmidgall, Emma; Bockrath, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Graphene's high mobility and two-dimensional nature make it an attractive material for field-effect transistors. Previous efforts in this area have used bulk gate dielectric materials such as SiO(2) or HfO(2). In contrast, we have studied the use of an ultrathin layered material, graphene's insulating analogue, graphite oxide. We have fabricated transistors comprising single or bilayer graphene channels, graphite oxide gate insulators, and metal top-gates. The graphite oxide layers show relatively minimal leakage at room temperature. The breakdown electric field of graphite oxide was found to be comparable to SiO(2), typically ~1-3 × 10(8) V/m, while its dielectric constant is slightly higher, κ ≈ 4.3. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Electrochemically reduced graphene-oxide supported bimetallic nanoparticles highly efficient for oxygen reduction reaction with excellent methanol tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Cho, Sung; Jeon, Seungwon

    2018-03-01

    We report a simple and facile method for the fabrication of bimetallic nanoparticles on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. First, reduced graphene oxide supported palladium and manganese oxide nanoparticle (rGO/Pd-Mn2O3) catalyst was synthesized via a simple chemical method at room temperature; then, it was electrochemically reduced for oxidation reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. The chemical composition and morphological properties of ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The TEM images reveals that, nano-sized Pd and Mn2O3 particles were disperse on the ErGO sheet without aggregation. The as-prepared ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 was employed for ORR in alkaline media which shows higher ORR activity with more positive onset and half-wave potential, respectively. Remarkably, ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 reduced oxygen via four-electron transfer pathway with negligible amount of intermediate peroxide species (HO2-). Furthermore, the higher stability and excellent methanol tolerance of the ErGO/Pd-Mn2O3 compared to commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) catalyst, indicating its suitability for fuel cells.

  9. Facile Synthesis of MnPO4·H2O Nanowire/Graphene Oxide Composite Material and Its Application as Electrode Material for High Performance Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we reported a facile one-pot hydrothermal method to synthesize MnPO4·H2O nanowire/graphene oxide composite material with coated graphene oxide. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope were employed to study its morphology information, and X-ray diffraction was used to study the phase and structure of the material. Additionally, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the elements information. To measure electrochemical performances of electrode materials and the symmetry cell, cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectrometry were conducted on electrochemical workstation using 3 M KOH electrolytes. Importantly, electrochemical results showed that the as-prepared MnPO4·H2O nanowire/graphene oxide composite material exhibited high specific capacitance (287.9 F·g−1 at 0.625 A·g−1 and specific power (1.5 × 105 W·kg−1 at 2.271 Wh·kg−1, which is expected to have promising applications as supercapacitor electrode material.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide composites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Suzhen; Ma, Shaobo; Yang, Ying; Mao, Qing; Hao, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are successfully prepared through one simple polypyrrole-assisted hydrothermal method and possess very high ORR activity and are able to selectively reduce O_2 to water through the four-electron transfer reaction mechanism in alkaline electrolyte. - Abstract: Advantages in low cost, and excellent catalytic activity of Fe-based nanomaterials dispersed on nitrogen-doped graphene supports render them to be good electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Here, Fe_2O_3/polypyrrole/graphene oxide (Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO) composites with the Fe_2O_3 embedded in the Ppy modified GO are synthesized using hydrothermal method. With an optimal iron atom content ratio of 1.6% in graphene oxide and heat treatment at 800 °C, the Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO exhibited enhanced catalytic performance for ORR with the onset potential of −0.1 V (vs SCE), cathodic potential of −0.24 V (vs SCE), an approximate 4e"− transfer process in O_2-saturated 0.1 M KOH, and superior stability that only reduced 5% catalytic activity after 5000 cycles. The decisive factors in improving the electrocatalytic and durable performance are the intimate and large contact interfaces between nanocrystallines of Fe_2O_3 and Ppy/GO, in addition to the high electron withdrawing/storing ability and the high conductivity of GO doped with nitrogen from Ppy during the hydrothermal reaction. The Fe_2O_3/Ppy/GO showed significantly improved ORR properties and confirmed that Fe-N-C-based electrocatalysts played a key role in fuel cells.

  11. Highly antifouling and antibacterial performance of poly (vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes blending with copper oxide and graphene oxide nanofillers for effective wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Lv, Jinling; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Guoquan; Yang, Yuesuo; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-11-01

    Innovation and effective wastewater treatment technology is still in great demand given the emerging contaminants frequently spotted from the aqueous environment. By blending with poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), the strong hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) and antibacterial copper oxide (Cu x O) were used as nanofillers to develop the novel, highly antifouling composite membranes via phase inversion process in our latest work. The existence and dispersion of GO and Cu x O posed a significant role on morphologies, structures, surface composition and hydrophilicity of the developed composite membranes, confirmed by SEM, TEM, FTIR and XPS in depth characterization. The SEM images showed that the modified membranes presented a lower resistant structure with developed finger-like macrovoids and thin-walled even interconnected sponge-like pores after adding nanofillers, much encouraging membrane permeation. The XPS results revealed that Cu x O contained Cu 2 O and CuO in the developed membrane and the Cu 2 O nanoparticles were dominant accounting for about 79.3%; thus the modified membrane specifically exhibited an efficient antibacterial capacity. Due to the hydrophilic and bactericidal membrane surface, the composite membranes demonstrated an excellent antifouling performance, including higher flux recovery rate, more resistant against accumulated contaminants and lower filtration resistance, especially lower irreversible resistance. The antifouling property, especially anti-irreversible fouling, was significantly improved, showing a significant engineering potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different

  13. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  14. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein; Khajavi, Ramin; Yousefi, Ali Akbar; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  15. Improved continuity of reduced graphene oxide on polyester fabric by use of polypyrrole to achieve a highly electro-conductive and flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berendjchi, Amirhosein [Department of Textile Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajavi, Ramin, E-mail: khajavi@azad.ac.ir [Nano Technology Research Center, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ali Akbar [Faculty of Polymer Processing, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yazdanshenas, Mohammad Esmail [Department of Textile Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Discontinuity of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) coated polyester fabric (PET) substrate was overcome by filling the gaps by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). • The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values (5 Ω/sq) than samples coated only with PPy (12 Ω/sq) and RGO (1300 Ω/sq), respectively. • The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed other properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric. - Abstract: A flexible and highly conductive fabric can be applied for wearable electronics and as a pliable counter electrode for photovoltaics. Methods such as surface coating of fabrics with conductive polymers and materials have been developed, but the roughness of fabric is a challenge because it creates discontinuity in the coated layer. The present study first coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric with reduced graphene oxide sheets; RGO and then filled the gaps with polypyrrole (PPy). The samples were first dipped in graphene oxide (GO) and then reduced to RGO. They were next coated with PPy by in situ polymerization. The results showed that the presence of oxidative agent during synthesis of PPy oxidized the RGO to some extent on the previously RGO-coated samples. PPy was more uniform on samples pre-coated with RGO in comparison those coated with raw PET. The RGO–PPy coated samples exhibited 53% and 263% lower surface resistivity values than samples coated only with PPy and RGO, respectively. There was no significant difference between the tenacity of samples but the bending rigidity of samples increased. The RGO–PPy coated fabric displayed properties, such as excellent UV blocking (UPF = 73), antibacterial activity, improved electrochemical behavior and thermal stability which make it a multifunctional fabric.

  16. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli, E-mail: chenglingli@shu.edu.cn; Jiao, Zheng, E-mail: zjiao@shu.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10{sup 5} Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications.

  17. One-step synthesis of high conductivity silver nanoparticle-reduced graphene oxide composite films by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yujia; Pu, Xianjuan; Jiang, Yong; Cheng, Lingli; Jiao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both graphene oxide and silver ion were reduced simultaneously by electron beam-based method. • The size of AgNPs can be controlled by changing the irradiation dose of electron beam. • The AgNPs/rGO nanocomposite exhibits much lower sheet resistivity (0.06 Ω m). - Abstract: A rapid, eco-friendly, one-step electron beam (EB)-based method for both the reduction of graphene oxide and loading of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved. Further, the effects of irradiation dose on the morphology of AgNPs and the sheet resistance of Ag nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide (AgNPs/rGO) were studied. The results reveal that when the irradiation dose increased from 70 kGy to 350 kGy, the size of the AgNPs decreased and became uniformly distributed over the surface of the rGO nanosheets. However the size of the AgNPs increased when the irradiation dose reached 500 kGy. Four-point probe measurement showed that the sheet resistance of the AgNPs/rGO films decreased with decreasing AgNPs size. The lowest sheet resistivity of 0.06 Ω m was obtained in the film corresponding to 350 kGy irradiation dose, which showed a much lower resistivity than the GO film (5.04 × 10 5 Ω m). The formation mechanisms of the as-prepared AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites were proposed. This study provides a fast and eco-friendly EB irradiation induced method to controlling the dimensions of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites, which can strongly support the mass production of AgNPs/rGO nanocomposites for practical applications

  18. 2,3-diaminopyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide-supported palladium nanoparticles with high activity for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Joo, Yuri; Jeon, Seungwon, E-mail: swjeon3380@naver.com

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd catalyst by electrochemical deposition method. • The ORR performance of 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd catalyst was evaluated by CV and RRDE. • ORR possess 4-electron pathway with lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • Better anodic fuel tolerance and long term stable than that of commercial Pt/C. - Abstract: The electrochemical deposition of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on 2,3 diamino pyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd) has been investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. First, 2,3 diaminopyridine functionalized graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO) has been synthesized via simple hydrothermal method. Then, palladium is directly incorporated into the 2,3 DAP-rGO by electrochemical deposition method to generate 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd composites. The as-prepared material 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd has been characterized by various instrumental methods. The morphological analysis shows the cluster-like Pd nanoparticles are dispersed onto the 2,3 diamino pyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO). The electrocatalytic activities have been verified using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and hydrodynamic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The as-synthesized 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd shows higher catalytic activity toward ORR with more positive onset potential and cathodic current density, superior methanol/ethanol tolerance and excellent stability in alkaline medium. It is also noteworthy that the 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd exhibits a four-electron transfer pathway for ORR with lower H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yield.

  19. 2,3-diaminopyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide-supported palladium nanoparticles with high activity for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Sabina; Joo, Yuri; Jeon, Seungwon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd catalyst by electrochemical deposition method. • The ORR performance of 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd catalyst was evaluated by CV and RRDE. • ORR possess 4-electron pathway with lower H_2O_2. • Better anodic fuel tolerance and long term stable than that of commercial Pt/C. - Abstract: The electrochemical deposition of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on 2,3 diamino pyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd) has been investigated for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline media. First, 2,3 diaminopyridine functionalized graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO) has been synthesized via simple hydrothermal method. Then, palladium is directly incorporated into the 2,3 DAP-rGO by electrochemical deposition method to generate 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd composites. The as-prepared material 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd has been characterized by various instrumental methods. The morphological analysis shows the cluster-like Pd nanoparticles are dispersed onto the 2,3 diamino pyridine functionalized reduced graphene oxide (2,3 DAP-rGO). The electrocatalytic activities have been verified using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and hydrodynamic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte. The as-synthesized 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd shows higher catalytic activity toward ORR with more positive onset potential and cathodic current density, superior methanol/ethanol tolerance and excellent stability in alkaline medium. It is also noteworthy that the 2,3 DAP-rGO/Pd exhibits a four-electron transfer pathway for ORR with lower H_2O_2 yield.

  20. High-sensitive nitrogen dioxide and ethanol gas sensor using a reduced graphene oxide-loaded double split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Azad, Prakrati; Akhtar, M. J.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2017-08-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO) incorporated double split ring resonator (DSRR) portable microwave gas sensor is proposed in this work. The sensor is fabricated using two major steps: the DSRR is fabricated on the FR-4 substrate, which is excited by a high impedance microstrip line. The rGO is synthesized via a chemical route and coated inside the smaller ring of the DSRR. The SEM micrographs reveal crumpled sheets of rGO that provide a large surface area, and the XRD patterns of the as-synthesized rGO reveal the two-dimensional structure of the rGO nanosheets. The sensor performance is measured at room temperature using 100-400 ppm of ethanol and NO2 target gases. At 400 ppm, the sensor reveals a shift of 420 and 390 MHz in the S 21 frequency for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively. The frequency shifts of 130 and 120 MHz in the S 21 resonance frequency are obtained for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively, at a very low concentration of 100 ppm. The high sensitivity of the proposed rGO gas sensor is achieved due to the combined effect of the large surface area of the rGO responsible for accommodating more gas molecules, and its increased conductivity due to the transfer of the electron from the rGO. Moreover, an exceedingly short response time is observed for NO2 in comparison to ethanol, which allows the proposed sensor to be used for the selective detection of NO2 in a harsh environment. The overall approach used in this study is quite simple, and has great potential to enhance the gas detection behaviour of rGO.

  1. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-Assisted Fabrication of Hollow Carbon Spheres/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqiang; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Shulan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Li

    2018-05-22

    Three-dimensional hollow carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (DHCSs/RGO) nanocomposites with high-level heteroatom doping and hierarchical pores are fabricated via a versatile method. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) that serves as a dispersant and nucleating agent is used as the nonremoval template for synthesizing melamine resin (MR) spheres with abundant heteroatoms, which are subsequently composited with graphene oxide (GO). Use of PVA and implementation of freezing treatment prevent agglomeration of MR spheres within the GO network. Molten KOH is used to achieve the one-step carbonization/activation/reduction for the synthesis of DHCSs/RGO. DHCSs/RGO annealed at 700 °C shows superior discharge capacity of 1395 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 606 mA h/g at 5 A/g as well as excellent retentive capacity of 755 mA h/g after 600 cycles at a current density of 2 A/g. An extra CO 2 activation leads to further enhancement of electrochemical performance with outstanding discharge capacity of 1709 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and 835 mA h/g at 2 A/g after 600 cycles. This work may improve our understanding of the synthesis of graphene-like nanocomposites with hollow and porous carbon architectures and fabrication of high-performance functional devices.

  2. Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xue, Yuhua; Gao, Yunxiang; Yu, Dingshan; Durstock, Michael; Dai, Liming

    2012-05-02

    By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs(2)CO(3) to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Gao, Yunxiang; Yu, Dingshan; Dai, Liming [Center of Advanced Science and Engineering for Carbon, Department of Macromolecular, Science and Engineering, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Xue, Yuhua [Center of Advanced Science and Engineering for Carbon, Department of Macromolecular, Science and Engineering, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Durstock, Michael [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, RXBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2012-05-02

    By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Green reduction of graphene oxide using alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Salihi, Elif Caliskan; Šiller, Lidija

    2017-03-01

    There remains a real need for the easy, eco-friendly and scalable preparation method of graphene due to various potential applications. Chemical reduction is the most versatile method for the large scale production of graphene. Here we report the operating conditions for a one-step, economical and green synthesis method for the reduction of graphene oxide using a biomolecule (alanine). Graphene oxide was produced by the oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite flake with strong oxidants using Hummers method (Hummers and Offeman, 1958), but the method was revised in our laboratory to set up a safe and environmentally friendly route. The reduction of graphene oxide was investigated using alanine at various operating conditions in order to set up optimum conditions (treatment time, temperature and concentration of the reagent). Samples have been characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Network on Copper Foam as High-performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    E lectrochemically generated copper foam (Cuf) could serve as an effective template for fabrication of three - dimensional (3D) reduced graphe n e oxide (rGO) network s. Here we present a facile approach to preparation of 3D rGO network supported by Cuf a s binder - free and current collector - i...

  6. Reduced graphene oxide supported highly porous V2O5 spheres as a high-power cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Zhu, Jixin; Sim, Daohao; Xu, Chen; Zeng, Yi; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lim, Tuti Mariana; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported highly porous polycrystalline V(2)O(5) spheres (V(2)O(5)/rGO) were prepared by using a solvothermal approach followed by an annealing process. Initially, reduced vanadium oxide (rVO) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 10-50 nm were formed through heterogeneous nucleation on rGO sheets during the solvothermal process. These rVO nanoparticles were oxidized to V(2)O(5) after the annealing process in air at 350 °C and assembled into polycrystalline porous spheres with sizes of 200-800 nm. The weight ratio between the rGO and V(2)O(5) is tunable by changing the weight ratio of the precursors, which in turn affects the morphology of V(2)O(5)/rGO composites. The V(2)O(5)/rGO composites display superior cathode performances with highly reversible specific capacities, good cycling stabilities and excellent rate capabilities (e.g. 102 mA h g(-1) at 19 C).

  7. Accelerated evaporation of water on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Shi, Guosheng

    2017-03-29

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. When the oxidation degree is too low and some unoxidized regions are also covered by the water film, the thickness of the water film decreases, which extends the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds for the outmost water molecules and lowers the evaporation rate of the water. The insensitivity of water evaporation to the oxidation degree indicates that we only need to control the scale of the unoxidized and oxidized regions for graphene oxide to regulate the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water.

  8. A novel Graphene Oxide film: Synthesis and Dielectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canimkurbey, Betul; San, Sait Eren; Yasin, Muhammad; Köse, Muhammet Erkan

    In this work, we used Hummers method to synthesize Graphene Oxide (GO) and its parallel plate impedance spectroscopic technique to investigate dielectric properties. Graphene Oxide films were coated using drop casting method on ITO substrate. To analyze film morphology, atomic force microscopy was used. Dielectrics measurements of the samples were performed using impedance analyzer (HP-4194) in frequency range (100 Hz to 10MHz) at different temperatures. It was observed that the films' AC conductivity σac varied with angular frequency, ω as ωS, with Sdirect current (DC) and Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency ranges, respectively. Using solution processed Graphene Oxide will provide potential for organic electronic applications through its photon absorption and transmittance capability in the visible range and excellent electrical parameters.

  9. Covalent modification and exfoliation of graphene oxide using ferrocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M. B.; Subrahmanyam, K. S.; Sundarayya, Y.; Govindaraju, T.

    2010-09-01

    Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior.Large scale preparation of single-layer graphene and graphene oxide is of great importance due to their potential applications. We report a simple room temperature method for the exfoliation of graphene oxide using covalent modification of graphene oxide with ferrocene to obtain single-layer graphene oxide sheets. The samples were characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, AFM, EDAX, FT-IR, Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. HRTEM micrograph of the covalently modified graphene oxide showed increased interlayer spacing of ~2.4 nm due to ferrocene intercalation. The presence of single-layer graphene oxide sheets were confirmed by AFM studies. The covalently modified ferrocene-graphene oxide composite showed interesting magnetic behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnetic data; AFM images; TEM micrographs; and Mössbauer spectroscopic data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00024h

  10. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  11. Highly-efficient forward osmosis membrane tailored by magnetically responsive graphene oxide/Fe3O4 nanohybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgar, Masoud; Shakeri, Alireza; Bozorg, Ali; Salehi, Hasan; Saadattalab, Vahid

    2018-05-01

    Emerging forward osmosis (FO) process as a potentially more energy efficient method has recently gained remarkable attention. Herein, considering the unique features of graphene oxide (GO), a new facile method has been proposed to magnetically modify GO within the polyamide active layer to obtain highly efficient osmotically driven membranes. While exposed to magnetic field, thin film nanocomposite membranes modified by GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrids (TFN-MMGO/Fe3O4) were synthesized by in-situ interfacial polymerization of the prepared monomer solution and organic trimesoyl chloride. Water permeability, salt rejection, and fouling tendency of the modified membranes were then evaluated and compared with both pristine thin film composite (TFC) membrane and the ones modified by GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrides in the absence of magnetic field (TFN-GO/Fe3O4). According to the experimental results, when compared to the TFC and TFN-GO/Fe3O4 membranes, respectively, 117.4% and 63.2% water flux enhancements were achieved in TFN-MMGO/Fe3O4 membrane with optimal GO/Fe3O4 nanohybrid concentration of 100 ppm. In spite of such improvements in water flux, little compromise in reverse salt leakages were observed in the TFN-MMGO/Fe3O4 membranes compared to the TFC one. As well, the TFN-MMGO/Fe3O4 and TFN-GO/Fe3O4 membranes revealed higher fouling resistances than the TFC membrane due to their distinguished manipulated surface characteristics.

  12. Highly sensitive, reproducible and stable SERS substrate based on reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles coated weighing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guina, E-mail: xiaoguina@shnu.edu.cn; Li, Yunxiang; Shi, Wangzhou; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed a paper-based SERS substrate by gravure and inkjet printing methods. • The S-RGO/AgNPs comoposite structure had higher SERS activity than the pure AgNPs. • The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs substrate was calculated to be 10{sup 9}. • The paper-based substrate exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Abstract: Paper-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates receive a great deal of attention due to low cost and high flexibility. Herein, we developed an efficient SERS substrate by gravure printing of sulfonated reduced graphene-oxide (S-RGO) thin film and inkjet printing of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on weighing paper successively. Malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) were chosen as probe molecules to evaluate the enhanced performance of the fabricated SERS-active substrates. It was found that the S-RGO/AgNPs composite structure possessed higher enhancement ability than the pure AgNPs. The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs was calculated to be as large as 10{sup 9}. The minimum detection limit for MG and R6G was down to 10{sup −7} M with good linear responses (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, 0.9983) range from 10{sup −4} M to 10{sup −7} M. In addition, the S-RGO/AgNPs exhibited good uniformity with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7.90% measured by 572 points, excellent reproducibility with RSD smaller than 3.36%, and long-term stability with RSD less than 7.19%.

  13. Shape-stabilized phase change materials with high thermal conductivity based on paraffin/graphene oxide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Silakhori, Mahyar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The composite PCM was prepared with impregnation method. ► Shapes stabilized phase change material made with paraffin and GO composite. ► Determine effects of GO composite on shape stabilized PCM properties. ► The composite PCM has good thermal stability and form-stability. ► The composite PCM has much higher thermal conductivity than that of paraffin. - Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on the preparation, characterization, thermal properties and thermal stability and reliability of new form-stable composite phase change materials (PCMs) prepared by vacuum impregnation of paraffin within graphene oxide (GO) sheets. SEM and FT-IR techniques and TGA and DSC analysis are used for characterization of material and thermal properties. The composite PCM contained 48.3 wt.% of paraffin without leakage of melted PCM and therefore this composite found to be a form-stable composite PCM. SEM results indicate that the paraffin bounded into the pores of GO. FT-IR analysis showed there was no chemical reaction between paraffin and GO. Temperatures of melting and freezing and latent heats of the composite were 53.57 and 44.59 °C and 63.76 and 64.89 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling tests were done by 2500 melting/freezing cycling for verification of the form-stable composite PCM in terms of thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was highly improved from 0.305 to 0.985 (W/mk). As a result, the prepared paraffin/GO composite is appropriate PCM for thermal energy storage applications because of their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and thermal conductivities

  14. Growth of zinc cobaltate nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide porous networks toward high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Changhui; Fu, Wenbin; Zhang, Zemin; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhou, Jinyuan; Pan, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjpan@lzu.edu.cn; Xie, Erqing

    2016-05-25

    A type of composite network constructed from zinc cobaltate (ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets has been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that the rGO nanosheets are covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evenly due to the abundant surface functional groups on surface of original GO, and supported by some cross-linked ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods in the entire structures. With a rational combination, the composite networks present a meso-/macroporous architecture with a larger specific surface area than those of pristine ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods. As expected, the prepared ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances, which shows a high specific capacitance (626 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}), excellent rate capability (81% retention of the initial capacitance at 30 A g{sup −1}), and long-term cycling stability (99.7% retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}). Such remarkable electrochemical performances of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode can be due to the effective pathways for both electronic and ionic transport in these porous networks. - Highlights: • Porous ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO composite networks can be prepared by a hydrothermal method. • These networks are mainly constructed from ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods and rGO nanosheets. • The rGO nanosheets are uniformly covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The composite networks can promote capacitive performances as electrode materials.

  15. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on graphene oxides and reduced graphene oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubing; Yang, Shubin; Zhao, Guixia; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xiangke

    2013-11-01

    Graphene has attracted increasing attention in multidisciplinary studies because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Herein, the adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene (NAP), anthracene (ANT), and pyrene (PYR), on reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and graphene oxides (GOs) as a function of pH, humic acid (HA), and temperature were elucidated by means of a batch technique. For comparison, nonpolar and nonporous graphite were also employed in this study. The increasing of pH from 2 to 11 did not influence the adsorption of PAHs on rGOs, whereas the suppressed adsorption of NAP on rGOs was observed both in the presence of HA and under high-temperature conditions. Adsorption isotherms of PAHs on rGOs were in accordance with the Polanyi-Dubinin-Ashtahhov (PDA) model, providing evidence that pore filling and flat surface adsorption were involved. The saturated adsorbed capacities (in mmol g(-1)) of rGOs for PAHs calculated from the PDA model significantly decreased in the order of NAP>PYR>ANT, which was comparable to the results of theoretical calculations. The pore-filling mechanism dominates the adsorption of NAP on rGOs, but the adsorption mechanisms of ANT and PYR on rGOs are flat surface adsorption. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structural, optical investigations of graphene from graphene oxide using green method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Shukla, Shobha; Saxena, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nano sheets (GNS) are synthesized from Graphene Oxide (GO) using commercial sugar as a reducing agent. A green and facile approach is followed to synthesize chemically converted GNS using exfoliated GO as precursor. The merit of this method is that both the reducing agents themselves and the oxidized products are environmentally friendly. The prepared materials are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results of XRD, UV-vis analysis provide a clear indication of removal of oxygen-containing groups from GO and the formation of GNS

  17. High-performance for hydrogen evolution and pollutant degradation of reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C3N4 heterojunction photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chengjie; Fan, Mingshan; Shi, Weidong; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We have successfully synthesized the composites of two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalysts by one-step method. And the reduced graphene oxide/two-phase g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction photocatalyst was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal reduction method. The characterization results indicated that the two-phase g-C 3 N 4 was integrated closely, and the common phenomenon of agglomeration for g-C 3 N 4 was significantly reduced. Moreover, the oxidized graphene was reduced successfully in the composites and the graphene was overlaid on the surface or the interlayers of g-C 3 N 4 heterojunction composite uniformly. In addition, we have carried out the photocatalytic activity experiments by H 2 evolution and rhodamine B removal, tetracycline removal under the visible light irradiation. The results revealed that the composite has improved the separation efficiency a lot than the pure photocatalyst. The photocurrent test demonstrated that the recombination of electrons and holes were efficiently inhibited as well as enhanced the photocatalytic activity. The 0.4% rGO loaded samples, 0.4% rGOCN2, own the best performance. Its rate of H 2 evolution was 15 times as high as that of the pure g-C 3 N 4 .

  18. Synergistic Effect between Ultra-Small Nickel Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Reduced Graphene Oxide sheets for the Application in High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghuan; Wang, Rutao; Yan, Xingbin

    2015-06-08

    Nanoscale electrode materials including metal oxide nanoparticles and two-dimensional graphene have been employed for designing supercapacitors. However, inevitable agglomeration of nanoparticles and layers stacking of graphene largely hamper their practical applications. Here we demonstrate an efficient co-ordination and synergistic effect between ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets for synthesizing ideal electrode materials. On one hand, to make the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles work at full capacity as an ideal pseudocapacitive material, RGO sheets are employed as an suitable substrate to anchor these nanoparticles against agglomeration. As a consequence, an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 1717 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved. On the other hand, to further facilitate ion transfer within RGO sheets as an ideal electrical double layer capacitor material, the ultra-small Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles are introduced among RGO sheets as the recyclable sacrificial spacer to prevent the stacking. The resulting RGO sheets exhibit superior rate capability with a high capacitance of 182 F g(-1) at 100 A g(-1). On this basis, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled using the two materials, delivering a superior energy density of 75 Wh kg(-1) and an ultrahigh power density of 40 000 W kg(-1).

  19. Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.

  20. Polyvinylpyrrolidone stabilized-Ru nanoclusters loaded onto reduced graphene oxide as high active catalyst for hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao; Hao, Jinghao; Ma, Qianli; Li, Chuanqi; Liu, Yushan; Li, Baojun; Liu, Zhongyi

    2017-06-01

    Ruthenium/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (Ru/rGO NCs) were synthesized via an electrostatic self-assembly approach. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized and positively charged metallic ruthenium nanoclusters about 1.2 nm were synthesized and uniformly loaded onto negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets via strong electrostatic interactions. The as-prepared Ru/rGO NCs exhibited superior performance in catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) to generate H2. The hydrogen generation rate was up to 14.87 L H2 min-1 gcat -1 at 318 K with relatively low activation energy of 38.12 kJ mol-1. Kinetics study confirmed that the hydrolysis of NaBH4 was first order with respect to concentration of catalysts. Besides, the conversion of NaBH4 remained at 97% and catalytic activity retained more than 70% after 5 reaction cycles at room temperature. These results suggested that the Ru/rGO NCs have a promising prospect in the field of clean energy.

  1. High performance of phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide for the selective adsorption of U(VI) from acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Li, Jiaxing, E-mail: lijx@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, 215123, Suzhou (China); Wang, Xiangxue; Chen, Changlun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Wang, Xiangke [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, 230031 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University, 215123, Suzhou (China); Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) was prepared by grafting triethyl phosphite onto the surface of GO using Arbuzov reaction. The as-prepared PGO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and Zeta potential. The application of the PGO to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was investigated with a maximum adsorption capacity of 251.7 mg/g at pH = 4.0 ± 0.1 and T = 303 K. The adsorption mechanism was also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, indicating a chemical adsorption of U(VI) on PGO surface. Moreover, experimental results gave a better removal efficiency toward U(VI) on PGO surface than other heavy metal ions at acidic solution, indicating the selective extraction of U(VI) from environmental pollutants. - Highlights: • The successful grafting phosphonate to graphene oxide by the Arbuzov reaction. • Selective adsorption of U(VI) on PGO surface over other heavy metal ions from acidic solution. • Electrostatic interactions of U(VI) with phosphonate and oxygen-containing functional groups on PGO surface. • Higher sorption capacity on PGO surface than GO surface for the U(VI) removal.

  2. All-Optical Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hong Lim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH.

  3. All-optical graphene oxide humidity sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Weng Hong; Yap, Yuen Kiat; Chong, Wu Yi; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-12-17

    The optical characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) were explored to design and fabricate a GO-based optical humidity sensor. GO film was coated onto a SU8 polymer channel waveguide using the drop-casting technique. The proposed sensor shows a high TE-mode absorption at 1550 nm. Due to the dependence of the dielectric properties of the GO film on water content, this high TE-mode absorption decreases when the ambient relative humidity increases. The proposed sensor shows a rapid response (<1 s) to periodically interrupted humid air flow. The transmission of the proposed sensor shows a linear response of 0.553 dB/% RH in the range of 60% to 100% RH.

  4. MnO2 Nanorods Intercalating Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Ternary Composites for Robust High-Performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guangqiang; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Lingling; Kan, Erjun; Zhang, Shaopeng; Tang, Jian; Tang, Weihua

    2014-04-01

    New ternary composites of MnO2 nanorods, polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by a two-step process. The 100 nm-long MnO2 nanorods with a diameter ~20 nm are conformably coated with PANI layers and fastened between GO layers. The MnO2 nanorods incorporated ternary composites electrode exhibits significantly increased specific capacitance than PANI/GO binary composite in supercapacitors. The ternary composite with 70% MnO2 exhibits a highest specific capacitance reaching 512 F/g and outstanding cycling performance, with ~97% capacitance retained over 5000 cycles. The ternary composite approach offers an effective solution to enhance the device performance of metal-oxide based supercapacitors for long cycling applications.

  5. Rapid Evaporation of Water on Graphene/Graphene-Oxide: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qibin; Xiao, Yitian; Shi, Xiaoyang; Song, Shufeng

    2017-09-07

    To reveal the mechanism of energy storage in the water/graphene system and water/grapheme-oxide system, the processes of rapid evaporation of water molecules on the sheets of graphene and graphene-oxide are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that both the water/graphene and water/grapheme-oxide systems can store more energy than the pure water system during evaporation. The hydroxyl groups on the surface of graphene-oxide are able to reduce the attractive interactions between water molecules and the sheet of graphene-oxide. Also, the radial distribution function of the oxygen atom indicates that the hydroxyl groups affect the arrangement of water molecules at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Therefore, the capacity of thermal energy storage of the water/graphene-oxide system is lower than that of the water/graphene system, because of less desorption energy at the water/graphene-oxide interface. Also, the evaporation rate of water molecules on the graphene-oxide sheet is slower than that on the graphene sheet. The Leidenfrost phenomenon can be observed during the evaporation process in the water/grapheme-oxide system.

  6. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  7. Synthesis and electrical characterization of Graphene Oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, Muhammad; Tauqeer, T.; Zaidi, Syed M.H.; San, Sait E.; Mahmood, Asad; Köse, Muhammet E.; Canimkurbey, Betul; Okutan, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized Graphene Oxide (GO) using modified Hummers method and investigated its electrical properties using parallel plate impedance spectroscopic technique. Graphene Oxide films were prepared using drop casting method on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterize the films' microstructure and surface topography. Electrical characterization was carried out using LCR meter in frequency regime (100 Hz to 10 MHz) at different temperatures. AC conductivity σ ac of the films was observed to be varied with angular frequency, ω as ω S , with S < 1. The electrical properties of GO were found to be both frequency and temperature dependent. Analysis showed that GO film contains direct current (DC) and Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency ranges, respectively. Photon absorption and transmittance capability in the visible range and excellent electrical parameters of solution processed Graphene Oxide suggest its suitability for the realization of low cost flexible organic solar cells and organic Thin Film Transistors, respectively. - Highlights: • Synthesize and electrical characterization of Graphene Oxide (GO) Film was undertaken. • Temperature dependent impedance spectroscopy was used for electrical analysis. • AFM was used to characterize films' microstructure and surface topography. • Electrical parameters were found to vary with both temperature and frequency. • GO showed DC and CBH conductivity mechanisms at low and high frequency, respectively

  8. In liquid laser treated graphene oxide for dye removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Paola, E-mail: rsspla1@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); D’Urso, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy); Hu, Anming [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 57996-2210 (United States); Zhou, Norman [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., West Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Compagnini, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita’ degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania 95125 (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide were tested as adsorbents for dye removal from water. • Reduced graphene oxide was obtained after laser irradiation of a colloidal suspension of graphene oxide. • Methylene blue was chosen as the dye to test graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: The presence of dyes, pharmaceuticals and many other pollutants in wastewaters is critical due to severe effects on the human beings and on the environment. Here, solutions of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were tested as adsorbents for the removal of methylene blue (MB), a cationic dye, from aqueous media. The reduced forms of graphene oxide were obtained after laser irradiation of colloidal suspensions of graphene oxide, obtained by the Hummers and Offeman's method. We observed that both graphene oxide and its reduced forms are excellent adsorbents towards methylene blue. In particular, rGO showed a higher adsorption capacity than GO, suggesting that a strict control of laser irradiation time permits to obtain rGO with different degrees of reduction and therefore the residual oxygenated functional groups may influence the adsorption behaviour more or less. Characterization of the samples by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that produced rGO sheets via laser irradiation exhibited a discontinuous surface where some holes could be detected contributing to an enhancement of the rGO surface area that is a higher adsorption capacity.

  9. Novel graphene-oxide-coated SPR interfaces for biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, V. S.; Stebunov, Yu V.; Yakubovsky, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon allotropes-based nanomaterials possess unique physical and chemical properties including high surface area, the possibility of pi-stacking interaction with a wide range of biological objects, rich availability of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene-oxide (GO), and excellent...

  10. Synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide by needle platy natural vein graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathnayake, R.M.N.M.; Wijayasinghe, H.W.M.A.C.; Pitawala, H.M.T.G.A.; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Huang, Hsin-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The high purity of this form of needle platy natural vein graphite is expected to synthesize GO and rGO readily and efficiently, as compared to the synthetic and less pure graphite raw materials. • Production of large-scale GO and rGO for industrial applications can be achieved by using this highly crystalline NPG vein graphite, and it adds value to the natural resources. • High quality, few-layer, and cost effective GO and rGO can achieve great results using this low cost, natural graphite. - Abstract: Among natural graphite varieties, needle platy vein graphite (NPG) has very high purity. Therefore, it is readily used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this study, GO and rGO were prepared using chemical oxidation and reduction process, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD studies confirmed the increase of the interlayer spacing of GO and rGO in between 3.35 to 8.66 A°. AFM studies showed the layer height of rGO to be 1.05 nm after the reduction process. TEM micrographs clearly illustrated that the prepared GO has more than 25 layers, while the rGO has only less than 15 layers. Furthermore, the effect of chemical oxidation and reduction processes on surface morphology of graphite were clearly observed in FESEM micrographs. The calculated R_O_/_C of GO and rGO using XPS analysis are 5.37% and 1.77%, respectively. The present study revealed the successful and cost effective nature of the chemical oxidation, and the reduction processes for the production of GO and rGO out of natural vein graphite.

  11. Synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide by needle platy natural vein graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathnayake, R.M.N.M. [National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Wijayasinghe, H.W.M.A.C., E-mail: athulawijaya@gmail.com [National Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka); Pitawala, H.M.T.G.A. [Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya (Sri Lanka); Yoshimura, Masamichi; Huang, Hsin-Hui [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • The high purity of this form of needle platy natural vein graphite is expected to synthesize GO and rGO readily and efficiently, as compared to the synthetic and less pure graphite raw materials. • Production of large-scale GO and rGO for industrial applications can be achieved by using this highly crystalline NPG vein graphite, and it adds value to the natural resources. • High quality, few-layer, and cost effective GO and rGO can achieve great results using this low cost, natural graphite. - Abstract: Among natural graphite varieties, needle platy vein graphite (NPG) has very high purity. Therefore, it is readily used to prepare graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this study, GO and rGO were prepared using chemical oxidation and reduction process, respectively. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD studies confirmed the increase of the interlayer spacing of GO and rGO in between 3.35 to 8.66 A°. AFM studies showed the layer height of rGO to be 1.05 nm after the reduction process. TEM micrographs clearly illustrated that the prepared GO has more than 25 layers, while the rGO has only less than 15 layers. Furthermore, the effect of chemical oxidation and reduction processes on surface morphology of graphite were clearly observed in FESEM micrographs. The calculated R{sub O/C} of GO and rGO using XPS analysis are 5.37% and 1.77%, respectively. The present study revealed the successful and cost effective nature of the chemical oxidation, and the reduction processes for the production of GO and rGO out of natural vein graphite.

  12. Core-shell LiFePO4 /carbon-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung Hoon; Lee, Yun Jung

    2015-01-26

    Core-shell carbon-coated LiFePO4 nanoparticles were hybridized with reduced graphene (rGO) for high-power lithium-ion battery cathodes. Spontaneous aggregation of hydrophobic graphene in aqueous solutions during the formation of composite materials was precluded by employing hydrophilic graphene oxide (GO) as starting templates. The fabrication of true nanoscale carbon-coated LiFePO4 -rGO (LFP/C-rGO) hybrids were ascribed to three factors: 1) In-situ polymerization of polypyrrole for constrained nanoparticle synthesis of LiFePO4 , 2) enhanced dispersion of conducting 2D networks endowed by colloidal stability of GO, and 3) intimate contact between active materials and rGO. The importance of conducting template dispersion was demonstrated by contrasting LFP/C-rGO hybrids with LFP/C-rGO composites in which agglomerated rGO solution was used as the starting templates. The fabricated hybrid cathodes showed superior rate capability and cyclability with rates from 0.1 to 60 C. This study demonstrated the synergistic combination of nanosizing with efficient conducting templates to afford facile Li(+) ion and electron transport for high power applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Free-standing ultrathin CoMn2O4 nanosheets anchored on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guoxin; Lu, Shiyao; Xiang, Yang; Dong, Bitao; Yan, Wei; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-21

    Ultrathin CoMn2O4 nanosheets supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are successfully synthesized through a simple co-precipitation method with a post-annealing treatment. With the assistance of citrate, the free-standing CoMn2O4 ultrathin nanosheets can form porous overlays on both sides of the rGO sheets. Such a novel hybrid nanostructure can effectively promote charge transport and accommodate volume variation upon prolonged charge/discharge cycling. When evaluated as a promising electrode for supercapacitors in a 6 M KOH solution electrolyte, the hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate highly enhanced capacitance and excellent cycling stability.

  14. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  15. Supercapacitors: A Hierarchical Carbon Derived from Sponge-Templated Activation of Graphene Oxide for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes (Adv. Mater. 26/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Tan, Ziqi; Zeng, Wencong; Chen, Guanxiong; Wu, Shuilin; Zhao, Yuan; Ni, Kun; Tao, Zhuchen; Ikram, Mujtaba; Ji, Hengxing; Zhu, Yanwu

    2016-07-01

    H. Ji, Y. Zhu, and co-workers demonstrate a 3D hierarchically porous carbon by introducing a polyurethane sponge to template graphene oxide into a 3D interconnected structure while KOH activation generates abundant micropores in its backbone. As described on page 5222, a supercapacitor assembled with this carbon material achieves a high energy density of 89 W h kg(-1) (64 W h L(-1) ) and outstanding power density due to its shortened ion transport distance in three dimensions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Green reduction of graphene oxide by ascorbic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosroshahi, Zahra; Kharaziha, Mahshid; Karimzadeh, Fathallah; Allafchian, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    Graphene, a single layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms in a hexagonal (two-dimensional honey-comb) lattice, has attracted strong scientific and technological interest due to its novel and excellent optical, chemical, electrical, mechanical and thermal properties. The solution-processable chemical reduction of Graphene oxide (GO is considered as the most favorable method regarding mass production of graphene. Generally, the reduction of GO is carried out by chemical approaches using different reductants such as hydrazine and sodium borohydride. These components are corrosive, combustible and highly toxic which may be dangerous for personnel health and the environment. Hence, these reducing agents are not promising choice for reducing of graphene oxide (GO). As a consequence, it is necessary for further development and optimization of eco-friendly, natural reducing agent for clean and effective reduction of GO. Ascorbic acid, an eco-friendly and natural reducing agents, having a mild reductive ability and nontoxic property. So, the aim of this research was to green synthesis of GO with ascorbic acid. For this purpose, the required amount of NaOH and ascorbic acid were added to GO solution (0.5 mg/ml) and were heated at 95 °C for 1 hour. According to the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electrochemical results, GO were reduced with ascorbic acid like hydrazine with better electrochemical properties and ascorbic acid is an ideal substitute for hydrazine in the reduction of graphene oxide process.

  17. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  18. Nanostructured manganese oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing composites in artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahime; Fathollahzadeh, Maryam; Haghighi, Behzad; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Tomo, Tatsuya; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-07-28

    Herein, we report on nano-sized Mn oxide/carbon nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide as water-oxidizing compounds in artificial photosynthesis. The composites are synthesized by different and simple procedures and characterized by a number of methods. The water-oxidizing activities of these composites are also considered in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. Some composites are efficient Mn-based catalysts with TOF (mmol O2 per mol Mn per second) ~ 2.6.

  19. Neutron Reflectivity Measurement for Polymer Dynamics near Graphene Oxide Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jaseung

    We investigated the diffusion dynamics of polymer chains confined between graphene oxide layers using neutron reflectivity (NR). The bilayers of polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA)/ deuterated PMMA (d-PMMA) films and polystyrene (PS)/d-PS films with various film thickness sandwiched between Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of graphene oxide (GO) were prepared. From the NR results, we found that PMMA diffusion dynamics was reduced near the GO surface while the PS diffusion was not significantly changed. This is due to the different strength of GO-polymer interaction. In this talk, these diffusion results will be compared with dewetting dynamics of polymer thin films on the GO monolayers. This has given us the basis for development of graphene-based nanoelectronics with high efficiency, such as heterojunction devices for polymer photovoltaic (OPV) applications.

  20. Stable High-Capacity Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Produced by Supersonic Spray Deposition of Hematite Nanoparticles and Self-Healing Reduced Graphene Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Joshi, Bhavana N.; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Seong, Il Won; Swihart, Mark T.; Yoon, Woo Young; Yoon, Sam S.

    2017-01-01

    Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) nanoparticles and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were supersonically sprayed onto copper current collectors to create high-performance, binder-free lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes. Supersonic spray deposition is rapid, low-cost, and suitable for large-scale production. Supersonic impact of rGO sheets and Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles on the substrate produces compacted nanocomposite films with short diffusion lengths for Li + ions. This structure produces high reversible capacity and markedly improved capacity retention over many cycles. Decomposition of lithium oxide generated during cycling activates the solid electrolyte interface layer, contributing to high capacity retention. The optimal composition ratio of rGO to Fe 2 O 3 was 9.1 wt.%, which produced a reversible capacity of 1242 mAh g −1 after N = 305 cycles at a current density of 1000 mA g −1 (1C).

  1. Graphene Oxide as a Monoatomic Blocking Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren; Glyvradal, Magni; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Monolayer graphene oxide (mGO) is shown to effectively protect molecular thin films from reorganization and function as an atomically thin barrier for vapor-deposited Ti/Al metal top electrodes. Fragile organic Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films of C22 fatty acid cadmium salts (cadmium(II) behenate) were...

  2. Self-Assembly of Antisite Defectless nano-LiFePO4 @C/Reduced Graphene Oxide Microspheres for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Lijia; Wang, Runwei; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Ziqi; Hu, Jiangtao; Chen, Haibiao; Jiang, Shang; Ni, Ling; Qiu, Hailong; Tang, Haitong; Wei, Yingjin; Zhang, Zongtao; Qiu, Shilun; Pan, Feng

    2018-05-18

    LiFePO 4 @C/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and a high tap density were first synthesized by using a Fe 3+ -based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO 4 OH@RF/GO; RF=resorcinol-formaldehyde, GO=graphene oxide) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis followed by direct calcination. The synthetic process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation pathway from tavorite LiFePO 4 OH to olivine LiFePO 4 upon calcination was determined by means of the in situ high-temperature XRD technique. Benefitting from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1.3 g cm -3 , and simultaneously, defectless LiFePO 4 primary nanocrystals modified with a highly conductive surface carbon layer and ultrathin rGO provide good electronic and ionic kinetics for fast electron/Li + ion transport. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Near-field microwave microscopy of highoxides grown on graphene with an organic seeding layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tselev, Alexander, E-mail: tseleva@ornl.gov; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sangwan, Vinod K.; Jariwala, Deep; Lauhon, Lincoln J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2013-12-09

    Near-field scanning microwave microscopy (SMM) is used for non-destructive nanoscale characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2} films grown on epitaxial graphene on SiC by atomic layer deposition using a self-assembled perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride seeding layer. SMM allows imaging of buried inhomogeneities in the dielectric layer with a spatial resolution close to 100 nm. The results indicate that, while topographic features on the substrate surface cannot be eliminated as possible sites of defect nucleation, the use of a vertically heterogeneous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub 2} stack suppresses formation of large outgrowth defects in the oxide film, ultimately improving lateral uniformity of the dielectric film.

  4. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/reduced graphene oxide composites as counter electrodes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinfu; Yuan, Shenghua; Yang, Shaolin; Lu, Hui; Li, Yingtao

    2018-05-01

    A facile, low cost, easy-controllable method to prepare Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites by electrochemical deposition onto fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) as counter electrodes (CEs) in high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is reported. The electro-deposition process was accomplished by electro-polymerization of graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT composites onto FTO substrates followed by electrochemical reduction of the GO component. Electrochemical measurements show that the I-/I3- catalytic activity of the as-prepared PEDOT/rGO CE is improved compared with that of the pure PEDOT and PEDOT/GO electrode. Through the analysis of photoelectric properties, the performance of the electrodes fabricated with different polymerization times are compared, and the optimal preparation condition is determined. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC assembled with PEDOT/rGO electrode reaches 7.79%, close to 8.33% of the cell with Platinum (Pt) electrode, and increases by 13.2% compared with 6.88% of the device with the PEDOT electrode.

  5. One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/Ni(OH)2 films on nickel foam for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Shudi; Zhao, Chongjun; Chen, Guorong; Qian, Xiuzhen

    2014-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH) 2 ) film was synthesized via a green and facile hydrothermal approach. In this process, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by nickel foam (NF) while the nickel metal was oxidized to Ni(OH) 2 film simultaneously, which resulted in RGO on Ni(OH) 2 structure. The RGO/Ni(OH) 2 composite film was characterized using by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The electrochemical performances of the supercapacitor with the as-synthesized RGO/Ni(OH) 2 composite films as electrodes were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge (GCD), electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. Results indicated that the RGO/Ni(OH) 2 /NF composite electrodes exhibited superior capacitive performance with high capability (2500 mF cm −2 at a current density of 5 mA cm −2 , or 1667 F g −1 at 3.3 A g −1 ), compared with pure Ni(OH) 2 /NF (450 mF cm −2 at 5 mA cm −2 , 409 F g −1 at 3.3 A g −1 ) prepared under the identical conditions. Our study highlights the importance of anchoring RGO films on Ni(OH) 2 surface for maximizing the optimized utilization of electrochemically active Ni(OH) 2 and graphene for energy storage application in supercapacitors

  6. Preparation of graphene oxide-manganese dioxide for highly efficient adsorption and separation of Th(IV)/U(VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ning; Li, Long; Ding, Jie; Li, Shengke; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Wang, Xiangke; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-05-15

    Manganese dioxide decorated graphene oxide (GOM) was prepared via fixation of crystallographic MnO2 (α, γ) on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) and was explored as an adsorbent material for simultaneous removal of thorium/uranium ions from aqueous solutions. In single component systems (Th(IV) or U(VI)), the α-GOM2 (the weight ratio of GO/α-MnO2 of 2) exhibited higher maximum adsorption capacities toward both Th(IV) (497.5mg/g) and U(VI) (185.2 mg/g) than those of GO. In the binary component system (Th(IV)/U(VI)), the saturated adsorption capacity of Th(IV) (408.8 mg/g)/U(VI) (66.8 mg/g) on α-GOM2 was also higher than those on GO. Based on the analysis of various data, it was proposed that the adsorption process may involve four types of molecular interactions including coordination, electrostatic interaction, cation-pi interaction, and Lewis acid-base interaction between Th(IV)/U(VI) and α-GOM2. Finally, the Th(IV)/U(VI) ions on α-GOM2 can be separated by a two-stage desorption process with Na2CO3/EDTA. Those results displayed that the α-GOM2 may be utilized as an potential adsorbent for removing and separating Th(IV)/U(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward High Performance 2D/2D Hybrid Photocatalyst by Electrostatic Assembly of Rationally Modified Carbon Nitride on Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Xu, Xiaochan; Li, Tao; Pandiselvi, Kannusamy; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-11-01

    Efficient metal-free visible photocatalysts with high stability are highly desired for sufficient utilization of solar energy. In this work, the popular carbon nitride (CN) photocatalyst is rationally modified by acid exfoliation of molecular grafted CN, achieving improved visible-light utilization and charge carriers mobility. Moreover, the modification process tuned the surface electrical property of CN, which enabled it to be readily coupled with the oppositely charged graphene oxide during the following photo-assisted electrostatic assembly. Detailed characterizations indicate the formation of well-contacted 2D/2D heterostructure with strong interfacial interaction between the modified CN nanosheets (CNX-NSs) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The optimized hybrid (with a RGO ratio of 20%) exhibits the best photocatalytic performance toward MB degradation, which is almost 12.5 and 7.0 times of CN under full spectrum and visible-light irradiation, respectively. In addition, the hybrid exhibits high stability after five successive cycles with no obvious change in efficiency. Unlike pure CNX-NSs, the dye decomposition mostly depends on the H2O2 generation by a two-electron process due to the electron reservoir property of RGO. Thus the enhancement in photocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the improved light utilization and increased charge transfer ability across the interface of CNX-NSs/RGO heterostructure.

  8. Monitoring the layer-by-layer self-assembly of graphene and graphene oxide by spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kai-Ge; Chang, Meng-Jie; Wang, Hang-Xing; Xie, Yu-Long; Zhang, Hao-Li

    2012-01-01

    Thin films of graphene oxide, graphene and copper (II) phthalocyanine dye have been successfully fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach. We present the first variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) investigation on these graphene-dye hybrid thin films. The thickness evaluation suggested that our LbL assembly process produces highly uniform and reproducible thin films. We demonstrate that the refractive indices of the graphene-dye thin films undergo dramatic variation in the range close to the absorption of the dyes. This investigation provides new insight to the optical properties of graphene containing thin films and shall help to establish an appropriate optical model for graphene-based hybrid materials.

  9. Preparation and study of properties of dispersed graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Seliverstova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ability of graphene oxide to form stable dispersion in organic solvents was studied in this work. As it was shown, sonication of graphene leads to the decreas of the particle size. Stability of prepared graphene dispersions was studied upon measurements of distribution of number of the particles via size and change of optical density of the solutions with time. It was found that graphene oxide forms a more stable dispersion in tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide than in chloroform and acetone.

  10. Direct deposition of aluminum oxide gate dielectric on graphene channel using nitrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Dongchool; Ju, Sanghyun

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of high-quality dielectric on a graphene channel is an essential technology to overcome structural constraints for the development of nano-electronic devices. In this study, we investigated a method for directly depositing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) on a graphene channel through nitrogen plasma treatment. The deposited Al 2 O 3 thin film on graphene demonstrated excellent dielectric properties with negligible charge trapping and de-trapping in the gate insulator. A top-gate-structural graphene transistor was fabricated using Al 2 O 3 as the gate dielectric with nitrogen plasma treatment on graphene channel region, and exhibited p-type transistor characteristics

  11. Photoluminescence study in diaminobenzene functionalized graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Abhisek, E-mail: guptaabhisek017@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: guptaabhisek017@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Being an excellent electronic material graphene is a very poor candidate for optoelectronic applications. One of the major strategies to develop the optical property in GO is the functionalization of graphene oxide (GO). In the present work GO sheets are functionalized by o-phenylenediamine to achieve diaminobenzene functionalized GO composite (DAB-GO). Formation of DAB-GO composite is further characterized by FTIR, UV, Raman studies. Excellent photoluminescence is observed in DAB-GO composite via passivation of the surface reactive sites by ring-opening amination of epoxides of GO.

  12. Vanadium Pentoxide Nanobelt-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanosheet Composites as High-Performance Pseudocapacitive Electrodes: ac Impedance Spectroscopy Data Modeling and Theoretical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanju Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanosheets and graphene nanoribbons, G combined with vanadium pentoxide (VO nanobelts (VNBs and VNBs forming GVNB composites with varying compositions were synthesized via a one-step low temperature facile hydrothermal decomposition method as high-performance electrochemical pseudocapacitive electrodes. VNBs from vanadium pentoxides (VO are formed in the presence of graphene oxide (GO, a mild oxidant, which transforms into reduced GO (rGOHT, assisting in enhancing the electronic conductivity coupled with the mechanical robustness of VNBs. From electron microscopy, surface sensitive spectroscopy and other complementary structural characterization, hydrothermally-produced rGO nanosheets/nanoribbons are decorated with and inserted within the VNBs’ layered crystal structure, which further confirmed the enhanced electronic conductivity of VNBs. Following the electrochemical properties of GVNBs being investigated, the specific capacitance Csp is determined from cyclic voltammetry (CV with a varying scan rate and galvanostatic charging-discharging (V–t profiles with varying current density. The rGO-rich composite V1G3 (i.e., VO/GO = 1:3 showed superior specific capacitance followed by VO-rich composite V3G1 (VO/GO = 3:1, as compared to V1G1 (VO/GO = 1:1 composite, besides the constituents, i.e., rGO, rGOHT and VNBs. Composites V1G3 and V3G1 also showed excellent cyclic stability and a capacitance retention of >80% after 500 cycles at the highest specific current density. Furthermore, by performing extensive simulations and modeling of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data, we determined various circuit parameters, including charge transfer and solution resistance, double layer and low frequency capacitance, Warburg impedance and the constant phase element. The detailed analyses provided greater insights into physical-chemical processes occurring at the electrode-electrolyte interface and highlighted the comparative performance of

  13. Enhance the Pyroelectricity of Polyvinylidene Fluoride by Graphene-Oxide Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Chung Hu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high quality properties and benefits of graphene-oxide have generated an active area of research where many investigations have shown potential applications in various technological fields. This paper proposes a methodology for enhancing the pyro-electricity of PVDF by graphene-oxide doping. The PVDF film with graphene-oxide is prepared by the sol-gel method. Firstly, PVDF and graphene-oxide powders are dispersed into dimethylformamide as solvent to form a sol solution. Secondly, the sol solution is deposited on a flexible ITO/PET substrate by spin-coating. Thirdly, the particles in the sol solution are polymerized through baking off the solvent to produce a gel in a state of a continuous network of PVDF and graphene-oxide. The final annealing process pyrolyzes the gel and form a β-phase PVDF film with graphene-oxide doping. A complete study on the process of the graphene oxide doping of PVDF is accomplished. Some key points about the process are addressed based on experiments. The solutions to some key issues are found in this work, such as the porosity of film, the annealing temperature limitation by the use of flexible PET substrate, and the concentrations of PVDF and graphene-oxide.

  14. Copper Oxidation through Nucleation Sites of Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Birong; Whelan, Patrick Rebsdorf; Shivayogimath, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nucleation defect-triggered oxidation of Cu covered by CVD graphene during postannealing in air. The results reveal that different growth conditions may induce imperfect nucleation of graphene, and cause creation of defects near the nucleation point such as pin holes...... and amorphous carbon. These defects would serve as a pathway for the diffusion of 02 during thermal annealing, allowing oxidation of Cu to progress gradually from the nucleation center toward the growth edge. The oxidation process follows the graphene morphology closely; the shape of the oxidized area of Cu has...... a striking resemblance to that of the graphene flakes. Our work demonstrates that inferior graphene nucleation in CVD processes can compromise the oxidation resistance of a graphene-coated Cu substrate, and indirectly reveal the structure and integrity of graphene, which is of fundamental importance...

  15. Microporous spongy chitosan monoliths doped with graphene oxide as highly effective adsorbent for methyl orange and copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Xu; Wang, Hongfang; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2014-02-15

    In the current study, microporous spongy chitosan monoliths doped with small amount of graphene oxide (CSGO monoliths) with high porosity (96-98%), extraordinary high water absorption (more than 2000%) and low density (0.0436-0.0607 g cm(-3)) were prepared by the freeze-drying method and used as adsorbents for anionic dyes methyl orange (MO) and Cu(2+) ions. The adsorption behavior of the CSGO monoliths and influencing factors such as pH value, graphene oxide (GO) content, concentration of pollutants as well as adsorption kinetics were studied. Specifically, the saturated adsorption capacity for MO is 567.07 mg g(-1), the highest comparing with other publication results, and it is 53.69 mg g(-1) for Cu(2+) ions. Since they are biodegradable, non-toxic, efficient, low-cost and easy to prepare, we believe that these microporous spongy CSGO monoliths will be the promising candidates for water purification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Graphene-based copper oxide thin film nanostructures as high-efficiency photocathode for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Bayram; Turkdogan, Sunay; Astam, Aykut; Baran, Sümeyra Seniha; Asgin, Mansur; Cebeci, Hulya; Urk, Deniz

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-based p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) have been proposed and fabricated using copper oxide urchin-like nanostructures (COUN) as photocathode with an FeS2 counter electrode (CE). COUN composed of Cu2O core sphere and CuO shell nanorods with overall diameters of 2 to 4 μm were grown by a simple hydrothermal method with self-assemble nucleation. It was figured out that the formation of copper oxide core/shell structures could be adjusted by an ammonia additive leading to pH change of the precursor solution. In addition to a photocathode, we also demonstrated FeS2 thin films as an efficient CE material alternative to the conventional Pt CEs in DSSCs. FeS2 nanostructures, with diameters of 50 to 80 nm, were synthesized by a similar hydrothermal approach. FeS2 nanostructures are demonstrated to be an outstanding CE material in p-DSSCs. We report graphene/COUN as photocathode and Pt/FeS2 as CE in p-DSSCs, and results show that the synergetic combination of electrodes in each side (increased interconnectivity between COUN and graphene layer, high surface area, and high catalytic activity of FeS2) increased the power conversion efficiency from 1.56% to 3.14%. The excellent performances of COUN and FeS2 thin film in working and CEs, respectively, make them unique choices among the various photocathode and CE materials studied.

  17. Highly Sensitive Electrochemical Biosensor for Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Based on the Nanointerface of Graphene Nanocomposites Blended with Gold, Fe3O4, and Platinum Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Chuansheng; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2015-08-26

    High levels of H2O2 pertain to high oxidative stress and are associated with cancer, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disease, and other related diseases. In this study, a sensitive H2O2 biosensor for evaluation of oxidative stress was fabricated on the basis of the reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites decorated with Au, Fe3O4, and Pt nanoparticles (RGO/AuFe3O4/Pt) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and used to detect the released H2O2 from cancer cells and assess the oxidative stress elicited from H2O2 in living cells. Electrochemical behavior of RGO/AuFe3O4/Pt nanocomposites exhibits excellent catalytic activity toward the relevant reduction with high selection and sensitivity, low overpotential of 0 V, low detection limit of ∼0.1 μM, large linear range from 0.5 μM to 11.5 mM, and outstanding reproducibility. The as-prepared biosensor was applied in the measurement of efflux of H2O2 from living cells including healthy normal cells and tumor cells under the external stimulation. The results display that this new nanocomposites-based biosensor is a promising candidate of nonenzymatic H2O2 sensor which has the possibility of application in clinical diagnostics to assess oxidative stress of different kinds of living cells.

  18. Three-dimensional design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite hydrogel electrodes for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat; El-Kady, Maher; Kaner, Richard B

    2018-04-27

    Graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogels (GH/PANI) were chemically synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer. Graphene hydrogels were obtained by a hydrothermal method and used in supercapacitors. The graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogel exhibits better electrochemical performance than the pure individual components as determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements. A remarkable specific capacitance (C sp ) of 323.9 F g -1 was measured using CV at a scan rate of 2 mV s -1 at 25 °C. GCD measurements (311.3 F g -1 ) and electrochemical impedance analysis also support these results. The numbers were obtained at extremely high loading masses: 7.14 mg cm -2 for GH and GH/PANI synthesized at 0 °C, and 8.93 mg cm -2 for GH/PANI synthesized at 25 °C. The corresponding areal capacitances are 1.14, 1.75 and 2.78 F cm -2 for GH, and GH/PANI composite hydrogels synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. These values in F cm -2 are 3.80, 5.83 and 9.27 times higher than commercially available activated carbon supercapacitors (∼0.3 F cm -2 for a two electrode system). Moreover, the GH/PANI composite synthesized at 25 °C exhibits excellent stability with 99% initial capacitance retention after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. GH/PANI composites synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C therefore hold promise for use in supercapacitor device applications.

  19. Three-dimensional design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite hydrogel electrodes for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Murat; El-Kady, Maher; Kaner, Richard B.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogels (GH/PANI) were chemically synthesized by in situ polymerization of aniline monomer. Graphene hydrogels were obtained by a hydrothermal method and used in supercapacitors. The graphene/polyaniline composite hydrogel exhibits better electrochemical performance than the pure individual components as determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements. A remarkable specific capacitance (C sp) of 323.9 F g-1 was measured using CV at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 at 25 °C. GCD measurements (311.3 F g-1) and electrochemical impedance analysis also support these results. The numbers were obtained at extremely high loading masses: 7.14 mg cm-2 for GH and GH/PANI synthesized at 0 °C, and 8.93 mg cm-2 for GH/PANI synthesized at 25 °C. The corresponding areal capacitances are 1.14, 1.75 and 2.78 F cm-2 for GH, and GH/PANI composite hydrogels synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C, respectively. These values in F cm-2 are 3.80, 5.83 and 9.27 times higher than commercially available activated carbon supercapacitors (˜0.3 F cm-2 for a two electrode system). Moreover, the GH/PANI composite synthesized at 25 °C exhibits excellent stability with 99% initial capacitance retention after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. GH/PANI composites synthesized at 0 °C and 25 °C therefore hold promise for use in supercapacitor device applications.

  20. Oxidation behavior of graphene-coated copper at intrinsic graphene defects of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jinsung; Jo, Yongsu; Park, Soon-Dong; Kim, Na Yeon; Kim, Se-Yang; Shin, Hyung-Joon; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Sung Youb; Kwon, Soon-Yong

    2017-11-16

    The development of ultrathin barrier films is vital to the advanced semiconductor industry. Graphene appears to hold promise as a protective coating; however, the polycrystalline and defective nature of engineered graphene hinders its practical applications. Here, we investigate the oxidation behavior of graphene-coated Cu foils at intrinsic graphene defects of different origins. Macro-scale information regarding the spatial distribution and oxidation resistance of various graphene defects is readily obtained using optical and electron microscopies after the hot-plate annealing. The controlled oxidation experiments reveal that the degree of structural deficiency is strongly dependent on the origins of the structural defects, the crystallographic orientations of the underlying Cu grains, the growth conditions of graphene, and the kinetics of the graphene growth. The obtained experimental and theoretical results show that oxygen radicals, decomposed from water molecules in ambient air, are effectively inverted at Stone-Wales defects into the graphene/Cu interface with the assistance of facilitators.

  1. A two step method to synthesize palladium-copper nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide and their extremely high electrocatalytic activity for the electrooxidation of methanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, HeYa; Zhang, Lei; Qiu, HaiXia; Wu, Tao; Chen, MingXi; Yang, Nian; Li, LingZhi; Xing, FuBao; Gao, JianPing

    2015-08-01

    Palladium-copper nanoparticles (Pd-Cu NPs) supported on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with different Pd/Cu ratios (Pd-Cu/RGO) were prepared by a two step method. The Pd-Cu/RGO hybrids were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to investigate the electrochemical activities and stabilities of the Pd-Cu/RGO catalysts for the electro-oxidation of methanol and ethanol in alkaline media. The Pd-Cu/RGO catalysts exhibited high catalytic activities and good stabilities. This is because the catalysts have a bimetallic structure consisting of a small Pd-Cu core surrounded by a thin Pd-rich shell which improves the catalytic activities of the Pd-Cu/RGO hybrids. Thus they should be useful in direct methanol and ethanol fuel cells.

  2. Layer Dependence of Graphene for Oxidation Resistance of Cu Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-qing Song; Xiao-ping Wang

    2017-01-01

    We studied the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated Cu surface and its layer dependence by directly growing monolayer graphene with different multilayer structures coexisted,diminishing the influence induced by residue and transfer technology.It is found that the Cu surface coated with the monolayer graphene demonstrate tremendous difference in oxidation pattern and oxidation rate,compared to that coated with the bilayer graphene,which is considered to be originated from the strain-induced linear oxidation channel in monolayer graphene and the intersection of easily-oxidized directions in each layer of bilayer graphene,respectively.We reveal that the defects on the graphene basal plane but not the boundaries are the main oxidation channel for Cu surface under graphene protection.Our finding indicates that compared to putting forth efforts to improve the quality of monolayer graphene by reducing defects,depositing multilayer graphene directly on metal is a simple and effective way to enhance the oxidation resistance of graphene-coated metals.

  3. Preparation of graphene oxide-wrapped carbon sphere@silver spheres for high performance chlorinated phenols sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Tian, E-mail: gantsjy@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Lv, Zhen; Sun, Junyong; Shi, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yanming [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Hierarchical CS@Ag@GO composite was obtained by a simple solution route. • Signal amplification is achieved for sensitive detection of chlorinated phenols. • The low-cost method exhibits wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy. • The method can be successfully applied to detect chlorinated phenols in waters. - Abstract: A template-activated strategy was developed to construct core/shell structured carbon sphere@silver composite based on one-pot hydrothermal treatment. The CS@Ag possessed a uniform three-dimensional interconnected microstructure with an enlarged surface area and catalytic activity, which was further mechanically protected by graphene oxide (GO) nanolayers to fabricate intriguing configuration, which was beneficial for efficiently preventing the aggregation and oxidation of AgNPs and improving the electrical conductivity through intimate contact. By immobilizing this special material on electrode surface, the CS@Ag@GO was further used for sensitive determination of chlorinated phenols including 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The tailored structure, fast electron transfer ability and facile preparation of CS@Ag@GO made it a promising electrode material for practical applications in phenols sensing.

  4. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxides for High Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kyoo Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite, Fe3O4, is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity (924 mA h g−1, high density, low cost and low toxicity. However, its application as high capacity anodes is still hampered by poor cycling performance. To stabilize the cycling performance of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, composites comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles and graphene sheets (GS were fabricated. The Fe3O4/GS composite disks of mm dimensions were prepared by electrostatic self-assembly between negatively charged graphene oxide (GO sheets and positively charged Fe3O4-APTMS [Fe3O4 grafted with (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS] in an acidic solution (pH = 2 followed by in situ chemical reduction. Thus prepared Fe3O4/GS composite showed an excellent rate capability as well as much enhanced cycling stability compared with Fe3O4 electrode. The superior electrochemical responses of Fe3O4/GS composite disks assure the advantages of: (1 electrostatic self-assembly between high storage-capacity materials with GO; and (2 incorporation of GS in the Fe3O4/GS composite for high capacity lithium-ion battery application.

  5. Microbial reduction of graphene oxide by Escherichia coli: a green chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-02-01

    Graphene and graphene related materials are an important area of research in recent years due to their unique properties. The extensive industrial application of graphene and related compounds has led researchers to devise novel and simple methods for the synthesis of high quality graphene. In this paper, we developed an environment friendly, cost effective, simple method and green approaches for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using Escherichia coli biomass. In biological method, we can avoid use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents commonly used in the chemical reduction of GO to obtain graphene. The biomass of E. coli reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at 37°C in an aqueous medium. The E. coli reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) was characterized with UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle analyzer, high resolution X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Besides the reduction potential, the biomass could also play an important role as stabilizing agent, in which synthesized graphene exhibited good stability in water. This method can open up the new avenue for preparing graphene in cost effective and large scale production. Our findings suggest that GO can be reduced by simple eco-friendly method by using E. coli biomass to produce water dispersible graphene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors of MnCo2O4 Nanofibers and N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettong, Tanut; Iamprasertkun, Pawin; Krittayavathananon, Atiweena; Sukha, Phansiri; Sirisinudomkit, Pichamon; Seubsai, Anusorn; Chareonpanich, Metta; Kongkachuichay, Paisan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sawangphruk, Montree

    2016-12-14

    The working potential of symmetric supercapacitors is not so wide because one type of material used for the supercapacitor electrodes prefers either positive or negative charge to both charges. To address this problem, a novel asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) of battery-type MnCo 2 O 4 nanofibers (NFs)//N-doped reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGO AE ) was fabricated in this work. The MnCo 2 O 4 NFs at the positive electrode store the negative charges, i.e., solvated OH - , while the N-rGO AE at the negative electrode stores the positive charges, i.e., solvated K + . An as-fabricated aqueous-based MnCo 2 O 4 //N-rGO AE ASC device can provide a wide operating potential of 1.8 V and high energy density and power density at 54 W h kg -1 and 9851 W kg -1 , respectively, with 85.2% capacity retention over 3000 cycles. To understand the charge storage reaction mechanism of the MnCo 2 O 4 , the synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique was also used to determine the oxidation states of Co and Mn at the MnCo 2 O 4 electrode after being electrochemically tested. The oxidation number of Co is oxidized from +2.76 to +2.85 after charging and reduced back to +2.75 after discharging. On the other hand, the oxidation state of Mn is reduced from +3.62 to +3.44 after charging and oxidized to +3.58 after discharging. Understanding in the oxidation states of Co and Mn at the MnCo 2 O 4 electrode here leads to the awareness of the uncertain charge storage mechanism of the spinel-type oxide materials. High-performance ASC here in this work may be practically used in high-power applications.

  7. New Insights into the Diels-Alder Reaction of Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisebois, Patrick P; Kuss, Christian; Schougaard, Steen B; Izquierdo, Ricardo; Siaj, Mohamed

    2016-04-18

    Graphene oxide is regarded as a major precursor for graphene-based materials. The development of graphene oxide based derivatives with new functionalities requires a thorough understanding of its chemical reactivity, especially for canonical synthetic methods such as the Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The Diels-Alder reaction has been successfully extended with graphene oxide as a source of diene by using maleic anhydride as a dienophile, thereby outlining the presence of the cis diene present in the graphene oxide framework. This reaction provides fundamental information for understanding the exact structure and chemical nature of graphene oxide. On the basis of high-resolution (13) C-SS NMR spectra, we show evidence for the formation of new sp(3) carbon centers covalently bonded to graphene oxide following hydrolysis of the reaction product. DFT calculations are also used to show that the presence of a cis dihydroxyl and C vacancy on the surface of graphene oxide are promoting the reaction with significant negative reaction enthalpies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Hybridized Polymeric High-Internal Phase Emulsions for Highly Efficient Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Water Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Zhang, Wenjuan; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Xianxian; Cong, Yongzheng; Du, Fuyou; Li, Jianping

    2018-03-27

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-hybridized polymeric high-internal phase emulsions (RGO/polyHIPEs) with an open-cell structure and hydrophobicity have been successfully prepared using 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the monomer and the cross-linker, respectively. The adsorption mechanism and performance of this RGO/polyHIPEs to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated. Adsorption isotherms of PAHs on RGO/polyHIPEs show that the saturated adsorption capacity is 47.5 mg/g and the equilibrium time is 8 h. Cycling tests show that the adsorption capacity of RGO/polyHIPEs remains stable in 10 adsorption-desorption cycles without observable structure change in RGO/polyHIPEs. Moreover, the PAH residues in water samples after being purified by RGO/polyHIPEs are lower than the limit values in drinking water set by the European Food Safety Authority. These results demonstrate that the RGO/polyHIPEs have great potentiality in PAH removal and water purification.

  9. Graphene oxide vs. reduced graphene oxide as carbon support in porphyrin peroxidase biomimetic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socaci, C; Pogacean, F; Biris, A R; Coros, M; Rosu, M C; Magerusan, L; Katona, G; Pruneanu, S

    2016-02-01

    The paper describes the preparation of supramolecular assemblies of tetrapyridylporphyrin (TPyP) and its metallic complexes with graphene oxide (GO) and thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRGO). The two carbon supports are introducing different characteristics in the absorption spectra of the investigated nanocomposites. Raman spectroscopy shows that the absorption of iron-tetrapyridylporphyrin is more efficient on GO than TRGO, suggesting that oxygen functionalities are involved in the non-covalent interaction between the iron-porphyrin and graphene. The biomimetic peroxidase activity is investigated and the two iron-containing composites exhibit a better catalytic activity than each component of the assembly, and their cobalt and manganese homologues, respectively. The main advantages of this work include the demonstration of graphene oxide as a very good support for graphene-based nanomaterials with peroxidase-like activity (K(M)=0.292 mM), the catalytic activity being observed even with very small amounts of porphyrins (the TPyP:graphene ratio=1:50). Its potential application in the detection of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E can be measured in the 10(-5)-10(-4) M range) is also shown. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro and in vivo effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, Sławomir; Sawosz, Ewa; Kutwin, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and its related counterparts are considered the future of advanced nanomaterials owing to their exemplary properties. However, information about their toxicity and biocompatibility is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced grap......, the level of apoptotic markers increased in rGO-treated tumors. We show that rGO induces cell death mostly through apoptosis, indicating the potential applicability of graphene in cancer therapy.......Graphene and its related counterparts are considered the future of advanced nanomaterials owing to their exemplary properties. However, information about their toxicity and biocompatibility is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced...... graphene oxide (rGO) platelets, using U87 and U118 glioma cell lines for an in vitro model and U87 tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane for an in vivo model. The in vitro investigation consisted of structural analysis of GO and rGO platelets using transmission electron microscopy...

  11. A facile strategy for the reduction of graphene oxide and its effect on thermal conductivity of epoxy based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A facile and efficient approach to reduce graphene oxide with Al particles and potassium hydroxide was developed at moderate temperature and the graphene/epoxy composite was prepared by mould casting method. The as-prepared graphene has been confirmed by Transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. This provides a new green way to synthesize graphene with high surface area and opens another opportunity for the production of graphene. Effects of graphene on thermal conductivity, thermal stability and microstructures of the epoxy-based composite were also investigated. The results showed that thermal conductivity of the composite exhibited a remarkable improvement with increasing content of graphene and thermal conductivity could reach 1.192 W/(m*K when filled with 3 wt% graphene. Moreover, graphene/epoxy composite exhibits good thermal stability with 3 wt% graphene.

  12. Nickel-foam-supported ruthenium oxide/graphene sandwich composite constructed via one-step electrodeposition route for high-performance aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; He, Hanwei

    2018-05-01

    A high-performance supercapacitor both considered high power and high energy density is needed for its applications such as portable electronics and electric vehicles. Herein, we construct a high-performance ruthenium oxide/graphene (RuO2-ERG) composite directly grown on Ni foam through cyclic voltammetric deposition process. The RuO2-ERG composite with sandwich structure is achieved effectively from a mixed solution of graphene oxide and ruthenium trichloride in the -1.4 V to 1.0 V potential range at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1. The electrochemical performance is optimized by tuning the concentration of the ruthenium trichloride. This integrative RuO2-ERG composite electrode can effectively maintains the accessible surface for redox reaction and stable channels for electrolyte penetration, leading to an improved electrochemical performance. Symmetrical aqueous supercapacitors based on RuO2-ERG electrodes exhibit a wider operational voltage window of 1.5 V. The optimized RuO2-ERG electrode displays a superior specific capacitance with 89% capacitance retention upon increasing the current density by 50 times. A high energy density of 43.8 W h kg-1 at a power density of 0.75 kW kg-1 is also obtained, and as high as 39.1 W h kg-1 can be retained at a power density of 37.5 kW kg-1. In addition, the capacitance retention is still maintained at 92.8% even after 10,000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical performance, long-term cycle stability, and the ease of preparation demonstrate that this typical RuO2-ERG electrode has great potentialities to develop high-performance supercapacitors.

  13. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan, E-mail: cyho@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Center for Nanotechnology and Institute of Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hong-Wen [Department of Chemistry, Center for Nanotechnology and Institute of Biomedical Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental process: (1) graphite oxidized to graphene oxide; (2) thermal reduction from graphene oxide to graphene; (3) applying to DSSC counter electrode. - Highlights: • Intercalated defects were eliminated by increasing reduction temperature of GO. • High reduction temperature of tGP has lower resistance, high the electron lifetime. • Higher thermal reduction of GO proposes electrocatalytic properties. • DSSC using tGP{sub 250} as counter electrode has energy conversion efficiency of 3.4%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  14. Characteristics of thermally reduced graphene oxide and applied for dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Experimental process: (1) graphite oxidized to graphene oxide; (2) thermal reduction from graphene oxide to graphene; (3) applying to DSSC counter electrode. - Highlights: • Intercalated defects were eliminated by increasing reduction temperature of GO. • High reduction temperature of tGP has lower resistance, high the electron lifetime. • Higher thermal reduction of GO proposes electrocatalytic properties. • DSSC using tGP 250 as counter electrode has energy conversion efficiency of 3.4%. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized from a flake-type of graphite powder, which was then reduced to a few layers of graphene sheets using the thermal reduction method. The surface morphology, phase crystallization, and defect states of the reduced graphene were determined from an electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersion spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared spectra. After graphene formation, the intercalated defects that existed in the GO were removed, and it became crystalline by observing impurity changes and d-spacing. Dye-sensitized solar cells, using reduced graphene as the counter electrode, were fabricated to evaluate the electrolyte activity and charge transport performance. The electrochemical impedance spectra showed that increasing the thermal reduction temperature could achieve faster electron transport and longer electron lifetime, and result in an energy conversion efficiency of approximately 3.4%. Compared to the Pt counter electrode, the low cost of the thermal reduction method suggests that graphene will enjoy a wide range of potential applications in the field of electronic devices.

  15. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  16. Large-area self-assembled reduced graphene oxide/electrochemically exfoliated graphene hybrid films for transparent electrothermal heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan; Chen, Ding; Ye, Chen; Li, Xinming; Dai, Dan; Yuan, Qilong; Chee, Kuan W. A.; Zhao, Pei; Jiang, Nan; Lin, Cheng-Te

    2018-03-01

    Graphene shows great promise as a high-efficiency electrothermal film for flexible transparent defoggers/defrosters. However, it remains a great challenge to achieve a good balance between the production cost and the properties of graphene films. Here, we proposed a cost-effective self-assembly method to fabricate high-performance, large-area graphene oxide/electrochemically exfoliated graphene hybrid films for heater applications. The self-assembled graphene hybrid films with the area of 20 × 20 cm2 could be transferred onto arbitrary substrates with nonplanar surfaces and simply patterned with the hard mask. After reduction by hydrogen iodide vapor followed by 800 °C thermal treatment, the hybrid films with the transmittance of 76.2% exhibit good heating characteristics and defogging performance, which reach a saturation temperature of up to 127.5 °C when 40 V was applied for 60 s.

  17. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  18. Surface adhesion properties of graphene and graphene oxide studied by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yanhuai; Zhang Ping; Ren Huming; Zhuo Qin; Yang Zhongmei; Jiang Xu; Jiang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Surface adhesion properties are important to various applications of graphene-based materials. Atomic force microscopy is powerful to study the adhesion properties of samples by measuring the forces on the colloidal sphere tip as it approaches and retracts from the surface. In this paper we have measured the adhesion force between the colloid probe and the surface of graphene (graphene oxide) nanosheet. The results revealed that the adhesion force on graphene and graphene oxide surface were 66.3 and 170.6 nN, respectively. It was found the adhesion force was mainly determined by the water meniscus, which was related to the surface contact angle of samples.

  19. High performance sponge-like cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide hybrid counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinghao; Wu, Jihuai; Zheng, Min; Tu, Yongguang; Lan, Zhang

    2015-10-01

    A sponge-like cobalt sulfide/reduced graphene oxide (CoS/rGO) hybrid film is deposited on fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) glass by electrophoretic deposition and ion exchange deposition, following by sodium borohydride and sulfuric acid solution treatment. The film is used as the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and is characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel measurements. The results show that the CoS counter electrode has a sponge structure with large specific surface area, small charge-transfer resistance at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The addition of rGO further improves the electrocatalytic activity for I3- reduction, which results in the better electrocatalytic property of CoS/rGO counter electrodes than that of Pt counter electrode. Using CoS/rGO0.2 as counter electrode, the DSSC achieves a power conversion efficiency of 9.39%; which is increased by 27.93% compared with the DSSC with Pt counter electrode (7.34%).

  20. Scalable Fabrication of High-Performance Transparent Conductors Using Graphene Oxide-Stabilized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxiang He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent development in liquid-phase processing of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs has revealed rod-coating as a promising approach for large-scale production of SWNT-based transparent conductors. Of great importance in the ink formulation is the stabilizer having excellent dispersion stability, environmental friendly and tunable rheology in the liquid state, and also can be readily removed to enhance electrical conductivity and mechanical stability. Herein we demonstrate the promise of graphene oxide (GO as a synergistic stabilizer for SWNTs in water. SWNTs dispersed in GO is formulated into inks with homogeneous nanotube distribution, good wetting and rheological properties, and compatible with industrial rod coating practice. Microwave treatment of rod-coated films can reduce GOs and enhance electro-optical performance. The resultant films offer a sheet resistance of ~80 Ω/sq at 86% transparency, along with good mechanical flexibility. Doping the films with nitric acid can further decrease the sheet resistance to ~25 Ω/sq. Comparing with the films fabricated from typical surfactant-based SWNT inks, our films offer superior adhesion as assessed by the Scotch tape test. This study provides new insight into the selection of suitable stabilizers for functional SWNT inks with strong potential for printed electronics.

  1. Highly efficient visible light photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels by Cu-nanoparticle decorated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shown, Indrajit; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Chang, Yu-Chung; Lin, Chang-Hui; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Ganguly, Abhijit; Wang, Chen-Hao; Chang, Jan-Kai; Wu, Chih-I; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-11-12

    The production of renewable solar fuel through CO2 photoreduction, namely artificial photosynthesis, has gained tremendous attention in recent times due to the limited availability of fossil-fuel resources and global climate change caused by rising anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) decorated with copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs), hereafter referred to as Cu/GO, has been used to enhance photocatalytic CO2 reduction under visible-light. A rapid one-pot microwave process was used to prepare the Cu/GO hybrids with various Cu contents. The attributes of metallic copper nanoparticles (∼4-5 nm in size) in the GO hybrid are shown to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of GO, primarily through the suppression of electron-hole pair recombination, further reduction of GO's bandgap, and modification of its work function. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies indicate a charge transfer from GO to Cu. A strong interaction is observed between the metal content of the Cu/GO hybrids and the rates of formation and selectivity of the products. A factor of greater than 60 times enhancement in CO2 to fuel catalytic efficiency has been demonstrated using Cu/GO-2 (10 wt % Cu) compared with that using pristine GO.

  2. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huanwen [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Hu Zhongai, E-mail: zhongai@nwnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2010-12-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 {sup o}C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g{sup -1} (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g{sup -1} as compared with 71 F g{sup -1} for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g{sup -1} even at 10 A g{sup -1}. In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  3. Facile solvothermal synthesis of a graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite and its electrochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanwen; Hu Zhongai; Chang Yanqin; Chen Yanli; Lei Ziqiang; Zhang Ziyu; Yang Yuying

    2010-01-01

    This work demonstrates a novel and facile route for preparing graphene-based composites comprising of metal oxide nanoparticles and graphene. A graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite as electrode materials of supercapacitors was firstly synthesized by thermally treating the graphene-bismuth composite, which was obtained through simultaneous solvothermal reduction of the colloidal dispersions of negatively charged graphene oxide sheets in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution of bismuth cations at 180 o C. The morphology, composition, and microstructure of the composites together with pure graphite oxide, and graphene were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG). The electrochemical behaviors were measured by cyclic voltammogram (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 (based on composite) is obtained at a specific current of 1 A g -1 as compared with 71 F g -1 for pure graphene. The loaded-bismuth oxide achieves a specific capacitance as high as 757 F g -1 even at 10 A g -1 . In addition, the graphene nanosheet-bismuth oxide composite electrode exhibits the excellent rate capability and well reversibility.

  4. Graphene Oxide from Carbon Rod Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, F.; Prasasti, B. L. W.; Mudjijono, M.

    2018-03-01

    Carbon rods extracted from Zn-C primary battery waste was used as raw material for graphene oxide (GO) synthesis. The synthesis used a modified Hummers method by providing potassium permanganate-sulfuric acid as the oxidizing agent. XRD analysis confirms a significant change between the graphite waste pattern and the produced graphene oxide pattern. A major peak at 2θ 27 ° which present in the graphite waste pattern is disappeared after it converts to the product, as well as a broad peak under 25 ° referring the presence of amorphous carbon. A broad peak at low angle of 12.02 ° dominantly present in the prepared GO pattern as a characteristic peak of GO. Meanwhile, some small peaks at 2θ of 17.76 °, 28.58 °, and 37.28 ° confirming the presence of manganese oxide which was used as oxidizing agent. A sharp peak at 1700 – 1500 cm-1 in the FT-IR spectrum indicates the presence of –C=O group, and at 1600 cm-1 refers to –C=C group. It confirms that this research has produced the targeted GO. Even though, the purity is need to be enhanced by removing the rest of oxidizing agent that still exist in the material.

  5. Graphene Oxide/ Ruthenium Oxide Composites for Supercapacitors Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Fatima

    Supercapacitors are electrical energy storage devices with high power density, high rate capability, low maintenance cost, and long life cycle. They complement or replace batteries in harvesting applications when high power delivery is needed. An important improvement in performance of supercapacitors has been achieved through recent advances in the development of new nanostructured materials. Here we will discuss the fabrication of graphene oxide/ ruthenium oxide supercacitors electrodes including electrophoretic deposition. The morphology and structure of the fabricated electrodes were investigated and will be discussed. The electrochemical properties were determined using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge techniques and the experiments that demonstrate the excellent capacitive properties of the obtained supercapacitors will also be discussed. The fabrication and characterization of the samples were performed at the Center of Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Lab. The developed approaches in our study represent an exciting direction for designing the next generation of energy storage devices. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Visiting Faculty Program and the research used resources of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  6. Porous Co3O4 nanofibers surface-modified by reduced graphene oxide as a durable, high-rate anode for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Renzong; Zhang, Houpo; Bu, Yunfei; Zhang, Hanyin; Zhao, Bote; Yang, Chenghao

    2017-01-01

    Here we report our findings in synthesis and characterization of porous Co 3 O 4 nanofibers coated with a surface-modification layer, reduced graphene oxide. The unique porous Co 3 O 4 @rGO architecture enables efficient stress relaxation and fast Li + ions and electron transport during discharge/charge cycling. When tested in a half cell, the Co 3 O 4 @rGO electrodes display high Coulombic efficiency, enhanced cyclic stability, and high rate capability (∼900 mAh/g at 1A/g, and ∼600 mAh/g at 5 A/g). The high capacity is contributed by a stable capacity yielded from reversible conversion reactions above 0.8 V vs. Li/Li + , and a increasing capacity induced by the electrolyte decomposition and interfacial storage between 0.8 0.01 V during discahrge. A full cell constructed from a Co 3 O 4 @rGO anode and a LiMn 2 O 4 cathode delivers good capacity retention with operation voltage of ∼2.0 V. These performances are better than those of other full cells using alloy or metal oxide anodes. Our work is a preliminary attempt for practicality of high capacity metal oxide anodes in Li-ion batteries used for the electronic devices.

  7. Superlattice assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and titania nanosheets: fabrication, in situ photocatalytic reduction of GO and highly improved carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xingke; Ma, Renzhi; Ozawa, Tadashi C.; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Funatsu, Asami; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    2014-11-01

    Two different kinds of two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide nanosheets (Ti0.87O20.52-), were self-assembled layer-by-layer using a polycation as a linker into a superlattice film. Successful construction of an alternate molecular assembly was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Exposure of the resulting film to UV light effectively promoted photocatalytic reduction of GO as well as decomposition of the polycation, which are due to their intimate molecular-level contact. The reduction completed within 3 hours, bringing about a decrease of the sheet resistance by ~106. This process provides a clean and mild route to reduced graphene oxide (rGO), showing advantages over other chemical and thermal reduction processes. A field-effect-transistor device was fabricated using the resulting superlattice assembly of rGO/Ti0.87O20.52- as a channel material. The rGO in the film was found to work as a unipolar n-type conductor, which is in contrast to ambipolar or unipolar p-type behavior mostly reported for rGO films. This unique property may be associated with the electron doping effect from Ti0.87O20.52- nanosheets. A significant improvement in the conductance and electron carrier mobility by more than one order of magnitude was revealed, which may be accounted for by the heteroassembly with Ti0.87O20.52- nanosheets with a high dielectric constant as well as the better 2D structure of rGO produced via the soft photocatalytic reduction.Two different kinds of two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene oxide (GO) and titanium oxide nanosheets (Ti0.87O20.52-), were self-assembled layer-by-layer using a polycation as a linker into a superlattice film. Successful construction of an alternate molecular assembly was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction analysis. Exposure of the resulting film to UV light

  8. High loading of graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes into PDLLA: A route towards the design of osteoconductive, bactericidal and non-immunogenic 3D porous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanin, Hudson; Rodrigues, Bruno Vinícius Manzolli; Ribeiro Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman; Da-Silva, Newton Soares; Marciano, Fernanda Roberta; Oliveira Lobo, Anderson

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared a novel 3D porous biomaterial combining poly (DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxides (MWCNTO-GO) composite. PDLLA as control and a high loading of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO (50/50 w/w) bioscaffolds were prepared and functionalized. MWCNTs were exfoliated to form MWCNTO-GO by oxygen plasma etching. The later was also applied to enhance the scaffolds wettability, attaching oxygen-containing groups on their surfaces. This approach produced a porous architecture observed by scanning electron microscopy and semi-quantified by electrochemical analysis. The later also indicated a notable increase on the conductivity of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffold compared to MWCNTO-GO free PDLLA (about 5 orders of magnitudes at low frequencies). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. The PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds had significant cellular adhesion, did not present cytotoxicity effect, besides reduced bactericidal proliferation and produced mineralized tissues in SBF media. The metallic MWCNTO-GO powder held together by PDLLA polymer opens a whole new branch of applications, including bioelectroanalyses, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We produced a novel 3D porous material from PDLLA, graphene oxide and MWCNT oxide. • MWCNTO-GO loading (50/50 w/w) increased notably the conductivity of PDLLA scaffold. • MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds did not present cytotoxicity effect. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds presented bioactivity properties.

  9. High loading of graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes into PDLLA: A route towards the design of osteoconductive, bactericidal and non-immunogenic 3D porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Hudson [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratory of Energy Storage & Supply - ES& S, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12.244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, Bruno Vinícius Manzolli [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro Neto, Wilson Alves; Bretas, Rosario Elida Suman [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 – SP-310, Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Da-Silva, Newton Soares [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Tissue, Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, CEP: 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Marciano, Fernanda Roberta [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Lobo, Anderson, E-mail: aolobo@pq.cnpq.br [Laboratory of Biomedical Nanotechnology (NANOBIO), Institute of Research and Development - IP& D, University of Vale do Paraiba, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, 12244-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    We have prepared a novel 3D porous biomaterial combining poly (DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) and graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes oxides (MWCNTO-GO) composite. PDLLA as control and a high loading of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO (50/50 w/w) bioscaffolds were prepared and functionalized. MWCNTs were exfoliated to form MWCNTO-GO by oxygen plasma etching. The later was also applied to enhance the scaffolds wettability, attaching oxygen-containing groups on their surfaces. This approach produced a porous architecture observed by scanning electron microscopy and semi-quantified by electrochemical analysis. The later also indicated a notable increase on the conductivity of PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffold compared to MWCNTO-GO free PDLLA (about 5 orders of magnitudes at low frequencies). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. The PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds had significant cellular adhesion, did not present cytotoxicity effect, besides reduced bactericidal proliferation and produced mineralized tissues in SBF media. The metallic MWCNTO-GO powder held together by PDLLA polymer opens a whole new branch of applications, including bioelectroanalyses, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We produced a novel 3D porous material from PDLLA, graphene oxide and MWCNT oxide. • MWCNTO-GO loading (50/50 w/w) increased notably the conductivity of PDLLA scaffold. • MWCNTO-GO acted protecting the PDLLA matrix, enhancing its thermal stability. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds did not present cytotoxicity effect. • PDLLA/MWCNTO-GO scaffolds presented bioactivity properties.

  10. A novel high-performance supercapacitor based on high-quality CeO2/nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hamid; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we have developed a novel nanocomposite via deposition of ceria (CeO2) on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene (CeO2/NRGO). NRGO was synthesized through a facile, safe, and scalable method to achieve simultaneous thermal reduction along with nitrogen doping of graphene oxide (GO) in air at much lower reaction temperature. CeO2/NRGO was prepared via a sonochemical method in which ceria nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on NRGO sheets. The structure and morphology of CeO2/NRGO nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical properties of the proposed nanocomposite electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge, continuous cyclic voltammetry (CCV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. CeO2-NRGO nanocomposite electrodes showed excellent supercapacitive behavior, including much higher specific capacitance (230 F g-1 at 2 mV s-1) and higher rate capability compared to pure N-graphene. The cycling stability of the electrodes was measured by continues cyclic voltammetry (CCV) technique. The CCV showed that the specific capacitance of the CeO2/NRGO and NRGO nanocomposite maintained at 94.1 and 93.2% after 4000 cycles. The results suggest its promising potential as efficient electrode material for supercapacitors.

  11. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Coupled with Mn3O4 for Highly Efficient Removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Ping; Liu, Hui-Long; Luo, Jinming; Xing, Qiu-Ju; Du, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Xun-Heng; Luo, Xu-Biao; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Suib, Steven L

    2016-07-20

    Highly porous, three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxides/Mn3O4 (RGO/Mn3O4) were fabricated by a facile method of a combination of reflux condensation and solvothermal reactions and systemically characterized. The as-prepared RGO/Mn3O4 possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which Mn3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly deposited on the surface of the reduced graphene oxide. The adsorption properties of RGO/Mn3O4 to antimonite (Sb(III)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) were investigated using batch experiments of adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Experimental results show that the RGO/Mn3O4 composite has fast liquid transport and superior adsorption capacity toward antimony (Sb) species in comparison to six recent adsorbents reported in the literature and summarized in a table in this paper. Theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of RGO/Mn3O4 toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) are 151.84 and 105.50 mg/g, respectively, modeled by Langmuir isotherms. The application of RGO/Mn3O4 was demonstrated by using drinking water spiked with Sb (320 μg/L). Fixed-bed column adsorption experiments indicate that the effective breakthrough volumes were 859 and 633 mL bed volumes (BVs) for the Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb was reached, which is below the maximum limits allowed in drinking water according to the most stringent regulations. The advantages of being nontoxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali and having high adsorption capacity toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) confirm the great potential application of RGO/Mn3O4 in Sb-spiked water treatment.

  12. Graphitic carbon nitride/graphene oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoluminescence and photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrzak, Malgorzata, E-mail: malgorzata.aleksandrzak@o2.pl; Kukulka, Wojciech; Mijowska, Ewa

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Graphitic carbon nitride modified with graphene nanostructures. • Influence of graphene nanostructures size in photocatalytic properties of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Improved photocatalysis resulted from up-converted photoluminescence. - Abstract: The study presents a modification of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) with graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and investigation of photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties. The influence of GO and rGO lateral sizes used for the modification was investigated. The nanomaterials were characterized with atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffuse reflectance UV–vis spectroscopy (DR-UV-vis) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). PL revealed that pristine graphitic carbon nitride and its nanocomposites with GO and rGO emitted up-converted photoluminescence (UCPL) which could contribute to the improvement of photocatalytic activity of the materials. The photoactivity was evaluated in a process of phenol decomposition under visible light. A hybrid composed of rGO nanoparticles (rGONPs, 4–135 nm) exhibited the highest photoactivity compared to rGO with size of 150 nm–7.2 μm and graphene oxide with the corresponding sizes. The possible reason of the superior photocatalytic activity is the most enhanced UCPL of rGONPs, contributing to the emission of light with higher energy than the incident light, resulting in improved photogeneration of electron-hole pairs.

  13. Bismuth oxide nanotubes-graphene fiber-based flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsamy, Karthikeyan; Xu, Zhen; Zheng, Bingna; Huang, Tieqi; Kou, Liang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Chao

    2014-07-01

    Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics.Graphene-bismuth oxide nanotube fiber as electrode material for constituting flexible supercapacitors using a PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte is reported with a high specific capacitance (Ca) of 69.3 mF cm-2 (for a single electrode) and 17.3 mF cm-2 (for the whole device) at 0.1 mA cm-2, respectively. Our approach opens the door to metal oxide-graphene hybrid fibers and high-performance flexible electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Equations and characterization. SEM images of GGO, XRD and XPS of Bi2O3 NTs, HRTEM images and EDX Spectra of Bi2O3 NT5-GF, CV curves of Bi2O3NT5-GF, Bi2O3 NTs and bismuth nitrate in three-electrode system (vs. Ag/AgCl). CV and GCD curves of Bi2O3 NT1-GF and Bi2O3 NT3-GF. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02615b

  14. Click chemistry approach to functionalize two-dimensional macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Kou; Hongkun He; Chao Gao

    2010-01-01

    A facile 'click chemistry' approach to functionalize 2D macromolecules of graphene oxide nanosheets with poly(ethylene glycol) of different molecular weights,polystyrene,palmitic acid and various amino acids was presented.FTIR,TGA,Raman spectroscopy,XPS,XRD,TEM,AFM and SEM were utilized to characterize the products.High degree of functionalization was achieved on the flat surfaces of graphene oxide,affording polymer-grafted 2D brushes and amino acids-immobilized nanosheets,which show improved solubility in organic solvents.The click chemistry strategy reported herein provides a facile and general method for functionalization of graphene oxide with macromolecules and desired biomolecules.

  15. Copper substrate as a catalyst for the oxidation of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhiting; Zhou, Feng; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh J.; Muldoon, Patrick; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    We report the catalytic effect of copper substrate on graphene–oxygen reaction at high temperature. Previous studies showed that graphene grown on copper are mostly defect-free with strong oxidation resistance. We found that a freshly prepared copper-supported graphene sample can be completely oxidized in trace amount of oxygen (<3 ppm) at 600 °C within 2 h. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) suggest that upon ambient air exposure, oxygen molecules diffuse into the space between graphene and copper, resulting in the formation of copper oxide which acts as catalytic sites for the graphene-oxygen reaction. This result has important implications for the characterization, processing, and storage of copper-supported graphene samples. - Graphical abstract: The copper substrate enhances the thermel oxidation of single-layer graphene. - Highlights: • A copper-supported graphene can be oxidized in Ar (O 2 <3 ppm, 600 °C, 2 h). • O 2 intercalates between graphene and copper upon exposure to air. • The copper foil should not be considered as an inert substrate

  16. Facile synthetic method for pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots: origin of blue and green luminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Jang, Min-Ho; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Je-Hyung; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Seo, Tae Seok

    2013-07-19

    Pristine graphene quantum dots and graphene oxide quantum dots are synthesized by chemical exfoliation from the graphite nanoparticles with high uniformity in terms of shape (circle), size (less than 4 nm), and thickness (monolayer). The origin of the blue and green photoluminescence of GQDs and GOQDs is attributed to intrinsic and extrinsic energy states, respectively. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Three-dimensional sulphur/nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide as high-performance supercapacitor binder-free electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinghao; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Xiaofei; Guo, Shouwu

    2018-06-01

    Sulphur/nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (SNG) aerogels were prepared by a simple solvothermal method with l-cysteine-assisted in ethylene glycol. The morphology and composition tests showed that the S/N heteroatoms were evenly distributed on SNG microsheets, and these microsheets were further composed of SNG aerogels with three-dimensional (3D) porous structure. The cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests illustrated the SNG bind-free electrode possessed electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, and had a capacitance of 254 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. After the 5000 cycles tests, the capacitance retained 83.54% at a current density of 2 A g-1. Meanwhile, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data shown the electrode materials had excellent capacity and good conductivity. Hence, the SNG aerogel prepared by l-cysteine-assisted solvothermal method is a great material for high-performance supercapacitors.

  18. Highly efficient hydrogen evolution based on Ni3S4@MoS2 hybrids supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobing; Zhong, Wei; Wu, Liqian; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yuanqi; Du, Youwei

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) through water splitting at low overpotential is an appealing technology to produce renewable energy, wherein the design of stable electrocatalysts is very critical. To achieve optimal electrochemical performance, a highly efficient and stable noble-metal-free HER catalyst is synthesized by means of a facile hydrothermal co-synthesis. It consists of Ni3S4 nanosheets and MoS2 nanolayers supported on N-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ni3S4/MoS2@N-rGO). The optimized sample provides a large amount of active sites that benefit electron transfer in 3D conductive networks. Thanks to the strong synergistic effect in the catalyst network, we achieved a low overpotential of 94 mV, a small Tafel slope of 56 mV/dec and remarkable durability in an acidic medium.

  19. Graphene oxide overprints for flexible and transparent electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogala, M., E-mail: rogala@uni.lodz.pl; Wlasny, I.; Kowalczyk, P. J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W.; Klusek, Z. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Dabrowski, P.; Lipinska, L.; Jagiello, J.; Aksienionek, M.; Strupinski, W.; Krajewska, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Sieradzki, Z. [Electrotechnological Company QWERTY Ltd., Siewna 21, 94-250 Lodz (Poland); Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E. [Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2015-01-26

    The overprints produced in inkjet technology with graphene oxide dispersion are presented. The graphene oxide ink is developed to be fully compatible with standard industrial printers and polyester substrates. Post-printing chemical reduction procedure is proposed, which leads to the restoration of electrical conductivity without destroying the substrate. The presented results show the outstanding potential of graphene oxide for rapid and cost efficient commercial implementation to production of flexible electronics. Properties of graphene-based electrodes are characterized on the macro- and nano-scale. The observed nano-scale inhomogeneity of overprints' conductivity is found to be essential in the field of future industrial applications.

  20. Graphene Oxide Modified Electrodes for Dopamine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters that plays an important role in the central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Since its discovery, tremendous effort has been made and various techniques have been developed for the DA detection. Recently, graphene-based materials have attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and rapid response towards effective detection of DA. This review focuses on current advances of graphene-based materials for DA detection based on recent articles published in the last five years.

  1. High-transparency and low-resistivity poly (methylmethacrylate) films containing silver nanowires and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Yo Han; Choo, Dong Chul; Kim, Tae Whan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PMMA films containing both Ag-NWs and GONPs were formed by using a transfer method. • Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the Ag-NWs on the PMMA film were partially covered with the GONPs. • Transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PMMA films were approximately 90% at 550 nm and 24 Ω/sq, respectively. • Uniformity of the sheet resistance was significantly improved due to the GONP treatment. • XPS spectra showed that the enhancement in the sheet resistance originated from the quaternary nitrogen in the GONPs. - Abstract: Nanocomposite films containing silver nanowires (Ag NWs) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) were formed on glass, and the nanocomposite films were then transferred to poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) films. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that Ag NWs with a length of 20 μm and a width of 80 nm, together with GONPs with a size of 15 μm, had been formed on the PMMA film and that the Ag NWs on the PMMA film were partially covered with the GONPs. While the transmittance of the PMMA film with the Ag NWs and the GONPs was almost the same as that of the PMMA film with the Ag NWs alone, the corresponding sheet resistance was decreased due to the generation of quaternary nitrogen in the GONPs, which the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirmed. The transmittance and the sheet resistance of the PMMA film containing Ag NWs and GONPs were approximately 90% at 550 nm and 24 Ohm/sq, respectively.

  2. Highly efficient removal of chlorotetracycline from aqueous solution using graphene oxide/TiO2 composite: Properties and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaoqian; Qi, Mengyu; Tu, Chunyan; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2017-12-01

    The extensive usage of chlorotetracycline (CTC) has caused the persistence of antibiotic residues in aquatic environments, resulting in serious threat to human health and ecosystems. In this study, graphene oxide/titanium dioxide (GO/TiO2) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via in situ hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (Ti(BuO)4) to TiO2 particles on GO sheets and used as adsorbent for efficient adsorptive removal of CTC from aqueous solution. The prepared GO/TiO2 was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron (XPS). Adsorption kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics were systematically investigated to evaluate the adsorption properties of GO/TiO2. Adsorption mechanism was further analyzed by FT-IR, UV-vis and XPS. The results indicated that adsorption kinetics closely followed the pseudo-second order model; the maximum adsorption capacity determined by Langmuir model was 261.10 mg g-1 at 298 K and the thermodynamic studies revealed that the adsorption of CTC onto the GO/TiO2 was a spontaneous and endothermic process. Moreover, the interactions between CTC and GO/TiO2 were presumed to be ligand exchange between CTC and TiO2, while the π-π electron donor-acceptor interaction, hydrogen bond and cation-π bonding were constructed between CTC and GO. Finally, the prepared GO/TiO2 was successfully applied for the efficient removal of CTC from Wu River water.

  3. Graphene oxide nanocomposites and their electrorheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • GO-based PANI, NCOPA and PS nanocomposites are prepared. • The nanocomposites are adopted as novel electrorheological (ER) candidates. • Their critical ER characteristics and dielectric performance are analyzed. • Typical ER behavior widens applications of GO-based nanocomposites. - Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO), a novel one-atom carbon system, has become one of the most interesting materials recently due to its unique physical and chemical properties in addition to graphene. This article briefly reviews a recent progress of the fabrication of GO-based polyaniline, ionic N-substituted copolyaniline and polystyrene nanocomposites. The critical electrorheological characteristics such as flow response and yield stress from rheological measurement, relaxation time and achievable polarizability from dielectric analysis are also analyzed

  4. Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs

  5. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite; Estudo de filme de grafeno/oxido de grafeno obtido por reducao quimica parcial do oxido de grafite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H., E-mail: juliagascho@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  6. Hybrid graphene electrodes for supercapacitors of high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Tang, Jie; Shinya, Norio; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2013-10-01

    We describe a process of co-reduction to reduce dispersed graphene oxide (GO) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) simultaneously for preparation of hybrid electrodes for graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs are in between the inter-layer space of graphene sheets as a spacer to prevent effectively restacking of graphene that often limits seriously the electrochemical performance of graphene supercapacitors. The SWNTs also act as conductive binders to improve the electrical conduction of the electrode. A high specific capacitance of 261 F g-1 for a single electrode and specific energy density of 123 W h kg-1 measured in the two-electrode configuration have been obtained in ionic liquid (EMI-TFSI). For interpretation of color in Fig. 6, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.

  7. Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patila, Michaela; Kouloumpis, Antonios; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra; Stamatis, Haralambos

    Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene

  8. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb

    2015-06-11

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  9. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Adil, Syed F; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Siddiqui, Rafiq H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman Abdullah; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  10. Enhanced graphene oxide membranes and methods for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Gotthold, David W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Liu, Wei

    2018-03-20

    A method for making a graphene oxide membrane and a resulting free-standing graphene oxide membrane that provides desired qualities of water permeability and selectivity at larger sizes, thinner cross sections, and with increased ruggedness as compared to existing membranes and processes.

  11. Direct synthesis of few-layer graphene supported platinum nanocatalyst for methanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hong; Ma, Xiaohui; Sheng, Leimei; An, Kang; Yu, Liming; Zhao, Hongbin; Xu, Jiaqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhao, Xinluo

    2014-11-01

    High-crystalline few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles have been synthesized by arc discharge evaporation of carbon electrodes containing Pt element. A high-temperature treatment under hydrogen atmosphere has been carried out to obtain a new type of Pt/graphene catalyst for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cell. The morphology and structure characterizations of as-grown few-layer graphene supported Pt nanoparticles and Pt/graphene catalysts have been studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric curves show that our present Pt/graphene catalysts have larger current density for methanol oxidation, higher tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning, and better stability during the operating procedure, compared to commercial Pt/C catalysts.

  12. Defect driven tailoring of colossal dielectricity of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S.; Mondal, A. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Dey, K. [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ray, R., E-mail: juphyruma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxides (RGO) are prepared by two chemical routes. • Defects in RGO are characterized by Raman, FTIR and XPS studies. • Defects tailor colossal dielectricity in RGO. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is prepared in two different chemical routes where reduction of graphene oxide is performed by hydrazine hydrate and through high pressure in hydrothermal reactor. Samples are characterized by X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and tunneling electron microscopy (TEM). Types of defects are probed by Raman, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). UV–vis absorption reveals different optical band gaps of the two RGOs. Conductivity mechanism is studied through I–V measurements displaying different characteristic features which are addressed due to the presence of defects appeared in different synthesis. Significantly high value (∼10{sup 4}) of dielectric permittivity at 10 MHz is attractive for technological application which could be tuned by the defects present in RGO.

  13. Polypropylene/Polyaniline Nanofiber/Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite with Enhanced Electrical, Dielectric, and Ferroelectric Properties for a High Energy Density Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghun; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Jun Seop; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-10-14

    This work demonstrates a ternary nanocomposite system, composed of polypropylene (PP), redoped PANI (r-PANI) nanofibers, and reduced graphene oxides (RGOs), for use in a high energy density capacitor. r-PANI nanofibers were fabricated by the combination methods of chemical oxidation polymerization and secondary doping processes, resulting in higher conductivity (σ≈156 S cm(-1)) than that of the primarily doped PANI nanofibers (σ≈16 S cm(-1)). RGO sheets with high electron mobility and thermal stability can enhance the conductivity of r-PANI/RGO (σ≈220 S cm(-1)) and thermal stability of PP matrix. These findings could be extended to combine the advantages of r-PANI nanofibers and RGO sheets for developing an efficient means of preparing PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite. When the r-PANI/RGO cofillers (10 vol %) were added to PP matrix, the resulting PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite exhibited high dielectric constant (ε'≈51.8) with small dielectric loss (ε″≈9.3×10(-3)). Furthermore, the PP/r-PANI/RGO nanocomposite was used for an energy-harvesting device, which demonstrated high energy density (Ue≈12.6 J cm(-3)) and breakdown strength (E≈5.86×10(3) kV cm(-1)).

  14. Synthesis of calcium carbonate in alkali solution based on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Sarah Abduljabbar; Yiseen, Ghadah Abdaljabar; Li, Zongjin

    2018-06-01

    This paper reports a new approach of producing CaCO3 particles in alkali solution. CaCO3 particles with pure calcite structure were obtained from the reaction of water-dispersed graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with either Ca(OH)2 or CaO. In Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, the pure calcite structure was demonstrated by fundamental bands at 1425 (ν3), 873 (ν2), and 712 cm-1 (ν4). The Raman spectra showed the characteristic peak of calcite structure at 1085 cm-1 (ν1). X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses further confirmed that only the pure calcite phase of CaCO3 was formed in both synthesis approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) also confirmed that distorted cubic and rhombic calcite particles were obtained with GO, while the pine flower-like and flower-like particles were obtained with rGO, and the average crystallite sizes varied from 26 to 44 nm. The mechanism of the reaction was investigated and it was found that the decomposition of oxygen functional groups on the surface of GO or rGO in certain alkaline media to release CO, CO2, and water was a key process as the released CO2 further reacted with OH- and Ca2+ to form CaCO3. This demonstrated that both GO and rGO could be used as main reactants for the synthesis of calcite.

  15. Self-templated Synthesis of Nickel Silicate Hydroxide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Hollow Microspheres as Highly Stable Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhua; Zhou, Wenjie; Yu, Hong; Feng, Tong; Pu, Yong; Liu, Hongdong; Xiao, Wei; Tian, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    Nickel silicate hydroxide/reduced graphene oxide (Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO) composite hollow microspheres were one-pot hydrothermally synthesized by employing graphene oxide (GO)-wrapped SiO 2 microspheres as the template and silicon source, which were prepared through sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO 2 substrate microspheres. The composition, morphology, structure, and phase of Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microspheres as well as their electrochemical properties were carefully studied. It was found that Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microspheres featured distinct hierarchical porous morphology with hollow architecture and a large specific surface area as high as 67.6 m 2  g -1 . When utilized as a supercapacitor electrode material, Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO hollow microspheres released a maximum specific capacitance of 178.9 F g -1 at the current density of 1 A g -1 , which was much higher than that of the contrastive bare Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 hollow microspheres and bare RGO material developed in this work, displaying enhanced supercapacitive behavior. Impressively, the Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 /RGO microsphere electrode exhibited outstanding rate capability and long-term cycling stability and durability with 97.6% retention of the initial capacitance after continuous charging/discharging for up to 5000 cycles at the current density of 6 A g -1 , which is superior or comparable to that of most of other reported nickel-based electrode materials, hence showing promising application potential in the energy storage area.

  16. Catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires on graphene and graphene oxide and its enhanced photoluminescence and photoresponse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biroju, Ravi K; Giri, P K; Tilak, Nikhil; Rajender, Gone; Dhara, S

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the graphene assisted catalyst free growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on chemical vapor deposited (CVD) and chemically processed graphene buffer layers at a relatively low growth temperature (580 °C) in the presence and absence of ZnO seed layers. In the case of CVD graphene covered with rapid thermal annealed ZnO buffer layer, the growth of vertically aligned ZnO NWs takes place, while the direct growth on CVD graphene, chemically derived graphene (graphene oxide and graphene quantum dots) without ZnO seed layer resulted in randomly oriented sparse ZnO NWs. Growth mechanism was studied from high resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of the hybrid structure. Further, we demonstrate strong UV, visible photoluminescence (PL) and enhanced photoconductivity (PC) from the CVD graphene–ZnO NWs hybrids as compared to the ZnO NWs grown without the graphene buffer layer. The evolution of crystalinity in ZnO NWs grown with ZnO seed layer and graphene buffer layer is correlated with the Gaussian line shape of UV and visible PL. This is further supported by the strong Raman mode at 438 cm −1 significant for the wurtzite phase of the ZnO NWs grown on different graphene substrates. The effect of the thickness of ZnO seed layers and the role of graphene buffer layers on the aligned growth of ZnO NWs and its enhanced PC are investigated systematically. Our results demonstrate the catalyst free growth and superior performance of graphene–ZnO NW hybrid UV photodetectors as compared to the bare ZnO NW based photodetectors. (paper)

  17. Graphene and graphene oxide: biofunctionalization and applications in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Li, Zhaohui; Wang, Jun; Li, Jinghong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-01

    Graphene is the basic building block of 0D fullerene, 1D carbon nanotubes, and 3D graphite. Graphene has a unique planar structure, as well as novel electronic properties, which have attracted great interests from scientists. This review selectively analyzes current advances in the field of graphene bioapplications. In particular, the biofunctionalization of graphene for biological applications, fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-based biosensor development by using graphene or graphene-based nanomaterials, and the investigation of graphene or graphene-based nanomaterials for living cell studies are summarized in more detail. Future perspectives and possible challenges in this rapidly developing area are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Peng; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Yiming; Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa; Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g −1 (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability

  19. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M

    2014-08-14

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties as the graphene oxide transformation to reduced-graphene oxide is a key step in the synthesis of the electrode materials. Polarized behavior of the synchrotron X-rays and the angular dependency of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) have been utilized to study the orientation of the σ and π bonds of the graphene oxide and graphene oxide-metal oxide nanocomposites. The core-level transitions of individual metal oxides and that of the graphene oxide nanocomposite showed that the interaction of graphene oxide with the metal oxide nanostructures has not altered the electronic structure of either of them. As the restoration of the π network is important for good electrical conductivity, the C K edge NEXAFS spectra of reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites confirms the same through increased intensity of the sp 2 -derived unoccupied states π* band. A pronounced angular dependency of the reduced sample and the formation of excitonic peaks confirmed the formation of extended conjugated network.

  20. Polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide for efficient electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Yeon Ran; Chang, Dong Wook; Dai, Liming; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2012-02-28

    An alternative and effective route to prepare conducting polyaniline-grafted reduced graphene oxide (PANi-g-rGO) composite with highly enhanced properties is reported. In order to prepare PANi-g-rGO, amine-protected 4-aminophenol was initially grafted to graphite oxide (GO) via acyl chemistry where a concomitant partial reduction of GO occurred due to the refluxing and exposure of GO to thionyl chloride vapors and heating. Following the deprotection of amine groups, an in situ chemical oxidative grafting of aniline in the presence of an oxidizing agent was carried out to yield highly conducting PANi-g-rGO. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that the resultant composite has fibrillar morphology with a room-temperature electrical conductivity as high as 8.66 S/cm and capacitance of 250 F/g with good cycling stability.

  1. Graphene oxide particles and method of making and using them

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.; Alazmi, Amira

    2017-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of production of graphenic materials used to store energy and the energy storage systems using such produced graphenic materials. Provided herein is a method of producing graphene oxide that includes oxidizing graphite powder in a mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 in the presence of KMnO4, wherein the ratio of graphite powder to KMnO4 is about 1:9 by weight and the ratio of H3PO4 to H2SO4 is about 1:9 by volume, to produce graphene oxide; dispersing the graphene oxide in water at an acidic pH (e.g., about 0) to form a solution; adjusting the solution to about a neutral pH; and isolating the graphene oxide. An energy storage device is provided herein that includes the graphene oxide made by the disclosed methods or that includes the population (plurality) of reduced graphene oxide particles having the properties disclosed herein, such as batteries and supercapacitors.

  2. Graphene oxide particles and method of making and using them

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2017-12-07

    The present invention is an improved method of production of graphenic materials used to store energy and the energy storage systems using such produced graphenic materials. Provided herein is a method of producing graphene oxide that includes oxidizing graphite powder in a mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 in the presence of KMnO4, wherein the ratio of graphite powder to KMnO4 is about 1:9 by weight and the ratio of H3PO4 to H2SO4 is about 1:9 by volume, to produce graphene oxide; dispersing the graphene oxide in water at an acidic pH (e.g., about 0) to form a solution; adjusting the solution to about a neutral pH; and isolating the graphene oxide. An energy storage device is provided herein that includes the graphene oxide made by the disclosed methods or that includes the population (plurality) of reduced graphene oxide particles having the properties disclosed herein, such as batteries and supercapacitors.

  3. Single step radiolytic synthesis of iridium nanoparticles onto graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, J.V.; Molina Higgins, M.C.; Toro Gonzalez, M.; Castano, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ir nanoparticles were synthesized through a single step gamma irradiation process. • Homogeneously distributed Ir nanoparticles on graphene oxide are ∼2.3 nm in size. • Ir−O bonds evidenced the interaction of the nanoparticles with the support. - Abstract: In this work a new approach to synthesize iridium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide is presented. The nanoparticles were directly deposited and grown on the surface of the carbon-based support using a single step reduction method through gamma irradiation. In this process, an aqueous isopropanol solution containing the iridium precursor, graphene oxide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate was initially prepared and sonicated thoroughly to obtain a homogeneous dispersion. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays with energies of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV emitted from the spontaneous decay of the 60 Co irradiator. The interaction of gamma rays with water in the presence of isopropanol generates highly reducing species homogeneously distributed in the solution that can reduce the Ir precursor down to a zero valence state. An absorbed dose of 60 kGy was used, which according to the yield of reducing species is sufficient to reduce the total amount of precursor present in the solution. This novel approach leads to the formation of 2.3 ± 0.5 nm Ir nanoparticles distributed along the surface of the support. The oxygenated functionalities of graphene oxide served as nucleation sites for the formation of Ir nuclei and their subsequent growth. XPS results revealed that the interaction of Ir with the support occurs through Ir−O bonds.

  4. Effect of graphene oxide nano filler on dynamic behaviour of GFRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Nagabhushan V.; Nanjundaradhya, N. V.; Sharma, Ramesh S.

    2018-04-01

    Nano fillers like Alumina oxide, Titanium oxide, Carbon nano tube, Nano clay have been used to improve the mechanical and damping properties of fiber reinforced polymer composites. In the recent years Graphene oxide nano filler is receiving considerable attention for its outstanding properties. Literature available shows that Graphene oxide nano filler can be used to improve the mechanical properties. The use of Graphene oxide in vibration attenuation by enhancing the passive damping in fiber reinforced polymer composite has not been fully explored. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamic behaviour of Glass fiber-reinforced composite embedded with Graphene oxide nano filler. Graphene oxide is dispersed in epoxy resin with various concentration (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%wt) using ultra-sonification process. Composite laminates were made using the traditional hand-lay-up followed by vacuum bag process. Experimental modal analysis using traditional `strike method' is used to evaluate modal parameters using FFT analyzer and Data Acquisition System. Experiments were carried out for two different fiber orientations viz 0 ➙ & 45 ➙ and two boundary conditions (Free-Free and Cantilever). The modal parameters such as natural frequency, mode shape, damping ratio were studied. This research work demonstrates the vibration damping behaviour with incorporation of Graphene oxide and provides a basic understanding of the damping characteristics in design and manufacture of high performance composites.

  5. Electrodeposited Reduced Graphene Oxide Films on Stainless Steel, Copper, and Aluminum for Corrosion Protection Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkareem Mohammed Ali Al-Sammarraie; Mazin Hasan Raheema

    2017-01-01

    The enhancement of corrosion protection of metals and alloys by coating with simple, low cost, and highly adhered layer is still a main goal of many workers. In this research graphite flakes converted into graphene oxide using modified Hammers method and then reduced graphene oxide was electrodeposited on stainless steel 316, copper, and aluminum for corrosion protection application in seawater at four temperatures, namely, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C. All corrosion measurements, kinetics, and therm...

  6. Oxygen Barrier Properties and Melt Crystallization Behavior of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Szymczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Sandra; Pawelec, Iwona; Lisiecki, Slawomir; Jotko, Marek; Spitalsky, Zdenko; Mosnácek, Jaroslav; Roslaniec, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nanocomposites with low loading (0.1–0.5 wt%) of graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by using in situ polymerization method. TEM study of nanocomposites morphology has shown uniform distribution of highly exfoliated graphene oxide nanoplatelets in PET matrix. Investigations of oxygen permeability of amorphous films of nanocomposites showed that the nanocomposites had better oxygen barrier properties than the neat PET. The improvement of oxygen permeability for ...

  7. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of PEDOT:PSS thin film

  8. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hou, Juan [School of Science, Key Laboratory of Ecophysics, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Huang, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States); Peng, Shanglong, E-mail: pengshl@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Deyan [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of

  9. Catalyst-Free Growth of Three-Dimensional Graphene Flakes and Graphene/g-C₃N₄ Composite for Hydrocarbon Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Chai, Zhigang; Li, Cong; Shi, Liurong; Liu, Mengxi; Xie, Qin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Xu, Dongsheng; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Liu, Zhongfan

    2016-03-22

    Mass production of high-quality graphene flakes is important for commercial applications. Graphene microsheets have been produced on an industrial scale by chemical and liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. However, strong-interaction-induced interlayer aggregation usually leads to the degradation of their intrinsic properties. Moreover, the crystallinity or layer-thickness controllability is not so perfect to fulfill the requirement for advanced technologies. Herein, we report a quartz-powder-derived chemical vapor deposition growth of three-dimensional (3D) high-quality graphene flakes and demonstrate the fabrication and application of graphene/g-C3N4 composites. The graphene flakes obtained after the removal of growth substrates exhibit the 3D curved microstructure, controllable layer thickness, good crystallinity, as well as weak interlayer interactions suitable for preventing the interlayer stacking. Benefiting from this, we achieved the direct synthesis of g-C3N4 on purified graphene flakes to form the uniform graphene/g-C3N4 composite, which provides efficient electron transfer interfaces to boost its catalytic oxidation activity of cycloalkane with relatively high yield, good selectivity, and reliable stability.

  10. Fast response of carbon monoxide gas sensors using a highly porous network of ZnO nanoparticles decorated on 3D reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Hai; Thinh, Dao Duc; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Huy; Thach, Phan Duy; Hong, Hoang Si

    2018-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles loaded onto 3D reduced graphene oxide (3D-RGO) for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing were synthesized using hydrothermal method. The highly porous ZnO/3D-RGO configuration was stable without collapsing and was deposited on the micro-heater of the CO gas sensor. The resulting CO gas sensor displayed high sensitivity, fast response/recovery, and good linearity. The sensor achieved a response value of 85.2% for 1000 ppm CO at a working temperature of 200 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor were 7 and 9 s for 1000 ppm CO at 200 °C. Similarly, the response value, response time, and recovery time of the sensor at room temperature were 27.5%, 14 s, and 15 s, respectively. The sensor demonstrated a distinct response to various CO concentrations in the range of 1-1000 ppm and good selectivity toward CO gas. In addition, the sensor exhibited good repeatability in multi-cycle and long-term stability.

  11. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  12. Using reduced graphene oxide-Ca:CdSe nanocomposite to enhance photoelectrochemical activity of gold nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxide for highly sensitive prostate specific antigen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Xu, Rui; Sun, Xu; Wang, Yaoguang; Ren, Xiang; Du, Bin; Wu, Dan; Wei, Qin

    2017-10-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor was constructed for the detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA). In this work, Au-nanoparticle-loaded tungsten oxide (WO 3 -Au) hybrid composites was applied as PEC sensing platform, while Ca ions doped CdSe equipped on the conducting framework of reduced graphene oxide (rGO-Ca:CdSe) nanocomposites were employed as the signal amplification probe. As for WO 3 -Au, massive Au nanoparticles were formed on the surface of WO 3 without any additional reducing agent, providing a novel nanocarriers for anchoring plenty of the primary antibodies due to the large specific surface area and good biocompatibility by chemical bonding between Au nanoparticles and -NH 2 of antibodies. Besides, the incorporation of the rGO and the doping of Ca ions could improve the conductivity and hinder the recombination of electron-hole pairs of CdSe nanoparticles effectively, thereby enhancing the photocurrent conversion efficiency. Based on the sandwich immunoreaction, the primary antibody was immobilized onto WO 3 -Au substrate, after the formed rGO-Ca:CdSe labels were captured onto the electrode surface via the specific antibody-antigen interaction, the photocurrent intensity could be further enhanced due to the sensitization effect. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed PEC immunosensor shows a linear relationship between photocurrent variation and the logarithm of PSA concentration in the wide range of 5pgmL -1 to 50ngmL -1 with a low detection limit of 2.6pgmL -1 (S/N=3). Moreover, it also presented good stability and acceptable specificity, indicating the potential applications in clinical diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-Current-Density Vertical-Tunneling Transistors from Graphene/Highly Doped Silicon Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Sheng, Jiming; Wu, Hao; He, Qiyuan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Shakir, Muhammad Imran; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2016-06-01

    Scalable fabrication of vertical-tunneling transistors is presented based on heterostructures formed between graphene, highly doped silicon, and its native oxide. Benefiting from the large density of states of highly doped silicon, the tunneling transistors can deliver a current density over 20 A cm(-2) . This study demonstrates that the interfacial native oxide plays a crucial role in governing the carrier transport in graphene-silicon heterostructures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Insight into the Reaction Mechanism of Graphene Oxide with Oxidative Free Radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xuejiao; XU Liangyou

    2017-01-01

    Graphene oxide(GO),as an important derivative of graphene,could be considered as a super aromatic molecule decorated with a range of reactive oxygen-containing groups on its surface,which endows graphene high reactivity with other molecules.In our previous work,we demonstrated that GO sheets were cut into small pieces(graphene quantum dots,GQDs) by oxidative free radicals(hydroxyl radical HO or oxygen radical [O]) under UV irradiation.It is notable that reactions involving free radicals are influenced by reaction conditions pronouncedly.However,researches on details about reactions of GO with free radicals have not been reported thus far.In this work,the effects of different factors on the photo-Fenton reaction of GO were studied.It is demonstrated that the reaction rate is closely related to the concentration of free radicals.It is speculated that through the optimization of reaction conditions,the reaction of graphene with free radicals could carry out efficiently for further applications.

  15. Localized conductive patterning via focused electron beam reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Songkil; Henry, Mathias [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Kulkarni, Dhaval D.; Zackowski, Paul; Jang, Seung Soon; Tsukruk, Vladimir V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fedorov, Andrei G., E-mail: agf@gatech.edu [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Parker H. Petit Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-30

    We report on a method for “direct-write” conductive patterning via reduction of graphene oxide (GO) sheets using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) of carbon. FEBID treatment of the intrinsically dielectric graphene oxide between two metal terminals opens up the conduction channel, thus enabling a unique capability for nanoscale conductive domain patterning in GO. An increase in FEBID electron dose results in a significant increase of the domain electrical conductivity with improving linearity of drain-source current vs. voltage dependence, indicative of a change of graphene oxide electronic properties from insulating to semiconducting. Density functional theory calculations suggest a possible mechanism underlying this experimentally observed phenomenon, as localized reduction of graphene oxide layers via interactions with highly reactive intermediates of electron-beam-assisted dissociation of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules. These findings establish an unusual route for using FEBID as nanoscale lithography and patterning technique for engineering carbon-based nanomaterials and devices with locally tailored electronic properties.

  16. The production of reduced graphene oxide by a low-cost vacuum system for supercapacitors applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Q.A.; Sakata, S.K.; Faria, R.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, F.M.; Vieira, L.S.; Casini, J.C.S., E-mail: julio.casini@ifro.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Rondonia (IFRO), RO (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Graphene (G) has attracted great interest for its excellent electrical properties. However, the large-scale production of graphene is still currently under investigations. Graphene oxide (GO) can be partially reduced to graphene-like sheets by removing the oxygen-containing groups with the recovery of a conjugated structure. It can be produced using inexpensive graphite as raw material by cost-effective chemical methods. High vacuum and temperature (10{sup -7}mbar/1100 deg C) is well established as an effective route for reduced powder preparation on a laboratory scale. However, a high vacuum reduction system, which can be routinely operated at 10{sup -7} mbar, has a considerable capital, operational and maintenance cost to be used in a large scale. In the present work, a low-cost route aiming large scale reduction of graphene oxide has been investigated. A stainless steel vessel has been evacuated to backing-pump pressure (10{sup -2} mbar) to process graphene oxide at low and high temperatures. Attempts of reducing GO powder using low vacuum pressures have been carried out and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results of processing graphene oxide powder at various temperatures (200-1000°C) at relatively low pressures have been reported. The microstructures of the processed material have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical microanalyses employing energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). (author)

  17. The production of reduced graphene oxide by a low-cost vacuum system for supercapacitors applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Q.A.; Sakata, S.K.; Faria, R.N.; Silva, F.M.; Vieira, L.S.; Casini, J.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene (G) has attracted great interest for its excellent electrical properties. However, the large-scale production of graphene is still currently under investigations. Graphene oxide (GO) can be partially reduced to graphene-like sheets by removing the oxygen-containing groups with the recovery of a conjugated structure. It can be produced using inexpensive graphite as raw material by cost-effective chemical methods. High vacuum and temperature (10 -7 mbar/1100 deg C) is well established as an effective route for reduced powder preparation on a laboratory scale. However, a high vacuum reduction system, which can be routinely operated at 10 -7 mbar, has a considerable capital, operational and maintenance cost to be used in a large scale. In the present work, a low-cost route aiming large scale reduction of graphene oxide has been investigated. A stainless steel vessel has been evacuated to backing-pump pressure (10 -2 mbar) to process graphene oxide at low and high temperatures. Attempts of reducing GO powder using low vacuum pressures have been carried out and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results of processing graphene oxide powder at various temperatures (200-1000°C) at relatively low pressures have been reported. The microstructures of the processed material have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical microanalyses employing energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). (author)

  18. Green conversion of graphene oxide to graphene nanosheets and its biosafety study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhiraj Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO to graphene employs the use of toxic and environmentally harmful reducing agents, hindering mass production of graphene which is of tremendous technological importance. In this study we report a green approach to the synthesis of graphene, bio-reduced by crude polysaccharide. The polysaccharide reduces exfoliated GO to graphene at room temperature in an aqueous medium. Transmission electron microscopy image provides clear evidence for the formation of few layer graphene. Characterization of the resulting polysaccharide reduced GO by Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirms reduction of GO to graphene. We also investigated the degree of biosafety of the reduced GO and found it to be safe under 100 μg/ml.

  19. Synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical evaluation of reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silwana, Bongiwe; Horst, Charlton van der [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa); SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Iwuoha, Emmanuel [SensorLab, Department of Chemistry, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Somerset, Vernon, E-mail: vsomerset@csir.co.za [Natural Resources and the Environment (NRE), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2015-10-01

    This paper demonstrates some aspects on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles of metallic alloys using polyvinyl alcohol as a stabiliser, which combines high surface area and superior hybrid properties. The present experimental design was to synthesise a nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles to be used as thin films for macro- and micro-carbon electrodes for enhancing sensing of different toxic metal pollutants in the environment. The synthetic process of reduced graphene oxide was done using the modified Hummers method while antimony pentachloride was reduced with sodium borohydride into nanoparticles of antimony using polyvinyl-alcohol as a stabiliser. The systematic investigation of morphology was done by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscope, which revealed the synthesis of a product, consists of reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles. The electrochemical behaviour of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles coated on a glassy carbon electrode was performed using voltammetric and impedance techniques. Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the overall resistance, including the charge–transfer resistance, was smaller with reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticles than reduced graphene oxide and antimony nanoparticles, on their own. Evaluation of the reduced graphene oxide antimony nanoparticle sensor in the stripping voltammetry has shown a linear working range for concentration of platinum (II) between 6.0 × 10{sup −6}–5.4 × 10{sup −5} μg L{sup −1} with limit of detection of 6 × 10{sup −6} μg L{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3), which is below the World Health Organisation guidelines for freshwater. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide modified antimony nanoparticles were chemically synthesised. • TEM results show rGO-Sb nanoparticles with a diameter range of between 2 and 20 nm. • Impedance results confirm

  20. High performance supercapacitors based on highly conductive nitrogen-doped graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Xinfeng; Yang, Shihe

    2011-07-21

    Thermal nitridation of reduced graphene oxide sheets yields highly conductive (∼1000-3000 S m(-1)) N-doped graphene sheets, as a result of the restoration of the graphene network by the formation of C-N bonded groups and N-doping. Even without carbon additives, supercapacitors made of the N-doped graphene electrodes can deliver remarkable energy and power when operated at higher voltages, in the range of 0-4 V. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  1. Lithium Sulfide (Li2S)/Graphene Oxide Nanospheres with Conformal Carbon Coating as a High-Rate, Long-Life Cathode for Li/S Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwa, Yoon; Zhao, Juan; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-05-13

    In recent years, lithium/sulfur (Li/S) cells have attracted great attention as a candidate for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical specific energy of 2600 W·h kg(-1), which is much higher than that of Li ion cells (400-600 W·h kg(-1)). However, problems of the S cathode such as highly soluble intermediate species (polysulfides Li2Sn, n = 4-8) and the insulating nature of S cause poor cycle life and low utilization of S, which prevents the practical use of Li/S cells. Here, a high-rate and long-life Li/S cell is proposed, which has a cathode material with a core-shell nanostructure comprising Li2S nanospheres with an embedded graphene oxide (GO) sheet as a core material and a conformal carbon layer as a shell. The conformal carbon coating is easily obtained by a unique CVD coating process using a lab-designed rotating furnace without any repetitive steps. The Li2S/GO@C cathode exhibits a high initial discharge capacity of 650 mA·h g(-1) of Li2S (corresponding to the 942 mA·h g(-1) of S) and very low capacity decay rate of only 0.046% per cycle with a high Coulombic efficiency of up to 99.7% for 1500 cycles when cycled at the 2 C discharge rate.

  2. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  3. Adsorption of VOCs on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lian; Wang, Long; Xu, Weicheng; Chen, Limin; Fu, Mingli; Wu, Junliang; Ye, Daiqi

    2018-05-01

    A modified Hummer's method was adopted for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It was revealed that the modified method is effective for the production of GO and rGO from graphite. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of GO and rGO showed a sheet-like morphology. Because of the presence of oxygenated functional groups on the carbon surface, the interlayer spacing of the prepared GO was higher than that of rGO. The presence of OH and CO groups in the Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) spectrum and G-mode and 2D-mode in Raman spectra confirmed the synthesis of GO and rGO. rGO (292.6m 2 /g) showed higher surface area than that of GO (236.4m 2 /g). The prepared rGO was used as an adsorbent for benzene and toluene (model pollutants of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) under dynamic adsorption/desorption conditions. rGO showed higher adsorption capacity and breakthrough times than GO. The adsorption capacity of rGO for benzene and toluene was 276.4 and 304.4mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments showed that the spent rGO can be successfully regenerated by heating at 150.0°C. Its excellent adsorption/desorption performance for benzene and toluene makes rGO a potential adsorbent for VOC adsorption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Highly improved sensing of dopamine by using glassy carbon electrode modified with MnO2, graphene oxide, carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Dejiang; Zhang, Xinjin; Sheng, Qinglin; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    A composite material obtained by ultrasonication of graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was loaded with manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ), poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and the resulting multilayer hybrid films were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The microstructure, composition and electrochemical behavior of the composite and the modified GCE were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectra, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The electrode induces efficient electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine at a rather low working voltage of 0.22 V (vs. SCE) at neutral pH values. The response is linear in the 0.5 μM to 2.5 mM concentration range, the sensitivity is 233.4 μA·mM -1 ·cm -2 , and the detection limit is 0.17 μM at an SNR of 3. The sensor is well reproducible and stable. It displays high selectivity over ascorbic acid, uric acid and glucose even if these are present in comparable concentrations. (author)

  5. Highly sensitive and selective voltammetric detection of mercury(II) using an ITO electrode modified with 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, N.; Chen, H.; Li, J.; Chen, L.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an electrochemical sensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of Hg(II). It is based on the specific binding of 5-methyl-2-thiouracil (MTU) and Hg(II) to the surface of an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with a composite made from graphene oxide (GO) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). This leads to a largely enhanced differential pulse voltammetric response for Hg(II). Following optimization of the method, a good linear relationship (R = 0.9920) is found between peak current and the concentration of Hg(II) in the 5.0-110.0 nM range. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.78 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. A study on the interference by several metal ions revealed no interferences. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by the analyses of real water samples. The LODs are 6.9, 1.0 and 1.9 nM for tap water, bottled water and lake water samples, respectively, and recoveries for the water samples spiked with 8.0, 50.0 and 100.0 nM were 83.9-96.8 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.3 % to 5.2 %. (author)

  6. Highly sensitive and wide-range nonenzymatic disposable glucose sensor based on a screen printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide and Pd-CuO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Keerthy; Thiagarajan, Ramachandran; Thekkedath, Gopalakrishnan Satheesh Babu; Nair, Bipin G.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide decorated with palladium-copper oxide nanoparticles (Pd-CuO/rGO) was synthesized by single-step chemical reduction. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanocomposite were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. A 3-electrode system was fabricated by screen printing technology and the Pd-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was drop cast on the carbon working electrode. The catalytic activity towards glucose in 0.2 M NaOH solutions was analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry and amperometry. The steady state current obtained at a constant potential of +0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the modified electrode to possess a wide analytical range (6 μM to 22 mM), a rather low limit of detection (30 nM), excellent sensitivity (3355 μA∙mM −1 ∙cm −2 ) and good selectivity over commonly interfering species and other sugars including fructose, sucrose and lactose. The sensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in blood serum. (author)

  7. Nonlinear optical response of some Graphene oxide and Graphene fluoride derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liaros Nikolaos; Orfanos Ioannis; Papadakis Ioannis; Couris Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of two graphene derivatives, graphene oxide and graphene fluoride, are investigated by means of the Z-scan technique employing 35 ps and 4 ns, visible (532 nm) laser excitation. Both derivatives were found to exhibit significant third-order nonlinear optical response at both excitation regimes, with the nonlinear absorption being relatively stronger and concealing the presence of nonlinear refraction under ns excitation, while ps excita...

  8. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Jaiswal, Manu; Gupta, Nandita Das

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3–0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp"3-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm. (paper)

  9. Mechanical tearing of graphene on an oxidizing metal surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lijin; Gupta, Aparna; Shaina, P R; Das Gupta, Nandita; Jaiswal, Manu

    2015-12-11

    Graphene, the thinnest possible anticorrosion and gas-permeation barrier, is poised to transform the protective coatings industry for a variety of surface applications. In this work, we have studied the structural changes of graphene when the underlying copper surface undergoes oxidation upon heating. Single-layer graphene directly grown on a copper surface by chemical vapour deposition was annealed under ambient atmosphere conditions up to 400 °C. The onset temperature of the surface oxidation of copper is found to be higher for graphene-coated foils. Parallel arrays of graphene nanoripples are a ubiquitous feature of pristine graphene on copper, and we demonstrate that these form crucial sites for the onset of the oxidation of copper, particularly for ∼0.3-0.4 μm ripple widths. In these regions, the oxidation proceeds along the length of the nanoripples, resulting in the formation of parallel stripes of oxidized copper regions. We demonstrate from temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy that the primary defect formation process in graphene involves boundary-type defects rather than vacancy or sp(3)-type defects. This observation is consistent with a mechanical tearing process that splits graphene into small polycrystalline domains. The size of these is estimated to be sub-50 nm.

  10. Nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Hugo; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Ashok Kumar, Nanjundan; McEvoy, Niall; O'Brien, Sean; Nicolosi, Valeria; Duesberg, Georg S

    2014-02-14

    Herein we use Nitrogen-doped reduced Graphene Oxide (N-rGO) as the active material in supercapacitor electrodes. Building on a previous work detailing the synthesis of this material, electrodes were fabricated via spray-deposition of aqueous dispersions and the electrochemical charge storage mechanism was investigated. Results indicate that the functionalised graphene displays improved performance compared to non-functionalised graphene. The simplicity of fabrication suggests ease of up-scaling of such electrodes for commercial applications.

  11. Graphene oxide. A fertile nanosheet for various applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro; Taniguchi, Takaaki; Ihara, Toshihiro; Kitamura, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yasumichi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is chemically exfoliated graphene with various oxygen functional groups bound to its sp 2 basal plane. GO is not only a precursor for graphene in large-scale production but provides a fertile platform for applications from electronics to biology owing to its outstanding characteristics. In this review, we introduce the preparation and reduction methods and discuss recent application examples on electrochemistry and biological sensors. (author)

  12. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaja, K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Sreehari, V.S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066 (India); Kumar, P.R. Anil [Tissue culture laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Nirmala, R. James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29 ± 0.53 MPa to 21 ± 2.03 MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4 ± 2.03 MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide nano reinforced gelatin nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. • Graphene oxide (0.5%) loading resulted in increased tensile strength. • GO/gelatin nanofibers are cross-linked with dextran aldehyde. • Composite nanofibers favoured adhesion of L-929 cells. • GO/gelatin mats do not prevent bacterial growth.

  13. The Origin of Hierarchical Structure in Self-Assembled Graphene Oxide Papers and the Effect on Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Krishanu

    were found to play a key role in yielding tough papers with high failure stress. Finally, efforts to investigate the microstructural mechanisms that govern the mechanical properties of graphene oxide papers by 3D printing of a tensile tester are detailed. It is intended to release the design of the tensile tester to the community in an effort to reduce cost and improve availability of lab equipment.

  14. Thermal bubble inkjet printing of water-based graphene oxide and graphene inks on heated substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Simin; Shen, Ruoxi; Qian, Bo; Li, Lingying; Wang, Wenhao; Lin, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Peng; Xie, Yonglin

    2018-04-01

    Stable-jetting water-based graphene oxide (GO) and graphene (GR) inks without any surfactant or stabilizer are prepared from an unstable-jetting water-based starting solvent, with many thermal bubble inkjet satellite drops, by simply increasing the material concentration. The concentration-dependent thermal bubble inkjet droplet generation process is studied in detail. To overcome the low concentration properties of water-based thermal bubble inkjet inks, the substrate temperature is tuned below 60 °C to achieve high-quality print lines. Due to the difference in hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of the 2D materials, the printed GO lines show a different forming mechanism from that of the GR lines. The printed GO lines are reduced by thermal annealing and by ascorbic acid, respectively. The reduced GO lines exhibit electrical conductivity of the same order of magnitude as that of the GR lines.

  15. Graphene oxide as an optimal candidate material for methane storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Rajiv K; Ulman, Kanchan; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-07-28

    Methane, the primary constituent of natural gas, binds too weakly to nanostructured carbons to meet the targets set for on-board vehicular storage to be viable. We show, using density functional theory calculations, that replacing graphene by graphene oxide increases the adsorption energy of methane by 50%. This enhancement is sufficient to achieve the optimal binding strength. In order to gain insight into the sources of this increased binding, that could also be used to formulate design principles for novel storage materials, we consider a sequence of model systems that progressively take us from graphene to graphene oxide. A careful analysis of the various contributions to the weak binding between the methane molecule and the graphene oxide shows that the enhancement has important contributions from London dispersion interactions as well as electrostatic interactions such as Debye interactions, aided by geometric curvature induced primarily by the presence of epoxy groups.

  16. Magnetism in graphene oxide induced by epoxy groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongwook, E-mail: dongwookleedl324@gmail.com [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Division of Physics and Applied Physics, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Seo, Jiwon, E-mail: jiwonseo@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Xi; Su, Haibin [Division of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-04-27

    We have engineered magnetism in graphene oxide. Our approach transforms graphene into a magnetic insulator while maintaining graphene's structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra reveal that graphene oxide has various chemical groups (including epoxy, ketone, hydroxyl, and C-O groups) on its surface. Destroying the epoxy group with heat treatment or chemical treatment diminishes magnetism in the material. Local density approximation calculation results well reproduce the magnetic moments obtained from experiments, and these results indicate that the unpaired spin induced by the presence of epoxy groups is the origin of the magnetism. The calculation results also explain the magnetic properties, which are generated by the interaction between separated magnetic regions and domains. Our results demonstrate tunable magnetism in graphene oxide based on controlling the epoxy group with heat or chemical treatment.

  17. 3D Networked Tin Oxide/Graphene Aerogel with a Hierarchically Porous Architecture for High-Rate Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Chen, Shuangqiang; Sun, Bing; Wang, Chengyin; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-09-07

    Low-cost and sustainable sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a promising technology for large-scale energy storage and conversion. The development of high-rate anode materials is highly desirable for sodium-ion batteries. The optimization of mass transport and electron transfer is crucial in the discovery of electrode materials with good high-rate performances. Herein, we report the synthesis of 3 D interconnected SnO2 /graphene aerogels with a hierarchically porous structure as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. The unique 3 D architecture was prepared by a facile in situ process, during which cross-linked 3 D conductive graphene networks with macro-/meso-sized hierarchical pores were formed and SnO2 nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly on the graphene surface simultaneously. Such a 3 D functional architecture not only facilitates the electrode-electrolyte interaction but also provides an efficient electron pathway within the graphene networks. When applied as anode materials in sodium-ion batteries, the as-prepared SnO2 /graphene aerogel exhibited high reversible capacity, improved cycling performance compared to SnO2 , and promising high-rate capability. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Graphene oxide catalyzed cis-trans isomerization of azobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Shin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the fast cis-trans isomerization of an amine-substituted azobenzene catalyzed by graphene oxide (GO, where the amine functionality facilitates the charge transfer from azobenzene to graphene oxide in contrast to non-substituted azobenzene. This catalytic effect was not observed in stilbene analogues, which strongly supports the existence of different isomerization pathways between azobenzene and stilbene. The graphene oxide catalyzed isomerization is expected to be useful as a new photoisomerization based sensing platform complementary to GO-based fluorescence quenching methods.

  19. In situ chemical synthesis of ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2013-08-07

    An in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. It is found that as the C/O ratio increases, the number density of RuO2 nanoparticles decreases, because the chemical interaction between the Ru ions and the oxygen-containing functional groups provides anchoring sites where the nucleation of particles takes place. For electrochemical capacitor applications, the microwave-hydrothermal process was carried out to improve the conductivity of RGO in RuO2/RGO nanocomposites. The significant improvement in capacitance and high rate capability might result from the RuO2 nanoparticles used as spacers that make the interior layers of the reduced graphene oxide electrode available for electrolyte access.

  20. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions. The pH values were found to have great influence on the reduction of graphene oxides. Acidic and neutral media yielded reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups, lower specific surface areas but broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. Variations induced by the pH changes resulted in great differences in the supercapacitor performance. The graphene produced in the basic solution presented mainly electric double layer behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F/g, while the other two showed additional pseudocapacitance behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F/g (acidic) and 230 F/g (neutral), all at a constant current density of 1A/g. The other one is that different reduced graphene oxides were prepared via solution based hydrazine reduction, low temperature thermal reduction, and hydrothermal reduction. The as- prepared samples were then investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscope. The supercapacitor performances were also studied and the hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide exhibited the highest specific capacitance.

  1. Toughened and machinable glass matrix composites reinforced with graphene and graphene-oxide nano platelets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porwal, H.; Tatarko, Peter; Grasso, S.; Hu, Ch.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2013), Art.N. 055007 ISSN 1468-6996 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : silica * graphene/graphene-oxide nano platelets * nano composites * mechanical properties * sintering Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.613, year: 2013

  2. Highly Conductive Multifunctional Graphene Polycarbonate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheet bisphenol A polycarbonate nanocomposites (0.027 2.2 vol %) prepared by both emulsion mixing and solution blending methods, followed by compression molding at 287 C, exhibited dc electrical percolation threshold of approx.0.14 and approx.0.38 vol %, respectively. The conductivities of 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites were 0.512 and 0.226 S/cm for emulsion and solution mixing. The 1.1 and 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites exhibited frequency-independent behavior. Inherent conductivity, extremely high aspect ratio, and nanostructure directed assembly of the graphene using PC nanospheres are the main factors for excellent electrical properties of the nanocomposites. Dynamic tensile moduli of nanocomposites increased with increasing graphene in the nanocomposite. The glass transition temperatures were decreased with increasing graphene for the emulsion series. High-resolution electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) showed isolated graphene with no connectivity path for insulating nanocomposites and connected nanoparticles for the conductive nanocomposites. A stacked disk model was used to obtain the average particle radius, average number of graphene layers per stack, and stack spacing by simulation of the experimental SANS data. Morphology studies indicated the presence of well-dispersed graphene and small graphene stacking with infusion of polycarbonate within the stacks.

  3. Toxicological effects of graphene oxide on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jaqueline P., E-mail: souza.jaqueline@gmail.com; Baretta, Jéssica F.; Santos, Fabrício; Paino, Ieda M.M.; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide exposure caused apoptotic and necrotic stages in zebrafish gill cells. • Graphene oxide induced reactive oxygen generation in zebrafish gill cells. • Gill and liver tissues suffered injuries after graphene oxide chronic exposure. • Zebrafish blood cells did not present DNA damages after graphene oxide exposure. - Abstract: Graphene exhibits unique physical and chemical properties that facilitate its application in many fields, including electronics and biomedical areas. However, the use of graphene and its derivatives could result in accumulation in aquatic environments, and the risks posed by these compounds for organisms are not completely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Experimental fish were exposed to 2, 10 or 20 mg L{sup −1} GO, and the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress were assessed. The morphology of the gills and liver tissues was also analyzed. Graphene oxide exposure led to an increase in the number of gill cells that were in early apoptotic and necrotic stages, but genotoxicity was not observed in blood cells. We also observed the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in gill cells. Structural analysis revealed injuries to gill tissues, including a dilated marginal channel, lamellar fusion, clubbed tips, swollen mucocytes, epithelial lifting, aneurysms, and necrosis. Liver tissues also presented lesions such as peripherally located nuclei. Furthermore, hepatocytes exhibited a non-uniform shape, picnotic nuclei, vacuole formation, cell rupture, and necrosis. Our results showed that sub-lethal doses of graphene oxide could be harmful to fish species and thus represent risks for the aquatic food chain.

  4. Fate and transformation of graphene oxide in marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    One common use of graphene family nanomaterials (GFNs) is as functional and/or antifouling coatings, which may ultimately lead to their release into the natural environment. The fate of graphene oxide (GO), a common type of GFN, in natural waters is currently not well understood....

  5. Facile synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Double-stranded DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation of the interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and biomolecules is very crucialfor the development of biomedical applications based on GO. This study reports the first observation of thespontaneous formation of self-assembled liquid crystals and three-dimensional hydrogels of graphene oxidewith ...

  6. Graphene oxide for gas detection under standard humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donarelli, Maurizio; Prezioso, Stefano; Perrozzi, Francesco; Ottaviano, Luca; Giancaterini, Luca; Cantalini, Carlo; Treossi, Emanuele; Palermo, Vincenzo; Santucci, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) synthesis is the easiest way to functionalize graphene, preserving the high graphene surface to volume ratio. Therefore, GO is a promising candidate for gas sensing applications. In this paper, an easy-to-fabricate and high sensitivity GO-based gas sensor is proposed. The device is fabricated by drop-casting a solution of GO flakes dispersed in water on a prepatterned Si 3 N 4 substrate with 30 μm spaced Pt electrodes. The sensing material has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The large lateral dimensions of the flakes (tens of microns) allow single GO flake to bridge adjacent electrodes. The high quality of the synthesized flakes results in the gas sensor high sensitivity to and low detection limit (20 ppb) of NO 2 . The gas sensor response to NO 2 has been studied in various relative humidity environments and it is demonstrated not to be affected by the presence of water vapor. Finally, the gas sensor responses to acetone, toluene, ethanol, and ammonia are reported. (paper)

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for high performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Xiao; Zhang, Xinmin; Liu, Jingya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Liang, E-mail: msell08@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yu, Xianghua; Huang, Zhiliang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Shang, Songmin, E-mail: shang.songmin@polyu.edu.hk [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}@rGO nanocomposites were prepared by one-step microwave-assisted method. • The growth of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the reduction of graphene oxide occurred simultaneously. • Specific capacitance of the nanocomposite is higher than those of rGO and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • The nanocomposites have good rate capability and cycling stability. - ABSTRACT: One-step microwave-assisted synthetic route for the fabrication of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles@reduced graphene oxide (Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}@rGO) nanocomposites has been demonstrated. The morphological structures of the nanocomposites are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. All of the results indicate that the microwave-assisted synthesis results in the growth of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the reduction of graphene oxide simultaneously in ethylene glycol-water system. The specific capacitance of the as-prepared Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}@rGO nanocomposite is higher than those of rGO and pure Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which indicates the synergetic interaction between rGO and Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The nanocomposites also have good rate capability and cycling stability in electrochemical experiments. This facile technique may be extended to the large scale and cost effective production of other composites based on graphene and metal oxide for many applications.

  8. Extreme Mechanical Behavior of Nacre-Mimetic Graphene-Oxide and Silk Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wanting; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Park, Sang Hyun; Kazemi-Moridani, Amir; Jiang, Qisheng; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2018-02-14

    Biological materials have the ability to withstand extreme mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a microscale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 μm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s. The volume fraction of graphene oxide in these composites is systematically varied from 0 to 32 vol % to quantify the dynamic effects correlating with the structural morphologies of the graphene oxide flakes. Specific penetration energy of the films rapidly increases as the distribution of graphene oxide flakes evolves from noninteracting, isolated sheets to a partially overlapping continuous sheet. The specific penetration energy of the nanocomposite at the highest graphene oxide content tested here is found to be significantly higher than that of Kevlar fabrics and close to that of pure multilayer graphene. This study evidently demonstrates that the morphologies of nanoscale constituents and their interactions are critical to realize scalable high-performance nanocomposites using typical nanomaterial constituents having finite dimensions.

  9. In vitro and in vivo effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski S

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sławomir Jaworski,1 Ewa Sawosz,1 Marta Kutwin,1 Mateusz Wierzbicki,1 Mateusz Hinzmann,1 Marta Grodzik,1 Anna Winnicka,2 Ludwika Lipinska,3 Karolina Włodyga,1 Andrè Chwalibog41Warsaw University of Life Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Division of Biotechnology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, 2Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 3Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw, Poland; 4University of Copenhagen, Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Graphene and its related counterparts are considered the future of advanced nanomaterials owing to their exemplary properties. However, information about their toxicity and biocompatibility is limited. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of graphene oxide (GO and reduced graphene oxide (rGO platelets, using U87 and U118 glioma cell lines for an in vitro model and U87 tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane for an in vivo model. The in vitro investigation consisted of structural analysis of GO and rGO platelets using transmission elec­tron microscopy, evaluation of cell morphology and ultrastructure, assessment of cell viability by XTT assay, and investigation of cell proliferation by BrdU assay. Toxicity in U87 glioma tumors was evaluated by calculation of weight and volume of tumors and analyses of ultrastructure, histology, and protein expression. The in vitro results indicate that GO and rGO enter glioma cells and have different cytotoxicity. Both types of platelets reduced cell viability and proliferation with increasing doses, but rGO was more toxic than GO. The mass and volume of tumors were reduced in vivo after injection of GO and rGO. Moreover, the level of apoptotic markers increased in rGO-treated tumors. We show that rGO induces cell death mostly through apoptosis, indicating the potential applicability of

  10. PHYTOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS - APPLICATIONS OF FOILS BASED ON GRAPHENE (GRAPHENE OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra ROUPCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problematics of phytotoxicity of chemicals. It mainly focuses on the phytotoxicity of nanomaterials made of graphene. It describes phytotoxicological tests performed with foils from materials belonging to the graphene family. It also describes testing the influence of plants on these films. Furthermore, the paper discusses the issues of mutual influence between plants and tested nanomaterials.

  11. A comparison study between ZnO nanorods coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang; Deng, Jianping; Gao, Weiyin; Yang, Zhi; Ran, Chenxin; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties between ZnO-GO and ZnO-RGO composites were compared. • Photoluminescence quenching was observed in ZnO-GO composites. • We obtained enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO-RGO composites. -- Abstract: ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) coated with graphene oxide (ZnO-GO) and reduced graphene oxide sheets (ZnO-RGO) were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The crystal structures, morphology and optical properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. A comparison between PL properties from ZnO-GO and ZnO-RGO were studied. Results indicated that the peak at 442 nm and a broad band at 450–600 nm of ZnO NRs show PL quenching after coating with GO sheets. As coating with RGO sheets, the extent of PL quenching increases. It is interesting to note that as ZnO NRs coated with RGO sheets, the intensity of PL peak at 390 nm significantly increased. The enhanced PL emission research in ZnO-RGO is directed toward development of the “nextgeneration” optoelectronics devices related with graphene materials

  12. Analysis of energy gap opening in graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundie, Mark; Tomić, Stanko; Šljivančanin, Željko

    2014-01-01

    The utilisation of graphene structures as photonics materials mandates that an optically active electronic energy gap be formed. Opening of a gap in graphene has been demonstrated by functionalisation with H, F, or O atoms, while experimental observations of graphene oxide have hinted at interesting optical properties, with the potential for absorption of visible light. As such, our analysis is focused on O functionalisation of graphene. We present results from extensive ab initio and hybrid DFT calculations, demonstrating the creation of an optically active gap.

  13. Reduced graphene oxide for Li–air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Overgaard, Marc; Younesi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has shown great promise as an air-cathode for Li-air batteries with high capacity. In this article we demonstrate how the oxidation time of graphene oxide (GO) affects the ratio of different functional groups and how trends of these in GO are extended to chemically...... and thermally reduced GO. We investigate how differences in functional groups and synthesis may affect the performance of Li-O-2 batteries. The oxidation timescale of the GO was varied between 30 min and 3 days before reduction. Powder Xray diffraction, micro-Raman, FE-SEM, BET analysis, and XPS were used...... techniques can enhance the structural understanding of rGO. Different rGO cathodes were tested in Li-O-2 batteries which revealed a difference in overpotentials and discharge capacities for the different rGO's. We report the highest Li-O-2 battery discharge capacity recorded of approximately 60,000 m...

  14. Highly air stable passivation of graphene based field effect devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagade, Abhay A; Neumaier, Daniel; Schall, Daniel; Otto, Martin; Pesquera, Amaia; Centeno, Alba; Elorza, Amaia Zurutuza; Kurz, Heinrich

    2015-02-28

    The sensitivity of graphene based devices to surface adsorbates and charge traps at the graphene/dielectric interface requires proper device passivation in order to operate them reproducibly under ambient conditions. Here we report on the use of atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide as passivation layer on graphene field effect devices (GFETs). We show that successful passivation produce hysteresis free DC characteristics, low doping level GFETs stable over weeks though operated and stored in ambient atmosphere. This is achieved by selecting proper seed layer prior to deposition of encapsulation layer. The passivated devices are also demonstrated to be robust towards the exposure to chemicals and heat treatments, typically used during device fabrication. Additionally, the passivation of high stability and reproducible characteristics is also shown for functional devices like integrated graphene based inverters.

  15. Anchoring ultrafine Pd nanoparticles and SnO2 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance room temperature NO2 sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziying; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Chen; Han, Tianyi; Fei, Teng; Liu, Sen; Lu, Geyu

    2018-03-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate room-temperature NO 2 gas sensors using Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and SnO 2 NPs decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd-SnO 2 -RGO) hybrids as sensing materials. It is found that ultrafine Pd NPs and SnO 2 NPs with particle sizes of 3-5 nm are attached to RGO nanosheets. Compared to SnO 2 -RGO hybrids, the sensor based on Pd-SnO 2 -RGO hybrids exhibited higher sensitivity at room temperature, where the response to 1 ppm NO 2 was 3.92 with the response time and recovery time being 13 s and 105 s. Moreover, such sensor exhibited excellent selectivity, and low detection limit (50 ppb). In addition to high transport capability of RGO as well as excellent NO 2 adsorption ability derived from ultrafine SnO 2 NPs and Pd NPs, the superior sensing performances of the hybrids were attributed to the synergetic effect of Pd NPs, SnO 2 NPs and RGO. Particularly, the excellent sensing performances were related to high conductivity and catalytic activity of Pd NPs. Finally, the sensing mechanism for NO 2 sensing and the reason for enhanced sensing performances by introduction of Pd NPs are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-dimensional sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for highly reversible Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiarui; Wang, Wei; Lin, Xirong; Gu, Cuiping; Liu, Jinyun

    2018-02-01

    A sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide (NiMn2O4@rGO) nanocomposite consisting of ultrathin NiMn2O4 sheets uniformly anchored on both sides of a three-dimensional (3D) porous rGO is presented. The NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposites prepared through a dipping process combining with a hydrothermal method show a good electrochemical performance including a high reversible capability of 1384 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 over 1620 cycles, and an superior rate performance. Thus, a full cell consisting of a commercial LiCoO2 cathode and the NiMn2O4@rGO anode delivers a stable capacity of about 1046 mAh g-1 (anode basis) after cycling at 50 mA g-1 for 60 times. It is demonstrated that the 3D porous composite structure accommodates the volume change during the Li+ insertion/extraction process and facilitates the rapid transport of ions and electrons. The high performance would enable the presented NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposite a promising anode candidate for practical applications in Li-ion batteries.

  17. 2D Layered Graphitic Carbon Nitride Sandwiched with Reduced Graphene Oxide as Nanoarchitectured Anode for Highly Stable Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar; Deshmukh, Kavita A.; Tai, Zhixin; Mahmood, Nasir; Deshmukh, Abhay D.; Goodenough, John B.; Dou, Shi Xue; Liu, Hua Kun

    2017-01-01

    Two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with high gravimetric capacity and rate capability are a key strategy for the anode of a Li-ion battery, but they still pose a challenge for Li-ion storage due to limited conductivity and an inability to alleviate the volume change upon lithiation and delithiation. In this paper, we report the construction of a 3D architecture anode consisting of exfoliated 2D layered graphitic carbon nitride (g-C_3N_4) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets (CN-rGO) by hydrothermal synthesis. First, bulk g-C_3N_4 is converted to nanosheets to increase the edge density of the inert basal planes since the edges act as active Li-storage sites. This unique 3D architecture, which consists of ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets sandwiched between conductive rGO networks, exhibits a capacity of 970 mA h g"−"1 after 300 cycles, which is 15 fold higher than the bulk g-C_3N_4. The tuning of the intrinsic structural properties of bulk g-C_3N_4 by this simple bottom-up synthesis has rendered a 3D architectured material (CN-rGO) as an effective negative electrode for high energy storage applications.

  18. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lei; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. • ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. • rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices

  19. Free standing graphene oxide film for hydrogen peroxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Pranay; Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Thakur, Ajay D.

    2018-05-01

    We report hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)sensing using free standing graphene oxide thin films prepared using a cost effective scalable approach. Such sensors may find application in pharmaceutical and food processing industries.

  20. Silver Nanoparticles-graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for Antibacterial Purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chook, S.W.; Chia, C.H.; Sarani Zakaria; Mohd Khan Ayob; Chee, K.L.; Neoh, H.M.; Huang, N.M.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets, a single layer of carbon atoms which can be served as substrates for fabricating metallic nanoparticles-GO nano composites, have been used in this study The nanocomposite of silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide were produced via in-situ synthesis and with the aid of chitosan to investigate the formation of silver nanoparticles on the graphene oxide sheets. XRD and UV-Vis studies confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles on GO sheets, while TEM and FESEM images presented the loading of silver nanoparticles on the GO sheets. The degree of loading and distribution of the silver nanoparticles on the graphene oxide were depended on the procedure during the formation of silver nanoparticles. The nano composites can be potentially used in food packaging and biomedical applications. (author)

  1. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dispersions of few-layer (1-3 layers, multi-layer (4-10 layers and thick-layer (>10 layers graphene oxide (GO were prepared by a modified Hummers method with different mass ratios of KMnO4 to graphite. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectroscopic data show that few-layer GO dispersions can be distinguished from multi- and thick-layer dispersions by a more intense peak at 230 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of few-layer GO contain a single peak, those of multi-layer GO exhibit a shoulder and those of thick-layer GO do not contain a peak or shoulder. These findings allow qualitative analysis of GO dispersions. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS show that the change of UV-vis absorption intensity of GO is caused by a conjugative effect related to chromophore aggregation that influences the π-π* plasmon peak.

  2. Ultrahigh humidity sensitivity of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hengchang; Yin, Kuibo; Xie, Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wan, Shu; Sun, Litao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2013-01-01

    Humidity sensors have been extensively used in various fields, and numerous problems are encountered when using humidity sensors, including low sensitivity, long response and recovery times, and narrow humidity detection ranges. Using graphene oxide (G-O) films as humidity sensing materials, we fabricate here a microscale capacitive humidity sensor. Compared with conventional capacitive humidity sensors, the G-O based humidity sensor has a sensitivity of up to 37800% which is more than 10 times higher than that of the best one among conventional sensors at 15%-95% relative humidity. Moreover, our humidity sensor shows a fast response time (less than 1/4 of that of the conventional one) and recovery time (less than 1/2 of that of the conventional one). Therefore, G-O appears to be an ideal material for constructing humidity sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity for widespread applications.

  3. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Zaiming; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-05-06

    The adsorption of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene onto graphene (GNS) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was investigated to probe the potential adsorptive sites and molecular mechanisms. The microstructure and morphology of GNS and GO were characterized by elemental analysis, XPS, FTIR, Raman, SEM, and TEM. Graphene displayed high affinity to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), whereas GO adsorption was significantly reduced after oxygen-containing groups were attached to GNS surfaces. An unexpected peak was found in the curve of adsorption coefficients (Kd) with the PAH equilibrium concentrations. The hydrophobic properties and molecular sizes of the PAHs affected the adsorption of G and GO. The high affinities of the PAHs to GNS are dominated by π-π interactions to the flat surface and the sieving effect of the powerful groove regions formed by wrinkles on GNS surfaces. In contrast, the adsorptive sites of GO changed to the carboxyl groups attaching to the edges of GO because the groove regions disappeared and the polar nanosheet surfaces limited the π-π interactions. The TEM and SEM images initially revealed that after loading with PAH, the conformation and aggregation of GNS and GO nanosheets dramatically changed, which explained the observations that the potential adsorption sites of GNS and GO were unusually altered during the adsorption process.

  4. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  5. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wenbo; Wu, Shaopeng; Pang, Ling; Sun, Yihan; Chen, Zongwu

    2017-01-07

    In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration) were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3%) to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants) of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  6. Thermoplastic elastomers containing 2D nanofillers: montmorillonite, graphene nanoplatelets and oxidized graphene platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Paszkiewicz Sandra; Pawelec Iwona; Szymczyk Anna; Rosłaniec Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on which type of platelets nanofiller, organic or inorganic, will affect the properties of thermoplastic elastomer matrix in the stronger manner. Therefore, poly(trimethylene terephthalate-block-poly(tetramethylene oxide) copolymer (PTT-PTMO) based nanocomposites with 0.5 wt.% of clay (MMT), graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and graphene oxide (GO) have been prepared by in situ polymerization. The structure of the nanocomposites was characterized by transmis...

  7. Van der Waals pressure sensors using reduced graphene oxide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju Ra; Ahn, Sung Il

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films intercalated with various polymers were fabricated by reaction-based self-assembly, and their characteristics as vacuum pressure sensors based on van der Waals interactions were studied. At low temperature, the electrical resistances of the samples decrease linearly with increasing vacuum pressure, whereas at high temperature the variation of the electrical resistance shows secondary order curves. Among all samples, the poly vinyl alcohol intercalated RGO shows the highest sensitivity, being almost two times more sensitive than reference RGO. All samples show almost the same signal for repetitive sudden pressure changes, indicating reasonable reproducibility and durability.

  8. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrodes for a simple and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of synthetic colorants in beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampasa, Sakda; Siangproh, Weena; Duangmal, Kiattisak; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2016-11-01

    A simple and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (ERGO-SPCE) for the simultaneous determination of sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TZ) was proposed. An ERGO film was coated onto the electrode surface using a cyclic voltammetric method and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In 0.1M phosphate buffer at a pH of 6, the two oxidation peaks of SY and TZ appeared separately at 0.41 and 0.70V, respectively. Surprisingly, the electrochemical response remarkably increased approximately 90- and 20-fold for SY and TZ, respectively, using the modified electrode in comparison to the unmodified electrode. The calibration curves exhibited linear ranges from 0.01 to 20.0µM for SY and from 0.02 to 20.0µM for TZ. The limits of detection were found to be 0.50 and 4.50nM (at S/N=3) for SY and TZ, respectively. Furthermore, this detection platform provided very high selectivity for the measurement of both colorants. This electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine the amount of SY and TZ in commercial beverages. Comparison of the results obtained from this proposed method to those obtained by an in-house standard technique proved that this developed method has good agreement in terms of accuracy for practical applications. This sensor offers an inexpensive, rapid and sensitive determination. The proposed system is therefore suitable for routine analysis and should be an alternative method for the analysis of food colorants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Influence of Irradiation and Accelerated Aging on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of the Graphene Oxide/Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide/ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (GO/UHMWPE nanocomposite is a potential and promising candidate for artificial joint applications. However, after irradiation and accelerated aging, the mechanical and tribological behaviors of the nanocomposites are still unclear and require further investigation. GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites were successfully fabricated using ultrasonication dispersion, ball-milling, and hot-pressing process. Then, the nanocomposites were irradiated by gamma ray at doses of 100 kGy. Finally, GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites underwent accelerated aging at 80°C for 21 days in air. The mechanical and tribological properties of GO/UHMWPE nanocomposites have been evaluated after irradiation and accelerated aging. The results indicated that the incorporation of GO could enhance the mechanical, wear, and antiscratch properties of UHMWPE. After irradiation, these properties could be further enhanced, compared to unirradiated ones. After accelerated aging, however, these properties have been significantly reduced when compared to unirradiated ones. Moreover, GO and irradiation can synergistically enhance these properties.

  10. Cationic Reduced Graphene Oxide as Self-Aligned Nanofiller in the Epoxy Nanocomposite Coating with Excellent Anticorrosive Performance and Its High Antibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaohu; Zhong, Jiawen; Zhou, Qiulan; Du, Shuo; Yuan, Song; Liu, Yali

    2018-05-17

    The design and preparation of an excellent corrosion protection coating is still a grand challenge and is essential for large-scale practical application. Herein, a novel cationic reduced graphene oxide (denoted as RGO-ID + )-based epoxy coating was fabricated for corrosion protection. RGO-ID + was synthesized by in situ synthesis and salification reaction, which is stable dispersion in water and epoxy latex, and the self-aligned RGO-ID + -reinforced cathodic electrophoretic epoxy nanocomposite coating (denoted as RGO-ID + coating) at the surface of metal was prepared by electrodeposition. The self-alignment of RGO-ID + in the coatings is mainly attributed to the electric field force. The significantly enhanced anticorrosion performance of RGO-ID + coating is proved by a series of electrochemical measurements in different concentrated NaCl solutions and salt spray tests. This superior anticorrosion property benefits from the self-aligned RGO-ID + nanosheets and the quaternary-N groups present in the RGO-ID + nanocomposite coating. Interestingly, the RGO-ID + also exhibits a high antibacterial activity toward Escherichia coli with 83.4 ± 1.3% antibacterial efficiency, which is attributed to the synergetic effects of RGO-ID + and the electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding between RGO-ID + and E. coli. This work offers new opportunities for the successful development of effective corrosion protection and self-antibacterial coatings.

  11. Graphene Oxide-terpyridine Conjugate: A Highly Selective Colorimetric and Sensitive Fluorescence Nano-chemosensor for Fe2+ in Aqueous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Eftekhari-Sis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A graphene oxide-terpyridine conjugate (GOTC based colorimetric and fluorescent nano-chemosensor was synthesized. It showed high selectivity and sensitivity for Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions in neutral aqueous solution over other metal ions such as Li+, Na+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Al3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cr3+ and Ag+. In absorption spectra, upon addition of Fe2+ or Fe3+, the sensor displayed a peak at 568 nm, by changing the color of the solution from light pink for GOTC to light magenta and deep magenta for Fe3+ and Fe2+, respectively. Also, the fluorescence studies revealed that, Fe2+, Fe3+ and Co2+ quench the emission of GOTC at 473 nm, while other metal ions do not quench the fluorescence of GOTC in solution. Colorimetric and fluorescence techniques could be used for detection of Fe2+ ion concentration at least about 6-10 μM in water solution. The sensing on test paper was also investigated for the naked-eye detection of Fe2+.

  12. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Graphene oxide-confined synthesis of Li4Ti5O12 microspheres as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Cai, Yurong; Wu, Jun; Yao, Juming

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a graphene oxide (GO) confined strategy to synthesize reduced GO-coated lithium titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12, LTO) microspheres using as-prepared TiO 2 microspheres and GO as raw materials. The obtained samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and spectrophotometer. Results show that the spherical LTO is formed with approximate 1 μm diameter after hydrothermal reactions, which is due to a confined effect of GO on the surface of TiO 2 spheres. Electrochemical tests reveal that the presence of rGO can increase the capacity and cycling stability of LTO anodes, especially at higher C rate. The 3 wt% rGO-coated LTO anodes present a higher reversible Li-ion storage with a specific discharge capacity of 131.6 mAh g −1 at 5 C and 97% retention even after 500 cycles, which are more excellent than those of pristine LTO. The GO-confined method is anticipated to synthesize other electrode materials with high electrochemical performances

  14. Electrochemical immunoassay for the prostate specific antigen using a reduced graphene oxide functionalized with a high molecular-weight silk peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Qu, Ying; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Wu, Wangze

    2015-01-01

    High molecular-weight silk peptide (SP) was used to functionalize the surface of nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The SP-rGO nanocomposite was then mixed with mouse anti-human prostate specific antigen monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA) and coated onto a glassy carbon electrode to fabricate an immunosensor. By using the hexacyanoferrate redox system as electroactive probe, the immunosensor was characterized by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The peak current, measured at the potential of 0.24 V (vs. SCE), is distinctly reduced after binding prostate specific antigen (PSA). Response (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) is linearly related to PSA concentration in the range from 0.1 to 5.0 ng · mL −1 and from 5.0 to 80.0 ng∙mL −1 , and the detection limit is 53 pg∙mL −1 (at an SNR of 3). The immunosensor was successfully applied to the determination of PSA in clinical serum samples, and the results were found to agree well with those obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (author)

  15. One-Step Process for High-Performance, Adhesive, Flexible Transparent Conductive Films Based on p-Type Reduced Graphene Oxides and Silver Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Ting; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-08-26

    This work demonstrates a one-step process to synthesize uniformly dispersed hybrid nanomaterial containing silver nanowires (AgNWs) and p-type reduced graphene (p-rGO). The hybrid nanomaterial was coated onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for preparing high-performance flexible transparent conductive films (TCFs). The p-rGO plays the role of bridging discrete AgNWs, providing more electron holes and lowering the resistance of the contacted AgNWs; therefore, enhancing the electrical conductivity without sacrificing too much transparence of the TCFs. Additionally, the p-rGO also improves the adhesion between AgNWs and substrate by covering the AgNWs on the substrate tightly. The study shows that coating of the hybrid nanomaterials on the PET substrate demonstrates exceptional optoelectronic properties with a transmittance of 94.68% (at a wavelength of 550 nm) and a sheet resistance of 25.0 ± 0.8 Ω/sq. No significant variation in electric resistance can be detected even when the film was subjected to a bend loading with a radius of curvature of 5.0 mm or the film was loaded with a reciprocal tension or compression for 1000 cycles. Furthermore, both chemical corrosion resistance and haze effect were improved when p-rGO was introduced. The study shows that the fabricated flexible TCFs have the potential to replace indium tin oxide film in the optoelectronic industry.

  16. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ming-Qiu; Ruan, Wen-Hong; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gel electrolyte is prepared and used in electric double layer capacitor. • Insertion of boron crosslinks into GO agglomerates opens channels for ion migration. • Solid supercapacitors show excellent specific capacitance and cycle stability. • Nanocomposite electrolyte shows better thermal stability and mechanical properties. - Abstract: A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs

  17. Ag1 Pd1 Nanoparticles-Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Highly Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for Direct Aryl C-H Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiyan; Liu, Xiaowang; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Feifan; Li, Qian; Zhang, Wu

    2017-12-14

    The efficient and selective palladium-catalyzed activation of C-H bonds is of great importance for the construction of diverse bioactive molecules. Despite significant progress, the inability to recycle palladium catalysts and the need for additives impedes the practical applications of these reactions. Ag 1 Pd 1 nanoparticles-reduced graphene oxide (Ag 1 Pd 1 -rGO) was used as highly efficient and recyclable catalyst for the chelation-assisted ortho C-H bond olefination of amides with acrylates in good yields with a broad substrate scope. The catalyst can be recovered and reused at least 5 times without losing activity. A synergistic effect between the Ag and Pd atoms on the catalytic activity was found, and a plausible mechanism for the AgPd-rGO catalyzed C-H olefination is proposed. These findings suggest that the search for such Pd-based bimetallic alloy nanoparticles is a new method towards the development of superior recyclable catalysts for direct aryl C-H functionalization under mild conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposite gel electrolyte for flexible solid-state electric double layer capacitor with high performance

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Fu

    2014-06-01

    A new family of boron cross-linked graphene oxide/polyvinyl alcohol (GO-B-PVA) nanocomposite gels is prepared by freeze-thaw/boron cross-linking method. Then the gel electrolytes saturated with KOH solution are assembled into electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs). Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of GO-B-PVA are explored. The electrochemical properties of EDLCs using GO-B-PVA/KOH are investigated, and compared with those using GO-PVA/KOH gel or KOH solution electrolyte. FTIR shows that boron cross-links are introduced into GO-PVA, while the boronic structure inserted into agglomerated GO sheets is demonstrated by DMA analysis. The synergy effect of the GO and the boron crosslinking benefits for ionic conductivity due to unblocking ion channels, and for improvement of thermal stability and mechanical properties of the electrolytes. Higher specific capacitance and better cycle stability of EDLCs are obtained by using the GO-B-PVA/KOH electrolyte, especially the one at higher GO content. The nanocomposite gel electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties and solid-like character are candidates for the industrial application in high-performance flexible solid-state EDLCs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Graphene oxide-coated stir bar sorptive extraction of trace aflatoxins from soy milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haiyan; Ran, Congcong; Li, Mengjiao; Gao, Jinglin; Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Lina; Bian, Jing; Li, Junmei; Jiang, Ye

    2018-04-01

    Mycotoxins are potential food pollutants produced by fungi. Among them, aflatoxins (AFs) are the most toxic. Therefore, AFs were selected as models, and a sensitive, simple and green graphene oxide (GO)-based stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method was developed for extraction and determination of AFs with high performance liquid chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence detector (HPLC-LIF). This method improved the sensitivity of AFs detection and solved the deposition difficulty of the direct use of GO as adsorbent. Several parameters including a spiked amount of NaCl, stirring rate, extraction time and desorption time were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the quantitative method had low limits of detection of 2.4-8.0 pg/mL, which were better than some reported AFs analytical methods. The developed method has been applied to soy milk samples with good recoveries ranging from 80.5 to 102.3%. The prepared GO-based SBSE can be used as a sensitive screening technique for detecting AFs in soy milk.

  20. Toxicity and transformation of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in bacteria biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiling; Xie, Changjian; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Junzhe; Wang, Guohua; He, Xiao; Ma, Yuhui; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-02-15

    Impact of graphene based material (GNMs) on bacteria biofilm has not been well understood yet. In this study, we compared the impact of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on biofilm formation and development in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as models. GO significantly enhanced the cell growth, biofilm formation, and biofilm development even up to a concentration of 500mg/L. In contrast, rGO (≥50mg/L) strongly inhibited cell growth and biofilm formation. However, the inhibitory effects of rGO (50mg/L and 100mg/L) were attenuated in the mature phase (>24h) and eliminated at 48h. GO at 250mg/L decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in biofilm and extracellular region at mature phase. ROS levels were significantly increased by rGO at early phase, while they returned to the same levels as control at mature phase. These results suggest that oxidative stress contributed to the inhibitory effect of rGO on bacterial biofilm. We further found that supplement of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the growth medium attenuated the inhibitory effect of rGO on the growth of developed biofilm. XPS results showed that rGO were oxidized to GO which can enhance the bacterial growth. We deduced that the elimination of the toxicity of rGO at mature phase was contributed by EPS protection and the oxidation of rGO. This study provides new insights into the interaction of GNMs with bacteria biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lithium-storage Properties of Gallic Acid-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Silicon-Graphene Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Binghui; Zhang, Jintao; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Zhi; Al Abdulla, Wael; Kumar, Nanjundan Ashok; Zhao, X.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) was de-oxygenated using gallic acid under mild conditions to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The resultant RGO showed a lithium-ion storage capacity of 1280 mA h g −1 at a current density of 200 mA g −1 after 350 cycles when used as an anode for lithium ion batteries. The RGO was further used to stabilize silicon (Si) nanoparticles to prepare silicon-graphene composite electrode materials. Experimental results showed that a composite electrode prepared with a mass ratio of Si:GO = 1:2 exhibited the best lithium ion storage performance.

  2. Direct synthesis of hydrophobic graphene-based nanosheets via chemical modification of exfoliated graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jigang; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Hongpeng; Wang, Haiteng; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bingyang; Xu, Haiteng; Fu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Hydrophobic graphene-based material at the nanoscale was prepared by treatment of exfoliated graphene oxide with organic isocyanates. The lipophilic modified graphene oxide (LMGO) can then be exfoliated into the functionalized graphene nanoplatelets that can form a stable dispersion in polar aprotic solvents. AFM image shows the thickness of LMGO is approximately 1 nm. Characterization of LMGO by elemental analysis suggested that the chemical treatment results in the functionalization of the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in GO via formation of amides and carbamate esters, respectively. The degree of GO functionalization can be controlled via either the reactivity of the isocyanate or the reaction time. Then we investigated the thermal properties of the SPFGraphene by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the TGA curve shows a greater weight loss of approximately 20% occurred indicating removal of functional groups from the LMGO sheets and an obvious exothermic peak at 176 degrees can be observed from 150 to 250 degrees. We also compared the structure of graphene oxide with the structure of chemical treated graphene oxide by FT-IR spectroscopy. The morphology and microstructure of the LMGO nanosheets were also characterized by SEM and XRD. Graphene can be used to fabricate a wide range of simple electronic devices such as field-effect transistors, resonators, quantum dots and some other extensive industrial manufacture such as super capacitor, li ion battery, solar cells and even transparent electrodes in device applications.

  3. Barium borate nanorod decorated reduced graphene oxide for optical power limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandi, G.; Saravanan, M.; Vinitha, G.; Jessie Raj, M. B.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    By simple hydrothermal method, nanorods of barium boate were successfully loaded on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Powder XRD confirms the incorporation of barium borate (2θ = 29°, (202)) along with the transition of graphene oxide (2θ = 12°, (001)) into reduced graphene oxide (2θ = 25°, (002)). In the FTIR spectra, presence of characteristic absorption peaks of rGO (1572 and 2928 cm-1) and barium borate (510, 760 and 856 cm-1) further evidences the formation of BBO:rGO nanocomposite. FESEM images potray the existence of graphene sheets as thin layers and growth of barium borate as nanorods on the sheets of reduced graphene oxide. Ground state absorption studies reveal the hypsochromic shift in the absorption maxima of the graphene layers due to reduction of graphene oxide and hypochromic shift in the absorbance intensity due to the inclusion of highly transparent barium bortae. The photoluminescence of BBO:rGO shows maximum emission in the UV region arising from the direct transitions involving the valence band and conduction band in the band gap region. Z-scan technique using CW diode pumped Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW) exposes that both nanocomposite and individual counterpart possess saturable absorption and self-defocusing behavior. Third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of BBO:rGO nanocomposite is found to be higher than bare graphene oxide. In particular the nonlinear refractive index of nanocomposite is almost four times higher than GO which resulted in superior optical power limiting action. Strong nonlinear refraction (self-defocusing) and lower onset limiting thershold makes the BBO:rGO nanocomposite preferable candidate for laser safety devices.

  4. Physiochemical and optical properties of chitosan based graphene oxide bionanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Koh, Joonseok

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation an ecofriendly approach and a simple homogeneous solution casting method led to the development of biodegradable chitosan/graphene oxide bionanocomposites. The formation of bionanocomposite was confirmed by UV-vis, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and further evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The circular dichroism (CD) study of chitosan/graphene oxide revealed that the intensity of the negative transition band at wavelength of 200-222 nm decreased with the different pH of chitosan/graphene oxide solutions. It was also found that the pH conditions affect the interaction between chitosan and graphene oxide. Optical properties of chitosan/graphene oxide are evaluated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy which showed blue shift at excitation wavelength of 255 nm compared to graphene oxide. These results strongly suggest that the bionanocomposite materials may open new vistas in biotechnological, biosensor and biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology, thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene oxide/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Woo; Choi, Hyun Muk

    2016-01-01

    To improve the physical and gas barrier properties of biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) film, two graphene nanosheets of highly functionalized graphene oxide (0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%) and low-functionalized graphene oxide (0.5 wt%) were incorporated into PLA resin via solution blending method. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of material parameters such as loading level and degree of functionalization for the graphene nanosheets on the morphology and properties of the resultant nanocomposites. The highly functionalized graphene oxide (GO) caused more exfoliation and homogeneous dispersion in PLA matrix as well as more sustainable suspensions in THF, compared to low-functionalized graphene oxide (LFGO). When loaded with GO from 0.3 wt% to 0.7 wt%, the glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, tensile strength and modulus increased steadily. The GO gave rise to more pronounced effect in the thermal and mechanical reinforcement, relative to LFGO. In addition, the preparation of fairly transparent PLA-based nanocomposite film with noticeably improved barrier performance achieved only when incorporated with GO up to 0.7wt%. As a result, GO may be more compatible with hydrophilic PLA resin, compared to LFGO, resulting in more prominent enhancement of nanocomposites properties.

  6. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan

    2015-07-31

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  7. CO2-selective PEO–PBT (PolyActive™)/graphene oxide composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Karunakaran, Madhavan; Shevate, Rahul; Kumar, Mahendra; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2015-01-01

    CO2-selective graphene oxide (GO) nano-composite membranes were prepared for the first time by embedding GO into a commercially available poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEO–PBT) copolymer (PolyActive™). The as-prepared GO membrane shows high CO2 permeability (143 Barrer) and CO2/N2 selectivity (α = 73).

  8. Ion sieving in graphene oxide membranes via cationic control of interlayer spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Shi, Guosheng; Shen, Jie; Peng, Bingquan; Zhang, Bowu; Wang, Yuzhu; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Deyuan; Qian, Zhe; Xu, Gang; Liu, Gongping; Zeng, Jianrong; Zhang, Lijuan; Yang, Yizhou; Zhou, Guoquan; Wu, Minghong; Jin, Wanqin; Li, Jingye; Fang, Haiping

    2017-10-01

    Graphene oxide membranes—partially oxidized, stacked sheets of graphene—can provide ultrathin, high-flux and energy-efficient membranes for precise ionic and molecular sieving in aqueous solution. These materials have shown potential in a variety of applications, including water desalination and purification, gas and ion separation, biosensors, proton conductors, lithium-based batteries and super-capacitors. Unlike the pores of carbon nanotube membranes, which have fixed sizes, the pores of graphene oxide membranes—that is, the interlayer spacing between graphene oxide sheets (a sheet is a single flake inside the membrane)—are of variable size. Furthermore, it is difficult to reduce the interlayer spacing sufficiently to exclude small ions and to maintain this spacing against the tendency of graphene oxide membranes to swell when immersed in aqueous solution. These challenges hinder the potential ion filtration applications of graphene oxide membranes. Here we demonstrate cationic control of the interlayer spacing of graphene oxide membranes with ångström precision using K+, Na+, Ca2+, Li+ or Mg2+ ions. Moreover, membrane spacings controlled by one type of cation can efficiently and selectively exclude other cations that have larger hydrated volumes. First-principles calculations and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy reveal that the location of the most stable cation adsorption is where oxide groups and aromatic rings coexist. Previous density functional theory computations show that other cations (Fe2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+) should have a much stronger cation-π interaction with the graphene sheet than Na+ has, suggesting that other ions could be used to produce a wider range of interlayer spacings.

  9. Direct formation of reduced graphene oxide and 3D lightweight nickel network composite foam by hydrohalic acids and its application for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifu; Tang, Yanmei; Xu, Lianqiang; Tang, Shaolong; Du, Youwei

    2014-07-09

    Here, a novel graphene composite foam with 3D lightweight continuous and interconnected nickel network was successfully synthesized by hydroiodic (HI) acid using nickel foam as substrate template. The graphene had closely coated on the backbone of the 3D nickel conductive network to form nickel network supported composite foam without any polymeric binder during the HI reduction of GO process, and the nickel conductive network can be maintained even in only a small amount of nickel with 1.1 mg/cm(2) and had replaced the traditional current collector nickel foam (35 mg/cm(2)). In the electrochemical measurement, a supercapacitor device based on the 3D nickel network and graphene composite foam exhibited high rate capability of 100 F/g at 0.5 A/g and 86.7 F/g at 62.5 A/g, good cycle stability with capacitance retention of 95% after 2000 cycles, low internal resistance (1.68 Ω), and excellent flexible properties. Furthermore, the gravimetric capacitance (calculated using the total mass of the electrode) was high up to 40.9 F/g. Our work not only demonstrates high-quality graphene/nickel composite foam, but also provides a universal route for the rational design of high performance of supercapacitors.

  10. Bimetallic CoNiSx nanocrystallites embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon anchored on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidi; Miao, Jinkang; Quan, Liang; Cai, Daoping; Zhan, Hongbing

    2018-02-22

    Exploring high-performance and low-priced electrode materials for supercapacitors is important but remains challenging. In this work, a unique sandwich-like nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported N-doped carbon embedded with ultrasmall CoNiS x nanocrystallites (rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite) has been successfully designed and synthesized by a simple one-step carbonization/sulfurization treatment of the rGO/Co-Ni precursor. The intriguing structural/compositional/morphological advantages endow the as-synthesized rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite with excellent electrochemical performance as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors. Compared with the other two rGO/CoNiO x and rGO/CoNiS x nanocomposites, the rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced performance, including a high specific capacitance (1028.2 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ), excellent rate capability (89.3% capacitance retention at 10 A g -1 ) and good cycling stability (93.6% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles). In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device based on the rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite as the cathode and activated carbon (AC) as the anode is also fabricated, which can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 229.2 W kg -1 with desirable cycling stability. These electrochemical results evidently indicate the great potential of the sandwich-like rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite for applications in high-performance supercapacitors.

  11. Efficient reduced graphene oxide grafted porous Fe3O4 composite as a high performance anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneswari, Subramani; Pratheeksha, Parakandy Muzhikara; Anandan, Srinivasan; Rangappa, Dinesh; Gopalan, Raghavan; Rao, Tata Narasinga

    2014-03-21

    Here, we report facile fabrication of Fe3O4-reduced graphene oxide (Fe3O4-RGO) composite by a novel approach, i.e., microwave assisted combustion synthesis of porous Fe3O4 particles followed by decoration of Fe3O4 by RGO. The characterization studies of Fe3O4-RGO composite demonstrate formation of face centered cubic hexagonal crystalline Fe3O4, and homogeneous grafting of Fe3O4 particles by RGO. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm shows presence of a porous structure with a surface area and a pore volume of 81.67 m(2) g(-1), and 0.106 cm(3) g(-1) respectively. Raman spectroscopic studies of Fe3O4-RGO composite confirm the existence of graphitic carbon. Electrochemical studies reveal that the composite exhibits high reversible Li-ion storage capacity with enhanced cycle life and high coulombic efficiency. The Fe3O4-RGO composite showed a reversible capacity ∼612, 543, and ∼446 mA h g(-1) at current rates of 1 C, 3 C and 5 C, respectively, with a coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles, which is higher than graphite, and Fe3O4-carbon composite. The cyclic voltammetry experiment reveals the irreversible and reversible Li-ion storage in Fe3O4-RGO composite during the starting and subsequent cycles. The results emphasize the importance of our strategy which exhibited promising electrochemical performance in terms of high capacity retention and good cycling stability. The synergistic properties, (i) improved ionic diffusion by porous Fe3O4 particles with a high surface area and pore volume, and (ii) increased electronic conductivity by RGO grafting attributed to the excellent electrochemical performance of Fe3O4, which make this material attractive to use as anode materials for lithium ion storage.

  12. Effective extraction and simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes from tomato sauce and chili-containing foods using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Wang, Man-Man; Hao, Yu-Lan; Shi, Xin-Ran; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    A simple, effective, and robust magnetic solid-phase extraction method was developed using magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles as the adsorbent for the simultaneous determination of Sudan dyes (I, II, III, and IV) in foodstuffs. The magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The extraction parameters including extraction time, elution solution, and elution time and volume were investigated in detail. Such magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles based magnetic solid-phase extraction in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography and variable wavelength detection gave the detection limits of 3-6 μg/kg for Sudan I-IV in chili sauce, tomato sauce, chili powder, and chili flake samples. The recoveries were 79.6-108% at three spiked levels with the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of 1.2-8.6 and 4.5-9.6%, respectively. The feasibility was further performed by a comparison with commercial alumina-N. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of Sudan dyes due to its sensitivity, simplicity, and low cost. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous Ni-Co sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composite with optimal incorporation of carbon nanotubes for high performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous Ni-Co sulfide/reduced graphene oxide composite with the appropriate incorporation of carbon nanotubes (NCS/rGO/CNT) was fabricated as a promising material for supercapacitor electrodes. It combined the high pseudo-capacitance of Ni-Co sulfide as well as the large specific surface area and electrical double layer capacitance of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated to act as the spacer for hindering the restacking of rGO and to construct a conductive network for enhancing the electron transport. The 3D porous NCS/rGO/CNT composite was fabricated by a facile one-step hydrothermal process in which Ni-Co sulfide nanosheets were synthesized and graphene oxide was reduced simultaneously. It was shown that the capacitance and cyclic performance indeed could be effectively improved via the appropriate addition of CNTs. In addition, a flexible all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor based on the NCS/rGO/CNT electrode was fabricated and exhibited the same capacitive electrochemical performance under bending. Also, it could successfully turn on a light-emitting diode light, revealing its feasibility in practical application. All results demonstrated that the developed NCS/rGO/CNT composite has potential application in supercapacitors.

  14. Investigation of transfer characteristics of high performance graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Gunasekaran; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we attempted a study on field effect transport characteristics of graphene flakes. These graphene flakes were exfoliated by mechanical peeling-off technique and the electrical contacts were patterned by photo-lithographic method. Graphene devices have shown better transfer characteristics which was obtained even in low-voltage (graphene transistors were patterned on oxidized silicon wafers. A clear n-type to p-type transition at Dirac point and higher electron drain-current modulation in positive back-gate field with current minimum (the Dirac point) were observed at V(GS) = -1.7 V. The carrier mobility was determined from the measured transconductance. The transconductance of the graphene transistors was observed as high as 18.6 microS with a channel length of 68 microm. A maximum electron mobility of 1870 +/- 143 cm2/V x s and hole mobility of 1050 +/- 35 cm2/V x s were achieved at a drain bias 2.1 V which are comparatively higher values among reported for mechanically exfoliated graphene using lithographic method. The fabricated devices also sustained with high-current density for 40 hr in continuous operation without any change in device resistance, which could be applied for robust wiring applications.

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of calcium silicate-reduced graphene oxide composites on titanium substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Talebian, Sepehr

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)/graphene coatings have been used to improve the biological and mechanical fixation of metallic prosthesis. Among the extraordinary features of graphene is its very high mechanical strength, which makes it an attractive nanoreinforcement material for composites. Calcium...... silicate-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) composites were synthesized, using an in situ hydrothermal method. CS nanowires were uniformly decorated on the rGO, with an appropriate interfacial bonding. The CS-rGO composites behaved like hybrid composites when deposited on a titanium substrate by cathodic...

  16. Covalently Bonded Chitosan on Graphene Oxide via Redox Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. Castaño

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanostructures have played an important role in creating a new field of materials based on carbon. Chemical modification of carbon nanostructures through grafting has been a successful step to improve dispersion and compatibility in solvents, with biomolecules and polymers to form nanocomposites. In this sense carbohydrates such as chitosan are extremely valuable because their functional groups play an important role in diversifying the applications of carbon nanomaterials. This paper reports the covalent attachment of chitosan onto graphene oxide, taking advantage of this carbohydrate at the nanometric level. Grafting is an innovative route to modify properties of graphene, a two-dimensional nanometric arrangement, which is one of the most novel and promising nanostructures. Chitosan grafting was achieved by redox reaction using different temperature conditions that impact on the morphology and features of graphene oxide sheets. Transmission Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Energy Dispersive spectroscopies were used to study the surface of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide. Results show a successful modification indicated by the functional groups found in the grafted material. Dispersions of chitosan-grafted-graphene oxide samples in water and hexane revealed different behavior due to the chemical groups attached to the graphene oxide sheet.

  17. Chitosan/graphene oxide biocomposite film from pencil rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, S.; Sari, J. N.; Bulan, R.; Piliang, A.; Amaturrahim, S. A.; Hutapea, Y. A.

    2018-03-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) has been succesfully synthesized using Hummber method from graphite powder of pencil rod. The excellent solubility of graphene oxide (GO)in water imparts its feasibilty as new filler for reinforcement hydrophilic biopolymers. In this research, the biocomposite film was fabricated from chitosan/graphene oxide. The characteristics of graphene oxide were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of the XRD showed graphene structur in 2θ, appeared at 9.0715°with interlayer spacing was about 9.74063Å. Preparation films with several variations of chitosan/graphene oxide was done by casting method and characterized by mechanical and morphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the tensile test in the film show that the film CS/GO (85: 15)% has the optimum Young’s modulus size of 2.9 GPa compared to other variations of CS / GO film. Morphological analysis film CS/GO (85:15)% by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the obtained biocomposites film showed fine dispersion of GO in the CS matrix and could mix each other homogeneously.

  18. Synthesis of bacteria promoted reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide networks for advanced supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiming; Yu, Xinzhi; Guo, Di; Qu, Baihua; Zhang, Ming; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-08-14

    Supercapacitors with potential high power are useful and have attracted much attention recently. Graphene-based composites have been demonstrated to be promising electrode materials for supercapacitors with enhanced properties. To improve the performance of graphene-based composites further and realize their synthesis with large scale, we report a green approach to synthesize bacteria-reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (BGNS) networks. By using Bacillus subtilis as spacers, we deposited reduced graphene oxide/Ni3S2 nanoparticle composites with submillimeter pores directly onto substrate by a binder-free electrostatic spray approach to form BGNS networks. Their electrochemical capacitor performance was evaluated. Compared with stacked reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide (GNS) prepared without the aid of bacteria, BGNS with unique nm-μm structure exhibited a higher specific capacitance of about 1424 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.75 A g(-1). About 67.5% of the capacitance was retained as the current density increased from 0.75 to 15 A g(-1). At a current density of 75 A g(-1), a specific capacitance of 406 F g(-1) could still remain. The results indicate that the reduced graphene oxide-nickel sulfide network promoted by bacteria is a promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

  19. Electrical characterization of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on organic thin film transistor (OTFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Nurhazwani; Halim, Nurul Farhanah Ab.; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Hashim, Uda

    2017-03-01

    A green method and eco-friendly solution were used to chemically reduce graphene oxide (GO) to graphene using green reductant. In this study, graphene oxide (GO) were prepared by using Tours method. Then, reduced graphene oxides (rGO) were prepared by using three typical reduction agents: L-ascorbic acid (L-AA), formamidinesulfinic acid (FAS) and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3). The reduced materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Graphene based organic thin film transistor (G-OTFT) was prepared by a spin coating and thermal evaporation technique. The electrical characterization of G-OTFT was analyzed by using semiconductor parameter analyzer (SPA). The G-OTFT devices show p-type semiconducting behaviour. This article focuses on the synthesis and reduction of graphene oxide using three different reductants in order to maximise its electrical conductivity. The rGO product demonstrated a good electrical conductivity performance with highly sensitivity sensor.

  20. Unusual nonlinear absorption response of graphene oxide in the presence of a reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimzadeh, Rouhollah; Arandian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The nonlinear absorption responses of graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are investigated using the Z-scan technique and laser beams at 405, 532 and 635 nm in a continuous wave regime. Results show that graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide do not show any open Z-scan signals at wavelengths of 532 and 635 nm. At the same time, fresh graphene oxide suspension is found to exhibit a nonlinear absorption process in the case of a laser light at 405 nm. Moreover, it can be observed that the reduction of graphene oxide by 405 nm laser irradiation decreases its nonlinear absorption value significantly. These findings highlight the important role of the reduction process on the nonlinear absorption performance of graphene oxide. (letter)

  1. Polyurethane Nanocomposites Containing Reduced Graphene Oxide, FTIR, Raman, and XRD Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Strankowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, graphene and other graphene-based materials have become an essential part of composite science and technology. Their unique properties are not only restricted to graphene but also shared with derivative compounds like graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, functionalized graphene, and so forth. One of the most structurally important materials, graphene oxide (GO, is prepared by the oxidation of graphite. Though removal of the oxide groups can create vacancies and structural defects, reduced graphene oxide (rGO is used in composites as effective filler similar to GO. Authors developed a new polyurethane nanocomposite using a derivative of grapheme, thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO, to modify the matrix of polyurethane elastomers, by rGO.

  2. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of mesoporous NiMoO_4 nanorod/reduced graphene oxide composites for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ting; Chai, Hui; Jia, Dianzeng; Su, Ying; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Wanyong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mesoporous NiMoO_4-rGO shows high specific capacitance of 1274 F/g at 1 A/g and ultrahigh energy density of 30.3 Wh/kg at a power density of 187 W/kg. - Abstract: Mesoporous NiMoO_4 nanorods grown on the surface of reduced graphene oxide composites (NiMoO_4-rGO) were synthesized via a simple, rapidly, and environment-friendly microwave-solvothermal method. The structure and morphology of the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The NiMoO_4-rGO composite exhibited high performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors. At a current density of 1 A g"−"1, the specific capacitance reached 1274 F g"−"1, which is higher than that of pure NiMoO_4 (800 F g"−"1). NiMoO_4-rGO can retain about 81.1% of its initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Remarkably, NiMoO_4-rGO composites can be applied in asymmetric supercapacitors with ultrahigh energy density of 30.3 Wh kg"−"1 at a power density of 187 W kg"−"1. The enhanced electrochemical performance of NiMoO_4-rGO is mainly ascribed to the mesoporous-NiMoO_4 nanorods with large specific surface area, as well as high coupling with conductive rGO.

  3. One-step fabrication of heterogeneous conducting polymers-coated graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes composite films for high-performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Haihan; Han, Gaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CPs-GO/CNTs ternary composites have been prepared via one-step electrodeposition. • The composites show a GO supported CPs-coated CNTs ternary hybrid microstructure. • The capacitive nature of CPs-GO is promoted significantly by introducing CNTs. • CPs-GO/CNTs electrodes show high areal capacitance and excellent cycle stability. - Abstract: Composite films of heterogeneous conducting polymers-coated graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes (CPs-GO/CNTs; CPs, PPy and PEDOT) have been fabricated via one-step electrochemical co-deposition. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy characterizations indicate that the as-prepared CPs-GO/CNTs composites show a GO supported CPs-coated CNTs ternary hybrid microstructure. The electrochemical measurements including cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests manifest that the capacitive performances of CPs-GO electrodes are obviously promoted as the introduction of CNTs, and the PEDOT-GO/CNTs electrodes exhibit the more significantly improved electrochemical performances as the more CNTs introduced. Furthermore, the as-prepared PPy-GO/CNTs and PEDOT-GO/CNTs ternary composites achieve a high areal specific capacitance (142.2 mF cm −2 and 99.0 mF cm −2 at 1.0 mA cm −2 , respectively), together with superior rate capability, and excellent cycle stability (maintain 97.3% and 99.2% of initial capacitance for 5000 cycles, respectively), which are essential for their applications in high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

  4. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira; Rasul, Shahid; Patole, Shashikant P.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  5. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  6. Modeling the Environmental Fate of Graphene Oxide and Its Phototransformation Products in Brier Creek Watershed Using the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program 8 (WASP8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of graphene-family nanoparticles (GFNs) appreciably increased in recent years. Among GFNs, graphene oxide (GO) is one of the most highly studied members due to its inexpensive synthesis cost compared to graphene, its stability in aqueous media and its broad applica...

  7. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties...

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of magnetic reduced graphene oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jianfeng; Shi, Min; Ma, Hongwei; Yan, Bo; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An environmental friendly and efficient route for preparation of magnetic reduced graphene oxide composite with a one-step hydrothermal method was demonstrated. The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. Highlights: → A one-step hydrothermal method for preparation of MN-CCG was demonstrated. → Glucose was used as the 'green' reducing agent. → The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. → The prepared MN-CCG is highly water suspendable and sensitive to magnetic field. -- Abstract: We demonstrated an environmental friendly and efficient route for preparation of magnetic reduced graphene oxide composite (MN-CCG). Glucose was used as the reducing agent in this one-step hydrothermal method. The reducing process was accompanied by generation of magnetic nanoparticles. The structure and composition of the nanocomposite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the prepared MN-CCG is highly water suspendable and sensitive to magnetic field.

  9. Stable graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle platforms for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Sánchez, Dania; Villabona-Leal, Giovanny; Saucedo-Orozco, Izcoatl; Bracamonte, Victoria; Pérez, Elías; Bittencourt, Carla; Quintana, Mildred

    2018-01-17

    Graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (AuNPs@GO) hybrids were fabricated in water dispersions of graphene oxide (GO) and Au precursor completely free of stabilizing agents by UV-light irradiation. Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) nucleation, growth, and stabilization mechanisms at the surface of GO are discussed on the basis of UV-Vis, Raman, IR, and X-Ray photo-spectroscopy studies. The analyses of AuNPs@GO hybrids by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric (TGA) and electrochemical tests show that they exhibit outstanding chemical, thermal and electrochemical stabilities. Thus, AuNPs@GO biosensing platforms were fabricated for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of crystal violet (CV), a SERS standard molecule, and in a different set of experiments, for flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), a flavoprotein coenzyme that plays an important role in many oxidoreductase and reversible redox conversions in biochemical reactions. AuNPs@GO hybrids synthesized by using UV light irradiation show exceptional stability and high intensification of the Raman signals showing that they have high potential for use as biomedical probes for the detection, monitoring, and diagnosis of medical diseases.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Man

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The homogeneous-dispersed graphene oxide was prepared by the improved Hummers method, which would be reduced to graphene with the reducing agent called hydrazine hydrate. The X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectra and Transmission electron microscopy were used to analysis the phase, morphology and structure of the graphene and graphene oxide. The results show that the graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared via this method, whose degree of oxidation and reduction are high; Also obtained a higher well-disperses and less structural imperfection of the graphene that was manufactured in the reducing system that added ammonia reduction

  11. Sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Menglu; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Xiaojun; Guan, Shiyou

    2018-04-01

    Three-dimensional sponge-like reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal self-assembly using silicon nanoparticles, graphene oxide and amino modified carbon nanotubes to develop high-performance anode materials of lithium ion batteries. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images show the structure of composites that Silicon nanoparticles are coated with reduced graphene oxide while amino modified carbon nanotubes wrap around the reduced graphene oxide in the composites. When applied to lithium ion battery, these composites exhibit high initial specific capacity of 2552 mA h/g at a current density of 0.05 A/g. In addition, reduced graphene oxide/silicon/carbon nanotube composites also have better cycle stability than bare Silicon nanoparticles electrode with the specific capacity of 1215 mA h/g after 100 cycles. The three-dimension sponge-like structure not only ensures the electrical conductivity but also buffers the huge volume change, which has broad potential application in the field of battery.

  12. Comparison on graphite, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, N. M. S.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Lai, Chin-Wei; Noriman, N. Z.; Khe, Cheng-Seong; Hashim, U.; Lee, H. Cheun

    2017-10-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are known to have superior properties for various applications. This work compares the properties of GO and RGO with graphite. GO was prepared by using Improved Hummer's method whereas the produced GO was subjected to chemical reduction with the use of hydrazine hydrate. Graphite, GO and RGO had different morphologies, quality, functionalized groups, UV-Vis absorption peaks and crystallinity. With the removal of oxygen-containing functional group during reduction for RGO, the quality of samples was decreased due to higher intensity of D band than G band was seen in Raman results. In addition, platelet-like surface can be observed on the surface of graphite as compared to GO and RGO where wrinkled and layered flakes, and crumpled thin sheets were observed on GO and RGO surface respectively. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis showed the presence of abundant oxygen-containing functional groups in GO as compared to RGO and graphite. The characteristic peaks at 26.62°, 9.03° and 24.10° for graphite, GO and RGO, respectively, can be detected from X-Ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the reduction also caused red shift at 279nm from 238nm, as obtained from ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) analysis. The results proved that GO was successfully oxidized from graphite whereas RGO was effectively reduced from GO.

  13. Consecutive evaluation of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets immunotoxicity on monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Chen, Liliang; Huang, Chih-Ching; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Yang, Lingyan; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Suo, Guangli; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-05-01

    The biocompatibilities of graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) should be thoroughly evaluated before their application in drug delivery and anticancer therapy. The present study aimed to consecutively assess the immunotoxicity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) and reduced GONPs (rGONPs) on THP-1 cells, a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line. GONPs induced the expression of antioxidative enzymes and inflammatory factors, whereas rGONPs had substantially higher cellular uptake rate, higher levels of NF-κB expression. These distinct toxic mechanisms were observed because the two nanomaterials differ in their oxidation state, which imparts different affinities for the cell membrane. Because GONPs have a higher cell membrane affinity and higher impact on membrane proteins compared with rGONPs, macrophages (THP-1a) derived from GONPs treated THP-1cells showed a severer effect on phagocytosis. By consecutive evaluation the effects of GONPs and rGONPs on THP-1 and THP-1a, we demonstrated that their surface oxidation states may cause GFNs to behave differently and cause different immunotoxic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A graphene integrated highly transparent resistive switching memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugu, Sita; Pavunny, Shojan P.; Limbu, Tej B.; Weiner, Brad R.; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the hybrid fabrication process of a graphene integrated highly transparent resistive random-access memory (TRRAM) device. The indium tin oxide (ITO)/Al2O3/graphene nonvolatile memory device possesses a high transmittance of >82% in the visible region (370-700 nm) and exhibits stable and non-symmetrical bipolar switching characteristics with considerably low set and reset voltages (ITO/Al2O3/Pt device and studied its switching characteristics for comparison and a better understanding of the ITO/Al2O3/graphene device characteristics. The conduction mechanisms in high and low resistance states were analyzed, and the observed polarity dependent resistive switching is explained based on electro-migration of oxygen ions.

  15. Superparamagnetic graphene oxide-based dispersive-solid phase extraction for preconcentration and determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride in human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Yaser; Ghorbani-Bidkorbeh, Fatemeh; Shekarchi, Maryam

    2017-05-26

    In the present study, superparamagnetic graphene oxide-Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a modified impregnation method (MGO mi ) and their application as a sorbent in the magnetic-dispersive solid phase extraction (M-dSPE) mode to the preconcentration and determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride (TMS) in human plasma was investigated by coupling with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the prepared nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Some factors affecting the extraction efficiency, including the pH value, amount of sorbent, extraction time, elution solvent and its volume, and desorption time were studied and optimized. Magnetic nanocomposites plasma extraction of TMS following HPLC analyses showed a linear calibration curve in the range of 0.5-50.0ngmL -1 with an acceptable correlation coefficient (R 2 =0.9988). The method was sensitive, with a low limit of detection (0.17ngmL -1 ) and quantification (0.48ngmL -1 ). Inter- and intra-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (n=3) and the preconcentration factor, were found to be 5.6-7.2%, 2.9-4.2% and 10, respectively. Good recoveries (98.1-101.4%) with low relative standard deviations (4.2-5.0%) indicated that the matrices under consideration do not significantly affect the extraction process. Due to its high precision and accuracy, the developed method may be a HPLC-UV alternative with M-dSPE for bioequivalence analysis of TMS in human plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-fouling and high water permeable forward osmosis membrane fabricated via layer by layer assembly of chitosan/graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hasan; Rastgar, Masoud; Shakeri, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    To date, forward osmosis (FO) has received considerable attention due to its potential application in seawater desalination. FO does not require external hydraulic pressure and consequently is believed to have a low fouling propensity. Despite the numerous privileges of FO process, a major challenge ahead for its development is the lack of high performance membranes. In this study, we fabricated a novel highly-efficient FO membrane using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of positive chitosan (CS) and negative graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets via electrostatic interaction on a porous support layer. The support layer was prepared by blending hydrophilic sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) into polyethersulfone (PES) matrix using wet phase inversion process. Various characterization techniques were used to confirm successful fabrication of LbL membrane. The number of layers formed on the SPES-PES support layer was easily adjusted by repeating the CS and GO deposition cycles. Thin film composite (TFC) membrane was also prepared by the same SPES-PES support layer and polyamide (PA) active layer to compare membranes performances. The water permeability and salt rejection of the fabricated membranes were obtained by two kinds of draw solutions (including Na2SO4 and sucrose) under two different membrane orientations. The results showed that membrane coated by a CS/GO bilayers had water flux of 2-4 orders of magnitude higher than the TFC one. By increasing the number of CS/GO bilayers, the selectivity of the LbL membrane was improved. The novel fabricated LbL membrane showed better fouling resistance than the TFC one in the feed solution containing 200 ppm of sodium alginate as a foulant model.

  17. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuisma, Elena; Hansson, C. Fredrik; Lindberg, Th. Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A.; Idh, Sebastian; Schröder, Elsebeth, E-mail: schroder@chalmers.se [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2016-05-14

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, and are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances are important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory, and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likely oxidize, and thus adsorption onto graphene oxide, rather than clean graphene, is a more relevant process to study.

  18. Carbon nanotube transistors with graphene oxide films as gate dielectrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials,including the one-dimensional(1-D) carbon nanotube(CNT) and two-dimensional(2-D) graphene,are heralded as ideal candidates for next generation nanoelectronics.An essential component for the development of advanced nanoelectronics devices is processing-compatible oxide.Here,in analogy to the widespread use of silicon dioxide(SiO2) in silicon microelectronic industry,we report the proof-of-principle use of graphite oxide(GO) as a gate dielectrics for CNT field-effect transistor(FET) via a fast and simple solution-based processing in the ambient condition.The exceptional transistor characteristics,including low operation voltage(2 V),high carrier mobility(950 cm2/V-1 s-1),and the negligible gate hysteresis,suggest a potential route to the future all-carbon nanoelectronics.

  19. Platinum adsorption onto graphene and oxidized graphene: A quantum mechanics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, S.A.; Jahanshahi, M. [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangari, M. Ghorbanzadeh, E-mail: ghorbanzadeh.morteza@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Density functional theory based on first-principle calculations was used to examine platinum-supported oxidized graphene as a beneficial nanomaterial in terms of its catalytic activity and utility for contaminant removal and disinfecting polluted solutions in both domestic and industrial applications. The first step was to select the most appropriate available computing package to apply the supercell technique, which would provide a better representation of a large and real graphene slab. Using OpenMX was less time-consuming after we enforced a basis set for valence electrons to avoid an all-electron calculation, and this had very slight and negligible effect on the accuracy of the calculations. The OpenMX software was selected to perform forward steps of investigating changes in the properties such as adsorption energy and ground state structure of the complexes made by the adsorption of a platinum atom on the surface of pristine graphene (Pt/PG) and oxidized graphene (Pt/OG), which had the lowest adsorption energy of −5.28 eV. Moreover, we examined the effect of Pt atom adsorption on the surface and between two layers of graphene. Our results show that, there was no specific change observed in mentioned properties of Pt atom adsorption on bilayer graphene in comparison with single layer. - Highlights: • Pt adsorption on graphene and oxidized graphene was examined. • We have also considered the effect of the layered graphene on the Pt adsorption. • We first compared two different DFT calculation codes, SIESTA and OpenMX. • We then used ORCA to validate and select a suitable computation package for this study.

  20. TiO2-graphene oxide nanocomposite as advanced photocatalytic materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Bludská, Jana; Kormunda, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB (2013), s. 41 ISSN 1752-153X Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : graphene * titanium(IV) oxide * graphene oxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.663, year: 2013