WorldWideScience

Sample records for graphene nanoribbons junctions

  1. Resonance Transport of Graphene Nanoribbon T-Shaped Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Lan, Kong; Yong-Jian, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties of T-shaped junctions composed of armchair graphene nanoribbons of different widths. Three types of junction geometries are considered. The junction conductance strongly depends on the atomic features of the junction geometry. When the shoulders of the junction have zigzag type edges, sharp conductance resonances usually appear in the low energy region around the Dirac point, and a conductance gap emerges. When the shoulders of the junction have armchair type edges, the conductance resonance behavior is weakened significantly, and the metal-metal-metal junction structures show semimetallic behaviors. The contact resistance also changes notably due to the various interface geometries of the junction

  2. Selective interface transparency in graphene nanoribbon based molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, K P; Kaun, C C; Zhang, R Q

    2018-03-08

    A clear understanding of electrode-molecule interfaces is a prerequisite for the rational engineering of future generations of nanodevices that will rely on single-molecule coupling between components. With a model system, we reveal a peculiar dependence on interfaces in all graphene nanoribbon-based carbon molecular junctions. The effect can be classified into two types depending on the intrinsic feature of the embedded core graphene nanoflake (GNF). For metallic GNFs with |N A - N B | = 1, good/poor contact transparency occurs when the core device aligns with the center/edge of the electrode. The situation is reversed when a semiconducting GNF is the device, where N A = N B . These results may shed light on the design of real connecting components in graphene-based nanocircuits.

  3. Spin-polarized transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong-Yu; Wang Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin-dependent electron transport in single and double normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (NG/FG/NG) junctions. The ferromagnetism in the FG region originates from the spontaneous magnetization of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that when the zigzag-chain number of the ribbon is even and only a single transverse mode is actived, the single NG/FG/NG junction can act as a spin polarizer and/or a spin analyzer because of the valley selection rule and the spin-exchange field in the FG, while the double NG/FG/NG/FG/NG junction exhibits a quantum switching effect, in which the on and the off states switch rapidly by varying the cross angle between two FG magnetizations. Our findings may shed light on the application of magnetized graphene nanoribbons to spintronics devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Negative differential resistance behavior in phosphorus-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Zhang, Daoli; Zhang, Jianbing; Miao, Xiangshui; Ye, Cong

    2014-01-01

    In this present work, we investigate the electronic transport properties of phosphorus-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) junctions by employing nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-function theory. Two phosphorus (P) atoms are considered to substitute the central carbon atom with the different width of AGNRs. The results indicate that the electronic transport behaviors are strongly dependent on the width of the P-doped graphene nanoribbons. The current-voltage characteristics of the doped AGNR junctions reveal an interesting negative differential resistance (NDR) and exhibit three distinct family (3 n, 3 n + 1, 3 n + 2) behaviors. These results display that P doping is a very good way to achieve NDR of the graphene nanoribbon devices

  5. Realistic-contact-induced enhancement of rectifying in carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang; Luo, Kai-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions were recently fabricated by the controllable etching of single-walled carbon-nanotubes [Wei et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1374 (2013)] and their electronic transport properties were studied here. First principles results reveal that the transmission function of the junctions show a heavy dependence on the shape of contacts, but rectifying is an inherent property which is insensitive to the details of contacts. Interestingly, the rectifying ratio is largely enhanced in the junction with a realistic contact and the enhancement is insensitive to the details of contact structures. The stability of rectifying suggests a significant feasibility to manufacture realistic all-carbon rectifiers in nanoelectronics

  6. Topological Phases in Graphene Nanoribbons: Junction States, Spin Centers, and Quantum Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting; Zhao, Fangzhou; Louie, Steven G.

    2017-08-01

    We show that semiconducting graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of different width, edge, and end termination (synthesizable from molecular precursors with atomic precision) belong to different electronic topological classes. The topological phase of GNRs is protected by spatial symmetries and dictated by the terminating unit cell. We have derived explicit formulas for their topological invariants and shown that localized junction states developed between two GNRs of distinct topology may be tuned by lateral junction geometry. The topology of a GNR can be further modified by dopants, such as a periodic array of boron atoms. In a superlattice consisting of segments of doped and pristine GNRs, the junction states are stable spin centers, forming a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin 1 /2 chain with tunable exchange interaction. The discoveries here not only are of scientific interest for studies of quasi-one-dimensional systems, but also open a new path for design principles of future GNR-based devices through their topological characters.

  7. Graphene nanoribbons for electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Zhansong; Granzner, Ralf; Kittler, Mario; Schwierz, Frank [FG Festkoerperelektronik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Haehnlein, Bernd; Auge, Manuel; Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronik und Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano registered, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau (Germany); Lebedev, Alexander A. [National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Davydov, Valery Y. [Division Solid State Electronics, Ioffe Institute, Sankt-Peterburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanoribbons show unique properties and have attracted a lot of attention in the recent past. Intensive theoretical and experimental studies on such nanostructures at both the fundamental and application-oriented levels have been performed. The present paper discusses the suitability of graphene nanoribbons devices for nanoelectronics and focuses on three specific device types - graphene nanoribbon MOSFETs, side-gate transistors, and three terminal junctions. It is shown that, on the one hand, experimental devices of each type of the three nanoribbon-based structures have been reported, that promising performance of these devices has been demonstrated and/or predicted, and that in part they possess functionalities not attainable with conventional semiconductor devices. On the other hand, it is emphasized that - in spite of the remarkable progress achieved during the past 10 years - graphene nanoribbon devices still face a lot of problems and that their prospects for future applications remain unclear. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Acoustoelectric photoresponse of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, T.; Nash, G. R.

    2018-04-01

    The acoustoelectric current in graphene nanoribbons, with widths ranging between 350 nm and 600 nm, has been investigated as a function of illumination. For all nanoribbon widths, the acoustoelectric current was observed to decrease on illumination, in contrast to the increase in acoustoelectric current measured in unpatterned graphene sheet devices. This is thought to be due to the higher initial conductivities of the nanoribbons compared to unpatterned devices.

  9. Model of a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons - an Airy function approach and a transfer matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhendi, Endi; Syariati, Rifki; Noor, Fatimah A.; Khairurrijal; Kurniasih, Neny

    2014-01-01

    We modeled a tunneling current in a p-n junction based on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) by using an Airy function approach (AFA) and a transfer matrix method (TMM). We used β-type AGNRs, in which its band gap energy and electron effective mass depends on its width as given by the extended Huckel theory. It was shown that the tunneling currents evaluated by employing the AFA are the same as those obtained under the TMM. Moreover, the calculated tunneling current was proportional to the voltage bias and inversely with temperature

  10. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  11. Seed-mediated growth of patterned graphene nanoribbon arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Way, Austin James; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2017-09-12

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays, and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a seed-mediated, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of a semiconductor substrate and the orientation of the seed particles on the substrate are used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals preferentially along a single [110] direction of the substrate.

  12. Plasmon resonance in multilayer graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh Kumar; Wang, Di; Chung, Ting Fung

    2015-01-01

    Plasmon resonances in nanopatterned single-layer graphene nanoribbons (SL-GNRs), double-layer graphene nanoribbons (DL-GNRs) and triple-layer graphene nanoribbons (TL-GNRs) are studied experimentally using 'realistic' graphene samples. The existence of electrically tunable plasmons in stacked...... multilayer graphene nanoribbons was first experimentally verified by infrared microscopy. We find that the strength of the plasmonic resonance increases in DL-GNRs when compared to SL-GNRs. However, further increase was not observed in TL-GNRs when compared to DL-GNRs. We carried out systematic full......-wave simulations using a finite-element technique to validate and fit experimental results, and extract the carrier-scattering rate as a fitting parameter. The numerical simulations show remarkable agreement with experiments for an unpatterned SLG sheet, and a qualitative agreement for a patterned graphene sheet...

  13. Fano Factor in Strained Graphene Nanoribbon Nanodevices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walid Soliman; Mina D.Asham; Adel H.Phillips

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the Fano factor in a strained armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbon nanodevice under the effect of ac field in a wide range of frequencies at different temperatures (10 K T0 K).This nanodevice is modeled as follows:a graphene nanoribbon is connected to two metallic leads.These two metallic leads operate as a source and a drain.The conducting substance is the gate electrode in this three-terminal nanodevice.Another metallic gate is used to govern the electrostatics and the switching of the graphene nanoribbon channel The substances at the graphene nanoribbon/metal contact are controlled by the back gate.The photon-assisted tunneling probability is deduced by solving the Dirac eigenvalue differential equation in which the Fano factor is expressed in terms of this tunneling probability.The results show that for the investigated nanodevice,the Fano factor decreases as the frequency of the induced ac field increases,while it increases as the temperature increases.In general,the Fano factors for both strained armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons are different.This is due to the effect of the uniaxial strain.It is shown that the band structure parameters of graphene nanoribbons at the energy gap,the C-C bond length,the hopping integral,the Fermi energy and the width are modulated by uniaxial strain.This research gives us a promise of the present nanodevice being used for digital nanoelectronics and sensors.

  14. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  15. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  16. Lithium Mediated Benzene Adsorption on Graphene and Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Krepel, Dana; Hod, Oded

    2013-01-01

    The anchoring of benzene molecules on lithium adsorption sites at the surface of graphene and nanoribbons thereof are investigated. The effects of adsorbate densities, specific adsorption locations, and spin states on the structural stability and electronic properties of the underlying graphene derivatives are revealed. At sufficiently high densities, bare lithium adsorption turns armchair graphene nanoribbons metallic and their zigzag counterparts half-metallic due to charge transfer from th...

  17. Oriented bottom-up growth of armchair graphene nanoribbons on germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael Scott; Jacobberger, Robert Michael

    2016-03-15

    Graphene nanoribbon arrays, methods of growing graphene nanoribbon arrays and electronic and photonic devices incorporating the graphene nanoribbon arrays are provided. The graphene nanoribbons in the arrays are formed using a scalable, bottom-up, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in which the (001) facet of the germanium is used to orient the graphene nanoribbon crystals along the [110] directions of the germanium.

  18. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Debaprasad

    2014-01-01

    "The book, Caron Nanotube and Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects, authored by Drs. Debapraad Das and Hafizur Rahaman serves as a good source of material on CNT and GNR interconnects for readers who wish to get into this area and also for practicing engineers who would like to be updated in advances of this field."-Prof. Ashok Srivastava, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA"Mathematical analysis included in each and every chapter is the main strength of the materials. ... The book is very precise and useful for those who are working in this area. ... highly focused, very compact, and easy to apply. ... This book depicts a detailed analysis and modelling of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon interconnects. The book also covers the electrical circuit modelling of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons."-Prof. Chandan Kumar Sarkar, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.

  19. Resonant longitudinal Zitterbewegung in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    The Zitterbewegung of a wave packet in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated. The coupling between edge states and bulk states results in intriguing properties. Apart from the oscillation in position perpendicular to the direction of motion, we also observe an oscillation along the direction of propagation which is not present in semiconductor nanowires or infinite graphene sheets. We also observe a resonance of its amplitude with respect to the central momentum of the wave packet. We show here that this longitudinal Zitterbewegung is caused by the interplay between bulk and edge states, which is a unique property of a zigzag nanoribbon.

  20. Resonant longitudinal Zitterbewegung in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, S.

    2015-01-08

    The Zitterbewegung of a wave packet in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is theoretically investigated. The coupling between edge states and bulk states results in intriguing properties. Apart from the oscillation in position perpendicular to the direction of motion, we also observe an oscillation along the direction of propagation which is not present in semiconductor nanowires or infinite graphene sheets. We also observe a resonance of its amplitude with respect to the central momentum of the wave packet. We show here that this longitudinal Zitterbewegung is caused by the interplay between bulk and edge states, which is a unique property of a zigzag nanoribbon.

  1. Spin transport in oxygen adsorbed graphene nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin

    2018-04-01

    The spin transport properties of pristine graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been most widely studied using theoretical and experimental tools. The possibilities of oxidation of fabricated graphene based nano electronic devices may change the device characteristics, which motivates to further explore the properties of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs). Therefore, we present a systematic computational study on the spin polarized transport in surface oxidized GNR in antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin configuration using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. It is found that the conductance in oxidized GNRs is significantly suppressed in the valance band and the conduction band. A further reduction in the conductance profile is seen in presence of two oxygen atoms on the ribbon plane. This change in the conductance may be attributed to change in the surface topology of the ribbon basal plane due to presence of the oxygen adatoms, where the charge transfer take place between the ribbon basal plane and the oxygen atoms.

  2. Selective scattering in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakabayashi, Jun; Kurihara, Susumu

    2009-01-01

    Electric transport of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon through a step-like potential or a potential barrier is studied by using the recursive Green's function method. The results for a step-like potential show that scattering processes in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon obey a following selection rule: when the number of zigzag chains N is even, electrons in the band m are only scattered into the bands m+2n, where n is an integer. According to this selection rule, a step-like potential blocks the current when the potential height exceeds the incident energy as long as only the low-energy region is treated. Then, replacing a step-like potential with a potential barrier, we also show that it can play the role of a b and-selective filter .

  3. Quantum conductance of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Zhe; Nelson, Christopher; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of zigzag graphene oxide nanoribbons (ZGOR) are presented. The results show interesting behaviors which are considerably different from the properties of the perfect graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The theoretical methods include a Huckel-tight binding approach, a Green's function methodology, and the Landauer formalism. The presence of oxygen on the edge results in band bending, a noticeable change in density of states and thus the conductance. Consequently, the occupation in the valence bands increase for the next neighboring carbon atom in the unit cell. Conductance drops in both the conduction and valence band regions are due to the reduction of allowed k modes resulting from band bending. The asymmetry of the energy band structure of the ZGOR is due to the energy differences of the atoms. The inclusion of a foreign atom's orbital energies changes the dispersion relation of the eigenvalues in energy space. These novel characteristics are important and valuable in the study of quantum transport of GNRs

  4. Tunable pulse-shaping with gated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prokopeva, Ludmila; Emani, Naresh K.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    We propose a pulse-shaper made of gated graphene nanoribbons. Simulations demonstrate tunable control over the shapes of transmitted and reflected pulses using the gating bias. Initial fabrication and characterization of graphene elements is also discussed.......We propose a pulse-shaper made of gated graphene nanoribbons. Simulations demonstrate tunable control over the shapes of transmitted and reflected pulses using the gating bias. Initial fabrication and characterization of graphene elements is also discussed....

  5. Study of magnetic properties of graphene nanostructures and graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Fazileh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of graphene and its remarkable electronic and magnetic properties has initiated great research interest in this material. Furthermore, there are many derivatives in these graphene related materials among which graphene nanoribbons and graphene nanofragments are candidates for future carbon-based nanoelectronics and spintronics. Theoretical studies have shown that magnetism can arise in various situations such as point defects, disorder and reduced dimensionality. Using a mean field Hubbard model, we studied the appearance of magnetic textures in zero-dimensional graphene nanofragments and one-dimensional graphene zigzag nanoribbons. Among nanofragments, triangular shape, bowtie and coronene were studied. We explain how the shape of these materials, the imbalance in the number of atoms belonging to the graphene sublattices, the existence of zero-energy states and the total and local magnetic moments were related. At the end, we focused on the effects of a model disorder potential (Anderson-type, and illustrate how density of states of zigzag nanoribbons was affected.

  6. Graphene nanoribbon as an elastic damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evazzade, Iman; Lobzenko, Ivan P.; Saadatmand, Danial; Korznikova, Elena A.; Zhou, Kun; Liu, Bo; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2018-05-01

    Heterostructures composed of dissimilar two-dimensional nanomaterials can have nontrivial physical and mechanical properties which are potentially useful in many applications. Interestingly, in some cases, it is possible to create heterostructures composed of weakly and strongly stretched domains with the same chemical composition, as has been demonstrated for some polymer chains, DNA, and intermetallic nanowires supporting this effect of two-phase stretching. These materials, at relatively strong tension forces, split into domains with smaller and larger tensile strains. Within this region, average strain increases at constant tensile force due to the growth of the domain with the larger strain, at the expense of the domain with smaller strain. Here, the two-phase stretching phenomenon is described for graphene nanoribbons with the help of molecular dynamics simulations. This unprecedented feature of graphene that is revealed in our study is related to the peculiarities of nucleation and the motion of the domain walls separating the domains of different elastic strain. It turns out that the loading–unloading curves exhibit a hysteresis-like behavior due to the energy dissipation during the domain wall nucleation and motion. Here, we put forward the idea of implementing graphene nanoribbons as elastic dampers, efficiently converting mechanical strain energy into heat during cyclic loading–unloading through elastic extension where domains with larger and smaller strains coexist. Furthermore, in the regime of two-phase stretching, graphene nanoribbon is a heterostructure for which the fraction of domains with larger and smaller strain, and consequently its physical and mechanical properties, can be tuned in a controllable manner by applying elastic strain and/or heat.

  7. Plasmon resonance in single- and double-layer CVD graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Di; Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting Fung

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015.......Dynamic tunability of the plasmonic resonance in graphene nanoribbons is desirable in the near-infrared. We demonstrated a constant blue shift of plasmonic resonances in double-layer graphene nanoribbons with respect to single-layer graphene nanoribbons. © OSA 2015....

  8. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun; Lin, Xiao; Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02 eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  9. Analytical modeling of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FET for high-speed switching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meisam; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Abadi, Hediyeh Karimi Feiz; Saeidmanesh, Mehdi; Akbari, Elnaz; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-30

    Recent development of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (FETs) will be governed by transistor electrostatics and quantum effects that impose scaling limits like those of Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The current-voltage characteristic of a Schottky-barrier FET has been studied as a function of physical parameters such as effective mass, graphene nanoribbon length, gate insulator thickness, and electrical parameters such as Schottky barrier height and applied bias voltage. In this paper, the scaling behaviors of a Schottky-barrier FET using trilayer graphene nanoribbon are studied and analytically modeled. A novel analytical method is also presented for describing a switch in a Schottky-contact double-gate trilayer graphene nanoribbon FET. In the proposed model, different stacking arrangements of trilayer graphene nanoribbon are assumed as metal and semiconductor contacts to form a Schottky transistor. Based on this assumption, an analytical model and numerical solution of the junction current-voltage are presented in which the applied bias voltage and channel length dependence characteristics are highlighted. The model is then compared with other types of transistors. The developed model can assist in comprehending experiments involving graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FETs. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure exhibits negligible short-channel effects, an improved on-current, realistic threshold voltage, and opposite subthreshold slope and meets the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors near-term guidelines. Finally, the results showed that there is a fast transient between on-off states. In other words, the suggested model can be used as a high-speed switch where the value of subthreshold slope is small and thus leads to less power consumption.

  10. Anomalous friction of graphene nanoribbons on waved graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction plays a critical role in the function and maintenance of small-scale structures, where the conventional Coulomb friction law often fails. To probe the friction at small scales, here we present a molecular dynamics study on the process of dragging graphene nanoribbons on waved graphene substrates. The simulation shows that the induced friction on graphene with zero waviness is ultra-low and closely related to the surface energy barrier. On waved graphenes, the friction generally increases with the amplitude of the wave at a fixed period, but anomalously increases and then decreases with the period at a fixed amplitude. These findings provide insights into the ultra-low friction at small scales, as well as some guidelines into the fabrication of graphene-based nano-composites with high performance.

  11. Atomic and electronic structures of divacancy in graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: zenghui@yangtzeu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei Jianwei [School of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)

    2012-01-15

    First principles calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic structures and transport properties of defective graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) in the presence of pentagon-octagon-pentagon (5-8-5) defects. Electronic band structure results reveal that 5-8-5 defects in the defective zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is unfavorable for electronic transport. However, such defects in the defective armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) give rise to smaller band gap than that in the pristine AGNR, and eventually results in semiconductor to metal-like transition. The distinct roles of 5-8-5 defects in two kinds of edged-GNR are attributed to the different coupling between {pi}{sup Low-Asterisk} and {pi} subbands influenced by the defects. Our findings indicate the possibility of a new route to improve the electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons via tailoring the atomic structures by ion irradiation.

  12. Mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tensile strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Kazufumi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-03-01

    Based on the density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation, we investigated the mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons in terms of their edge shape under a uniaxial tensile strain. The nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag edges retain their structure under a large tensile strain, while the nanoribbons with chiral edges are fragile against the tensile strain compared with those with armchair and zigzag edges. The fracture started at the cove region, which corresponds to the border between the zigzag and armchair edges for the nanoribbons with chiral edges. For the nanoribbons with armchair edges, the fracture started at one of the cove regions at the edges. In contrast, the fracture started at the inner region of the nanoribbons with zigzag edges. The bond elongation under the tensile strain depends on the mutual arrangement of covalent bonds with respect to the strain direction.

  13. Comparison on thermal transport properties of graphene and phosphorene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    We investigate ballistic thermal transport at low temperatures in graphene and phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRS) modulated with a double-cavity quantum structure. A comparative analysis for thermal transport in these two kinds of nanomaterials is made. The results show that the thermal conductance in PNRS is greater than that in graphene nanoribbons (GNRS). The ratio kG/kP (kG is the thermal conductivity in GNRS and kP is the thermal conductivity in PNRS) decreases with lower temperature or for narrower nanoribbons, and increases with higher temperature or for wider nanoribbons. The greater thermal conductance and thermal conductivity in PNRS originate from the lower cutoff frequencies of the acoustic modes. PMID:26577958

  14. Electronic states of graphene nanoribbons and analytical solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi Sasaki, Takeshi Nakanishi and Toshiaki Enoki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene is a one-atom-thick layer of graphite, where low-energy electronic states are described by the massless Dirac fermion. The orientation of the graphene edge determines the energy spectrum of π-electrons. For example, zigzag edges possess localized edge states with energies close to the Fermi level. In this review, we investigate nanoscale effects on the physical properties of graphene nanoribbons and clarify the role of edge boundaries. We also provide analytical solutions for electronic dispersion and the corresponding wavefunction in graphene nanoribbons with their detailed derivation using wave mechanics based on the tight-binding model. The energy band structures of armchair nanoribbons can be obtained by making the transverse wavenumber discrete, in accordance with the edge boundary condition, as in the case of carbon nanotubes. However, zigzag nanoribbons are not analogous to carbon nanotubes, because in zigzag nanoribbons the transverse wavenumber depends not only on the ribbon width but also on the longitudinal wavenumber. The quantization rule of electronic conductance as well as the magnetic instability of edge states due to the electron–electron interaction are briefly discussed.

  15. Tunable resonances due to vacancies in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamon, D. A.; Pereira, A. L. C.; Schulz, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    The coherent electron transport along zigzag and metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons in the presence of one or two vacancies is investigated. Having in mind atomic scale tunability of the conductance fingerprints, the primary focus is on the effect of the distance to the edges and intervacancies spacing. An involved interplay of vacancies sublattice location and nanoribbon edge termination, together with the spacing parameters lead to a wide conductance resonance line-shape modification. Turning on a magnetic field introduces a new length scale that unveils counterintuitive aspects of the interplay between purely geometric aspects of the system and the underlying atomic scale nature of graphene.

  16. Graphene nanoribbons epitaxy on boron nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuopei; Wu, Shuang; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Jing; Meng, Jianling; Xie, Guibai; Wang, Duoming; Wang, Guole; Zhang, Ting Ting; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Wei [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, ENS-CNRS UMR 8551, Universités Pierre et Marie Curie and Paris-Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Guangyu, E-mail: gyzhang@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-14

    In this letter, we report a pilot study on epitaxy of monolayer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We found that GNRs grow preferentially from the atomic steps of h-BN, forming in-plane heterostructures. GNRs with well-defined widths ranging from ∼15 nm to ∼150 nm can be obtained reliably. As-grown GNRs on h-BN have high quality with a carrier mobility of ∼20 000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for ∼100-nm-wide GNRs at a temperature of 1.7 K. Besides, a moiré pattern induced quasi-one-dimensional superlattice with a periodicity of ∼15 nm for GNR/h-BN was also observed, indicating zero crystallographic twisting angle between GNRs and h-BN substrate. The superlattice induced band structure modification is confirmed by our transport results. These epitaxial GNRs/h-BN with clean surfaces/interfaces and tailored widths provide an ideal platform for high-performance GNR devices.

  17. RKKY interaction in spin polarized armchair graphene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, Hamed, E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com; Azizi, Farshad

    2016-11-01

    We present the Ruderman–Kittle–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) interaction in the presence of magnetic long range ordered armchair graphene nanoribbon. RKKY interaction as a function of distance between localized moments has been analyzed. It has been shown that a magnetic ordering along the z-axis mediates an anisotropic interaction which corresponds to a XXZ model interaction between two magnetic moments. In order to calculate the exchange interaction along arbitrary direction between two magnetic moments, we should obtain the static spin susceptibilities of armchair graphene nanoribbon. The spin susceptibility components are calculated using Green's function approach for tight binding model Hamiltonian. The effects of spin polarization on the dependence of exchange interaction on distance between moments are investigated via calculating correlation function of spin density operators. Our results show that the chemical potential impacts the spatial behavior of RKKY interaction. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of RKKY interaction of armchair graphene nanoribbon. • The investigation of the effect of spin polarization on RKKY interaction. • The investigation of electronic concentration on RKKY interaction of armchair graphene nanoribbon.

  18. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 81; Issue 2. Quantum capacitance of the ... Abstract. The quantum capacitance, an important parameter in the design of nanoscale devices, is derived for armchair-edge single-layer graphene nanoribbon with semiconducting property. The quantum capacitance ...

  19. Controlled synthesis of graphene nanoribbons for field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Huang, Lihai [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Zhang, Yupeng, E-mail: ypzhang018@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Xue, Yunzhou, E-mail: yunzhou.xue@monash.edu [Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Erpan [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Wang, Hongbo [College of Automation, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China); Kong, Zhe; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo [College of Materials and Environmental Engineering, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou, 310018 (China)

    2015-11-15

    In this work, a template CVD method to produce graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) was developed with Cu nanoribbons as catalyst. Appropriate temperature, growth time and cooling rate were investigated and displayed the great importance for obtaining GNRs. The morphology, thickness and crystalline quality of the GNRs were characterized by the SEM, AFM, TEM (HRTEM and TEM diffraction), and Raman spectroscopy respectively, which indicated the GNRs had much narrower width, less layer numbers, smooth edges and higher crystalline compared to previous ones. Moreover, the electrical properties of the GNRs were measured and the mobilities reach 80–300 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. This research provides a new type of GNRs experimentally, which is of great importance for the graphene applications. - Graphical abstract: Graphene nanoribbons obtained via CVD method show high quality, small width and smooth edges and were used to fabricated FETs with extracted mobilities of 80–300 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. Highlights: • Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) were obtained via a template CVD method. • The GNRs have narrower width, less layer numbers and smooth edges. • The mobilities of the GNRs reach 80–300 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  20. Zigzag graphene nanoribbon edge reconstruction with Stone-Wales defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, J. N. B.; Gonçalves, P. A. D; Rodrigues, N. F. G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with Stone-Wales defects, by means of an empirical (first-neighbor) tight-binding method, with parameters determined by ab initio calculations of very narrow ribbons. We explore the characteristics of the electronic band...

  1. Tuning the deposition of molecular graphene nanoribbons by surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnerth, R.; Cervetti, C.; Narita, A.; Feng, X.; Müllen, K.; Hoyer, A.; Burghard, M.; Kern, K.; Dressel, M.; Bogani, L.

    2015-07-01

    We show that individual, isolated graphene nanoribbons, created with a molecular synthetic approach, can be assembled on functionalised wafer surfaces treated with silanes. The use of surface groups with different hydrophobicities allows tuning the density of the ribbons and assessing the products of the polymerisation process.

  2. Plasmons in spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Bahrami, Mousa

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by innovative progresses in designing multi-layer graphene nanostructured materials in the laboratory, we theoretically investigate the Dirac plasmon modes of a spatially separated double-layer graphene nanoribbon system, made up of a vertically offset armchair and metallic graphene nanoribbon pair. We find striking features of the collective excitations in this novel Coulomb correlated system, where both nanoribbons are supposed to be either intrinsic (undoped/ungated) or extrinsic (doped/gated). In the former, it is shown the low-energy acoustical and the high-energy optical plasmon modes are tunable only by the inter-ribbon charge separation. In the later, the aforementioned plasmon branches are modified by the added doping factor. As a result, our model could be useful to examine the existence of a linear Landau-undamped low-energy acoustical plasmon mode tuned via the inter-ribbon charge separation as well as doping. This study might also be utilized for devising novel quantum optical waveguides based on the Coulomb coupled graphene nanoribbons

  3. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples fro...

  4. Electron transport in edge-disordered graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saloriutta, Karri; Hancock, Y.; Karkkainen, Asta

    2011-01-01

    Ab initio methods are used to study the spin-resolved transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) that have both chemical and structural edge disorder. Oxygen edge adsorbates on ideal and protruded ribbons are chosen as representative examples, with the protrusions forming the smallest...

  5. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from...

  6. Quantum Dots Embedded in Graphene Nanoribbons by Chemical Substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonell-Sanroma, Eduard; Brandimarte, Pedro; Balog, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-up chemical reactions of selected molecular precursors on a gold surface can produce high quality graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Here, we report on the formation of quantum dots embedded in an armchair GNR by substitutional inclusion of pairs of boron atoms into the GNR backbone. The boron...

  7. Evolution of graphene nanoribbons under low-voltage electron irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Wenpeng; Wang, Hongtao; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Though the all-semiconducting nature of ultrathin graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has been demonstrated in field-effect transistors operated at room temperature with ∼105 on-off current ratios, the borderline for the potential of GNRs

  8. Hierarchical On-Surface Synthesis of Deterministic Graphene Nanoribbon Heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, Christopher; Durr, Rebecca A.; Rizzo, Daniel J.; Lee, Yea-Lee; Marangoni, Tomas; Kalayjian, Alin Miksi; Rodriguez, Henry; Zhao, William; Louie, Steven G.; Fischer, Felix R.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Bottom-up graphene nanoribbon (GNR) heterojunctions are nanoscale strips of graphene whose electronic structure abruptly changes across a covalently bonded interface. Their rational design offers opportunities for profound technological advancements enabled by their extraordinary structural and electronic properties. Thus far the most critical aspect of their synthesis, the control over sequence and position of heterojunctions along the length of a ribbon, has been plagued by randomness in mo...

  9. Strain-tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Baoyue; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Miao; Ma, Tianxing

    2017-09-13

    Using the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo method, we elucidate the strain tuning of edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Our intensive numerical results show that a relatively weak Coulomb interaction may induce a ferromagnetic-like behaviour with a proper strain, and the edge magnetism can be enhanced greatly as the strain along the zigzag edge increases, which provides another way to control graphene magnetism even at room temperature.

  10. Theory of Magnetic Edge States in Chiral Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaz, Rodrigo; Yazyev, Oleg; Louie, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Using a model Hamiltonian approach including electron Coulomb interactions, we systematically investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of chiral graphene nanoribbons. We show that the presence of magnetic edge states is an intrinsic feature of any smooth graphene nanoribbons with chiral edges, and discover a number of structure-property relations. Specifically, we describe how the edge-state energy gap, zone-boundary edge-state energy splitting, and magnetic moment per edge length depend on the nanoribbon width and chiral angle. The role of environmental screening effects is also studied. Our results address a recent experimental observation of signatures of magnetic ordering at smooth edges of chiral graphene nanoribbons and provide an avenue towards tuning their properties via the structural and environmental degrees of freedom. This work was supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. DMR10-1006184, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the ONR MURI program. RBC acknowledges financial support from Brazilian agencies CNPq, FAPERJ and INCT-Nanomateriais de Carbono.

  11. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga + beam etching process

  12. Controllable spin-charge transport in strained graphene nanoribbon devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Ginetom S., E-mail: ginetom@gmail.com; Guassi, Marcos R. [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Qu, Fanyao [Institute of Physics, University of Brasília, 70919-970, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-21

    We theoretically investigate the spin-charge transport in two-terminal device of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of a uniform uniaxial strain, spin-orbit coupling, exchange field, and smooth staggered potential. We show that the direction of applied strain can efficiently tune strain-strength induced oscillation of band-gap of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). It is also found that electronic conductance in both AGNR and zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) oscillates with Rashba spin-orbit coupling akin to the Datta-Das field effect transistor. Two distinct strain response regimes of electronic conductance as function of spin-orbit couplings magnitude are found. In the regime of small strain, conductance of ZGNR presents stronger strain dependence along the longitudinal direction of strain. Whereas for high values of strain shows larger effect for the transversal direction. Furthermore, the local density of states shows that depending on the smoothness of the staggered potential, the edge states of AGNR can either emerge or be suppressed. These emerging states can be determined experimentally by either spatially scanning tunneling microscope or by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Our findings open up new paradigms of manipulation and control of strained graphene based nanostructure for application on novel topological quantum devices.

  13. Influence of edge roughness on graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Gengchiau; Khalid, Sharjeel Bin; Lam, Kai-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The edge roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons on their application in resonant tunnelling diodes with different geometrical shapes (S, H and W) were investigated. Sixty samples for each 5%, 10% and 15% edge roughness conditions of these differently shaped graphene nanoribbon resonant tunnelling diodes were randomly generated and studied. Firstly, it was observed that edge roughness in the barrier regions decreases the effective barrier height and thickness, which increases the broadening of the quantized states in the quantum well due to the enhanced penetration of the wave-function tail from the electrodes. Secondly, edge roughness increases the effective width of the quantum well and causes the lowering of the quantized states. Furthermore, the shape effects on carrier transport are modified by edge roughness due to different interfacial scattering. Finally, with the effects mentioned above, edge roughness has a considerable impact on the device performance in terms of varying the peak-current positions and degrading the peak-to-valley current ratio.

  14. Graphene nanoribbon superlattices fabricated via He ion lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanjo, Braulio S.; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Gustavo Cançado, Luiz; Winston, Donald; Miao, Feng; Alberto Achete, Carlos; Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto

    2014-01-01

    Single-step nano-lithography was performed on graphene sheets using a helium ion microscope. Parallel “defect” lines of ∼1 μm length and ≈5 nm width were written to form nanoribbon gratings down to 20 nm pitch. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallographic orientation of the nanoribbons was partially maintained at their lateral edges, indicating a high-fidelity lithography process. Furthermore, Raman analysis of large exposure areas with different ion doses reveals that He ions produce point defects with radii ∼ 2× smaller than do Ga ions, demonstrating that scanning-He + -beam lithography can texture graphene with less damage

  15. Graphene nanoribbon superlattices fabricated via He ion lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archanjo, Braulio S., E-mail: bsarchanjo@inmetro.gov.br [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Fragneaud, Benjamin [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); Gustavo Cançado, Luiz [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Winston, Donald [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Miao, Feng [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, National Center of Microstructures and Quantum Manipulation, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Alberto Achete, Carlos [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ 25250-020 (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Medeiros-Ribeiro, Gilberto [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-05-12

    Single-step nano-lithography was performed on graphene sheets using a helium ion microscope. Parallel “defect” lines of ∼1 μm length and ≈5 nm width were written to form nanoribbon gratings down to 20 nm pitch. Polarized Raman spectroscopy shows that crystallographic orientation of the nanoribbons was partially maintained at their lateral edges, indicating a high-fidelity lithography process. Furthermore, Raman analysis of large exposure areas with different ion doses reveals that He ions produce point defects with radii ∼ 2× smaller than do Ga ions, demonstrating that scanning-He{sup +}-beam lithography can texture graphene with less damage.

  16. Theory of Electro-Optical Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Gundra, Kondayya; Shukla, Alok

    2010-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical absorption and electro-absorption spectra of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) using a $\\pi-$electron approach, incorporating long-range Coulomb interactions within the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) model Hamiltonian. The approach is carefully bench marked by computing quantities such as the band structure, electric-field driven half metallicity, and linear optical absorption spectra of GNRs of various types, and the results are in good agreement with those obtaine...

  17. Stability of edge states and edge magnetism in graphene nanoribbons

    OpenAIRE

    Kunstmann, Jens; Özdoğan, Cem; Quandt, Alexander; Fehske, Holger

    2010-01-01

    We critically discuss the stability of edge states and edge magnetism in zigzag edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs). We point out that magnetic edge states might not exist in real systems, and show that there are at least three very natural mechanisms - edge reconstruction, edge passivation, and edge closure - which dramatically reduce the effect of edge states in ZGNRs or even totally eliminate them. Even if systems with magnetic edge states could be made, the intrinsic magnetism would not be ...

  18. The complex band structure for armchair graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liu-Jun; Xia Tong-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Using a tight binding transfer matrix method, we calculate the complex band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbons. The real part of the complex band structure calculated by the transfer matrix method fits well with the bulk band structure calculated by a Hermitian matrix. The complex band structure gives extra information on carrier's decay behaviour. The imaginary loop connects the conduction and valence band, and can profoundly affect the characteristics of nanoscale electronic device made with graphene nanoribbons. In this work, the complex band structure calculation includes not only the first nearest neighbour interaction, but also the effects of edge bond relaxation and the third nearest neighbour interaction. The band gap is classified into three classes. Due to the edge bond relaxation and the third nearest neighbour interaction term, it opens a band gap for N = 3M − 1. The band gap is almost unchanged for N = 3M + 1, but decreased for N = 3M. The maximum imaginary wave vector length provides additional information about the electrical characteristics of graphene nanoribbons, and is also classified into three classes

  19. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoribbons: Potentials for Nanoscale Electrical Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swastik Kar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or deposited at a desired location. In this Review, we will focus our attention on carbon-based nanostructures (in particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons which could play an important role in the technological quest to replace copper/low-k for interconnect applications. We will provide the reader with a number of possible architectures, including single-wall as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes, arranged in horizontal and vertical arrays, regarded as individual objects as well as bundles. Modification of their functional properties in order to fulfill interconnect applications requirements are also presented. Then, in the second part of the Review, recently discovered graphene and in particular graphene and few-graphene layers nanoribbons are introduced. Different architectures involving nanostructured carbon are presented and discussed in light of interconnect application in terms of length, chirality, edge configuration and more.

  20. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bjerregaard Christensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces.

  1. Large negative differential resistance in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P.; Chen, C. H.; Hsu, S. A.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2018-05-01

    A graphene nanoribbon superlattice with a large negative differential resistance (NDR) is proposed. Our results show that the peak-to-valley ratio (PVR) of the graphene superlattices can reach 21 at room temperature with bias voltages between 90-220 mV, which is quite large compared with the one of traditional graphene-based devices. It is found that the NDR is strongly influenced by the thicknesses of the potential barrier. Therefore, the NDR effect can be optimized by designing a proper barrier thickness. The large NDR effect can be attributed to the splitting of the gap in transmission spectrum (segment of Wannier-Stark ladder) with larger thicknesses of barrier when the applied voltage increases.

  2. Strain-activated edge reconstruction of graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-02-17

    The edge structure and width of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are crucial factors for the electronic properties. A combination of experiment and first-principles calculations allows us to determine the mechanism of the hexagon-hexagon to pentagon-heptagon transformation. GNRs thinner than 2 nm have been fabricated by bombardment of graphene with high-energetic Au clusters. The edges of the GNRs are modified in situ by electron irradiation. Tensile strain along the edge decreases the transformation energy barrier. Antiferromagnetism and a direct band gap are found for a zigzag GNR, while a fully reconstructed GNR shows an indirect band gap. A GNR reconstructed on only one edge exhibits ferromagnetism. We propose that strain is an effective method to tune the edge and, therefore, the electronic structure of thin GNRs for graphene-based electronics.

  3. Strain-activated edge reconstruction of graphene nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Han, Yu; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Wang, H. T.; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhu, Y. H.; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The edge structure and width of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are crucial factors for the electronic properties. A combination of experiment and first-principles calculations allows us to determine the mechanism of the hexagon-hexagon to pentagon-heptagon transformation. GNRs thinner than 2 nm have been fabricated by bombardment of graphene with high-energetic Au clusters. The edges of the GNRs are modified in situ by electron irradiation. Tensile strain along the edge decreases the transformation energy barrier. Antiferromagnetism and a direct band gap are found for a zigzag GNR, while a fully reconstructed GNR shows an indirect band gap. A GNR reconstructed on only one edge exhibits ferromagnetism. We propose that strain is an effective method to tune the edge and, therefore, the electronic structure of thin GNRs for graphene-based electronics.

  4. Confined States and Tunnelling in Gated Graphene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminot, E.,; Meza-Montes, L.

    Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs) are promising candidates for the development of quantum information processors. We propose a scheme to determine electronic states of GQDs as defined by voltage gates applied to armchair graphene nanoribbons. Using transfer matrix method based on the set of solutions proposed by Burkard et al ., we study confined states of double wells and the transmission of electrons through double barrier systems. Comparison with previous results for systems on the graphene sheet shows good agreement. Confined states of a double well turn out to be very sensitive to deformation of the potential profile, showing strong localization of the electron for asymmetric systems, which also depends on the considered state. Spikes of high transmission appeared for periodic values of the incident angle of the electron travelling through a double barrier and disappear as the systems approaches to a single barrier as one barrier vanishes. We remark effects not shown in usual semiconductor heterostructures. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP, Mexico,.

  5. Electronic transport for armchair graphene nanoribbons with a potential barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Benliang; Zhou Benhu; Liao Wenhu; Zhou Guanghui

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the electronic transport properties through a rectangular potential barrier embedded in armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) of various widths. Using the Landauer formula and Dirac equation with the continuity conditions for all segments of wave functions at the interfaces between regions inside and outside the barrier, we calculate analytically the conductance and Fano factor for the both metallic and semiconducting AGNRs, respectively. It is shown that, by some numerical examples, at Dirac point the both types of AGNRs own a minimum conductance associated with the maximum Fano factor. The results are discussed and compared with the previous relevant works.

  6. Graphene nanoribbons synthesized from molecular precursor polymerization on Au(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimi, Lorenzo; Ourdjini, Oualid; Della Pia, Ada; Mariani, Carlo; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I - 00185 Roma (Italy); Cavaliere, Emanuele; Gavioli, Luca [i-LAMP & Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Cattolica, 25121 Brescia (Italy)

    2015-06-23

    A spectroscopic study of 10,10-dibromo-9,9 bianthracene (DBBA) molecules deposited on the Au(110) surface is presented, by means of ultraviolet and X-ray photoemission, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through a thermally activated procedure, these molecular precursors polymerize and eventually form graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomically controlled shape and width, very important building blocks for several technological applications. The GNRs observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) appear as short segments on top of the gold surface reconstruction, pointing out the delicate balance among surface diffusion and surface corrugation in their synthesis on the Au(110) surface.

  7. Magnetotransport Properties of Graphene Nanoribbons with Zigzag Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Liu, Bing; Shen, Cheng; Li, Si; Huang, Xiaochun; Lu, Xiaobo; Chen, Peng; Wang, Guole; Wang, Duoming; Liao, Mengzhou; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Shuopei; Yang, Wei; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yao, Yugui; Wang, Weihua; Zhang, Guangyu

    2018-05-01

    The determination of the electronic structure by edge geometry is unique to graphene. In theory, an evanescent nonchiral edge state is predicted at the zigzag edges of graphene. Up to now, the approach used to study zigzag-edged graphene has mostly been limited to scanning tunneling microscopy. The transport properties have not been revealed. Recent advances in hydrogen plasma-assisted "top-down" fabrication of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons (Z-GNRs) have allowed us to investigate edge-related transport properties. In this Letter, we report the magnetotransport properties of Z-GNRs down to ˜70 nm wide on an h -BN substrate. In the quantum Hall effect regime, a prominent conductance peak is observed at Landau ν =0 , which is absent in GNRs with nonzigzag edges. The conductance peak persists under perpendicular magnetic fields and low temperatures. At a zero magnetic field, a nonlocal voltage signal, evidenced by edge conduction, is detected. These prominent transport features are closely related to the observable density of states at the hydrogen-etched zigzag edge of graphene probed by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, which qualitatively matches the theoretically predicted electronic structure for zigzag-edged graphene. Our study gives important insights for the design of new edge-related electronic devices.

  8. Edge-riched graphene nanoribbon for high capacity electrode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, Yunjie; Zhang, Yupeng; Gong, Youning; Cao, Bing; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Chunxu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •The graphene nanoribbon has been successfully synthesized by longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes with oxidants KMnO 4 . •Compared with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbon shows the largest capacitance up to ∼202F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. •The importance of the location of functional groups and the importance of the edge structure. •The pseudo-capacitance material should have high electron transfer and rapid ion diffusion. -- Abstract: Carbon materials have attracted great attention for their diversified applications in supercapacitors, and different structures of carbon have been reported to exhibit dissimilar electrochemical properties. In the past, activated carbons, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers and graphene have been shown to have excellent electrochemical performances, but it still remains a problem on how to improve the capacitance of carbon-based materials effectively from the viewpoint of their giant commercial potential. Noticing that connecting chemical groups to carbon can provide large pseudo-capacitance, we hereby demonstrated that the position of the chemical groups also plays an important role in the pseudo-capacitance. In our work, we synthesized graphene nanoribbon (GNR), graphene oxide (GO) and functional MWCNTs and showed that GNR has larger capacitance (calculated to be 202 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s) and energy density compared to CNTs and GO when using as electrode materials. Furthermore, the supercapacitor device based on as-synthesized GNR exhibits excellent cycle stability and rate capability which evident is potential in high performance supercapacitor. Revealing the source of the capacitance, we found that though GNR has less oxygen-containing groups, it has larger pseudo-capacitance than GO and CNTs due to the remarkable edge-riched structure with high activity in electrochemical reactions. This finding highlights the importance of edge structure in carbon-based pseudo

  9. A Robust Highly Aligned DNA Nanowire Array-Enabled Lithography for Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lin, Zhiqun; Kwon, Se Hun; Hong, Suck Won

    2015-12-09

    Because of its excellent charge carrier mobility at the Dirac point, graphene possesses exceptional properties for high-performance devices. Of particular interest is the potential use of graphene nanoribbons or graphene nanomesh for field-effect transistors. Herein, highly aligned DNA nanowire arrays were crafted by flow-assisted self-assembly of a drop of DNA aqueous solution on a flat polymer substrate. Subsequently, they were exploited as "ink" and transfer-printed on chemical vapor deposited (CVD)-grown graphene substrate. The oriented DNA nanowires served as the lithographic resist for selective removal of graphene, forming highly aligned graphene nanoribbons. Intriguingly, these graphene nanoribbons can be readily produced over a large area (i.e., millimeter scale) with a high degree of feature-size controllability and a low level of defects, rendering the fabrication of flexible two terminal devices and field-effect transistors.

  10. Energetics of edge oxidization of graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuma, Airi; Yamanaka, Ayaka; Okada, Susumu

    2018-06-01

    On the basis of the density functional theory, we studied the geometries and energetics of O atoms adsorbed on graphene edges for simulating the initial stage of the edge oxidization of graphene. Our calculations showed that oxygen atoms are preferentially adsorbed onto the graphene edges with the zigzag portion, resulting in a large adsorption energy of about 5 eV. On the other hand, the edges with armchair shape are rarely oxidized, or the oxidization causes substantial structural reconstructions, because of the stable covalent bond at the armchair edge with the triple bond nature. Furthermore, the energetics sensitively depends on the edge angles owing to the inhomogeneity of the charge density at the edge atomic sites.

  11. Atomistic simulation and continuum modeling of graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Qiang; Gao, Wei; Huang, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Atomistic simulations are performed to study the nonlinear mechanical behavior of graphene nanoribbons under quasistatic uniaxial tension, emphasizing the effects of edge structures (armchair and zigzag, without and with hydrogen passivation) on elastic modulus and fracture strength. The numerical results are analyzed within a theoretical model of thermodynamics, which enables determination of the bulk strain energy density, the edge energy density and the hydrogen adsorption energy density as nonlinear functions of the applied strain based on static molecular mechanics simulations. These functions can be used to describe mechanical behavior of graphene nanoribbons from the initial linear elasticity to fracture. It is found that the initial Young's modulus of a graphene nanoribbon depends on the ribbon width and the edge chirality. Furthermore, it is found that the nominal strain to fracture is considerably lower for graphene nanoribbons with armchair edges than for ribbons with zigzag edges. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal two distinct fracture nucleation mechanisms: homogeneous nucleation for the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons and edge-controlled heterogeneous nucleation for the armchair-edged ribbons. The modeling and simulations in this study highlight the atomistic mechanisms for the nonlinear mechanical behavior of graphene nanoribbons with the edge effects, which is potentially important for developing integrated graphene-based devices

  12. All-zigzag graphene nanoribbons for planar interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-An; Chiang, Meng-Hsueh; Hsu, Wei-Chou

    2017-07-01

    A feasible "lightning-shaped" zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) structure for planar interconnects is proposed. Based on the density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function, the electron transport properties are evaluated. The lightning-shaped structure increases significantly the conductance of the graphene interconnect with an odd number of zigzag chains. This proposed technique can effectively utilize the linear I-V characteristic of asymmetric ZGNRs for interconnect application. Variability study accounting for width/length variation and the edge effect is also included. The transmission spectra, transmission eigenstates, and transmission pathways are analyzed to gain the physical insights. This lightning-shaped ZGNR enables all 2D material-based devices and circuits on flexible and transparent substrates.

  13. Tuning of graphene nanoribbon Landau levels by a nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T S; Chang, S C; Lin, M F

    2009-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the effects of a nanotube on the graphene nanoribbon Landau level spectrum utilizing the tight-binding model. The addition of a nanotube changes the original dispersionless Landau subbands into distorted parabolic ones, creates additional band-edge states, and modifies the subband spacings. Moreover, the dispersion relations rely sensitively on the nanotube location. The nanotube-ribbon couplings disrupt the Landau wavefunctions and lift their spatial symmetry, which will change the selection rule of optical transitions. The numbers, frequencies and heights of the density of states (DOS) peaks are found to be strongly dependent on the magnetic flux density and the nanotube location. The evolution of the DOS peak with the magnetic flux density is explored. The graphene nanoribbon Landau levels are shown to be modified in an unexpected fashion by the nanotube-ribbon interactions. These predictions can be validated by measuring the spectra of scanning tunneling experiments or magneto-optical experiments, and they are most observable by placing the nanotube at the electron wavefunction localization sites.

  14. Modeling of the photodetector based on the multilayer graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haiyue; Niu, Yanxiong; Yin, Yiheng; Liu, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbon (GNR), which has unique properties and advantages, is a crucial component of nanoelectornic devices, especially in the development of photoelectric detectors. In this work, an infrared photodetector based on the structure of stacked multiple-GNRs, which is separated by a little thick barrier layers (made of tungsten disulfide or related materials) to prevent tunneling current, is proposed and modeled. Operation of photoelectric detector is related to the electron cascaded radiative transition in the adjacent GNRs strengthened by the electrons heated due to the incident light. With a developed model, the working principle is analyzed and the relationships for the photocurrent and dark current as functions of the intensity of the incident radiation are derived. The spectral dependence of the responsivity and detectivity for graphene nanoribbons photodetector (GNRs-PT) with different Fermi energy, band gaps and numbers of GNRs layers are analyzed as well. The results demonstrate that the spectral characteristics depend on the GNRs band gap, which shows a potential on GNRs-PT application in the multi-wavelength systems. In addition, GNRs-PT has a better spectrum property and higher responsivity compared to photodetectors based on In_xGa_xAs in room temperature.

  15. Modeling of the photodetector based on the multilayer graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haiyue [Department of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Niu, Yanxiong, E-mail: niuyx@buaa.edu.cn [Department of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Precision Opto-mechatronics Technology Key Laboratory of Education Ministry, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Yin, Yiheng [Department of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China); Liu, Shuai [Department of Instrumentation Science and Opto-electronics Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing, 100191 (China); Precision Opto-mechatronics Technology Key Laboratory of Education Ministry, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Graphene nanoribbon (GNR), which has unique properties and advantages, is a crucial component of nanoelectornic devices, especially in the development of photoelectric detectors. In this work, an infrared photodetector based on the structure of stacked multiple-GNRs, which is separated by a little thick barrier layers (made of tungsten disulfide or related materials) to prevent tunneling current, is proposed and modeled. Operation of photoelectric detector is related to the electron cascaded radiative transition in the adjacent GNRs strengthened by the electrons heated due to the incident light. With a developed model, the working principle is analyzed and the relationships for the photocurrent and dark current as functions of the intensity of the incident radiation are derived. The spectral dependence of the responsivity and detectivity for graphene nanoribbons photodetector (GNRs-PT) with different Fermi energy, band gaps and numbers of GNRs layers are analyzed as well. The results demonstrate that the spectral characteristics depend on the GNRs band gap, which shows a potential on GNRs-PT application in the multi-wavelength systems. In addition, GNRs-PT has a better spectrum property and higher responsivity compared to photodetectors based on In{sub x}Ga{sub x}As in room temperature.

  16. Strain dependence of the heat transport properties of graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmeline Yeo, Pei Shan; Loh, Kian Ping; Gan, Chee Kwan

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of accurate density-functional theory and a nonequilibrium Green’s function method, we calculate the ballistic thermal conductance characteristics of tensile-strained armchair (AGNR) and zigzag (ZGNR) edge graphene nanoribbons, with widths between 3 and 50 Å. The optimized lateral lattice constants for AGNRs of different widths display a three-family behavior when the ribbons are grouped according to N modulo 3, where N represents the number of carbon atoms across the width of the ribbon. Two lowest-frequency out-of-plane acoustic modes play a decisive role in increasing the thermal conductance of AGNR-N at low temperatures. At high temperatures the effect of tensile strain is to reduce the thermal conductance of AGNR-N and ZGNR-N. These results could be explained by the changes in force constants in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions with the application of strain. This fundamental atomistic understanding of the heat transport in graphene nanoribbons paves a way to effect changes in their thermal properties via strain at various temperatures. (paper)

  17. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of pristine and oxygen-adsorbed graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miwa, R.H.; Veiga, R.G.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, CEP 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil); Srivastava, G.P., E-mail: gps@excc.ex.ac.uk [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of pristine and oxygen-adsorbed (3,0) zigzag and (6,1) armchair graphene nanoribbons have been investigated theoretically, by employing the ab initio pseudopotential method within the density functional scheme. The zigzag nanoribbon is more stable with antiferromagnetically coupled edges, and is semiconducting. The armchair nanoribbon does not show any preference for magnetic ordering and is semiconducting. The oxygen molecule in its triplet state is adsorbed most stably at the edge of the zigzag nanoribbon. The Stoner metallic behaviour of the ferromagnetic nanoribbons and the Slater insulating (ground state) behaviour of the antiferromagnetic nanoribbons remain intact upon oxygen adsorption. However, the local magnetic moment of the edge carbon atom of the ferromagnetic zigzag ribbon is drastically reduced, due to the formation of a spin-paired C-O bond.

  18. Electronic structure and transport properties of hydrogenated graphene and graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, D H; Bang, Junhyeok; Chang, K J, E-mail: kchang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The band gap opening is one of the important issues in applications of graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) to nanoscale electronic devices. As hydrogen strongly interacts with graphene and creates short-range disorder, the electronic structure is significantly modified by hydrogenation. Based on first-principles and tight-binding calculations, we investigate the electronic and transport properties of hydrogenated graphene and GNRs. In disordered graphene with low doses of H adsorbates, the low-energy states near the neutrality point are localized, and the degree of localization extends to high-energy states with increasing adsorbate density. To characterize the localization of eigenstates, we examine the inverse participation ratio and find that the localization is greatly enhanced for the defect levels, which are accumulated around the neutrality point. Our calculations support the previous result that even with a low dose of H adsorbates, graphene undergoes a metal-insulator transition. In GNRs, relaxations of the edge C atoms play a role in determining the edge structure and the hydrocarbon conformation at low and high H concentrations, respectively. In disordered nanoribbons, we find that the energy states near the neutrality point are localized and conductances through low-energy channels decay exponentially with sample size, similar to disordered graphene. For a given channel energy, the localization length tends to decrease as the adsorbate density increases. Moreover, the energy range of localization exceeds the intrinsic band gap.

  19. Self-Organized Graphene Nanoribbons on SiC(0001) Studied with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, David; Zhang, Baiqian; Hoang, Tien; First, Phillip

    2012-02-01

    Graphene nanoribbons grown directly on nanofacets of SiC(0001) offer an attractive union of top-down and bottom-up fabrication techniques. Nanoribbons have been shown to form on the facets of templated silicon carbide substrates,ootnotetextSprinkle et al., Nat. Nanotech. 5, 727 (2010). but also appear spontaneously along step-bunches on vicinal SiC(0001) miscut slightly towards . These self-organized graphene nanoribbons were characterized with low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) in ultra-high vacuum. Our measurements indicate that the graphene forms a continuous ``buffer layer'' across the SiC(0001) terraces during nanoribbon formation, with the zigzag edge of the buffer layer aligned parallel to the step-bunched nanofacets. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) was used to characterize the topography and electrical characteristics of the graphene nanoribbons. These measurements indicate that the graphene nanoribbons are highly-crystalline with predominantly zigzag edges.

  20. Modelling of Graphene Nanoribbon Fermi Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari, Z.; Ahmadi, M.T.; Chek, D.C.Y.; Amin, N.A.; Ismail, R.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nano ribbon (GNR) is a promising alternative to carbon nano tube (CNT) to overcome the chirality challenge as a nano scale device channel. Due to the one-dimensional behavior of plane GNR, the carrier statistic study is attractive. Research works have been done on carrier statistic study of GNR especially in the parabolic part of the band structure using Boltzmann approximation (nondegenerate regime). Based on the quantum confinement effect, we have improved the fundamental study in degenerate regime for both the parabolic and non parabolic parts of GNR band energy. Our results demonstrate that the band energy of GNR near to the minimum band energy is parabolic. In this part of the band structure, the Fermi-Dirac integrals are sufficient for the carrier concentration study. The Fermi energy showed the temperature-dependent behavior similar to any other one-dimensional device in nondegenerate regime. However in the degenerate regime, the normalized Fermi energy with respect to the band edge is a function of carrier concentration. The numerical solution of Fermi-Dirac integrals for non parabolic region, which is away from the minimum energy band structure of GNR, is also presented.

  1. Band-selective filter in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Kurihara, Susumu

    2009-02-13

    Electric transport of a zigzag graphene nanoribbon through a steplike potential and a barrier potential is investigated by using the recursive Green's function method. In the case of the steplike potential, we demonstrate numerically that scattering processes obey a selection rule for the band indices when the number of zigzag chains is even; the electrons belonging to the "even" ("odd") bands are scattered only into the even (odd) bands so that the parity of the wave functions is preserved. In the case of the barrier potential, by tuning the barrier height to be an appropriate value, we show that it can work as the "band-selective filter", which transmits electrons selectively with respect to the indices of the bands to which the incident electrons belong. Finally, we suggest that this selection rule can be observed in the conductance by applying two barrier potentials.

  2. Electronic transport for armchair graphene nanoribbons with a potential barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hu, Zhou; Ben-Liang, Zhou; Guang-Hui, Zhou; Zi-Gang, Duan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the electronic transport property through a square potential barrier in armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon (AGNR). Using the Dirac equation with the continuity condition for wave functions at the interfaces between regions with and without a barrier, we calculate the mode-dependent transmission probability for both semiconducting and metallic AGNRs, respectively. It is shown that, by some numerical examples, the transmission probability is generally an oscillating function of the height and range of the barrier for both types of AGNRs. The main difference between the two types of systems is that the magnitude of oscillation for the semiconducting AGNR is larger than that for the metallic one. This fact implies that the electronic transport property for AGNRs depends sensitively on their widths and edge details due to the Dirac nature of fermions in the system

  3. Collective modes of massive Dirac fermions in armchair graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, David R; Raza, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    We report the plasmon dispersion characteristics of intrinsic and extrinsic armchair graphene nanoribbons of atomic width N = 5 using a p z -orbital tight binding model with third-nearest-neighbor (3nn) coupling. The hopping parameters are obtained by fitting the 3nn dispersions to those of an extended Hückel theory. The resultant massive Dirac fermion system has a band gap E g ≈ 64 meV. The extrinsic plasmon dispersion relation is found to asymptotically approach a universal dispersion curve as the chemical potential μ increases, whereas the intrinsic plasmon dispersion relation is found to have both energy and momentum thresholds. We also report an analytical model for the extrinsic plasmon group velocity in the q → 0 limit.

  4. Relaxation of electron–hole spins in strained graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of magnetic field originating from the electromechanical effect on the spin-flip behaviors caused by electromagnetic field radiation in the strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We show that the spin splitting energy difference (≈10 meV) due to pseudospin is much larger than the spin-orbit coupling effect (Balakrishnan et al 2013 Nat. Phys. 9 284) that might provide an evidence of broken symmetry of degeneracy. The induced spin splitting energy due to ripple waves can be further enhanced with increasing values of applied tensile edge stress for potential applications in straintronic devices. In particular, we show that the enhancement in the magnitude of the ripple waves due to externally applied tensile edge stress extends the tuning of spin-flip behaviors to larger widths of GNRs. (paper)

  5. Spin-dependent transport through interacting graphene armchair nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, Sonja; Mayrhofer, Leonhard; Grifoni, Milena

    2010-01-01

    We investigate spin effects in transport across fully interacting, finite-size graphene armchair nanoribbons (ACNs) contacted to collinearly spin-polarized leads. In such systems, the presence of short-range Coulomb interaction between bulk states and states localized at the ribbon ends leads to novel spin-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the total spin of the low-energy many-body states is conserved during tunneling but that of the bulk and end states is not. As a consequence, in the single-electron regime, dominated by Coulomb blockade phenomena, we find pronounced negative differential conductance features for ACNs contacted to parallel polarized leads. These features are, however, absent in an anti-parallel contact configuration, which in turn leads, within a certain gate and bias voltage region, to a negative tunneling magneto-resistance. Moreover, we analyze the changes in the transport characteristics under the influence of an external magnetic field.

  6. Morphology of a graphene nanoribbon encapsulated in a carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Furuhashi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphologies of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs are investigated using molecular-dynamics (MD simulation. The GNRs are assumed to be hydrogen-terminated and formed by connecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perylene or coronene molecules. The combined structures consisting of a GNR and an encapsulating SWNT are equilibrated at room temperature. It is shown that if the diameter of a SWNT is larger than the sum of the width of the GNR and twice the length of a C-H bond, a twisted GNR is obtained, whereas if the diameter of a SWNT is smaller than the sum of the two, the cross section of the SWNT cannot maintain its original circular shape and elliptically distorts, and a non-twisted GNR or a twisted GNR of long pitch is obtained. The estimated pitch of a regularly-twisted GNR agrees with the experimentally observed one in order of magnitude.

  7. Transforming graphene nanoribbons into nanotubes by use of point defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgouros, A; Sigalas, M M; Papagelis, K; Kalosakas, G

    2014-03-26

    Using molecular dynamics simulations with semi-empirical potentials, we demonstrate a method to fabricate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), by periodically inserting appropriate structural defects into the GNR crystal structure. We have found that various defect types initiate the bending of GNRs and eventually lead to the formation of CNTs. All kinds of carbon nanotubes (armchair, zigzag, chiral) can be produced with this method. The structural characteristics of the resulting CNTs, and the dependence on the different type and distribution of the defects, were examined. The smallest (largest) CNT obtained had a diameter of ∼ 5 Å (∼ 39 Å). Proper manipulation of ribbon edges controls the chirality of the CNTs formed. Finally, the effect of randomly distributed defects on the ability of GNRs to transform into CNTs is considered.

  8. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. High quality sub-10 nm graphene nanoribbons by on-chip PS-b-PDMS block copolymer lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Caridad, Jose; Schulte, Lars

    2015-01-01

    block and the graphene under PS. Raman analysis supports the formation of graphene nanoribbons with an average distance between defects corresponding to the oxidized PDMS pitch, with no sign of defects generated in the ribbon channel. This suggests a high degree of protection of the nanoribbons...... by the hard oxidized PDMS mask formed in situ during oxygen plasma etching....

  10. Densely Aligned Graphene Nanoribbon Arrays and Bandgap Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Justin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Chen, Changxin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gong, Ming [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kenney, Michael [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    Graphene has attracted great interest for future electronics due to its high mobility and high thermal conductivity. However, a two-dimensional graphene sheet behaves like a metal, lacking a bandgap needed for the key devices components such as field effect transistors (FETs) in digital electronics. It has been shown that, partly due to quantum confinement, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with ~2 nm width can open up sufficient bandgaps and evolve into semiconductors to exhibit high on/off ratios useful for FETs. However, a challenging problem has been that, such ultra-narrow GNRs (~2 nm) are difficult to fabricate, especially for GNRs with smooth edges throughout the ribbon length. Despite high on/off ratios, these GNRs show very low mobility and low on-state conductance due to dominant scattering effects by imperfections and disorders at the edges. Wider GNRs (>5 nm) show higher mobility, higher conductance but smaller bandgaps and low on/off ratios undesirable for FET applications. It is highly desirable to open up bandgaps in graphene or increase the bandgaps in wide GNRs to afford graphene based semiconductors for high performance (high on-state current and high on/off ratio) electronics. Large scale ordering and dense packing of such GNRs in parallel are also needed for device integration but have also been challenging thus far. It has been shown theoretically that uniaxial strains can be applied to a GNR to engineer its bandgap. The underlying physics is that under uniaxial strain, the Dirac point moves due to stretched C-C bonds, leading to an increase in the bandgap of armchair GNRs by up to 50% of its original bandgap (i.e. bandgap at zero strain). For zigzag GNRs, due to the existence of the edge states, changes of bandgap are smaller under uniaxial strain and can be increased by ~30%. This work proposes a novel approach to the fabrication of densely aligned graphene nanoribbons with highly smooth edges afforded by anisotropic etching and uniaxial strain for

  11. Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hugen; Low, Tony; Guinea, Francisco; Xia, Fengnian; Avouris, Phaedon

    2014-08-13

    In the phenomenon of plasmon-induced transparency, which is a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic gases, the coherent interference between two plasmon modes results in an optical transparency window in a broad absorption spectrum. With the requirement of contrasting lifetimes, typically one of the plasmon modes involved is a dark mode that has limited coupling to the electromagnetic radiation and possesses relatively longer lifetime. Plasmon-induced transparency not only leads to light transmission at otherwise opaque frequency regions but also results in the slowing of light group velocity and enhanced optical nonlinearity. In this article, we report an analogous behavior, denoted as phonon-induced transparency (PIT), in AB-stacked bilayer graphene nanoribbons. Here, light absorption due to the plasmon excitation is suppressed in a narrow window due to the coupling with the infrared active Γ-point optical phonon, whose function here is similar to that of the dark plasmon mode in the plasmon-induced transparency. We further show that PIT in bilayer graphene is actively tunable by electrostatic gating and estimate a maximum slow light factor of around 500 at the phonon frequency of 1580 cm(-1), based on the measured spectra. Our demonstration opens an avenue for the exploration of few-photon nonlinear optics and slow light in this novel two-dimensional material.

  12. Giant rectification in graphene nanoflake molecular devices with asymmetric graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xiao-Li; Xie, Zhen; Zuo, Xi; Zhang, Guang-Ping; Li, Zong-Liang; Wang, Chuan-Kui

    2016-01-01

    By applying density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function method, we theoretically investigate the electron transport properties of a zigzag-edged trigonal graphene nanoflake (ZTGNF) sandwiched between two asymmetric zigzag graphene nanoribbon (zGNR) and armchair graphene nanoribbon (aGNR) electrodes with carbon atomic chains (CACs) as the anchoring groups. Significant rectifying effects have been observed for these molecular devices in low bias voltage regions. Interestingly, the rectifying performance of molecular devices can be optimized by changing the width of the aGNR electrode and the number of anchoring CACs. Especially, the molecular device displays giant rectification ratios up to the order of 10"4 when two CACs are used as the anchoring group between the ZTGNF and the right aGNR electrode. Further analysis indicates that the asymmetric shift of the perturbed molecular energy levels and the spatial parity of the electron wavefunctions in the electrodes around the Fermi level play key roles in determining the rectification performance. And the spatial distributions of tunneling electron wavefunctions under negative bias voltages can be modified to be very localized by changing the number of anchoring CACs, which is found to be the origin of the giant rectification ratios. - Highlights: • The rectification properties of triangular Graphene nanoflakes are investigated. • The rectifying performance can be optimized by changing the width of the right arm-chaired GNR electrode. • The rectifying performance can also be tuned by varying the number of anchoring carbon atomic chains.

  13. A bottom-up route to enhance thermoelectric figures of merit in graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevincli, Haldun; Sevik, Cem; Cagin, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hybrid nano-structuring scheme for tailoring thermal and thermoelectric transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Geometrical structuring and isotope cluster engineering are the elements that constitute the proposed scheme. Using first-principles based force constants and Hamilto......We propose a hybrid nano-structuring scheme for tailoring thermal and thermoelectric transport properties of graphene nanoribbons. Geometrical structuring and isotope cluster engineering are the elements that constitute the proposed scheme. Using first-principles based force constants...... and Hamiltonians, we show that the thermal conductance of graphene nanoribbons can be reduced by 98.8% at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, can be as high as 3.25 at T = 800 K. The proposed scheme relies on a recently developed bottom-up fabrication method, which is proven to be feasible...

  14. Effect of triangular vacancy defect on thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangpingdm@ujs.edu.cn [Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing and Reliability for MEMS/NEMS/OEDS, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Xialong; Zhao, Yanfan [Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing and Reliability for MEMS/NEMS/OEDS, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yang, Haiying [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Shuting, E-mail: wangst@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the thermal transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) possessing various sizes of triangular vacancy defect within a temperature range of 200–600 K by using classical molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the thermal conductivities of the graphene nanoribbons decrease with increasing sizes of triangular vacancy defects in both directions across the whole temperature range tested, and the presence of the defect can decrease the thermal conductivity by more than 40% as the number of removed cluster atoms is increased to 25 (1.56% for vacancy concentration) owing to the effect of phonon–defect scattering. In the meantime, we find the thermal conductivity of defective graphene nanoribbons is insensitive to the temperature change at higher vacancy concentrations. Furthermore, the dependence of temperatures and various sizes of triangular vacancy defect for the thermal rectification ration are also detected. This work implies a possible route to achieve thermal rectifier for 2D materials by defect engineering.

  15. First principles design of divacancy defected graphene nanoribbon based rectifying and negative differential resistance device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Wasey, A. H. M. Abdul; Das, G. P., E-mail: msgpd@iacs.res.in, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India); Thapa, Ranjit, E-mail: msgpd@iacs.res.in, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur - 603203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-08-15

    We have studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function based approach, the electronic structures of 555-777 divacancy (DV) defected armchair edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) as well as the transport properties of AGNR based two-terminal devices constructed with one defected electrode and one N doped electrode. Introduction of 555-777 DV defect into AGNR results in shifting of the π and π∗ bands towards the higher energy value indicating a downward shift of the Fermi level. Formation of a potential barrier, analogous to that of conventional p-n junction, has been observed across the junction of defected and N-doped AGNR. The two terminal devices show diode like property with high rectifying efficiency for a wide range of bias voltages. The devices also show robust negative differential resistance with very high peak-to-valley ratio. Shift of the electrode energy states and modification of the transmission function with applied bias have been analyzed, in order to gain an insight into the nonlinear and asymmetric behavior of the current-voltage characteristics. Variation of the transport properties on the width of the ribbons has also been discussed.

  16. First principles design of divacancy defected graphene nanoribbon based rectifying and negative differential resistance device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhik Chakrabarty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We have studied using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green’s function based approach, the electronic structures of 555-777 divacancy (DV defected armchair edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNR as well as the transport properties of AGNR based two-terminal devices constructed with one defected electrode and one N doped electrode. Introduction of 555-777 DV defect into AGNR results in shifting of the π and π∗ bands towards the higher energy value indicating a downward shift of the Fermi level. Formation of a potential barrier, analogous to that of conventional p-n junction, has been observed across the junction of defected and N-doped AGNR. The two terminal devices show diode like property with high rectifying efficiency for a wide range of bias voltages. The devices also show robust negative differential resistance with very high peak-to-valley ratio. Shift of the electrode energy states and modification of the transmission function with applied bias have been analyzed, in order to gain an insight into the nonlinear and asymmetric behavior of the current-voltage characteristics. Variation of the transport properties on the width of the ribbons has also been discussed.

  17. Short-channel field-effect transistors with 9-atom and 13-atom wide graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Juan Pablo; Fairbrother, Andrew; Borin Barin, Gabriela; Shi, Wu; Lee, Kyunghoon; Wu, Shuang; Yong Choi, Byung; Braganza, Rohit; Lear, Jordan; Kau, Nicholas; Choi, Wonwoo; Chen, Chen; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Dumslaff, Tim; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fischer, Felix; Zettl, Alex; Ruffieux, Pascal; Yablonovitch, Eli; Crommie, Michael; Fasel, Roman; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-09-21

    Bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons and graphene nanoribbon heterostructures have promising electronic properties for high-performance field-effect transistors and ultra-low power devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors. However, the short length and wide band gap of these graphene nanoribbons have prevented the fabrication of devices with the desired performance and switching behavior. Here, by fabricating short channel (L ch  ~ 20 nm) devices with a thin, high-κ gate dielectric and a 9-atom wide (0.95 nm) armchair graphene nanoribbon as the channel material, we demonstrate field-effect transistors with high on-current (I on  > 1 μA at V d  = -1 V) and high I on /I off  ~ 10 5 at room temperature. We find that the performance of these devices is limited by tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts and we observe an increase in the transparency of the barrier by increasing the gate field near the contacts. Our results thus demonstrate successful fabrication of high-performance short-channel field-effect transistors with bottom-up synthesized armchair graphene nanoribbons.Graphene nanoribbons show promise for high-performance field-effect transistors, however they often suffer from short lengths and wide band gaps. Here, the authors use a bottom-up synthesis approach to fabricate 9- and 13-atom wide ribbons, enabling short-channel transistors with 10 5 on-off current ratio.

  18. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, TU Wien, Gusshausstrasse 27–29/E360, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  19. Atomistic switch of giant magnetoresistance and spin thermopower in graphene-like nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the giant magnetoresistance can be switched off (on) in even- (odd-) width zigzag graphene-like nanoribbons by an atomistic gate potential or edge disorder inside the domain wall in the antiparallel (ap) magnetic configuration. A strong magneto-thermopower effect is also predicted that the spin thermopower can be greatly enhanced in the ap configuration while the charge thermopower remains low. The results extracted from the tight-binding model agree well with those obtained by first-principles simulations for edge doped graphene nanoribbons. Analytical expressions in the simplest case are obtained to facilitate qualitative analyses in general contexts. PMID:27857156

  20. Rectifying performance in zigzag graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions with different edge hydrogenations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Can; Chen, Ling-Na; Long, Meng-Qiu; Xu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigated the electronic transport behaviors of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) heterojunctions with different edge hydrogenations. The results show that electronic transport properties of ZGNR heterojunctions can be modulated by hydrogenations, and prominent rectification effects can be observed. We propose that the edge dihydrogenation leads to a blocking of electronic transfer, as well as the changes of the distribution of the frontier orbital at negative/positive bias might be responsible for the rectification effects. These results may be helpful for designing practical devices based on graphene nanoribbons.

  1. Effect of room temperature lattice vibration on the electron transport in graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Yang; Li, Bo-Lin; Chen, Shi-Zhang; Jiang, Xiangwei; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2017-09-01

    We observe directly the lattice vibration and its multifold effect on electron transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbons in simulation by utilizing an efficient combined method. The results show that the electron transport fluctuates greatly due to the incessant lattice vibration of the nanoribbons. More interestingly, the lattice vibration behaves like a double-edged sword that it boosts the conductance of symmetric zigzag nanoribbons (containing an even number of zigzag chains along the width direction) while weakens the conductance of asymmetric nanoribbons. As a result, the reported large disparity between the conductances of the two kinds of nanoribbons at 0 K is in fact much smaller at room temperature (300 K). We also find that the spin filter effect that exists in perfect two-dimensional symmetric zigzag graphene nanoribbons is destroyed to some extent by lattice vibrations. Since lattice vibrations or phonons are usually inevitable in experiments, the research is very meaningful for revealing the important role of lattice vibrations play in the electron transport properties of two-dimensional materials and guiding the application of ZGNRs in reality.

  2. Thermal conductivity and thermal rectification in graphene nanoribbons: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiuning; Ruan, Xiulin; Chen, Yong P

    2009-07-01

    We have used molecular dynamics to calculate the thermal conductivity of symmetric and asymmetric graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of several nanometers in size (up to approximately 4 nm wide and approximately 10 nm long). For symmetric nanoribbons, the calculated thermal conductivity (e.g., approximately 2000 W/m-K at 400 K for a 1.5 nm x 5.7 nm zigzag GNR) is on the similar order of magnitude of the experimentally measured value for graphene. We have investigated the effects of edge chirality and found that nanoribbons with zigzag edges have appreciably larger thermal conductivity than nanoribbons with armchair edges. For asymmetric nanoribbons, we have found significant thermal rectification. Among various triangularly shaped GNRs we investigated, the GNR with armchair bottom edge and a vertex angle of 30 degrees gives the maximal thermal rectification. We also studied the effect of defects and found that vacancies and edge roughness in the nanoribbons can significantly decrease the thermal conductivity. However, substantial thermal rectification is observed even in the presence of edge roughness.

  3. Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.

  4. Evolution of graphene nanoribbons under low-voltage electron irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Wenpeng

    2012-01-01

    Though the all-semiconducting nature of ultrathin graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has been demonstrated in field-effect transistors operated at room temperature with ∼105 on-off current ratios, the borderline for the potential of GNRs is still untouched. There remains a great challenge in fabricating even thinner GNRs with precise width, known edge configurations and specified crystallographic orientations. Unparalleled to other methods, low-voltage electron irradiation leads to a continuous reduction in width to a sub-nanometer range until the occurrence of structural instability. The underlying mechanisms have been investigated by the molecular dynamics method herein, combined with in situ aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and density functional theory calculations. The structural evolution reveals that the zigzag edges are dynamically more stable than the chiral ones. Preferential bond breaking induces atomic rings and dangling bonds as the initial defects. The defects grow, combine and reconstruct to complex edge structures. Dynamic recovery is enhanced by thermal activation, especially in cooperation with electron irradiation. Roughness develops under irradiation and reaches a plateau less than 1 nm for all edge configurations after longtime exposure. These features render low-voltage electron irradiation an attractive technique in the fabrication of ultrathin GNRs for exploring the ultimate electronic properties. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Graphene nanoribbons on gold: understanding superlubricity and edge effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, L.; Manini, N.; Benassi, A.; Tosatti, E.; Vanossi, A.; Guerra, R.

    2017-12-01

    We address the atomistic nature of the longitudinal static friction against sliding of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) deposited on gold, a system whose structural and mechanical properties have been recently the subject of intense experimental investigation. By means of numerical simulations and modeling we show that the GNR interior is structurally lubric (‘superlubric’) so that the static friction is dominated by the front/tail regions of the GNR, where the residual uncompensated lateral forces arising from the interaction with the underneath gold surface opposes the free sliding. As a result of this edge pinning the static friction does not grow with the GNR length, but oscillates around a fairly constant mean value. These friction oscillations are explained in terms of the GNR-Au(111) lattice mismatch: at certain GNR lengths close to an integer number of the beat (or moiré) length there is good force compensation and superlubric sliding; whereas close to half odd-integer periods there is significant pinning of the edge with larger friction. These results make qualitative contact with recent state-of-the-art atomic force microscopy experiment, as well as with the sliding of other different incommensurate systems.

  6. Graphene oxide nanoribbons and their applications in supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fathi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the enhanced capacitance of the Multi-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (MWCNTs after a chemical unzipping process in concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4 and potassium permanganate (KMnO4. The effects of the test duration and temperature were investigated on the unzipping process of the MWCNTs to synthesize the graphene oxide nanoribbons. The SEM and TEM studies were carried out on untreated and unzipped MWCNTs samples to investigate the cutting and unzipping of the MWCNTs. The results confirmed that the efficient tube unzipping with improved effective surface area was obtained from the 1h treatment at 60°C, at which most of the tubes were opened without any tube annihilation. The graphite plate deposited with the untreated and unzipped MWCNTs samples was investigated by electrochemical studies. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that the MWCNTs after 1h unzipping at 60°C had better electrochemical behavior than the other samples. Galvanostatic charging/discharging measurements were carried out on the untreated and unzipped MWCNTs samples. A remarkable specific capacitance of 33 Fg-1 was obtained for the unzipped MWCNTs at a current density of 1 Ag-1 in 0.5 M KCl solution compared with 8 Fg-1 for pristine MWCNTs, again confirming the enhanced effective surface area and increased defect density in the tube surfaces after the unzipping process. These results make the unzipped MWCNTs a promising electrode material for all energy storage applications.

  7. Atomically precise graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions from a single molecular precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Omrani, Arash A.; Marangoni, Tomas; Wu, Meng; Rizzo, Daniel J.; Rodgers, Griffin F.; Cloke, Ryan R.; Durr, Rebecca A.; Sakai, Yuki; Liou, Franklin; Aikawa, Andrew S.; Chelikowsky, James R.; Louie, Steven G.; Fischer, Felix R.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2017-11-01

    The rational bottom-up synthesis of atomically defined graphene nanoribbon (GNR) heterojunctions represents an enabling technology for the design of nanoscale electronic devices. Synthetic strategies used thus far have relied on the random copolymerization of two electronically distinct molecular precursors to yield GNR heterojunctions. Here we report the fabrication and electronic characterization of atomically precise GNR heterojunctions prepared through late-stage functionalization of chevron GNRs obtained from a single precursor. Post-growth excitation of fully cyclized GNRs induces cleavage of sacrificial carbonyl groups, resulting in atomically well-defined heterojunctions within a single GNR. The GNR heterojunction structure was characterized using bond-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy, which enables chemical bond imaging at T = 4.5 K. Scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveals that band alignment across the heterojunction interface yields a type II heterojunction, in agreement with first-principles calculations. GNR heterojunction band realignment proceeds over a distance less than 1 nm, leading to extremely large effective fields.

  8. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS, mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells.

  9. Simulation of 50-nm Gate Graphene Nanoribbon Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Nanmeni Bondja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to simulate the steady-state and small-signal behavior of GNR MOSFETs (graphene nanoribbon metal-semiconductor-oxide field-effect transistor is presented. GNR material parameters and a method to account for the density of states of one-dimensional systems like GNRs are implemented in a commercial device simulator. This modified tool is used to calculate the current-voltage characteristics as well the cutoff frequency fT and the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of GNR MOSFETs. Exemplarily, we consider 50-nm gate GNR MOSFETs with N = 7 armchair GNR channels and examine two transistor configurations. The first configuration is a simplified MOSFET structure with a single GNR channel as usually studied by other groups. Furthermore, and for the first time in the literature, we study in detail a transistor structure with multiple parallel GNR channels and interribbon gates. It is shown that the calculated fT of GNR MOSFETs is significantly lower than that of GFETs (FET with gapless large-area graphene channel with comparable gate length due to the mobility degradation in GNRs. On the other hand, GNR MOSFETs show much higher fmax compared to experimental GFETs due the semiconducting nature of the GNR channels and the resulting better saturation of the drain current. Finally, it is shown that the gate control in FETs with multiple parallel GNR channels is improved while the cutoff frequency is degraded compared to single-channel GNR MOSFETs due to parasitic capacitances of the interribbon gates.

  10. Tunable plasmons in regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons with armchair and zigzag-shaped edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vacacela Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental evidence for and the theoretical confirmation of tunable edge plasmons and surface plasmons in graphene nanoribbons have opened up new opportunities to scrutinize the main geometric and conformation factors, which can be used to modulate these collective modes in the infrared-to-terahertz frequency band. Here, we show how the extrinsic plasmon structure of regular planar arrays of graphene nanoribbons, with perfectly symmetric edges, is influenced by the width, chirality and unit-cell length of each ribbon, as well as the in-plane vacuum distance between two contiguous ribbons. Our predictions, based on time-dependent density functional theory, in the random phase approximation, are expected to be of immediate help for measurements of plasmonic features in nanoscale architectures of nanoribbon devices.

  11. On the role of disorder on graphene and graphene nanoribbon-based vertical tunneling transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghobadi, Nayereh; Pourfath, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the characteristics of vertical tunneling field-effect transistors based on graphene (VTGFET) and graphene nanoribbon heterostructure (VTGNRFET) in the presence of disorder are theoretically investigated. An statistical analysis based on an atomistic tight-binding model for the electronic bandstructure along with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism are employed. We study the dependence of the averaged density of states, transmission probability, on- and off-state conductances, on/off conductance ratio, and transfer characteristics on the substrate induced potential fluctuations and vacancies. In addition, the variabilities of the device characteristics due to the presence of disorder are evaluated. It can be inferred from the results that while introducing vacancies cause a relatively modest suppression of the transmission probability, potential fluctuations lead to the significant increase of transmission probability and conductance of the device. Moreover, the results show that the transport properties of VTGFET are more robust against disorder compared to VTGNRFET

  12. First-principles calculations of graphene nanoribbons in gaseous environments: Structural and electronic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanin, Marco; Gath, Jesper; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2010-01-01

    The stability of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of typical atmospheric molecules is systematically investigated by means of density-functional theory. We calculate the edge formation free energy of five different edge configurations passivated by H, H-2, O, O-2, N-2, CO, CO2, and H2O...

  13. Electronic transport in helium-ion-beam etched encapsulated graphene nanoribbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.; Hlawacek, Gregor; Goswami, S.; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Alkemade, P.F.A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the etching of and electronic transport in nanoribbons of graphene sandwiched between atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The etching of ribbons of varying width was achieved with a focused beam of 30 keV He+ ions. Using in-situ electrical measurements, we

  14. From Kondo to local singlet state in graphene nanoribbons with magnetic impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, G. S.; Luiz, G. I.; Latgé, A.; Vernek, E.

    2018-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the Kondo effect of a magnetic impurity in a zigzag graphene nanoribbon is addressed. An adatom is coupled to the graphene nanoribbon via a hybridization amplitude Γimp in a hollow- or top-site configuration. In addition, the adatom is also weakly coupled to a metallic scanning tunnel microscope (STM) tip by a hybridization function Γtip that provides a Kondo screening of its magnetic moment. The entire system is described by an Anderson-like Hamiltonian whose low-temperature physics is accessed by employing the numerical renormalization-group approach, which allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties used to compute the Kondo temperature of the system. We find two screening regimes when the adatom is close to the edge of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon: (1) a weak-coupling regime (Γimp≪Γtip ), in which the edge states produce an enhancement of the Kondo temperature TK, and (2) a strong-coupling regime (Γimp≫Γtip ), in which a local singlet is formed, to the detriment of the Kondo screening by the STM tip. These two regimes can be clearly distinguished by the dependence of their characteristic temperature T* on the coupling between the adatom and the carbon sites of the graphene nanoribbon Vimp. We observe that in the weak-coupling regime T* increases exponentially with Vimp2. Differently, in the strong-coupling regime, T* increases linearly with Vimp2.

  15. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Julián David; Orellana, Pedro Alejandro; Pacheco, Mónica

    2017-03-20

    The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon-fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  16. Template-free synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong-Xing; Jia, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 powders were chosen to prepare Fe 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst. • Fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons were synthesized through the catalytic decomposition of methane at 900 °C. • The formation mechanism of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes was revealed. - Abstract: Fe 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst was prepared by simply calcining the mixture of commercial Fe 2 O 3 and Al 2 O 3 powders at 1000 °C. The obtained Fe 2 O 3 /Al 2 O 3 catalyst shows high efficiency for the synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons through the catalytic decomposition of methane at 900 °C. The yield of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons was 19.5 wt%. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the products. A tip-growth mechanism for the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes was suggested based on the SEM and TEM images of products produced at the initial stage. The break through of the catalyst particle from graphite layers resulted in the crack and then cut open of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes, which further resulted in the formation of the graphene nanoribbons.

  17. Defect- and dopant-controlled carbon nanotubes fabricated by self-assembly of graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Zhang and Shaohua Chen

    2015-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations showed that a basal carbon nanotube can activate and guide the fabrication of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on its internal surface by self-assembly of edge-unpassivated graphene nanoribbons with defects. Furthermore, the distribution of defects on self-assembled CNTs is controllable. The system temperature and defect fraction are two main factors that influence the success of self-assembly. Due to possible joint flaws formed at the boundaries under a relatively high constant temperature, a technique based on increasing the temperature is adopted. Self-assembly is always successful for graphene nanoribbons with relatively small defect fractions, while it will fail in cases with relatively large ones. Similar to the self-assembly of graphene nanoribbons with defects, graphene nanoribbons with different types of dopants can also be self-assembled into carbon nanotubes. The finding provides a possible fabrication technique not only for carbon nanotubes with metallic or semi-con- ductive properties but also for carbon nanotubes with electromagnetic induction characteristics.

  18. Iodine versus Bromine Functionalization for Bottom-Up Graphene Nanoribbon Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronner, Christopher; Marangoni, Tomas; Rizzo, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Deterministic bottom-up approaches for synthesizing atomically well-defined graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) largely rely on the surface-catalyzed activation of selected labile bonds in a molecular precursor followed by step-growth polymerization and cyclodehydrogenation. While the majority of success...

  19. Graphene Nanoribbons @ Vanadium Oxide Nanostrips for Supercapacitive Energy Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Vikrant; Goel, Shubhra; Kumar Tomar, Anuj; Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • ∼15 wt% GNR in VOS@GNRnanocompositeplaysacrucialroleinminimizationtheiR-drop. (*). • VOS@GNR shows high capacitance 335.8 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 . • High cycling stability with ∼98.5% capacitance retention & high workable current density. • V 2 O 5 over GNR, improved conductivity and ionic accessibility leading to low iR-drop. - Abstract: Nanocomposite GNR@VOS composed of V 2 O 5 nanostrips (VOS) embedded over graphene nanoribbons (GNR) is synthesized by facile hydrothermal route and examined as supercapacitor electrode. GNR as support in mere ∼15 wt% plays an important role in patterning the nanocomposite growth as a template. Selective formation of VOS leads to ordered growth and at the same time channelizes the microstructural (shape/size, porosity) as well electrochemical characteristics of the nanocomposite. GNR@VOS so formed is highly accessible electrode matrix in which the underlying GNR acts as conducting support to efficiently minimize the internal resistance (iR-drop) of the electrode. The study suggests that the conductive properties of VOS can be enhanced by integration with GNR displaying increased solid-state conductivity by two orders (bare VOS: 4.2 × 10 −4 S m −1 and GNR@VOS: 1.4 × 10 −2 S m −1 ). These attributes result in high energy density for GNR@VOS as 42.09 Wh kg −1 at power density 475 W kg −1 . The enhanced performance of GNR@VOS supercapacitor cell from low (1 A g −1 ) to high current density (20 A g −1 ) is attributed to the balanced ionic and electronic conduction.

  20. Spin thermopower and thermoconductance in a ferromagnetic graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shuguang

    2012-01-01

    The spin thermoelectric properties of a zigzag edged ferromagnetic (FM) graphene nanoribbon are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method combined with the Landauer-Büttiker formula. By applying a temperature gradient along the ribbon, under closed boundary conditions, there is a spin voltage ΔV s inside the terminal as the response to the temperature difference ΔT between two terminals. Meanwhile, the heat current ΔQ is accompanied from the ‘hot’ terminal to the ‘cold’ terminal. The spin thermopower S = ΔV s /ΔT and thermoconductance κ = ΔQ/ΔT are obtained. When there is no magnetic field, S versus E R curves show peaks and valleys as a result of band selective transmission and Klein tunneling with E R being the on-site energy of the right terminal. The results are in agreement with the semi-classical Mott relation. When |E R | R | > M, the quantized value of κ=π 2 k B 2 T/3 h appears. In the quantum Hall regime, because Klein tunneling is suppressed, S peaks are eliminated and the quantized value of κ is much clearer. We also investigate how the thermoelectric properties are affected by temperature, FM exchange split energy and Anderson disorder. The results indicate that S and κ are sensitive to disorder. S is suppressed for even small disorder strengths. For small disorder strengths, κ is enhanced and for moderate disorder strengths, κ shows quantized values.

  1. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  2. Identification of pristine and defective graphene nanoribbons by phonon signatures in the electron transport characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by recent experiments where electron transport was measured across graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) suspended between a metal surface and the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope [Koch, Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 713 (2012)], we present detailed first-principles simulations of inelastic electron...... tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of long pristine and defective armchair and zigzag nanoribbons under a range of charge carrier conditions. For the armchair ribbons we find two robust IETS signals around 169 and 196 mV corresponding to the D and G modes of Raman spectroscopy as well as additional fingerprints...

  3. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-06-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner.

  4. The electrical and thermal transport properties of hybrid zigzag graphene-BN nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Song; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Guo-Hui; Jia, Yalei; Ke, San-Huang

    2017-01-01

    The electron and phonon transport in hybrid graphene-BN zigzag nanoribbons are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with density functional theory calculations. A 100% spin-polarized electron transport in a large energy window around the Fermi level is found and this behavior is independent of the ribbon width as long as there contain 3 zigzag carbon chains. The phonon transport calculations show that the ratio of C-chain number to BN-chain number will modify the thermal conductance of the hybrid nanoribbon in a complicated manner. (paper)

  5. Negative differential resistance and rectifying performance induced by doped graphene nanoribbons p–n device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Qiu, Nianxiang; Li, Runwei; Guo, Zhansheng; Zhang, Jian; Fang, Junfeng; Huang, Aisheng; He, Jian; Zha, Xianhu; Luo, Kan; Yin, Jingshuo; Li, Qiuwu; Bai, Xiaojing; Huang, Qing; Du, Shiyu

    2016-01-01

    Employing nonequilibrium Green's Functions in combination with density functional theory, the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices with various widths are investigated in this work. In the adopted model, two semi-infinite graphene electrodes are periodically doped with boron or nitrogen atoms. Our calculations reveal that these devices have a striking nonlinear feature and show notable negative differential resistance (NDR). The results also indicate the diode-like properties are reserved and the rectification ratios are high. It is found the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and the positions of dopants and three distinct families are elucidated for the current armchair GNR devices. The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage. These findings suggest that the doped armchair GNR is a promising candidate for the next generation nanoscale device. - Highlights: • The negative differential resistance (NDR) and rectification phenomena have been observed for the B- and N-doping armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices. • The electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and exhibit three distinct families. • The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage.

  6. Negative differential resistance and rectifying performance induced by doped graphene nanoribbons p–n device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Qiu, Nianxiang; Li, Runwei [Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Guo, Zhansheng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhang, Jian; Fang, Junfeng; Huang, Aisheng [Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); He, Jian [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zha, Xianhu; Luo, Kan; Yin, Jingshuo; Li, Qiuwu; Bai, Xiaojing; Huang, Qing [Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Du, Shiyu, E-mail: dushiyu@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Industrial Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2016-03-06

    Employing nonequilibrium Green's Functions in combination with density functional theory, the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices with various widths are investigated in this work. In the adopted model, two semi-infinite graphene electrodes are periodically doped with boron or nitrogen atoms. Our calculations reveal that these devices have a striking nonlinear feature and show notable negative differential resistance (NDR). The results also indicate the diode-like properties are reserved and the rectification ratios are high. It is found the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and the positions of dopants and three distinct families are elucidated for the current armchair GNR devices. The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage. These findings suggest that the doped armchair GNR is a promising candidate for the next generation nanoscale device. - Highlights: • The negative differential resistance (NDR) and rectification phenomena have been observed for the B- and N-doping armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices. • The electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and exhibit three distinct families. • The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage.

  7. From diffusive to ballistic transport in etched graphene constrictions and nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somanchi, Sowmya; Peiro, Julian; Staggenborg, Maximilian; Beschoten, Bernd [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Terres, Bernat; Stampfer, Christoph [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanoribbons and constrictions are envisaged as fundamental components of future carbon-based nanoelectronic and spintronic devices. At nanoscale, electronic effects in these devices depend heavily on the dimensions of the active channel and the nature of edges. Hence, controlling both these parameters is crucial to understand the physics in such systems. This review is about the recent progress in the fabrication of graphene nanoribbons and constrictions in terms of low temperature quantum transport. In particular, recent advancements using encapsulated graphene allowing for quantized conductance and future experiments towards exploring spin effects in these devices are presented. The influence of charge carrier inhomogeneity and the important length scales which play a crucial role for transport in high quality samples are also discussed. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors on wafer-scale epitaxial graphene on SiC substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Sik Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the realization of top-gated graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs of ∼10 nm width on large-area epitaxial graphene exhibiting the opening of a band gap of ∼0.14 eV. Contrary to prior observations of disordered transport and severe edge-roughness effects of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, the experimental results presented here clearly show that the transport mechanism in carefully fabricated GNRFETs is conventional band-transport at room temperature and inter-band tunneling at low temperature. The entire space of temperature, size, and geometry dependent transport properties and electrostatics of the GNRFETs are explained by a conventional thermionic emission and tunneling current model. Our combined experimental and modeling work proves that carefully fabricated narrow GNRs behave as conventional semiconductors and remain potential candidates for electronic switching devices.

  9. Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).

  10. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  11. First-principles investigation of quantum transport in GeP3 nanoribbon-based tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Jian-Wei; Wang, Bin; Nie, Yi-Hang

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) GeP3 has recently been theoretically proposed as a new low-dimensional material [ Nano Lett. 17(3), 1833 (2017)]. In this manuscript, we propose a first-principles calculation to investigate the quantum transport properties of several GeP3 nanoribbon-based atomic tunneling junctions. Numerical results indicate that monolayer GeP3 nanoribbons show semiconducting behavior, whereas trilayer GeP3 nanoribbons express metallic behavior owing to the strong interaction between each of the layers. This behavior is in accordance with that proposed in two-dimensional GeP3 layers. The transmission coefficient T( E) of tunneling junctions is sensitive to the connecting formation between the central monolayer GeP3 nanoribbon and the trilayer GeP3 nanoribbon at both ends. The T( E) value of the bottom-connecting tunneling junction is considerably larger than those of the middle-connecting and top-connecting ones. With increases in gate voltage, the conductances increase for the bottom-connecting and middle-connecting tunneling junctions, but decrease for the top-connecting tunneling junctions. In addition, the conductance decreases exponentially with respect to the length of the central monolayer GeP3 nanoribbon for all the tunneling junctions. I-V curves show approximately linear behavior for the bottom-connecting and middle-connecting structures, but exhibit negative differential resistance for the top-connecting structures. The physics of each phenomenon is analyzed in detail.

  12. Optoelectronic Properties of Van Der Waals Hybrid Structures: Fullerenes on Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián David Correa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for new optical materials capable of absorbing light in the frequency range from visible to near infrared is of great importance for applications in optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we report a theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of hybrid structures composed of fullerenes adsorbed on graphene and on graphene nanoribbons. The calculations are performed in the framework of the density functional theory including the van der Waals dispersive interactions. We found that the adsorption of the C 60 fullerenes on a graphene layer does not modify its low energy states, but it has strong consequences for its optical spectrum, introducing new absorption peaks in the visible energy region. The optical absorption of fullerenes and graphene nanoribbon composites shows a strong dependence on photon polarization and geometrical characteristics of the hybrid systems, covering a broad range of energies. We show that an external electric field across the nanoribbon edges can be used to tune different optical transitions coming from nanoribbon–fullerene hybridized states, which yields a very rich electro-absorption spectrum for longitudinally polarized photons. We have carried out a qualitative analysis on the potential of these hybrids as possible donor-acceptor systems in photovoltaic cells.

  13. Anomalous length dependence of the conductance of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edges

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2013-01-01

    Charge transport through two sets of symmetric graphene nanoribbons with zigzag shaped edges in a two-terminal device has been investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. The conductance has been explored as a function of nanoribbon length, bias voltage, and the strength of terminal coupling. The set of narrower nanoribbons, in the form of thiolated linear acenes, shows an anomalous length dependence of the conductance, which at first exhibits a drop and a minimum, followed by an evident rise. The length trend is shown to arise because of a gradual transformation in the transport mechanism, which changes from being governed by a continuum of out-of-plane π type and in-plane state channels to being fully controlled by a single, increasingly more resonant, occupied π state channel. For the set of nanoribbons with a wider profile, a steady increase is observed across the whole length range, owing to the absence of the former transport mechanism. The predicted trends are confirmed by the inclusion of self-interaction correction in the calculations. For both sets of nanoribbons the replacement of the strongly coupling thiol groups by weakly bonding phenathroline has been found to cause a strong attenuation with the length and a generally low conductance. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Topographic and spectroscopic characterization of electronic edge states in CVD grown graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Minghu; Girão, E Costa; Jia, Xiaoting; Bhaviripudi, Sreekar; Li, Qing; Kong, Jing; Meunier, V; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    We used scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S) techniques to analyze the relationships between the edge shapes and the electronic structures in as-grown chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). A rich variety of single-layered graphene nanoribbons exhibiting a width of several to 100 nm and up to 1 μm long were studied. High-resolution STM images highlight highly crystalline nanoribbon structures with well-defined and clean edges. Theoretical calculations indicate clear spin-split edge states induced by electron-electron Coulomb repulsion. The edge defects can significantly modify these edge states, and different edge structures for both sides of a single ribbon produce asymmetric electronic edge states, which reflect the more realistic features of CVD grown GNRs. Three structural models are proposed and analyzed to explain the observations. By comparing the models with an atomic resolution image at the edge, a pristine (2,1) structure was ruled out in favor of a reconstructed edge structure composed of 5-7 member rings, showing a better match with experimental results, and thereby suggesting the possibility of a defective morphology at the edge of CVD grown nanoribbons. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Clean Nanotube Unzipping by Abrupt Thermal Expansion of Molecular Nitrogen: Graphene Nanoribbons with Atomically Smooth Edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Terrones, M. [Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Endo, M [Shinshu University; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio [IPICyT; Kim, Y A [Shinshu University; Morelos-Bomez, Aaron [Shinshu University; Vega-Diaz, Sofia [Shinshu University

    2012-01-01

    We report a novel physicochemical route to produce highly crystalline nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons. The technique consists of an abrupt N2 gas expansion within the hollow core of nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNx-MWNTs) when exposed to a fast thermal shock. The multiwalled nanotube unzipping mechanism is rationalized using molecular dynamics and density functional theory simulations, which highlight the importance of open-ended nanotubes in promoting the efficient introduction of N2 molecules by capillary action within tubes and surface defects, thus triggering an efficient and atomically smooth unzipping. The so-produced nanoribbons could be few-layered (from graphene bilayer onward) and could exhibit both crystalline zigzag and armchair edges. In contrast to methods developed previously, our technique presents various advantages: (1) the tubes are not heavily oxidized; (2) the method yields sharp atomic edges within the resulting nanoribbons; (3) the technique could be scaled up for the bulk production of crystalline nanoribbons from available MWNT sources; and (4) this route could eventually be used to unzip other types of carbon nanotubes or intercalated layered materials such as BN, MoS2, WS2, etc.

  16. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of chevron-type graphene, BN and BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, T.; Azevedo, S. [Departamento de Física/CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Kaschny, J.R. [Instituto Federal da Bahia-Campus Vitória da Conquista, Caixa Postal 3150, 45075-265 Vitória da Conquista, BA (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Graphene nanoribbons are predicted to be essential components in future nanoelectronics. The size, edge type, arrangement of atoms and width of nanoribbons drastically change their properties. Boronnitrogencarbon nanoribbons properties are not fully understood so far. In the present contribution it was investigated the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of chevron-type carbon, boron nitride and BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons, using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the structural stability is closely related to the discrepancies in the bond lengths, which can induce structural deformations and stress. Such nanoribbons present a wide range of electronic behaviors, depending on their composition and particularities of the atomic arrangement. A net magnetic moment is found for structures that present carbon atoms at the nanoribbon borders. Nevertheless, the calculated magnetic moment depends on the peculiarities of the symmetric arrangement of atoms and imbalance of carbon atoms between different sublattices. It was found that all structures which have a significant energy gap do not present magnetic moment, and vice-versa. Such result indicates the strong correlation between the electronic and magnetic properties of the chevron-type nanoribbons. - Highlights: • Small discrepancies between distinct bond lengths can influence the formation energy of the BC{sub 2}N nanoribbons. • The electronic behavior of the BC{sub 2}N chevron-type nanoribbons depends on the atomic arrangement and structural symmetries. • There is a strong correlation between the electronic and magnetic properties for the BC{sub 2}N structures.

  17. CO2 adsorption on Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons: First principles electronic transport calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Berdiyorov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decoration of graphene with metals and metal-oxides is known to be one of the effective methods to enhance gas sensing and catalytic properties of graphene. We use density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nanoribbons to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on graphene’s surface (aFe-graphene or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene. Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurities. The reduction in the transmission is more pronounced in the case of aFe-graphene. In addition, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. Pristine graphene is also found to be less sensitive to the molecular adsorption. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  18. Towards ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkayil, Shijin Babu

    2015-01-01

    Ever since A. Aspect et al. performed the famous 1982 experiment to prove the violation of Bell's inequality, there have been suggestions to conduct the same experiment in a solid state system. Some of those proposals involve superconductors as the source of entangled electron pair and spin depended interfaces as the optical analogue of polariser/filter. Semiconductors can serve as the best medium for such an experiment due to their long relaxation lengths. So far there are no reports on a ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on a semiconductor even though such junctions has been successfully realised in metallic systems. This thesis reports the successful fabrication of ferromagnet/superconductor junction along with characterising measurements in a perfectly two dimensional zero-gap semiconductor known as graphene. Since it's discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted prodigious interest from both academia and industry due to it's inimitable physical properties: very high mobility, high thermal and electrical conductivity, a high Young's modulus and impermeability. Graphene is also expected to have very long spin relaxation length and high spin life time because of it's low spin orbit coupling. For this reason and since researchers are always looking for novel materials and devices to comply with the high demands for better and faster data storage devices, graphene has emanated as a brand new material system for spin based devices. The very first spin injection and detection in graphene was realised in 2007 and ever since, the focal point of the research has been to improve the spin transport properties. A part of this thesis discusses a new fabrication recipe which has a high yield for successfully contacting graphene with a ferromagnet. A high starting yield for ferromagnetic contacts is a irremissible condition for combining superconducting contacts to the device to fabricate ferromagnet/superconductor junctions. Any fabrication recipe

  19. Towards ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkayil, Shijin Babu

    2015-07-01

    Ever since A. Aspect et al. performed the famous 1982 experiment to prove the violation of Bell's inequality, there have been suggestions to conduct the same experiment in a solid state system. Some of those proposals involve superconductors as the source of entangled electron pair and spin depended interfaces as the optical analogue of polariser/filter. Semiconductors can serve as the best medium for such an experiment due to their long relaxation lengths. So far there are no reports on a ferromagnet/superconductor junctions on a semiconductor even though such junctions has been successfully realised in metallic systems. This thesis reports the successful fabrication of ferromagnet/superconductor junction along with characterising measurements in a perfectly two dimensional zero-gap semiconductor known as graphene. Since it's discovery in 2004, graphene has attracted prodigious interest from both academia and industry due to it's inimitable physical properties: very high mobility, high thermal and electrical conductivity, a high Young's modulus and impermeability. Graphene is also expected to have very long spin relaxation length and high spin life time because of it's low spin orbit coupling. For this reason and since researchers are always looking for novel materials and devices to comply with the high demands for better and faster data storage devices, graphene has emanated as a brand new material system for spin based devices. The very first spin injection and detection in graphene was realised in 2007 and ever since, the focal point of the research has been to improve the spin transport properties. A part of this thesis discusses a new fabrication recipe which has a high yield for successfully contacting graphene with a ferromagnet. A high starting yield for ferromagnetic contacts is a irremissible condition for combining superconducting contacts to the device to fabricate ferromagnet/superconductor junctions. Any fabrication recipe

  20. Spin current pumped by a rotating magnetic field in zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Chan, K S

    2010-01-01

    We study electron spin resonance in zigzag graphene nanoribbons by applying a rotating magnetic field on the system without any bias. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, the spin-resolved pumped current is explicitly derived in a rotating reference frame. The pumped spin current density increases with the system size and the intensity of the transverse rotating magnetic field. For graphene nanoribbons with an even number of zigzag chains, there is a nonzero pumped charge current in addition to the pumped spin current owing to the broken spatial inversion symmetry of the system, but its magnitude is much smaller than the spin current. The short-ranged static disorder from either impurities or defects in the ribbon can depress the spin current greatly due to the localization effect, whereas the long-ranged disorder from charge impurities can avoid inter-valley scattering so that the spin current can survive in the strong disorder for the single-energy mode.

  1. Magnetization and spin-polarized conductance of asymmetrically hydrogenated graphene nanoribbons: significance of sigma bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Syuta; Inuzuka, Kouhei; Inoshita, Takeshi; Ota, Norio; Sano, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The magnetization and spin transport of asymmetric zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons, terminated by hydrogen on one edge while unterminated on the other edge, were investigated by a combination of first-principles calculations and a tight-binding approach. At the unterminated edge, a spin-polarized σ edge state of minority spin appears near the Fermi level and contributes to spin transport. This state enters the band gap for ribbon widths of less than 15 chains, dominating the spin-polarized current. This indicates the importance of the σ edge states in the design of spintronic devices using graphene nanoribbons. We also examined the case where the ‘unterminated’ edge is partially terminated by hydrogen. (paper)

  2. Electronic states of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincak, R., E-mail: pincak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Smotlacha, J., E-mail: smota@centrum.cz [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Osipov, V.A., E-mail: osipov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    The energy spectrum and electronic density of states (DOS) of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edges reconstructed with topological defects are investigated within the tight-binding method. In case of the Stone–Wales zz(57) edge the low-energy spectrum is markedly changed in comparison to the pristine zz edge. We found that the electronic DOS at the Fermi level is different from zero at any width of graphene nanoribbons. In contrast, for ribbons with heptagons only at one side and pentagons at another one the energy gap at the Fermi level is open and the DOS is equal to zero. The reason is the influence of uncompensated topological charges on the localized edge states, which are topological in nature. This behavior is similar to that found for the structured external electric potentials along the edges.

  3. Effect of disorder with long-range correlation on transport in graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Gao, M; Shangguan, M H; Zhang, Y Y; Liu, N; Qin, Z J

    2012-01-01

    Transport in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGR) with long-range correlation between quantum wire contacts is investigated by a transfer matrix combined with Landauer’s formula. The metal-insulator transition is induced by disorder in neutral AGR. Therein, the conductance is one conductance quantum for the metallic phase and exponentially decays otherwise, when the length of AGR approaches infinity and far longer than its width. Similar to the case of long-range disorder, the conductance of neutral AGR first increases and then decreases while the conductance of doped AGR monotonically decreases, as the disorder strength increases. In the presence of strong disorder, the conductivity depends monotonically and non-monotonically on the aspect ratio for heavily doped and slightly doped AGR, respectively. For edge disordered graphene nanoribbon, the conductance increases with the disorder strength of long-range correlated disordered while no delocalization exists, since the edge disorder induces localization. (paper)

  4. Effects of edge magnetism on the Kohn anomalies of zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culchac, F J; Capaz, Rodrigo B

    2016-01-01

    The effects of edge magnetism on the Kohn anomaly (KA) of the G-band phonons of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are studied using a combination of the tight-binding and mean-field Hubbard models. We show that the opening of an energy gap, induced by magnetic ordering, significantly changes the KA effects, particularly for narrow ribbons in which the gap is larger than the phonon energy. Therefore, the G-band phonon frequency and lifetime are altered for a magnetically-ordered edge state with respect to an unpolarized edge state. The effects of temperature, ZGNR width, doping and transverse electric fields are systematically investigated. We propose using this effect to probe the magnetic order of edge states in graphene nanoribbons using Raman spectroscopy. (paper)

  5. Theoretical investigation of performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Deok-Kee

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the highest possible expected performance for graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs) for a wide range of operation voltages and device structure parameters, such as the width of the graphene nanoribbon and gate length. We formulated a self-consistent, non-equilibrium Green’s function method in conjunction with the Poisson equation and modeled the operation of nanometer sized GNRFETs, of which GNR channels have finite bandgaps so that the GNRFET can operate as a switch. We propose a metric for competing with the current silicon CMOS high performance or low power devices and explain that this can vary greatly depending on the GNRFET structure parameters.

  6. Rectification induced in N2AA-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Ling-Ling; Luo, Kai-Wu; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiao-Fei

    2014-01-01

    By using non-equilibrium Green function formalism in combination with density functional theory, we investigated the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon devices in which one lead is undoped and the other is N 2 AA -doped with two quasi-adjacent substitutional nitrogen atoms incorporating pairs of neighboring carbon atoms in the same sublattice A. Two kinds of N 2 AA -doped style are considered, for N dopants substitute the center or the edge carbon atoms. Our results show that the rectification behavior with a large rectifying ratio can be found in these devices and the rectifying characteristics can be modulated by changing the width of graphene nanoribbons or the position of the N 2 AA dopant. The mechanisms are revealed to explain the rectifying behaviors.

  7. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay, E-mail: sprabhakar@wlu.ca [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Melnik, Roderick [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Bonilla, Luis L. [Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Raynolds, James E. [Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges.

  8. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.; Raynolds, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges

  9. Template-free synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong-Xing [School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Jia, Yong, E-mail: yjiaahedu@163.com [School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were chosen to prepare Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. • Fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons were synthesized through the catalytic decomposition of methane at 900 °C. • The formation mechanism of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes was revealed. - Abstract: Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was prepared by simply calcining the mixture of commercial Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders at 1000 °C. The obtained Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst shows high efficiency for the synthesis of fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons through the catalytic decomposition of methane at 900 °C. The yield of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons was 19.5 wt%. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to characterize the products. A tip-growth mechanism for the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes was suggested based on the SEM and TEM images of products produced at the initial stage. The break through of the catalyst particle from graphite layers resulted in the crack and then cut open of the fully collapsed carbon nanotubes, which further resulted in the formation of the graphene nanoribbons.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of square graphene-nanoflake oscillator on graphene nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Kang Whan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been of interest for a building block in order to develop electromechanical devices on a nanometer scale. Here, we present the oscillation motions of a square GNF oscillator on graphene nanoribbon (GNR) in the retracting-motions by performing classical molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results showed that the GNF oscillators can be considered as a building block for nanoelectromechanical systems such as carbon-nanotube (CNT) oscillators. The oscillation dynamics of the GNF oscillator were similar to those of the CNT oscillators. When the square GNF had an initial velocity as impulse dynamics, its oscillation motions on the GNR were achieved from its self-retracting van der Waals force. For low initial velocity, its translational motions were dominant in its motions rather than its rotational motions. The kinetic energy damping ratio rapidly decreased as initial velocity increased and the kinetic energy for the translational motion of the GNF oscillator rapidly transferred into that for its rotational motion. The oscillation frequency of the GNF oscillator was dependent on its initial velocity.

  11. Current & Heat Transport in Graphene Nanoribbons: Role of Non-Equilibrium Phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Gary; Finkenstadt, Daniel

    2010-03-01

    The conducting channel of a graphitic nanoscale device is expected to experience a larger degree of thermal isolation when compared to traditional inversion channels of electronic devices. This leads to enhanced non-equilibrium phonon populations which are likely to adversely affect the mobility of graphene-based nanoribbons due to enhanced phonon scattering. Recent reports indicating the importance of carrier scattering with substrate surface polar optical phonons in carbon nanotubes^1 and graphene^2,3 show that this mechanism may allow enhanced heat removal from the nanoribbon channel. To investigate the effects of hot phonon populations on current and heat conduction, we solve the graphene nanoribbon multiband Boltzmann transport equation. Monte Carlo transport techniques are used since phonon populations may be tracked and updated temporally.^4 The electronic structure is solved using the NRL Tight-Binding method,^5 where carriers are scattered by confined acoustic, optical, edge and substrate polar optical phonons. [1] S. V. Rotkin et al., Nano Lett. 9, 1850 (2009). [2] J. H. Chen, C. Jang, S. Xiao, M. Ishigami and M. S. Fuhrer, Nature Nanotech. 3, 206 (2008). [3] V. Perebeinos and P. Avouris, arXiv:0910.4665v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall] (2009). [4] P. Lugli et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1251 (1987). [5] D. Finkenstadt, G. Pennington & M.J. Mehl, Phys. Rev. B 76, 121405(R) (2007).

  12. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2012-10-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  13. Electronic properties of phosphorene and graphene nanoribbons with edge vacancies in magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotlacha, J.; Pincak, R.

    2018-03-01

    The graphene and phosphorene nanostructures have a big potential application in a large area of today's research in physics. However, their methods of synthesis still don't allow the production of perfect materials with an intact molecular structure. In this paper, the occurrence of atomic vacancies was considered in the edge structure of the zigzag phosphorene and graphene nanoribbons. For different concentrations of these edge vacancies, their influence on the metallic properties was investigated. The calculations were performed for different sizes of the unit cell. Furthermore, for a smaller size, the influence of a uniform magnetic field was added.

  14. Mechanical failure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons under tensile strain induced by edge reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The structural and mechanical properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) under uniaxial tensile strain are studied by density functional theory. The ideal strength of a zigzag GNR (120 GPa) is close to that of pristine graphene. However, for a GNR with both edges reconstructed to pentagon–heptagon pairs (from hexagon–hexagon pairs) it decreases to 94 GPa and the maximum tensile strain is reduced to 15%. Our results constitute a comprehensive picture of the edge structure effect on the mechanical properties of GNRs.

  15. Epitaxial-graphene/graphene-oxide junction: an essential step towards epitaxial graphene electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaosong; Sprinkle, Mike; Li, Xuebin; Ming, Fan; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2008-07-11

    Graphene-oxide (GO) flakes have been deposited to bridge the gap between two epitaxial-graphene electrodes to produce all-graphene devices. Electrical measurements indicate the presence of Schottky barriers at the graphene/graphene-oxide junctions, as a consequence of the band gap in GO. The barrier height is found to be about 0.7 eV, and is reduced after annealing at 180 degrees C, implying that the gap can be tuned by changing the degree of oxidation. A lower limit of the GO mobility was found to be 850 cm2/V s, rivaling silicon. In situ local oxidation of patterned epitaxial graphene has been achieved.

  16. Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.

    Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.

  17. Electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons doped with nitrogen atoms: a theoretical insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A E; Fomine, S

    2015-04-28

    The electronic structure of graphene nanoribbons doped with a graphitic type of nitrogen atoms has been studied using B3LYP, B2PLYP and CAS methods. In all but one case the restricted B3LYP solutions were unstable and the CAS calculations provided evidence for the multiconfigurational nature of the ground state with contributions from two dominant configurations. The relative stability of the doped nanoribbons depends mostly on the mutual position of the dopant atoms and notably less on the position of nitrogen atoms within the nanoribbon. N-graphitic doping affects cationic states much more than anionic ones due the participation of the nitrogen atoms in the stabilization of the positive charge, resulting in a drop in ionization energies (IPs) for N-graphitic doped systems. Nitrogen atoms do not participate in the negative charge stabilization of anionic species and, therefore, the doping does not affect the electron affinities (EAs). The unrestricted B3LYP method is the method of choice for the calculation of IPs and EAs. Restricted B3LYP and B2PLYP produces unreliable results for both IPs and EAs while CAS strongly underestimates the electron affinities. This is also true for the reorganization energies where restricted B3LYP produces qualitatively incorrect results. Doping changes the reorganization energy of the nanoribbons; the hole reorganization energy is generally higher than the corresponding electron reorganization energy due to the participation of nitrogen atoms in the stabilization of the positive charge.

  18. Quantum phase transitions in effective spin-ladder models for graphene zigzag nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Cornelie; Wessel, Stefan

    2017-10-01

    We examine the magnetic correlations in quantum spin models that were derived recently as effective low-energy theories for electronic correlation effects on the edge states of graphene nanoribbons. For this purpose, we employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to access the large-distance properties, accounting for quantum fluctuations beyond mean-field-theory approaches to edge magnetism. For certain chiral nanoribbons, antiferromagnetic interedge couplings were previously found to induce a gapped quantum disordered ground state of the effective spin model. We find that the extended nature of the intraedge couplings in the effective spin model for zigzag nanoribbons leads to a quantum phase transition at a large, finite value of the interedge coupling. This quantum critical point separates the quantum disordered region from a gapless phase of stable edge magnetism at weak intraedge coupling, which includes the ground states of spin-ladder models for wide zigzag nanoribbons. To study the quantum critical behavior, the effective spin model can be related to a model of two antiferromagnetically coupled Haldane-Shastry spin-half chains with long-ranged ferromagnetic intrachain couplings. The results for the critical exponents are compared also to several recent renormalization-group calculations for related long-ranged interacting quantum systems.

  19. Graphene-based electrochemical sensor for detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in seawater: the comparison of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The detection of explosives in seawater is of great interest. We compared response single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticle-based electrodes toward the electrochemical reduction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We optimized parameters such as accumulation time, accumulation potential, and pH. We found that few-layer graphene exhibits about 20% enhanced signal for TNT after accumulation when compared to multilayer graphene nanoribbons. However, graphite microparticle-modified electrode provides higher sensitivity, and there was no significant difference in the performance of single-, few-, and multilayer graphene nanoribbons and graphite microparticles for the electrochemical detection of TNT. We established the limit of detection of TNT in untreated seawater at 1 μg/mL.

  20. Characteristics of CVD graphene nanoribbon formed by a ZnO nanowire hardmask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chang Goo; Kang, Jang Won; Lee, Seung Yong; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Young Gon; Park, Seong-Ju; Lee, Byoung Hun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong 1, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kyung; Cho, Chun Hum [Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong 1, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jinseong; Chung, Hyun-Jong; Yang, Heejun [Semiconductor Devices Lab, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sunae [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Gunja-Dong, Kwanggin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki Young; Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: bhl@gist.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    A graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is an important basic structure to open a bandgap in graphene. The GNR processes reported in the literature are complex, time-consuming, and expensive; moreover, the device yield is relatively low. In this paper, a simple new process to fabricate a long and straight graphene nanoribbon with a high yield has been proposed. This process utilizes CVD graphene substrate and a ZnO nanowire as the hardmask for patterning. 8 {mu}m long and 50-100 nm wide GNRs were successfully demonstrated in high density without any trimming, and {approx} 10% device yield was realized with a top-down patterning process. After passivating the surfaces of the GNRs using a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, high performance GNR MOSFETs with symmetric drain-current-gate-voltage (I{sub d}-V{sub g}) curves were demonstrated and a field effect mobility up to {approx} 1200 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was achieved at V{sub d} = 10 mV.

  1. In situ immobilized, magnetite nanoplatelets over holey graphene nanoribbons for high performance solid state supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, Shubra; Sahu, Vikrant; Marichi, Ram Bhagat; Singh, Gurmeet; Sharma, Raj Kishore

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonal platelet morphology of magnetite offers efficient material utilization. • Enhanced electronic conductivity of Fe 3 O 4 /GNR nanocomposites via GNR-GNR network. • Exploring the best optimized 30 wt. (%) Fe 3 O 4 on GNR as solid state supercapacitor. - ABSTRACT: Among major phases of iron oxide, magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is potential candidate for pseudocapacitors. Yet, the clustering of magnetite nanoparticles confines them from being exploited as charge storage material. Herein, magnetite hexagonal nanoplatelets are synthesized on holey graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by hydrothermal route and tested for charge storage performance in solid-state supercapacitor incorporating gel electrolyte (PVA-H 2 SO 4 ). GNR besides providing large surface for adsorption of magnetite platelets also improved the charge collection ability of nanocomposite through interconnected nanoribbon network. Mass loading over GNR is optimized to a maximum of 30 wt. (%) by ensuring mono dispersion of magnetite nanoplatelets and high conductivity (14.0 S m −1 ) of nanocomposite. Above 50 wt. (%) magnetite loading, structural identity of nanoribbon is tempered and as a consequence increased network resistivity depletion in charge storage capacity is observed. Mass loading of magnetite over nanoribbon showed an inverse relationship with ion diffusion and electronic conduction. Balanced ionic and electronic conduction in 30 wt. (%) magnetite loaded nanoribbon results in a supercapacitor cell delivering 1241.5 W kg −1 while maintaining 26.9 Wh kg −1 energy density. About 95% capacitance retention over 3000 charge discharge cycles at 2.3 A g −1 demonstrate magnetite as a high performance supercapacitor electrode.

  2. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  3. Doping enhanced barrier lowering in graphene-silicon junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xintong; Zhang, Lining; Chan, Mansun

    2016-06-01

    Rectifying properties of graphene-semiconductor junctions depend on the Schottky barrier height. We report an enhanced barrier lowering in graphene-Si junction and its essential doping dependence in this paper. The electric field due to ionized charge in n-type Si induces the same type doping in graphene and contributes another Schottky barrier lowering factor on top of the image-force-induced lowering (IFIL). We confirm this graphene-doping-induced lowering (GDIL) based on well reproductions of the measured reverse current of our fabricated graphene-Si junctions by the thermionic emission theory. Excellent matching between the theoretical predictions and the junction data of the doping-concentration dependent barrier lowering serves as another evidence of the GDIL. While both GDIL and IFIL are enhanced with the Si doping, GDIL exceeds IFIL with a threshold doping depending on the as-prepared graphene itself.

  4. Adsorption of CO2 on Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons: Investigation of transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, W.; Fahed, M.; Hatim, S.; Sherazi, A.; Berdiyorov, G.; Tit, N.

    2017-07-01

    Density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism is used to study the conductance response of Fe-doped graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) to CO2 gas adsorption. A single Fe atom is either adsorbed on GNR’s surface (aFe-graphene) or it substitutes the carbon atom (sFe-graphene). Metal atom doping reduces the electronic transmission of pristine graphene due to the localization of electronic states near the impurity site. Moreover, the aFe-graphene is found to be less sensitive to the CO2 molecule attachment as compared to the sFe-graphene system. These behaviours are not only consolidated but rather confirmed by calculating the IV characteristics from which both surface resistance and its sensitivity to the gas are estimated. Since the change in the conductivity is one of the main outputs of sensors, our findings will be useful in developing efficient graphene-based solid-state gas sensors.

  5. Magnetic defects in chemically converted graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Singamaneni

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs are influenced by the presence of adatoms, adsorbates and edge functionalization. To improve the understanding of the factors that influence the spin properties of GNRs, local (element spin-sensitive techniques such as electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy are important for spintronics applications. Here, we present results of multi-frequency continuous wave (CW, pulse and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE ESR spectroscopy measurements performed on oxidatively unzipped graphene nanoribbons (GNRs, which were subsequently chemically converted (CCGNRs with hydrazine. ESR spectra at 336 GHz reveal an isotropic ESR signal from the CCGNRs, of which the temperature dependence of its line width indicates the presence of localized unpaired electronic states. Upon functionalization of CCGNRs with 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate, the ESR signal is found to be 2 times narrower than that of pristine ribbons. NH3 adsorption/desorption on CCGNRs is shown to narrow the signal, while retaining the signal intensity and g value. The electron spin-spin relaxation process at 10 K is found to be characterized by slow (163 ns and fast (39 ns components. HYSCORE ESR data demonstrate the explicit presence of protons and 13C atoms. With the provided identification of intrinsic point magnetic defects such as proton and 13C has been reported, which are roadblocks to spin travel in graphene-based materials, this work could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge-spin (or magnetic-based transport properties of CCGNRs.

  6. Magnetic defects in chemically converted graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: ssingam@ncsu.edu [INPAC – Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B–3001 Leuven (Belgium); Materials Science Division, Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Stesmans, Andre [INPAC – Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B–3001 Leuven (Belgium); Tol, Johan van [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, 1800 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Kosynkin, D. V. [Department of Chemistry, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Tour, James M. [Department of Chemistry, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Rice University, MS-222, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005, USA. (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Electronic spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are influenced by the presence of adatoms, adsorbates and edge functionalization. To improve the understanding of the factors that influence the spin properties of GNRs, local (element) spin-sensitive techniques such as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy are important for spintronics applications. Here, we present results of multi-frequency continuous wave (CW), pulse and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) ESR spectroscopy measurements performed on oxidatively unzipped graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), which were subsequently chemically converted (CCGNRs) with hydrazine. ESR spectra at 336 GHz reveal an isotropic ESR signal from the CCGNRs, of which the temperature dependence of its line width indicates the presence of localized unpaired electronic states. Upon functionalization of CCGNRs with 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate, the ESR signal is found to be 2 times narrower than that of pristine ribbons. NH{sub 3} adsorption/desorption on CCGNRs is shown to narrow the signal, while retaining the signal intensity and g value. The electron spin-spin relaxation process at 10 K is found to be characterized by slow (163 ns) and fast (39 ns) components. HYSCORE ESR data demonstrate the explicit presence of protons and {sup 13}C atoms. With the provided identification of intrinsic point magnetic defects such as proton and {sup 13}C has been reported, which are roadblocks to spin travel in graphene-based materials, this work could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge-spin (or magnetic)-based transport properties of CCGNRs.

  7. Tuning the band structure of graphene nanoribbons through defect-interaction-driven edge patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lin; Nguyen, Tam N.; Gilman, Ari; Muniz, André R.; Maroudas, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    We report a systematic analysis of pore-edge interactions in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and their outcomes based on first-principles calculations and classical molecular-dynamics simulations. We find a strong attractive interaction between nanopores and GNR edges that drives the pores to migrate toward and coalesce with the GNR edges, which can be exploited to form GNR edge patterns that impact the GNR electronic band structure and tune the GNR band gap. Our analysis introduces a viable physical processing strategy for modifying GNR properties by combining defect engineering and thermal annealing.

  8. Pure spin current induced by adiabatic quantum pumping in zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souma, Satofumi; Ogawa, Matsuto

    2014-01-01

    We show theoretically that pure spin current can be generated in zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons through the adiabatic pumping by edge selective pumping potentials. The origin of such pure spin current is the spin splitting of the edge localized states, which are oppositely spin polarized at opposite edges. In the proposed device, each edge of the ribbon is covered by two independent time-periodic local gate potentials with a definite phase difference, inducing the edge spin polarized current. When the pumping phase difference is opposite in sign between two edges, the total charge currents is zero and the pure edge spin current is generated

  9. Lifted graphene nanoribbons on gold: from smooth sliding to multiple stick-slip regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Gigli, Lorenzo; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) physisorbed on a Au(111) surface can be picked up, lifted at one end, and made slide by means of the tip of an atomic-force microscope. The dynamical transition from smooth sliding to multiple stick-slip regimes, the pushing/pulling force asymmetry, the presence of pinning, and its origin are real frictional processes in a nutshell, in need of a theoretical description. To this purpose, we conduct classical simulations of frictional manipulations for GNRs up to 30 ...

  10. Effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Aghamiri Esfahani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we have investigated the effect of increasing length on the electronic transport of an armchair graphene nano-ribbons with nitrogen atom impurity and without impurity. The semi-infinite, one-dimensional molecular systems are connected to two electrodes and the electron-electron interaction is ignored. The system is described by a simple tight binding model. All calculations are based on the Green's function and Landauer–Buttiker approach, and the electrodes are described in a wide band approximation.

  11. Phonon scattering and thermal conductance properties in two coupled graphene nanoribbons modulated with bridge atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Shi-Hua; Tang, Li-Ming; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The phonon scattering and thermal conductance properties have been studied in two coupled graphene nanoribbons connected by different bridge atoms by using density functional theory in combination with non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The results show that a wide range of thermal conductance tuning can be realized by changing the chemical bond strength and atom mass of the bridge atoms. It is found that the chemical bond strength (bridge atom mass) plays the main role in phonon scattering at low (high) temperature. A simple equation is presented to describe the relationship among the thermal conductance, bridge atom, and temperature.

  12. Nanocomposite of polyaniline nanorods grown on graphene nanoribbons for highly capacitive pseudocapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Fei, Huilong; Yang, Yang; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2013-07-24

    A facile and cost-effective approach to the fabrication of a nanocomposite material of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) has been developed. The morphology of the composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The resulting composite has a high specific capacitance of 340 F/g and stable cycling performance with 90% capacitance retention over 4200 cycles. The high performance of the composite results from the synergistic combination of electrically conductive GNRs and highly capacitive PANI. The method developed here is practical for large-scale development of pseudocapacitor electrodes for energy storage.

  13. The role of defects and doping in 2D graphene sheets and 1D nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Humberto; Lv, Ruitao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-06-01

    Defects are usually seen as imperfections in materials that could significantly degrade their performance. However, at the nanoscale, defects could be extremely useful since they could be exploited to generate novel, innovative and useful materials and devices. Graphene and graphene nanoribbons are no exception. This review therefore tries to categorize defects, emphasize their importance, introduce the common routes to study and identify them and to propose new ways to construct novel devices based on 'defective' graphene-like materials. In particular, we will discuss defects in graphene-like systems including (a) structural (sp(2)-like) defects, (b) topological (sp(2)-like) defects, (c) doping or functionalization (sp(2)- and sp(3)-like) defects and (d) vacancies/edge type defects (non-sp(2)-like). It will be demonstrated that defects play a key role in graphene physicochemical properties and could even be critical to generate biocompatible materials. There are numerous challenges in this emerging field, and we intend to provide a stimulating account which could trigger new science and technological developments based on defective graphene-like materials that could be introduced into other atomic layered materials, such as BN, MoS(2) and WS(2), not discussed in this review.

  14. Tailoring highly conductive graphene nanoribbons from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilić, A; Sanvito, S

    2013-07-10

    Pyrene, the smallest two-dimensional mesh of aromatic rings, with various terminal thiol substitutions, has been considered as a potential molecular interconnect. Charge transport through two terminal devices has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self interaction correction) and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. A tetra-substituted pyrene, with dual thiol terminal groups at opposite ends, has been identified as an excellent candidate, owing to its high conductance, virtually independent of bias voltage. The two possible extensions of its motif generate two series of graphene nanoribbons, with zigzag and armchair edges and with semimetallic and semiconducting electron band structure, respectively. The effects related to the wire length and the bias voltage on the charge transport have been investigated for both sets. The conductance of the nanoribbons with a zigzag edge does not show either length or voltage dependence, owing to an almost perfect electron transmission with a continuum of conducting channels. In contrast, for the armchair nanoribbons a slow exponential attenuation of the conductance with the length has been found, due to their semiconducting nature.

  15. Tailoring highly conductive graphene nanoribbons from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, A

    2013-06-14

    Pyrene, the smallest two-dimensional mesh of aromatic rings, with various terminal thiol substitutions, has been considered as a potential molecular interconnect. Charge transport through two terminal devices has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self interaction correction) and the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function method. A tetra-substituted pyrene, with dual thiol terminal groups at opposite ends, has been identified as an excellent candidate, owing to its high conductance, virtually independent of bias voltage. The two possible extensions of its motif generate two series of graphene nanoribbons, with zigzag and armchair edges and with semimetallic and semiconducting electron band structure, respectively. The effects related to the wire length and the bias voltage on the charge transport have been investigated for both sets. The conductance of the nanoribbons with a zigzag edge does not show either length or voltage dependence, owing to an almost perfect electron transmission with a continuum of conducting channels. In contrast, for the armchair nanoribbons a slow exponential attenuation of the conductance with the length has been found, due to their semiconducting nature. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Heat Transport in Graphene Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction. It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor (FIS) junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength x in the thin-barrier limit. The gate potential U0 decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation. Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh. The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.%@@ We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction.It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor(FIS)junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength X in the thin-barrier limit.The gate potential Uo decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation.Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh.The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.

  17. Observation of supercurrent in graphene-based Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Libin; Li, Sen; Kang, Ning [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Chuan; Ren, Wencai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Josephson junctions with a normal metal region sandwiched between two superconductors (S) are known as superconductor- normal-superconductor (SNS) structures. It has attracted significant attention especially when changing the normal metal with graphene, which allow for high tunability with the gate voltage and to study the proximity effect of the massless Dirac fermions. Here we report our work on graphene-based Josephson junction with a new two dimensional superconductor crystal, which grown directly on graphene, as superconducting electrodes. At low temperature, we observer proximity effect induced supercurrent flowing through the junction. The temperature and the magnetic field dependences of the critical current characteristics of the junction are also studied. The critical current exhibits a Fraunhofer-type diffraction pattern against magnetic field. Our experiments provided a new route of fabrication of graphene-based Josephson junction.

  18. Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation Study of Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Nanoribbon: A Comparative Study on MD Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Intisar Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs has been investigated using equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD simulation based on Green-Kubo (GK method to compare two interatomic potentials namely optimized Tersoff and 2nd generation Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO. Our comparative study includes the estimation of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature, length and width of GNR for both the potentials. The thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbon decreases with the increase of temperature. Quantum correction has been introduced for thermal conductivity as a function of temperature to include quantum effect below Debye temperature. Our results show that for temperatures up to Debye temperature, thermal conductivity increases, attains its peak and then falls off monotonically. Thermal conductivity is found to decrease with the increasing length for optimized Tersoff potential. However, thermal conductivity has been reported to increase with length using 2nd generation REBO potential for the GNRs of same size. Thermal conductivity, for the specified range of width, demonstrates an increasing trend with the increase of width for both the concerned potentials. In comparison with 2nd generation REBO potential, optimized Tersoff potential demonstrates a better modeling of thermal conductivity as well as provides a more appropriate description of phonon thermal transport in graphene nanoribbon. Such comparative study would provide a good insight for the optimization of the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons under diverse conditions.

  19. Quasi-free-standing bilayer graphene nanoribbons probed by electronic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Ilio; Aprojanz, Johannes; Baringhaus, Jens; Lichtenstein, Timo; Galves, Lauren A.; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J.; Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Direct growth of graphene nanostructures by using concepts of self-assembly and intercalation without further lithography and transfer processes is beneficial for their integration into device applications. In this letter, we report on bilayer graphene nanoribbons, typically 100 nm in width, grown along step edges of SiC(0001) substrates. The ribbons are electrically decoupled from the substrate by an oxygen treatment. By means of a 4-tip STM system, the microscopic structure and transport properties were comprehensively studied. The ribbons reveal a robust hole concentration of around 1 × 1013 cm-2 and mobilities up to 700 cm2/Vs at room temperature. The comparably high mobilities are a consequence of interlayer hopping of the charge carriers. The transport is not limited by the step roughness; thus, this scalable process can be easily extended to arbitrarily shaped structures.

  20. Understanding and tuning the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in zigzag graphene nanoribbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang Feng; Zhang, Guo Ren; Zheng, Xiao Hong; Gong, Peng Lai; Cao, Teng Fei; Zeng, Zhi

    2013-02-06

    The electronic structure of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is studied using density functional theory. The mechanisms underlying the quantum-confinement effect and edge magnetism in ZGNR are systematically investigated by combining the simulated results and some useful analytic models. The quantum-confinement effect and the inter-edge superexchange interaction can be tuned by varying the ribbon width, and the spin polarization and direct exchange splitting of the edge states can be tuned by varying their electronic occupations. The two edges of ZGNR can be equally or unequally tuned by charge doping or Li adsorption, respectively. The Li adatom has a site-selective adsorption on ZGNR, and it is a nondestructive and memorable approach to effectively modify the edge states in ZGNR. These systematic understanding and effective tuning of ZGNR electronics presented in this work are helpful for further investigation and application of ZGNR and other magnetic graphene systems.

  1. On the channel width-dependence of the thermal conductivity in ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamitaheri, Hossein [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 87317-53153 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neophytou, Neophytos, E-mail: N.Neophytou@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    The thermal conductivity of low-dimensional materials and graphene nanoribbons, in particular, is limited by the strength of line-edge-roughness scattering. One way to characterize the roughness strength is the dependency of the thermal conductivity on the channel's width in the form W{sup β}. Although in the case of electronic transport, this dependency is very well studied, resulting in W{sup 6} for nanowires and quantum wells and W{sup 4} for nanoribbons, in the case of phonon transport it is not yet clear what this dependence is. In this work, using lattice dynamics and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function simulations, we examine the width dependence of the thermal conductivity of ultra-narrow graphene nanoribbons under the influence of line edge-roughness. We show that the exponent β is in fact not a single well-defined number, but it is different for different parts of the phonon spectrum depending on whether phonon transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized. The exponent β takes values β < 1 for semi-ballistic phonon transport, values β ≫ 1 for sub-diffusive or localized phonons, and β = 1 only in the case where the transport is diffusive. The overall W{sup β} dependence of the thermal conductivity is determined by the width-dependence of the dominant phonon modes (usually the acoustic ones). We show that due to the long phonon mean-free-paths, the width-dependence of thermal conductivity becomes a channel length dependent property, because the channel length determines whether transport is ballistic, diffusive, or localized.

  2. Raman spectroscopy of lithographically defined graphene nanoribbons - influence of size and defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampmann, Felix; Scheuschner, Nils [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technical University Berlin (Germany); Terres, Bernat; Stampfer, Christoph [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Peter Gruenberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); Joerger, Danny [JARA-FIT and 2nd Institute of Physics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Maultzsch, Janina [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technical University Berlin (Germany); Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik, Department Physik, Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Graphene nanostructures are an important building block to make use of the properties of graphene for applications in integrated devices. It is important to study edge roughness and defects in such nanostructures for further device improvement as they become important when downscaling structures. Recent Raman studies focused mainly on the D mode to characterize the defects in graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNR) whereas not much attention has been paid to the D' mode that is smaller in Raman intensity. In this work we show by comparison with AFM measurements of the GNR width that both defect-induced Raman modes have different scattering length scales. Furthermore the size and quality of lithographically defined GNRs can be estimated by a close analysis of the defect-induced Raman modes and the width of the well-studied 2D mode of graphene. The findings are explained by the different vibration pattern for both Raman modes and the differences in the matrix elements determining the Raman intensity, i.e. the electron-phonon coupling and the phonon density of states. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Raman spectroscopy of lithographically defined graphene nanoribbons - influence of size and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampmann, Felix; Scheuschner, Nils; Terres, Bernat; Stampfer, Christoph; Joerger, Danny; Maultzsch, Janina

    2017-01-01

    Graphene nanostructures are an important building block to make use of the properties of graphene for applications in integrated devices. It is important to study edge roughness and defects in such nanostructures for further device improvement as they become important when downscaling structures. Recent Raman studies focused mainly on the D mode to characterize the defects in graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNR) whereas not much attention has been paid to the D' mode that is smaller in Raman intensity. In this work we show by comparison with AFM measurements of the GNR width that both defect-induced Raman modes have different scattering length scales. Furthermore the size and quality of lithographically defined GNRs can be estimated by a close analysis of the defect-induced Raman modes and the width of the well-studied 2D mode of graphene. The findings are explained by the different vibration pattern for both Raman modes and the differences in the matrix elements determining the Raman intensity, i.e. the electron-phonon coupling and the phonon density of states. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Chemical Makeup and Hydrophilic Behavior of Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons after Low-Temperature Fluorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Aburto, Rebeca; Alemany, Lawrence B; Weldeghiorghis, Thomas K; Ozden, Sehmus; Peng, Zhiwei; Lherbier, Aurélien; Botello Méndez, Andrés Rafael; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Taha-Tijerina, Jaime; Yan, Zheng; Tabata, Mika; Charlier, Jean-Christophe; Tour, James M; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-07-28

    Here we investigated the fluorination of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) using H2 and F2 gases at low temperature, below 200 °C, with the purpose of elucidating their structure and predicting a fluorination mechanism. The importance of this study is the understanding of how fluorine functional groups are incorporated in complex structures, such as GONRs, as a function of temperature. The insight provided herein can potentially help engineer application-oriented materials for several research and industrial sectors. Direct (13)C pulse magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed the presence of epoxy, hydroxyl, ester and ketone carbonyl, tertiary alkyl fluorides, as well as graphitic sp(2)-hybridized carbon. Moreover, (19)F-(13)C cross-polarization MAS NMR with (1)H and (19)F decoupling confirmed the presence of secondary alkyl fluoride (CF2) groups in the fluorinated graphene oxide nanoribbon (FGONR) structures fluorinated above 50 °C. First-principles density functional theory calculations gained insight into the atomic arrangement of the most dominant chemical groups. The fluorinated GONRs present atomic fluorine percentages in the range of 6-35. Interestingly, the FGONRs synthesized up to 100 °C, with 6-19% of atomic fluorine, exhibit colloidal similar stability in aqueous environments when compared to GONRs. This colloidal stability is important because it is not common for materials with up to 19% fluorine to have a high degree of hydrophilicity.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulation on double-elastic deformation of zigzag graphene nanoribbons at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.J.; Huang, Y.H.; Ma, F.; Ma, D.Y.; Hu, T.W.; Xu, K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs). • The “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and the subsequent second elastic deformation were observed. • Related thermal effects model was built to predict fracture strain of ZGNRs, and was consistent with simulation results. -- Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the deformation behaviors of Zigzag Graphene Nano-Ribbons (ZGNRs) 150 Å × 150 Å in size, and double-elastic deformation was observed at temperatures lower than 90 K. Essentially, at such a low temperature, the lattice vibration was significantly weakened and thus the lifetime of C-C bonds was prolonged considerably. Moreover, it was difficult for broken bonds to accumulate and resulted in the destructive fracture of ZGNRs at low temperature. As a result, the “phase transformation” from hexagonal to quasi-rectangular and subsequently the second elastic deformation took place. However, at higher temperatures, says, 300 K, brittle fracture was observed and the fracture strength decreased with temperature, which was consistent with previously reported results. Additionally at higher strain rate, the atoms could not respond to the external loading in time, the fracture strain and fracture strength were enhanced

  6. Energy gap of extended states in SiC-doped graphene nanoribbon: Ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoshi; Wu, Yong [College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Modern Optical System, Shanghai 200093 (China); Li, Zhongyao, E-mail: lizyusst@gmail.com [College of Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Shanghai Key Lab of Modern Optical System, Shanghai 200093 (China); Gao, Yong [School of Science, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The gap of isolated ribbon is inversely proportional to the width of ribbon. • The gap of doped ribbon cannot be modeled by effective width approximation. • The fitted energy gap can match the experimental observations. • The doping results in a spin-polarized metallic-like band structure. - Abstract: The energy gap of extended states in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) was examined on the basis of density-functional theory. In isolated ZGNRs, the energy gap is inversely proportional to the width of ribbon. It agrees well with the results from the Dirac equation in spin-unpolarized ZGNRs, although the considered ZGNRs have spin-polarized edges. However, the energy gap in SiC-doped ZGNRs cannot be modeled by effective width approximation. The doping also lifts the spin-degenerate of edge states and results in a metallic-like band structure near the Fermi level in SiC-doped ZGNRs. Our calculations may be helpful for understanding the origin of the reported single-channel ballistic transport in epitaxial graphene nanoribbons.

  7. Inducing half-metallicity with enhanced stability in zigzag graphene nanoribbons via fluorine passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Neeraj K., E-mail: neerajkjaiswal@gmail.com [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur 482005 (India); Tyagi, Neha [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Kumar, Amit [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Information Technology Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior 474015 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • F passivated zigzag graphene nanoribbon (F-ZGNR) are more favorable than pristine ones. • External electric field induces half metallicity in F-ZGNR. • The observed half metallicity is independent of ribbon widths. • Enhanced stability makes F-ZGNR preferable over pristine ribbon. - Abstract: Half metals are the primary ingredients for the realization of novel spintronic devices. In the present work, by employing density functional theory based first-principles calculation, we predict half metallic behavior in fluorine passivated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (F-ZGNR). Four different structures have been investigated viz. one edge F passivated ZGNR (F-ZGNR-1), both edges F passivated ZGNR (F-ZGNR-2), F passivation on alternate sites in first configuration (alt-1) and F passivation on alternate sites in second configuration (alt-2). Interestingly, it is noticed that F passivation is analogous to H passivation (pristine), however, F-ZGNR are reckoned energetically more stable than pristine ones. An spin induced band gap is noticed for all F-ZGNR irrespective of their widths although its magnitude is slightly less than the pristine counterparts. With an external transverse electric field, ribbons undergo semiconducting to half metallic transformation. The observed half metallic character with enhanced stability present F-ZGNR as a better candidate than pristine ZGNR towards the realization of upcoming spintronic devices.

  8. Sub-5 nm, globally aligned graphene nanoribbons on Ge(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, Brian; Mannix, Andrew J. [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Jacobberger, Robert M.; Arnold, Michael S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fisher, Brandon L.; Guisinger, Nathan P., E-mail: nguisinger@anl.gov, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 440, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Hersam, Mark C., E-mail: nguisinger@anl.gov, E-mail: m-hersam@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) hold great promise for future electronics because of their edge and width dependent electronic bandgaps and exceptional transport properties. While significant progress toward GNR devices has been made, the field has been limited by difficulties achieving narrow widths, global alignment, and atomically pristine GNR edges on technologically relevant substrates. A recent advance has challenged these limits by using Ge(001) substrates to direct the bottom-up growth of GNRs with nearly pristine armchair edges and widths near ∼10 nm via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. In this work, the growth of GNRs on Ge(001) is extended to ultra-high vacuum conditions, resulting in the realization of GNRs with widths narrower than 5 nm. Armchair graphene nanoribbons oriented along Ge 〈110〉 surface directions are achieved with excellent width control and relatively large bandgaps. The bandgap magnitude and electronic uniformity of these sub-5 nm GNRs are well-suited for emerging nanoelectronic applications.

  9. Analysis of Simulated Output Characteristics of Gas Sensor Based on Graphene Nanoribbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents simulated output characteristics of gas sensor transistors based on graphene nanoribbon (GNRFET. The device studied in this work is a new generation of gas sensing devices, which are easy to use, ultracompact, ultrasensitive, and highly selective. We will explain how the exposure to the gas changes the conductivity of graphene nanoribbon. The equations of the GNRFET gas sensor model include the Poisson equation in the weak nonlocality approximation with proposed sensing parameters. As we have developed this model as a platform for a gas detection sensor, we will analyze the current-voltage characteristics after exposure of the GNRFET nanosensor device to NH3 gas. A sensitivity of nearly 2.7% was indicated in our sensor device after exposure of 1 ppm of NH3. The given results make GNRFET the right candidate for use in gas sensing/measuring appliances. Thus, we will investigate the effect of the channel length on the ON- and OFF-current.

  10. Thermal spin filtering effect and giant magnetoresistance of half-metallic graphene nanoribbon co-doped with non-metallic Nitrogen and Boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Zheng, Anmin; Gao, Guoying; Yao, Kailun

    2018-03-01

    Ab initio calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function are performed to investigate the thermal spin transport properties of single-hydrogen-saturated zigzag graphene nanoribbon co-doped with non-metallic Nitrogen and Boron in parallel and anti-parallel spin configurations. The results show that the doped graphene nanoribbon is a full half-metal. The two-probe system based on the doped graphene nanoribbon exhibits various excellent spin transport properties, including the spin-filtering effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the single-spin negative differential thermal resistance effect and the sign-reversible giant magnetoresistance feature. Excellently, the spin-filtering efficiency can reach nearly 100% in the parallel configuration and the magnetoresistance ratio can be up to -1.5 × 1010% by modulating the electrode temperature and temperature gradient. Our findings indicate that the metal-free doped graphene nanoribbon would be a promising candidate for spin caloritronic applications.

  11. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  12. Facile longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes to graphene nanoribbons and their effects on LiMn2O4 cathodes in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilango, P. Robert; Prasanna, K.; Subburaj, T.; Jo, Yong Nam; Lee, Chang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The graphene nanoribbons are successfully synthesized by chemical unzipping method. • The LiMn 2 O 4 is surface modified with graphene nanoribbons via ultrasonic-assisted wet-coating. • The electrochemical effects of graphene nanoribbons on LiMn 2 O 4 are studied. • The modified LiMn 2 O 4 shows the good electronic conductivity and improved capacity. - Abstract: A LiMn 2 O 4 cathode has been surface-modified with carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons via an ultrasonic-assisted wet-coating method. The structural stability of the surface-modified LiMn 2 O 4 and the amorphous nature of the coated carbon materials are confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) reveals the strong and uniform distribution of graphene nanoribbons over the LiMn 2 O 4 in comparison to the carbon nanotubes-coated LiMn 2 O 4 . Furthermore, field emission transmission electron microscopy (FE-TEM) confirms the strong adhesion of a smooth, sheet-like graphene nanoribbons layer over the LiMn 2 O 4 surface, whereas the carbon nanotubes are observed to have weak and/or irregular contact with LiMn 2 O 4 . Electrochemical studies have been carried out by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and a galvanostatic cycler. The graphene nanoribbons-modified LiMn 2 O 4 cathode shows better electrochemical properties in terms of a suppressed charge transfer resistance, high current density, negative shift in polarization, longer calendar life, and high rate capabilities. In addition, the graphene nanoribbons-modified LiMn 2 O 4 delivered 90% of the retention capacity after 50 cycles at a rate of 1 C with the potential limits of 3.0–4.5 V vs. Li/Li + .

  13. Negative tunnel magnetoresistance and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jianfei; Jin Guojun; Ma Yuqiang

    2009-01-01

    We study the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions composed of ferromagnetic graphene (FG) and normal graphene (NG) layers. It is found that the TMR in the FG/NG/FG junction oscillates from positive to negative values with respect to the chemical potential adjusted by the gate voltage in the barrier region when the Fermi level is low enough. Particularly, the conventionally defined TMR in the FG/FG/FG junction oscillates periodically from a positive to negative value with increasing the barrier height at any Fermi level. The spin polarization of the current through the FG/FG/FG junction also has an oscillating behavior with increasing barrier height, whose oscillating amplitude can be modulated by the exchange splitting in the ferromagnetic graphene.

  14. Negative tunnel magnetoresistance and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianfei; Jin, Guojun; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2009-03-25

    We study the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and spin transport in ferromagnetic graphene junctions composed of ferromagnetic graphene (FG) and normal graphene (NG) layers. It is found that the TMR in the FG/NG/FG junction oscillates from positive to negative values with respect to the chemical potential adjusted by the gate voltage in the barrier region when the Fermi level is low enough. Particularly, the conventionally defined TMR in the FG/FG/FG junction oscillates periodically from a positive to negative value with increasing the barrier height at any Fermi level. The spin polarization of the current through the FG/FG/FG junction also has an oscillating behavior with increasing barrier height, whose oscillating amplitude can be modulated by the exchange splitting in the ferromagnetic graphene.

  15. Mechanical properties and electronic structure of edge-doped graphene nanoribbons with F, O, and Cl atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriz, Sebastián; Fernández-Werner, Luciana; Pardo, Helena; Jasen, Paula; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Álvaro W

    2017-08-16

    In this study, we present the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of edge-doped zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) doped with fluorine, oxygen, and chlorine atoms. To the best of our knowledge, to date, no experimental results concerning the mechanical properties of graphene-derived nanoribbons have been reported in the literature. Simulations indicate that Cl- and F-doped ZGNRs present an equivalent 2-dimensional Young's modulus E 2D , which seems to be higher than those of graphene and H-doped ZGNRs. This is a consequence of the electronic structure of the system, particularly originating from strong interactions between the dopant atoms localized at the edges. The interaction between dopant atoms located at the edges is higher for Cl and lower for F and O atoms. This is the origin of the observed trend, in which E > E > E for all the analyzed ZGNRs.

  16. Effect of uniaxial strain on the tunnel magnetoresistance of T-shaped graphene nanoribbon based spin-valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, A. Ahmadi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigated the spin-dependent transport through a T-shaped graphene nanoribbon (TsGNR) based spin-valve consisting of armchair graphene sandwiched between two semi-infinite ferromagnetic armchair graphene nanoribbon leads in the presence of an applied uniaxial strain. Based on a tight-binding model and standard nonequilibrium Green's function technique, it is demonstrated that the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for the system can be increased about 98% by tuning the uniaxial strain. Our results show that the absolute values of TMR around the zero bias voltage for compressive strain are larger than tensile strain. In addition, the TMR of the system can be nicely controlled by GNR width.

  17. Simulations of Propane and Butane Gas Sensor Based on Pristine Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Haroon; Koel, Ants; Rang, Toomas

    2018-05-01

    Over the last decade graphene and its derivatives have gained a remarkable place in research field. As silicon technology is approaching to its geometrical limits so there is a need of alternate that can replace it. Graphene has emerged as a potential candidate for future nano-electronics applications due to its exceptional and extraordinary chemical, optical, electrical and mechanical properties. Graphene based sensors have gained significance for a wide range of sensing applications like detection of biomolecules, chemicals and gas molecules. It can be easily used to make electrical contacts and manipulate them according to the requirements as compared to the other nanomaterials. The intention of the work presented in this article is to contribute in this field by simulating a novel and cheap graphene nanoribbon sensor for the household gas leakage detection. QuantumWise Atomistix (ATK) software is used for the simulations of propane and butane gas sensor. Projected device density of the states (PDDOS) and the transmission spectrum of the device in the proximity of gas molecules are calculated and discussed. The change in the electric current through the device in the presence of the gas molecules is used as a gas detection mechanism for the simulated sensor.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of graphene/molecule/graphene vertical junctions with aryl alkane monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inho; Song, Hyunwook

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we fabricated and characterized graphene/molecule/graphene (GMG) vertical junctions with aryl alkane monolayers. The constituent molecules were chemically self-assembled via electrophilic diazonium reactions into a monolayer on the graphene bottom electrode, while the other end physically contacted the graphene top electrode. A full understanding of the transport properties of molecular junctions is a key step in the realization of molecular-scale electronic devices and requires detailed microscopic characterization of the junction's active region. Using a multiprobe approach combining a variety of transport techniques, we elucidated the transport mechanisms and electronic structure of the GMG junctions, including temperature- and length-variable transport measurements, and transition voltage spectroscopy. These results provide criteria to establish a valid molecular junction and to determine the most probable transport characteristics of the GMG junctions.

  19. Field-Effect Transistors Based on Networks of Highly Aligned, Chemically Synthesized N = 7 Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Vikram; Gahoi, Amit; Senkovskiy, Boris V; Haberer, Danny; Fischer, Felix R; Grüneis, Alexander; Lemme, Max C

    2018-03-28

    We report on the experimental demonstration and electrical characterization of N = 7 armchair graphene nanoribbon (7-AGNR) field effect transistors. The back-gated transistors are fabricated from atomically precise and highly aligned 7-AGNRs, synthesized with a bottom-up approach. The large area transfer process holds the promise of scalable device fabrication with atomically precise nanoribbons. The channels of the FETs are approximately 30 times longer than the average nanoribbon length of 30 nm to 40 nm. The density of the GNRs is high, so that transport can be assumed well-above the percolation threshold. The long channel transistors exhibit a maximum I ON / I OFF current ratio of 87.5.

  20. Structural and electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons under uniaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Min; Xu, Ke-Wei; Ji, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the structures, relative stabilities and electronic properties of the armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) under uniaxial strain via first-principles calculations. The results show that, although each bond length decreases (increases) with increasing compression (tension) strain especially for the axial bonds a1, a4 and a7, the ribbon geometrical width d increases (decreases) with increasing compression (tension) strain due to the rotation of the zigzag bonds a2, a3, a5 and a6. For each nanoribbon, as expected, the lowest average energy corresponds to the unstrained state and the larger contract (elongate) deformation corresponds to the higher average energy. At a certain strain, the average energy increases with decreasing the ribbon width n. The average energy increases quadratically with the absolute value of the uniaxial strain, showing an elastic behavior. The dependence of the band gap on the strain is sensitive to the ribbon width n which can be classified into three distinct families n=3I, 3I+1 and 3I+2, where I is an integer. The ribbon width leads to oscillatory band gaps due to quantum confinement effect.

  1. Transport properties and device-design of Z-shaped MoS2 nanoribbon planar junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Wenzhe; Liu, Qi; Yang, Zhixiong; Pan, Jiangling; Ouyang, Fangping; Xu, Hui

    2017-09-01

    Based on MoS2 nanoribbons, metal-semiconductor-metal planar junction devices were constructed. The electronic and transport properties of the devices were studied by using density function theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF). It is found that a band gap about 0.4 eV occurs in the planar junction. The electron and hole transmissions of the devices are mainly contributed by the Mo atomic orbitals. The electron transport channel is located at the edge of armchair MoS2 nanoribbon, while the hole transport channel is delocalized in the channel region. The I-V curve of the two-probe device shows typical transport behavior of Schottky barrier, and the threshold voltage is of about 0.2 V. The field effect transistors (FET) based on the planar junction turn out to be good bipolar transistors, the maximum current on/off ratio can reach up to 1 × 104, and the subthreshold swing is 243 mV/dec. It is found that the off-state current is dependent on the length and width of the channel, while the on-state current is almost unaffected. The switching performance of the FET is improved with increasing the length of the channel, and shows oscillation behavior with the change of the channel width.

  2. Defect-based graphene nanoribbon photodetectors: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, M. H.; Sharifi, M. J., E-mail: m-j-sharifi@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-07

    Recently, some photodetectors based on graphene have been proposed. In all of these works, current generation was carried out by separation of photo-excited carriers using an electric field, either internal or external. In this work, a new method of producing current which is based on different transmission coefficients for electrons and holes when they travel toward any of the two contacts is proposed. To this end, a single Stone–Wales defect close to one of the two contacts was used to break the channel symmetry. In order to confirm the idea, the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in real space in conjunction with the tight binding method was used in simulations. In addition, to clarify the results, we present a classical model in which different diffusion constants are assumed for the left going and the right going carriers. Additional simulations for different positions of the defect, different lengths of the ribbon, and different bias voltages were performed, and the results are included in this study.

  3. Electronic transport in armchair graphene nanoribbon under double magnetic barrier modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wu, Chao; Xie, Fang; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Zhou, Guanghui

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the transport properties and the magnetoresistance effect in armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) under modulation by two magnetic barriers. The energy levels are found to be degenerate for a metallic AGNR but are not degenerate for a semiconducting AGNR. However, the conductance characteristics show quantized plateaus in both the metallic and semiconducting cases. When the magnetization directions of the barriers change from parallel to antiparallel, the conductance plateau in the metallic AGNR shows a degenerate feature due to matching between the transport modes in different regions. As the barrier height increases, the conductance shows more oscillatory behavior with sharp peaks and troughs. Specifically, the initial position of nonzero conductance for the metallic AGNR system moves towards a higher energy regime, which indicates that an energy gap has been opened. In addition, the magnetoresistance ratio also shows plateau structures in certain specific energy regions. These results may be useful in the design of electron devices based on AGNR nanostructures.

  4. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-06-21

    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  5. Time Domain Analysis of Graphene Nanoribbon Interconnects Based on Transmission Line ‎Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haji Nasiri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Time domain analysis of multilayer graphene nanoribbon (MLGNR interconnects, based on ‎transmission line modeling (TLM using a six-order linear parametric expression, has been ‎presented for the first time. We have studied the effects of interconnect geometry along with ‎its contact resistance on its step response and Nyquist stability. It is shown that by increasing ‎interconnects dimensions their propagation delays are increased and accordingly the system ‎becomes relatively more stable. In addition, we have compared time responses and Nyquist ‎stabilities of MLGNR and SWCNT bundle interconnects, with the same external dimensions. ‎The results show that under the same conditions, the propagation delays for MLGNR ‎interconnects are smaller than those of SWCNT bundle interconnects are. Hence, SWCNT ‎bundle interconnects are relatively more stable than their MLGNR rivals.‎

  6. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Wei, Jianwei; Zeng, Xianliang; Xu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  7. Role of nitrogen distribution in asymmetric stone-wales defects on electronic transport of graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hui; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Dahai [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei, Jianwei [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)

    2012-01-15

    The authors performed first principles calculation to investigate the influences of nitrogen dopant distribution in the asymmetric Stone-Wales (SW) defect on the electronic transport of zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR). The stability of doped configurations are evaluated in terms of total energies. It is found that the dopant placed near the edge of the ribbon is the most energetically favorable site. Our results reveal that the doped nanostructures can be substantially modulated as a result of modifications on electronic bands induced by substitutional dopant. Moreover, the individual dopant gives rise to one or two complete electron backscattering centers associated with impurity states in the doped configurations, and the location is determined by the dopant site. Schematics of the atomic structure after asymmetric Stone-Wales defects introduced and different nitrogen substitutional sites. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. First Principles Study of Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Co-Doped Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the first principles calculations, we have studied the atomic and electronic structures of single Co atom incorporated with divacancy in armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR. Our calculated results show that the Co atom embedded in AGNR gives rise to significant impacts on the band structures and the FM spin configuration is the ground state. The presence of the Co doping could introduce magnetic properties. The calculated results revealed the arising of spin gapless semiconductor characteristics with doping near the edge in both ferromagnetic (FM and antiferromagnetic (AFM magnetic configurations, suggesting the robustness for potential application of spintronics. Moreover, the electronic structures of the Co-doped AGNRs are strongly dependent on the doping sites and the edge configurations.

  9. Atomistic simulations of divacancy defects in armchair graphene nanoribbons: Stability, electronic structure, and electron transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Zeng, Hui, E-mail: zenghui@yangtzeu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei, Jianwei [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Li, Biao; Xu, Dahai [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China)

    2014-01-17

    Using the first principles calculations associated with nonequilibrium Green's function, we have studied the electronic structures and quantum transport properties of defective armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) in the presence of divacancy defects. The triple pentagon–triple heptagon (555–777) defect in the defective AGNR is energetically more favorable than the pentagon–octagon–pentagon (5–8–5) defect. Our calculated results reveal that both 5–8–5-like defect and 555–777-like defect in AGNR could improve the electron transport. It is anticipated that defective AGNRs can exhibit large range variations in transport behaviors, which are strongly dependent on the distributions of the divacancy defect.

  10. Tailoring atomic structure to control the electronic transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hui [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Zhao, Jun, E-mail: zhaojun@yangtzeu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Wei, Jianwei [College of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Zeng, Xianliang [College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, Hubei 434023 (China); Xu, Yang [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We have performed ab initio density functional theory calculation to study the electronic transport properties of the tailored zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with particular electronic transport channels. Our results demonstrated that tailoring the atomic structure had significantly influenced the electronic transport of the defective nanostructures, and could lead to the metal-semiconducting transition when sufficient atoms are tailored. The asymmetric I–V characteristics as a result of symmetry breaking have been exhibited, which indicates the route to utilize GNR as a basic component for novel nanoelectronics. -- Highlights: ► M–S transition induced by tailoring nanostructure. ► Asymmetric I–V curve due to symmetry breaking. ► Controllable electron transport by designing nanofiguration.

  11. A computational study of a novel graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishi, Seyed Saleh; Yousefi, Reza

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, using gate structure engineering and modification of channel dopant profile, we propose a new double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor (DG-GNRFET) mainly to suppress the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) of carriers. In the new device, the intrinsic part of the channel is replaced by an intrinsic-lightly doped-intrinsic (I -N--I) configuration in a way that only the intrinsic parts are covered by the gate contact. Transport characteristics of the device are investigated theoretically using the nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism. Numerical simulations show that off-current, ambipolar behavior, on/off-current ratio and the switching characteristics such as intrinsic delay and power-delay product are improved. In addition, the new device demonstrates better sub-threshold swing and less drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL).

  12. Conductance oscillation in graphene-nanoribbon-based electronic Fabry-Perot resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Han Mei; Shen Linjiang

    2010-01-01

    By using the tight-binding approximation and the Green's function method, the quantum conductance of the Fabry-Perot-like electronic resonators composed of zigzag and metallic armchair edge graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) was studied numerically. Obtained results show that due to Fabry-Perot-like electronic interference, the conductance of the GNR resonators oscillates periodically with the Fermi energy. The effects of disorders and coupling between the electrodes and the GNR on conductance oscillations were explored. It is found that the conductance oscillations appear at the strong coupling and become resonant peaks as the coupling is very weak. It is also found that the strong disorders in the GNR can smear the conductance oscillation periods. In other words, the weak coupling and the strong disorders all can blur the conductance oscillations, making them unclearly distinguished.

  13. Conductance growth in metallic bilayer graphene nanoribbons with disorder and contact scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, N; Ding, J W

    2008-01-01

    By using a decomposition elimination method for Green's function matrix, we explore the effects of both disorder and contact scattering on electronic transport in metallic bilayer graphene nanoribbons (BGNRs) and related structures, in the limit of phase-coherent transport. Due to the inter-layer interaction, a conductance gap is observed at Fermi energy in primary metallic zigzag BGNRs. It is found that the fashion of the conductance variations with disorder depends strongly on the type of disorder and contact scattering. In the edge disordered BGNR, the conductance decreases monotonically with the disorder increasing and finally tends to disappear, while a nonmonotonic behavior is obtained in the single-layer disordered BGNR, first decreasing then increasing. In the presence of contact scattering, especially, an abnormal growth of the conductance appears at much lower disorder in both edge and single-layer disordered BGNRs, which may be due to the destruction of coherence by the introduction of disorder.

  14. Asymmetrical edges induced strong current-polarization in embedded graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuanhong; Zhang, Xiang-Hua

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the electronic structures and transport properties of the embedded zigzag graphene nanoribbon (E-ZGNR) in hexagonal boron nitride trenches, which are achievable in recent experiments. Our first principles results show that the E-ZGNR has a significant enhanced conductivity relative to common ZGNRs due to the existence of asymmetrical edge structures. Moreover, only one spin-orientation electrons possess a widely opened band gap at the magnetic ground state with anti-ferromagnetic configuration, resulting in a full current-polarization at low bias region. Our findings indicate that the state-of-the-art embedding technology is quite useful for tuning the electronic structure of ZGNR and building possible spin injection and spin filter devices in spintronics.

  15. Semiconducting states and transport in metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiongwen; Wang Haiyan; Wan Haiqing; Zhou Guanghui; Song Kehui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method within the tight-binding approximation scheme, through a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) model, we study the low-energy electronic states and transport properties of carbon chains in armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs). We show that semiconducting AGNRs possess only semiconducting chains, while metallic ones possess not only metallic chains but also unconventional semiconducting chains located at the 3jth (j≠0) column from the edge (the first chain) due to the vanishing of the metallic component in the electron wavefunction. The two types of states for carbon chains in a metallic AGNR system are demonstrated by different density of states and STM tunneling currents. Moreover, a similar phenomenon is predicted in the edge region of very wide AGNRs. However, there is remarkable difference in the tunneling current between narrow and wide ribbons.

  16. Optical properties of graphene nanoribbons encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander I; Fedotov, Pavel V; Talyzin, Alexandr V; Suarez Lopez, Inma; Anoshkin, Ilya V; Nasibulin, Albert G; Kauppinen, Esko I; Obraztsova, Elena D

    2013-07-23

    We report the photoluminescence (PL) from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) encapsulated in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). New PL spectral features originating from GNRs have been detected in the visible spectral range. PL peaks from GNRs have resonant character, and their positions depend on the ribbon geometrical structure in accordance with the theoretical predictions. GNRs were synthesized using confined polymerization and fusion of coronene molecules. GNR@SWCNTs material demonstrates a bright photoluminescence both in infrared (IR) and visible regions. The photoluminescence excitation mapping in the near-IR spectral range has revealed the geometry-dependent shifts of the SWCNT peaks (up to 11 meV in excitation and emission) after the process of polymerization of coronene molecules inside the nanotubes. This behavior has been attributed to the strain of SWCNTs induced by insertion of the coronene molecules.

  17. Controlling Short-Range Interactions by Tuning Surface Chemistry in HDPE/Graphene Nanoribbon Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Soheil; Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-09-03

    Unique dispersion states of nanoparticles in polymeric matrices have the potential to create composites with enhanced mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. The present work aims to determine the state of dispersion from the melt-state rheological behavior of nanocomposites based on carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon (GNR) nanomaterials. GNRs were synthesized from nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes via a chemical route using potassium permanganate and some second acids. High-density polyethylene (HDPE)/GNR nanocomposite samples were then prepared through a solution mixing procedure. Different nanocomposite dispersion states were achieved using different GNR synthesis methods providing different surface chemistry, interparticle interactions, and internal compartments. Prolonged relaxation of flow induced molecular orientation was observed due to the presence of both carbon nanotubes and GNRs. Based on the results of this work, due to relatively weak interactions between the polymer and the nanofillers, it is expected that short-range interactions between nanofillers play the key role in the final dispersion state.

  18. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment.

  19. Functionalization and migration of bromine adatoms on zigzag graphene nanoribbons: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Kumar, Amit; Patel, Chandrabhan

    2018-05-01

    Tailoring the electronic band gap of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) through edge functionalization and understanding the adsorption of guest adatoms on GNR is crucial for realization of upcoming organic devices. In the present work, we have investigated the structural stability and electronic property of bromine (Br) termination at the edges of zigzag GNR (ZGNR). The migration pathways of Br adatom on ZGNR have also been discussed along four different diffusion paths. It is revealed that Br termination induces metallicity in ZGNR and caused upward shifting of Fermi level. Further, the migration is predicted to take place preferable along the ribbon edges whereas across the ribbon width, migration is least probable to take place due to sufficiently higher migration barrier of ˜160 meV.

  20. Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wen

    2017-06-14

    We present a mass spectrometric approach to monitor and characterize the intermediates of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) formation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on top of Au(111) surfaces. Information regarding the repeating units, lengths, and termini can be obtained directly from the surface sample by a modified matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method. The mass spectrometric results reveal ample oxidative side reactions under CVD conditions which can, however, be diminished drastically by introduction of protective H2 gas at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, addition of hydrogen extends the lengths of the oligophenylenes and thus the final GNRs. Moreover, the prematurely formed cyclodehydrogenation products during the oligomer growth can be assigned by the mass spectrometric method. The obtained mechanistic insights provide valuable information for optimizing and upscaling the bottom-up fabrication of GNRs. Given the important role of GNRs as semiconductors, the mass spectrometric characterization provides a readily available tool to improve and characterize their structural perfection.

  1. Strain effect on graphene nanoribbon carrier statistic in the presence of non-parabolic band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izuani Che Rosid, N A; Ahmadi, M T; Ismail, Razali

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tensile uniaxial strain on the non-parabolic electronic band structure of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. In addition, the density of states and the carrier statistic based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian are modeled analytically. It is found that the property of AGNR in the non-parabolic band region is varied by the strain. The tunable energy band gap in AGNR upon strain at the minimum energy is described for each of n-AGNR families in the non-parabolic approximation. The behavior of AGNR in the presence of strain is attributed to the breakable AGNR electronic band structure, which varies the physical properties from its normality. The linear relation between the energy gap and the electrical properties is featured to further explain the characteristic of the deformed AGNR upon strain. (paper)

  2. Magnetoexcitons and Faraday rotation in single-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Have, Jonas; Pedersen, Thomas G.

    2018-03-01

    The magneto-optical response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied theoretically, including excitonic effects. Both diagonal and nondiagonal response functions are obtained and employed to compute Faraday rotation spectra. For single-walled CNTs in a parallel field, the results show field-dependent splitting of the exciton absorption peaks caused by brightening a dark exciton state. Similarly, for GNRs in a perpendicular magnetic field, we observe a field-dependent shift of the exciton peaks and the emergence of an absorption peak above the energy gap. Results show that excitonic effects play a significant role in the optical response of both materials, particularly for the off-diagonal tensor elements.

  3. Origin of spin-polarization in edge boron doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon: a potential spin filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Wasey, A H M Abdul; Thapa, Ranjit; Das, Gour Prasad

    2018-06-04

    To realize the graphene based spintronic device the prime challenge is to control the electronic structure of edges. In this work we find the origin of spin filtering property in edge boron doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNRs) and provide a guide to prepare the graphene based next generation spin filter based device. Here we unveil the role of orbital (p-electron) to tune the electronic, magnetic and transport properties of the edge B doped ZGNRs. When all the edge carbon atoms at one of the edges of ZGNRs are replaced by B (100% edge B-doping), the system undergoes semiconductor to metal transition. The role of passivation of the edge with single/double atomic hydrogen on the electronic properties and its relation with the p electron is correlated in-depth. 50% edge B-doped ZGNRs (50% of the edge C atoms at one of the edges are replaced by B) also shows half-metallicity when the doped edge is left unpassivated. The half-metallic systems show 100% spin-filtering efficiency for a wide range of bias voltages. Zero bias transmission function of the other configurations shows asymmetric behavior for the up and down spin channels, thereby indicating their possible application potential in nano-spintronics. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Electronic structure and transport of a carbon chain between graphene nanoribbon leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G P; Fang, X W; Yao, Y X; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M; Ding, Z J

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport property of a carbon chain between two graphene nanoribbon leads are studied using an ab initio tight-binding (TB) model and Landauer's formalism combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function. The TB Hamiltonian and overlap matrices are extracted from first-principles density functional calculations through the quasi-atomic minimal basis orbital scheme. The accuracy of the TB model is demonstrated by comparing the electronic structure from the TB model with that from first-principles density functional theory. The results of electronic transport on a carbon atomic chain connected to armchair and zigzag graphene ribbon leads, such as different transport characters near the Fermi level and at most one quantized conductance, reveal the effect of the electronic structure of the leads and the scattering from the atomic chain. In addition, bond length alternation and an interesting transmission resonance are observed in the atomic chain connected to zigzag graphene ribbon leads. Our approach provides a promising route to quantitative investigation of both the electronic structure and transport property of large systems.

  5. Li4Ti5O12/graphene nanoribbons composite as anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, P A; Zheng, H; Fahlman, B D; Annamalai, P; Swartbooi, A; le Roux, L; Mathe, M K

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of a Li4Ti5O12/Graphene Nanoribbons (LTO/GNRs) composite using a solid-coating method. Electron microscope images of the LTO/GNRs composite have shown that LTO particles were wrapped around graphene nanoribbons. The introduction of GNRs was observed to have significantly improved the rate performance of LTO/GNTs. The specific capacities determined of the obtained composite at rates of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 C are 206.5, 200.9, 188, 178.1 and 142.3 mAh·g(-1), respectively. This is significantly higher than those of pure LTO (169.1, 160, 150, 106 and 71.1 mAh·g(-1), respectively) especially at high rate (2 and 5 C). The LTO/GNRs also shows better cycling stability at high rates. Enhanced conductivity of LTO/GNRs contributed from the GNR frameworks accelerated the kinetics of lithium intercalation/deintercalation in LIBs that also leads to excellent rate capacity of LTO/GNRs. This is attributed to its lower charge-transfer resistance (Rct = 23.38 Ω) compared with LTO (108.05 Ω), and higher exchange current density (j = 1.1 × 10(-3) mA cm(-2))-about 20 times than those of the LTO (j = 2.38 × 10(-4) mA cm(-2)).

  6. Transport properties in monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-Long Chu; Zi-Bo Wang; Jiao-Jiao Zhou; Hua Jiang

    2017-01-01

    The transport study of graphene based junctions has become one of the focuses in graphene research.There are two stacking configurations for monolayer-bilayer-monolayer graphene planar junctions.One is the two monolayer graphene contacting the same side of the bilayer graphene,and the other is the two-monolayer graphene contacting the different layers of the bilayer graphene.In this paper,according to the Landauer-Büttiker formula,we study the transport properties of these two configurations.The influences of the local gate potential in each part,the bias potential in bilayer graphene,the disorder and external magnetic field on conductance are obtained.We find the conductances of the two configurations can be manipulated by all of these effects.Especially,one can distinguish the two stacking configurations by introducing the bias potential into the bilayer graphene.The strong disorder and the external magnetic field will make the two stacking configurations indistinguishable in the transport experiment.

  7. Electron doping effects on the electrical conductivity of zigzag carbon nanotubes and corresponding unzipped armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Hamze; Jalilvand, Samira; Kurdestany, Jamshid Moradi; Grabowski, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The Kubo formula is used to extract the electrical conductivity (EC) of different diameters of doped zigzag carbon nanotubes and their corresponding unzipped armchair graphene nanoribbons, as a function of temperature and chemical potential, within the tight-binding Hamiltonian model and Green's functions approach. The results reveal more sensitivity to temperature for semiconducting systems in addition to a decrease in EC of all systems with increasing cross-sections.

  8. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Modeling of Graphene Nano-Ribbon Incorporating the Spatial Dispersion Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Li Jun; Bagci, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that graphene demonstrates spatial dispersion properties, i.e., its conductivity is nonlocal and a function of spectral wave number (momentum operator) q. In this paper, to account for effects of spatial dispersion on transmission of high speed signals along graphene nano-ribbon (GNR) interconnects, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) algorithm is proposed. The atomically-thick GNR is modeled using a nonlocal transparent surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) incorporated into the DGTD scheme. Since the conductivity is a complicated function of q (and one cannot find an analytical Fourier transform pair between q and spatial differential operators), an exact time domain SIBC model cannot be derived. To overcome this problem, the conductivity is approximated by its Taylor series in spectral domain under low-q assumption. This approach permits expressing the time domain SIBC in the form of a second-order partial differential equation (PDE) in current density and electric field intensity. To permit easy incorporation of this PDE with the DGTD algorithm, three auxiliary variables, which degenerate the second-order (temporal and spatial) differential operators to first-order ones, are introduced. Regarding to the temporal dispersion effects, the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) method is utilized to eliminates the expensive temporal convolutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed scheme, numerical results, which involve characterization of spatial dispersion effects on the transfer impedance matrix of GNR interconnects, are presented.

  9. I-V characteristics of graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunctions and resonant tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, Taiga; Sakamoto, Shoichi; Tomiya, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-07-04

    We present the first principle calculations of the electrical properties of graphene sheet/h-BN heterojunction (GS/h-BN) and 11-armchair graphene nanoribbon/h-BN heterojunction (11-AGNR/h-BN), which are carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) method and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) technique. Since 11-AGNR belongs to the conductive (3n-1)-family of AGNR, both are metallic nanomaterials with two transverse arrays of h-BN, which is a wide-gap semi-conductor. The two h-BN arrays act as double barriers. The transmission functions (TF) and I-[Formula: see text] characteristics of GS/h-BN and 11-AGNR/h-BN are calculated by DFT and NEGF, and they show that quantum double barrier tunneling occurs. The TF becomes very spiky in both materials, and it leads to step-wise I-[Formula: see text] characteristics rather than negative resistance, which is the typical behavior of double barriers in semiconductors. The results of our first principle calculations are also compared with 1D Dirac equation model for the double barrier system. The model explains most of the peaks of the transmission functions nearby the Fermi energy quite well. They are due to quantum tunneling.

  10. Double gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor with single halo pocket in channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    A new structure for graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors (GNRFETs) is proposed and investigated using quantum simulation with a nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. Tunneling leakage current and ambipolar conduction are known effects for MOSFET-like GNRFETs. To minimize these issues a novel structure with a simple change of the GNRFETs by using single halo pocket in the intrinsic channel region, "Single Halo GNRFET (SH-GNRFET)", is proposed. An appropriate halo pocket at source side of channel is used to modify potential distribution of the gate region and weaken band to band tunneling (BTBT). In devices with materials like Si in channel region, doping type of halo and source/drain regions are different. But, here, due to the smaller bandgap of graphene, the mentioned doping types should be the same to reduce BTBT. Simulations have shown that in comparison with conventional GNRFET (C-GNRFET), an SH-GNRFET with appropriately halo doping results in a larger ON current (Ion), smaller OFF current (Ioff), a larger ON-OFF current ratio (Ion/Ioff), superior ambipolar characteristics, a reduced power-delay product and lower delay time.

  11. Discontinuous Galerkin Time-Domain Modeling of Graphene Nano-Ribbon Incorporating the Spatial Dispersion Effects

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2018-04-13

    It is well known that graphene demonstrates spatial dispersion properties, i.e., its conductivity is nonlocal and a function of spectral wave number (momentum operator) q. In this paper, to account for effects of spatial dispersion on transmission of high speed signals along graphene nano-ribbon (GNR) interconnects, a discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) algorithm is proposed. The atomically-thick GNR is modeled using a nonlocal transparent surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC) incorporated into the DGTD scheme. Since the conductivity is a complicated function of q (and one cannot find an analytical Fourier transform pair between q and spatial differential operators), an exact time domain SIBC model cannot be derived. To overcome this problem, the conductivity is approximated by its Taylor series in spectral domain under low-q assumption. This approach permits expressing the time domain SIBC in the form of a second-order partial differential equation (PDE) in current density and electric field intensity. To permit easy incorporation of this PDE with the DGTD algorithm, three auxiliary variables, which degenerate the second-order (temporal and spatial) differential operators to first-order ones, are introduced. Regarding to the temporal dispersion effects, the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) method is utilized to eliminates the expensive temporal convolutions. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed scheme, numerical results, which involve characterization of spatial dispersion effects on the transfer impedance matrix of GNR interconnects, are presented.

  12. Third nearest neighbor parameterized tight binding model for graphene nano-ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van-Truong Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The existing tight binding models can very well reproduce the ab initio band structure of a 2D graphene sheet. For graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs, the current sets of tight binding parameters can successfully describe the semi-conducting behavior of all armchair GNRs. However, they are still failing in reproducing accurately the slope of the bands that is directly associated with the group velocity and the effective mass of electrons. In this work, both density functional theory and tight binding calculations were performed and a new set of tight binding parameters up to the third nearest neighbors including overlap terms is introduced. The results obtained with this model offer excellent agreement with the predictions of the density functional theory in most cases of ribbon structures, even in the high-energy region. Moreover, this set can induce electron-hole asymmetry as manifested in results from density functional theory. Relevant outcomes are also achieved for armchair ribbons of various widths as well as for zigzag structures, thus opening a route for multi-scale atomistic simulation of large systems that cannot be considered using density functional theory.

  13. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons under shear deformation: A molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Hao, Xiao-Li; Wang, Cui-Xia; Wei, Ning; Rabczuk, Timon

    2017-01-01

    Tensile strain and compress strain can greatly affect the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). However, the effect of GNRs under shear strain, which is also one of the main strain effect, has not been studied systematically yet. In this work, we employ reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (RNEMD) to the systematical study of the thermal conductivity of GNRs (with model size of 4 nm × 15 nm) under the shear strain. Our studies show that the thermal conductivity of GNRs is not sensitive to the shear strain, and the thermal conductivity decreases only 12–16% before the pristine structure is broken. Furthermore, the phonon frequency and the change of the micro-structure of GNRs, such as band angel and bond length, are analyzed to explore the tendency of thermal conductivity. The results show that the main influence of shear strain is on the in-plane phonon density of states (PDOS), whose G band (higher frequency peaks) moved to the low frequency, thus the thermal conductivity is decreased. The unique thermal properties of GNRs under shear strains suggest their great potentials for graphene nanodevices and great potentials in the thermal managements and thermoelectric applications. PMID:28120921

  14. Modeling of cross-plane interface thermal conductance between graphene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Vikas; Lee, Jonghoon; Farmer, Barry L; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics for thermal energy transfer, we investigate the interfacial thermal conductance between non-covalently interacting graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) of varying lengths and widths in a cross-contact (x-shaped) geometry. Our results show that the out-of-plane conductance between GNRs can vary significantly (up to a factor of 4) depending upon their geometric parameters. We observe that when plotted against aspect ratio, the predicted interface thermal conductance values fit excellently on a single master-plot with a logarithmic scaling, suggesting the importance of GNR aspect ratio towards thermal conductance. We propose a model based on incorporating different thermal conductance characteristics of edge and inner interacting regions which predicts the observed logarithmic dependence on aspect ratio. We also study the effect of graphene edge roughness, temperature, and strain on out-of-plane thermal conductance and discuss the observed results based on local vibrational characteristics of atoms within interacting region, number of interacting phonons, and the degree to which they interact across the interaction zone. (paper)

  15. Reverse degradation of nickel graphene junction by hydrogen annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal contacts are fundamental building components for graphene based electronic devices and their properties are greatly influenced by interface quality during device fabrication, leading to resistance variation. Here we show that nickel graphene junction degrades after air exposure, due to interfacial oxidation, thus creating a tunneling barrier. Most importantly, we demonstrate that hydrogen annealing at moderate temperature (300 0C is an effective technique to reverse the degradation.

  16. Conduction gap in graphene strain junctions: direction dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, M Chung; Nguyen, V Hung; Dollfus, P; Nguyen, Huy-Viet

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown in a recent study (Nguyen et al 2014 Nanotechnology 25 165201) that unstrained/strained graphene junctions are promising candidates to improve the performance of graphene transistors which is usually hindered by the gapless nature of graphene. Although the energy bandgap of strained graphene still remains zero, the shift of Dirac points in the k-space due to strain-induced deformation of graphene lattice can lead to the appearance of a finite conduction gap of several hundred meV in strained junctions with a strain of only a few per cent. However, since it depends essentially on the magnitude of the Dirac point shift, this conduction gap strongly depends on the direction of applied strain and the transport direction. In this work, a systematic study of conduction-gap properties with respect to these quantities is presented and the results are carefully analyzed. Our study provides useful information for further investigations to exploit graphene-strained junctions in electronic applications and strain sensors. (paper)

  17. Molecular Dynamics Studies on Ballistic Thermal Resistance of Graphene Nano-Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Wen-Jun; Cao Bing-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Ballistic thermal resistance of graphene nano-junctions is investigated using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation system is consisted of two symmetrical trapezoidal or rectangular graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs) and a connecting nanoscale constriction in between. From the simulated temperature profile, a big temperature jump resulted from the constriction is found, which is proportional to the heat current and corresponds to a local ballistic thermal resistance. Fixing the constriction width and the length of GNRs, this ballistic thermal resistance is independent of the width of the GNRs bottom layer, i.e., the convex angle. But interestingly, this thermal resistance has obvious size effect. It is inversely proportional to the constriction width and will disappear with the constriction being wider. Moreover, based on the phonon dynamics theory, a theoretical model of the ballistic thermal resistance in two-dimensional nano-systems is developed, which gives a good explanation on microcosmic level and agrees well with the simulation result quantitatively and qualitatively. (paper)

  18. Graphene nanoribbon field effect transistor for nanometer-size on-chip temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banadaki, Yaser M.; Srivastava, Ashok; Sharifi, Safura

    2016-04-01

    Graphene has been extensively investigated as a promising material for various types of high performance sensors due to its large surface-to-volume ratio, remarkably high carrier mobility, high carrier density, high thermal conductivity, extremely high mechanical strength and high signal-to-noise ratio. The power density and the corresponding die temperature can be tremendously high in scaled emerging technology designs, urging the on-chip sensing and controlling of the generated heat in nanometer dimensions. In this paper, we have explored the feasibility of a thin oxide graphene nanoribbon (GNR) as nanometer-size temperature sensor for detecting local on-chip temperature at scaled bias voltages of emerging technology. We have introduced an analytical model for GNR FET for 22nm technology node, which incorporates both thermionic emission of high-energy carriers and band-to-band-tunneling (BTBT) of carriers from drain to channel regions together with different scattering mechanisms due to intrinsic acoustic phonons and optical phonons and line-edge roughness in narrow GNRs. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) of GNR FET-based temperature sensor shows approximately an order of magnitude higher TCR than large-area graphene FET temperature sensor by accurately choosing of GNR width and bias condition for a temperature set point. At gate bias VGS = 0.55 V, TCR maximizes at room temperature to 2.1×10-2 /K, which is also independent of GNR width, allowing the design of width-free GNR FET for room temperature sensing applications.

  19. Graphene nanoribbon and nanostructured SnO2 composite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Zhiwei; Xiang, Changsheng; Ruan, Gedeng; Yan, Zheng; Natelson, Douglas; Tour, James M

    2013-07-23

    A composite made from graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) is synthesized and used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). The conductive GNRs, prepared using sodium/potassium unzipping of multiwall carbon nanotubes, can boost the lithium storage performance of SnO2 NPs. The composite, as an anode material for LIBs, exhibits reversible capacities of over 1520 and 1130 mAh/g for the first discharge and charge, respectively, which is more than the theoretical capacity of SnO2. The reversible capacity retains ~825 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g with a Coulombic efficiency of 98% after 50 cycles. Further, the composite shows good power performance with a reversible capacity of ~580 mAh/g at the current density of 2 A/g. The high capacity, good power performance and retention can be attributed to uniformly distributed SnO2 NPs along the high-aspect-ratio GNRs. The GNRs act as conductive additives that buffer the volume changes of SnO2 during cycling. This work provides a starting point for exploring the composites made from GNRs and other transition metal oxides for lithium storage applications.

  20. Graphene nanoribbons as a drug delivery agent for lucanthone mediated therapy of glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Surhland, Cassandra; Sanchez, Zina; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Suresh Kumar, M A; Lee, Stephen; Peña, Louis A; Waring, Michael; Sitharaman, Balaji; Naidu, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    We report use of PEG-DSPE coated oxidized graphene nanoribbons (O-GNR-PEG-DSPE) as agent for delivery of anti-tumor drug Lucanthone (Luc) into Glioblastoma Multiformae (GBM) cells targeting base excision repair enzyme APE-1 (Apurinic endonuclease-1). Lucanthone, an endonuclease inhibitor of APE-1, was loaded onto O-GNR-PEG-DSPEs using a simple non-covalent method. We found its uptake by GBM cell line U251 exceeding 67% and 60% in APE-1-overexpressing U251, post 24h. However, their uptake was ~38% and 29% by MCF-7 and rat glial progenitor cells (CG-4), respectively. TEM analysis of U251 showed large aggregates of O-GNR-PEG-DSPE in vesicles. Luc-O-GNR-PEG-DSPE was significantly toxic to U251 but showed little/no toxicity when exposed to MCF-7/CG-4 cells. This differential uptake effect can be exploited to use O-GNR-PEG-DSPEs as a vehicle for Luc delivery to GBM, while reducing nonspecific cytotoxicity to the surrounding healthy tissue. Cell death in U251 was necrotic, probably due to oxidative degradation of APE-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Unified Drain Current Model of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons with Uniaxial Strain and Quantum Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EngSiew Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A unified current-voltage I-V model of uniaxial strained armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs incorporating quantum confinement effects is presented in this paper. The I-V model is enhanced by integrating both linear and saturation regions into a unified and precise model of AGNRs. The derivation originates from energy dispersion throughout the entire Brillouin zone of uniaxial strained AGNRs based on the tight-binding approximation. Our results reveal the modification of the energy band gap, carrier density, and drain current upon strain. The effects of quantum confinement were investigated in terms of the quantum capacitance calculated from the broadening density of states. The results show that quantum effect is greatly dependent on the magnitude of applied strain, gate voltage, channel length, and oxide thickness. The discrepancies between the classical calculation and quantum calculation were also measured and it has been found to be as high as 19% drive current loss due to the quantum confinement. Our finding which is in good agreement with the published data provides significant insight into the device performance of uniaxial strained AGNRs in nanoelectronic applications.

  2. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of transition-metal embedded zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guodong; Lü Xiaoling; Jiang Liwei; Gao Wenzhu; Zheng Yisong

    2013-01-01

    By means of ab initio calculations within density-functional theory, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) with 3d transition-metal atoms (TMAs) (Sc–Zn) embedded in the periodically distributed single vacancies are systematically studied. Different from the pristine ZGNR, all of these composite structures show the subband structures with nontrivial spin polarizations, regardless of the type and the embedding position of the TMA. Embedding one kind of these atoms (V, Cr, Ni, Cu or Zn) near one ribbon edge can cause a notable edge distortion. Except for the cases of Sc, Fe and Co doping, other kinds of TMAs embedded near an edge of the ribbon can suppress the inherent magnetism of the zigzag edge. By further analysis, we find that two effects are responsible for the suppression of edge magnetism. One is the variation of the occupied spin-polarized subbands due to the hybridization of the edge state of the ZGNR and 3d atomic states of the dopant. The other is the delocalization of the edge state caused by the exotic TMA. The unilateral magnetism of these TMA-embedded ZGNRs can be utilized to realize the spin-polarized electronic transport, which is the key electronic property in the context of spintronics applications of carbon-based materials. (paper)

  3. The electronic transport properties of defected bilayer sliding armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Amin; Haji-Nasiri, Saeed

    2018-04-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) in combination with tight-binding (TB) model, we investigate and compare the electronic transport properties of perfect and defected bilayer armchair graphene nanoribbons (BAGNRs) under finite bias. Two typical defects which are placed in the middle of top layer (i.e. single vacancy (SV) and stone wale (SW) defects) are examined. The results reveal that in both perfect and defected bilayers, the maximum current refers to β-AB, AA and α-AB stacking orders, respectively, since the intermolecular interactions are stronger in them. Moreover it is observed that a SV decreases the current in all stacking orders, but the effects of a SW defect is nearly unpredictable. Besides, we introduced a sequential switching behavior and the effects of defects on the switching performance is studied as well. We found that a SW defect can significantly improve the switching behavior of a bilayer system. Transmission spectrum, band structure, molecular energy spectrum and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian (MPSH) are analyzed subsequently to understand the electronic transport properties of these bilayer devices which can be used in developing nano-scale bilayer systems.

  4. Switching from Reactant to Substrate Engineering in the Selective Synthesis of Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Díez, Néstor; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Nita, Pawel; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Basagni, Andrea; Vasseur, Guillaume; Tiso, Federica; Sedona, Francesco; Das, Pranab K; Fujii, Jun; Vobornik, Ivana; Sambi, Mauro; Pascual, José Ignacio; Ortega, J Enrique; de Oteyza, Dimas G

    2018-04-27

    The challenge of synthesizing graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with atomic precision is currently being pursued along a one-way road, based on the synthesis of adequate molecular precursors that react in predefined ways through self-assembly processes. The synthetic options for GNR generation would multiply by adding a new direction to this readily successful approach, especially if both of them can be combined. We show here how GNR synthesis can be guided by an adequately nanotemplated substrate instead of by the traditionally designed reactants. The structural atomic precision, unachievable to date through top-down methods, is preserved by the self-assembly process. This new strategy's proof-of-concept compares experiments using 4,4''-dibromo-para-terphenyl as a molecular precursor on flat Au(111) and stepped Au(322) substrates. As opposed to the former, the periodic steps of the latter drive the selective synthesis of 6 atom-wide armchair GNRs, whose electronic properties have been further characterized in detail by scanning tunneling spectroscopy, angle resolved photoemission, and density functional theory calculations.

  5. Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons accounting for phonon dispersion and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Xie, Guofeng

    2015-01-01

    The relative contribution to heat conduction by different phonon branches is still an intriguing and open question in phonon transport of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). By incorporating the direction–dependent phonon–boundary scattering into the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we find that because of lower Grüneisen parameter, the TA phonons have the major contribution to thermal conductivity of GNRs, and in the case of smooth edge and micron–length of GNRS, the relative contribution of TA branch to thermal conductivity is over 50%. The length and edge roughness of GNRs have distinct influences on the relative contribution of different polarization branches to thermal conductivity. The contribution of TA branch to thermal conductivity increases with increasing the length or decreasing the edge roughness of GNRs. On the contrary, the contribution of ZA branch to thermal conductivity increases with decreasing the length or increasing the edge roughness of GNRs. The contribution of LA branch is length and roughness insensitive. Our findings are helpful for understanding and engineering the thermal conductivity of GNRs.

  6. A multichannel model for the self-consistent analysis of coherent transport in graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Farina, Marco; Di Donato, Andrea; Rozzi, Tullio

    2011-08-23

    In this contribution, we analyze the multichannel coherent transport in graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by a scattering matrix approach. We consider the transport properties of GNR devices of a very general form, involving multiple bands and multiple leads. The 2D quantum transport over the whole GNR surface, described by the Schrödinger equation, is strongly nonlinear as it implies calculation of self-generated and externally applied electrostatic potentials, solutions of the 3D Poisson equation. The surface charge density is computed as a balance of carriers traveling through the channel at all of the allowed energies. Moreover, formation of bound charges corresponding to a discrete modal spectrum is observed and included in the model. We provide simulation examples by considering GNR configurations typical for transistor devices and GNR protrusions that find an interesting application as cold cathodes for X-ray generation. With reference to the latter case, a unified model is required in order to couple charge transport and charge emission. However, to a first approximation, these could be considered as independent problems, as in the example. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Influence of quasi-particle density over polaron mobility in armchair graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gesiel Gomes; da Cunha, Wiliam Ferreira; de Sousa Junior, Rafael Timóteo; Almeida Fonseca, Antonio Luciano; Ribeiro Júnior, Luiz Antônio; E Silva, Geraldo Magela

    2018-06-20

    An important aspect concerning the performance of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) as materials for conceiving electronic devices is related to the mobility of charge carriers in these systems. When several polarons are considered in the system, a quasi-particle wave function can be affected by that of its neighbor provided the two are close enough. As the overlap may affect the transport of the carrier, the question concerning how the density of polarons affect its mobility arises. In this work, we investigate such dependence for semiconducting AGNRs in the scope of nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Our results unambiguously show an impact of the density on both the stability and average velocity of the quasi-particles. We have found a phase transition between regimes where increasing density stops inhibiting and starts promoting mobility; densities higher than 7 polarons per 45 Å present increasing mean velocity with increasing density. We have also established three different regions relating electric field and average velocity. For the lowest electric field regime, surpassing the aforementioned threshold results in overcoming the 0.3 Å fs-1 limit, thus representing a transition between subsonic and supersonic regimes. For the highest of the electric fields, density effects alone are responsible for a stunning difference of 1.5 Å fs-1 in the mean carrier velocity.

  8. Spin currents and filtering behavior in zigzag graphene nanoribbons with adsorbed molybdenum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Fuente, A; Gallego, L J; Vega, A

    2015-01-01

    By means of density-functional-theoretic calculations, we investigated the structural, electronic and transport properties of hydrogen-passivated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) on which a one-atom-thick Mo chain was adsorbed (with or without one or two missing atoms), or in which the passivating hydrogen atoms were replaced by Mo atoms. Mo-passivated ZGNRs proved to be nonmagnetic. ZGNRs with an adsorbed defect-free Mo chain were most stable with the Mo atoms forming dimers above edge bay sites, which suppressed the magnetic moments of the C atoms in that half of the ribbon; around the Fermi level of these systems, each spin component had a transmission channel via the Mo sp z band and one had an additional channel created by polarization of the ZGNR π * band, leading to a net spin current. The absence of an Mo dimer from an Mo chain adsorbed at the ZGNR edge made the system a perfect spin filter at low voltage bias by suppressing the Mo sp z band channels. Thus this last kind of hybrid system is a potential spin valve. (paper)

  9. Magnetic adatoms in two and four terminal graphene nanoribbons: A comparison between their spin polarized transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-04-01

    We study the charge and spin transport in two and four terminal graphene nanoribbons (GNR) decorated with random distribution of magnetic adatoms. The inclusion of the magnetic adatoms generates only the z-component of the spin polarized conductance via an exchange bias in the absence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI), while in presence of Rashba SOI, one is able to create all the three (x, y and z) components. This has important consequences for possible spintronic applications. The charge conductance shows interesting behaviour near the zero of the Fermi energy. Where in presence of magnetic adatoms the familiar plateau at 2e2 / h vanishes, thereby transforming a quantum spin Hall insulating phase to an ordinary insulator. The local charge current and the local spin current provide an intuitive idea on the conductance features of the system. We found that, the local charge current is independent of Rashba SOI, while the three components of the local spin currents are sensitive to Rashba SOI. Moreover the fluctuations of the spin polarized conductance are found to be useful quantities as they show specific trends, that is, they enhance with increasing adatom densities. A two terminal GNR device seems to be better suited for possible spintronic applications.

  10. Structural analysis, electronic properties, and band gaps of a graphene nanoribbon: A new 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dass, Devi

    2018-03-01

    Graphene nanoribbon (GNR), a new 2D carbon nanomaterial, has some unique features and special properties that offer a great potential for interconnect, nanoelectronic devices, optoelectronics, and nanophotonics. This paper reports the structural analysis, electronic properties, and band gaps of a GNR considering different chirality combinations obtained using the pz orbital tight binding model. In structural analysis, the analytical expressions for GNRs have been developed and verified using the simulation for the first time. It has been found that the total number of unit cells and carbon atoms within an overall unit cell and molecular structure of a GNR have been changed with the change in their chirality values which are similar to the values calculated using the developed analytical expressions thus validating both the simulation as well as analytical results. Further, the electronic band structures at different chirality values have been shown for the identification of metallic and semiconductor properties of a GNR. It has been concluded that all zigzag edge GNRs are metallic with very small band gaps range whereas all armchair GNRs show both the metallic and semiconductor nature with very small and high band gaps range. Again, the total number of subbands in each electronic band structure is equal to the total number of carbon atoms present in overall unit cell of the corresponding GNR. The semiconductors GNRs can be used as a channel material in field effect transistor suitable for advanced CMOS technology whereas the metallic GNRs could be used for interconnect.

  11. Spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z L; Chen, Y P; Xie, Y E; Zhang, M; Zhong, J X

    2011-01-01

    The spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are investigated using the density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find that the Fe chain has drastic effects on spin-polarized transport properties of ZGNRs compared with a single Fe atom adsorbed on the ZGNRs. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the centre of the ZGNR, the original semiconductor transforms into metal, showing a very wide range of spin-polarized transport. Particularly, the spin polarization around the Fermi level is up to 100%. This is because the adsorbed Fe chain not only induces many localized states but also has effects on the edge states of ZGNR, which can effectively modulate the spin-polarized transports. The spin polarization of ZGNRs is sensitive to the adsorption site of the Fe chain. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the edge of ZGNR, the spin degeneracy of conductance is completely broken. The spin polarization is found to be more pronounced because the edge state of one edge is destroyed by the additional Fe chain. These results have direct implications for the control of the spin-dependent conductance in ZGNRs with the adsorption of Fe chains.

  12. On the possibility of electrochemical unzipping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes to produce graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehtab Yazdi, Alireza; Roberts, Edward P.L.; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman, E-mail: u.sundararaj@ucalgary.ca

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • MWCNTs synthesized and electrochemically oxidized to study the formation of GNR • HRTEM, Raman and XPS confirmed no successful unzipping occurred after oxidation • Electrochemical oxidation very unlikely facilitate formation of intercalated MWCNTs - Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with different geometrical characteristics and chemical doping have been synthesized and electrochemically oxidized to study the possibility of unzipping, and creating graphene nanoribbon (GNR) nanostructures. Modified glassy carbon electrodes of the MWCNTs have been tested in an aqueous electrolyte via anodic scans in a wide range of potentials, followed by keeping at the maximum potential for different times. The microstructural features, structural defects, and functional groups and their elements have been then studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. All results have confirmed that no successful unzipping occurs in the MWCNTs after electrochemical oxidation, even for the nitrogen-doped MWCNTs (CN{sub x}-MWCNTs) with reactive nitrogen groups and defective bamboo structures. In contrast to the report by Shinde et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 4168–4171), it has been concluded that the electrochemical oxidation in aqueous electrolytes is very unlikely to facilitate sufficient incorporation of the intercalated molecules among the walls of the MWCNTs. These molecules are, however, responsible for unzipping of MWCNTs.

  13. Magneto-induced tunability of thermo-spin current in deformed zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adinehloo, Davoud, E-mail: davood-adineloo@ut.ac.ir; Fathipour, Morteza [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-21

    The aim of this report is to unfold how the thermo-electric spin-polarized current in a transverse-biased zigzag graphene nanoribbon changes in the presence of uniaxial deformations and uniform perpendicular magnetic field. Employing the two-parameter Hubbard model along with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we found that both uniaxial strain and magnetic field can significantly modulate the bandgap, local distribution of edge states, and the critical transverse electric field needed to achieve the half-metallic phase in the ribbon. Our analysis shows a significant enhancement of the maximum attainable spin-polarized current as functions of both source temperature and contacts temperature difference, with increasing the magnetic field or applying any magnitude of compressive strain. Furthermore, it is shown that the magneto-resistance ratio of the device, can be drastically tuned via strain engineering, reaching values as high as 2 × 10{sup 4}% for compressive strains of 5% magnitude.

  14. A gate-induced switch in zigzag graphene nanoribbons and charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheraghchi, Hosein; Esmailzade, Hanyieh

    2010-01-01

    Using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate nonlinear transport and charging effects of gated graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with an even number of zigzag chains. We find a negative differential resistance (NDR) over a wide range of gate voltages with an on/off ratio ∼ 10 6 for narrow enough ribbons. This NDR originates from the parity selection rule and also prohibition of transport between discontinuous energy bands. Since the external field is well screened close to the contacts, the NDR is robust against the electrostatic potential. However, for voltages higher than the NDR threshold, due to charge transfer through the edges of the zigzag GNR (ZGNR), screening is reduced such that the external potential can penetrate inside the ribbon giving rise to smaller values of off-current. Furthermore, the on/off ratio of the current depends on the aspect ratio of the length/width and also edge impurity. Moreover, the on/off ratio displays a power law behavior as a function of ribbon length.

  15. Impact of vacancies on the thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Noshin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation using 2nd generation Reactive Bond Order interatomic potential has been performed to model the thermal transport of nanometer sized zigzag defected graphene nanoribbons (GNRs containing several types of vacancies. We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defected GNRs as a function of vacancy concentration within a range of 0.5% to 5% and temperature ranging from 300K to 600K, along with a comparative analysis of those for pristine GNRs. We find that, a vacancy concentration of 0.5% leads to over 90% reduction in the thermal conductivity of GNRs. At low defect concentration, the decay rate is faster but ceases gradually at higher defect concentration. With the increasing temperature, thermal conductivity of defected GNRs decreases but shows less variation in comparison with that of pristine GNRs at higher temperatures. Such comprehensive study on several vacancy type defects in GNRs can provide further insight to tune up the thermal transport characteristics of low dimensional carbon nanostructures. This eventually would encourage the characterization of more stable thermal properties in thermal devices at an elevated temperature as well as the potential applicability of GNRs as thermoelectrics.

  16. Competition of edge effects on the electronic properties and excitonic effects in short graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yan; Wei, Sheng; Jin, Jing; Wang, Li; Lu, Wengang

    2016-01-01

    We explore the electronic properties and exciton effects in short graphene nanoribbons (SGNRs), which have two armchair edges and two zigzag edges. Our results show that both of these two types of edges have profound effects on the electronic properties and exciton effects. Both the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) states are alternatively changed between the bulk and the edge states as the lengths of the zigzag edges increase, due to the competition between the states of the two types of edges. The energy gaps, as a function of the lengths of the armchair edges, will then induce two kinds of trends. Furthermore, two kinds of exciton energies and exciton binding energies are found, which can be understood through the two kinds of HOMO and LUMO states in SGNRs. In addition, we find that the three triplet exciton states are not totally energy degenerate in SGNRs due to the spin-polarized states on the zigzag edges. (paper)

  17. The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa

    2015-03-01

    When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.

  18. Ballistic transport of graphene pnp junctions with embedded local gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung-Geol; Ki, Dong-Keun; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Hu-Jong; Park, Jong Wan

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated graphene pnp devices, by embedding pre-defined local gates in an oxidized surface layer of a silicon substrate. With neither deposition of dielectric material on the graphene nor electron-beam irradiation, we obtained high-quality graphene pnp devices without degradation of the carrier mobility even in the local-gate region. The corresponding increased mean free path leads to the observation of ballistic and phase-coherent transport across a local gate 130 nm wide, which is about an order of magnitude wider than reported previously. Furthermore, in our scheme, we demonstrated independent control of the carrier density in the local-gate region, with a conductance map very much distinct from those of top-gated devices. This was caused by the electric field arising from the global back gate being strongly screened by the embedded local gate. Our scheme allows the realization of ideal multipolar graphene junctions with ballistic carrier transport.

  19. Tuning the tunneling magnetoresistance by using fluorinated graphene in graphene based magnetic junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Meena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spin polarized properties of fluorinated graphene as tunnel barrier with CrO2 as two HMF electrodes are studied using first principle methods based on density functional theory. Fluorinated graphene with different fluorine coverages is explored as tunnel barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions. Density functional computation for different fluorine coverages imply that with increase in fluorine coverages, there is increase in band gap (Eg of graphene, Eg ∼ 3.466 e V was observed when graphene sheet is fluorine adsorbed on both-side with 100% coverage (CF. The results of CF graphene are compared with C4F (fluorination on one-side of graphene sheet with 25% coverage and out-of-plane graphene based magnetic tunnel junctions. On comparison of the results it is observed that CF graphene based structure offers high TMR ∼100%, and the transport of carrier is through tunneling as there are no transmission states near Fermi level. This suggests that graphene sheet with both-side fluorination with 100% coverages acts as a perfect insulator and hence a better barrier to the carriers which is due to negligible spin down current (I↓ in both Parallel Configuration (PC and Antiparallel Configuration (APC.

  20. Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.

  1. Time-dependent density-functional theory simulation of local currents in pristine and single-defect zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shenglai, E-mail: shenglai.he@vanderbilt.edu; Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; Varga, Kálmán, E-mail: kalman.varga@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    The spatial current distribution in H-terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) under electrical bias is investigated using time-dependent density-functional theory solved on a real-space grid. A projected complex absorbing potential is used to minimize the effect of reflection at simulation cell boundary. The calculations show that the current flows mainly along the edge atoms in the hydrogen terminated pristine ZGNRs. When a vacancy is introduced to the ZGNRs, loop currents emerge at the ribbon edge due to electrons hopping between carbon atoms of the same sublattice. The loop currents hinder the flow of the edge current, explaining the poor electric conductance observed in recent experiments.

  2. First-principles quantum transport modeling of thermoelectricity in single-molecule nanojunctions with graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolic, Branislav K.; Saha, Kamal K.; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    to two metallic zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) via highly transparent contacts. Such contacts make possible injection of evanescent wavefunctions from the ZGNR electrodes, so that their overlap within the molecular region generates a peak in the electronic transmission around the Fermi energy......We overview the nonequilibrium Green function combined with density functional theory (NEGF-DFT) approach to modeling of independent electronic and phononic quantum transport in nanoscale thermoelectrics with examples focused on a new class of devices where a single organic molecule is attached...

  3. One-step oxidation preparation of unfolded and good soluble graphene nanoribbons by longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Hu, Yizhen; Huang, Jindan; Zhou, Ning; Liu, Yuhan; Wei, Lin; Chen, Xin; Zhuang, Naifeng

    2018-04-01

    A simple one-step method to prepare graphene nanoribbon (GNR) is reported in this paper. Compared with water steam etching, the oxidation and co-etching of dilute sulfuric acid can result in the more complete longitudinal unzipping of carbon nanotube, although there is no other strong oxidant. As-prepared GNRs are more flat and have more oxygenated functional groups along the edge. Moreover, they can steadily disperse in a water system. These make them suitable as a carrier for supporting palladium (Pd) nanoparticles. The Pd/GNR composite exhibits a superior electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation.

  4. Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung

    2017-08-01

    We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.

  5. Negative Differential Resistance in Atomic Carbon Chain-Graphene Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Liping; Liu Chunmei; Liu Nianhua

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of atomic carbon chain-graphene junctions by using the density-functional theory combining with the non-equilibrium Green's functions. The results show that the transport properties are sensitively dependent on the contact geometry of carbon chain. From the calculated I-V curve we find negative differential resistance (NDR) in the two types of junctions. The NDR can be considered as a result of molecular orbitals moving related to the bias window. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. TCAD analysis of graphene silicon Schottky junction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yawei; Liu, Yushen; Ma, Yulong; Xu, Jing; Yang, Xifeng; Feng, Jinfu

    2015-08-01

    The performance of graphene based Schottky junction solar cell on silicon substrate is studied theoretically by TCAD Silvaco tools. We calculate the current-voltage curves and internal quantum efficiency of this device at different conditions using tow dimensional model. The results show that the power conversion efficiency of Schottky solar cell dependents on the work function of graphene and the physical properties of silicon such as thickness and doping concentration. At higher concentration of 1e17cm-3 for n-type silicon, the dark current got a sharp rise compared with lower doping concentration which implies a convert of electron emission mechanism. The biggest fill factor got at higher phos doping predicts a new direction for higher performance graphene Schottky solar cell design.

  7. Graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors fabricated by etchant-free transfer from Au(788)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Manabu; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Hibino, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2018-01-01

    We report etching-free and iodine-free transfer of highly aligned array of armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (ACGNRs) and their field-effect transistor (FET) characteristics. They were prepared by on-surface polymerization on Au(788) templates. The ACGNRs were mechanically delaminated and transferred onto insulating substrates with the aid of a nano-porous support layer composed of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). The key process in the mechanical delamination is the intercalation of octanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which penetrate the HSQ layer and intercalate between the ACGNRs and Au(788). After the transfer, the octanethiol SAMs were removed with Piranha solution, enabling the reuse of the Au single crystals. The FETs fabricated with the transferred ACGNR array showed ambipolar behavior when the channel length was as long as 60 nm. Quasi-one-dimensional conductivity was observed, which implies a good alignment of GNRs after the transfer. In contrast, short-channel ACGNR FETs (channel length ˜20 nm) suffer from a geometry-dependent short-channel effect. This effect is more severe in the FETs with ACGNRs parallel to the channel, which is an ideal geometry, than in ones perpendicular to the channel. Since the ID-VD curve is well fitted by the power-law model, the short-channel effect likely stems from the space-charge limited current effect, while the wide charge-transfer region in the GNR channel can be another possible cause for the short-channel effect. These results provide us with important insights into the designing short-channel GNR-FETs with improved performance.

  8. A novel graphene nanoribbon FET with an extra peak electric field (EFP-GNRFET) for enhancing the electrical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anvarifard, Mohammad K., E-mail: m.anvarifard@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, East of Guilan, University of Guilan, Rudsar-Vajargah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    This work has provided an efficient technique to improve the electrical performance for the Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNRFETs) successfully. The physical gate length is divided into two gates named as the original gate and the other one as the virtual gate. We have applied a voltage source between these gates to control the channel of the GNRFETs. This technique has created an extra peak electric field in the middle of the channel resulting in the redistribution of surface potential profile. The proposed structure named as EFP-GNRFET has been compared with a simple GNRFET and has shown many improvements in terms of the critical parameters such as short channel effects, leakage current, subthreshold swing, ON-state to OFF-state current ratio, transconductance, output conductance and voltage gain. The structures under the study in this paper benefits from the Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) approach for solving Schrödinger equation coupled with the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation in a self-consistent manner. - Highlights: • Proposal of a novel graphene nanoribbon FET. • Creation of an extra peak in electric field. • Modification of the channel potential with the help of virtual gate. • Considerable improvement on electrical performances.

  9. Intercalation assembly of Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons/graphene sandwich-structured composites with enhanced oxygen reduction catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.; Ling, Q.N.; Huang, C.H.; Bi, K. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, W.J.; Yang, T.Z. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lu, Y.K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, J., E-mail: liujun4982004@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.; Wang, Y.G. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, Ming, E-mail: mlei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Novel sandwich-like nanocomposites of alternative stacked ultrathin Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons and graphene sheets (LVO-G) were successfully developed by a facile intercalation assembly method with a post heating treatment. The characterization results demonstrate that the average size of the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons with a non-layered crystal structure is a few micrometers in length, 50–100 nm in width and a few atomic layers in height. The addition of graphene sheets can modify the preferred orientation of the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons from (110) to (011) plane and restrict the growth of impurity phase at the same time. In addition, EIS analysis has also verified the reduced resistance and thus the enhance conductivity of LVO-G nanocomposites compared with bare Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons. What's more, the electrocatalytic performances of these novel LVO-G nanocomposites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution are further investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and chronoamperometry test. It is found that the enhanced activity and stability of LVO-G can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons and graphene sheets with a larger reduction current density and a smaller onset potential value for LVO-G25 compared with LVO-G50 due to the change of components. - Highlights: • Novel sandwich-structured LVO-G by a facile intercalation assembly method. • Addition of G sheets can modify the preferred orientation of Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbon. • Enhanced ORR activity and stability due to synergistic effect are demonstrated.

  10. Tailoring highly conductive graphene nanoribbons from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a computational study

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, A; Sanvito, S

    2013-01-01

    transmission with a continuum of conducting channels. In contrast, for the armchair nanoribbons a slow exponential attenuation of the conductance with the length has been found, due to their semiconducting nature. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Anomalous length dependence of the conductance of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag edges

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    mechanism. The predicted trends are confirmed by the inclusion of self-interaction correction in the calculations. For both sets of nanoribbons the replacement of the strongly coupling thiol groups by weakly bonding phenathroline has been found to cause a

  12. Quantum transport behavior of Ni-based dinuclear complexes in presence of zigzag graphene nanoribbon as electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Sunandan; Pramanik, Anup; Sarkar, Pranab, E-mail: pranab.sarkar@visva-bharati.ac.in

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes are investigated. • The materials show various spin dependent properties like NDR, spin filtering, etc. • These are occurred by the influence of edge states of zGNR. • Proper tuning of these materials can alter these phenomena. - Abstract: Quantum transport properties of some Ni-based dinuclear complexes with different polydentate organic ligands have been studied by applying abinitio density functional theory along with nonequilibrium Green’s function formulations. It is demonstrated that these materials are capable of showing multifunctional spin dependent properties by the influence of edge states of zigzag edged graphene nanoribbons. The current–voltage characteristics of these materials show spin dependent negative differential resistance behavior, spin filtering effect, and also voltage rectifying property. Proper tuning of these materials can alter these effects which may be utilized in various spintronic devices.

  13. Manganese Dioxide Coated Graphene Nanoribbons Supported Palladium Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Ethanol Electrooxidation in Alkaline Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Kun; Fan, Jinchen; Lin, Yan; Min, Yulin; Xu, Qunjie; Cai, Wen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Design of appropriate supporting materials is an alternative route to yield efficient Pt-free catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction, which in practice may determine the conversion efficiency of direct alkaline ethanol fuel cells. In this work, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) coated with MnO_2 are used as a unique supporting material for loading and dispersing Pd nanoparticles. XRD, TEM and XPS are applied to characterize the structure of as-synthesized Pd/MnO_2/GNRs nanocomposite catalyst, revealing a good dispersion as well as a modification of electronic property of Pd nanoparticles. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the as-synthesized nanocomposite displays largely enhanced electrocatalytic activity and durability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media as compared to the other tested Pd-based catalysts with various supports.

  14. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aihui Liang,1,2,* Chongning Li,1,2,* Dan Li,1,2,* Yanghe Luo,1–3 Guiqing Wen,1,2 Zhiliang Jiang1,2 1Key Laboratory of Ecology of Rare and Endangered Species and Environmental Protection, Guangxi Normal University, Ministry of Education, 2Guangxi Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control Theory and Technology, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, 3School of Food and Bioengineering, Hezhou University, Hezhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The nanogold reaction between HAuCl4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR absorption (Abs at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide–hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2–20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples. Keywords: nanocatalysis, graphene oxide nanoribbon, peptide regulation, hCG, RRS

  15. Finite-size effects on electronic structure and local properties in passivated AA -stacked bilayer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiongwen; Shi, Zhengang; Xiang, Shaohua; Song, Kehui; Zhou, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    Based on the tight-binding model and dual-probe scanning tunneling microscopy technology, we theoretically investigate the electronic structure and local property in the passivated AA -stacked bilayer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (AABLAGNRs). We show that they are highly sensitive to the size of the ribbons, which is evidently different from the single-layer armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons. The ‘3 p ’ rule only applies to the narrow AABLGNRs. Namely, in the passivated 3 p - and (3 p   +  1)-AABLGNRs, the narrow ribbons are semiconducting while the medium and wide ribbons are metallic. Although the passivated (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs are metallic, the ‘3 j ’ rule only applies to the narrow and medium ribbons. Namely, electrons are in the semiconducting states at sites of line 3 j while they are in the metallic states at other sites. This induces a series of parallel and discrete metallic channels, consisting of lines 3 j   −  1 and 3 j   −  2, for the low-energy electronic transports. In the passivated wide (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs, all electrons are in the metallic states. Additionally, the ‘3 p ’ and ‘3 j ’ rules are controllable to disappear and reappear by applying an external perpendicular electric field. Resultantly, an electric filed-driven current switch can be realized in the passivated narrow and medium (3 p   +  2)-AABLGNRs. (paper)

  16. Enhanced field emission properties of tilted graphene nanoribbons on aggregated TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Shang-Chao, E-mail: schung99@gmail.com [Department of Information Technology & Communication, Shih Chien University Kaohsiung Campus, Neimen, Kaohsiung 845, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Jyun [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering & Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Graphene nanoribbons (GNBs) slanted on aggregate TiO{sub 2} nanotube (A-TNTs) as field-emitters. • Turn-on electric field and field enhancement factor β are dependent on the substrate morphology. • Various quantities of GNRs are deposited on top of A-TNTs (GNRs/A-TNTs) with different morphologies. • With an increase of GNBs compositions, the specimens' turn-on electric field is reduced to 2.8 V/μm. • The field enhancement factor increased rapidly to about 1964 with the addition of GNRs. - Abstract: Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) slanted on aggregate TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (A-TNTs) with various compositions as field-emitters are reported. The morphology, crystalline structure, and composition of the as-obtained specimens were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrometry. The dependence of the turn-on electric field and the field enhancement factor β on substrate morphology was studied. An increase of GNRs reduces the specimens’ turn-on electric field to 2.8 V/μm and the field enhancement factor increased rapidly to about 1964 with the addition of GNRs. Results show a strong dependence of the field emission on GNR composition aligned with the gradient on the top of the A-TNT substrate. Enhanced FE properties of the modified TNTs can be mainly attributed to their improved electrical properties and rougher surface morphology.

  17. Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.

  18. Engineering the work function of armchair graphene nanoribbons using strain and functional species: a first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xihong; Tang Fu; Copple, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    First principles density functional theory calculations were performed to study the effects of strain, edge passivation, and surface functional species on the structural and electronic properties of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs), with a particular focus on the work function. The work function was found to increase with uniaxial tensile strain and decrease with compression. The variation of the work function under strain is primarily due to the shift of the Fermi energy with strain. In addition, the relationship between the work function variation and the core level shift with strain is discussed. Distinct trends of the core level shift under tensile and compressive strain were discovered. For AGNRs with the edge carbon atoms passivated by oxygen, the work function is higher than for nanoribbons with the edge passivated by hydrogen under a moderate strain. The difference between the work functions in these two edge passivations is enlarged (reduced) under a sufficient tensile (compressive) strain. This has been correlated to a direct-indirect bandgap transition for tensile strains of about 4% and to a structural transformation for large compressive strains at about - 12%. Furthermore, the effect of the surface species decoration, such as H, F, or OH with different covering density, was investigated. It was found that the work function varies with the type and coverage of surface functional species. Decoration with F and OH increases the work function while H decreases it. The surface functional species were decorated on either one side or both sides of AGNRs. The difference in the work functions between one-sided and two-sided decorations was found to be relatively small, which may suggest an introduced surface dipole plays a minor role. (paper)

  19. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Li, L.

    2017-04-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current-voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions.

  20. Spatial inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier height at graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Li, L

    2017-01-01

    Transport properties of graphene semiconductor Schottky junctions strongly depend on interfacial inhomogeneities due to the inherent formation of ripples and ridges. Here, chemical vapor deposited graphene is transferred onto multilayer MoS 2 to fabricate Schottky junctions. These junctions exhibit rectifying current–voltage behavior with the zero bias Schottky barrier height increases and ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature between 210 and 300 K. Such behavior is attributed to the inhomogeneous interface that arises from graphene ripples and ridges, as revealed by atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy imaging. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, a mean value of 0.96  ±  0.14 eV is obtained. These findings indicate a direct correlation between temperature dependent Schottky barrier height and spatial inhomogeneity in graphene/2D semiconductor Schottky junctions. (paper)

  1. Supercurrent and multiple Andreev reflections in micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengjian; Ben Shalom, Moshe; Mishchsenko, Artem; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre

    2018-02-08

    Ballistic Josephson junctions are predicted to support a number of exotic physics processess, providing an ideal system to inject the supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime. Herein, we demonstrate electrical transport measurements on ballistic superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions by contacting graphene to niobium with a junction length up to 1.5 μm. Hexagonal boron nitride encapsulation and one-dimensional edge contacts guarantee high-quality graphene Josephson junctions with a mean free path of several micrometers and record-low contact resistance. Transports in normal states including the observation of Fabry-Pérot oscillations and Sharvin resistance conclusively witness the ballistic propagation in the junctions. The critical current density J C is over one order of magnitude larger than that of the previously reported junctions. Away from the charge neutrality point, the I C R N product (I C is the critical current and R N the normal state resistance of junction) is nearly a constant, independent of carrier density n, which agrees well with the theory for ballistic Josephson junctions. Multiple Andreev reflections up to the third order are observed for the first time by measuring the differential resistance in the micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.

  2. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Hudy, L. J.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decr...

  3. Chemical functionalization and edge doping of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with L-(+)-leucine and group IB elements-A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, K.; John Thiruvadigal, D.

    2017-10-01

    First-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out on the chemically functionalized pure and Cu, Ag and Au doped zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR(6,0)) with the use of the branched chain amino acid L-(+)-Leucine named as LLZGNR(6,0), LLCuZGNR(6,0), LLAgZGNR(6,0) and LLAuZGNR(6,0) respectively. The structural stability for minimum total energy was confirmed by perturbating the geometry of the relaxed structures. The physical and chemical properties, such as band gap, chemical potential, transmission spectrum, charge transfer, bonding character and Gibb's free energy of solvation were analysed for all the four systems. It has been observed that the edge doping assisted functionalized systems (LLCuZGNR(6,0), LLAgZGNR(6,0) and LLAuZGNR(6,0)) without the inclusion of spin polarisation are semiconducting in nature. Whereas, barely functionalized system is found to be semi-metallic. An effective space charge polarisation in functionalized graphene nanoribbon has been revealed through charge transfer studies. Hence, it signifies the effective solubility of the nanoribbon in aqueous media. The results indicate the possibility of using such system as nanocarriers in targeted drug delivery applications.

  4. Invalidity of the Fermi liquid theory and magnetic phase transition in quasi-1D dopant-induced armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Davoudiniya, Masoumeh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    Based on theoretically tight-binding calculations considering nearest neighbors and Green's function technique, we show that the magnetic phase transition in both semiconducting and metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons with width ranging from 9.83 Å to 69.3 Å would be observed in the presence of injecting electrons by doping. This transition is explained by the temperature-dependent static charge susceptibility through calculation of the correlation function of charge density operators. This work showed that charge concentration of dopants in such system plays a crucial role in determining the magnetic phase. A variety of multicritical points such as transition temperatures and maximum susceptibility are compared in undoped and doped cases. Our findings show that there exist two different transition temperatures and maximum susceptibility depending on the ribbon width in doped structures. Another remarkable point refers to the invalidity (validity) of the Fermi liquid theory in nanoribbons-based systems at weak (strong) concentration of dopants. The obtained interesting results of magnetic phase transition in such system create a new potential for magnetic graphene nanoribbon-based devices.

  5. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao

    2015-07-08

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  6. Photocurrent generation in lateral graphene p-n junction created by electron-beam irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Xuechao; Shen, Youde; Liu, Tao; Wu, Tao; Jie Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has been considered as an attractive material for optoelectronic applications such as photodetectors owing to its extraordinary properties, e.g. broadband absorption and ultrahigh mobility. However, challenges still remain in fundamental and practical aspects of the conventional graphene photodetectors which normally rely on the photoconductive mode of operation which has the drawback of e.g. high dark current. Here, we demonstrated the photovoltaic mode operation in graphene p-n junctions fabricated by a simple but effective electron irradiation method that induces n-type doping in intrinsic p-type graphene. The physical mechanism of the junction formation is owing to the substrate gating effect caused by electron irradiation. Photoresponse was obtained for this type of photodetector because the photoexcited electron-hole pairs can be separated in the graphene p-n junction by the built-in potential. The fabricated graphene p-n junction photodetectors exhibit a high detectivity up to ~3 × 1010 Jones (cm Hz1/2 W−1) at room temperature, which is on a par with that of the traditional III–V photodetectors. The demonstrated novel and simple scheme for obtaining graphene p-n junctions can be used for other optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and be applied to other two dimensional materials based devices.

  7. Charge distribution of metallic single walled carbon nanotube–graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, P T; Danneau, R

    2014-01-01

    We report numeric and analytic calculations of the electrostatic properties for armchair carbon nanotube–graphene junctions. Using a semi-empirical method we first demonstrate that the equilibrium distance between a carbon nanotube and a graphene sheet varies with respect to the diameter of the carbon nanotube. We find significantly reduced values compared to AB-stacked graphene sheets in graphite, while even smaller value is found for a fullerene C 60 implying a dimensionality dependence of the equilibrium distance between graphene and the other sp 2 carbon allotropes. Then, we use conformal mapping and a charge–dipole model to study the charge distribution of the carbon nanotube–graphene junctions in various configurations. We observe that the charges are accumulated/depleted at and near the vicinity of the junctions and that capped carbon nanotubes induce a significantly smaller charge concentration at their ends than the open-end nanotubes. We demonstrate that the carbon nanotube influence on the graphene sheet is limited to only few atomic rows. Such an influence strongly depends on the distance between carbon nanotube and the graphene sheet and scales with the carbon nanotube radius, while the potential difference does not modify the length over which the charge concentration is disturbed by the presence of the tube. By studying the potential landscape of carbon nanotube–graphene junctions, our work could be used as a starting point to model the charge carrier injection in these unconventional systems. (paper)

  8. A facile and sensitive peptide-modulating graphene oxide nanoribbon catalytic nanoplasmon analytical platform for human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihui; Li, Chongning; Li, Dan; Luo, Yanghe; Wen, Guiqing; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    The nanogold reaction between HAuCl 4 and citrate is very slow, and the catalyst graphene oxide nanoribbon (GONR) enhanced the nanoreaction greatly to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that exhibited strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption (Abs) at 550 nm and resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) at 550 nm. Upon addition of the peptide of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the peptide could adsorb on the GONR surface, which inhibited the catalysis. When hCG was added, peptides were separated from the GONR surface due to the formation of stable peptide-hCG complex, which led to the activation of GONR catalytic effect. With the increase in hCG concentration, the RRS and Abs signal enhanced linearly. The enhanced RRS value showed a good linear relationship with hCG concentration in the range of 0.2-20 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 70 pg/mL. Accordingly, two new GONR catalytic RRS/Abs methods were established for detecting hCG in serum samples.

  9. Hierarchical composites of polyaniline-graphene nanoribbons-carbon nanotubes as electrode materials in all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Miao, Yue-E.; Zhang, Chao; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Yang, Zhibin; Peng, Huisheng; Liu, Tianxi

    2013-07-01

    A three dimensional (3D) polyaniline (PANI)-graphene nanoribbon (GNR)-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite, PANI-GNR-CNT, has been prepared via in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer on the surface of a GNR-CNT hybrid. Here, the 3D GNR-CNT hybrid has been conveniently prepared by partially unzipping the pristine multi-walled CNTs, while the residual CNTs act as ``bridges'' connecting different GNRs. The morphology and structure of the resulting hybrid materials have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Electrochemical tests reveal that the hierarchical PANI-GNR-CNT composite based on the two-electrode cell possesses much higher specific capacitance (890 F g-1) than the GNR-CNT hybrid (195 F g-1) and neat PANI (283 F g-1) at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. At the same time, the PANI-GNR-CNT composite displays good cycling stability with a retention ratio of 89% after 1000 cycles, suggesting that this novel PANI-GNR-CNT composite is a promising candidate for energy storage applications.

  10. Splitting of a vertical multiwalled carbon nanotube carpet to a graphene nanoribbon carpet and its use in supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenguang; Peng, Zhiwei; Lin, Jian; Zhu, Yu; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Lu, Wei; Hauge, Robert H; Tour, James M

    2013-06-25

    Potassium vapor was used to longitudinally split vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes carpets (VA-CNTs). The resulting structures have a carpet of partially split MWCNTs and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). The split structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. When compared to the original VA-CNTs carpet, the split VA-CNTs carpet has enhanced electrochemical performance with better specific capacitance in a supercapacitor. Furthermore, the split VA-CNTs carpet has excellent cyclability as a supercapacitor electrode material. There is a measured maximum power density of 103 kW/kg at an energy density of 5.2 Wh/kg and a maximum energy density of 9.4 Wh/kg. The superior electrochemical performances of the split VA-CNTs can be attributed to the increased surface area for ion accessibility after splitting, and the lasting conductivity of the structure with their vertical conductive paths based on the preserved GNR alignment.

  11. One-step synthesis of graphene nanoribbon-MnO₂ hybrids and their all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-04-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials (GNR-MnO₂) of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and MnO₂ nanoparticles have been prepared via a one-step method. GNR, with unique features such as high aspect ratio and plane integrity, has been obtained by longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By tuning the amount of oxidant used, different mass loadings of MnO₂ nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of GNRs. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated with the GNR-MnO₂ hybrid as the positive electrode and GNR sheets as the negative electrode. Due to the desirable porous structure, excellent electrical conductivity, as well as high rate capability and specific capacitances of both the GNR and GNR-MnO₂ hybrid, the optimized GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in an enlarged potential window of 0-2.0 V. In addition, the fabricated GNR//GNR-MnO₂ asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a significantly enhanced maximum energy density of 29.4 W h kg(-1) (at a power density of 12.1 kW kg(-1)), compared with that of the symmetric cells based on GNR-MnO₂ hybrids or GNR sheets. This greatly enhanced energy storage ability and high rate capability can be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion and excellent pseudocapacitive performance of MnO₂ nanoparticles and the high electrical conductivity of the GNRs.

  12. Negative differential resistance and rectification effects in zigzag graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions: Induced by edge oxidation and symmetry concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirfakhr, Maryam; Shahhoseini, Ali

    2018-03-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) in combination with tight-binding (TB) model, we investigate and compare the electronic transport properties of H-terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbon (H/ZGNR) and O-terminated ZGNR/H-terminated ZGNR (O/ZGNR-H/ZGNR) heterostructure under finite bias. Moreover, the effect of width and symmetry on the electronic transport properties of both models is also considered. The results reveal that asymmetric H/ZGNRs have linear I-V characteristics in whole bias range, but symmetric H-ZGNRs show negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior which is inversely proportional to the width of the H/ZGNR. It is also shown that the I-V characteristic of O/ZGNR-H/ZGNR heterostructure shows a rectification effect, whether the geometrical structure is symmetric or asymmetric. The fewer the number of zigzag chains, the bigger the rectification ratio. It should be mentioned that, the rectification ratios of symmetric heterostructures are much bigger than asymmetric one. Transmission spectrum, density of states (DOS), molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian (MPSH) and molecular eigenstates are analyzed subsequently to understand the electronic transport properties of these ZGNR devices. Our findings could be used in developing nanoscale rectifiers and NDR devices.

  13. On the theoretical analysis of the lowest many-electron states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Collado, José R; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the optical and magnetic properties of the four lowest many-body states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs). The results have been obtained within the semi-empirical restricted frozen Hartree–Fock approximation. Firstly, we obtained one-determinant numerical and analytical coincident results. We detected the existence of two degenerate open-shell molecular orbitals (MOs) o, o’. Due to this degeneracy, some of the mentioned results do depend on any (arbitrary) orthogonal transformation between these two MOs. We have improved these preliminary results by using linear combinations of two determinants, which are eigenfunctions of the operators, which commute with the electronic Hamiltonian. These eigenfunctions represent properly the wave functions of these four electronic states. These calculations show that there are two degenerate ground states. One of them is ferromagnetic and the other state is non magnetic. Finally, we have calculated these four states to full configuration interaction level studying the dependence of their properties on the size of the GNRs. (paper)

  14. On the theoretical analysis of the lowest many-electron states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Collado, José R.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-09-01

    We have calculated the optical and magnetic properties of the four lowest many-body states for cyclic zigzag graphene nano-ribbons (GNRs). The results have been obtained within the semi-empirical restricted frozen Hartree-Fock approximation. Firstly, we obtained one-determinant numerical and analytical coincident results. We detected the existence of two degenerate open-shell molecular orbitals (MOs) o, o’. Due to this degeneracy, some of the mentioned results do depend on any (arbitrary) orthogonal transformation between these two MOs. We have improved these preliminary results by using linear combinations of two determinants, which are eigenfunctions of the operators, which commute with the electronic Hamiltonian. These eigenfunctions represent properly the wave functions of these four electronic states. These calculations show that there are two degenerate ground states. One of them is ferromagnetic and the other state is non magnetic. Finally, we have calculated these four states to full configuration interaction level studying the dependence of their properties on the size of the GNRs.

  15. Electronic structure and transport properties of monatomic Fe chains in a vacuum and anchored to a graphene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N B; Lebon, A; Vega, A; García-Fuente, A; Gallego, L J

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure and transport properties of monatomic Fe wires of different characteristics are studied within the density functional theory. In both equidistant and dimerized (more stable) isolated wires, magnetism plays an important role since it leads to different shapes of the transmission coefficients for each spin component. In equidistant wires, electron localization around the Fermi level leads to symmetry breaking between d xy and d x 2 -y 2 bands. The main effect of the structural dimerization is to decrease the number of channels available for the minority spin component. When anchored to the edges of a graphene nanoribbon, the dimerization of the chain is preserved, despite the hybridization of the d states of Fe with the C atoms which gives way to a reduction in the number of d channels around the Fermi level. Most conduction is then led by an electronic channel from the ribbon and the sp z bands from the Fe wires. Suggestions to improve the spintronic ability of Fe wires are proposed.

  16. Edge-defect induced spin-dependent Seebeck effect and spin figure of merit in graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Bo; Wu, Dan-Dan; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2017-10-11

    By using the first-principle calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we have studied spin caloritronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different edge defects. The theoretical results show that the edge-defected GNRs with sawtooth shapes can exhibit spin-dependent currents with opposite flowing directions by applying temperature gradients, indicating the occurrence of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE). The edge defects bring about two opposite effects on the thermal spin currents: the enhancement of the symmetry of thermal spin-dependent currents, which contributes to the realization of pure thermal spin currents, and the decreasing of the spin thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the devices. It is fortunate that applying a gate voltage is an efficient route to optimize these two opposite spin thermoelectric properties towards realistic device applications. Moreover, due to the existence of spin-splitting band gaps, the edge-defected GNRs can be designed as spin-dependent Seebeck diodes and rectifiers, indicating that the edge-defected GNRs are potential candidates for room-temperature spin caloritronic devices.

  17. Spatially inhomogeneous barrier height in graphene/MoS2 Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant; Rajput, Shivani; Li, Lian

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties. In this study, graphene Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring CVD monolayer graphene on mechanically exfoliated MoS2 multilayers. The forward bias current-voltage characteristics are measured in the temperature range of 210-300 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature. Such behavior is attributed to Schottky barrier inhomogeneities possibly due to graphene ripples and ridges at the junction interface as suggested by atomic force microscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier height, mean barrier of 0.97+/-0.10 eV is found for the graphene MoS2 junction. Our findings provide significant insight on the barrier height inhomogeneities in graphene/two dimensional semiconductor Schottky junctions. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Award No. DEFG02-07ER46228.

  18. Investigation of Supercurrent in the Quantum Hall Regime in Graphene Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Anne W.; Wei, Ming Tso; Seredinski, Andrew; Ke, Chung Ting; Mehta, Yash; Chamberlain, Russell; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Amet, François; Finkelstein, Gleb

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we examine multiple encapsulated graphene Josephson junctions to determine which mechanisms may be responsible for the supercurrent observed in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. Rectangular junctions with various widths and lengths were studied to identify which parameters affect the occurrence of QH supercurrent. We also studied additional samples where the graphene region is extended beyond the contacts on one side, making that edge of the mesa significantly longer than the opposite edge. This is done in order to distinguish two potential mechanisms: (a) supercurrents independently flowing along both non-contacted edges of graphene mesa, and (b) opposite sides of the mesa being coupled by hybrid electron-hole modes flowing along the superconductor/graphene boundary. The supercurrent appears suppressed in extended junctions, suggesting the latter mechanism.

  19. Electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene structures: Charge confinement and control of spin and charge transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhkov, A.V., E-mail: arozhkov@gmail.co [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electrodynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412, Moscow (Russian Federation); Giavaras, G. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bliokh, Yury P. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Freilikher, Valentin [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Nori, Franco [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    This brief review discusses electronic properties of mesoscopic graphene-based structures. These allow controlling the confinement and transport of charge and spin; thus, they are of interest not only for fundamental research, but also for applications. The graphene-related topics covered here are: edges, nanoribbons, quantum dots, pn-junctions, pnp-structures, and quantum barriers and waveguides. This review is partly intended as a short introduction to graphene mesoscopics.

  20. Modeling and Design of a New Flexible Graphene-on-Silicon Schottky Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dell’Olio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new graphene-based flexible solar cell with a power conversion efficiency >10% has been designed. The environmental stability and the low complexity of the fabrication process are the two main advantages of the proposed device with respect to other flexible solar cells. The designed solar cell is a graphene/silicon Schottky junction whose performance has been enhanced by a graphene oxide layer deposited on the graphene sheet. The effect of the graphene oxide is to dope the graphene and to act as anti-reflection coating. A silicon dioxide ultrathin layer interposed between the n-Si and the graphene increases the open-circuit voltage of the cell. The solar cell optimization has been achieved through a mathematical model, which has been validated by using experimental data reported in literature. The new flexible photovoltaic device can be integrated in a wide range of microsystems powered by solar energy.

  1. Physical model of the contact resistivity of metal-graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Ferney A.; Jiménez, David; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    While graphene-based technology shows great promise for a variety of electronic applications, including radio-frequency devices, the resistance of the metal-graphene contact is a technological bottleneck for the realization of viable graphene electronics. One of the most important factors in determining the resistance of a metal-graphene junction is the contact resistivity. Despite the large number of experimental works that exist in the literature measuring the contact resistivity, a simple model of it is still lacking. In this paper, we present a comprehensive physical model for the contact resistivity of these junctions, based on the Bardeen Transfer Hamiltonian method. This model unveils the role played by different electrical and physical parameters in determining the specific contact resistivity, such as the chemical potential of interaction, the work metal-graphene function difference, and the insulator thickness between the metal and graphene. In addition, our model reveals that the contact resistivity is strongly dependent on the bias voltage across the metal-graphene junction. This model is applicable to a wide variety of graphene-based electronic devices and thus is useful for understanding how to optimize the contact resistance in these systems

  2. Physical model of the contact resistivity of metal-graphene junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Ferney A., E-mail: ferneyalveiro.chaves@uab.cat; Jiménez, David [Departament d' Enginyeria Electrònica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cummings, Aron W. [ICN2–Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Roche, Stephan [ICN2–Institut Català de Nanociència i Nanotecnologia, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08070 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-04-28

    While graphene-based technology shows great promise for a variety of electronic applications, including radio-frequency devices, the resistance of the metal-graphene contact is a technological bottleneck for the realization of viable graphene electronics. One of the most important factors in determining the resistance of a metal-graphene junction is the contact resistivity. Despite the large number of experimental works that exist in the literature measuring the contact resistivity, a simple model of it is still lacking. In this paper, we present a comprehensive physical model for the contact resistivity of these junctions, based on the Bardeen Transfer Hamiltonian method. This model unveils the role played by different electrical and physical parameters in determining the specific contact resistivity, such as the chemical potential of interaction, the work metal-graphene function difference, and the insulator thickness between the metal and graphene. In addition, our model reveals that the contact resistivity is strongly dependent on the bias voltage across the metal-graphene junction. This model is applicable to a wide variety of graphene-based electronic devices and thus is useful for understanding how to optimize the contact resistance in these systems.

  3. Electronic ferroelectricity in carbon-based systems: from reality of organic conductors to promises of polymers and graphene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, Natasha; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity is a rising demand in fundamental and applied solid state physics. Ferroelectrics are used in microelectronics as active gate materials, in capacitors, electro-optical-acoustic modulators, etc. There is a particular demand for plastic ferroelectrics, e.g. as a sensor for acoustic imaging in medicine and beyond, in shapeable capacitors, etc. Microscopic mechanisms of ferroelectric polarization in traditional materials are typically ionic. In this talk we discuss the electronic ferroelectrics – carbon-based materials: organic crystals, conducting polymers and graphene nano-ribbons. The motion of walls, separating domains with opposite electric polarisation, can be influenced and manipulated by terahertz and infra-red range optics

  4. Physicochemical characterization, and relaxometry studies of micro-graphite oxide, graphene nanoplatelets, and nanoribbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna S Paratala

    Full Text Available The chemistry of high-performance magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents remains an active area of research. In this work, we demonstrate that the potassium permanganate-based oxidative chemical procedures used to synthesize graphite oxide or graphene nanoparticles leads to the confinement (intercalation of trace amounts of Mn(2+ ions between the graphene sheets, and that these manganese intercalated graphitic and graphene structures show disparate structural, chemical and magnetic properties, and high relaxivity (up to 2 order and distinctly different nuclear magnetic resonance dispersion profiles compared to paramagnetic chelate compounds. The results taken together with other published reports on confinement of paramagnetic metal ions within single-walled carbon nanotubes (a rolled up graphene sheet show that confinement (encapsulation or intercalation of paramagnetic metal ions within graphene sheets, and not the size, shape or architecture of the graphitic carbon particles is the key determinant for increasing relaxivity, and thus, identifies nano confinement of paramagnetic ions as novel general strategy to develop paramagnetic metal-ion graphitic-carbon complexes as high relaxivity MRI contrast agents.

  5. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2011-11-17

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. From fused aromatics to graphene-like nanoribbons: The effects of multiple terminal groups, length and symmetric pathways on charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Sanvito, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    A class of molecular ribbons, with almost-ideal charge transmission, that is weakly dependent on the anchoring structure or electrode crystalline orientation and easy to synthesize has been identified. Charge transport through two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based on the pyrene and perylene motifs, has been investigated using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The effects of wire length and multiple terminal thiolate groups at the junction with gold leads have been examined. For the oligopyrene series, an exponential drop in the conductance with the increase of the wire length is found. In contrast, the oligoperylene series of nanoribbons, with dual thiolate groups, exhibits no visible length dependence, indicating that the contacts are the principal source of the resistance. Between the Au(001) leads, the transmission spectra of the oligoperylenes display a continuum of highly conducting channels and the resulting conductance is nearly independent of the bias. The predictions are robust against artefacts from the exchange-correlation potential, as evidenced from the self-interaction corrected calculations. Therefore, oligoperylene nanoribbons show the potential to be the almost-ideal wires for molecular circuitry. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  7. Spatial fluctuations in barrier height at the graphene-silicon carbide Schottky junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, S; Chen, M X; Liu, Y; Li, Y Y; Weinert, M; Li, L

    2013-01-01

    When graphene is interfaced with a semiconductor, a Schottky contact forms with rectifying properties. Graphene, however, is also susceptible to the formation of ripples upon making contact with another material. Here we report intrinsic ripple- and electric field-induced effects at the graphene semiconductor Schottky junction, by comparing chemical vapour-deposited graphene transferred on semiconductor surfaces of opposite polarization-the hydrogen-terminated silicon and carbon faces of hexagonal silicon carbide. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy/spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, we show the formation of a narrow Schottky dipole barrier approximately 10 Å wide, which facilitates the observed effective electric field control of the Schottky barrier height. We further find atomic-scale spatial fluctuations in the Schottky barrier that directly follow the undulation of ripples on both graphene-silicon carbide junctions. These findings reveal fundamental properties of the graphene/semiconductor Schottky junction-a key component of vertical graphene devices that offer functionalities unattainable in planar device architecture.

  8. One-step synthesis of graphene nanoribbon-MnO2 hybrids and their all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Pan, Jisheng; Zhang, Chao; Gao, Wei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials (GNR-MnO2) of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and MnO2 nanoparticles have been prepared via a one-step method. GNR, with unique features such as high aspect ratio and plane integrity, has been obtained by longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By tuning the amount of oxidant used, different mass loadings of MnO2 nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of GNRs. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated with the GNR-MnO2 hybrid as the positive electrode and GNR sheets as the negative electrode. Due to the desirable porous structure, excellent electrical conductivity, as well as high rate capability and specific capacitances of both the GNR and GNR-MnO2 hybrid, the optimized GNR//GNR-MnO2 asymmetric supercapacitor can be cycled reversibly in an enlarged potential window of 0-2.0 V. In addition, the fabricated GNR//GNR-MnO2 asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits a significantly enhanced maximum energy density of 29.4 W h kg-1 (at a power density of 12.1 kW kg-1), compared with that of the symmetric cells based on GNR-MnO2 hybrids or GNR sheets. This greatly enhanced energy storage ability and high rate capability can be attributed to the homogeneous dispersion and excellent pseudocapacitive performance of MnO2 nanoparticles and the high electrical conductivity of the GNRs.Three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical hybrid nanomaterials (GNR-MnO2) of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and MnO2 nanoparticles have been prepared via a one-step method. GNR, with unique features such as high aspect ratio and plane integrity, has been obtained by longitudinal unzipping of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). By tuning the amount of oxidant used, different mass loadings of MnO2 nanoparticles have been uniformly deposited on the surface of GNRs. Asymmetric supercapacitors have been fabricated with the GNR-MnO2 hybrid as the positive electrode and GNR sheets as the negative electrode. Due to the

  9. Dynamic Tunneling Junctions at the Atomic Intersection of Two Twisted Graphene Edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellunato, Amedeo; Vrbica, Sasha D; Sabater, Carlos; de Vos, Erik W; Fermin, Remko; Kanneworff, Kirsten N; Galli, Federica; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M; Schneider, Grégory F

    2018-04-11

    The investigation of the transport properties of single molecules by flowing tunneling currents across extremely narrow gaps is relevant for challenges as diverse as the development of molecular electronics and sequencing of DNA. The achievement of well-defined electrode architectures remains a technical challenge, especially due to the necessity of high precision fabrication processes and the chemical instability of most bulk metals. Here, we illustrate a continuously adjustable tunneling junction between the edges of two twisted graphene sheets. The unique property of the graphene electrodes is that the sheets are rigidly supported all the way to the atomic edge. By analyzing the tunneling current characteristics, we also demonstrate that the spacing across the gap junction can be controllably adjusted. Finally, we demonstrate the transition from the tunneling regime to contact and the formation of an atomic-sized junction between the two edges of graphene.

  10. Oscillating Magnetoresistance in Graphene p-n Junctions at Intermediate Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweg, Hiske; Eggimann, Hannah; Liu, Ming-Hao; Varlet, Anastasia; Eich, Marius; Simonet, Pauline; Lee, Yongjin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Richter, Klaus; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2017-05-10

    We report on the observation of magnetoresistance oscillations in graphene p-n junctions. The oscillations have been observed for six samples, consisting of single-layer and bilayer graphene, and persist up to temperatures of 30 K, where standard Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations are no longer discernible. The oscillatory magnetoresistance can be reproduced by tight-binding simulations. We attribute this phenomenon to the modulated densities of states in the n- and p-regions.

  11. Modeling and Design of Graphene GaAs Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based GaAs junction solar cell is modeled and investigated by Silvaco TCAD tools. The photovoltaic behaviors have been investigated considering structure and process parameters such as substrate thickness, dependence between graphene work function and transmittance, and n-type doping concentration in GaAs. The results show that the most effective region for photo photogenerated carriers locates very close to the interface under light illumination. Comprehensive technological design for junction yields a significant improvement of power conversion efficiency from 0.772% to 2.218%. These results are in good agreement with the reported experimental work.

  12. Graphene nanoribbons exfoliated from graphite surface dislocation bands by electrostatic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, Anton N; Ouseph, P J; Sumanasekera, Gamini; Bansal, Tanesh

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel technique to produce long and narrow graphene ribbons with smooth edges. This technique is free of any chemical treatments and involves a combination of two steps: (i) creation of surface dislocation ribbons by high velocity clusters impacting the graphite surface and (ii) electrostatic transferring of the dislocation ribbons to a desired substrate. The width of the ribbons can be controlled by varying the impact velocity of a cluster jet stream from a gas jet impactor. The electrical transport properties were investigated on the ribbons in field effect transistor (FET) configuration. The p-type behavior observed under ambient conditions was found to be reversed upon annealing at 180 deg. C in a vacuum of 10 -7 Torr. Charge transfer effects were observed when the degassed graphene was exposed to N 2 O and NH 3 .

  13. P3HT-graphene bilayer electrode for Schottky junction photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, H.; Kalkan, S. B.; Varlikli, C.; Çelebi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the effect of a poly (3-hexylthiophene-2.5-diyl)(P3HT)-graphene bilayer electrode on the photoresponsivity characteristics of Si-based Schottky photodetectors. P3HT, which is known to be an electron donor and absorb light in the visible spectrum, was placed on CVD grown graphene by dip-coating method. The results of the UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy measurements have been evaluated to confirm the optical and electronic modification of graphene by the P3HT thin film. Current-voltage measurements of graphene/Si and P3HT-graphene/Si revealed rectification behavior confirming a Schottky junction formation at the graphene/Si interface. Time-resolved photocurrent spectroscopy measurements showed the devices had excellent durability and a fast response speed. We found that the maximum spectral photoresponsivity of the P3HT-graphene/Si photodetector increased more than three orders of magnitude compared to that of the bare graphene/Si photodetector. The observed increment in the photoresponsivity of the P3HT-graphene/Si samples was attributed to the charge transfer doping from P3HT to graphene within the spectral range between near-ultraviolet and near-infrared. Furthermore, the P3HT-graphene electrode was found to improve the specific detectivity and noise equivalent power of graphene/Si photodetectors. The obtained results showed that the P3HT-graphene bilayer electrodes significantly improved the photoresponsivity characteristics of our samples and thus can be used as a functional component in Si-based optoelectronic device applications.

  14. FOCUS ON GRAPHENE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, N M R; Ribeiro, Ricardo M

    2009-01-01

    Balandin Calculation of the Raman G peak intensity in monolayer graphene: role of Ward identities D M Basko Electronic transport in bilayer graphene Mikito Koshino Magnetic Kronig-Penney model for Dirac electrons in single-layer graphene M Ramezani Masir, P Vasilopoulos and F M Peeters Electrical transport in high-quality graphene pnp junctions Jairo Velasco Jr, Gang Liu, Wenzhong Bao and Chun Ning Lau Local density of states and scanning tunneling currents in graphene N M R Peres, Ling Yang and Shan-Wen Tsai Gaps and tails in graphene and graphane B Dora and K Ziegler Quasi-ferromagnet spintronics in the graphene nanodisc-lead system Motohiko Ezawa Range and correlation effects in edge disordered graphene nanoribbons Alessandro Cresti and Stephan Roche Remarks on the tight-binding model of graphene Cristina Bena and Gilles Montambaux (editorial)

  15. The computational design of junctions by carbon nanotube insertion into a graphene matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yuliang; Zhong Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, two types of junction models constructed from armchair and zigzag carbon nanotube (CNT) insertion into a graphene matrix have been envisioned. It has been found that the insertion of the CNT into the graphene matrix leads to the formation of C-C covalent bonds between graphene and the CNT that distort the CNT geometry. However, the hydrogenation of the suspended carbon bonds on the graphene resumes the graphene-like structure of the pristine tube. The calculated band structure of armchair CNT insertion into graphene or hydrogenation graphene opens up a band gap and converts the metallic CNT into a semiconductor. For the zigzag CNT, the sp 3 hybridization between the graphene and nanotube alters the band structure of the tube significantly, whereas saturating the dangling bonds of terminal carbon atoms of graphene makes the CNT almost keep the same character of the bands as that in the pristine tube. The synthesis of our designed hybrid structures must be increasingly driven by an interest in molecules that not only have intriguing structures but also have special functions such as hydrogen storage.

  16. Two-Dimensional Model of Scrolled Packings of Molecular Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A. V.; Mazo, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    A simplified model of the in-plane molecular chain, allowing the description of folded and scrolled packings of molecular nanoribbons of different structures, is proposed. Using this model, possible steady states of single-layer nanoribbons scrolls of graphene, graphane, fluorographene, and fluorographane (graphene hydrogenated on the one side and fluorinated on the other side) are obtained. Their stability is demonstrated and their energy is calculated as a function of the nanoribbon length. It is shown that the scrolled packing is the most energetically favorable nanoribbon conformation at long lengths. The existences of scrolled packings for fluorographene nanoribbons and the existence of two different scroll types corresponding to left- and right-hand Archimedean spirals for fluorographane nanoribbons in the chain model are shown for the first time. The simplicity of the proposed model makes it possible to consider the dynamics of scrolls of rather long molecular nanoribbons at long enough time intervals.

  17. A graphene/single GaAs nanowire Schottky junction photovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yanbin; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Bang; Wu, Yao; Lu, Qichao; Jin, Chenxiaoshuai; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-04

    A graphene/nanowire Schottky junction is a promising structure for low-cost high-performance optoelectronic devices. Here we demonstrate a graphene/single GaAs nanowire Schottky junction photovoltaic device. The Schottky junction is fabricated by covering a single layer graphene onto an n-doped GaAs nanowire. Under 532 nm laser excitation, the device exhibits a high responsivity of 231 mA W-1 and a short response/recover time of 85/118 μs at zero bias. Under AM 1.5 G solar illumination, the device has an open-circuit voltage of 75.0 mV and a short-circuit current density of 425 mA cm-2, yielding a remarkable conversion efficiency of 8.8%. The excellent photovoltaic performance of the device is attributed to the strong built-in electric field in the Schottky junction as well as the transparent property of graphene. The device is promising for self-powered high-speed photodetectors and low-cost high-efficiency solar cells.

  18. Fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on silicon by a solid phase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Golap; Hirano, Ryo; Ayhan, Muhammed E; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on n-Si by the solid phase reaction approach. Metal-assisted crystallization of a-C thin film was performed to synthesize transfer-free graphene directly on a SiO 2 patterned n-Si substrate. Graphene formation at the substrate and catalyst layer interface is achieved in presence of a Co catalytic and CoO carbon diffusion barrier layer. The as-synthesized material shows a linear current–voltage characteristic confirming the metallic behaviour of the graphene structure. The direct grown graphene on n-Si substrate creates a Schottky junction with a potential barrier of 0.44 eV and rectification diode characteristic. Our finding shows that the directly synthesized graphene on Si substrate by a solid phase reaction process can be a promising technique to fabricate an efficient Schottky junction device. (paper)

  19. Magnetic-field-controlled negative differential conductance in scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene npn junction resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Liu, Haiwen; Qiao, Jia-Bin; Jiang, Hua; He, Lin

    2018-03-01

    Negative differential conductance (NDC), characterized by the decreasing current with increasing voltage, has attracted continuous attention for its various novel applications. The NDC typically exists in a certain range of bias voltages for a selected system and controlling the regions of NDC in curves of current versus voltage (I -V ) is experimentally challenging. Here, we demonstrate a magnetic-field-controlled NDC in scanning tunneling spectroscopy of graphene npn junction resonators. The magnetic field not only can switch on and off the NDC, but also can continuously tune the regions of the NDC in the I -V curves. In the graphene npn junction resonators, magnetic fields generate sharp and pronounced Landau-level peaks with the help of the Klein tunneling of massless Dirac fermions. A tip of scanning tunneling microscope induces a relatively shift of the Landau levels in graphene beneath the tip. Tunneling between the misaligned Landau levels results in the magnetic-field-controlled NDC.

  20. Enhanced electrical conductivity in graphene and boron nitride nanoribbons in large electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2018-02-01

    Based on data of density function theory (DFT) as the input of tight binding model, the electrical conductivity (σ(T)) of graphene nanoribbos (GNRs) and Boron Nitride nanoribbos (BNNRs) under external electric fields with different wide are studied using the Green's function method. The BNNRs are wide band gap semiconductor and they are turned into metal depending on their electric field strength. The σ(T) shows increasing in low temperature region and after reaching the maximum value, it will decrease in high temperature region. In lower temperature ranges, the electrical conductivity of the GNRs is greater than that of the BNNRs. In a low temperature region, the σ(T) of GNRs increases linearly with temperature unlike the BNNRs. The electrical conductivity are strongly dependent on the electric field strength.

  1. Transport in multiterminal graphene nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, Thushari; Mintmire, J W

    2007-10-24

    We study the transport properties of multiterminal graphene nanodevices using the Landauer-Buttiker approach and the tight binding model. We consider a four-terminal device made at the crossing of a zigzag and armchair nanoribbons and two types of T-junction devices. The transport properties of graphene multiterminal devices are highly sensitive to the details of the junction region. Thus the properties are drastically different from those on the armchair and zigzag counterparts. In the cross-junction device, we see a conductance dip in the armchair lead associated with a conductance peak in the zigzag lead. We find that this effect is enhanced in a T-junction device with one armchair sidearm.

  2. Asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting and incident modes in slanted graphene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S. H.; Chu, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Electron injection into a graphene sheet through a slanted armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) is investigated. An incident mode, or subband, in the AGNR is valley-unpolarized. Our attention is on the valley-resolved nature of the injected electron beams and its connection to the incident mode. It is known for a normal injection that an incident mode will split symmetrically into two valley-resolved beams of equal intensity. We show, in contrast, that slanted injections result in asymmetric valley-resolved beam splitting. The most asymmetric beam splitting cases, when one of the valley-resolved beams has basically disappeared, are found and the condition derived. This is shown not due to trigonal warping because it holds even in the low incident energy regime, as long as collimation allows. These most asymmetric beam splitting cases occur at energies within an energy interval near and include the subband edge of an incident mode. The physical picture is best illustrated by a projection of the slanted AGNR subband states onto that of the 2D graphene sheet. It follows that the disappearing of a valley-resolved beam coincides with the situation that the group velocities of the projected states in the corresponding valley are in backward directions

  3. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen in aqueous solution using novel visible-light responsive graphene quantum dot/AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Zhen-dong [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jia-jun [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wang, Liang, E-mail: wangl@shu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yang, Xiong-yu; Xu, Gang [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Tang, Liang, E-mail: tang1liang@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Radiation, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • A novel heterojunction photocatalyst, GQD/AgVO{sub 3} was prepared. • The morphology of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} was well characterized. • Ibuprofen was easily decomposed using GQD/AgVO{sub 3} under visible-light irradiation. • The degradation pathway of ibuprofen was also suggested. - Abstract: Single crystalline, non-toxicity, and long-term stability graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were modified onto the AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons by a facile hydrothermal and sintering technique which constructs a unique heterojunction photocatalyst. Characterization results indicate that GQDs are well dispersed on the surface of AgVO{sub 3} nanoribbons and GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions are formed, which can greatly promote the separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs under visible light irradiation. By taking advantage of this feature, the GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions exhibit considerable improvement on the photocatalytic activities for the degradation of ibuprofen (IBP) under visible light irradiation as compared to pure AgVO{sub 3}. The photocatalytic activity of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions is relevant with GQD ratio and the optimal activity is obtained at 3 wt% with the highest separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Integrating the physicochemical and photocatalytic properties, the factors controlling the photocatalytic activity of GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions are discussed in detail. Moreover, potential photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of IBP via GQD/AgVO{sub 3} heterojunctions under visible light are proposed.

  4. The role of electronic dopant on full band in-plane RKKY coupling in armchair graphene nanoribbons-magnetic impurity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the growing interest in solving the obstacles of spintronics applications, we study the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) effective pairwise interaction between magnetic impurities interacting through the π -electrons embedded in both electronically doped-semiconducting and metallic armchair graphene nanoribbons. In terms of the Green's function formalism, treated in a tight-binding approximation with hopping beyond Dirac cone approximation, the RKKY coupling is an attraction or a repulsion depending on the magnetic impurities distances. Our results show that the RKKY coupling in semiconducting nanoribbons is much more affected by doping than metallic ones. Furthermore, we found that the RKKY coupling increases with ribbon width, while there exist some critical electronic concentrations in RKKY interaction oscillations. On the other hand, we find an unusual incoming wave-vector direction for electrons which describes more clearly the ferro- and antiferromagnetic spin configurations in such system. Also, the RKKY coupling at low and high-temperature regions has been addressed for both ferro- and antiferromagnetic spin arrangements.

  5. Effective enhancement of gas separation performance in mixed matrix membranes using core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/graphene oxide nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qingzhong; Pan, Xinglong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jianqiang; Guo, Qikai

    2017-02-01

    Novel core/shell structured multi-walled carbon nanotube/graphene oxide nanoribbons (MWCNT@GONRs) nanohybrids were successfully prepared using a modified chemical longitudinal unzipping method. Subsequently, the MWCNT@GONRs nanohybrids were used as fillers to enhance the gas separation performance of polyimide based mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). It is found that MMMs concurrently exhibited higher gas selectivity and higher gas permeability compared to pristine polyimide. The high gas selectivity could be attributed to the GONRs shell, which provided a selective barrier and large gas adsorbed area, while the high gas permeability resulted from the hollow structured MWCNTs core with smooth internal surface, which acted as a rapid transport channel. MWCNT@GONRs could be promising candidates to improve gas separation performance of MMMs due to the unique microstructures, ease of synthesis and low filling loading.

  6. The spin-dependent electronic transport properties of M(dcdmp)2 (M = Cu, Au, Co, Ni) molecular devices based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongde; Wu, Di; Zhang, Xiaojiao; Zeng, Bowen; Li, Mingjun; Duan, Haiming; Yang, Bingchu; Long, Mengqiu

    2018-05-01

    The spin-dependent electronic transport properties of M(dcdmp)2 (M = Cu, Au, Co, Ni; dcdmp = 2,3-dicyano-5,6-dimercaptopyrazyne) molecular devices based on zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) electrodes were investigated by density functional theory combined nonequilibrium Green's function method (DFT-NEGF). Our results show that the spin-dependent transport properties of the M(dcdmp)2 molecular devices can be controlled by the spin configurations of the ZGNR electrodes, and the central 3d-transition metal atom can introduce a larger magnetism than that of the nonferrous metal one. Moreover, the perfect spin filtering effect, negative differential resistance, rectifying effect and magnetic resistance phenomena can be observed in our proposed M(dcdmp)2 molecular devices.

  7. A glassy carbon electrode modified with a multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon core-shell structure for electrochemical sensing of p-dihydroxybenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Liu, Zhenjiang; Sun, Jianfan; Wu, Xiangyang; Zou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were covered with reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons (rGONR) to give a material with a core-shell heterostructure of the type MWCNT-rGONR. It was obtained by (a) longitudinal partial unzipping of MWCNT to form MWCNT-GONR, and (b) subsequent chemical reduction with hydrazine to give MWCNT-rGONR. The MWCNT-rGONR heterostructure was used to modify a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to obtain an electrochemical sensor for p-dihydroxybenzene (DHB). The synergistic effects of the MWCNT and the rGONR results in a distinctly improved redox current towards DHB compared to a bare GCE, an MWCNT/GCE, and an MWCNT-GONR/GCE. At the working voltage range from −1 00 to 400 mV, it displays a linear response to DHB in the 80 to 3000 nM concentration range with a 20 nM detection limit. (author)

  8. Fully Valley/spin polarized current and Fano factor through the Graphene/ferromagnetic silicene/Graphene junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidian, Zeinab; Rezaeipour, Saeid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajati, Yaser [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lorestaniweiss, Zeinab, E-mail: rashidian1983z@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ueda, Akiko [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    In this work, we study the transport properties of Dirac fermions through the ferromagnetic silicene which is sandwiched between the Graphene leads (G/FS/G). Spin/valley conductance, spin/valley polarization, and also Fano factor are theoretically calculated using the Landauer-Buttiker formula. We find that the fully valley and spin polarized currents through the G/FS/G junction can be obtained by increasing the electric field strength and the length of ferromagnetic silicene region. Moreover, the valley polarization can be tuned from negative to positive values by changing the electric field. We find that the Fano factor also changes with the spin and valley polarization. Our findings of high controllability of the spin and valley transport in such a G/FS/G junction the potential of this junction for spin-valleytronics applications.

  9. Nonlinear vs. bolometric radiation response and phonon thermal conductance in graphene-superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, Heli; Nielsen, Bent; Du, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a promising candidate for building fast and ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors due to its weak electron-phonon coupling and low heat capacity. In order to realize a practical graphene-based bolometer, several important issues, including the nature of radiation response, coupling efficiency to the radiation and the thermal conductance need to be carefully studied. Addressing these issues, we present graphene-superconductor junctions as a viable option to achieve efficient and sensitive bolometers, with the superconductor contacts serving as hot electron barriers. For a graphene-superconductor device with highly transparent interfaces, the resistance readout in the presence of radio frequency radiation is dominated by non-linear response. On the other hand, a graphene-superconductor tunnel device shows dominantly bolometric response to radiation. For graphene devices fabricated on SiO 2 substrates, we confirm recent theoretical predictions of T 2 temperature dependence of phonon thermal conductance in the presence of disorder in the graphene channel at low temperatures

  10. Retraction: Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Anna

    2017-09-20

    Retraction of 'Graphene-SnO 2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism' by Qingxiu Wang et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 19351-19357.

  11. p-n Junction Dynamics Induced in a Graphene Channel by Ferroelectric-Domain Motion in the Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchak, Anatolii I.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Strikha, Maksym V.; Morozovska, Anna N.

    2017-01-01

    The p - n junction dynamics induced in a graphene channel by stripe-domain nucleation, motion, and reversal in a ferroelectric substrate is explored using a self-consistent approach based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology combined with classical electrostatics. Relatively low gate voltages are required to induce the hysteresis of ferroelectric polarization and graphene charge in response to the periodic gate voltage. Pronounced nonlinear hysteresis of graphene conductance with a wide memory window corresponds to high amplitudes of gate voltage. Also, we reveal the extrinsic size effect in the dependence of the graphene-channel conductivity on its length. We predict that the top-gate–dielectric-layer–graphene-channel–ferroelectric-substrate nanostructure considered here can be a promising candidate for the fabrication of the next generation of modulators and rectifiers based on the graphene p - n junctions.

  12. Formation of p-n-p junction with ionic liquid gate in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xin; Tang, Ning; Duan, Junxi; Zhang, Yuewei; Lu, Fangchao; Xu, Fujun; Yang, Xuelin; Gao, Li; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquid gating is a technique which is much more efficient than solid gating to tune carrier density. To observe the electronic properties of such a highly doped graphene device, a top gate made of ionic liquid has been used. By sweeping both the top and back gate voltage, a p-n-p junction has been created. The mechanism of forming the p-n-p junction has been discussed. Tuning the carrier density by ionic liquid gate can be an efficient method to be used in flexible electronics

  13. Conductance of graphene based normal-superconductor junction with double magnetic barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahipour, B.; Mohebalipour, A.; Maleki, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study conductance of a graphene based normal metal-superconductor junction with two magnetic barriers. The magnetic barriers are induced via two applied magnetic fields with the same magnitudes and opposite directions accompanied by an applied electrostatic potential. We solve Dirac-Bogoliubov-De-Gennes (DBdG) equation to calculate conductance of the junction. We find that applying the magnetic field leads to suppression of the Andreev reflection and conductance for all energies. On the other hand, we observe a crossover from oscillatory to tunneling behavior of the conductance as a function of the applied potential by increasing the magnetic field.

  14. The anisotropic tunneling behavior of spin transport in graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mengchun; Li, Peisen; Qiu, Weicheng; Zhao, Jianqiang; Peng, Junping; Hu, Jiafei; Hu, Jinghua; Tian, Wugang; Hu, Yueguo; Chen, Dixiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Xu, Zhongjie; Yuan, Xuefeng

    2018-05-01

    Due to the theoretical prediction of large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), graphene-based magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) has become an important branch of high-performance spintronics device. In this paper, the non-collinear spin filtering and transport properties of MTJ with the Ni/tri-layer graphene/Ni structure were studied in detail by utilizing the non-equilibrium Green's formalism combined with spin polarized density functional theory. The band structure of Ni-C bonding interface shows that Ni-C atomic hybridization facilitates the electronic structure consistency of graphene and nickel, which results in a perfect spin filtering effect for tri-layer graphene-based MTJ. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that the value of tunneling resistance changes with the relative magnetization angle of two ferromagnetic layers, displaying the anisotropic tunneling behavior of graphene-based MTJ. This originates from the resonant conduction states which are strongly adjusted by the relative magnetization angles. In addition, the perfect spin filtering effect is demonstrated by fitting the anisotropic conductance with the Julliere's model. Our work may serve as guidance for researches and applications of graphene-based spintronics device.

  15. Perfect GMR effect in gapped graphene-based ferromagnetic normal ferromagnetic junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Karbaschi; Gholam Reza Rashedi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the quantum transport property in gapped graphene-based ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic (FG/NG/FG) junctions by using the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation. The graphene is fabricated on SiC and BN substrates separately, so carriers in FG/NG/FG structures are considered as massive relativistic particles. Transmission prob-ability, charge, and spin conductances are studied as a function of exchange energy of ferromagnets (h), size of graphene gap, and thickness of normal graphene region (L) respectively. Using the experimental values of Fermi energy in the normal graphene part (EFN∼400 meV) and energy gap in graphene (260 meV for SiC and 50 meV for BN substrate), it is shown that this structure can be used for both spin-up and spin-down polarized current. The latter case has different behavior of gapped FG/NG/FG from that of gapless FG/NG/FG structures. Also perfect charge giant magnetoresistance is observed in a range of EFN−mv2F

  16. Low-temperature ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Weingart, S.; Bock, C.; Kunze, U.; Speck, F.; Seyller, Th.; Ley, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the observation of inertial-ballistic transport in nanoscale cross junctions fabricated from epitaxial graphene grown on SiC(0001). Ballistic transport is indicated by a negative bend resistance of R12,43 ~ 170 ohm which is measured in a non-local, four-terminal configuration at 4.2 K and which vanishes as the temperature is increased above 80 K.

  17. Influence of structural properties on ballistic transport in nanoscale epitaxial graphene cross junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Claudia; Weingart, Sonja; Karaissaridis, Epaminondas; Kunze, Ulrich; Speck, Florian; Seyller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the influence of material and device properties on the ballistic transport in epitaxial monolayer graphene and epitaxial quasi-free-standing monolayer graphene. Our studies comprise (a) magneto-transport in two-dimensional (2D) Hall bars, (b) temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent bend resistance of unaligned and step-edge-aligned orthogonal cross junctions, and (c) the influence of the lead width of the cross junctions on ballistic transport. We found that ballistic transport is highly sensitive to scattering at the step edges of the silicon carbide substrate. A suppression of the ballistic transport is observed if the lead width of the cross junction is reduced from 50 nm to 30 nm. In a 50 nm wide device prepared on quasi-free-standing graphene we observe a gradual transition from the ballistic into the diffusive transport regime if the temperature is increased from 4.2 to about 50 K, although 2D Hall bars show a temperature-independent mobility. Thus, in 1D devices additional temperature-dependent scattering mechanisms play a pivotal role. (paper)

  18. Dominant phonon polarization conversion across dimensionally mismatched interfaces: Carbon-nanotube-graphene junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Lee, Jonghoon; Dong, Yalin; Roy, Ajit; Fisher, Timothy S.; Ruan, Xiulin

    2018-04-01

    Dimensionally mismatched interfaces are emerging for thermal management applications, but thermal transport physics remains poorly understood. Here we consider the carbon-nanotube-graphene junction, which is a dimensionally mismatched interface between one- and two-dimensional materials and is the building block for carbon-nanotube (CNT)-graphene three-dimensional networks. We predict the transmission function of individual phonon modes using the wave packet method; surprisingly, most incident phonon modes show predominantly polarization conversion behavior. For instance, longitudinal acoustic (LA) polarizations incident from CNTs transmit mainly into flexural transverse (ZA) polarizations in graphene. The frequency stays the same as the incident mode, indicating elastic transmission. Polarization conversion is more significant as the phonon wavelength increases. We attribute such unique phonon polarization conversion behavior to the dimensional mismatch across the interface, and it opens significantly new phonon transport channels as compared to existing theories where polarization conversion is neglected.

  19. Vertical heterostructures of MoS2 and graphene nanoribbons grown by two-step chemical vapor deposition for high-gain photodetectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Rozan Mohamad; Endo, Hiroko; Tsuji, Masaharu; Ago, Hiroki

    2015-10-14

    Heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have attracted growing interest due to their unique properties and possible applications in electronics, photonics, and energy. Reduction of the dimensionality from 2D to one-dimensional (1D), such as graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), is also interesting due to the electron confinement effect and unique edge effects. Here, we demonstrate a bottom-up approach to grow vertical heterostructures of MoS2 and GNRs by a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Single-layer GNRs were first grown by ambient pressure CVD on an epitaxial Cu(100) film, followed by the second CVD process to grow MoS2 over the GNRs. The MoS2 layer was found to grow preferentially on the GNR surface, while the coverage could be further tuned by adjusting the growth conditions. The MoS2/GNR nanostructures show clear photosensitivity to visible light with an optical response much higher than that of a 2D MoS2/graphene heterostructure. The ability to grow a novel 1D heterostructure of layered materials by a bottom-up CVD approach will open up a new avenue to expand the dimensionality of the material synthesis and applications.

  20. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core-shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-10-03

    Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core-shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3'-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0-500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core–shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Gangbing, E-mail: zhgb1030@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Kun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wu, Xiangyang, E-mail: wuxy@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • A core–shell heterostructure MWCNTs@GONRs was produced from unzipping MWCNTs. • A new electrochemical sensor for PAAs was developed based on MWCNTs@GONRs hybrids. • The sensor shows good analytical performance for PAAs detection. - Abstract: Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core–shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3′-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0–500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP.

  2. Sensitive electrochemical sensing for polycyclic aromatic amines based on a novel core–shell multiwalled carbon nanotubes@ graphene oxide nanoribbons heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangbing; Yi, Yinhui; Han, Zhixiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A core–shell heterostructure MWCNTs@GONRs was produced from unzipping MWCNTs. • A new electrochemical sensor for PAAs was developed based on MWCNTs@GONRs hybrids. • The sensor shows good analytical performance for PAAs detection. - Abstract: Being awfully harmful to the environment and human health, the qualitative and quantitative determinations of polycyclic aromatic amines (PAAs) are of great significance. In this paper, a novel core–shell heterostructure of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the core and graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs) as the shell (MWCNTs@GONRs) was produced from longitudinal partially unzipping of MWCNTs side walls using a simple wet chemical strategy and applied for electrochemical determination of three kinds of PAAs (1-aminopyrene (1-AP), 1-aminonaphthalene and 3,3′-diaminobiphenyl). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and electrochemical methods were used to characterize the as-prepared MWCNTs@GONRs. Due to the synergistic effects from MWCNTs and GONRs, the oxidation currents of PAAs at the MWCNTs@GONRs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode are much higher than that at the MWCNTs/GC, graphene/GC and bare GC electrodes. 1-AP was used as the representative analyte to demonstrate the sensing performance of the MWCNTs@GONRs/GC electrode, and the proposed modified electrode has a linear response range of 8.0–500.0 nM with a detection limit of 1.5 nM towards 1-AP

  3. Propagation and excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Jeppesen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the propagation of graphene plasmon polaritons in graphene nanoribbon waveguides and experimentally observe the excitation of the graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer. We show that graphene nanoribbon bends do not induce any additional loss...... and nanofocusing occurs in a tapered graphene nanoriboon, and we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritonss in a continuous graphene monolayer assisted by a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating....

  4. Graphene-Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Tunneling Junctions with Large-Area Synthesized Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Corey A; Campbell, Philip M; Tarasov, Alexey A; Beatty, Brian R; Perini, Chris J; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Ready, William J; Vogel, Eric M

    2016-04-06

    Tunneling devices based on vertical heterostructures of graphene and other 2D materials can overcome the low on-off ratios typically observed in planar graphene field-effect transistors. This study addresses the impact of processing conditions on two-dimensional materials in a fully integrated heterostructure device fabrication process. In this paper, graphene-molybdenum disulfide-graphene tunneling heterostructures were fabricated using only large-area synthesized materials, unlike previous studies that used small exfoliated flakes. The MoS2 tunneling barrier is either synthesized on a sacrificial substrate and transferred to the bottom-layer graphene or synthesized directly on CVD graphene. The presence of graphene was shown to have no impact on the quality of the grown MoS2. The thickness uniformity of MoS2 grown on graphene and SiO2 was found to be 1.8 ± 0.22 nm. XPS and Raman spectroscopy are used to show how the MoS2 synthesis process introduces defects into the graphene structure by incorporating sulfur into the graphene. The incorporation of sulfur was shown to be greatly reduced in the absence of molybdenum suggesting molybdenum acts as a catalyst for sulfur incorporation. Tunneling simulations based on the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian were performed and compared to the experimental tunneling results. The simulations show the use of MoS2 as a tunneling barrier suppresses contributions to the tunneling current from the conduction band. This is a result of the observed reduction of electron conduction within the graphene sheets.

  5. Charge transfer at junctions of a single layer of graphene and a metallic single walled carbon nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Geraldine L C; Wang, Qing Hua; Ulissi, Zachary W; McNicholas, Thomas P; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Shih, Chih-Jen; Jin, Zhong; Strano, Michael S

    2013-06-10

    Junctions between a single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) and a monolayer of graphene are fabricated and studied for the first time. A single layer graphene (SLG) sheet grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a SiO₂/Si wafer with aligned CVD-grown SWNTs. Raman spectroscopy is used to identify metallic-SWNT/SLG junctions, and a method for spectroscopic deconvolution of the overlapping G peaks of the SWNT and the SLG is reported, making use of the polarization dependence of the SWNT. A comparison of the Raman peak positions and intensities of the individual SWNT and graphene to those of the SWNT-graphene junction indicates an electron transfer of 1.12 × 10¹³ cm⁻² from the SWNT to the graphene. This direction of charge transfer is in agreement with the work functions of the SWNT and graphene. The compression of the SWNT by the graphene increases the broadening of the radial breathing mode (RBM) peak from 3.6 ± 0.3 to 4.6 ± 0.5 cm⁻¹ and of the G peak from 13 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 cm⁻¹, in reasonable agreement with molecular dynamics simulations. However, the RBM and G peak position shifts are primarily due to charge transfer with minimal contributions from strain. With this method, the ability to dope graphene with nanometer resolution is demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  7. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  8. New Aspects of Photocurrent Generation at Graphene pn Junctions Revealed by Ultrafast Optical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivazian, Grant; Sun, Dong; Jones, Aaron; Ross, Jason; Yao, Wang; Cobden, David; Xu, Xiaodong

    2012-02-01

    The remarkable electrical and optical properties of graphene make it a promising material for new optoelectronic applications. However, one important, but so far unexplored, property is the role of hot carriers in charge and energy transport at graphene interfaces. Here we investigate the photocurrent (PC) dynamics at a tunable graphene pn junction using ultrafast scanning PC microscopy. Pump-probe measurements show a temperature dependent relaxation time of photogenerated carriers that increases from 1.5ps at 290K to 4ps at 20K; while the amplitude of the PC is independent of the lattice temperature. These observations imply that it is hot carriers, not phonons, which dominate ultrafast energy transport. Gate dependent measurements show many interesting features such as pump induced saturation, enhancement, and sign reversal of probe generated PC. These observations reveal that the underlying PC mechanism is a combination of the thermoelectric and built-in electric field effects. Our results enhance the understanding of non-equilibrium electron dynamics, electron-electron interactions, and electron-phonon interactions in graphene. They also determine fundamental limits on ultrafast device operation speeds (˜500 GHz) for graphene-based photodetectors.

  9. Interface-Engineered Charge-Transport Properties in Benzenedithiol Molecular Electronic Junctions via Chemically p-Doped Graphene Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsik; Kwon, Sung-Joo; Shin, Jaeho; Jeong, Hyunhak; Hwang, Wang-Taek; Kim, Junwoo; Koo, Jeongmin; Ko, Taeg Yeoung; Ryu, Sunmin; Wang, Gunuk; Lee, Tae-Woo; Lee, Takhee

    2017-12-06

    In this study, we fabricated and characterized vertical molecular junctions consisting of self-assembled monolayers of benzenedithiol (BDT) with a p-doped multilayer graphene electrode. The p-type doping of a graphene film was performed by treating pristine graphene (work function of ∼4.40 eV) with trifluoromethanesulfonic (TFMS) acid, producing a significantly increased work function (∼5.23 eV). The p-doped graphene-electrode molecular junctions statistically showed an order of magnitude higher current density and a lower charge injection barrier height than those of the pristine graphene-electrode molecular junctions, as a result of interface engineering. This enhancement is due to the increased work function of the TFMS-treated p-doped graphene electrode in the highest occupied molecular orbital-mediated tunneling molecular junctions. The validity of these results was proven by a theoretical analysis based on a coherent transport model that considers asymmetric couplings at the electrode-molecule interfaces.

  10. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Hudy, L J; Li, C H; Li, L

    2015-05-29

    Graphene (Gr) interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer Gr onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature for both junctions. Such behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities that arise from interfacial disorders as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights, mean values of 1.14 ± 0.14 eV and 0.76 ± 0.10 eV are found for Gr/Si and Gr/GaAs junctions, respectively. These findings resolve the origin of barrier height inhomogeneities in these Schottky junctions.

  11. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomer, D; Rajput, S; Hudy, L J; Li, L; Li, C H

    2015-01-01

    Graphene (Gr) interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer Gr onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current–voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decrease in the ideality factor are observed with increasing temperature for both junctions. Such behavior is attributed to barrier inhomogeneities that arise from interfacial disorders as revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of the barrier heights, mean values of 1.14 ± 0.14 eV and 0.76 ± 0.10 eV are found for Gr/Si and Gr/GaAs junctions, respectively. These findings resolve the origin of barrier height inhomogeneities in these Schottky junctions. (paper)

  12. Electronic transmission through p-n and n-p-n junctions of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M R [Department of Science of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahani, D, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.co, E-mail: Dariush110@gmail.co [Department of Physics, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-06-23

    In this paper, we first evaluate the electronic transmission of Dirac fermions into a p-n junction of gapped graphene and show that the final result depends on the sign of the refractive index, n. We also, by considering the appropriate wavefunctions in the region of the electrostatic potential, show that both transmission and the reflection probability turn out to be positive and less than unity instead of the negative transmission and higher than unity reflection coefficient commonly referred to as the Klein paradox. We then obtain the transmission probability corresponding to a special p-n junction for which there exists a region in which the low energy excitations of graphene acquire a finite mass and, interestingly, find that in this case the transmission is independent of the index of refraction, in contrast with the corresponding result for gapped graphene. We then discuss the validity of the solutions reported in some of the papers cited in this work which, considering the Buettiker formula, turn out to lead to the wrong results for conductivity.

  13. Magnetic field oscillations of the critical current in long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakyta, Péter; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József

    2016-06-01

    We study the Josephson current in long ballistic superconductor-monolayer graphene-superconductor junctions. As a first step, we have developed an efficient computational approach to calculate the Josephson current in tight-binding systems. This approach can be particularly useful in the long-junction limit, which has hitherto attracted less theoretical interest but has recently become experimentally relevant. We use this computational approach to study the dependence of the critical current on the junction geometry, doping level, and an applied perpendicular magnetic field B . In zero magnetic field we find a good qualitative agreement with the recent experiment of M. Ben Shalom et al. [Nat. Phys. 12, 318 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3592] for the length dependence of the critical current. For highly doped samples our numerical calculations show a broad agreement with the results of the quasiclassical formalism. In this case the critical current exhibits Fraunhofer-like oscillations as a function of B . However, for lower doping levels, where the cyclotron orbit becomes comparable to the characteristic geometrical length scales of the system, deviations from the results of the quasiclassical formalism appear. We argue that due to the exceptional tunability and long mean free path of graphene systems a new regime can be explored where geometrical and dynamical effects are equally important to understand the magnetic field dependence of the critical current.

  14. Transport properties of monolayer and bilayer graphene p-n junctions with charge puddles in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Shuguang

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments have confirmed that the electron-hole inhomogeneity in graphene is a new type of charge disorder. Motivated by such confirmation, we theoretically study the transport properties of a monolayer graphene (MLG) based p-n junction and a bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junction in the quantum Hall regime where electron-hole puddles are considered. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method, both the current and conductance are obtained. We find that, in the presence of the electron-hole inhomogeneity, the lowest quantized conductance plateau at e 2 /h emerges in the MLG p-n junction under very small charge puddle disorder strength. For a BLG p-n junction, however, the conductance in the p-n region is enhanced with charge puddles, and the lowest quantized conductance plateau emerges at 2e 2 /h. Besides, when an ideal quantized conductance plateau is formed for a MLG p-n junction, the universal conductance fluctuation is found to be 2e 2 /3h. Furthermore, we also investigate the influence of Anderson disorder on such p-n junctions and the comparison and discussion are given accordingly. To compare the two models with different types of disorder, we investigate the conductance distribution specially. Finally the influence of disorder strength on the conductance of a MLG p-n junction is investigated.

  15. Self-powered and broadband photodetectors based on graphene/ZnO/silicon triple junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Ching-Cheng; Liao, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yang-Fang, E-mail: yfchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhan, Jun-Yu; Lin, Tai-Yuan [Institute of Optoelectronic Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ya-Ping [Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    A self-powered photodetector with ultrahigh sensitivity, fast photoresponse, and wide spectral detectivity covering from 1000 nm to 400 nm based on graphene/ZnO/Si triple junctions has been designed, fabricated, and demonstrated. In this device, graphene serves as a transparent electrode as well as an efficient collection layer for photogenerated carriers due to its excellent tunability of Fermi energy. The ZnO layer acts as an antireflection layer to trap the incident light and enhance the light absorption. Furthermore, the insertion of the ZnO layer in between graphene and Si layers can create build-in electric field at both graphene/ZnO and ZnO/Si interfaces, which can greatly enhance the charge separation of photogenerated electron and hole pairs. As a result, the sensitivity and response time can be significantly improved. It is believed that our methodology for achieving a high-performance self-powered photodetector based on an appropriate design of band alignment and optical parameters can be implemented to many other material systems, which can be used to generate unique optoelectronic devices for practical applications.

  16. M3C (M: Fe, Co, Ni) Nanocrystals Encased in Graphene Nanoribbons: An Active and Stable Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Peng, Zhiwei; Ye, Ruquan; Zhou, Haiqing; Guo, Xia

    2015-07-28

    Transition metal carbide nanocrystalline M3C (M: Fe, Co, Ni) encapsulated in graphitic shells supported with vertically aligned graphene nanoribbons (VA-GNRs) are synthesized through a hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD) method. The process is based on the direct reaction between iron group metals (Fe, Co, Ni) and carbon source, which are facilely get high purity carbide nanocrystals (NCs) and avoid any other impurity at relatively low temperature. The M3C-GNRs exhibit superior enhanced electrocatalystic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), including low Tafel slope (39, 41, and 45 mV dec(-1) for Fe3C-GNRs, Co3C-GNRs, and Ni3C-GNRs, respectively), positive onset potential (∼0.8 V), high electron transfer number (∼4), and long-term stability (no obvious drop after 20 000 s test). The M3C-GNRs catalyst also exhibits remarkable hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity with a large cathodic current density of 166.6, 79.6, and 116.4 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 200 mV, low onset overpotential of 32, 41, and 35 mV, small Tafel slope of 46, 57, and 54 mV dec(-1) for Fe3C-GNRs, Co3C-GNRs, and Ni3C-GNRs, respectively, as well as an excellent stability in acidic media.

  17. Label-free impedimetric aptasensor for detection of femtomole level acetamiprid using gold nanoparticles decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Airong; Liu, Qian; Huan, Juan; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-08-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube-reduced graphene oxide nanoribbon (Au/MWCNT-rGONR) composites were synthesized by a one-pot reaction. By employing the resulting Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites as the support for aptamer immobilization, we developed an ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical impedimetric aptasensor for acetamiprid detection, which was based on that the variation of electron transfer resistance was relevant to the formation of acetamiprid-aptamer complex at the modified electrode surface. Compared with pure Au NPs and MWCNT-rGONR, the Au/MWCNT-rGONR composites modified electrode was the most sensitive aptasensing platform for the determination of acetamiprid. The proposed aptasensor displayed a linear response for acetamiprid in the range from 5×10(-14) M to 1×10(-5) M with an extremely low detection limit of 1.7×10(-14) M (S/N=3). In addition, this impedimetric aptasensor possessed great advantages including the simple operation process, low-cost, selectivity and sensitivity, which provided a promising model for the aptamer-based detection with a direct impedimetric method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement in the performance of graphene nanoribbon p-i-n tunneling field effect transistors by applying lightly doped profile on drain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient structure with lightly doped drain region is proposed for p-i-n graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (LD-PIN-GNRFET). Self-consistent solution of Poisson and Schrödinger equation within Nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism has been employed to simulate the quantum transport of the devices. In proposed structure, source region is doped by constant doping density, channel is an intrinsic GNR, and drain region contains two parts with lightly and heavily doped doping distributions. The important challenge in tunneling devices is obtaining higher current ratio. Our simulations demonstrate that LD-PIN-GNRFET is a steep slope device which not only reduces the leakage current and current ratio but also enhances delay, power delay product, and cutoff frequency in comparison with conventional PIN GNRFETs with uniform distribution of impurity and with linear doping profile in drain region. Also, the device is able to operate in higher drain-source voltages due to the effectively reduced electric field at drain side. Briefly, the proposed structure can be considered as a more reliable device for low standby-power logic applications operating at higher voltages and upper cutoff frequencies.

  19. Electrochemical characteristics of graphene nanoribbon/polypyrrole composite prepared via oxidation polymerization in the presence of poly-(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Huang, Jyun-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbon (GNR)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite is synthesized via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization in presence of poly-(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as a surfactant. The morphology of GNR/PPy composites is observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties are characterized using galvanostatic charge–discharge and cycle voltammetry (CV). The specific capacitance of GNR/PPy composites shows the highest value of 881 F g −1 that in presence of 9 wt% GNR at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 . The GNR/PPy composite also demonstrates the good cycle stability with only 16% decay of initial capacitance that much lower than 64% decay of pure PPy after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • PPy/GNR nanocomposites are synthesized using in situ chemical polymerization. • The notable specific capacitance of 881 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 is obtained. • Excellent cyclic stability of PPy/GNR nanocomposites is achieved

  20. Electrochemical characteristics of graphene nanoribbon/polypyrrole composite prepared via oxidation polymerization in the presence of poly-(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Hao; Huang, Jyun-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Ming, E-mail: tmwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2015-07-01

    Graphene nanoribbon (GNR)/polypyrrole (PPy) composite is synthesized via in situ chemical oxidation polymerization in presence of poly-(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as a surfactant. The morphology of GNR/PPy composites is observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical properties are characterized using galvanostatic charge–discharge and cycle voltammetry (CV). The specific capacitance of GNR/PPy composites shows the highest value of 881 F g{sup −1} that in presence of 9 wt% GNR at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. The GNR/PPy composite also demonstrates the good cycle stability with only 16% decay of initial capacitance that much lower than 64% decay of pure PPy after 1000 cycles. - Highlights: • PPy/GNR nanocomposites are synthesized using in situ chemical polymerization. • The notable specific capacitance of 881 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1} is obtained. • Excellent cyclic stability of PPy/GNR nanocomposites is achieved.

  1. Highly sensitive and simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2-aminophenol and 4-aminophenol based on poly(l-arginine)-β-cyclodextrin/carbon nanotubes@graphene nanoribbons modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yinhui; Zhu, Gangbing; Wu, Xiangyang; Wang, Kun

    2016-03-15

    Owing to the similar characteristics and physiochemical property of 2-aminophenol (2-AP) and 4-aminophenol (4-AP), the highly sensitive simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2- and 4-AP is a great challenge. In this paper, by electropolymerizing β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and l-arginine (l-Arg) on the surface of carbon nanotubes@graphene nanoribbons (CNTs@GNRs) core-shell heterostructure, a P-β-CD-l-Arg/CNTs@GNRs nanohybrid modified electrode was prepared successfully, and it could exhibit the synergetic effects of β-CD (high host-guest recognition and enrichment ability), l-Arg (excellent electrocatalytic activity) and CNTs@GNRs (prominent electrochemical properties and large surface area), the P-β-CD-l-Arg/CNTs@GNRs modified electrode was used in the electrochemical determination of 2- and 4-AP, the results demonstrated that the highly sensitive and simultaneous determination of 2- and 4-AP is successfully achieved and the modified electrode has a linear response range of 25.0-1300.0 nM for both 2- and 4-AP, and the detection limits of 2- and 4-AP obtained in this work are 6.2 and 3.5 nM, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric field and substrate–induced modulation of spin-polarized transport in graphene nanoribbons on A3B5 semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyasov, Victor V.; Nguyen, Chuong V.; Ershov, Igor V.; Hieu, Nguyen N.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the density functional theory calculations of the effect of an oriented electric field on the electronic structure and spin-polarized transport in a one dimensional (1D) zigzag graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) channel placed on a wide bandgap semiconductor of the A3B5 type. Our calculations show that carrier mobility in the 1D semiconductor channel of the ZGNR/A3B5(0001) type is in the range from 1.7×10 4 to 30.5×10 4 cm 2 /Vs and can be controlled by an electric field. In particular, at the critical value of the positive potential, even though hole mobility in an one-dimensional 8-ZGNR/h-BN semiconductor channel for spin down electron subsystems is equal to zero, hole mobility can be increased to 4.1×10 5 cm 2 /Vs for spin up electron subsystems. We found that band gap and carrier mobility in a 1D semiconductor channel of the ZGNR/A3B5(0001) type depend strongly on an external electric field. With these extraordinary properties, ZGNR/A3B5(0001) can become a promising materials for application in nanospintronic devices

  3. Enhanced Device and Circuit-Level Performance Benchmarking of Graphene Nanoribbon Field-Effect Transistor against a Nano-MOSFET with Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei Chaeng Chin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative benchmarking of a graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor (GNRFET and a nanoscale metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (nano-MOSFET for applications in ultralarge-scale integration (ULSI is reported. GNRFET is found to be distinctly superior in the circuit-level architecture. The remarkable transport properties of GNR propel it into an alternative technology to circumvent the limitations imposed by the silicon-based electronics. Budding GNRFET, using the circuit-level modeling software SPICE, exhibits enriched performance for digital logic gates in 16 nm process technology. The assessment of these performance metrics includes energy-delay product (EDP and power-delay product (PDP of inverter and NOR and NAND gates, forming the building blocks for ULSI. The evaluation of EDP and PDP is carried out for an interconnect length that ranges up to 100 μm. An analysis, based on the drain and gate current-voltage (Id-Vd and Id-Vg, for subthreshold swing (SS, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL, and current on/off ratio for circuit implementation is given. GNRFET can overcome the short-channel effects that are prevalent in sub-100 nm Si MOSFET. GNRFET provides reduced EDP and PDP one order of magnitude that is lower than that of a MOSFET. Even though the GNRFET is energy efficient, the circuit performance of the device is limited by the interconnect capacitances.

  4. Photovoltaic characterization of graphene/silicon Schottky junctions from local and macroscopic perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Zdeňka; Ledinský, Martin; Vetushka, Aliaksi; Stuchlík, Jiří; Müller, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Bouša, Milan; Kalbáč, Martin; Frank, Otakar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 676, May (2017), s. 82-88 ISSN 0009-2614 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15357S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : CVD graphene * microcrystalline silicon * solar cells * Schottky junctions * current-voltage curves * C-AFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CG - Electrochemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Electrochemistry (dry cells, batteries, fuel cells, corrosion metals, electrolysis) (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 1.815, year: 2016

  5. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  6. Bottom-up, Robust Graphene Ribbon Electronics in All-Carbon Molecular Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supur, Mustafa; Van Dyck, Colin; Bergren, Adam J; McCreery, Richard L

    2018-02-21

    Large-area molecular electronic junctions consisting of 5-carbon wide graphene ribbons (GR) with lengths of 2-12 nm between carbon electrodes were fabricated by electrochemical reduction of diazotized 1,8-diaminonaphthalene. Their conductance greatly exceeds that observed for other molecular junctions of similar thicknesses, by a factor of >1 × 10 4 compared to polyphenylenes and >1 × 10 7 compared to alkane chains. The remarkable increase of conductance of the GR nanolayer results from (i) uninterrupted planarity of fused-arene structure affording extensive π-electron delocalization and (ii) enhanced electronic coupling of molecular layer with the carbon bottom contact by two-point covalent bonding, in agreement with DFT-based simulations.

  7. Valley detection using a graphene gradual pn junction with spin–orbit coupling: An analytical conductance calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou, E-mail: yang.mou@hotmail.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Rui-Qiang [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2015-09-04

    Graphene pn junction is the brick to build up variety of graphene nano-structures. The analytical formula of the conductance of graphene gradual pn junctions in the whole bipolar region has been absent up to now. In this paper, we analytically calculated that pn conductance with the spin–orbit coupling and stagger potential taken into account. Our analytical expression indicates that the energy gap causes the conductance to drop a constant value with respect to that without gap in a certain parameter region, and manifests that the curve of the conductance versus the stagger potential consists of two Gaussian peaks – one valley contributes one peak. The latter feature allows one to detect the valley polarization without using double-interface resonant devices. - Highlights: • Analytical conductance formula of the gradual graphene pn junction with spin–orbit coupling in the whole bipolar region. • Exploring the valley-dependent transport of gradual graphene pn junctions analytically. • Conductance peak without resonance.

  8. Ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films as transparent top-contacts for light switchable solid-state molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Jevric, Martyn; Hauptmann, Jonas Rahlf

    2013-01-01

    A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules. The electr......A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules...

  9. Dry transfer of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene onto liquid-sensitive surfaces for tunnel junction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Ke

    2015-01-01

    We report a dry transfer method that can tranfer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene onto liquid-sensitive surfaces. The graphene grown on copper (Cu) foil substrate was first transferred onto a freestanding 4 μm thick sputtered Cu film using the conventional wet transfer process, followed by a dry transfer process onto the target surface using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp. The dry-transferred graphene has similar properties to traditional wet-transferred graphene, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. It has a sheet resistance of 1.6 ∼ 3.4 kΩ/□, hole density of (4.1 ∼ 5.3) × 10 12 cm −2 , and hole mobility of 460 ∼ 760 cm 2 V −1 s −1 without doping at room temperature. The results suggest that large-scale CVD-grown graphene can be transferred with good quality and without contaminating the target surface by any liquid. Mg/MgO/graphene tunnel junctions were fabricated using this transfer method. The junctions show good tunneling characteristics, which demonstrates the transfer technique can also be used to fabricate graphene devices on liquid-sensitive surfaces. (paper)

  10. Resonance induced spin-selective transport behavior in carbon nanoribbon/nanotube/nanoribbon heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hua [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411101 (China); Wang, Ling-Ling, E-mail: llwang@hnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Xiao-Fei, E-mail: xf.li@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054 (China); Chen, Tong; Li, Quan [School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-09-04

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are attractive in spintronics. Here, we propose GNR/CNT/GNR heterojunctions constructed by attaching zigzag-GNRs at the side-wall of CNT for spintronic devices. The thermal stability and electronic transport properties were explored using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium Green's function methods, respectively. Results demonstrate that the sp{sup 3}-hybridized contacts formed at the interface assure a good thermal stability of the system and make the CNT to be regarded as resonator. Only the electron of one spin-orientation and resonant energy is allowed to transport, resulting in the remarkable spin-selective transport behavior at the ferromagnetic state. - Highlights: • The new mechanism for spin-selective transport in molecular junction is proposed. • The two sp{sup 3} contacts formed between CNT and GNR can be regarded as electronic isolators. • The two isolators make the CNT act as a resonator. • Only the electron of one spin-orientation and resonant energy can form standing wave and transport through the whole junction.

  11. Graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites decorated with quantum tunneling junctions: preparation strategies, microstructures and formation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingxiu; Wu, Xianzheng; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Zhiwen; Wang, Shilong

    2014-09-28

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) and graphene are versatile materials that are vitally important for creating new functional and smart materials. A facile, simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal synthesis approach has been developed to prepare graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites (GSNCs), including three samples with graphene/Sn weight ratios = 1 : 2 (GSNC-2), 1 : 1 (GSNC-1), and graphene oxide/Sn weight ratio = 1 : 1 (GOSNC-1). Low-magnification electron microscopy analysis indicated that graphene was exfoliated and adorned with SnO2 nanoparticles, which were dispersed uniformly on both the sides of the graphene nanosheets. High-magnification electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites presented network tunneling frameworks, which were decorated with the SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions. The size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles was estimated to range from 3 to 5.5 nm. Comparing GSNC-2, GSNC-1, and GOSNC-1, GOSNC-1 was found to exhibit a significantly better the homogeneous distribution and a considerably smaller size distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles, which indicated that it was better to use graphene oxide as a supporting material and SnCl4·5H2O as a precursor to synthesize hybrid graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites. Experimental results suggest that the graphene-SnO2 nanocomposites with interesting SnO2 quantum tunneling junctions may be a promising material to facilitate the improvement of the future design of micro/nanodevices.

  12. A sensitive ultraviolet light photodiode based on graphene-on-zinc oxide Schottky junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Teng-Fei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a simple ultraviolet (UV light photodiode by transferring a layer of graphene film on single-crystal ZnO substrate. The as-fabricated heterojunction exhibited typical rectifying behavior, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.623 eV. Further optoelectronic characterization revealed that the graphene-ZnO Schottky junction photodiode displayed obvious sensitivity to 365-nm light illumination with good reproducibility. The responsivity and photoconductive gain were estimated to be 3×104 A/W and 105, respectively, which were much higher than other ZnO nanostructure-based devices. In addition, it was found that the on/off ratio of the present device can be considerably improved from 2.09 to 12.1, when the device was passivated by a layer of AlOx film. These results suggest that the present simply structured graphene-ZnO UV photodiode may find potential application in future optoelectronic devices.

  13. A sensitive ultraviolet light photodiode based on graphene-on-zinc oxide Schottky junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng-Fei; Wu, Guo-An; Wang, Jiu-Zhen; Yu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Deng-Yue; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Jing-Bo; Wang, Jia-Mu; Luo, Lin-Bao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present a simple ultraviolet (UV) light photodiode by transferring a layer of graphene film on single-crystal ZnO substrate. The as-fabricated heterojunction exhibited typical rectifying behavior, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.623 eV. Further optoelectronic characterization revealed that the graphene-ZnO Schottky junction photodiode displayed obvious sensitivity to 365-nm light illumination with good reproducibility. The responsivity and photoconductive gain were estimated to be 3×104 A/W and 105, respectively, which were much higher than other ZnO nanostructure-based devices. In addition, it was found that the on/off ratio of the present device can be considerably improved from 2.09 to 12.1, when the device was passivated by a layer of AlOx film. These results suggest that the present simply structured graphene-ZnO UV photodiode may find potential application in future optoelectronic devices.

  14. Plasmonic thin film InP/graphene-based Schottky-junction solar cell using nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Nematpour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the design and simulation of graphene/InP thin film solar cells with a novel periodic array of nanorods and plasmonic back-reflectors of the nano-semi sphere was proposed. In this structure, a single-layer of the graphene sheet was placed on the vertical nanorods of InP to form a Schottky junction. The electromagnetic field was determined using solving three-dimensional Maxwell's equations discretized by the finite difference method (FDM. The enhancement of light trapping in the absorbing layer was illustrated, thereby increasing the short circuit current to a maximum value of 31.57 mA/cm2 with nanorods having a radius of 400 nm, height of 1250 nm, and nano-semi sphere radius of 50 nm, under a solar irradiation of AM1.5G. The maximum ultimate efficiency was determined to be 45.8% for an angle of incidence of 60°. This structure has shown a very good light trapping ability when graphene and ITO layers were used at the top and as a back-reflector in the proposed photonic crystal structure of the InP nanorods. Thence, this structure improves the short-circuit current density and the ultimate efficiency of 12% and 2.7%, respectively, in comparison with the InP-nanowire solar cells.

  15. Investigation of short and ballistic coupling in vertical NbSe2 - graphene - NbSe2 Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Park, Geon-Hyoung; Yi, Jongyoon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Jinho; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2H-NbSe2 is a layered two-dimensional superconducting material, which can be constructed into a van der Waals heterostructure with versatile functionality. Here we fabricated a vertically stacked NbSe2 - graphene - NbSe2 heterostructure by the dry transfer technique, where defect-free contact via van der Waals force provides the high interfacial transparency. Insertion of an atomically thin graphene layer between two NbSe2 flakes ensures the formation of highly coherent proximity Josephson coupling. Observed temperature dependence of the junction critical current (Ic) and large value of IcRn product (as large as 2.3ΔNbSe 2) reveal the short and ballistic Josephson coupling characteristics. Large junction critical current density of 104 A/cm2, multiple Andreev reflection in the subgap structure of the differential conductance, and magnetic field modulation of Ic also suggest the strong Josephson coupling via the graphene layer.

  16. Electron transport in a bilayer graphene/layered superconductor NbSe2 junction: effect of work function difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarimizu, Katsuhide; Tomori, Hikari; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kanda, Akinobu

    2018-03-01

    We have experimentally studied electron transport in a bilayer graphene (BLG)/layered superconductor NbSe2 junction encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride. The junction exhibits nonlinear current-voltage characteristics which strongly depend on the gate voltage around the charge neutrality point (CNP) of the BLG. Besides, we observe that the gate voltage dependence of electron transport in the BLG portion close to the junction interface is different from that of the BLG portion apart from the interface, indicating that the spatial variation of the Dirac point in the charge transfer region due to the difference in work function between superconductor and graphene needs to be considered in the analysis of the superconducting proximity effect.

  17. Thermal Resistance across Interfaces Comprising Dimensionally Mismatched Carbon Nanotube-Graphene Junctions in 3D Carbon Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungkyu Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, reverse nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is employed to study thermal resistance across interfaces comprising dimensionally mismatched junctions of single layer graphene floors with (6,6 single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT pillars in 3D carbon nanomaterials. Results obtained from unit cell analysis indicate the presence of notable interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction (along the longitudinal axis of the SWCNTs but negligible resistance in the in-plane direction along the graphene floor. The interfacial thermal resistance in the out-of-plane direction is understood to be due to the change in dimensionality as well as phonon spectra mismatch as the phonons propagate from SWCNTs to the graphene sheet and then back again to the SWCNTs. The thermal conductivity of the unit cells was observed to increase nearly linearly with an increase in cell size, that is, pillar height as well as interpillar distance, and approaches a plateau as the pillar height and the interpillar distance approach the critical lengths for ballistic thermal transport in SWCNT and single layer graphene. The results indicate that the thermal transport characteristics of these SWCNT-graphene hybrid structures can be tuned by controlling the SWCNT-graphene junction characteristics as well as the unit cell dimensions.

  18. The localization-delocalization matrix and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrix of a finite graphene nanoribbon reconstructed from kernel fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F; Massa, Lou; Huang, Lulu

    2014-11-26

    Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and chemical graph theory, merged in the localization-delocalization matrices (LDMs) and the electron-density-weighted connectivity matrices (EDWCM), are shown to benefit in computational speed from the kernel energy method (KEM). The LDM and EDWCM quantum chemical graph matrices of a 66-atom C46H20 hydrogen-terminated armchair graphene nanoribbon, in 14 (2×7) rings of C2v symmetry, are accurately reconstructed from kernel fragments. (This includes the full sets of electron densities at 84 bond critical points and 19 ring critical points, and the full sets of 66 localization and 4290 delocalization indices (LIs and DIs).) The average absolute deviations between KEM and directly calculated atomic electron populations, obtained from the sum of the LIs and half of the DIs of an atom, are 0.0012 ± 0.0018 e(-) (∼0.02 ± 0.03%) for carbon atoms and 0.0007 ± 0.0003 e(-) (∼0.01 ± 0.01%) for hydrogen atoms. The integration errors in the total electron population (296 electrons) are +0.0003 e(-) for the direct calculation (+0.0001%) and +0.0022 e(-) for KEM (+0.0007%). The accuracy of the KEM matrix elements is, thus, probably of the order of magnitude of the combined precision of the electronic structure calculation and the atomic integrations. KEM appears capable of delivering not only the total energies with chemical accuracy (which is well documented) but also local and nonlocal properties accurately, including the DIs between the fragments (crossing fragmentation lines). Matrices of the intact ribbon, the kernels, the KEM-reconstructed ribbon, and errors are available as Supporting Information .

  19. Tunneling Negative Magnetoresistance via δ Doping in a Graphene-Based Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jian-Hui; Chen Ni; Mo Hua; Zhang Yan; Zhang Zhi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance via δ doping in a graphene-based magnetic tunnel junction in detail. It is found that the transmission probability and the conductance oscillates with the position and the aptitude of the δ doping. Also, both the transmission probability and the conductance at the parallel configuration are suppressed by the magnetic field more obviously than that at the antiparallel configuration, which implies a large negative magnetoresistance for this device. The results show that the negative magnetoresistance of over 300% at B = 1.0 T is observed by choosing suitable doped parameters, and the temperature plays an important role in the magnetoresistance. Thus it is possible to open a way to effectively manipulate the magnetoresistance devices, and to make a type of magnetoresistance device by controlling the structural parameter of the δ doping. (paper)

  20. Terahertz Photoconductivity of Graphene Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Ulbricht, Ronald; Narita, Akimitsu

    2013-01-01

    The photoconductive properties of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes were studied using optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. A reduction in conductivity of GNRs compared to CNTs was observed.......The photoconductive properties of graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes were studied using optical pump-THz probe spectroscopy. A reduction in conductivity of GNRs compared to CNTs was observed....

  1. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  2. A First-Principle Theoretical Study of Mechanical and Electronic Properties in Graphene Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The new three-dimensional structure that the graphene connected with SWCNTs (G-CNTs, Graphene Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes can solve graphene and CNTs′ problems. A comprehensive study of the mechanical and electrical performance of the junctions was performed by first-principles theory. There were eight types of junctions that were constituted by armchair and zigzag graphene and (3,3, (4,0, (4,4, and (6,0 CNTs. First, the junction strength was investigated. Generally, the binding energy of armchair G-CNTs was stronger than that of zigzag G-CNTs, and it was the biggest in the armchair G-CNTs (6,0. Likewise, the electrical performance of armchair G-CNTs was better than that of zigzag G-CNTs. Charge density distribution of G-CNTs (6,0 was the most homogeneous. Next, the impact factors of the electronic properties of armchair G-CNTs were investigated. We suggest that the band gap is increased with the length of CNTs, and its value should be dependent on the combined effect of both the graphene’s width and the CNTs’ length. Last, the relationship between voltage and current (U/I were studied. The U/I curve of armchair G-CNTs (6,0 possessed a good linearity and symmetry. These discoveries will contribute to the design and production of G-CNT-based devices.

  3. Composite Transparent Electrode of Graphene Nanowalls and Silver Nanowires on Micropyramidal Si for High-Efficiency Schottky Junction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Tianpeng; Liu, Jian; Wei, Dapeng; Feng, Yanhui; Song, Xuefen; Shi, Haofei; Jia, Shuming; Sun, Wentao; Du, Chunlei

    2015-09-16

    The conventional graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cell inevitably involves the graphene growth and transfer process, which results in complicated technology, loss of quality of the graphene, extra cost, and environmental unfriendliness. Moreover, the conventional transfer method is not well suited to conformationally coat graphene on a three-dimensional (3D) silicon surface. Thus, worse interfacial conditions are inevitable. In this work, we directly grow graphene nanowalls (GNWs) onto the micropyramidal silicon (MP) by the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. By controlling growth time, the cell exhibits optimal pristine photovoltaic performance of 3.8%. Furthermore, we improve the conductivity of the GNW electrode by introducing the silver nanowire (AgNW) network, which could achieve lower sheet resistance. An efficiency of 6.6% has been obtained for the AgNWs-GNWs-MP solar cell without any chemical doping. Meanwhile, the cell exhibits excellent stability exposed to air. Our studies show a promising way to develop simple-technology, low-cost, high-efficiency, and stable Schottky junction solar cells.

  4. Magnetic field mediated conductance oscillation in graphene p–n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Guang

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport of graphene p–n junctions under perpendicular magnetic field is investigated in theory. Under low magnetic field, the transport is determined by the resonant tunneling of Landau levels and conductance versus magnetic field shows a Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation. At higher magnetic field, the p–n junction subjected to the quasi-classical regime and the formation of snake states results in periodical backscattering and transmission as magnetic field varies. The conductance oscillation pattern is mediated both by magnetic field and the carrier concentration on bipolar regions. For medium magnetic field between above two regimes, the combined contributions of resonant tunneling, snake states oscillation and Aharanov–Bohm interference induce irregular oscillation of conductance. At very high magnetic field, the system is subjected to quantum Hall regime. Under disorder, the quantum tunneling at low magnetic field is slightly affected and the oscillation of snake states at higher magnetic field is suppressed. In the quantum Hall regime, the conductance is a constant as predicted by the mixture rule.

  5. Theory of thermionic emission from a two-dimensional conductor and its application to a graphene-semiconductor Schottky junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushin, Maxim

    2018-04-01

    The standard theory of thermionic emission developed for three-dimensional semiconductors does not apply to two-dimensional materials even for making qualitative predictions because of the vanishing out-of-plane quasiparticle velocity. This study reveals the fundamental origin of the out-of-plane charge carrier motion in a two-dimensional conductor due to the finite quasiparticle lifetime and huge uncertainty of the out-of-plane momentum. The theory is applied to a Schottky junction between graphene and a bulk semiconductor to derive a thermionic constant, which, in contrast to the conventional Richardson constant, is determined by the Schottky barrier height and Fermi level in graphene.

  6. Analytical study of bound states in graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanotubes: The variable phase method and the relativistic Levinson theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miserev, D. S., E-mail: d.miserev@student.unsw.edu.au, E-mail: erazorheader@gmail.com [University of New South Wales, School of Physics (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    The problem of localized states in 1D systems with a relativistic spectrum, namely, graphene stripes and carbon nanotubes, is studied analytically. The bound state as a superposition of two chiral states is completely described by their relative phase, which is the foundation of the variable phase method (VPM) developed herein. Based on our VPM, we formulate and prove the relativistic Levinson theorem. The problem of bound states can be reduced to the analysis of closed trajectories of some vector field. Remarkably, the Levinson theorem appears as the Poincaré index theorem for these closed trajectories. The VPM equation is also reduced to the nonrelativistic and semiclassical limits. The limit of a small momentum p{sub y} of transverse quantization is applicable to an arbitrary integrable potential. In this case, a single confined mode is predicted.

  7. Single-Step Seeded-Growth of Graphene Nanoribbons (GNRs) via Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C.-C.; Yang, K.; Tseng, W.-S.; Li, Yiliang; Li, Yilun; Tour, J. M.; Yeh, N.-C.

    One of the main challenges in the fabrication of GNRs is achieving large-scale low-cost production with high quality. Current techniques, including lithography and unzipped carbon nanotubes, are not suitable for mass production. We have recently developed a single-step PECVD growth process of high-quality graphene sheets without any active heating. By adding some substituted aromatic as seeding molecules, we are able to rapidly grow GNRs vertically on various transition-metal substrates. The morphology and electrical properties of the GNRs are dependent on the growth parameters such as the growth time, gas flow and species of the seeding molecules. On the other hand, all GNRs exhibit strong infrared and optical absorption. From studies of the Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopic images, and x-ray/ultraviolet photoelectron spectra of these GNRs as functions of the growth parameters, we propose a model for the growth mechanism. Our findings suggest that our approach opens up a pathway to large-scale, inexpensive production of GNRs for applications to supercapacitors and solar cells. This work was supported by the Grubstake Award and NSF through IQIM at Caltech.

  8. Charge transport of graphene ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with pairing state of broken time reversal symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the charge transport through a graphene-based ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with a broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS of dx2−y2 + is and dx2−y2 + idxy superconductor using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Our analysis have shown several charateristics in this junction, providing a useful probe to understand the role of the order parameter symmetry in the superconductivity. We find that the presence of the BTRS (X state in the superconductor region has a strong effect on the tunneling conductance curves which leads to a decrease in the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP. In particular, we show that the magnitude of the superconducting proximity effect depends to a great extent on X and by increasing X, the zero-bias charge conductance oscillations with respect to the rotation angle β are suppressed. In addition, we find that at the maximum rotation angle β = π/4, introducing BTRS in the FIS junction causes oscillatory behavior of the zero-bias charge conductance with the barrier strength (χG by a period of π and by approaching the X to 1, the amplitude of charge conductance oscillations increases. This behavior is drastically different from none BTRS similar graphene junctions. At last, we suggest an experimental setup for verifying our predicted effects.

  9. Efficient spin-filtering, magnetoresistance and negative differential resistance effects of a one-dimensional single-molecule magnet Mn(dmit2-based device with graphene nanoribbon electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present first-principle spin-dependent quantum transport calculations in a molecular device constructed by one single-molecule magnet Mn(dmit2 and two graphene nanoribbon electrodes. Our results show that the device could generate perfect spin-filtering performance in a certain bias range both in the parallel configuration (PC and the antiparallel configuration (APC. At the same time, a magnetoresistance effect, up to a high value of 103%, can be realized. Moreover, visible negative differential resistance phenomenon is obtained for the spin-up current of the PC. These results suggest that our one-dimensional molecular device is a promising candidate for multi-functional spintronics devices.

  10. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong; Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon; Kang, Tae Won; Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul; Shin, Sunhye; Woo, Yongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  11. Vertical current-flow enhancement via fabrication of GaN nanorod p–n junction diode on graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sung Ryong [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ram, S.D. Gopal; Lee, Seung Joo; Cho, Hak-dong; Lee, Sejoon [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Won, E-mail: twkang@dongguk.edu [Quantum-functional Semiconductor Research Center, Dongguk University-Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Clean Energy and Nano Convergence Centre, Hindustan University, Chennai 600 016 (India); Kwon, Sangwoo; Yang, Woochul [Department of physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sunhye [Soft-Epi Inc., 240 Opo-ro, Opo-eup, Gwangju-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Yongdeuk [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Woosuk University, Chonbuk 565-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • Uniaxial p–n junction diode in GaN nanorod is made by Hydride vapor phase epitaxy method. • The p–n junction diode property is clearly observed from the fabricated uniaxial p–n junction nanorod GaN nanorod. • Graphene is used as a current spreading layer to reduce the lateral resistance up to 700 times when compared with the commercial sapphire substrate, which is clearly explained with the aid of an equivalent circuit. • Kelvin Force Probe microscopy method is employed to visualize the p- and n- regions in a single GaN nanorod. - Abstract: Mg doped GaN nanorods were grown on undoped n-type GaN nanorods uniaxial on monolayer graphene by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) method. The monolayer graphene used as the bottom electrode and a substrate as well provides good electrical contact, acts as a current spreading layer, well suitable for the growth of hexagonal GaN nanorod. In addition it has a work function suitable to that of n-GaN. The formed p–n nanorods show a Schottky behavior with a turn on voltage of 3 V. Using graphene as the substrate, the resistance of the nanorod is reduced by 700 times when compared with the case without using graphene as the current spreading layer. The low resistance of graphene acts in parallel with the resistance of the GaN buffer layer, and reduces the resistance drastically. The formed p–n junction in a single GaN nanorod is visualized by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KPFM) to have distinctively contrast p and n regions. The measured contact potential difference of p-and n-region has a difference of 103 mV which well confirms the formed regions are electronically different. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra give evidence of dopant related acceptor bound emission at 3.2 eV different from 3.4 eV of undoped GaN. The crystalline structure, compositional purity is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission and Scanning electron microcopies (SEM), (TEM), Energy dispersive analysis

  12. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante; Sanvito, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  13. Rationally designed graphene-nanotube 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction for efficient energy conversion and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuhua; Ding, Yong; Niu, Jianbing; Xia, Zhenhai; Roy, Ajit; Chen, Hao; Qu, Jia; Wang, Zhong Lin; Dai, Liming

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D single-atomic layer graphene have superior thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties. However, these nanomaterials exhibit poor out-of-plane properties due to the weak van der Waals interaction in the transverse direction between graphitic layers. Recent theoretical studies indicate that rationally designed 3D architectures could have desirable out-of-plane properties while maintaining in-plane properties by growing CNTs and graphene into 3D architectures with a seamless nodal junction. However, the experimental realization of seamlessly-bonded architectures remains a challenge. We developed a strategy of creating 3D graphene-CNT hollow fibers with radially aligned CNTs (RACNTs) seamlessly sheathed by a cylindrical graphene layer through a one-step chemical vapor deposition using an anodized aluminum wire template. By controlling the aluminum wire diameter and anodization time, the length of the RACNTs and diameter of the graphene hollow fiber can be tuned, enabling efficient energy conversion and storage. These fibers, with a controllable surface area, meso-/micropores, and superior electrical properties, are excellent electrode materials for all-solid-state wire-shaped supercapacitors with poly(vinyl alcohol)/H2SO4 as the electrolyte and binder, exhibiting a surface-specific capacitance of 89.4 mF/cm(2) and length-specific capacitance up to 23.9 mF/cm, - one to four times the corresponding record-high capacities reported for other fiber-like supercapacitors. Dye-sensitized solar cells, fabricated using the fiber as a counter electrode, showed a power conversion efficiency of 6.8% and outperformed their counterparts with an expensive Pt wire counter electrode by a factor of 2.5. These novel fiber-shaped graphene-RACNT energy conversion and storage devices are so flexible they can be woven into fabrics as power sources.

  14. Forward-bias diode parameters, electronic noise, and photoresponse of graphene/silicon Schottky junctions with an interfacial native oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanbin; Behnam, Ashkan; Pop, Eric; Bosman, Gijs; Ural, Ant

    2015-09-01

    Metal-semiconductor Schottky junction devices composed of chemical vapor deposition grown monolayer graphene on p-type silicon substrates are fabricated and characterized. Important diode parameters, such as the Schottky barrier height, ideality factor, and series resistance, are extracted from forward bias current-voltage characteristics using a previously established method modified to take into account the interfacial native oxide layer present at the graphene/silicon junction. It is found that the ideality factor can be substantially increased by the presence of the interfacial oxide layer. Furthermore, low frequency noise of graphene/silicon Schottky junctions under both forward and reverse bias is characterized. The noise is found to be 1/f dominated and the shot noise contribution is found to be negligible. The dependence of the 1/f noise on the forward and reverse current is also investigated. Finally, the photoresponse of graphene/silicon Schottky junctions is studied. The devices exhibit a peak responsivity of around 0.13 A/W and an external quantum efficiency higher than 25%. From the photoresponse and noise measurements, the bandwidth is extracted to be ˜1 kHz and the normalized detectivity is calculated to be 1.2 ×109 cm Hz1/2 W-1. These results provide important insights for the future integration of graphene with silicon device technology.

  15. Floating-Gate Manipulated Graphene-Black Phosphorus Heterojunction for Nonvolatile Ambipolar Schottky Junction Memories, Memory Inverter Circuits, and Logic Rectifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Mingyuan; Zong, Qijun; Zhang, Zengxing

    2017-10-11

    The Schottky junction is an important unit in electronics and optoelectronics. However, its properties greatly degrade with device miniaturization. The fast development of circuits has fueled a rapid growth in the study of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, which may lead to breakthroughs in the semiconductor industry. Here we report a floating-gate manipulated nonvolatile ambipolar Schottky junction memory from stacked all-2D layers of graphene-BP/h-BN/graphene (BP, black phosphorus; h-BN, hexagonal boron nitride) in a designed floating-gate field-effect Schottky barrier transistor configuration. By manipulating the voltage pulse applied to the control gate, the device exhibits ambipolar characteristics and can be tuned to act as graphene-p-BP or graphene-n-BP junctions with reverse rectification behavior. Moreover, the junction exhibits good storability properties of more than 10 years and is also programmable. On the basis of these characteristics, we further demonstrate the application of the device to dual-mode nonvolatile Schottky junction memories, memory inverter circuits, and logic rectifiers.

  16. Effect of contact area on electron transport through graphene-metal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Kondo, Hisashi; Ohno, Takahisa

    2013-08-21

    We perform first-principles investigations of electron transport in armchair graphene nanoribbons adsorbed on Cu(111) and Ni(111) surfaces with various contact areas. We find that the contact area between metals and graphene has different influences on the conductance. The Cu-graphene system shows an increase in differential conductance for more contact area at a low bias voltage, primarily originating from the shift of transmission peaks relative to the Fermi energy. As the bias increases, there is an irregular change of conductance, including a weak negative differential conductance for more contact area. In contrast, the conductance of the Ni-graphene junction is monotonically enhanced with increasing overlap area. The minority spin which shows a broad transmission is responsible for the conductance increase of Ni-graphene. These behaviors can be attributed to different mechanisms of the interfacial electron transport: Charge transfer between graphene and Cu largely dominates the transmission enhancement of Cu-graphene, whereas hybridization between graphene and Ni states plays a more important role in the transmission enhancement of Ni-graphene. The different behaviors of transmission increase correlate with not only the strength of the graphene-metal interaction but also the location of metal d states.

  17. High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Yu; Dai, Lun; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Nan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Peng, Ruomin; Wen, Xiaonan; Chen, Zhijian; Liu, Zhongfan; Qin, Guogang

    2010-12-01

    High-performance single CdS nanowire (NW) as well as nanobelt (NB) Schottky junction solar cells were fabricated. Au (5 nm)/graphene combined layers were used as the Schottky contact electrodes to the NWs (NBs). Typical as-fabricated NW solar cell shows excellent photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage of ∼0.15 V, a short circuit current of ∼275.0 pA, and an energy conversion efficiency of up to ∼1.65%. The physical mechanism of the combined Schottky electrode was discussed. We attribute the prominent capability of the devices to the high-performance Schottky combined electrode, which has the merits of low series resistance, high transparency, and good Schottky contact to the CdS NW (NB). Besides, a promising site-controllable patterned graphene transfer method, which has the advantages of economizing graphene material and free from additional etching process, was demonstrated in this work. Our results suggest that semiconductor NWs (NBs) are promising materials for novel solar cells, which have potential application in integrated nano-optoelectronic systems.

  18. Electronic Transport in Helium Beam Modified Graphene and Ballistic Josephson Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanda, G.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the capabilities of the helium ion microscope (HIM) and that of graphene to explore fundamental physics and novel applications. While graphene offers superior electronic properties, the helium ion microscope allows us to combine imaging and modification of materials at the

  19. Twin lead ballistic conductor based on nanoribbon edge transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konôpka, Martin; Dieška, Peter

    2018-03-01

    If a device like a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) has all its four corners attached to electric current leads, the device becomes a quantum junction through which two electrical circuits can interact. We study such system theoretically for stationary currents. The 4-point energy-dependent conductance matrix of the nanostructure and the classical resistors in the circuits are parameters of the model. The two bias voltages in the circuits are the control variables of the studied system while the electrochemical potentials at the device's terminals are non-trivially dependent on the voltages. For the special case of the linear-response regime analytical formulae for the operation of the coupled quantum-classical device are derived and applied. For higher bias voltages numerical solutions are obtained. The effects of non-equilibrium Fermi levels are captured using a recursive algorithm in which self-consistency between the electrochemical potentials and the currents is reached within few iterations. The developed approach allows to study scenarios ranging from independent circuits to strongly coupled ones. For the chosen model of the GNR with highly conductive zigzag edges we determine the regime in which the single device carries two almost independent currents.

  20. Graphene-based spintronic components

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Minggang; Shen, Lei; Su, Haibin; Zhou, Miao; Zhang, Chun; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge of spintronics is in generating, controlling and detecting spin-polarized current. Manipulation of spin-polarized current, in particular, is difficult. We demonstrate here, based on calculated transport properties of graphene nanoribbons, that nearly +-100% spin-polarized current can be generated in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and tuned by a source-drain voltage in the bipolar spin diode, in addition to magnetic configurations of the electrodes. This unusual transpor...

  1. Improved transfer of graphene for gated Schottky-junction, vertical, organic, field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Maxime G; Donoghue, Evan P; McCarthy, Mitchell A; Liu, Bo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Gila, Brent; Kumar, Purushottam; Singh, Rajiv K; Appleton, Bill R; Rinzler, Andrew G

    2012-10-23

    An improved process for graphene transfer was used to demonstrate high performance graphene enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (G-VFETs). The process reduces disorder and eliminates the polymeric residue that typically plagues transferred films. The method also allows for purposely creating pores in the graphene of a controlled areal density. Transconductance observed in G-VFETs fabricated with a continuous (pore-free) graphene source electrode is attributed to modulation of the contact barrier height between the graphene and organic semiconductor due to a gate field induced Fermi level shift in the low density of electronic-states graphene electrode. Pores introduced in the graphene source electrode are shown to boost the G-VFET performance, which scales with the areal pore density taking advantage of both barrier height lowering and tunnel barrier thinning. Devices with areal pore densities of 20% exhibit on/off ratios and output current densities exceeding 10(6) and 200 mA/cm(2), respectively, at drain voltages below 5 V.

  2. Interface and transport properties of GaN/graphene junction in GaN-based LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liancheng; Zhang Yiyun; Liu Zhiqiang; Guo Enqing; Yi Xiaoyan; Wang Junxi; Wang Guohong; Li Xiao; Zhu Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    A normalized circular transmission line method pattern with uniform interface area was developed to obtain contact resistances of p-, u-, n-GaN/graphene contacts (p, u and n represent p-type doped, unintentionally doped and n-type doped, respectively) and N-polar u-, n-GaN/graphene contacts in GaN-based LEDs. The resistances of the graphene/GaN contacts were mainly determined by the work function gap and the carrier concentration in GaN. Annealing caused diffusion of metal atoms and significantly influenced the interface transport properties.

  3. Nucleobase-functionalized grapheme nanoribbons for accurate high-speed DNA sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulechka, Eugene; Wassenaar, Tsjerk; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Kazakov, Andrei; Smolyanitsky, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We propose a water-immersed nucleobase-functionalized suspended graphene nanoribbon as an intrinsically selective device for nucleotide detection. The proposed sensing method combines Watson–Crick selective base pairing with graphene's capacity for converting anisotropic lattice strain to changes in

  4. Amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence detection of cholesterol in near-infrared range based on CdTe quantum dots decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene oxide nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Juan; Liu, Qian; Fei, Airong; Qian, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Qiu, Baijing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2015-11-15

    An amplified solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for detection of cholesterol in near-infrared (NIR) range was constructed based on CdTe quantum dots (QDs) decorated multiwalled carbon nanotubes@reduced graphene nanoribbons (CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs), which were prepared by electrostatic interactions. The CdTe QDs decorated on the MWCNTs@rGONRs resulted in the amplified ECL intensity by ~4.5 fold and decreased onset potential by ~100 mV. By immobilization of the cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and NIR CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs on the electrode surface, a solid-state ECL biosensor for cholesterol detection was constructed. When cholesterol was added to the detection solution, the immobilized ChOx catalyzed the oxidation of cholesterol to generate H2O2, which could be used as the co-reactant in the ECL system of CdTe-MWCNTs@rGONRs. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited good performance for cholesterol detection including good reproducibility, selectivity, and acceptable linear range from 1 μM to 1mM with a relative low detection limit of 0.33 μM (S/N=3). The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of cholesterol in biological fluid and food sample, which would open a new possibility for development of solid-state ECL biosensors with NIR emitters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Planar edge Schottky barrier-tunneling transistors using epitaxial graphene/SiC junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunc, Jan; Hu, Yike; Palmer, James; Guo, Zelei; Hankinson, John; Gamal, Salah H; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walt A

    2014-09-10

    A purely planar graphene/SiC field effect transistor is presented here. The horizontal current flow over one-dimensional tunneling barrier between planar graphene contact and coplanar two-dimensional SiC channel exhibits superior on/off ratio compared to conventional transistors employing vertical electron transport. Multilayer epitaxial graphene (MEG) grown on SiC(0001̅) was adopted as the transistor source and drain. The channel is formed by the accumulation layer at the interface of semi-insulating SiC and a surface silicate that forms after high vacuum high temperature annealing. Electronic bands between the graphene edge and SiC accumulation layer form a thin Schottky barrier, which is dominated by tunneling at low temperatures. A thermionic emission prevails over tunneling at high temperatures. We show that neglecting tunneling effectively causes the temperature dependence of the Schottky barrier height. The channel can support current densities up to 35 A/m.

  6. Nonlinear behavior of three-terminal graphene junctions at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wonjae; Riikonen, Juha; Lipsanen, Harri; Pasanen, Pirjo

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate nonlinear behavior in three-terminal T-branch graphene devices at room temperature. A rectified nonlinear output at the center branch is observed when the device is biased by a push–pull configuration. Nonlinearity is assumed to arise from a difference in charge transfer through the metal–graphene contact barrier between two contacts. The sign of the rectification can be altered by changing the carrier type using the back-gate voltage. (paper)

  7. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-08-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron-graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  8. Band alignments in Fe/graphene/Si(001) junctions studied by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Breton, J.-C.; Tricot, S.; Delhaye, G.; Lépine, B.; Turban, P.; Schieffer, P.

    2016-01-01

    The control of tunnel contact resistance is of primary importance for semiconductor-based spintronic devices. This control is hardly achieved with conventional oxide-based tunnel barriers due to deposition-induced interface states. Manipulation of single 2D atomic crystals (such as graphene sheets) weakly interacting with their substrate might represent an alternative and efficient way to design new heterostructures for a variety of different purposes including spin injection into semiconductors. In the present paper, we study by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy the band alignments and interface chemistry of iron–graphene-hydrogenated passivated silicon (001) surfaces for a low and a high n-doping concentration. We find that the hydrogen passivation of the Si(001) surface remains efficient even with a graphene sheet on the Si(001) surface. For both doping concentrations, the semiconductor is close to flat-band conditions which indicates that the Fermi level is unpinned on the semiconductor side of the Graphene/Si(001):H interface. When iron is deposited on the graphene/Si(001):H structures, the Schottky barrier height remains mainly unaffected by the metallic overlayer with a very low barrier height for electrons, a sought-after property in semiconductor based spintronic devices. Finally, we demonstrate that the graphene layer intercalated between the metal and semiconductor also serves as a protection against iron-silicide formation even at elevated temperatures preventing from the formation of a Si-based magnetic dead layer.

  9. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene-based superconducting junction with substate-induced spin orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chunxu, E-mail: chunxu_bai@semi.ac.cn [School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China); Yang, Yanling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); School of Physics, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455000 (China)

    2016-08-26

    Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.

  10. Specular Andreev reflection in graphene-based superconducting junction with substate-induced spin orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chunxu; Yang, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Dirac–Bogoliubov–de Gennes equation, the chirality-resolved transport properties through a ballistic graphene-based superconducting heterojunction with both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction have been investigated. Our results show that, in contrast to the retro-Andreev reflection suppressed by the spin orbit interaction (SOI), the specular Andreev reflection (SAR) can be enhanced largely by the SOI. Moreover, the Fabry–Perot interferences in the barrier region lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. It is anticipated to apply the qualitative different results to diagnose the SAR in single layer graphene in the presence of both kinds of the SOI. - Highlights: • The retro-Andreev reflection in graphene is suppressed by the spin orbit interaction. • The specular Andreev reflection in graphene can be enhanced largely by the spin orbit interaction. • The Fabry–Perot interferences in the graphene-based barrier lead to the oscillating feature of the tunneling conductance. • The spin orbit interaction is also vital in diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection in graphene.

  11. Voltage-controlled inversion of tunnel magnetoresistance in epitaxial nickel/graphene/MgO/cobalt junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godel, F.; Doudin, B.; Henry, Y.; Halley, D., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr; Dayen, J.-F., E-mail: halley@ipcms.unistra.fr, E-mail: dayen@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Venkata Kamalakar, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 CNRS-UdS, 23 rue du Loess, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-10-13

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of vertical spin-valve structures using a thick epitaxial MgO barrier as spacer layer and a graphene-passivated Ni film as bottom ferromagnetic electrode. The devices show robust and scalable tunnel magnetoresistance, with several changes of sign upon varying the applied bias voltage. These findings are explained by a model of phonon-assisted transport mechanisms that relies on the peculiarity of the band structure and spin density of states at the hybrid graphene|Ni interface.

  12. Laser-assisted spin-polarized transport in graphene tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Kaihe; Zhu Zhengang; Berakdar, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function method is utilized to theoretically study spin-polarized transport through a graphene spin valve irradiated by a monochromatic laser field. It is found that the bias dependence of the differential conductance exhibits successive peaks corresponding to the resonant tunneling through the photon-assisted sidebands. The multi-photon processes originate from the combined effects of the radiation field and the graphene tunneling properties, and are shown to be substantially suppressed in a graphene spin valve which results in a decrease of the differential conductance for a high bias voltage. We also discuss the appearance of a dynamical gap around zero bias due to the radiation field. The gap width can be tuned by changing the radiation electric field strength and the frequency. This leads to a shift of the resonant peaks in the differential conductance. We also demonstrate numerically the dependences of the radiation and spin valve effects on the parameters of the external fields and those of the electrodes. We find that the combined effects of the radiation field, the graphene and the spin valve properties bring about an oscillatory behavior in the tunnel magnetoresistance, and this oscillatory amplitude can be changed by scanning the radiation field strength and/or the frequency. (paper)

  13. p-n Junction Dynamics Induced in a Graphene Channel by Ferroelectric-Domain Motion in the Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurchak, Anatolii I. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kiev (Ukraine); Eliseev, Eugene A. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kiev (Ukraine); Kalinin, Sergei V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Strikha, Maksym V. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kiev (Ukraine); Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National Univ., Kyiv (Ukraine); Morozovska, Anna N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU), Kiev (Ukraine)

    2017-08-30

    The p - n junction dynamics induced in a graphene channel by stripe-domain nucleation, motion, and reversal in a ferroelectric substrate is explored using a self-consistent approach based on Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire phenomenology combined with classical electrostatics. Relatively low gate voltages are required to induce the hysteresis of ferroelectric polarization and graphene charge in response to the periodic gate voltage. Pronounced nonlinear hysteresis of graphene conductance with a wide memory window corresponds to high amplitudes of gate voltage. Also, we reveal the extrinsic size effect in the dependence of the graphene-channel conductivity on its length. We predict that the top-gate–dielectric-layer–graphene-channel–ferroelectric-substrate nanostructure considered here can be a promising candidate for the fabrication of the next generation of modulators and rectifiers based on the graphene p - n junctions.

  14. Fluorescent "on-off-on" switching sensor based on CdTe quantum dots coupled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes@graphene oxide nanoribbons for simultaneous monitoring of dual foreign DNAs in transgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaqi; Sun, Li; Qian, Jing; Long, Lingliang; Li, Henan; Liu, Qian; Cai, Jianrong; Wang, Kun

    2017-06-15

    With the increasing concern of potential health and environmental risk, it is essential to develop reliable methods for transgenic soybean detection. Herein, a simple, sensitive and selective assay was constructed based on homogeneous fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes@graphene oxide nanoribbons (MWCNTs@GONRs) to form the fluorescent "on-off-on" switching for simultaneous monitoring dual target DNAs of promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35s (P35s) and terminator nopaline synthase (TNOS) from transgenic soybean. The capture DNAs were immobilized with corresponding QDs to obtain strong fluorescent signals (turning on). The strong π-π stacking interaction between single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes and MWCNTs@GONRs led to minimal background fluorescence due to the FRET process (turning off). The targets of P35s and TNOS were recognized by dual fluorescent probes to form double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) through the specific hybridization between target DNAs and ssDNA probes. And the dsDNA were released from the surface of MWCNTs@GONRs, which leaded the dual fluorescent probes to generate the strong fluorescent emissions (turning on). Therefore, this proposed homogeneous assay can be achieved to detect P35s and TNOS simultaneously by monitoring the relevant fluorescent emissions. Moreover, this assay can distinguish complementary and mismatched nucleic acid sequences with high sensitivity. The constructed approach has the potential to be a tool for daily detection of genetically modified organism with the merits of feasibility and reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Symmetries and band gaps in nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Yiteng; Fernando, Gayanath; Kocharian, Armen

    In ideal graphene-like systems, time reversal and sublattice symmetries preserve the degeneracies at the Dirac point(s). We have examined such degeneracies in the band structure as well as the transport properties in various arm-twisted (graphene-related) nanoribbons. A twist angle is defined such that at 0 degrees the ribbon is a rectangular ribbon and at 60 degrees the ribbon is cut from a honeycomb lattice. Using model Hamiltonians and first principles calculations in these nanoribbons with Z2 topology, we have monitored the band structure as a function of the twist angle θ. In twisted ribbons, it turns out that the introduction of an extra hopping term leads to a gap opening. We have also calculated the size and temperature broadening effects in similar ribbons in addition to Rashba-induced transport properties. The authors acknowledge the computing facilities provided by the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No.DE-AC02- 98CH10886.

  16. Tailoring spin injection and magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/graphene junctions from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Sipahi, Guilherme; Kawakami, Roland; Zutic, Igor

    2013-03-01

    Recent experimental advances in graphene suggest intriguing opportunities for novel spintronic applications which could significantly exceed the state-of-the art performance of their conventional charge-based counterparts. However, for reliable operation of such spintronic devices it is important to achieve an efficient spin injection and large magnetoresistive effects. We use the first principles calculations to guide the choice of a ferromagnetic region and its relative orientation to optimize the desired effects. We propose structures which could enable uniform spin injection, one of the key factors in implementing scalable spintronic circuits. Supported by NSF-NRI, SRC, ONR, Croatian Ministry of Science, Education, and Sports, and CCR at SUNY UB.

  17. The effect of magnetic field on chiral transmission in p-n-p graphene junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wan, Qi; Peng, Yingzi; Wang, Guanqing; Qian, Zhenghong; Zhou, Guanghui; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate Klein tunneling in graphene heterojunctions under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field via the non-equilibrium Green’s function method. We find that the angular dependence of electron transmission is deflected sideways, resulting in the suppression of normally incident electrons and overall decrease in conductance. The off-normal symmetry axis of the transmission profile was analytically derived. Overall tunneling conductance decreases to almost zero regardless of the potential barrier height when the magnetic field (B-field) exceeds a critical value, thus achieving effective confinement of Dirac fermions. The critical field occurs when the width of the magnetic field region matches the diameter of the cyclotron orbit. The potential barrier also induces distinct Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns, with a “constriction region” of low transmission when is close to the Fermi energy. Application of B-field deflects the Fabry-Pérot interference pattern to an off-normal angle. Thus, the conductance of the graphene heterojunctions can be sharply modulated by adjusting the B-field strength and the potential barrier height relative to the Fermi energy.

  18. The effect of magnetic field on chiral transmission in p-n-p graphene junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wan, Qi; Peng, Yingzi; Wang, Guanqing; Qian, Zhenghong; Zhou, Guanghui; Jalil, Mansoor B A

    2015-12-18

    We investigate Klein tunneling in graphene heterojunctions under the influence of a perpendicular magnetic field via the non-equilibrium Green's function method. We find that the angular dependence of electron transmission is deflected sideways, resulting in the suppression of normally incident electrons and overall decrease in conductance. The off-normal symmetry axis of the transmission profile was analytically derived. Overall tunneling conductance decreases to almost zero regardless of the potential barrier height V0 when the magnetic field (B-field) exceeds a critical value, thus achieving effective confinement of Dirac fermions. The critical field occurs when the width of the magnetic field region matches the diameter of the cyclotron orbit. The potential barrier also induces distinct Fabry-Pérot fringe patterns, with a "constriction region" of low transmission when V0 is close to the Fermi energy. Application of B-field deflects the Fabry-Pérot interference pattern to an off-normal angle. Thus, the conductance of the graphene heterojunctions can be sharply modulated by adjusting the B-field strength and the potential barrier height relative to the Fermi energy.

  19. Fabrication of hybrid molecular devices using multi-layer graphene break junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Island, J. O.; Holovchenko, A.; Koole, M.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Menelaou, M.; Aliaga-Alcalde, N.; Burzurí, E.; van der Zant, H. S. J.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of hybrid molecular devices employing multi-layer graphene (MLG) flakes which are patterned with a constriction using a helium ion microscope or an oxygen plasma etch. The patterning step allows for the localization of a few-nanometer gap, created by electroburning, that can host single molecules or molecular ensembles. By controlling the width of the sculpted constriction, we regulate the critical power at which the electroburning process begins. We estimate the flake temperature given the critical power and find that at low powers it is possible to electroburn MLG with superconducting contacts in close proximity. Finally, we demonstrate the fabrication of hybrid devices with superconducting contacts and anthracene-functionalized copper curcuminoid molecules. This method is extendable to spintronic devices with ferromagnetic contacts and a first step towards molecular integrated circuits.

  20. Communication: Electronic and transport properties of molecular junctions under a finite bias: A dual mean field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Feng, Yuan Ping; Zhang, Chun

    2013-01-01

    We show that when a molecular junction is under an external bias, its properties cannot be uniquely determined by the total electron density in the same manner as the density functional theory for ground state properties. In order to correctly incorporate bias-induced nonequilibrium effects, we present a dual mean field (DMF) approach. The key idea is that the total electron density together with the density of current-carrying electrons are sufficient to determine the properties of the system. Two mean fields, one for current-carrying electrons and the other one for equilibrium electrons can then be derived. Calculations for a graphene nanoribbon junction show that compared with the commonly used ab initio transport theory, the DMF approach could significantly reduce the electric current at low biases due to the non-equilibrium corrections to the mean field potential in the scattering region

  1. Multiterminal single-molecule-graphene-nanoribbon junctions with the thermoelectric figure of merit optimized via evanescent mode transport and gate voltage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saha, K.K.; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    .5 at room temperature and 0.5 liquid nitrogen temperature. Using density functional theory combined with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism for multiterminal devices, we show how the transmission resonance can be manipulated by the voltage applied to a third ZGNR top-gate electrode...

  2. Synthesis and Application of Graphene Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhiwei

    Graphene, a two-dimensional sp2-bonded carbon material, has recently attracted major attention due to its excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Depending on different applications, graphene and its derived hybrid nanomaterials can be synthesized by either bottom-up chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods for electronics, or various top-down chemical reaction methods for energy generation and storage devices. My thesis begins with the investigation of CVD synthesis of graphene thin films in Chapter 1, including the direct growth of bilayer graphene on insulating substrates and synthesis of "rebar graphene": a hybrid structure with graphene and carbon or boron nitride nanotubes. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of nanoribbon-shaped materials and their applications, including splitting of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube carpets for supercapacitors, synthesis of dispersable ferromagnetic graphene nanoribbon stacks with enhanced electrical percolation properties in magnetic field, graphene nanoribbon/SnO 2 nanocomposite for lithium ion batteries, and enhanced electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reactions from WS2 nanoribbons. Next, Chapter 3 discusses graphene coated iron oxide nanomaterials and their use in energy storage applications. Finally, Chapter 4 introduces the development, characterization, and fabrication of laser induced graphene and its application as supercapacitors.

  3. Plasmon polaritons in nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui

    2013-01-01

    Graphene has attracted considerable attention due to its unique electronic and optical properties. When graphene is electrically/chemically doped, it can support surface plasmon where the light propagates along the surface with a very short wavelength and an extremely small mode volume. The optical...... properties of graphene can be tuned by electrical gating, thus proving a promising way to realize a tunable plasmonic material. We firstly investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides, and show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided...... that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. Then we experimentally demonstrate the excitation of graphene plasmon polaritons in a continuous graphene monolayer resting on a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon grating. The silicon grating is realized by a nanosphere lithography technique with a self...

  4. h-BN/graphene van der Waals vertical heterostructure: a fully spin-polarized photocurrent generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xixi; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaohong; Hao, Hua; Wang, Xianlong; Song, Lingling; Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-21

    By constructing transport junctions using graphene-based van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is sandwiched between two hexagonal boron-nitride sheets, we computationally demonstrate a new scheme for generating perfect spin-polarized quantum transport in ZGNRs by light irradiation. The mechanism lies in the lift of spin degeneracy of ZGNR induced by the stagger potential it receives from the BN sheets and the subsequent possibility of single spin excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band by properly tuning the photon energy. This scheme is rather robust in that we always achieve desirable results irrespective of whether we decrease or increase the interlayer distance by applying compressive or tensile strain vertically to the sheets or shift the BN sheets in-plane relative to the graphene nanoribbons. More importantly, this scheme overcomes the long-standing difficulties in traditional ways of using solely electrical field or chemical modification for obtaining half-metallic transport in ZGNRs and thus paves a more feasible way for their application in spintronics.

  5. Electrical transport measurements and degradation of graphene/n-Si Schottky junction diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, No-Won; Lee, Won-Yong; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Gil-Sung; Hyung, Jung-Hwan; Hong, Chang-Hee; Kim, Keun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We report on the electrical properties, such as the ideality factors and Schottky barrier heights, that were obtained by using current density - voltage (J - V ) and capacitance - voltage (C - V ) characteristics. To fabricate circularly- and locally-contacted Au/Gr/n-Si Schottky diode, we deposited graphene through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth technique, and we employed reactive ion etching to reduce the leakage current of the Schottky diodes. The average values of the barrier heights and the ideality factors from the J .V characteristics were determined to be ∼0.79 ± 0.01 eV and ∼1.80 ± 0.01, respectively. The Schottky barrier height and the doping concentration from the C - V measurements were ∼0.85 eV and ∼1.76 x 10 15 cm -3 , respectively. From the J - V characteristics, we obtained a relatively low reverse leakage current of ∼2.56 x 10 -6 mA/cm -2 at -2 V, which implies a well-defined rectifying behavior. Finally, we found that the Gr/n-Si Schottky diodes that were exposed to ambient conditions for 7 days exhibited a ∼3.2-fold higher sheet resistance compared with the as-fabricated Gr/n-Si diodes, implying a considerable electrical degradation of the Gr/n-Si Schottky diodes.

  6. Highly sensitive wide bandwidth photodetector based on internal photoemission in CVD grown p-type MoS2/graphene Schottky junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbina, PhaniKiran; Choudhary, Nitin; Chowdhury, Al-Amin; Sinha, Raju; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Das, Santanu; Choi, Wonbong; Pala, Nezih

    2015-07-22

    Two dimensional (2D) Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has evolved as a promising material for next generation optoelectronic devices owing to its unique electrical and optical properties, such as band gap modulation, high optical absorption, and increased luminescence quantum yield. The 2D MoS2 photodetectors reported in the literature have presented low responsivity compared to silicon based photodetectors. In this study, we assembled atomically thin p-type MoS2 with graphene to form a MoS2/graphene Schottky photodetector where photo generated holes travel from graphene to MoS2 over the Schottky barrier under illumination. We found that the p-type MoS2 forms a Schottky junction with graphene with a barrier height of 139 meV, which results in high photocurrent and wide spectral range of detection with wavelength selectivity. The fabricated photodetector showed excellent photosensitivity with a maximum photo responsivity of 1.26 AW(-1) and a noise equivalent power of 7.8 × 10(-12) W/√Hz at 1440 nm.

  7. Flexible substrate based 2D ZnO (n)/graphene (p) rectifying junction as enhanced broadband photodetector using strain modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatiya, Parikshit; Jones, S. Solomon; Thanga Gomathi, P.; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2017-06-01

    Strain modulation is considered to be an effective way to modulate the electronic structure and carrier behavior in flexible semiconductors heterojunctions. In this work, 2D Graphene (Gr)/ZnO junction was successfully fabricated on flexible eraser substrate using simple, low-cost solution processed hydrothermal method and has been utilized for broadband photodetection in the UV to visible range at room temperature. Optimization in terms of process parameters were done to obtain 2D ZnO over 2D graphene which shows decrease in bandgap and broad absorption range from UV to visible. Under compressive strain piezopotential induced by the atoms displacements in 2D ZnO, 87% enhanced photosensing for UV light was observed under 30% strain. This excellent performance improvement can be attributed to piezopotential induced under compressive strain in 2D ZnO which results in lowering of conduction band energy and raising the schottky barrier height thereby facilitating electron-hole pair separation in 2D Gr/ZnO junction. Detailed mechanism studies in terms of density of surface states and energy band diagram is presented to understand the proposed phenomena. Results provide an excellent approach for improving the optoelectronic performance of 2D Gr/ZnO interface which can also be applied to similar semiconductor heterojunctions.

  8. Graphene-based magnetless converter of terahertz wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Veronica S.; Polischuk, Olga V.; Popov, Vyacheslav V.

    2016-04-01

    The polarization conversion of terahertz radiation by the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons located at the surface of a high-refractive-index dielectric substrate (terahertz prism) is studied theoretically. Giant polarization conversion at the plasmon resonance frequencies takes place without applying external DC magnetic field. It is shown that the total polarization conversion can be reached at the total internal reflection of THz wave from the periodic array of graphene nanoribbons even at room temperature.

  9. Classical and quantum plasmonics in graphene nanodisks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Wang, Weihua; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Edge states are ubiquitous for many condensed matter systems with multicomponent wave functions. For example, edge states play a crucial role in transport in zigzag graphene nanoribbons. Here, we report microscopic calculations of quantum plasmonics in doped graphene nanodisks with zigzag edges. We...

  10. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  11. Anomalous length dependence of conductance of aromatic nanoribbons with amine anchoring groups

    KAUST Repository

    Bilić, Ante

    2012-09-06

    Two sets of aromatic nanoribbons, based around a common hexagonal scaffolding, with single and dual terminal amine groups have been considered as potential molecular wires in a junction formed by gold leads. Charge transport through the two-terminal device has been modeled using density functional theory (with and without self-interaction correction) and the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method. The effects of wire length, multiple terminal contacts, and pathways across the junction have been investigated. For nanoribbons with the oligopyrene motif and conventional single amine terminal groups, an increase in the wire length causes an exponential drop in the conductance. In contrast, for the nanoribbons with the oligoperylene motif and dual amine anchoring groups the predicted conductance rises with the wire length over the whole range of investigated lengths. Only when the effects of self-interaction correction are taken into account, the conductance of the oligoperylene ribbons exhibits saturation for longer members of the series. The oligoperylene nanoribbons, with dual amine groups at both terminals, show the potential to fully harness the highly conjugated system of π molecular orbitals across the junction. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  12. Topological Insulator Nanowires and Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2010-01-13

    Recent theoretical calculations and photoemission spectroscopy measurements on the bulk Bi2Se3 material show that it is a three-dimensional topological insulator possessing conductive surface states with nondegenerate spins, attractive for dissipationless electronics and spintronics applications. Nanoscale topological insulator materials have a large surface-to-volume ratio that can manifest the conductive surface states and are promising candidates for devices. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of high quality single crystalline Bi2Se5 nanomaterials with a variety of morphologies. The synthesis of Bi 2Se5 nanowires and nanoribbons employs Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. Nanowires, which exhibit rough surfaces, are formed by stacking nanoplatelets along the axial direction of the wires. Nanoribbons are grown along [1120] direction with a rectangular cross-section and have diverse morphologies, including quasi-one-dimensional, sheetlike, zigzag and sawtooth shapes. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies on nanoribbons show atomically smooth surfaces with ∼ 1 nm step edges, indicating single Se-Bi-Se-Bi-Se quintuple layers. STM measurements reveal a honeycomb atomic lattice, suggesting that the STM tip couples not only to the top Se atomic layer, but also to the Bi atomic layer underneath, which opens up the possibility to investigate the contribution of different atomic orbitais to the topological surface states. Transport measurements of a single nanoribbon device (four terminal resistance and Hall resistance) show great promise for nanoribbons as candidates to study topological surface states. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Huge Trionic Effects in Graphene Nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deilmann, Thorsten; Rohlfing, Michael

    2017-01-01

    V for widths of 14.6-3.6 Å. Both for the trions and for the excitons, we observe an almost linear dependency of their binding energies on the band gap. We observe several trion states with different character derived from the corresponding excitons. Because of the large bindings energies, this opens a route...

  14. Novel graphene-based nanostructures: physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernozatonskii, L A; Sorokin, P B; Artukh, A A

    2014-01-01

    The review concerns graphene-based nanostructures including graphene nanoribbons a few nanometres wide, structures functionalized with hydrogen and fluorine atoms as well as pure carbon composites. The physicochemical properties and the chemical engineering methods for their fabrication are considered. Methods for solving problems in modern nanotechnology are discussed. Possible applications of graphene and graphene-based nanostructures in various devices are outlined. The bibliography includes 286 references

  15. Rationally Designed Graphene-Nanotube 3D Architectures with a Seamless Nodal Junction for Efficient Energy Conversion and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    graphene-RACNT structure, as schematically shown in Fig. 1D. By removing the aluminum and aluminum oxide in the 1 M KOH solution, we obtained the...typical Raman spectrum of the as-prepared 3D graphene-RACNT fiber. As can be seen, the D band at 1350 cm−1 is relatively weak with respect to the G...Technologies 5500 Scanning Probe Microscope. The XPS measurements were performed on a PHI 5000 VersaProbe. The Raman spectra were collected using a Raman

  16. Buckling-dependent switching behaviours in shifted bilayer germanene nanoribbons: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, T.; Tagani, M. Bagheri; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    2018-01-01

    Bilayer germanene nanoribbons are investigated in different stacks like buckled and flat armchair and buckled zigzag germanene nanoribbons by performing theoretical calculations using the nonequilibrium Greens function method combined with density functional theory. In these bilayer types, the current oscillates with change of interlayer distances or intra-layer overlaps and is dependent on the type of the bilayer. Band gap of AA-stacked of shifted flat bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon oscillates by change of interlayer distance which is in contrast to buckled bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon. So, results show the buckling makes system tend to be a semiconductor with wide band gap. Therefore, AA-stacked of shifted flat bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon has properties between zigzag and armchair edges, the higher current under bias voltages similar to zigzag edge and also oscillations in current like buckled armchair edges. Also, it is found that HOMO-LUMO band gap strongly affects oscillation in currents and their I-V characteristic. This kind of junction improves the switching properties at low voltages around the band gap.

  17. Flexible 2D layered material junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.

    2018-03-01

    Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of pristine and hydrogenated borophene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanchen; Chen, Xiangnan; Sun, Songsong; He, Jian

    2017-07-01

    The groundbreaking works in graphene and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) over the past decade, and the very recent discovery of borophene naturally draw attention to the yet-to-be-explored borophene nanoribbons (BNRs). We herein report a density functional theory (DFT) study of the electronic and magnetic properties of BNRs. The foci are the impact of orientation (denoted as BxNRs and ByNRs with their respective periodic orientations along x- and y-axis), ribbon width (Nx, Ny=4-15), and hydrogenation effects on the geometric, electronic and magnetic properties of BNRs. We found that the anisotropic quasi-planar geometric structure of BNR and the edge states largely govern its electronic and magnetic properties. In particular, pristine ByNRs adopt a magnetic ground state, either anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) depending on the ribbon width, while pristine BxNRs are non-magnetic (NM). Upon hydrogenation, all BNRs exhibit NM. Interestingly, both pristine and hydrogenated ByNRs undergo a metal-semiconductor-metal transition at Ny=7, while all BxNRs remain metallic.

  19. Effect of graphene tunnel barrier on Schottky barrier height of Heusler alloy Co2MnSi/graphene/n-Ge junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gui-fang; Hu Jing; Lv Hui; Cui Zhijun; Hou Xiaowei; Liu Shibin; Du Yongqian

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co 2 MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance–area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co 2 MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV–0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. (paper)

  20. Effect of graphene tunnel barrier on Schottky barrier height of Heusler alloy Co2MnSi/graphene/n-Ge junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui-fang, Li; Jing, Hu; Hui, Lv; Zhijun, Cui; Xiaowei, Hou; Shibin, Liu; Yongqian, Du

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate that the insertion of a graphene tunnel barrier between Heusler alloy Co2MnSi and the germanium (Ge) channel modulates the Schottky barrier height and the resistance-area product of the spin diode. We confirm that the Fermi level is depinned and a reduction in the electron Schottky barrier height (SBH) occurs following the insertion of the graphene layer between Co2MnSi and Ge. The electron SBH is modulated in the 0.34 eV-0.61 eV range. Furthermore, the transport mechanism changes from rectifying to symmetric tunneling following the insertion. This behavior provides a pathway for highly efficient spin injection from a Heusler alloy into a Ge channel with high electron and hole mobility. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61504107) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 3102014JCQ01059 and 3102015ZY043).

  1. Photocatalytic Nanostructuring of Graphene Guided by Block Copolymer Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhongli; Li, Tao; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    graphene nanomesh was fabricated by photocatalysis of single-layer graphene suspended on top of TiO2-covered nanopillars, which were produced by combining block copolymer nanolithography with atomic layer deposition. Graphene nanoribbons were also prepared by the same method applied to a line-forming block...

  2. Large Current Modulation and Spin-Dependent Tunneling of Vertical Graphene/MoS$_{2}$ Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, Gukhyung

    2013-01-01

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermio...

  3. Topological and Energetic Conditions for Lithographic Production of Carbon Nanotubes from Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fülep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Density Functional Based Tight-Binding (DFTB molecular dynamics (MD simulations were performed for producing carbon nanotubes from graphene nanoribbons. The constant temperature simulations were controlled with the help of Nosé-Hoover thermostat. In our systematic study we obtained critical curvature energies and determined topological conditions for nanotube production from two parallel graphene nanoribbons. We obtained linear relationship between the curvature energy and the square of the curvature.

  4. Modeling of inter-ribbon tunneling in graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Put, Maarten L.; Vandenberghe, William G.; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim; Fischetti, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The tunneling current between two crossed graphene ribbons is described invoking the empirical pseudopotential approximation and the Bardeen transfer Hamiltonian method. Results indicate that the density of states is the most important factor determining the tunneling current between small (nm) ribbons. The quasi-one dimensional nature of graphene nanoribbons is shown to result in resonant tunneling.

  5. Graphene-based cathodes for liquid-junction dye sensitized solar cells: Electrocatalytic and mass transport effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavan, Ladislav; Yum, J. H.; Graetzel, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 128, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 349-359 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07724S; GA ČR GA13-31783S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11012 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * dye-sensitized solar cells * electrocatalysis Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  6. Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-09

    Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and in biomembranes...Flexoelectricity in PZT Nanoribbons and Biomembranes Report Title The objective of this grant was to study flexoelectric phenomena in solids and...producing PZT nanoribbons for energy harvesters. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers submitted or

  7. Transport Properties of Nanostructured Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Despite of its many wonderful properties, pristine graphene has one major drawback: it does not have a band gap, which complicates its applications in electronic devices. Many routes have been suggested to overcome this difficulty, such as cutting graphene into nanoribbons, using chemical methods...... device operation. In this talk I elaborate these ideas and review the state-of-the-art both from the theoretical and the experimental points of view. I also introduce two new ideas: (1) triangular antidots, and (2) nanobubbles formed in graphene. Both of these nanostructuring methods are predicted...

  8. Interplay between snake and quantum edge states in a graphene Hall bar with a pn-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@uantwerpen.be; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600 Austin, Texas 78712-1192 (United States)

    2014-09-22

    The magneto- and Hall resistance of a locally gated cross shaped graphene Hall bar is calculated. The edge of the top gate is placed diagonally across the center of the Hall cross. Four-probe resistance is calculated using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, while the transmission coefficients are obtained using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The interplay between transport due to edge channels and snake states is investigated. When two edge channels are occupied, we predict oscillations in the Hall and the bend resistance as function of the magnetic field, which are a consequence of quantum interference between the occupied snake states.

  9. Modulation of electronic and magnetic properties in InSe nanoribbons: edge effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Ding, Yi-min; Wang, Hui; Cen, Yu-lang; Guo, Wen-hui; Pan, Shu-hang; Zhu, Yao-hui

    2018-05-01

    Quite recently, the two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanosheet has become a hot material with great promise for advanced functional nano-devices. In this work, for the first time, we perform first-principles calculations on the structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of 1D InSe nanoribbons with/without hydrogen or halogen saturation. We find that armchair ribbons, with various edges and distortions, are all nonmagnetic semiconductors, with a direct bandgap of 1.3 (1.4) eV for bare (H-saturated) ribbons, and have the same high electron mobility of about 103 cm2V‑1s‑1 as the 2D InSe nanosheet. Zigzag InSe nanoribbons exhibit metallic behavior and diverse intrinsic ferromagnetic properties, with the magnetic moment of 0.5–0.7 μ B per unit cell, especially for their single-edge spin polarization. The edge spin orientation, mainly dominated by the unpaired electrons of the edge atoms, depends sensitively on the edge chirality. Hydrogen or halogen saturation can effectively recover the structural distortion, and modulate the electronic and magnetic properties. The binding energy calculations show that the stability of InSe nanoribbons is analogous to that of graphene and better than in 2D InSe nanosheets. These InSe nanoribbons, with novel electronic and magnetic properties, are thus very promising for use in electronic, spintronic and magnetoresistive nano-devices.

  10. Symmetrical metallic and magnetic edge states of nanoribbon from semiconductive monolayer PtS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Zhu, Heyu; Liu, Ziran; Zhou, Guanghui

    2018-03-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) MoS2 or graphene could be designed to metallic nanoribbons, which always have only one edge show metallic properties due to symmetric protection. In present work, a nanoribbon with two parallel metallic and magnetic edges was designed from a noble TMD PtS2 by employing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Edge energy, bonding charge density, band structure, density of states (DOS) and simulated scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of four possible edge states of monolayer semiconductive PtS2 were systematically studied. Detailed calculations show that only Pt-terminated edge state among four edge states was relatively stable, metallic and magnetic. Those metallic and magnetic properties mainly contributed from 5d orbits of Pt atoms located at edges. What's more, two of those central symmetric edges coexist in one zigzag nanoribbon, which providing two atomic metallic wires thus may have promising application for the realization of quantum effects, such as Aharanov-Bohm effect and atomic power transmission lines in single nanoribbon.

  11. Transport and dynamics of nanostructured graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue

    This thesis is concerned with the heating and electronic properties of nanoscale devices based on nanostructured graphene. As electronic devices scale down to nanometer dimensions, the operation depends on the detailed atomic structure. Emerging carbon nano-materials such as graphene, carbon...... nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, exhibit promising electronic and heat transport properties. Much research addresses the electron mobility of pristine graphene devices. However, the thermal transport properties, as well as the effects of e-ph interaction, in nanoscale devices, based on nanostructured...... graphene, have received much less attention. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the thermal properties of nanostructured graphene. The computational analysis is based on DFT/TB-NEGF. We show how a regular nanoperforation of a graphene layer - a graphene antidot lattice (GAL) - may...

  12. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  13. Energy Guiding and Harvesting through Phonon-Engineered Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Graphene The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of the...ABSTRACT Final Report: Energy Guiding and Harvesting through Phonon-Engineered Graphene Report Title The work performed under this proposal was primarily...Justin Wu, Xinran Wang, Kristof Tahy, Debdeep Jena, Hongjie Dai, Eric Pop. Thermally Limited Current Carrying Ability of Graphene Nanoribbons

  14. Exploring the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C3N4 nanoribbon with density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Zhang; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Bandaru, Sateesh; Liu, Jin; Lau, Woon Ming; Li, Li-Li; Wang, Zhenling

    2018-04-18

    The optical properties and condensation degree (structure) of polymeric g-C 3 N 4 depend strongly on the process temperature. For polymeric g-C 3 N 4 , its structure and condensation degree depend on the structure of molecular strand(s). Here, the formation and electronic structure properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon are investigated by studying the polymerization and crystallinity of molecular strand(s) employing first-principle density functional theory. The calculations show that the width of the molecular strand has a significant effect on the electronic structure of polymerized and crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbons, a conclusion which would be indirect evidence that the electronic structure depends on the structure of g-C 3 N 4 . The edge shape also has a distinct effect on the electronic structure of the crystallized g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon. Furthermore, the conductive band minimum and valence band maximum of the polymeric g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon show a strong localization, which is in good agreement with the quasi-monomer characters. In addition, molecular strands prefer to grow along the planar direction on graphene. These results provide new insight on the properties of the g-C 3 N 4 nanoribbon and the relationship between the structure and properties of g-C 3 N 4 .

  15. On the buckling of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons via structural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Georgios I.

    2018-03-01

    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons have similar crystal structure as graphene nanoribbons, have excellent mechanical, thermal insulating and dielectric properties and additionally present chemical stability. These allotropes of boron nitride can be used in novel applications, in which graphene is not compatible, to achieve remarkable performance. The purpose of the present work is to provide theoretical estimations regarding the buckling response of hexagonal boron nitride monolayer under compressive axial loadings. For this reason, a structural mechanics method is formulated which employs the exact equilibrium atomistic structure of the specific two-dimensional nanomaterial. In order to represent the interatomic interactions appearing between boron and nitrogen atoms, the Dreiding potential model is adopted which is realized by the use of three-dimensional, two-noded, spring-like finite elements of appropriate stiffness matrices. The critical compressive loads that cause the buckling of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons are computed with respect to their size and chirality while some indicative buckled shapes of them are illustrated. Important conclusions arise regarding the effect of the size and chirality on the structural stability of the hexagonal boron nitride monolayers. An analytical buckling formula, which provides good fitting of the numerical outcome, is proposed.

  16. Raman spectroscopy in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malard, L.M.; Pimenta, M.A.; Dresselhaus, G.; Dresselhaus, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Raman scattering studies in different types of graphene samples are reviewed here. We first discuss the first-order and the double resonance Raman scattering mechanisms in graphene, which give rise to the most prominent Raman features. The determination of the number of layers in few-layer graphene is discussed, giving special emphasis to the possibility of using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish a monolayer from few-layer graphene stacked in the Bernal (AB) configuration. Different types of graphene samples produced both by exfoliation and using epitaxial methods are described and their Raman spectra are compared with those of 3D crystalline graphite and turbostratic graphite, in which the layers are stacked with rotational disorder. We show that Resonance Raman studies, where the energy of the excitation laser line can be tuned continuously, can be used to probe electrons and phonons near the Dirac point of graphene and, in particular allowing a determination to be made of the tight-binding parameters for bilayer graphene. The special process of electron-phonon interaction that renormalizes the phonon energy giving rise to the Kohn anomaly is discussed, and is illustrated by gated experiments where the position of the Fermi level can be changed experimentally. Finally, we discuss the ability of distinguishing armchair and zig-zag edges by Raman spectroscopy and studies in graphene nanoribbons in which the Raman signal is enhanced due to resonance with singularities in the density of electronic states.

  17. Manifestation of plasmonic response in the detection of sub-terahertz radiation by graphene-based devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayduchenko, I. A.; Fedorov, G. E.; Moskotin, M. V.; Yagodkin, D. I.; Seliverstov, S. V.; Goltsman, G. N.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu; Rybin, M. G.; Obraztsova, E. D.; Leiman, V. G.; Shur, M. S.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V. I.

    2018-06-01

    We report on the sub-terahertz (THz) (129–450 GHz) photoresponse of devices based on single layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons with asymmetric source and drain (vanadium and gold) contacts. Vanadium forms a barrier at the graphene interface, while gold forms an Ohmic contact. We find that at low temperatures (77 K) the detector responsivity rises with the increasing frequency of the incident sub-THz radiation. We interpret this result as a manifestation of a plasmonic effect in the devices with the relatively long plasmonic wavelengths. Graphene nanoribbon devices display a similar pattern, albeit with a lower responsivity.

  18. Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Feng; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides are investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the ideal strength of nanoribbon decreases in comparison with that of 2D phosphorene. The Young's modulus of armchair nanoribbon has a remarkable size effect because of the edge relaxations. The analysis of the stress-strain relation indicates that, owing to chemisorbed oxygen atoms, the ideal strength and Young's modulus of 2D phosphorene oxide are greatly reduced along the zigzag direction, especially upon high oxidation ratios. In addition, strain and oxidation have significant impacts on phonon dispersion

  19. Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Feng [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Chen, Xi, E-mail: xichen@columbia.edu [International Center for Applied Mechanics, SV Laboratory, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    Mechanical properties of phosphorene nanoribbons and oxides are investigated by using density functional theory. It is found that the ideal strength of nanoribbon decreases in comparison with that of 2D phosphorene. The Young's modulus of armchair nanoribbon has a remarkable size effect because of the edge relaxations. The analysis of the stress-strain relation indicates that, owing to chemisorbed oxygen atoms, the ideal strength and Young's modulus of 2D phosphorene oxide are greatly reduced along the zigzag direction, especially upon high oxidation ratios. In addition, strain and oxidation have significant impacts on phonon dispersion.

  20. Graphene quantum interference photodetector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a graphene quantum interference (QI photodetector was simulated in two regimes of operation. The structure consists of a graphene nanoribbon, Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI, which exhibits a strongly resonant transmission of electrons of specific energies. In the first regime of operation (that of a linear photodetector, low intensity light couples two resonant energy levels, resulting in scattering and differential transmission of current with an external quantum efficiency of up to 5.2%. In the second regime of operation, full current switching is caused by the phase decoherence of the current due to a strong photon flux in one or both of the interferometer arms in the same MZI structure. Graphene QI photodetectors have several distinct advantages: they are of very small size, they do not require p- and n-doped regions, and they exhibit a high external quantum efficiency.

  1. Pseudospin Electronics in Phosphorene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanikahnoj, S.; Knezevic, I.

    2017-12-01

    Zigzag phosphorene nanoribbons are metallic owing to the edge states, whose energies are inside the gap and far from the bulk bands. We show that—through electrical manipulation of edge states—electron propagation can be restricted to one of the ribbon edges or, in the case of bilayer phosphorene nanoribbons, to one of the layers. This finding implies that edge and layer can be regarded as tunable equivalents of the spin-one-half degree of freedom, i.e., the pseudospin. In both layer- and edge-pseudospin schemes, we propose and characterize a pseudospin field-effect transistor, which can generate pseudospin-polarized current. Also, we propose edge- and layer-pseudospin valves that operate analogously to conventional spin valves. The performance of valves in each pseudospin scheme is benchmarked by the pseudomagnetoresistance ratio. The edge-pseudospin valve shows a nearly perfect pseudomagnetoresistance ratio, with remarkable robustness against device-parameter variation and disorder. These results may initiate new developments in pseudospin electronics.

  2. Quantum nature of edge magnetism in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golor, Michael; Wessel, Stefan; Schmidt, Manuel J

    2014-01-31

    It is argued that the subtle crossover from decoherence-dominated classical magnetism to fluctuation-dominated quantum magnetism is experimentally accessible in graphene nanoribbons. We show that the width of a nanoribbon determines whether the edge magnetism is on the classical side, on the quantum side, or in between. In the classical regime, decoherence is dominant and leads to static spin polarizations at the ribbon edges, which are well described by mean-field theories. The quantum Zeno effect is identified as the basic mechanism which is responsible for the spin polarization and thereby enables the application of graphene in spintronics. On the quantum side, however, the spin polarization is destroyed by dynamical processes. The great tunability of graphene magnetism thus offers a viable route for the study of the quantum-classical crossover.

  3. Thermally induced spin-dependent current based on Zigzag Germanene Nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Danial; Faez, Rahim

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, using first principle calculation and non-equilibrium Green's function, the thermally induced spin current in Hydrogen terminated Zigzag-edge Germanene Nanoribbon (ZGeNR-H) is investigated. In this model, because of the difference between the source and the drain temperature of ZGeNR device, the spin up and spin down currents flow in the opposite direction with two different threshold temperatures (Tth). Hence, a pure spin polarized current which belongs to spin down is obtained. It is shown that, for temperatures above the threshold temperature spin down current increases with the increasing temperature up to 75 K and then decreases. But spin up current rises steadily and in the high temperature we can obtain polarized spin up current. In addition, we show an acceptable spin current around the room temperature for ZGeNR. The transmission peaks in ZGeNR which are closer to the Fermi level rather than Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon (ZGNRS) which causes ZGeNR to have spin current at higher temperatures. Finally, it is indicated that by tuning the back gate voltage, the spin current can be completely modulated and polarized. Simulation results verify the Zigzag Germanene Nanoribbon as a promising candidate for spin caloritronics devices, which can be applied in future low power consumption technology.

  4. Graphene Thermal Properties: Applications in Thermal Management and Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie D. Renteria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the thermal properties of graphene, few-layer graphene and graphene nanoribbons, and discuss practical applications of graphene in thermal management and energy storage. The first part of the review describes the state-of-the-art in the graphene thermal field focusing on recently reported experimental and theoretical data for heat conduction in graphene and graphene nanoribbons. The effects of the sample size, shape, quality, strain distribution, isotope composition, and point-defect concentration are included in the summary. The second part of the review outlines thermal properties of graphene-enhanced phase change materials used in energy storage. It is shown that the use of liquid-phase-exfoliated graphene as filler material in phase change materials is promising for thermal management of high-power-density battery parks. The reported experimental and modeling results indicate that graphene has the potential to outperform metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and other carbon allotropes as filler in thermal management materials.

  5. Graphene: A wonder-Structure of Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraci, S.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional diamond and graphite; one-dimensional carbon nanotubes and carbon chains; zero dimensional bucky balls: these structures of carbon have dominated science in different periods of time. The dimensionality of these structures has played a prime rol in determining their mechanical and electronic properties. In particular, carbon nanotubes with their unusual properties depending on their diameter and chirality have been one of the most studied nanostructures in the last decade. For a long time, the missing two-dimensional structure of carbon has been considered to be unstable. Recently, the synthesis of graphene, a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice of carbon disproved the earlier theories conjecturing the instability in two-dimension. Not only the unexpected stability and very high strength, but also its unusual electronic and magnetic properties have made graphene a wonder-structure. Because of linear electron and hole bands crossing at the Fermi level the electrons in graphene have very high mobility and behave as if a massless Dirac Fermion. This behavior makes us to expect to observe the Klein paradox, it is perhaps the most unusual quantum behavior. Graphene pieces may serve as a framework for functionalized structures, such as high capacity hydrogen storage medium. Quasi-one dimensional graphene nanoribbons, which can be produced down to sub nanometer width exhibit exceptional physical properties. Depending on their chirality, graphene nanoribbons can be nonmagnetic or antiferromagnetic semiconductor. However, antiferromagnetic semiconductor by itself can be modified to be ferrimagnetic metal through periodic vacancies or to be half-metal through applied electric field. If one modulates their width in direct space, confined states are generated even with a local spin direction. Quantum structures made by nanoribbons of different width or composition exhibit a wide range of electrical and magnetic properties to be exploited in nanoelectronics and

  6. All-graphene edge contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kåre Wedel; Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Papior, Nick Rübner

    2016-01-01

    Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures as a func......Using ab-initio methods we investigate the possibility of three-terminalgraphene "T-junction" devices and show that these all-graphene edge contactsare energetically feasible when the 1D interface itself is free from foreignatoms. We examine the energetics of various junction structures...... to be in therange of 1-10 kΩμm which is comparable to the best contact resistance reportedfor edge-contacted graphene-metal contacts. We conclude that conductingall-carbon T-junctions should be feasible....

  7. Enhanced optical limiting effects of graphene materials in polyimide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Yao; Feng, Miao; Zhan, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Three different graphene nanostructure suspensions of graphene oxide nanosheets (GONSs), graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs), and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) are prepared and characterized. Using a typical two-step method, the GONSs, GONRs, and GOQDs are incorporated into a polyimide (PI) matrix to synthesize graphene/PI composite films, whose nonlinear optical (NLO) and optical limiting (OL) properties are investigated at 532 nm in the nanosecond regime. The GONR suspension exhibits superior NLO and OL effects compared with those of GONSs and GOQDs because of its stronger nonlinear scattering and excited-state absorption. The graphene/PI composite films exhibit NLO and OL performance superior to that of their corresponding suspensions, which is attributed primarily to a combination of nonlinear mechanisms, charge transfer between graphene materials and PI, and the matrix effect

  8. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  9. EDITORIAL: Special issue on Graphene Special issue on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Alberto F.; Trauzettel, Björn

    2010-03-01

    and effectively reflect the status of different areas of graphene research. The excitonic condensation in a double graphene system is discussed by Kharitonov and Efetov. Borca et al report on a method to fabricate and characterize graphene monolayers epitaxially grown on Ru(0001). Furthermore, the energy and transport gaps in etched graphene nanoribbons are analyzed experimentally by Molitor et al. Mucha-Kruczyński et al review the tight-binding model of bilayer graphene, whereas Wurm et al focus on a theoretical description of the Aharonov-Bohm effect in monolayer graphene rings. Screening effects and collective excitations are studied by Roldán et al. Subsequently, Palacios et al review the electronic and magnetic structures of graphene nanoribbons, a problem that is highly relevant for graphene-based transistors. Klein tunneling in single and multiple barriers in graphene is the topic of the review article by Pereira Jr et al, while De Martino and Egger discuss the spectrum of a magnetic quantum dot in graphene. Titov et al study the effect of resonant scatterers on the local density of states in a rectangular graphene setup with metallic leads. Finally, the resistance modulation of multilayer graphene controlled by gate electric fields is experimentally analyzed by Miyazaki et al. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, which combine new results and pedagogical discussions of the state-of-the-art in different areas: it is this combination that most often adds to the value of topical issues. Special thanks also goes to the staff of Institute of Physics Publishing for contributing to the success of this effort.

  10. Scalable Patterning of MoS2 Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Han; Lu, Ang-Yu; Chang, Yung-Huang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Chang, Jeng-Kuei; Li, Lain-Jong; Su, Ching-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 10(8) were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm(2) and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials.

  11. Scalable Patterning of MoS2Nanoribbons by Micromolding in Capillaries

    KAUST Repository

    Hung, Yu-Han

    2016-07-27

    In this study, we report a facile approach to prepare dense arrays of MoS2 nanoribbons by combining procedures of micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) and thermolysis of thiosalts ((NH4)2MoS4) as the printing ink. The obtained MoS2 nanoribbons had a thickness reaching as low as 3.9 nm, a width ranging from 157 to 465 nm, and a length up to 2 cm. MoS2 nanoribbons with an extremely high aspect ratio (length/width) of ∼7.4 × 108 were achieved. The MoS2 pattern can be printed on versatile substrates, such as SiO2/Si, sapphire, Au film, FTO/glass, and graphene-coated glass. The degree of crystallinity of the as-prepared MoS2 was discovered to be adjustable by varying the temperature through postannealing. The high-temperature thermolysis (1000 °C) results in high-quality conductive samples, and field-effect transistors based on the patterned MoS2 nanoribbons were demonstrated and characterized, where the carrier mobility was comparable to that of thin-film MoS2. In contrast, the low-temperature-treated samples (170 °C) result in a unique nanocrystalline MoSx structure (x ≈ 2.5), where the abundant and exposed edge sites were obtained from highly dense arrays of nanoribbon structures by this MIMIC patterning method. The patterned MoSx was revealed to have superior electrocatalytic efficiency (an overpotential of ∼211 mV at 10 mA/cm2 and a Tafel slope of 43 mV/dec) in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) when compared to the thin-film MoS2. The report introduces a new concept for rapidly fabricating cost-effective and high-density MoS2/MoSx nanostructures on versatile substrates, which may pave the way for potential applications in nanoelectronics/optoelectronics and frontier energy materials. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  12. Graphene spin capacitor for magnetic field sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov, Y. G.; Zavada, J. M.; Kim, K. W.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of a novel magnetic field sensor based on a graphene spin capacitor is presented. The proposed device consists of graphene nanoribbons on top of an insulator material connected to a ferromagnetic source/drain. The time evolution of spin polarized electrons injected into the capacitor can be used for an accurate determination at room temperature of external magnetic fields. Assuming a spin relaxation time of 100 ns, magnetic fields on the order of $\\sim 10$ mOe may be detected at r...

  13. Magnetoresistance of Mn-decorated topological line defects in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2015-01-13

    We study the spin polarized transport through Mn-decorated 8-5-5-8 topological line defects in graphene using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism. Strong preferential bonding overcomes the high mobility of transition metal atoms on graphene and results in stable structures. Despite a large distance between the magnetic centers, we find a high magnetoresistance and attribute this unexpected property to very strong induced π magnetism, in particular for full coverage of all octagonal hollow sites by Mn atoms. In contrast to the magnetoresistance of graphene nanoribbon edges, the proposed system is well controlled and therefore suitable for applications.

  14. Magnetoresistance of Mn-decorated topological line defects in graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua; Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin polarized transport through Mn-decorated 8-5-5-8 topological line defects in graphene using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Strong preferential bonding overcomes the high mobility of transition metal atoms on graphene and results in stable structures. Despite a large distance between the magnetic centers, we find a high magnetoresistance and attribute this unexpected property to very strong induced π magnetism, in particular for full coverage of all octagonal hollow sites by Mn atoms. In contrast to the magnetoresistance of graphene nanoribbon edges, the proposed system is well controlled and therefore suitable for applications.

  15. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  16. Graphene-based superconducting quantum point contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, A.G.; Zareyan, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the Josephson effect in the graphene nanoribbons of length L smaller than the superconducting coherence length and an arbitrary width W. We find that in contrast to an ordinary superconducting quantum point contact (SQPC), the critical supercurrent I c is not quantized for the nanoribbons with smooth and armchair edges. For a low concentration of the carriers, I c decreases monotonically with lowering W/L and tends to a constant minimum for a narrow nanoribbon with W c is zero for the smooth edges but eΔ 0 /ℎ for the armchair edges. At higher concentrations of the carriers this monotonic variation acquires a series of peaks. Further analysis of the current-phase relation and the Josephson coupling strength I c R N in terms of W/L and the concentration of carriers revels significant differences with those of an ordinary SQPC. On the other hand for a zigzag nanoribbon, we find that, similar to an ordinary SQPC, I c is quantized but to the half-integer values (n+1/2)4eΔ 0 /ℎ. (orig.)

  17. Phosphorene nanoribbon as a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, H. J.; Cheng, L.; Wei, J.; Liang, J. H.; Fan, D. D.; Shi, J.; Tang, X. F.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the electronic properties of phosphorene nanoribbons with different width and edge configurations are studied by using density functional theory. It is found that the armchair phosphorene nanoribbons are semiconducting while the zigzag nanoribbons are metallic. The band gaps of armchair nanoribbons decrease monotonically with increasing ribbon width. By passivating the edge phosphorus atoms with hydrogen, the zigzag series also become semiconducting, while the armchair series exhibit a larger band gap than their pristine counterpart. The electronic transport properties of these phosphorene nanoribbons are then investigated using Boltzmann theory and relaxation time approximation. We find that all the semiconducting nanoribbons exhibit very large values of Seebeck coefficient and can be further enhanced by hydrogen passivation at the edge. Taking pristine armchair nanoribbons and hydrogen-passivated zigzag naoribbons with width N = 7, 8, 9 as examples, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity with the help of phonon Boltzmann transport equation and evaluate the width-dependent thermoelectric performance. Due to significantly enhanced Seebeck coefficient and decreased thermal conductivity, we find that at least one type of phosphorene nanoribbons can be optimized to exhibit very high figure of merit (ZT values) at room temperature, which suggests their appealing thermoelectric applications. PMID:25245326

  18. Graphene: from functionalization to devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Antonio; Soukiassian, Patrick G.

    2014-03-01

    electric field to operate logic gates. Plaçais et al then show the realization of graphene microwave nano-transistors that are especially suitable for fast charge detectors. Matsumoto et al describe next some interesting graphene-based biosensor applications, while the following article by Otsuji et al shows recent advances in plasmonics in terahertz device applications. This section ends with the Dollfus et al article dealing with non-linear effects in graphene devices investigated by simulation methods. The second section concerns the electronic and transport properties and includes four articles. The first one by Gurzadyan et al provides an investigation of graphene oxide in water by femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to study its transient absorption properties. Jouault et al then review the quantum Hall effect of self-organized graphene monolayers epitaxially grown on the C-face of SiC. Next, Petkovic et al report on the observation of edge magneto-plasmons in graphene. Finally, Roche and Valenzuela focus on the limits of conventional views in graphene spin transport and offer novel perspectives for further progress. The third section addresses graphene tailoring and functionalization as studied by Genorio and Znidarsic for graphene nanoribbons, or by atomic intercalation as shown by the two articles from Starke and Forti, and from Bisson et al. The last section is devoted to graphene growth and morphology. Ogino et al first describe a method to grow graphene on insulating substrates using polymer films as a carbon source. Then, Suemitsu et al show the recent progresses in epitaxial graphene formation on cubic silicon carbide thin films. Finally, Norimatsu and Kusunoki investigate the structural properties and morphology of epitaxial graphene grown on hexagonal silicon carbide substrates by using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, their article closing this Special Issue .

  19. Electronic transport in graphene-based structures: An effective cross-section approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uppstu, Andreas; Saloriutta, Karri; Harju, Ari

    2012-01-01

    We show that transport in low-dimensional carbon structures with finite concentrations of scatterers can be modeled by utilizing scaling theory and effective cross sections. Our results are based on large-scale numerical simulations of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons, using a tight...

  20. Tunable Schottky diodes fabricated from crossed electrospun SnO{sub 2}/PEDOT-PSSA nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasquillo, Katherine V. [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao, PR 00792 (Puerto Rico); Pinto, Nicholas J., E-mail: nicholas.pinto@upr.edu [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico-Humacao, Humacao, PR 00792 (Puerto Rico)

    2012-06-25

    Graphical abstract: Crossed SnO{sub 2}/PEDOT-PSSA nanoribbon Schottky diodes. Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inexpensive electrospinning technique is used to fabricate crossed nanoribbons of n-doped tin oxide and p-PEDOT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each intersection is a localized Schottky diode that is completely exposed to the environment after electrodes deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This makes it useful as a gas and light sensor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In addition, the ability to tune the diode parameters via a back gate truly makes this device multifunctional. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A half wave rectifier has been demonstrated with this device under UV illumination. - Abstract: Schottky diodes have been fabricated on doped Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates in air, by simply crossing individual electrospun tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSSA) nanoribbons. The conductivity of PEDOT-PSSA was {approx}6 S/cm with no observable field effect, while SnO{sub 2} exhibited n-doped field effect behavior with a charge mobility of {approx}3.1 cm{sup 2}/V-s. The diodes operate in air or in vacuum, under ambient illumination or in the dark, with low turn-on voltages and device parameters that are tunable via a back gate bias or a UV light source. Their unique design involves a highly localized active region that is completely exposed to the surrounding environment, making them potentially attractive for use as sensors. The standard thermionic emission model of a Schottky junction was applied to analyze the forward bias diode characteristics and was successfully tested as a half wave rectifier.

  1. Scaling Effect of Phosphorene Nanoribbon - Uncovering the Origin of Asymmetric Current Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yawei; Chang, Sheng; Huang, Qijun; Wang, Hao; He, Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) are theoretically studied using a multiscale simulation flow from the ab initio level to the tight binding (TB) level. The scaling effects of both armchair PNRs (aPNRs) and zigzag PNRs (zPNRs) from material properties to device properties are explored. The much larger effective mass of holes compared to that of electrons in zPNR is responsible for its asymmetric transport. However, in aPNR, not only the effective mass difference but also the non-equal density of state (DOS) distributions near valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) lead to the asymmetric transport. This non-equal distribution phenomenon is caused by energy band degeneracies near the VBM. Based on these two different mechanisms, PNRs’ asymmetric transport characteristics at the device level are explained, and it is shown that this behaviour can be ameliorated well by reducing the ribbon width in an aPNR MOSFET. Calculation results also indicate that aPNR’s effective mass is comparable to that of a graphene nanoribbon (GNR) at the same bandgap; however, aPNR’s band gap variation is more stable and regular than that of GNR, making it a good candidate for use in low-dimensional nano devices. PMID:27897230

  2. Charge transfer of edge states in zigzag silicene nanoribbons with Stone–Wales defects from first-principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Xie [College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); School of Mathematics and Statistic, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Rui, Wang, E-mail: rcwang@cqu.edu.cn [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Shaofeng, Wang [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xiaozhi, Wu, E-mail: xiaozhiwu@cqu.edu.cn [Institute for Structure and Function and Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The properties of SW defects in silicene and ZSNRs are obtained. • The SW defects at the edge of ZSNRs induce a sizable gap. • The charge transfer of edge states is resulted from SW defects in ZSNRS. - Abstract: Stone–Wales (SW) defects are favorably existed in graphene-like materials with honeycomb lattice structure and potentially employed to change the electronic properties in band engineering. In this paper, we investigate structural and electronic properties of SW defects in silicene sheet and its nanoribbons as a function of their concentration using the methods of periodic boundary conditions with first-principles calculations. We first calculate the formation energy, structural properties, and electronic band structures of SW defects in silicene sheet, with dependence on the concentration of SW defects. Our results show a good agreement with available values from the previous first-principles calculations. The energetics, structural aspects, and electronic properties of SW defects with dependence on defect concentration and location in edge-hydrogenated zigzag silicene nanoribbons are obtained. For all calculated concentrations, the SW defects prefer to locate at the edge due to the lower formation energy. The SW defects at the center of silicene nanoribbons slightly influence on the electronic properties, whereas the SW defects at the edge of silicene nanoribbons split the degenerate edge states and induce a sizable gap, which depends on the concentration of defects. It is worth to find that the SW defects produce a perturbation repulsive potential, which leads the decomposed charge of edge states at the side with defect to transfer to the other side without defect.

  3. Ultrafast Photoconductivity of Graphene Nanoribbons and Carbon Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren A.; Ulbricht, Ronald; Narita, Akimitsu

    2013-01-01

    carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a similar bandgap energy. Transient photoconductivities of both materials were measured using time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy, allowing for contact-free measurements of complex-valued photoconductivity spectra with subpicosecond time-resolution. We show that, while...

  4. type doping in the channel of graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type doping in the channel is better with smaller supply voltage compared to higher supply voltage. On increasing the n -type doping concentration, we obtained better on-current and output characteristics in comparison with undoped and p ...

  5. Kerr nonlinearity and plasmonic bistability in graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    due to field enhancement, and the total nonlinearity is significantly affected by the field inhomogeneity of the plasmonic excitation. Finally, we discuss the emergence of a plasmonic bistability which exists for energies red-shifted relative to the linear resonance. Our results offer insights...

  6. Quantum capacitance of the armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system for fundamental studies of condensed matter and quantum physics [1] and a fasci- nating building block for ... the Fermi–Dirac distribution function and EG is the band gap. The semiconducting ... Here, we define n as the number of the ...

  7. First-principles study of graphene edge properties and flake shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Chee Kwan; Srolovitz, David J.

    2009-01-01

    We use density functional theory to determine the equilibrium shape of graphene flakes, through the calculation of the edge orientation dependence of the edge energy and edge stress of graphene nanoribbons. The edge energy is a nearly linear function of edge orientation angle; increasing from the armchair orientation to the zigzag orientation. Reconstruction of the zigzag edge lowers its energy to less than that of the armchair edge. The edge stress for all edge orientations is compressive, h...

  8. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  9. Spin Current Switching and Spin-Filtering Effects in Mn-Doped Boron Nitride Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nemnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spin transport properties are investigated by means of the first principle approach for boron nitride nanoribbons with one or two substitutional Mn impurities, connected to graphene electrodes. The spin current polarization is evaluated using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for each structure and bias. The structure with one Mn impurity reveals a transfer characteristics suitable for a spin current switch. In the case of two Mn impurities, the system behaves as an efficient spin-filter device, independent on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations of the magnetic impurities. The experimental availability of the building blocks as well as the magnitudes of the obtained spin current polarizations indicates a strong potential of the analyzed structures for future spintronic devices.

  10. Structural and electronic properties of zigzag InP nanoribbons with Stone–Wales type defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, R C; Carrete, J; Varela, L M; Gallego, L J

    2016-01-01

    By means of density-functional-theoretic calculations, we investigate the structural and electronic properties of a hexagonal InP sheet and of hydrogen-passivated zigzag InP nanoribbons (ZInPNRs) with Stone–Wales (SW)-type defects. Our results show that the influence of this kind of defect is not limited to the defected region but it leads to the formation of ripples that extend across the systems, in keeping with the results obtained recently for graphene and silicene sheets. The presence of SW defects in ZInPNRs causes an appreciable broadening of the band gap and transforms the indirect-bandgap perfect ZInPNR into a direct-bandgap semiconductor. An external transverse electric field, regardless of its direction, reduces the gap in both the perfect and defective ZInPNRs. (paper)

  11. Advances in graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu

    2016-01-01

    Since the early works on graphene it has been remarked that graphene is a marvelous electronic material. Soon after its discovery, graphene was efficiently utilized in the fabrication of optoelectronic, plasmonic and photonic devices, including graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells. The present work is a review of the progress in the experimental research on graphene-based optoelectronics, plasmonics and photonics, with the emphasis on recent advances. The main graphene-based optoelectronic devices presented in this review are photodetectors and modulators. In the area of graphene-based plasmonics, a review of the plasmonic nanostructures enhancing or tuning graphene-light interaction, as well as of graphene plasmons is presented. In the area of graphene-based photonics, we report progress on fabrication of different types of graphene quantum dots as well as functionalized graphene and graphene oxide, the research on the photoluminescence and fluorescence of graphene nanostructures as well as on the energy exchange between graphene and semiconductor quantum dots. In particular, the promising achievements of research on graphene-based Schottky junction solar cells is presented. (review)

  12. Chemical functionalization of graphene by carbene cycloaddition: A density functional theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan, Wenyan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The reaction process of graphene functionalization with CCl 2 group in atomic scales was studied. • The potential candidate carbenes CR 2 (R = H, F, CN, NO 2 0 , NO 2 90 , CH 3 , OCH 3 , CCH, C 6 H 5 ) were separately combined with graphene. • The functionalization of graphene nanoribbon with dichlorocarbene group was investigated. • The electronic properties of graphene functionalized by carbene groups were discussed. - Abstract: In this work, we have systematically studied the structural, energetic and electronic properties of graphene functionalized with carbene groups by using density functional theory. Introducing a low concentration of CCl 2 group in graphene was studied in detail by DFT, and closed cyclopropane-like three-membered ring structure was formed, meanwhile, the potential candidate carbene groups CR 2 (R = H, F, CH 3 , CN, NO 2 , OCH 3 , CCH, C 6 H 5 ) were added to graphene sheet, and CR 2 (R = H, NO 2 , CH 3 ) groups were expected to be good reactive species to covalently modify graphene. The graphene functionalization with carbene groups above can open graphene's band gap. More CCl 2 molecules were added to graphene, and different concentrations of CCl 2 group can tune graphene's band gap. In addition, the addition of CCl 2 group to graphene edges was investigated, and the stronger binding energy was found. Multiple CCl 2 molecules preferred to be bound with the same edge of graphene nanoribbon. This work provides an insight into the detailed molecular mechanism of graphene functionalization with carbene groups

  13. Substrate-induced magnetism in epitaxial graphene buffer layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, A; Medhekar, N V; Shenoy, V B

    2009-07-08

    Magnetism in graphene is of fundamental as well as technological interest, with potential applications in molecular magnets and spintronic devices. While defects and/or adsorbates in freestanding graphene nanoribbons and graphene sheets have been shown to cause itinerant magnetism, controlling the density and distribution of defects and adsorbates is in general difficult. We show from first principles calculations that graphene buffer layers on SiC(0001) can also show intrinsic magnetism. The formation of graphene-substrate chemical bonds disrupts the graphene pi-bonds and causes localization of graphene states near the Fermi level. Exchange interactions between these states lead to itinerant magnetism in the graphene buffer layer. We demonstrate the occurrence of magnetism in graphene buffer layers on both bulk-terminated as well as more realistic adatom-terminated SiC(0001) surfaces. Our calculations show that adatom density has a profound effect on the spin distribution in the graphene buffer layer, thereby providing a means of engineering magnetism in epitaxial graphene.

  14. Thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional graphene antidot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yonghong; Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhao, Hui; Wu, Chang-Qin; Li, Baowen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays by nonequilibrium Green's function method. We show that by introducing antidots to the pristine graphene nanoribbon the thermal conductance can be reduced greatly while keeping the power factor still high, thus leading to an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT). Our numerical results indicate that ZT values of 1D antidot graphene arrays can be up to unity, which means the 1D graphene antidot arrays may be promising for thermoelectric applications. -- Highlights: ► We study thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) graphene antidot arrays. ► Thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1D antidot arrays can exceed unity. ► ZT of 1D antidot arrays is larger than that of two-dimensional arrays.

  15. Attenuation, dispersion and nonlinearity effects in graphene-based waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Wirth Lima Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulated and analyzed in detail the behavior of ultrashort optical pulses, which are typically used in telecommunications, propagating through graphene-based nanoribbon waveguides. In this work, we showed the changes that occur in the Gaussian and hyperbolic secant input pulses due to the attenuation, high-order dispersive effects and nonlinear effects. We concluded that it is possible to control the shape of the output pulses with the value of the input signal power and the chemical potential of the graphene nanoribbon. We believe that the obtained results will be highly relevant since they can be applied to other nanophotonic devices, for example, filters, modulators, antennas, switches and other devices.

  16. Stability analysis of zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Hari Mohan, E-mail: rai.2208@gmail.com; Late, Ravikiran; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Sagdeo, Pankaj R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Indore –452017 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM- Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur – 482005 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Computational Nanoscience and Technology Lab. (CNTL), ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, Gwalior – 474015 (India)

    2015-05-15

    We have explored the structural stability of bare and hydrogenated zigzag boron nitride nanoribbons (ZBNNRs). In order to investigate the structural stability, we calculate the cohesive energy for bare, one-edge and both edges H-terminated ZBNNRs with different widths. It is found that the ZBNNRs with width Nz=8 are energetically more favorable than the lower-width counterparts (Nz<8). Bare ZBNNRs have been found energetically most stable as compared to the edge terminated ribbons. Our analysis reveals that the structural stability is a function of ribbon-width and it is not affected significantly by the type of edge-passivation (one-edge or both-edges)

  17. Large current modulation and spin-dependent tunneling of vertical graphene/MoS2 heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, G

    2013-08-27

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermions with different spins feel different heights of the tunnel barrier, leading to spin-dependent tunneling. Our finding will develop the present graphene heterostructures for electronic devices by improving the device performance and by adding the possibility of spintronics based on graphene.

  18. Vertically aligned zinc selenide nanoribbon arrays: microstructure and field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lijuan; Pang Qi; Cai Yuan; Wang Ning; Ge Weikun; Wang Jiannong; Yang Shihe

    2007-01-01

    Uniform ZnSe precursor (ZnSe : 0.38en, en = ethylenediamine) nanoribbon arrays are grown vertically on Zn foils in ethylenediamine (en) using a solvothermal method. After the annealing treatment in N 2 , the ZnSe nanoribbon arrays can be obtained without an obvious morphology change and the crystallinity of ribbons is greatly improved. The microstructures of both individual ZnSe precursor and ZnSe nanoribbons are investigated. Field emission characteristics show that the onset field required drawing a current density of ∼0.1 μ A cm -2 from the ZnSe nanoribbons is 5.0 V μm -1 and the field enhancement factors are determined to be ∼1382

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Graphene-hBN Superlattice Ribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Isaac M; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C

    2018-02-09

    Superlattices are ideal model systems for the realization and understanding of coherent (wave-like) and incoherent (particle-like) phonon thermal transport. Single layer heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride have been produced recently with sharp edges and controlled domain sizes. In this study we employ nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of superlattice nanoribbons with equal-sized domains of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. We analyze the dependence of the conductivity with the domain sizes, and with the total length of the ribbons. We determine that the thermal conductivity reaches a minimum value of 89 W m -1 K -1 for ribbons with a superlattice period of 3.43 nm. The effective phonon mean free path is also determined and shows a minimum value of 32 nm for the same superlattice period. Our results also reveal that a crossover from coherent to incoherent phonon transport is present at room temperature for BNC nanoribbons, as the superlattice period becomes comparable to the phonon coherence length. Analyzing phonon populations relative to the smallest superlattice period, we attribute the minimum thermal conductivity to a reduction in the population of flexural phonons when the superlattice period equals 3.43 nm. The ability to manipulate thermal conductivity using superlattice-based two-dimensional materials, such as graphene-hBN nanoribbons, opens up opportunities for application in future nanostructured thermoelectric devices.

  20. Imaging of Polarization-dependent Photocurrent in Graphene Photodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjung; Yoon, Duhee; Ang Yoon, Ho; Lee, Sang Wook; Cheong, Hyeonsik

    2012-02-01

    Recently, a metal-graphene-metal photodetector for high-speed optical communications was reported. In addition, a graphene-based photodetector was reported to be able to absorb broadband light owing to the unique band structure of graphene [Mueller et al., Nature Photonics 4, 297 (2010)]. We investigated the polarization dependence of the photocurrent generated in metal-graphene-metal junctions. The graphene photodevice was fabricated by depositing Pd/Au and Ti/Au electrodes on single-layer graphene samples. When the polarization of incident laser beam is rotated with respect to the metal-graphene-metal junction, the photocurrent is significantly modulated. In addition, we measured the exact positions where the photocurrent is generated by measuring the photocurrent and Raman images of the graphene photodevices simultaneously.