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Sample records for grapevine berry ripening

  1. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  2. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

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    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  3. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

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    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  4. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

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    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  5. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

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    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berry ripening reveals significant induction of ethylene signaling and flavor pathways in the skin.

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    Cramer, Grant R; Ghan, Ryan; Schlauch, Karen A; Tillett, Richard L; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Pezzotti, Mario

    2014-12-19

    Grapevine berry, a nonclimacteric fruit, has three developmental stages; the last one is when berry color and sugar increase. Flavors derived from terpenoid and fatty acid metabolism develop at the very end of this ripening stage. The transcriptomic response of pulp and skin of Cabernet Sauvignon berries in the late stages of ripening between 22 and 37 °Brix was assessed using whole-genome micorarrays. The transcript abundance of approximately 18,000 genes changed with °Brix and tissue type. There were a large number of changes in many gene ontology (GO) categories involving metabolism, signaling and abiotic stress. GO categories reflecting tissue differences were overrepresented in photosynthesis, isoprenoid metabolism and pigment biosynthesis. Detailed analysis of the interaction of the skin and pulp with °Brix revealed that there were statistically significantly higher abundances of transcripts changing with °Brix in the skin that were involved in ethylene signaling, isoprenoid and fatty acid metabolism. Many transcripts were peaking around known optimal fruit stages for flavor production. The transcript abundance of approximately two-thirds of the AP2/ERF superfamily of transcription factors changed during these developmental stages. The transcript abundance of a unique clade of ERF6-type transcription factors had the largest changes in the skin and clustered with genes involved in ethylene, senescence, and fruit flavor production including ACC oxidase, terpene synthases, and lipoxygenases. The transcript abundance of important transcription factors involved in fruit ripening was also higher in the skin. A detailed analysis of the transcriptome dynamics during late stages of ripening of grapevine berries revealed that these berries went through massive transcriptional changes in gene ontology categories involving chemical signaling and metabolism in both the pulp and skin, particularly in the skin. Changes in the transcript abundance of genes involved in

  7. Influence of a deficit irrigation regime during ripening on berry composition in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) grown in semi-arid areas.

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    López, María-Isabel; Sánchez, María-Teresa; Díaz, Antonio; Ramírez, Pilar; Morales, José

    2007-11-01

    A study was made of the effects of irrigation management strategies during ripening on the quality of Spanish field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars (Baladi, Airén, Montepila, Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains and Pedro Ximénez) grown under the "Montilla-Moriles" Appellation of Origin in Cordoba, Spain. From 1999 to 2002, two water-availability regimes were established: irrigation and non-irrigation. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of irrigation on berry development and ripening, and hence on grape juice quality. Changes in phenological stages, vegetative growth, vineyard yield, berry weight, total soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, tartaric acid, malic acid, and potassium content were monitored. No significant differences were noted in phenological phases between the non-irrigation and deficit irrigation regimes. The Ravaz index, pruning weight, vineyard yield and berry weight were significantly higher in all varieties and years under deficit irrigation. Deficit irrigation induced higher titrable acidity, higher malic acid and potassium contents and a lower pH, but had no significant effects on berry sugar accumulation or tartaric acid content. Deficit irrigation thus appears to be a promising technique for the production of quality young wines in semi-arid areas.

  8. The grapevine VviPrx31 peroxidase as a candidate gene involved in anthocyanin degradation in ripening berries under high temperature.

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    Movahed, Nooshin; Pastore, Chiara; Cellini, Antonio; Allegro, Gianluca; Valentini, Gabriele; Zenoni, Sara; Cavallini, Erika; D'Incà, Erica; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Filippetti, Ilaria

    2016-05-01

    Anthocyanin levels decline in some red grape berry varieties ripened under high-temperature conditions, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Here we studied the effects of two different temperature regimes, representing actual Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.) viticulture regions, on the accumulation of mRNAs and enzymes controlling berry skin anthocyanins. Potted uniform plants of Sangiovese were kept from veraison to harvest, in two plastic greenhouses with different temperature conditions. The low temperature (LT) conditions featured average and maximum daily air temperatures of 20 and 29 °C, respectively, whereas the corresponding high temperature (HT) conditions were 22 and 36 °C, respectively. The anthocyanin concentration at harvest was much lower in HT berries than LT berries although their profile was similar under both conditions. Under HT conditions, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins was suppressed at both the transcriptional and enzymatic levels, but peroxidase activity was higher. This suggests that the low anthocyanin content of HT berries reflects the combined impact of reduced biosynthesis and increased degradation, particularly the direct role of peroxidases in anthocyanin catabolism. Overexpression of VviPrx31 decreased anthocyanin contents in Petunia hybrida petals under heat stress condition. These data suggest that high temperature can stimulate peroxidase activity thus anthocyanin degradation in ripening grape berries.

  9. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    OpenAIRE

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna Ullán, Natalia; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compa...

  10. Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses

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    Alejandra Serrano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I, lag (II, and ripening (III, in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation and biotic (fungi and viruses stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support

  11. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

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    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  12. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

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    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  13. PLASTICITY OF THE BERRY RIPENING PROGRAM IN A WHITE GRAPE VARIETY

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    Silvia Dal Santo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L is considered one of the most environmentally sensitive crops and is characterized by broad phenotypic plasticity, offering important advantages such as the large range of different wines that can be produced from the same cultivar, and the adaptation of existing cultivars to diverse growing regions. The uniqueness of berry quality traits reflects complex interactions between the grapevine plant and the combination of natural factors and human cultural practices, defined as terroir, which leads to the expression of wine typicity. Despite the scientific and commercial importance of genotype interactions with growing conditions, few studies have characterized the genes and metabolites directly involved in this phenomenon. Here we used two large-scale analytical approaches to explore the metabolomic and transcriptomic basis of the broad phenotypic plasticity of Garganega, a white berry variety grown at four sites characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions (altitudes, soil texture and composition. These conditions determine berry ripening dynamics in terms of sugar accumulation and the abundance of phenolic compounds. Multivariate analysis unraveled a highly plastic metabolomic response to different environments, especially the accumulation of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids and flavonols. Principal component analysis revealed that the four sites strongly affected the berry transcriptome allowing the identification of environmentally-modulated genes and the plasticity of commonly-modulated transcripts at different sites. Many genes that control transcription, translation, transport and carbohydrate metabolism showed different expression depending on the environmental conditions, indicating a key role in the observed transcriptomic plasticity of Garganega berries. Interestingly, genes representing the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway showed plastic responses to the environment mirroring the accumulation

  14. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

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    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  15. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

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    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  16. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

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    Pilati, Stefania; Bagagli, Giorgia; Sonego, Paolo; Moretto, Marco; Brazzale, Daniele; Castorina, Giulia; Simoni, Laura; Tonelli, Chiara; Guella, Graziano; Engelen, Kristof; Galbiati, Massimo; Moser, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA) is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes) characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes), underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2), a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2-independent manner. This

  17. Day and night heat stress trigger different transcriptomic responses in green and ripening grapevine (vitis vinifera) fruit.

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    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Luchaire, Nathalie; Chatbanyong, Ratthaphon; Lecourieux, David; Kelly, Mary T; Romieu, Charles

    2014-04-28

    Global climate change will noticeably affect plant vegetative and reproductive development. The recent increase in temperatures has already impacted yields and composition of berries in many grapevine-growing regions. Physiological processes underlying temperature response and tolerance of the grapevine fruit have not been extensively investigated. To date, all studies investigating the molecular regulation of fleshly fruit response to abiotic stress were only conducted during the day, overlooking possible critical night-specific variations. The present study explores the night and day transcriptomic response of grapevine fruit to heat stress at several developmental stages. Short heat stresses (2 h) were applied at day and night to vines bearing clusters sequentially ordered according to the developmental stages along their vertical axes. The recently proposed microvine model (DRCF-Dwarf Rapid Cycling and Continuous Flowering) was grown in climatic chambers in order to circumvent common constraints and biases inevitable in field experiments with perennial macrovines. Post-véraison berry heterogeneity within clusters was avoided by constituting homogenous batches following organic acids and sugars measurements of individual berries. A whole genome transcriptomic approach was subsequently conducted using NimbleGen 090818 Vitis 12X (30 K) microarrays. Present work reveals significant differences in heat stress responsive pathways according to day or night treatment, in particular regarding genes associated with acidity and phenylpropanoid metabolism. Precise distinction of ripening stages led to stage-specific detection of malic acid and anthocyanin-related transcripts modulated by heat stress. Important changes in cell wall modification related processes as well as indications for heat-induced delay of ripening and sugar accumulation were observed at véraison, an effect that was reversed at later stages. This first day - night study on heat stress adaption of the

  18. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

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    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  19. Solar ultraviolet radiation is necessary to enhance grapevine fruit ripening transcriptional and phenolic responses.

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    Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Diago, Maria-Paz; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Tardáguila, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2014-07-09

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation modulates secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which affects the final composition of both grapes and wines. The expression of several phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes is regulated by UV radiation in grape berries. However, the complete portion of transcriptome and ripening processes influenced by solar UV radiation in grapes remains unknown. Whole genome arrays were used to identify the berry skin transcriptome modulated by the UV radiation received naturally in a mid-altitude Tempranillo vineyard. UV radiation-blocking and transmitting filters were used to generate the experimental conditions. The expression of 121 genes was significantly altered by solar UV radiation. Functional enrichment analysis of altered transcripts mainly pointed out that secondary metabolism-related transcripts were induced by UV radiation including VvFLS1, VvGT5 and VvGT6 flavonol biosynthetic genes and monoterpenoid biosynthetic genes. Berry skin phenolic composition was also analysed to search for correlation with gene expression changes and UV-increased flavonols accumulation was the most evident impact. Among regulatory genes, novel UV radiation-responsive transcription factors including VvMYB24 and three bHLH, together with known grapevine UV-responsive genes such as VvMYBF1, were identified. A transcriptomic meta-analysis revealed that genes up-regulated by UV radiation in the berry skin were also enriched in homologs of Arabidopsis UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor-dependent UV-B -responsive genes. Indeed, a search of the grapevine reference genomic sequence identified UV-B signalling pathway homologs and among them, VvHY5-1, VvHY5-2 and VvRUP were up-regulated by UV radiation in the berry skin. Results suggest that the UV-B radiation-specific signalling pathway is activated in the skin of grapes grown at mid-altitudes. The biosynthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites, which are appreciated in winemaking and

  20. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

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    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  1. Pectins, Hemicelluloses and Celluloses Show Specific Dynamics in the Internal and External Surfaces of Grape Berry Skin During Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Marianna; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Dal Santo, Silvia; Balestrini, Raffaella; Sanson, Andrea; Pezzotti, Mario; Monti, Francesca; Zenoni, Sara

    2016-06-01

    Grapevine berry skin is a complex structure that contributes to the final size and shape of the fruit and affects its quality traits. The organization of cell wall polysaccharides in situ and their modification during ripening are largely uncharacterized. The polymer structure of Corvina berry skin, its evolution during ripening and related modifying genes were determined by combing mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis with transcript profiling and immunohistochemistry. Spectra were acquired in situ using a surface-sensitive technique on internal and external sides of the skin without previous sample pre-treatment, allowing comparison of the related cell wall polymer dynamics. The external surface featured cuticle-related bands; the internal surface showed more adsorbed water. Application of surface-specific normalization revealed the major molecular changes related to hemicelluloses and pectins in the internal surface and to cellulose and pectins in the external surface and that they occur between mid-ripening and full ripening in both sides of the skin. Transcript profiling of cell wall-modifying genes indicated a general suppression of cell wall metabolism during ripening. Genes related to pectin metabolism-a β-galactosidase, a pectin(methyl)esterase and a pectate lyase-and a xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase, involved in hemicellulose modification, showed enhanced expression. In agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, patterns due to pectin methyl esterification provided new insights into the relationship between pectin modifications and the associated transcript profile during skin ripening. This study proposes an original description of polymer dynamics in grape berries during ripening, highlighting differences between the internal and external sides of the skin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For

  2. The Induction of Noble Rot (Botrytis cinerea Infection during Postharvest Withering Changes the Metabolome of Grapevine Berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Garganega

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    Stefano Negri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural or induced development of noble rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea during the late stages of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. berry ripening is used in some traditional viticulture areas to produce high-quality wines such as Sauternes and Tokaji. In this research, we wanted to verify if by changing the environmental conditions during post-harvest withering we could induce the noble rot development on harvested berries in order to positively change the wine produced from withered Garganega berries. Therefore, we exposed the berries to postharvest withering under normal or artificially humid conditions, the latter to induce noble rot. The presence of noble rot symptoms was associated with the development of B. cinerea in the berries maintained under humid conditions. The composition of infected and non-infected berries was investigated by untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We also explored the effects of the two withering methods on the abundance of volatile organic compounds in wine by yeast-inoculated micro-fermentation followed by targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These experiments revealed significant metabolic differences between berries withered under normal and humid conditions, indicating that noble rot affects berry metabolism and composition. As well as well-known botrytization markers, we detected two novel lipids that have not been observed before in berries infected with noble rot. Unraveling the specific metabolic profile of berries infected with noble rot may help to determine the compounds responsible for the organoleptic quality traits of botrytized Garganega wines.

  3. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  4. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

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    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  5. Study of sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries under water stress conditions

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    Zenphing Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah was studied under water stress conditions using the «beny-cup» technique. After veraison, berry growth, the potential Exposed Leaf Area (pELA and photosynthetic activity are clearly reduced in water-stressed vines (- 0.5 > Ψb > - 0.6 MPa as compared to normal 1 Ψ-watcred vines (Mb = - 0.2 MPa. The ratio pELA/yield is also reduced, which is particular to this experiment. The beiries' ripening period (between veraison and maturity can be divided into three growth phases, Illa, Illb and IIlc. During phase Ma, the berries grow rapidly; at this point, water stress severely inhibits cell expan¬ sion of the berries but does not impact on daily sugar accumulation. During phase Mb, the berries grow slowly in both water-stressed and control vines. Water stress can shorten this phase and reduce sugar accumulation in the berries by decreasing daily sugar unloading. During phase II le, the Iresh weight and volume of the berries decreases as does the daily sugar unloading. During the day, sugar unloading in ripening berries occurs mainly in the morning (7 am to 10.30 am and at noon (1 to 1.30 pm; little sugar is unloaded in the afternoon (4 pm to 4.30 pin. Moderate water stress from veraison to maturity affects végétative growth (i.e. the growth of primary and secoridary shoots, and reduces the exposed leaf area, photosynthetic activity, berry growth, and the accumulation of sugar at the end of ripening (phases Mb and IIlc.

  6. GC-MS metabolic profiling of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars during grapevine berry development and network analysis reveals a stage- and cultivar-dependent connectivity of primary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Ruíz-Lara, Simón; González, Enrique; Eckardt, Aenne; Willmitzer, Lothar; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    Information about the total chemical composition of primary metabolites during grape berry development is scarce, as are comparative studies trying to understand to what extent metabolite modifications differ between cultivars during ripening. Thus, correlating the metabolic profiles with the changes occurring in berry development and ripening processes is essential to progress in their comprehension as well in the development of new approaches to improve fruit attributes. Here, the developmental metabolic profiling analysis across six stages from flowering to fully mature berries of two cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, is reported at metabolite level. Based on a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry untargeted approach, 115 metabolites were identified and relative quantified in both cultivars. Sugars and amino acids levels show an opposite behaviour in both cultivars undergoing a highly coordinated shift of metabolite associated to primary metabolism during the stages involved in growth, development and ripening of berries. The changes are characteristic for each stage, the most pronounced ones occuring at fruit setting and pre-Veraison. They are associated to a reduction of the levels of metabolites present in the earlier corresponding stage, revealing a required catabolic activity of primary metabolites for grape berry developmental process. Network analysis revealed that the network connectivity of primary metabolites is stage- and cultivar-dependent, suggesting differences in metabolism regulation between both cultivars as the maturity process progresses. Furthermore, network analysis may represent an appropriate method to display the association between primary metabolites during berry developmental processes among different grapevine cultivars and for identifying potential biologically relevant metabolites.

  7. Exogenous strigolactone interacts with abscisic acid-mediated accumulation of anthocyanins in grapevine berries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferrero, M.; Pagliarani, C.; Novák, Ondřej; Ferrandino, A.; Cardinale, F.; Visentin, I.; Schubert, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 9 (2018), s. 2391-2401 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : vitis-vinifera l. * cabernet-sauvignon * seed-germination * drought stress * nonclimacteric fruit * lotus-japonicus * gene-expression * plant hormones * analog gr24 * biosynthesis * ABA conjugation * ABA hydroxylases * ABA transporters * abscisic acid * anthocyanin * grapevine * gr24 * ripening * strigolactones Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  8. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major d...

  9. Sequestration of auxin by the indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3-1 in grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) and the proposed role of auxin conjugation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Keyzers, Robert A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2010-08-01

    In fleshy fruit, levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the most abundant auxin, decline towards the onset of ripening. The application of auxins to immature fruit can delay the ripening processes. However, the mechanisms by which the decrease in endogenous IAA concentrations and the maintenance of low auxin levels in maturing fruit are achieved remain elusive. The transcript of a GH3 gene (GH3-1), encoding for an IAA-amido synthetase which conjugates IAA to amino acids, was detected in grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.). GH3-1 expression increased at the onset of ripening (veraison), suggesting that it might be involved in the establishment and maintenance of low IAA concentrations in ripening berries. Furthermore, this grapevine GH3 gene, responded positively to the combined application of abscisic acid and sucrose and to ethylene, linking it to the control of ripening processes. Levels of IAA-aspartic acid (IAA-Asp), an in vitro product of recombinant GH3-1, rose after veraison and remained high during the following weeks of the ripening phase when levels of free IAA were low. A similar pattern of changes in free IAA and IAA-Asp levels was detected in developing tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), where low concentrations of IAA and an increase in IAA-Asp concentrations coincided with the onset of ripening in this climacteric fruit. Since IAA-Asp might be involved in IAA degradation, the GH3 catalysed formation of this conjugate at, and after, the onset of ripening could represent a common IAA inactivation mechanism in climacteric and non-climacteric fruit which enables ripening.

  10. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

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    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  11. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  12. Transcriptome analyses of the Dof-like gene family in grapevine reveal its involvement in berry, flower and seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Danielle Costenaro; da Silveira Falavigna, Vítor; Fasoli, Marianna; Buffon, Vanessa; Porto, Diogo Denardi; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; Pezzotti, Mario; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Revers, Luís Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Dof (DNA-binding with one finger) protein family spans a group of plant transcription factors involved in the regulation of several functions, such as plant responses to stress, hormones and light, phytochrome signaling and seed germination. Here we describe the Dof-like gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which consists of 25 genes coding for Dof. An extensive in silico characterization of the VviDofL gene family was performed. Additionally, the expression of the entire gene family was assessed in 54 grapevine tissues and organs using an integrated approach with microarray (cv Corvina) and real-time PCR (cv Pinot Noir) analyses. The phylogenetic analysis comparing grapevine sequences with those of Arabidopsis, tomato, poplar and already described Dof genes in other species allowed us to identify several duplicated genes. The diversification of grapevine DofL genes during evolution likely resulted in a broader range of biological roles. Furthermore, distinct expression patterns were identified between samples analyzed, corroborating such hypothesis. Our expression results indicate that several VviDofL genes perform their functional roles mainly during flower, berry and seed development, highlighting their importance for grapevine growth and production. The identification of similar expression profiles between both approaches strongly suggests that these genes have important regulatory roles that are evolutionally conserved between grapevine cvs Corvina and Pinot Noir.

  13. Pollination: a key event controlling the expression of genes related to phytohormone biosynthesis during grapevine berry formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Nathalie; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Berry formation is the process of ovary conversion into a functional fruit, and is characterized by abrupt changes in the content of several phytohormones, associated with pollination and fertilization. Much effort has been made in order to improve our understanding of berry development, particularly from veraison to post-harvest time. However, the period of berry formation has been poorly investigated, despite its importance. Phytohormones are involved in the control of fruit formation; hence it is important to understand the regulation of their content at this stage. Grapevine is an excellent fleshy-fruit plant model since its fruits have particularities that differentiate them from those of commonly studied organisms. For instance, berries are prepared to cope with stress by producing several antioxidants and they are non-climacteric fruits. Also its genome is fully sequenced, which allows to identify genes involved in developmental processes. In grapevine, no link has been established between pollination and phytohormone biosynthesis, until recently. Here we highlight relevant findings regarding pollination effect on gene expression related to phytohormone biosynthesis, and present unpublished results showing how quickly this effect is achieved.

  14. Impact of reduced atmospheric CO2 and varied potassium supply on carbohydrate and potassium distribution in grapevine and grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Zelmari A; Walker, Rob R; Deloire, Alain J; Barril, Célia; Clarke, Simon J; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-11-01

    To assess the robustness of the apparent sugar-potassium relationship during ripening of grape berries, a controlled-environment study was conducted on Shiraz vines involving ambient and reduced (by 34%) atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and standard and increased (by 67%) soil potassium applications from prior to the onset of ripening. The leaf net photoassimilation rate was decreased by 35% in the reduced CO 2 treatment. The reduction in CO 2 delayed the onset of ripening, but at harvest the sugar content of the berry pericarp was similar to that of plants grown in ambient conditions. The potassium content of the berry pericarp in the reduced CO 2 treatment was however higher than for the ambient CO 2 . Berry potassium, sugar and water content were strongly correlated, regardless of treatments, alluding to a ternary link during ripening. Root starch content was lower under reduced CO 2 conditions, and therefore likely acted as a source of carbohydrates during berry ripening. Root carbohydrate reserve replenishment could also have been moderated under reduced CO 2 at the expense of berry ripening. Given that root potassium concentration was less in the vines grown in the low CO 2 atmosphere, these results point toward whole-plant fine-tuning of carbohydrate and potassium partitioning aimed at optimising fruit ripening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of different plastic sheet coverings on microclimate and berry ripening of table grape cv "Matilde"

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    Vittorino Novello

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Two types of plastic cover (LDPE + EVA and LDPE + HDPE were tested to assess their radiometric properties and the influence on the vegetative and reproductive performances of ‘Matilde’ table grape. Films showed the same transmittance to short infrared waves, but LDPE + EVA had a higher transmissivity to visible, PAR and short infrared wavelength ranges of solar radiation, especially as for the « direct » light component. In comparison to the open field, covering increased GDD accumulation and advanced budbreak by 12 days (LDPE + HDPE or 20 days (LDPE + EVA. Commercial ripening (14 °Brix was advanced by 8 and 22 days, respectively. Must acidity was higher in open field than under LDPE + EVA. Yield per vine increased under LDPE + EVA, although not at a significant level; bunch mass was higher under LDPE + EVA than in open field. Berry mass was maximum under LDPE + EVA and progressively decreased under LDPE + HDPE and in open field. Under covering, the pruning cane mass increased by 63% with LDPE + EVA and 43% with LDPE + HDPE.

  16. The impact of cluster thinning on fertility and berry and wine composition of 'Blauer Portugieser' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine variety

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    Jan Reščič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Two different yield reductions based on cluster thinning (CT were performed to determine their impact on vine growth, yield, and grape and wine composition of 'Blauer Portugieser' grapevine variety. Methods and results: Two levels of cluster thinning (limited CT1 – 20-30 % and severe CT2 – 40-50 % cluster reduction were applied at the pea-size berry (BBCH 75 phenological stage in 2007, 2008 and 2011. The potential impact of CT was determined by measurements of vine growth and fertility potential, berry weight, berry colour, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and total phenolics. Additionally, for the first time, individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in berry skin and wine by HPLC-MS. In general, CT of 'Blauer Portugieser' significantly decreased titratable acidity in grape and wine, and increased pH and chromatic parameters in grape and alcohol content and volatile acidity in wine. A significant decrease in yield per vine (of 0.92 kg of grape/vine, together with an increase in soluble solids (of 2.8 °Brix in grape and pH and total extract content in wine was only observed in severe CT (CT2. Furthermore, CT2 significantly increased the content of total anthocyanins, flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids, but not total flavanols, in grape and wine. CT2 significantly increased the content and proportion of p-coumaroyl pentose in grape and wine, catechin in grape, epicatechin in wine, quercetin-3-glucuronide (the main flavonol in 'Blauer Portugieser' in grape and wine, the content of myricetin-3-glucoside in grape, and the content of 3-glucosides of laricitrin, myricetin and quercetin in wine. Finally, CT2 increased the content and the proportion of 3-glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and peonidin but decreased the proportion of malvidin-3-glucoside in grape and wine. Conclusion: A significant impact on yield and grape and wine composition was observed, particularly in the CT2 treatment, in which the

  17. Study of Morphological, Phenological and Variation of Fruit Traits During Berry Growth Phases of QzlouzumGrapevine Cultivar

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    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-02-01

    quantitative traits, TSS (total soluble solids, TA (titrable acidity, pH, berry weight and diameter, seed length and weight from the beginning of the berry formation to harvest time of clusters in 15-day interval were measured. Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that flowers of Qzlouzum are female with reflexed stamens. The results also determined that none of pollens germinated on both liquid and solid media culture. Based on reflexed stamens and none pollen germination, Qzlouzum grape cultivar proves to be male sterile (physiological substance. This cultivar needs 1483 degree days (above 10°C from bud break till ripening. The changes in TA and TSS were reversed. Amount of acid reduced and sugar content increased with time and berry development. Veraision period was approximately started 55 days after full bloom. At this stage, which is also known as berry softening, acid concentration is reduced and the amount of sugar was increased. Acid content and pH of the fruit were opposite together and by reducing the amount of acid, the pH levels increased. Several studies have confirmed that after changing the color of the grape varieties,sugar can often increase. Conversely, acid reduction in berries is the first happensbefore color change in berries. The berry weight and size changes were described as Double Sigmoid Curve. In the first phase, berry diameter and weight increased rapidly and lasted 60 days. In the second phase or delay phase, berry weight and diameter changedvery slowly while seed weight reached themaximum in this stage. After this phase, the third phase which was associated began with veraision, sugar content increased and the amount of aciddecreased. At this stage berry reached its maximum size and weight. Conclusion: Uniform planting of Qzlouzum red grapes is not recommended because of male sterility and suitable pollinizers should be used. Male sterility, without emasculation will be suitable for grape breeding programs. In areas with

  18. Improvement berry color skin profile by exogenous cyanocobalamin treatment of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapevines

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    A.A. Lo'ay

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of cyanocobalamin (B12 treatments (0, 3, 6, and 9 mM B12 on Vitis vinifera L. ‘Crimson seedless’ which conducted during two seasons 2014 and 2015. The study aims to regenerate berry color during growth and preserve it during shelf-life at room temperature for four days. The results showed that B12 treatments were significantly effective in reducing weight loss. Berry shatter, rachis browning index, while it preserved another quality parameter high such as berry firmness, separation force, total phenol content (TPC, total sugar content (TSC, total anthocyanin content (TAC, B-Carotene, ascorbic acid (AA and color hue angle during shelf-life for four days. The previous results were significantly observed with B12 at 9 mM compared to control and other B12 concentrations. However, total solid content (SSC%, titratable acidity (TA%, and SSC/TA ratio were significantly affected by B12 at 9 mM up to end the shelf-life period. In contrast, the lowest values of total chlorophyll (Chlab content during shelf-life compared with other B12 concentrations. Therefore, cyanocobalamin (B12 is an effective vitamin for improving or generating berry color at harvest time and maintaining cluster quality of ‘Crimson seedless’ grapes during shelf-life (marketing.

  19. Free amino acids of leaves and berries of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines

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    Alberto Miele

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of free amino acids was studied from leaves, pericarps, skins, musts and seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon. Vineyards were in the Bordeaux region and the grapevines were conducted in espalier and lyre systems. Grapes were collected at maturity and lyophilized after sampling. Extraction of free amino acids was done with a hydroalcoholic solution and their analysis was performed with an autoanalyzer. A standard of 34 amino acids was utilized for the qualitative analysis. The results showed that, for both espalier and lyre training systems, respectively, the free amino acids were predominant in the pericarps (12.85 and 11.21 mg/g dw - 16.88 and 15.12 mg/g dw in skins and 3.29 and 2.88 g/l in musts -, followed by the seeds (2.37 and 2.32 mg/g dw and leaves (1.87 and 1.98 mg/g dw. The most abundant free amino acids in leaves were glutamic acid (23.8 and 28.8 p. cent, aspartic acid (8.8 and 11.1 p. cent, and glutamine (10.1 and 9.4 p. cent. Proline (41.8 and 41.5 p. cent and arginine (22.8 and 22.4 p. cent predominated in the pericarps. In seeds, the main amino acids were proline (14.5 and 15.8 p. cent, arginine (11.0 and 11.8 p. cent, histidine (11.2 and 8.7 p. cent, and glutamic acid (11.3 and 8.2 p. cent. Grapevine training system showed some differences in the total amount and in the percentages of each free amino acid, but the pattern of these compounds for each tissue was similar for both training systems.

  20. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.: photosynthetic tissues and berries

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    Michael James Considine

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on sulfite metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils and questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/ sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the ‘ambient’ environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry’s exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO¬2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  1. Metabolic responses to sulfur dioxide in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): photosynthetic tissues and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Research on sulfur metabolism in plants has historically been undertaken within the context of industrial pollution. Resolution of the problem of sulfur pollution has led to sulfur deficiency in many soils. Key questions remain concerning how different plant organs deal with reactive and potentially toxic sulfur metabolites. In this review, we discuss sulfur dioxide/sulfite assimilation in grape berries in relation to gene expression and quality traits, features that remain significant to the food industry. We consider the intrinsic metabolism of sulfite and its consequences for fruit biology and postharvest physiology, comparing the different responses in fruit and leaves. We also highlight inconsistencies in what is considered the "ambient" environmental or industrial exposures to SO2. We discuss these findings in relation to the persistent threat to the table grape industry that intergovernmental agencies will revoke the industry's exemption to the worldwide ban on the use of SO2 for preservation of fresh foods. Transcriptome profiling studies on fruit suggest that added value may accrue from effects of SO2 fumigation on the expression of genes encoding components involved in processes that underpin traits related to customer satisfaction, particularly in table grapes, where SO2 fumigation may extend for several months.

  2. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon) berries at ripening initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Laszczak, Mario; Smith, Derek; Lund, Steven T

    2009-01-01

    Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison') in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening initiation and may be further

  4. Generation of a predicted protein database from EST data and application to iTRAQ analyses in grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries at ripening initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background iTRAQ is a proteomics technique that uses isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation of tryptic peptides. In proteomics experiments, the detection and high confidence annotation of proteins and the significance of corresponding expression differences can depend on the quality and the species specificity of the tryptic peptide map database used for analysis of the data. For species for which finished genome sequence data are not available, identification of proteins relies on similarity to proteins from other species using comprehensive peptide map databases such as the MSDB. Results We were interested in characterizing ripening initiation ('veraison' in grape berries at the protein level in order to better define the molecular control of this important process for grape growers and wine makers. We developed a bioinformatic pipeline for processing EST data in order to produce a predicted tryptic peptide database specifically targeted to the wine grape cultivar, Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon, and lacking truncated N- and C-terminal fragments. By searching iTRAQ MS/MS data generated from berry exocarp and mesocarp samples at ripening initiation, we determined that implementation of the custom database afforded a large improvement in high confidence peptide annotation in comparison to the MSDB. We used iTRAQ MS/MS in conjunction with custom peptide db searches to quantitatively characterize several important pathway components for berry ripening previously described at the transcriptional level and confirmed expression patterns for these at the protein level. Conclusion We determined that a predicted peptide database for MS/MS applications can be derived from EST data using advanced clustering and trimming approaches and successfully implemented for quantitative proteome profiling. Quantitative shotgun proteome profiling holds great promise for characterizing biological processes such as fruit ripening

  5. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    2006/2007 harvesting. The experiment was disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications and four plants per plot. The following treatments were tested: T1 (no defoliation, T2 (removal of leaves located in the opposite side of the grapes, T3 (removal of leaves located under the grapes and T4 (removal of leaves located under and in the opposite side of the grapes. The Vitis labrusca received an additional treatment (T5 consisting of leaves removed above the grapes. These treatments were applied during the change of berries color for Concord, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes and in the beginning of berries softening for Niagara Branca grape. After the harvesting, the grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH were evaluated. It was observed that the defoliation until the grapes height did not influence the quantity and quality of grapes. However, when the defoliation was carried out above the clusters, there was a delay in the maturation of american grapes. This condition shows that is not necessary a selective desfolation until the clusters height on grapevines, when it is realized during the initial fruit ripening phase.

  6. Potassium in the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Berry: Transport and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Y. Rogiers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ is the most abundant cation in the grape berry. Here we focus on the most recent information in the long distance transport and partitioning of K+ within the grapevine and postulate on the potential role of K+ in berry sugar accumulation, berry water relations, cellular growth, disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and mitigating senescence. By integrating information from several different plant systems we have been able to generate new hypotheses on the integral functions of this predominant cation and to improve our understanding of how these functions contribute to grape berry growth and ripening. Valuable contributions to the study of K+ in membrane stabilization, turgor maintenance and phloem transport have allowed us to propose a mechanistic model for the role of this cation in grape berry development.

  7. Involvement of pectin methyl-esterase during the ripening of grape berries: partial cDNA isolation, transcript expression and changes in the degree of methyl-esterification of cell wall pectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnavon, L; Doco, T; Terrier, N; Ageorges, A; Romieu, C; Pellerin, P

    2001-11-01

    Grape berries (Vitis vinifera L., cv Ugni blanc) were harvested at 12 different weeks of development in 1996 and 1997. Ripening was induced at veraison, the crucial stage of berry softening, and was followed by a rapid accumulation of glucose and fructose and an increase of pH. Total RNAs, crude proteins and cell wall material were isolated from each developmental stage. A partial length cDNA (pme1, accession number AF159122, GenBank) encoding a pectin methyl-esterase (PME, EC 3.1.1.11) was cloned by RT-PCR with degenerate primers. Northern blots revealed that mRNAs coding for PME accumulate from one week before the onset of ripening until complete maturity, indicating that this transcript represents an early marker of veraison and could be involved in berry softening. However, PME activity was detected during all developmental stages. Total activity per berry increased, whereas "specific" activity, on a fresh weight basis, decreased during development. The amount of cell wall material (per berry and per g of berry) followed the same pattern as that of PME activity (total and "specific" respectively), indicating they were tightly correlated and that PME levels varied very little in the cell walls. Nevertheless, the degree of methyl-esterification of insoluble pectins decreased throughout the development from 68% in green stages to less than 20% for the ripe berries, and this observation is consistent with the induction of PME mRNAs during ripening. Relations between transcript expression, PME activity, the DE of insoluble pectic polysaccharides and their involvement in grape berry ripening are discussed.

  8. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Dissecting the Variations of Ripening Progression and Flavonoid Metabolism in Grape Berries Grown under Double Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kai Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A double cropping system has been commercially adopted in southern China, where there is abundant sunshine and heat resources. In this viticulture system, the first growing season normally starts as a summer cropping cycle; then, the vine is pruned and forced, resulting in a second crop in winter. Due to climate differences between the summer and winter growing seasons, grape ripening progression and flavonoid metabolism vary greatly. Here, the metabolites and transcriptome of flavonoid pathways were analyzed in grapes grown under two growing seasons at different stages. Notably, the winter cropping cycle strongly increased flavonoid levels by several times in comparison to summer grapes, while the summer season took a major toll on anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation, since the winter cropping greatly triggered the expression of upstream genes in the flavonoid pathway in a coordinated expression pattern. Moreover, the ratio of VviF3′5′Hs (flavonoid 3′5′-hydroxylase to VviF3′Hs (flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase transcript levels correlated remarkably well with the ratio of 3′5′-substituted to 3′-substituted flavonoids, which was presumed to control the flux of intermediates into different flavonoid branches. On the other hand, the phenological phase also varied greatly in the two crops. Compared to summer cropping, winter growing season accelerated the duration from budburst to veraison, therefore advancing the onset of ripening, but also prolonging the duration of ripening progression due to the purposes to harvest high-quality grapes. The differential expression pattern of hormone-related genes between the two cropping cycles might explain this phenomenon.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression of gene encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase in 'Vidal blanc' grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fang; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Ma, Li-Yan; Li, Li; Li, Jing-Ming

    2012-04-01

    The pleasantly fruity and floral 2-phenylethanol are a dominant aroma compound in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes. However, to date little has been reported about its synthetic pathway in grapevine. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of VvAADC (encoding aromatic amino acid decarboxylase) was firstly cloned from the berries of 'Vidal blanc', an interspecific hybrid variety of Vitis vinifera × Vitis riparia. This sequence encodes a complete open reading frame of 482 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54 kDa and isoelectric point value (pI) of 5.73. The amino acid sequence deduced shared about 79% identity with that of aromatic L: -amino acid decarboxylases (AADCs) from tomato. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that VvAADC transcript abundance presented a small peak at 110 days after full bloom and then a continuous increase at the berry post-ripening stage, which was consistent with the accumulation of 2-phenylethanol, but did not correspond to the trends of two potential intermediates, phenethylamine and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Furthermore, phenylalanine still exhibited a continuous increase even in post-ripening period. It is thus suggested that 2-phenylethanol biosynthetic pathway mediated by AADC exists in grape berries, but it has possibly little contribution to a considerable accumulation of 2-phenylethanol in post-ripening 'Vidal blanc' grapes.

  11. Grape Ripening Is Regulated by Deficit Irrigation/Elevated Temperatures According to Cluster Position in the Canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Olfa; Brunetti, Cecilia; Egipto, Ricardo; Pinheiro, Carla; Genebra, Tânia; Gori, Antonella; Lopes, Carlos M; Tattini, Massimiliano; Chaves, M Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The impact of water deficit on berry quality has been extensively investigated during the last decades. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of knowledge on the performance of varieties exposed to a combination of high temperatures/water stress during the growing season and under vineyard conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of two irrigation regimes, sustained deficit irrigation (SDI, 30% ET c ) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, 15% ET c ) and of two cluster positions within the canopy (east- and west-exposed sides) on berry ripening in red Aragonez (Tempranillo) grapevines. The study was undertaken for two successive years in a commercial vineyard in South Portugal, monitoring the following parameters: pre-dawn leaf water potential, berry temperature, sugars, polyphenols, abscisic acid (ABA) and related metabolites. Additionally, expression patterns for different transcripts encoding for enzymes responsible for anthocyanin and ABA biosynthesis ( VviUFGT, VvNCED1, Vv β G1, VviHyd1, VviHyd2 ) were analyzed. In both years anthocyanin concentration was lower in RDI at the west side (RDIW- the hottest one) from véraison onwards, suggesting that the most severe water stress conditions exacerbated the negative impact of high temperature on anthocyanin. The down-regulation of VviUFGT expression revealed a repression of the anthocyanin synthesis in berries of RDIW, at early stages of berry ripening. At full-maturation, anthocyanin degradation products were detected, being highest at RDIW. This suggests that the negative impact of water stress and high temperature on anthocyanins results from the repression of biosynthesis at the onset of ripening and from degradation at later stages. On the other hand, berries grown under SDI displayed a higher content in phenolics than those under RDI, pointing out for the attenuation of the negative temperature effects under SDI. Irrigation regime and berry position had small effect on free

  12. Dissecting the Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of a Locally Applied Heat Treatment on Developing Cabernet Sauvignon Grape Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourieux, Fatma; Kappel, Christian; Pieri, Philippe; Charon, Justine; Pillet, Jérémy; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Lecourieux, David

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive development of grapevine and berry composition are both strongly influenced by temperature. To date, the molecular mechanisms involved in grapevine berries response to high temperatures are poorly understood. Unlike recent data that addressed the effects on berry development of elevated temperatures applied at the whole plant level, the present work particularly focuses on the fruit responses triggered by direct exposure to heat treatment (HT). In the context of climate change, this work focusing on temperature effect at the microclimate level is of particular interest as it can help to better understand the consequences of leaf removal (a common viticultural practice) on berry development. HT (+ 8°C) was locally applied to clusters from Cabernet Sauvignon fruiting cuttings at three different developmental stages (middle green, veraison and middle ripening). Samples were collected 1, 7, and 14 days after treatment and used for metabolic and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed dramatic and specific biochemical and transcriptomic changes in heat exposed berries, depending on the developmental stage and the stress duration. When applied at the herbaceous stage, HT delayed the onset of veraison. Heating also strongly altered the berry concentration of amino acids and organic acids (e.g., phenylalanine, γ-aminobutyric acid and malate) and decreased the anthocyanin content at maturity. These physiological alterations could be partly explained by the deep remodeling of transcriptome in heated berries. More than 7000 genes were deregulated in at least one of the nine experimental conditions. The most affected processes belong to the categories "stress responses," "protein metabolism" and "secondary metabolism," highlighting the intrinsic capacity of grape berries to perceive HT and to build adaptive responses. Additionally, important changes in processes related to "transport," "hormone" and "cell wall" might contribute to the postponing of veraison

  13. Influence of harvest day on changes in mechanical properties of grape berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the composition, physical and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. The characterization of the mechanical properties of grape berries seems to be an important parameter for understanding grape ripening. In this work, these changes were studied in seven grapevine varieties (Riesling, Blaufränkisch, Pinot Noir, Cerason, Malverina, Laurot, and Hibernal harvested during six consecutive weeks. Mechanical behaviour was measured using compression and puncture tests using of TIRATEST 27025 testing machine. Skin mechanical properties were evaluated using a puncture test carried out on the equatorial side. The dependence of these properties on the chemical composition has been evaluated. These parameters of force/time curves were studied by puncture test: the berry skin break force, the needle displacement at the skin break and the berry skin break energy. The crushing force, the plate displacement at the crushing strength and the berry crushing energy were studied from force/time curves by compression test. Results of the puncture test shows that there the skin break strength and the acidity content are monotonic functions of the time. A comparison of different varieties from the point of the value of the crushing force was obtained by vertical and transversal loading. The crushing force is monotonically decreasing function of the harvesting time like the break force evaluated at the puncture test. The correlation between the skin break strength and the sugar content is significant namely for the varieties: Hibernal, Riesling, Malverina, and Cerason. 

  14. Grape berry ripening delay induced by a pre-véraison NAA treatment is paralleled by a shift in the expression pattern of auxin- and ethylene-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Corso, Massimiliano; Rizzini, Fabio Massimo; Rasori, Angela; Botton, Alessandro; Bonghi, Claudio

    2012-10-09

    Auxins act as repressors of ripening inception in grape (véraison), while ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) play a positive role as inducers of the syndrome. Despite the increasing amount of information made available on this topic, the complex network of interactions among these hormones remains elusive. In order to shed light on these aspects, a holistic approach was adopted to evaluate, at the transcriptomic level, the crosstalk between hormones in grape berries, whose ripening progression was delayed by applying naphtalenacetic acid (NAA) one week before véraison. The NAA treatment caused significant changes in the transcription rate of about 1,500 genes, indicating that auxin delayed grape berry ripening also at the transcriptional level, along with the recovery of a steady state of its intracellular concentration. Hormone indices analysis carried out with the HORMONOMETER tool suggests that biologically active concentrations of auxins were achieved throughout a homeostatic recovery. This occurred within 7 days after the treatment, during which the physiological response was mainly unspecific and due to a likely pharmacological effect of NAA. This hypothesis is strongly supported by the up-regulation of genes involved in auxin conjugation (GH3-like) and action (IAA4- and IAA31-like). A strong antagonistic effect between auxin and ethylene was also observed, along with a substantial 'synergism' between auxins and ABA, although to a lesser extent. This study suggests that, in presence of altered levels of auxins, the crosstalk between hormones involves diverse mechanisms, acting at both the hormone response and biosynthesis levels, creating a complex response network.

  15. Observations on the influence of vine covering by means of a transparent plastic sheet on berry ripening and wine quality (Saint-Emilion, 1995 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelis van Leeuwen

    1998-09-01

    On the covered plots, yields were higher. In 1996, on BT, the vines carried more bunches, the bunches carried more berries and berry weight was higher. The control vines were significantly more affected by Botrytis compared to BS ; BT showed almost no rot. Berries on the covered plots showed a tendancy of having more sugar and total phenolics, and less malic acid. Separate microvinifications were done with 50 kg of grapes from each plot. Wine from BT was preferred over BS. Wine from the control plot was the least appreciated.

  16. Effect of pollination and fertilization on the expression of genes related to floral transition, hormone synthesis and berry development in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauelsberg, Patricia; Matus, José Tomás; Poupin, María Josefina; Leiva-Ampuero, Andrés; Godoy, Francisca; Vega, Andrea; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-15

    In the present work, the effect of assisted fertilization on anatomical, morphological and gene expression changes occurring in carpels and during early stages of berry development in Vitis vinifera were studied. Inflorescences were emasculated before capfall, immediately manually pollinated (EP) and fruit development was compared to emasculated but non-pollinated (ENP) and self-pollinated inflorescences (NESP). The diameter of berries derived from pollinated flowers (EP and NESP) was significantly higher than from non-pollinated flowers (ENP) at 21 days after emasculation/pollination (DAE), and a rapid increase in the size of the inner mesocarp, together with the presence of an embryo-like structure, were observed. The expression of gibberellin oxidases (GA20ox and GA2ox), anthranilate synthase (related to auxin synthesis) and cytokinin synthase coding genes was studied to assess the relationship between hormone synthesis and early berry development, while flower patterning genes were analyzed to describe floral transition. Significant expression changes were found for hormone-related genes, suggesting that their expression at early stages of berry development (13 DAE) is related to cell division and differentiation of mesocarp tissue at a later stage (21 DAE). Expression of hormone-related genes also correlates with the expression of VvHB13, a gene related to mesocarp expansion, and with an increased repression of floral patterning genes (PISTILLATA and TM6), which may contribute to prevent floral transition inhibiting fruit growth before fertilization takes place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  18. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine.

  19. [Effects of rootstocks on the growth and berry quality of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min-min; Yuan, Jun-wei; Liu, Chang-jiang; Han, Bin; Huang, Jia-zhen; Guo, Zi-juan; Zhao, Sheng-iian

    2016-01-01

    Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto seven rootstocks 188-08, 5BB, SO4, 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M, with the own-rooted vines as control, were investigated to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, fruit quality and yield of Cabernet Sauvignon in Changli zone, Hebei Province, China. The results showed that Cabernet Sauvignon grafted on 5BB and 5C significantly increased the trunk diameter, and 5C significantly increased one-year-old shoot diameter. 188-08, 5BB and 5C as rootstock obviously improved berry soluble solid content, in addition 188- 08 and 5BB significantly increased berry reducing sugar content. The vines on 101-14M and 3309C significantly decreased berry titratable acid content. The rootstock 5C and 101-14M significantly raised grape skin phenol and anthocyanin contents, and rootstock 101-14M significantly increased tannin content in grape skin. Cabernet Sauvignon grafted onto 3309C, 110R, 5C and 101-14M obviously got higher yield per vine than own-rooted vines. Growing parameter, grape quality index and yield per vine grafted on seven rootstocks and own-rooted vine were synthetically evaluated by fuzzy evaluation method, and the synthetical effects of vine grafted on seven rootstocks were better than own-rooted vine, with the order of scores from high to low as 5C, 101-14M, 3309C, 5BB, 188-08, 110R and SO4 under Changli unique climate and environment conditions.

  20. Reinforcement of the radiative and thermic stresses of the grapevine. Repercussions on yeast surface microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.M.; Mailhac, N.; Sauvage, F.X.; Biron, M.J.; Robin, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    All along the ripening period, the radiative and thermic stresses of the grapevine may be reinforced by the use of a reflective soil cover (aluminized film). Such a treatment leads to repercussions on the berries, on the must composition and finally on the wine quality. During such a preliminary experiment, we demonstrated that the temperature increase and/or the reinforcement of the reflected ultraviolet radiations (measured at 254 nm) at the level of grape berries severely impaired the development of yeast cells at their surfaces. By means of an artificial inoculation of grapes at the beginning of the ripening period with a mixture of four different yeast genera (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia fermentans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe), we demonstrated that the repartition of yeast genera amongst this population was affected by the treatment of stocks with the aluminized film: during the experiment presented in this paper, the Saccharomyces genus was favoured. One may consider by extension similar effects resulting from the reflective properties of some natural soils. Such effects may considerably influence the distribution of wild yeast flora during the spontaneous fermentation of musts. If such an hypothesis is confirmed at a local or regional level, it will represent a first significant piece of the definition of one of the aspects of the ''terroir'' effect on the characteristics of wines [fr

  1. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major developmental phases. Primary metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, such as sugars, organic acids and amino acids together with various bioactive secondary metabolites like flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were annotated and quantified. At the same time, the proteomic analysis revealed the protein dynamics of the developing grape berries. Multivariate statistical analysis of the integrated metabolomic and proteomic dataset revealed the growth trajectory and corresponding metabolites and proteins contributing most to the specific developmental process. K-means clustering analysis revealed 12 highly specific clusters of co-regulated metabolites and proteins. Granger causality network analysis allowed for the identification of time-shift correlations between metabolite-metabolite, protein- protein and protein-metabolite pairs which is especially interesting for the understanding of developmental processes. The integration of metabolite and protein dynamics with their corresponding biochemical pathways revealed an energy-linked metabolism before veraison with high abundances of amino acids and accumulation of organic acids, followed by protein and secondary metabolite synthesis. Anthocyanins were strongly accumulated after veraison whereas other flavonoids were in higher abundance at early developmental stages and decreased during the grape berry developmental processes. A comparison of the anthocyanin profile of Early Campbell to other

  2. System-Level and Granger Network Analysis of Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Dynamics Identifies Key Points of Grape Berry Development at the Interface of Primary and Secondary Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Weiszmann, Jakob; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major developmental phases. Primary metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, such as sugars, organic acids and amino acids together with various bioactive secondary metabolites like flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were annotated and quantified. At the same time, the proteomic analysis revealed the protein dynamics of the developing grape berries. Multivariate statistical analysis of the integrated metabolomic and proteomic dataset revealed the growth trajectory and corresponding metabolites and proteins contributing most to the specific developmental process. K-means clustering analysis revealed 12 highly specific clusters of co-regulated metabolites and proteins. Granger causality network analysis allowed for the identification of time-shift correlations between metabolite-metabolite, protein- protein and protein-metabolite pairs which is especially interesting for the understanding of developmental processes. The integration of metabolite and protein dynamics with their corresponding biochemical pathways revealed an energy-linked metabolism before veraison with high abundances of amino acids and accumulation of organic acids, followed by protein and secondary metabolite synthesis. Anthocyanins were strongly accumulated after veraison whereas other flavonoids were in higher abundance at early developmental stages and decreased during the grape berry developmental processes. A comparison of the anthocyanin profile of Early Campbell to other cultivars revealed

  3. Metabolite and proteome changes during the ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties cultured in a nontraditional wine region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraige, Karina; González-Fernández, Raquel; Carrilho, Emanuel; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2015-01-15

    Grapevines are an important fruit crop from economic and cultural point of views in many countries, including Brazil, where the practice of vitiviniculture is being developed in different regions. We compared the anthocyanin concentration, the main organic acids and sugars, and the proteome profiles during berry ripening of Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from two distinct geographical sources in São Paulo State. The proteome was mapped by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and differentially abundant proteins during the ripening process were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis. An increase in sugar concentration and in anthocyanin content was observed, as well a decrease in the tartaric and malic acid concentration. A total of 128 spots varied with geographical origin, grape variety, and ripening stage, with 108 being identified. The identified proteins resulted in 80 gene products. A multivariate analysis of protein abundance clustered the samples according to grape variety, geographical origin, and stage of ripening, and showed the possibility of using proteomics to characterize three variables: variety, area where grown, and the ripening process. The changes observed during the ripening process corresponded to enzymes involved in sugar and organic acid metabolism. These results are in accordance with the metabolic profile reported for the process. Given the importance of discriminating grapes, thus making the adulteration of wines more difficult, in this paper we showed the possibility of differentiating varieties of grapes, geographical area of cultivation and stage of ripening by combining the results of differentially abundant protein determinations and multivariate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are Golgi-localised GDP-sugar transporters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Daniella; Handford, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Plant nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) are responsible for the import of nucleotide-sugar substrates into the Golgi lumen, for subsequent use in glycosylation reactions. NSTs are specific for either GDP- or UDP-sugars, and almost all transporters studied to date have been isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana L. In order to determine the conservation of the import mechanism in other higher plant species, here we report the identification and characterisation of VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Thompson Seedless), which are the orthologues of the GDP-sugar transporters GONST3 and GONST4 in Arabidopsis. Both grapevine NSTs possess the molecular features characteristic of GDP-sugar transporters, including a GDP-binding domain (GXL/VNK) towards the C-terminal. VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B expression is highest at berry setting and decreases throughout berry development and ripening. Moreover, we show using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged versions and brefeldin A treatments, that both are localised in the Golgi apparatus. Additionally, in vitro transport assays after expression of both NSTs in tobacco leaves indicate that VvGONST-A and VvGONST-B are capable of transporting GDP-mannose and GDP-glucose, respectively, but not a range of other UDP- and GDP-sugars. The possible functions of these NSTs in glucomannan synthesis and/or glycosylation of sphingolipids are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  6. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  7. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  8. Follow-up of fluorine pollution effect on grapevine

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    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    2004-12-01

    By another way, our results seem to show that full mature grapevine leaves may constitute an efficient tool to assess fluorine pollution impact. Berries contamination seems to be affected directly by the factory smoke, there is no endogenous supply. Likewise, by its characteristic necrosis in the leaf boundaries, grapevine may be considered as a bioindicator variety of fluorine pollution which can be used in mapping polluted areas.

  9. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

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    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  10. Gene expression profiling in susceptible interaction of grapevine with its fungal pathogen Eutypa lata: Extending MapMan ontology for grapevine

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    Usadel Björn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome transcriptomics analysis is a very powerful approach because it gives an overview of the activity of genes in certain cells or tissue types. However, biological interpretation of such results can be rather tedious. MapMan is a software tool that displays large datasets (e.g. gene expression data onto diagrams of metabolic pathways or other processes and thus enables easier interpretation of results. The grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has recently become available bringing a new dimension into associated research. Two microarray platforms were designed based on the TIGR Gene Index database and used in several physiological studies. Results To enable easy and effective visualization of those and further experiments, annotation of Vitis vinifera Gene Index (VvGI version 5 to MapMan ontology was set up. Due to specificities of grape physiology, we have created new pictorial representations focusing on three selected pathways: carotenoid pathway, terpenoid pathway and phenylpropanoid pathway, the products of these pathways being important for wine aroma, flavour and colour, as well as plant defence against pathogens. This new tool was validated on Affymetrix microarrays data obtained during berry ripening and it allowed the discovery of new aspects in process regulation. We here also present results on transcriptional profiling of grape plantlets after exposal to the fungal pathogen Eutypa lata using Operon microarrays including visualization of results with MapMan. The data show that the genes induced in infected plants, encode pathogenesis related proteins and enzymes of the flavonoid metabolism, which are well known as being responsive to fungal infection. Conclusion The extension of MapMan ontology to grapevine together with the newly constructed pictorial representations for carotenoid, terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism provide an alternative approach to the analysis of grapevine gene expression

  11. Grapevine responses to terroir: a global approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Deloire

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the technical and/or practical treatment of terroir as a study concept, together with related functional aspects. Functioning of the terroir relies on the relation between climate, soil and vine. In addition to this interaction, a comprehensive study concept for terroir requires the consideration of viticultural and enological sciences and techniques necessary to ensure the assurance of wine quality, together with spatial aspects of the grapevine response to environmental factors, as required for vineyard management. In order to comprehend the quality of the harvest, it is necessary to understand the relationship « whole plant - berry ». An easy field and laboratory method to study the relationship between the whole plant and berry and the consequences thereof for wine quality is proposed. Knowledge of grapevine water status and the biochemical evolution within the grape berry from berry set onwards are important issues for the understanding of the role that terroir plays with respect to the quality of the harvest and the wine style or « typicality ».

  12. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of soil texture and water availability on the hydraulic control of plant and grape-berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara Tramontini; Cornelis van Leeuwen; Jean-Christophe Domec; Agnès Destrac-Irvine; Cyril Basteau; Marco Vitali; Olaf Mosbach-Schulz; Claudio Lovisolo

    2013-01-01

    All components of the soil-plant-atmosphere (s-p-a) continuum are known to control berry quality in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) via ecophysiological interactions between water uptake by roots and water loss by leaves. The scope of the present work was to explore how the main hydraulic components of grapevine influence fruit quality through changes...

  14. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  15. HEAVY METALS AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN THE SOIL AND GRAPEVINE UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION STRATEGIES

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    Vanessa de Souza Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils under natural conditions have heavy metals in variable concentrations and there may be an increase in these elements as a result of the agricultural practices adopted. Transport of heavy metals in soil mainly occurs in forms dissolved in the soil solution or associated with solid particles, water being their main means of transport. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heavy metal and micronutrient content in the soil and in the grapevine plant and fruit under different irrigation strategies. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three irrigation strategies: full irrigation (FI, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI, and deficit irrigation (DI. During the period of grape maturation, soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-80 cm. In addition, leaves were collected at the time of ripening of the bunches, and berries were collected at harvest. Thus, the heavy metal and micronutrient contents were determined in the soil, leaves, and berries. The heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the soil showed a stochastic pattern in relation to the different irrigation strategies. The different irrigation strategies did not affect the heavy metal and micronutrient contents in the vine leaves, and they were below the contents considered toxic to the plant. In contrast, the greater availability of water in the FI treatment favored a greater Cu content in the grape, which may be a risk to vines, causing instability and turbidity. Thus, adoption of deficit irrigation is recommended so as to avoid compromising the stability of tropical wines of the Brazilian Northeast.

  16. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  17. Wild grapevine management

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1989-01-01

    Wild grapevines are a problem for forest managers in many areas of the central hardwood forests. The vines grow on a wide range of soil and site conditions but usually are more concentrated on good sites (northern red oak site index 70 and above), on the faster growing more valuable timber. Presently there is more interest and concern in controlling grapevine for the...

  18. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  19. Produtividade e composição físico-química de bagas de cultivares de uva em distintos porta-enxertos Productivity and physicochemical composition of berries of grapevine cultivars grafted onto different rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2009-06-01

    when grafted onto 'IAC 572', however with impairment to berry quality, showed by lower soluble solids/acidity ratio, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds and higher total acidity. The effect of rootstock on potassium uptake was more pronounced in 'Niagara Rosada' than in 'Folha de Figo', whereby 'IAC 766' and 'Traviú' were responsible for the highest potassium uptake. Vines grafted onto '196-17' showed lower potassium levels on berries. 'Niagara Rosada' yielded 9 kg per plant and showed high soluble solids/acidity ratio when grafted onto 'RR 101-14', '420 A' and 'Gravesac'. 'Gravesac', however, provided the higher anthocyanin content. 'Folha de Figo' grafted onto '196-17' showed high soluble solids, anthocyanins and skin phenolic compounds contents and low acidity and seeds phenolic compounds, with a yield of 5 kg per plant, behaving statistically similarly to the most productive rootstocks.

  20. The influence of water stress on plant hydraulics, gas exchange, berry composition and quality of Pinot Noir wines in Switzerland

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    Vivian Zufferey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims : The aims of this study were to investigate the physiological behavior (plant hydraulics, gas exchange of the cultivar Pinot Noir in the field under progressively increasing conditions of water stress and analyze the effects of drought on grape and wine quality. Methods and results : Grapevines of the variety Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir (clone 9-18, grafted onto 5BB were subjected to different water regimes (irrigation treatments over the growing season. Physiological indicators were used to monitor plant water status (leaf and stem water potentials and relative carbon isotope composition (d13C in must sugars. Leaf gas exchange (net photosynthesis A and transpiration E, leaf stomatal conductance (gs, specific hydraulic conductivity in petioles (Kpetiole, yield components, berry composition at harvest, and organoleptic quality of wines were analyzed over a 7-year period, between 2009 and 2015, under relatively dry conditions in the canton of Wallis, Switzerland. A progressively increasing water deficit, observed throughout the season, reduced the leaf gas exchange (A and E and gs in non-irrigated vines. The intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi, A/gs increased during the growing season and was greater in water-stressed vines than in well-watered vines (irrigated vines. This rise in WUEi was correlated with an increase in d13C in must sugars at harvest. Drought led to decreases in Kpetiole, E and sap flow in stems. A decrease in vine plant vigor was observed in vines that had been subjected to water deficits year after year. Moderate water stress during ripening favored sugar accumulation in berries and caused a reduction in total acidic and malic contents in must and available nitrogen content (YAN. Wines produced from water-stressed vines had a deeper color and were richer in anthocyanins and phenol compounds compared with wines from well-watered vines with no water stress. The vine water status greatly influenced the organoleptic

  1. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Identification of Eutypa lata, a Grapevine Parasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Delibašić

    2006-01-01

    bareness and irregular berry size are observed; and on trunks, where necrosis appears on the cross section in a typical “V” form.These studies also established that there is not a single grapevine plant with symptoms indicating eutypa dieback or a similar disease that is older than 8-10 years.The research results, based on examination and monitoring of disease development in the studied vineyards in previous years, indicate that the fungus Eutypa lata, the inducer of grapevine eutyposis, is most probably present in Serbia, and that our viticulture is facingyet another serious threat.In most European and other viticultural centers, highly specialized research teams are being organised to deal with the phenomenon of eutypa dieback, and its inducer Eutypa lata, which is more and more frequently classified as a top priority disease of wooden tissue,especially considering that the economic losses are very significant and occur in all vineyards,regardless of their location. Therefore, in order to prevent infection and fight the disease successfully, we need to take immediate measures of integral protection of grapevinewithout any delay.

  3. Contribution of soil electric resistivity measurements to the studies on soil/grapevine water relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Goulet

    2006-06-01

    vine. As soil electric resistivity depends on soil parameters (texture, structure, humidity or temperatures that explain most of vine development and berry ripening variations, relationships between some physiological variables and electric resistivity measurements have also been tested with promising results. Geophysical techniques such as soil electric resistivity constitute a tool for scientists and recent technological developments are now facilitating the use of these equipments. The measurement of soil electric resistivity could be applied on many agronomic studies. Electric imagery could contribute to a better characterisation of the available soil water content and, as an integrative method, this one could also be used to explain interactions between soil characteristics and vine development. However, electric tomography is not to replace classical methods of water availability measurement but it has to take part to the elaboration of global indices.

  4. Physiological and agronomical responses of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Syrah grapevine under protected cultivation with different plastic films was evaluated during 2012 and 2013 seasons in South of Minas Gerais State. Agronomical and physiological measurements were done on eight years old grapevines, grafted onto ‘1103 Paulsen’ rootstock cultivated under uncovered conditions, covered with transparent and with diffuse plastic films. Both plastic covers induced the highest shoot growth rate and specific leaf area. The diffuse plastic induced greater differences on leaf area, pruning weight and leaf chlorophyll content as compared to uncovered vines. Grapevines under diffuse plastic also had the lowest rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. Leaf starch, glucose and fructose contents were not affected by treatment, but leaf sucrose was reduced by transparent plastic. The leaf and stem water potential were higher under diffuse plastic. In 2013, grapevines under diffuse plastic showed the highest yields mainly due to decreased rot incidence and increased cluster weight. Furthermore, berries under diffuse plastic showed the highest anthocyanins concentration. The use of diffuse plastic induces more agronomical benefits to produce Syrah grape under protected cultivation.

  5. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  6. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrosa, Laurent; Vialet, Sandrine; Adivèze, Angélique; Iocco-Corena, Pat; Thomas, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis) is considered to be one of the major fruit crops in the world based on hectares cultivated and economic value. Grapes are used not only for wine but also for fresh fruit, dried fruit, and juice production. Wine is by far the major product of grapes, and the focus of this chapter is on wine grape cultivars. Grapevine cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. have a reputation for producing premium quality wines. These premium quality wines are produced from a small number of cultivars that enjoy a high level of consumer acceptance and are firmly entrenched in the market place because of varietal name branding and the association of certain wine styles and regions with specific cultivars. In light of this situation, grapevine improvement by a transgenic approach is attractive when compared to a classical breeding approach. The transfer of individual traits as single genes with a minimum disruption to the original genome would leave the traditional characteristics of the cultivar intact. However, a reliable transformation system is required for a successful transgenic approach to grapevine improvement. There are three criteria for achieving an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system: (1) the production of highly regenerative transformable tissue, (2) optimal cocultivation conditions for both grapevine tissue and Agrobacterium, and (3) an efficient selection regime for transgenic plant regeneration. In this chapter, we describe a grapevine transformation system that meets these criteria. We also describe a protocol for the production of transformed roots suitable for functional gene studies and for the production of semi-transgenic grafted plants.

  7. A novel tool for studying auxin-metabolism: the inhibition of grapevine indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetases by a reaction intermediate analogue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Böttcher

    Full Text Available An important process for the regulation of auxin levels in plants is the inactivation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA by conjugation to amino acids. The conjugation reaction is catalysed by IAA-amido synthetases belonging to the family of GH3 proteins. Genetic approaches to study the biological significance of these enzymes have been hampered by large gene numbers and a high degree of functional redundancy. To overcome these difficulties a chemical approach based on the reaction mechanism of GH3 proteins was employed to design a small molecule inhibitor of IAA-amido synthetase activity. Adenosine-5'-[2-(1H-indol-3-ylethyl]phosphate (AIEP mimics the adenylated intermediate of the IAA-conjugation reaction and was therefore proposed to compete with the binding of MgATP and IAA in the initial stages of catalysis. Two grapevine IAA-amido synthetases with different catalytic properties were chosen to test the inhibitory effects of AIEP in vitro. GH3-1 has previously been implicated in the grape berry ripening process and is restricted to two amino acid substrates, whereas GH3-6 conjugated IAA to 13 amino acids. AIEP is the most potent inhibitor of GH3 enzymes so far described and was shown to be competitive against MgATP and IAA binding to both enzymes with K(i-values 17-68-fold lower than the respective K(m-values. AIEP also exhibited in vivo activity in an ex planta test system using young grape berries. Exposure to 5-20 µM of the inhibitor led to decreased levels of the common conjugate IAA-Asp and reduced the accumulation of the corresponding Asp-conjugate upon treatment with a synthetic auxin. AIEP therefore represents a novel chemical probe with which to study IAA-amido synthetase function.

  8. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  9. Respecting the Grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Administrators can create word-of-mouth communication that dispels negative attitudes and build good school reputations by discovering what parents and students are saying, targeting employee satisfaction and retention, providing excellent customer service, actively seeking and handling complaints, nurturing champions, and integrating "grapevine"…

  10. UV screening by phenolics in berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolb, Ch.; Kopecký, Jiří; Riederer, M.; Pfundel, E. E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 30, - (2003), s. 1177-1186 ISSN 1445-4408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : acclimation * caffeic acid * flavonoid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.747, year: 2003

  11. Isohydrodynamic behavior in deficit-irrigated Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec and its relationship between yield and berry composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec grapevines were irrigated at 70 or 23% of estimated crop evapotranspiration (ETc) throughout berry development over four growing seasons. Stomatal behavior was characterized by relating predawn leaf water potential and mid-morning stomatal conductance to mid-morning lea...

  12. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  13. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  14. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  15. Grapevine fruiting cuttings: validation of an experimental system to study grapevine physiology. I. Main vegetative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Ollat

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A method for producing fruiting cuttings of grapevine cv. Cabernet Sauvignon is described. The main developmental features of these cuttings are presented. The clusters reach maturity after 5 months and the period of cluster development is not shortened. Before flowering, a careful control of stem and leaf growth improves the partitioning of stored carbon towards the roots and the cluster. Vegetative growth occurs mainly between fruit set and veraison. During ripening, the leaf to fruit ratio is between 20 and 30 cm2 of leaf area per gram of fruit. In the cuttings as well as in grapevines from the vineyard, free polyamine content in the leafblade does not change during development. Conjugate polyamine content does not evolve in the same way. It peaks at veraison for vineyard leaves but decreases continuously for cuttings. A proper nutrient solution provides a minerai composition in accordance with viticultural requirements. The cuttings also behave like vineyard plants in response to different levels of potassium in the nutrient solution.

  16. NUTRIENTS ACCUMULATION IN FRUITS OF BERRY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Parascovia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of observations and biochemical analysis of the berries made during the years 2013-2014 in Republic of Moldova, it was found that bacciferous species included in the study had a wide spectrum of colors, from white, orange, red to blue and black. The possibility to extend the consumption of fresh berries is because these species ripen in series starting with honeysuckle in May, then one by one until September: strawberry, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, barberry, jostaberry, blueberry, sea buckthorn, blackberry, chokeberry, guilder rose. Chokeberries accumulated the highest average amount of soluble solids - 18.02%, jostaberries highlighted with the highest average amount of accumulated sugars - 9.56%. Red currant highlighted with the highest acidity - 5.22%, while blueberries with low acidity - 1.43%. Rosehip has accumulated the highest average amount of tannins and coloring substances - 546.65 mg%. Rosehip berries accumulated the highest amount of vitamin C average - 292.38 mg%, the black currant - 179.69 mg%, jostaberry - 112.86 mg%, and sea buckthorn - 96.7 mg%. The highest average values of the coefficient sugar / acid certifying good qualities were found in: blueberries - 4.39, guelder rose - 3.93, gooseberry - 3.55.

  17. Developmental and Metabolic Plasticity of White-Skinned Grape Berries in Response to Botrytis cinerea during Noble Rot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Thomas S.; Vicente, Ariel R.; Doyle, Carolyn L.; Ye, Zirou; Allen, Greg; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2015-01-01

    Noble rot results from exceptional infections of ripe grape (Vitis vinifera) berries by Botrytis cinerea. Unlike bunch rot, noble rot promotes favorable changes in grape berries and the accumulation of secondary metabolites that enhance wine grape composition. Noble rot-infected berries of cv Sémillon, a white-skinned variety, were collected over 3 years from a commercial vineyard at the same time that fruit were harvested for botrytized wine production. Using an integrated transcriptomics and metabolomics approach, we demonstrate that noble rot alters the metabolism of cv Sémillon berries by inducing biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as ripening processes. During noble rot, B. cinerea induced the expression of key regulators of ripening-associated pathways, some of which are distinctive to the normal ripening of red-skinned cultivars. Enhancement of phenylpropanoid metabolism, characterized by a restricted flux in white-skinned berries, was a common outcome of noble rot and red-skinned berry ripening. Transcript and metabolite analyses together with enzymatic assays determined that the biosynthesis of anthocyanins is a consistent hallmark of noble rot in cv Sémillon berries. The biosynthesis of terpenes and fatty acid aroma precursors also increased during noble rot. We finally characterized the impact of noble rot in botrytized wines. Altogether, the results of this work demonstrated that noble rot causes a major reprogramming of berry development and metabolism. This desirable interaction between a fruit and a fungus stimulates pathways otherwise inactive in white-skinned berries, leading to a greater accumulation of compounds involved in the unique flavor and aroma of botrytized wines. PMID:26450706

  18. Forest management guidelines for controlling wild grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    Grapevines (Vitis spp.) are becoming a major problem to forest managers in the Appalachians, especially when clearcutting is done on highly productive hardwood sites. Where present, grapevines can reduce tree quality and growth, and eventually kill the tree. Silvical characteristics of grapevines are discussed as background for grapevine control....

  19. Amounts of NPK removed from soil in harvested coffee berries as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monthly samples of ripened improved robusta coffee berries from compact and large growth forms from three locations, which are representative of the main ecological zones where coffee is grown in Ghana, were taken for 3 years. The pulp and parchment and beans were analysed for N, P and K contents. The amounts of ...

  20. The grapevine VvCAX3 is a cation/H+ exchanger involved in vacuolar Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Carneiro, Filipa; Conde, Carlos; Sottomayor, Mariana; Gerós, Hernâni

    2017-12-01

    The grapevine VvCAX3 mediates calcium transport in the vacuole and is mostly expressed in green grape berries and upregulated by Ca 2+ , Na + and methyl jasmonate. Calcium is an essential plant nutrient with important regulatory and structural roles in the berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). On the other hand, the proton-cation exchanger CAX proteins have been shown to impact Ca 2+ homeostasis with important consequences for fruit integrity and resistance to biotic/abiotic stress. Here, the CAX gene found in transcriptomic databases as having one of the highest expressions in grapevine tissues, VvCAX3, was cloned and functionally characterized. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that a truncated version of VvCAX3 lacking its NNR autoinhibitory domain (sCAX3) restored the ability of the yeast strain to grow in 100-200 mM Ca 2+ , demonstrating a role in Ca 2+ transport. The truncated VvCAX3 was further shown to be involved in the transport of Na + , Li + , Mn 2+ and Cu 2+ in yeast cells. Subcellular localization studies using fluorescently tagged proteins confirmed VvCAX3 as a tonoplast transporter. VvCAX3 is expressed in grapevine stems, leaves, roots, and berries, especially at pea size, decreasing gradually throughout development, in parallel with the pattern of calcium accumulation in the fruit. The transcript abundance of VvCAX3 was shown to be regulated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), Ca 2+ , and Na + in grape cell suspensions, and the VvCAX3 promotor contains several predicted cis-acting elements related to developmental and stress response processes. As a whole, the results obtained add new insights on the mechanisms involved in calcium homeostasis and intracellular compartmentation in grapevine, and indicate that VvCAX3 may be an interesting target towards the development of strategies for enhancement of grape berry properties.

  1. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  2. The Berry's connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tourneux, J.

    1989-01-01

    A course on the Berry's connection is presented. The main steps leading to the Berry's discovery are reviewed and the obtained equations are examined. Some applications of Berry's formulation are presented. They include diatomic molecules, dipole-quadrupole interaction in spherical mucleus and diabolic pair transfer. The experimental results presented are the spectrum of the Na 3 molecule, the propagation of photons in an helical optical fiber and the neutron spin rotation. Non-abelian problems and the Aharonow-Anandan phase are discussed [fr

  3. Genome-wide analysis of the expansin gene superfamily reveals grapevine-specific structural and functional characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA, expansin B (EXPB, expansin-like A (EXLA and expansin-like B (EXLB. There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon-intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the

  4. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  5. Ripening of Semiconductor Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Riedinger, Andreas; Ochsenbein, David R; Knüsel, Philippe N; Erwin, Steven C; Mazzotti, Marco; Norris, David J

    2017-11-08

    Ostwald ripening describes how the size distribution of colloidal particles evolves with time due to thermodynamic driving forces. Typically, small particles shrink and provide material to larger particles, which leads to size defocusing. Semiconductor nanoplatelets, thin quasi-two-dimensional (2D) particles with thicknesses of only a few atomic layers but larger lateral dimensions, offer a unique system to investigate this phenomenon. Experiments show that the distribution of nanoplatelet thicknesses does not defocus during ripening, but instead jumps sequentially from m to (m + 1) monolayers, allowing precise thickness control. We investigate how this counterintuitive process occurs in CdSe nanoplatelets. We develop a microscopic model that treats the kinetics and thermodynamics of attachment and detachment of monomers as a function of their concentration. We then simulate the growth process from nucleation through ripening. For a given thickness, we observe Ostwald ripening in the lateral direction, but none perpendicular. Thicker populations arise instead from nuclei that capture material from thinner nanoplatelets as they dissolve laterally. Optical experiments that attempt to track the thickness and lateral extent of nanoplatelets during ripening appear consistent with these conclusions. Understanding such effects can lead to better synthetic control, enabling further exploration of quasi-2D nanomaterials.

  6. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated...

  7. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...

  8. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  9. Determination of optimum harvesting time for vitamin C, oil and mineral elements in berries sea buckthorn (hippophae rhamnoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, S.; Ahmed, S.D.; Shah, A.H.; Hassan, L.; Awan, S.I.; Hamid, A.; Batool, F.

    2010-01-01

    Sea buck thorn a magic plant from Northern areas of Pakistan has multiple uses against various ailments, soil enrichment and environmental purposes. The fruit berries are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, essential oil, Phytosterol and minerals (Fe, Ca, P, Mn and K). The micro nutrient like vitamin C, oil, phosphorus, magnesium and calcium contents in fruit berries of cultivated sea buck thorn (Hippophae rhamnoides. L. spp. sinensis) harvested at three ripening times were determined using biochemical analysis techniques. Harvesting at different stages of fruit ripening was the primary factor determining maximum expression of these biochemical constituents. Biochemical contents were determined at three fruit developmental stages i.e., unripened stage, medium stage and at full-ripened stage. During this study a decline in vitamin C contents was observed along with the fruit ripening. The oil contents in both seed and pulp increased with fruit ripening. Similarly, the mineral contents like magnesium, calcium and phosphorus contents increases with the fruit ripening in sea buck thorn. The main idea was to identify the maximum expression of biochemical at different stages of fruit maturity. It is concluded that it is better to harvest fruit berries at medium stage of fruit ripening when maximum vitamin C is present. For maximum oil and mineral contents fruit must be harvested at ripening stage. The fruit mesocarp is the area where all genes related with micro nutrients are active at one time i.e., when fruit is maturing, hence the characterization of gene expression activities at this stage may help in the isolation of these genes for future commercial use. (author)

  10. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  11. Application of mutagenesis for improvement of grapevines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The objectives of our mutation breeding programme are to improve good clones in a limited number of characteristics. One year old grafted vines were treated with x-rays during dormancy just before bud burst. Root stocks and base of the grafted vines were shielded. Among varieties irradiated with 2-6 kR were the following: 'White Riesling' clone 239-25 Gm, 'White Riesling' clone 110-18 Gm, 'Mueller-Thurgau' clone 6-8 Gm, 'Rulaender' (Pinot gris) clone 2 Gm, 'Blauer Spaetburgunder' (Pinot noir) clone 20 Gm and 'Trollinger'. Grafted and rooted vines were found to tolerate higher doses of radiation than unrooted cuttings. In M 1 V 2 many chimeric and non-chimeric variant shoots could be observed. Two stable periclinal chimeras were obtained in 'White Riesling' and 'Trollinger' after irradiation. Out of irradiated 'Rulaender', mutants of 'Weisser Burgunder (Pinot blanc)' type were selected. In another experiment using 1500 rad of fast neutrons mutants with the characteristics of 'Blauer Spaet-Burgunder (Pinot noir)' were found. Within progenies of irradiated 'Blauer Spaetburgunder' early ripening types with dark skin berries were discovered. New mutant clones under evaluation show interesting properties with regard to stem rot, Botrytis, yield and quality. (author)

  12. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  13. Perturbation of polyamine catabolism affects grape ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Ali, Kashif; Choi, Young H; Sousa, Lisete; Verpoorte, Rob; Tiburcio, Antonio F; Fortes, Ana M

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are economically the most important fruit worldwide. However, the complexity of biological events that lead to ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood, particularly the role of polyamines' catabolism. The transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data were studied during ripening of Trincadeira grapes submitted to guazatine treatment, a potent inhibitor of polyamine oxidase activity. The mRNA expression profiles of one time point (EL 38) corresponding to harvest stage was compared between mock and guazatine treatments using Affymetrix GrapeGen(®) genome array. A total of 2113 probesets (1880 unigenes) were differentially expressed between these samples. Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for EL 35 (véraison berries), EL 36 (ripe berries) and EL 38 (harvest stage berries). Metabolic profiling using HPLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy showed increase of putrescine, proline, threonine and 1-O-ethyl-β-glucoside in guazatine treated samples. Genes involved in amino acid, carbohydrate and water transport were down-regulated in guazatine treated samples suggesting that the strong dehydrated phenotype obtained in guazatine treated samples may be due to impaired transport mechanisms. Genes involved in terpenes' metabolism were differentially expressed between guazatine and mock treated samples. Altogether, results support an important role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening namely in cell expansion and aroma development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Berry phase and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    We study the constraints of supersymmetry on the non-Abelian holonomy given by U = Pexp (i∫A), the path-ordered exponential of a connection A. For theories with four supercharges, we show that A satisfies the tt* equations if it is a function of chiral multiplets. In contrast, when A is a function of vector multiplets, it satisfies the Bogomolnyi monopole equations. We describe applications of these results to the Berry connection in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  15. Berry Fermi liquid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Yuan, E-mail: chjy@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Son, Dam Thanh, E-mail: dtson@uchicago.edu [Kadanoff Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    We develop an extension of the Landau Fermi liquid theory to systems of interacting fermions with non-trivial Berry curvature. We propose a kinetic equation and a constitutive relation for the electromagnetic current that together encode the linear response of such systems to external electromagnetic perturbations, to leading and next-to-leading orders in the expansion over the frequency and wave number of the perturbations. We analyze the Feynman diagrams in a large class of interacting quantum field theories and show that, after summing up all orders in perturbation theory, the current–current correlator exactly matches with the result obtained from the kinetic theory. - Highlights: • We extend Landau’s kinetic theory of Fermi liquid to incorporate Berry phase. • Berry phase effects in Fermi liquid take exactly the same form as in Fermi gas. • There is a new “emergent electric dipole” contribution to the anomalous Hall effect. • Our kinetic theory is matched to field theory to all orders in Feynman diagrams.

  16. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  17. Is transcriptomic regulation of berry development more important at night than during the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienth, Markus; Torregrosa, Laurent; Kelly, Mary T; Luchaire, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Anne; Grimplet, Jérôme; Romieu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal changes in gene expression occur in all living organisms and have been studied on model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To our knowledge the impact of the nycthemeral cycle on the genetic program of fleshly fruit development has been hitherto overlooked. In order to circumvent environmental changes throughout fruit development, young and ripening berries were sampled simultaneously on continuously flowering microvines acclimated to controlled circadian light and temperature changes. Gene expression profiles along fruit development were monitored during both day and night with whole genome microarrays (Nimblegen® vitis 12x), yielding a total number of 9273 developmentally modulated probesets. All day-detected transcripts were modulated at night, whereas 1843 genes were night-specific. Very similar developmental patterns of gene expression were observed using independent hierarchical clustering of day and night data, whereas functional categories of allocated transcripts varied according to time of day. Many transcripts within pathways, known to be up-regulated during ripening, in particular those linked to secondary metabolism exhibited a clearer developmental regulation at night than during the day. Functional enrichment analysis also indicated that diurnally modulated genes considerably varied during fruit development, with a shift from cellular organization and photosynthesis in green berries to secondary metabolism and stress-related genes in ripening berries. These results reveal critical changes in gene expression during night development that differ from daytime development, which have not been observed in other transcriptomic studies on fruit development thus far.

  18. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  19. Coffee berry disease in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on research in Kenya in 1964 - 1969 on anatomical, mycological, epidemiological, chemical control and cultural aspects of coffee berry disease, Colletotrichum coffeanum Noack, of Coffea arabica L. The pathogen causes flower and berry

  20. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Grape Berry in Response to Root Restriction during Developmental Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Leng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Root restriction improved berry quality by being involved in diverse aspects of grapevine life. However, the molecular mechanism driving this process is not understood very well. In this study, the ‘Summer Black’ grape berry (Vitis vinifera × V. labrusca under root restriction was investigated, which showed an increase of total soluble solids (TSS, color index of red grapes (CIRG value, anthocyanins accumulation, total phenolics and total procyanidins contents during berry development compared with those in control berries. The transcriptomic changes induced by root restriction in ‘Summer Black’ grape over the course of berry development were analyzed by RNA-Seq method. A total of 29,971 genes were generated in ‘Summer Black’ grape berry during development, among which, 1606 genes were significantly responded to root restriction. Furthermore, 1264, 313, 141, 246 and 19 sequences were significantly changed at S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 sample points, respectively. The gene (VIT_04s0023g02290 predicted as a salicylate O-methyltransferase was differentially expressed in all developmental stages. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment showed that response to organic nitrogen, response to endogenous stimulus, flavonoid metabolic process, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic process and cell wall macromolecule metabolic process were the main significant differential categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway enrichment revealed plant–pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis and glucosinolate biosynthesis were the main significant differential pathways. The results of the present study provided a genetic base for the understanding of grape berry fruit quality improvement under root restriction.

  1. Transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in Vitis vinifera cv. Trincadeira berries upon infection with Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Erban, Alexander; Rego, Cecília; Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Nascimento, Teresa; Sousa, Lisete; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Kopka, Joachim; Fortes, Ana Margarida

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera berries are sensitive towards infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, leading to important economic losses worldwide. The combined analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome associated with fungal infection has not been performed previously in grapes or in another fleshy fruit. In an attempt to identify the molecular and metabolic mechanisms associated with the infection, peppercorn-sized fruits were infected in the field. Green and veraison berries were collected following infection for microarray analysis complemented with metabolic profiling of primary and other soluble metabolites and of volatile emissions. The results provided evidence of a reprogramming of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms towards increased synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as trans-resveratrol and gallic acid. This response was already activated in infected green berries with the putative involvement of jasmonic acid, ethylene, polyamines, and auxins, whereas salicylic acid did not seem to be involved. Genes encoding WRKY transcription factors, pathogenesis-related proteins, glutathione S-transferase, stilbene synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were upregulated in infected berries. However, salicylic acid signalling was activated in healthy ripening berries along with the expression of proteins of the NBS-LRR superfamily and protein kinases, suggesting that the pathogen is able to shut down defences existing in healthy ripening berries. Furthermore, this study provided metabolic biomarkers of infection such as azelaic acid, a substance known to prime plant defence responses, arabitol, ribitol, 4-amino butanoic acid, 1-O-methyl- glucopyranoside, and several fatty acids that alone or in combination can be used to monitor Botrytis infection early in the vineyard. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  2. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Silva, Marta S; Ali, Kashif; Sousa, Lisete; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young H; Grimplet, Jerome; Martinez-Zapater, José M; Verpoorte, Robert; Pais, Maria S

    2011-11-02

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary metabolism. These

  4. PLEADING FOR THE GRAPEVINE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Cătălina Guţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The grapevine is cultivated with good results on hilly terrain, on sand and sandy soils, thus ensuring high recovery of these categories of agricultural land considered unsuitable for other crops. Vineyards, so related to people existence everywhere, became something more than just places of economic interest. What makes the viticulture to be so important is that it refers to the food value, therapeutic, recreational of grapes, must and wine, wine derived products and residues from wine, the great extent of the area occupied by vineyards, to good natural conditions (pedo-climatic existing in our country and also to the aesthetic value of the land planted with vines worldwide. The fitting of the gardens of the house, both in the countryside and in urban areas, includes in most cases the presence of grapevine plants cut in different art forms, their care being an exciting job. In general, by the presence of vines are valued the spaces next to existing buildings (house, yard, various outbuildings, along fences and roads. Grapevines location, cutting types chosen, besides beautifying the yard, must make a harmonious aspect of the whole surrounding. Chosen forms of management (arches, halfarches can protect the strong sunlight places. By the kiosks or other artistic realized forms are created spaces for rest, shade.

  5. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  6. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2005-11-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  7. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2006-01-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has a spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them allows the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states

  8. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  9. Influence of Berry Heterogeneity on Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity of Grapes and Wines: A Primary Study of the New Winegrape Cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Li, Jinlu; Tian, Yuping; Liao, Mingan; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Wine grapes are usually harvested in vineyards when they ripen. However, not all of the berries in a vineyard ripen homogeneously because of different microclimates around the clusters and berries. In this study, the influence of berry heterogeneity on the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grapes and wines under a continental monsoon climate was evaluated for a new wine grape cultivar Meili (Vitis vinifera L.). The total phenolic, flavonoid, flavanol, and monomeric anthocyanin contents in the skin and wine significantly increased with grape density; however, there was no significant difference in the seeds between the two lower densities. The highest values of DPPH free radical-scavenging activity, cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity in the skin, seed and wine were detected for the densest berries. The sum of individual phenolic compounds in skin, seed and wine increased with berry density, though no significant difference for skin was observed between the two higher density classes. Hence, the chemical components of Meili grapes and wines were positively associated with the berry density at harvest under the continental monsoon climate. PMID:26974974

  10. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L -1 ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. VTCdb: a gene co-expression database for the crop species Vitis vinifera (grapevine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren C J; Sweetman, Crystal; Drew, Damian P; Ford, Christopher M

    2013-12-16

    Gene expression datasets in model plants such as Arabidopsis have contributed to our understanding of gene function and how a single underlying biological process can be governed by a diverse network of genes. The accumulation of publicly available microarray data encompassing a wide range of biological and environmental conditions has enabled the development of additional capabilities including gene co-expression analysis (GCA). GCA is based on the understanding that genes encoding proteins involved in similar and/or related biological processes may exhibit comparable expression patterns over a range of experimental conditions, developmental stages and tissues. We present an open access database for the investigation of gene co-expression networks within the cultivated grapevine, Vitis vinifera. The new gene co-expression database, VTCdb (http://vtcdb.adelaide.edu.au/Home.aspx), offers an online platform for transcriptional regulatory inference in the cultivated grapevine. Using condition-independent and condition-dependent approaches, grapevine co-expression networks were constructed using the latest publicly available microarray datasets from diverse experimental series, utilising the Affymetrix Vitis vinifera GeneChip (16 K) and the NimbleGen Grape Whole-genome microarray chip (29 K), thus making it possible to profile approximately 29,000 genes (95% of the predicted grapevine transcriptome). Applications available with the online platform include the use of gene names, probesets, modules or biological processes to query the co-expression networks, with the option to choose between Affymetrix or Nimblegen datasets and between multiple co-expression measures. Alternatively, the user can browse existing network modules using interactive network visualisation and analysis via CytoscapeWeb. To demonstrate the utility of the database, we present examples from three fundamental biological processes (berry development, photosynthesis and flavonoid biosynthesis

  12. The transcription factor VvMYB5b contributes to the regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in developing grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent; Bogs, Jochen; Walker, Amanda R; Ferrier, Thilia; Decendit, Alain; Merillon, Jean-Michel; Robinson, Simon P; Barrieu, François

    2008-08-01

    Among the dramatic changes occurring during grape berry (Vitis vinifera) development, those affecting the flavonoid pathway have provoked a number of investigations in the last 10 years. In addition to producing several compounds involved in the protection of the berry and the dissemination of the seeds, final products of this pathway also play a critical role in berry and wine quality. In this article, we describe the cloning and functional characterization of VvMYB5b, a cDNA isolated from a grape berry (V. vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon') library. VvMYB5b encodes a protein belonging to the R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors and displays significant similarity with VvMYB5a, another MYB factor recently shown to regulate flavonoid synthesis in grapevine. The ability of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b to activate the grapevine promoters of several structural genes of the flavonoid pathway was confirmed by transient expression of the corresponding cDNAs in grape cells. Overexpression of VvMYB5b in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leads to an up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid pathway and results in the accumulation of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-derived compounds. The ability of VvMYB5b to regulate particularly the anthocyanin and the proanthocyanidin pathways is discussed in relation to other recently characterized MYB transcription factors in grapevine. Taken together, data presented in this article give insight into the transcriptional mechanisms associated with the regulation of the flavonoid pathway throughout grape berry development.

  13. Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Giulia; Ermacora, Paolo; Bianchi, Gian Luca; De Amicis, Francesca; Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Loi, Nazia; Musetti, Rita

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.

  14. 7 CFR 51.904 - Shot berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... berries means very small berries resulting from insufficient pollination, usually seedless in those...

  15. Arthropods vector grapevine trunk disease pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, P; Allsopp, E; Roets, F; Mostert, L; Halleen, F

    2014-10-01

    Arthropod-mediated dispersal of pathogens is known in many cropping systems but has never been demonstrated for grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Arthropods from vineyards were screened for the presence of pathogens associated with Petri disease and esca using cultural and molecular techniques. The ability of the most abundant pathogen-carrying species to inoculate healthy grapevine vascular tissues was also determined. Millipedes and ants were allowed to associate with a DsRed- Express-transformed Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, after which they were exposed to freshly pruned healthy grapevines under controlled conditions and wounds were monitored for subsequent infection. In addition, the possibility of millipede excreta, commonly found on pruning wounds in the field, to act as inoculum source was determined. A diverse arthropod fauna was associated with declining grapevines and many of these carried trunk disease pathogens. However, spiders, the ant Crematogaster peringueyi, and the millipede Ommattoiulus moreleti were the most abundant pathogen carriers. The ant and millipede species fed on pruning wound sap and effectively transmitted trunk disease pathogens. Millipede excreta contained viable spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and may serve as an inoculum source. Numerous arthropods, including beneficial predators, are potential vectors of grapevine trunk disease pathogens. Our results highlight the need for an integrated approach, including targeted management of ants and millipedes at the time of pruning, to limit the spread of grapevine trunk diseases.

  16. THE ORIGIN OF GRAPEVINE CULTIVATION IN ITALY: THE ARCHAEOBOTANICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marvelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine remains show that this plant has been important for humans since ancient times. This paper presents a synthesis of archaeobotanical studies on grapevine remains (pollen, wood, charcoal, seed/fruit and other botanical remains from Epigravettian to Bronze Age sites. Carpological remains are the most important ones, because they often allow to distinguish cultivated and wild grapevines. Grapevine findings are rare in Mesolithic sites, they increase during Neolithic period and become frequent in Bronze Age. Archaeobotanical data show that during Neolithic and in the Early Bronze Age a good level of knowledge concerning grapevine utilization was already acquired; during Middle and Late Bronze Age the grapevine diffusion increases. Based on archaeobotanical data, the wild grapevine evolution by indigenous people was probably accompanied by an input of allochtonous vines from Mycenaean world, and then from Hellenic world. Therefore, the critical period of grapevine domestication can be placed between Bronze Age and Early Iron Age.

  17. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  18. Quality information from the grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Pierre

    2010-07-01

    A letter by Lucien Herr, a highly regarded leading French intellectual at the time of World War I, provides capsule portraits of chemists such as Gabriel Bertrand, Paul Lebeau, Charles Moureu, and Georges Urbain. It makes us better aware of who they were and of how their contemporaries saw their work, which had much to do with their personalities, whether congenial or abrasive. This article is concerned with the kind of information carried by the so-called grapevine. It can be invaluable to the historian, for the light it sheds on the character of a scientist. The document drawn upon, from World War I (1915), depicts graphically the personalities of some of the French chemists engaged in the rush to design and produce chemical weapons. It is a frank and even brutal appraisal of their strengths and weaknesses. This is the kind of evaluation that scientists routinely engage in, but devoid of the hyperbole, pro or con, which usually flavours it.

  19. Effects of climatic conditions and soil properties on Cabernet Sauvignon berry growth and anthocyanin profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; He, Yan-Nan; Yue, Tai-Xin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Wen

    2014-09-02

    Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two "Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V)" vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012). The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C) days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3'5'-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of high-quality wine grapes

  20. Effects of Climatic Conditions and Soil Properties on Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Growth and Anthocyanin Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climatic conditions and soil type have significant influence on grape ripening and wine quality. The reported study was conducted in two “Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.V” vineyards located in Xinjiang, a semiarid wine-producing region of China during two vintages (2011 and 2012. The results indicate that soil and climate affected berry growth and anthocyanin profiles. These two localities were within a distance of 5 km from each other and had soils of different physical and chemical composition. For each vineyard, the differences of anthocyanin concentrations, and parameters concerning berry growth and composition between the two years could be explained by different climatic conditions. Soil effect was studied by investigation of differences in berry composition and anthocyanin profiles between the two vineyards in the same year, which could be explained mainly by the different soil properties, vine water and nitrogen status. Specifically, the soils with less water and organic matter produced looser clusters, heavier berry skins and higher TSS, which contributed to the excellent performance of grapes. Compared with 2011, the increases in anthocyanin concentrations for each vineyard in 2012 could be attributed to smaller number of extreme temperature (>35 °C days and rainfall, lower vine water status and N level. The explanation for higher anthocyanin concentrations in grape skins from the soils with less water and organic matter could be the vine status differences, lighter berry weight and heavier skin weight at harvest. In particular, grapes from the soils with less water and organic matter had higher levels of 3′5′-substituded, O-methylated and acylated anthocyanins, which represented a positive characteristic conferring more stable pigmentation to the corresponding wine in the future. The present work clarifies the effects of climate and soil on berry growth and anthocyanin profiles, thus providing guidance for production of

  1. On the developmental and environmental regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium spp. berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eKarppinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.

  2. Loss of anthocyanins and modification of the anthocyanin profiles in grape berries of Malbec and Bonarda grown under high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosas, Inés; Ponce, María Teresa; Malovini, Emiliano; Deis, Leonor; Cavagnaro, Bruno; Cavagnaro, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Malbec and Bonarda are the two most widely cultivated grape varieties in Argentina, and their derived red wines are recognized worldwide, being their intense color a major quality trait. The temperature during fruit ripening conditions berries color intensity. In the main viticulture region of Malbec and Bonarda a 2-3°C increase in temperature has been predicted for the upcoming years as consequence of the global climate change. In the present study, this predicted temperature raise was simulated under field-crop conditions, and its effect on anthocyanin pigmentation in berries of Malbec and Bonarda was monitored by HPLC analysis throughout the ripening process, in two growing seasons. Additionally, expression levels of regulatory (MYBA1 and MYB4) and structural (UFGT and Vv3AT) anthocyanin genes were monitored in Malbec berry skins. Although cultivar-dependent time-course variation was observed for total anthocyanin content, in general, the berries of both cultivars grown under high temperature (HT) conditions had significantly lower total anthocyanins (∼28-41% reduction), and a higher proportion of acylated anthocyanins, than their respective controls. Expression of MYBA1 and UFGT, but not MYB4, was correlated with anthocyanin pigmentation at half ripening and harvest, whereas overexpression of the acyltransferase gene Vv3AT was associated with higher anthocyanin acylation in HT berries. These results suggest that color development and pigment modifications in Malbec berries under HT are regulated at transcriptional level by MYBA1, UFGT, and Vv3AT genes. These data contribute to the general understanding on the effect of high temperatures on anthocyanin biochemistry and genetic regulation, and may have direct implications in the production of high-quality wines from Malbec and Bonarda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The status of Botryosphaeriaceae species infecting grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón URBEZ-TORRES

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, and occur on a wide range of annual and perennial hosts including grapevines. To date, morphological and taxonomic studies, as well as analyses of nucleotide sequences of multiple genes, have allowed the identification of at least 21 different species in the Botryosphaeriaceae occurring in grapevines worldwide. Grapevine disease symptoms caused by members of this family include leaf spots, fruit rots, shoot dieback, bud necrosis, vascular discoloration of the wood, and perennial cankers, and their current status as pathogens is reviewed. Additionally, the disease name Botryosphaeria dieback is proposed here to describe the different grapevine trunk disease symptoms caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. Much has been written during the last decade about the association between species in the Botryosphaeriaceae and grapevine trunk diseases, which has contributed to a better understanding of the role that these fungal taxa play in grapevine diseases. Although virulence has been shown to vary between species and isolates of the same species in different countries, these fungi have become well-recognized as important grapevine pathogens worldwide. Latest and novel findings from studies conducted in different countries, on disease etiology and species distribution, epidemiology and biology are discussed. Much progress has been achieved in the development and implementation of novel diagnostic and detection techniques.Vineyard sanitation techniques, as well as chemical, biological, and cultural control strategies available at the present time to reduce the infection caused by botryosphaeriaceous fungi, are presented in this review. 

  4. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianyu; Xu, Lili; Sun, Hong; Yue, Qianyu; Zhai, Heng; Yao, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, four vacuolar H + -PPase ( VHP ) genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation. On the other hand, RNA-Seq analysis of WT and transgenic berry skins revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, flavonoid metabolism and regulation and solute carrier family expression were the most clearly altered biological processes. Further experiments elucidated that VvVHP1; 2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of the genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport via hexokinase-mediated glucose signal and thereby promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves. Additionally, modifications of sugar status caused by enhanced hexokinase activities likely play a key role in VvVHP1; 2- induced sugar signaling.

  5. VvVHP1; 2 Is Transcriptionally Activated by VvMYBA1 and Promotes Anthocyanin Accumulation of Grape Berry Skins via Glucose Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Sun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, four vacuolar H+-PPase (VHP genes were identified in the grape genome. Among them, VvVHP1; 2 was strongly expressed in berry skin and its expression exhibited high correlations to anthocyanin content of berry skin during berry ripening and under ABA and UVB treatments. VvVHP1; 2 was transcriptionally activated directly by VvMYBA1, and VvVHP1; 2 overexpression promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves; therefore, VvVHP1; 2 mediated VvMYBA1-regulated berry pigmentation. On the other hand, RNA-Seq analysis of WT and transgenic berry skins revealed that carbohydrate metabolism, flavonoid metabolism and regulation and solute carrier family expression were the most clearly altered biological processes. Further experiments elucidated that VvVHP1; 2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of the genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis and transport via hexokinase-mediated glucose signal and thereby promoted anthocyanin accumulation in berry skins and Arabidopsis leaves. Additionally, modifications of sugar status caused by enhanced hexokinase activities likely play a key role in VvVHP1; 2-induced sugar signaling.

  6. Lead content of roadside fruit and berries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowles, G W.A.

    1976-01-01

    Blackberries, elderberries, hawthorn berries, holly berries and rose hips have been examined for their lead content, which has been shown to be directly related to the proximity of the growing fruit and berries to roads, the traffic density and the time of exposure. The maximum levels found (in ppm for undried fruit and berries) were blackberries 0.85, elderberries 6.77, hawthorn berries 23.8, holly berries 3.5 and rose hips 1.45. Very thorough washing with water removed 40-60% of the lead from heavily contaminated fruit and berries. When elderberries were used for winemaking over 60% of the lead was extracted and remained in solution in the wine. 25 references, 4 tables.

  7. Modifications of 'Gold Finger' Grape Berry Quality as Affected by the Different Rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhongxin; Sun, Hong; Sun, Tianyu; Wang, Qingjie; Yao, Yuxin

    2016-06-01

    Berry qualities of the grafted 'Gold Finger' grapevines were determined to evaluate the impacts of the resistant rootstocks on fruit quality. Compared to the own-rooted vines, berry and cluster weights and skin color were altered by the rootstocks to varying extents. The rootstock of 101-14M maintained TSS/TA and the contents of fructose, glucose, and sucrose, and SO4 decreased these parameters. 101-14M and 3309C increased and reduced the resveratrol content, respectively. SO4, 5BB, and 3309C decreased the total free amino acid content, along with the changes in amino acid composition. The amounts of aroma components were widely altered by the rootstocks. Additionally, a digital gene expression tag profiling revealed that the biological processes were largely altered by 3309C and 101-14M, including sugar, amino acid, and aroma metabolisms. In summary, the rootstock of 101-14M generally maintained berry quality, and SO4, 5BB, and 3309C imparted varying influences on different quality parameters.

  8. Two shikimate dehydrogenases, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, are involved in gallic acid biosynthesis in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontpart, Thibaut; Marlin, Thérèse; Vialet, Sandrine; Guiraud, Jean-Luc; Pinasseau, Lucie; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Sommerer, Nicolas; Cheynier, Véronique; Terrier, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    In plants, the shikimate pathway provides aromatic amino acids that are used to generate numerous secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds. In this pathway, shikimate dehydrogenases (SDH) 'classically' catalyse the reversible dehydrogenation of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate. The capacity of SDH to produce gallic acid from shikimate pathway metabolites has not been studied in depth. In grapevine berries, gallic acid mainly accumulates as galloylated flavan-3-ols. The four grapevine SDH proteins have been produced in Escherichia coli In vitro, VvSDH1 exhibited the highest 'classical' SDH activity. Two genes, VvSDH3 and VvSDH4, mainly expressed in immature berry tissues in which galloylated flavan-3-ols are accumulated, encoded enzymes with lower 'classical' activity but were able to produce gallic acid in vitro The over-expression of VvSDH3 in hairy-roots increased the content of aromatic amino acids and hydroxycinnamates, but had little or no effect on molecules more distant from the shikimate pathway (stilbenoids and flavan-3-ols). In parallel, the contents of gallic acid, β-glucogallin, and galloylated flavan-3-ols were increased, attesting to the influence of this gene on gallic acid metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis from dicotyledon SDHs opens the way for the examination of genes from other plants which accumulate gallic acid-based metabolites. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities from grapes, leaves, bark and soil of grapevine plants grown, and their relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martins

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in plant health and crop quality, the diversity of epiphytic bacteria on grape berries and other plant parts, like leaves and bark, remains poorly described, as does the role of telluric bacteria in plant colonization. In this study, we compare the bacterial community size and structure in vineyard soils, as well as on grapevine bark, leaves and berries. Analyses of culturable bacteria revealed differences in the size and structure of the populations in each ecosystem. The highest bacteria population counts and the greatest diversity of genera were found in soil samples, followed by bark, grapes and leaves. The identification of isolates revealed that some genera - Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Bacillus - were present in all ecosystems, but in different amounts, while others were ecosystem-specific. About 50% of the genera were common to soil and bark, but absent from leaves and grapes. The opposite was also observed: grape and leaf samples presented 50% of genera in common that were absent from trunk and soil. The bacterial community structure analyzed by T-RFLP indicated similarities between the profiles of leaves and grapes, on the one hand, and bark and soil, on the other, reflecting the number of shared T-RFs. The results suggest an interaction between telluric bacterial communities and the epiphytic bacteria present on the different grapevine parts.

  10. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Belfiore, Nicola; Gaiotti, Federica; Lovat, Lorenzo; Sansone, Luigi; Poni, Stefano; Tomasi, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE) without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin) and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene), traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa) was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis rate (An) were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio). Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines) without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35%) in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already-demonstrated uses of particle film technology, such as pest control and sunburn reduction, in order to achieve more sustainable vineyard management.

  11. Comparing Kaolin and Pinolene to Improve Sustainable Grapevine Production during Drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Brillante

    Full Text Available Viticulture is widely practiced in dry regions, where the grapevine is greatly exposed to water stress. Optimizing plant water use efficiency (WUE without affecting crop yield, grape and wine quality is crucial to limiting use of water for irrigation and to significantly improving viticulture sustainability. This study examines the use in vineyards of particle film technology (engineered kaolin and compares it to a film-forming antitranspirant (pinolene, traditionally used to limit leaf water loss, and to an untreated control. The trial was carried out under field conditions over three growing seasons, during which moderate to very severe plant water stress (down to -1.9 MPa was measured through stem water potential. Leaf stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthesis rate (An were measured during the seasons and used to compute intrinsic WUE (WUEi, defined as An/gs ratio. Leaf temperature was also recorded and compared between treatments. Bunch quantity, bunch and berry weight, sugar accumulation, anthocyanin and flavonoid contents were measured. Finally, microvinifications were performed and resultant wines subjected to sensory evaluation.Results showed that the use of kaolin increased grapevine intrinsic WUE (+18% on average as compared to unsprayed vines without affecting berry and bunch weight and quantity, or sugar level. Anthocyanin content increased (+35% in kaolin treatment, and the wine was judged more attractive (p-value <0.05 and slightly more appreciated (p-value < 0.1 than control. Pinolene did not increase WUEi, limiting An more than gs; grapes with this treatment contained lower sugar and anthocyanin content than control, and the obtained wine was the least appreciated. This study demonstrates that particle film technology can improve vine WUEi and wine quality at the same time, while traditional antitranspirants were not as effective for these purposes. This positive effect can be used in interaction with other already

  12. Distribution of Rotundone and Possible Translocation of Related Compounds Amongst Grapevine Tissues in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Wang, Yueying; Deng, Rui; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Barlow, Edward W. R.; Howell, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Rotundone is an attractive wine aroma compound, especially important for cool climate Shiraz. Its presence in wine is mainly from the grape skin, but can also be found in non-grape tissues, such as leaves and stems. Whether rotundone is produced independently within different grapevine tissues or transported amongst non-grape tissues and grape berries remains unclear. The current study investigated the distribution of this compound in different vine tissues during development and studied the most likely mode of rotundone translocation—via phloem—using stable isotope feeding. In addition, local production of rotundone induced by herbivore feeding was assessed. Results showed that rotundone was firstly detected in the petioles and peduncles/rachises within the development of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz. Different grapevine tissues had a similar pattern of rotundone production at different grape developmental stages. In the individual vine shoots, non-grape tissues contained higher concentrations and amounts of rotundone compared to berries, which showed that non-grape tissues were the larger pool of rotundone within the plant. This study confirmed the local production of rotundone in individual tissues and ruled out the possibility of phloem translocation of rotundone between different tissues. In addition, other terpenes, including one monoterpenoid (geraniol) and six sesquiterpenes (clovene, α-ylangene, β-copaene, α-muurolene, δ-cadinene, and cis/trans-calamenene) were, for the first time, detected in the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-facilitated petiole phloem exudates, with their originality unconfirmed. Unlike other herbivore-induced terpenes, herbivorous activity had limited influences on the concentration of rotundone in grapevine leaves. PMID:27446104

  13. Economic injury level for the coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) using attractive traps in Brazilian coffee fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S

    2011-12-01

    The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.

  14. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  15. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  16. Grapevine tissues and phenology differentially affect soluble carbohydrates determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Daniela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N; Silva, María F

    2017-09-01

    Soluble carbohydrates distribution depends on plant physiology and, among other important factors, determines fruit yield and quality. In plant biology, the analysis of sugars is useful for many purposes, including metabolic studies. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) proved to be a powerful green separation technique with minimal sample preparation, even in complex plant tissues, that can provide high-resolution efficiency. Matrix effect refers to alterations in the analytical response caused by components of a sample other than the analyte of interest. Thus, the assessment and reduction of the matrix factor is fundamental for metabolic studies in different matrices. The present study evaluated the source and levels of matrix effects in the determination of most abundant sugars in grapevine tissues (mature and young leaves, berries and roots) at two phenological growth stages. Sucrose was the sugar that showed the least matrix effects, while fructose was the most affected analyte. Based on plant tissues, young leaves presented the smaller matrix effects, irrespectively of the phenology. These changes may be attributed to considerable differences at chemical composition of grapevine tissues with plant development. Therefore, matrix effect should be an important concern for plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Statistical modelling of grapevine yield in the Port Wine region under present and future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João A.; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Karremann, Melanie K.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2011-03-01

    The impact of projected climate change on wine production was analysed for the Demarcated Region of Douro, Portugal. A statistical grapevine yield model (GYM) was developed using climate parameters as predictors. Statistically significant correlations were identified between annual yield and monthly mean temperatures and monthly precipitation totals during the growing cycle. These atmospheric factors control grapevine yield in the region, with the GYM explaining 50.4% of the total variance in the yield time series in recent decades. Anomalously high March rainfall (during budburst, shoot and inflorescence development) favours yield, as well as anomalously high temperatures and low precipitation amounts in May and June (May: flowering and June: berry development). The GYM was applied to a regional climate model output, which was shown to realistically reproduce the GYM predictors. Finally, using ensemble simulations under the A1B emission scenario, projections for GYM-derived yield in the Douro Region, and for the whole of the twenty-first century, were analysed. A slight upward trend in yield is projected to occur until about 2050, followed by a steep and continuous increase until the end of the twenty-first century, when yield is projected to be about 800 kg/ha above current values. While this estimate is based on meteorological parameters alone, changes due to elevated CO2 may further enhance this effect. In spite of the associated uncertainties, it can be stated that projected climate change may significantly benefit wine yield in the Douro Valley.

  18. ABA and GA3 regulate the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites related to alleviation from biotic and abiotic stresses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Germán; Fontana, Ariel; Pontin, Mariela; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2017-03-01

    Plants are able to synthesize a large number of organic compounds. Among them, primary metabolites are known to participate in plant growth and development, whereas secondary metabolites are mostly involved in defense and other facultative processes. In grapevine, one of the major fruit crops in the world, secondary metabolites, mainly polyphenols, are of great interest for the wine industry. Even though there is an extensive literature on the content and profile of those compounds in berries, scarce or no information is available regarding polyphenols in other organs. In addition, little is known about the effect of plant growth regulators (PGRs), ABA and GA 3 (extensively used in table grapes) on the synthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in wine grapes. In table grapes, cultural practices include the use of GA 3 sprays shortly before veraison, to increase berry and bunch size, and sugar content in fruits. Meanwhile, ABA applications to the berries on pre-veraison improve the skin coloring and sugar accumulation, anticipating the onset of veraison. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess and characterize primary and secondary metabolites in leaves, berries and roots of grapevine plants cv. Malbec at veraison, and changes in compositions after ABA and GA 3 aerial sprayings. Metabolic profiling was conducted using GC-MS, GC-FID and HPLC-MWD. A large set of metabolites was identified: sugars, alditols, organic acids, amino acids, polyphenols (flavonoids and non-flavonoids) and terpenes (mono-, sesqui-, di- and triterpenes). The obtained results showed that ABA applications elicited synthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in all assessed tissues, as well as L-proline, acidic amino acids and anthocyanins in leaves. Additionally, applications with GA 3 elicited synthesis of L-proline in berries, and mono- and sesquiterpenes in all the tissues. However, treatment with GA 3 seemed to block polyphenol synthesis, mainly in berries. In conclusion, ABA and GA

  19. Berry phase in Heisenberg representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. A.; Klimov, Andrei B.; Lerner, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    We define the Berry phase for the Heisenberg operators. This definition is motivated by the calculation of the phase shifts by different techniques. These techniques are: the solution of the Heisenberg equations of motion, the solution of the Schrodinger equation in coherent-state representation, and the direct computation of the evolution operator. Our definition of the Berry phase in the Heisenberg representation is consistent with the underlying supersymmetry of the model in the following sense. The structural blocks of the Hamiltonians of supersymmetrical quantum mechanics ('superpairs') are connected by transformations which conserve the similarity in structure of the energy levels of superpairs. These transformations include transformation of phase of the creation-annihilation operators, which are generated by adiabatic cyclic evolution of the parameters of the system.

  20. Berry phase in entangled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Durstberger, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The influence of the geometric phase, in particular the Berry phase, on an entangled spin-1/2 system is studied. We discuss in detail the case, where the geometric phase is generated only by one part of the Hilbert space. We are able to cancel the effects of the dynamical phase by using the 'spin-echo' method. We analyze how the Berry phase affects the Bell angles and the maximal violation of a CHSH-Bell inequality. Furthermore, we suggest an experimental realization of our setup within neutron interferometry. It is possible to create entanglement between different degrees of freedom (spin and spatial degree of freedom) for a single neutron. The influence of the geometrical phase on the entangled neutron state is tested experimentally which is work in progress. (author)

  1. Transcriptional expression of Stilbene synthase genes are regulated developmentally and differentially in response to powdery mildew in Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru; Ge, Hui; Howard, Susanne; Qiu, Wenping

    2012-12-01

    Stilbenic compounds are natural phytoalexins that have antimicrobial activities in plant defense against pathogens. Stilbene synthase (STS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of stilbenic compounds. Grapevine genome contains a family of preliminarily annotated 35 STS genes, the regulation of each STS gene needs to be studied to define their roles. In this study, we selected eight STS genes, STS8, STS27/31, STS16/22, STS13/17/23, and applied quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to characterize their transcriptional expression profiles in leaf tissues upon infection by the powdery mildew fungus (PM), Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr. Their transcripts were also compared in young and old leaves as well as in the berry skin at five developmental stages in Vitis vinifera 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and Vitis aestivalis 'Norton'. The results showed that transcripts of selected STS genes increased significantly in Cabernet Sauvignon leaves at 24 and 48 h post inoculation with PM spores and remained unchanged in Norton leaves in response to the PM infection. Transcripts of STS8, STS27/31 and STS13/17/23 were more abundant in the old leaves of Norton than in Cabernet Sauvignon. STS genes showed lower expression levels in young leaves than in old leaves. Transcript levels of the eight STS genes increased drastically in the berry skin of Cabernet Sauvignon and Norton post véraison. In addition, the content of trans-resveratrol in the berry skin rapidly increased post véraison and reached the highest level at harvest. These assays demonstrated that individual STS genes are regulated differentially in response to PM infection and during development in the two grape varieties. The present study yields basic knowledge for further investigation of the regulation and function of each STS gene in grapevine and provides experimental evidences for the functional annotation of the STS gene family in the grapevine genome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  2. Response and adaptation of grapevine cultivars to hydrological conditions forced by a changing climate in a complex landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Bonfante, Antonello; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Manna, Piero; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    requirements were determined. To assess cultivars adaptability, hydrological requirements were evaluated against hydrological indicators. A probabilistic assessment of adaptability was performed, and the inaccuracy of estimated hydrological requirements was accounted for by the error of estimate and its distribution. Maps of cultivars potential distribution, i.e. locations where each cultivar is expected to be compatible with climate, were derived and possible options for adaptation to climate change were defined. The 2021 - 2050 climate scenario was characterized by higher temperatures throughout the year and by a significant decrease in precipitation during spring and autumn. The results have shown the relevant variability of soils water regime and its effects on cultivars adaptability. In the future climate scenario, a hydrological indicator (i.e. relative evapotranspiration deficit - RETD), averaged over the growing season, showed an average increase of 5-8 %, and more pronounced increases occurred in the phenological phases of berry formation and ripening. At the locations where soil hydrological conditions were favourable (like the ancient terraces), hydrological indicators were quite similar in both climate scenarios and the adaptability of the cultivars was high both in the reference and future climate case. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008) Keywords: climate change, Vitis vinifera L., simulation model, yield response functions, potential cultivation area.

  3. Growth and Ripening of Globe Artichoke Achens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Basnizki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Under dry summer eastern Mediterranean conditions, the growth and ripening of seeds (from flowering onward can proceed without supply of water. The leaves and capitule bearing stems dry out while the receptacles stay moist and allow seed ripening. The functioning of the various capitule components was examined.

  4. Content of trans-Resveratrol in Leaves and Berries of Interspecific Grapevine (Vitis sp.) Varieties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bábíková, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Kyseláková, M.

    26 2008, special (2008), s. 13-17 ISSN 1212-1800. [Quality of Moravian and Czech Wine s and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/06/1757 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : trans-resveratrol * HPLC * wine Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  5. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  6. Vanillylacetone up-regulates anthocyanin accumulation and expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes by inducing endogenous abscisic acid in grapevine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Shinichi; Hattori, Tomoki; Ishiai, Shiho; Tanaka, Sayumi; Mikami, Masachika; Arita, Kayo; Nagasaka, Shu; Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effect of vanillylacetone (VA) on anthocyanin accumulation with aim of improving grape berry coloration. Spraying Vitis vinifera cv. Muscat Bailey A berries with VA at veraison increased sugar/acid ratio, an indicator of maturation and total anthocyanin accumulation. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of VA on anthocyanin accumulation, in vitro VA treatment of a grapevine cell culture was carried out. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content was higher in the VA-treated cell cultures than in control at 3h after treatment. Consistent with this, the relative expression levels of anthocyanin-synthesis-related genes, including DFR, LDOX, MybA1 and UFGT, in VA-treated cell cultures were much higher than those in control, and high total anthocyanin accumulation was noted in the VA-treated cell cultures as well. These results suggest that VA up-regulates the expression of genes leading to anthocyanin accumulation by inducing endogenous ABA. In addition, VA increased total anthocyanin content in a dose-dependent manner. Although VA treatment in combination with exogenous ABA did not exhibit any synergistic effect, treatment with VA alone showed an equivalent effect to that with exogenous ABA alone on total anthocyanin accumulation. These findings point to the possibility of using VA for improving grape berry coloration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Maree

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is one of the most important grapevine viral diseases affecting grapevines worldwide. The impact on vine health, crop yield and quality is difficult to assess due to a high number of variables, but significant economic losses are consistently reported over the lifespan of a vineyard if intervention strategies are not implemented. Several viruses from the family Closteroviridae are associated with GLD. However, Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3, the type species for the genus Ampelovirus, is regarded as the most important causative agent. Here we provide a general overview on various aspects of GLRaV-3, with an emphasis on the latest advances in the characterization of the genome. The full genome of several isolates have recently been sequenced and annotated, revealing the existence of several genetic variants. The classification of these variants, based on their genome sequence, will be discussed and a guideline is presented to facilitate future comparative studies. The characterization of sgRNAs produced during the infection cycle of GLRaV-3 has given some insight into the replication strategy and the putative functionality of the ORFs. The latest nucleotide sequence based molecular diagnostic techniques were shown to be more sensitive than conventional serological assays and although ELISA is not as sensitive it remains valuable for high-throughput screening and complementary to molecular diagnostics. The application of next-generation sequencing is proving to be a valuable tool to study the complexity of viral infection as well as plant-pathogen interaction. Next-generation sequencing data can provide information regarding disease complexes, variants of viral species, and abundance of particular viruses. This information can be used to develop more accurate diagnostic assays. Reliable virus screening in support of robust grapevine certification programs remains the cornerstone of GLD management.

  8. Arsenic and trace elements in soil, water, grapevine and onion in Jáchal, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes Pinter, Iván; Salomon, M Victoria; Gil, Raúl; Mastrantonio, Leandro; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia

    2018-02-15

    Contamination by trace elements (TE) is an increasing concern worldwide. In some areas, crop production could be limited by the presence of metals and metalloids, so it is important to determine their concentrations and mobility. The region of Jáchal, province of San Juan, Argentina, has good growing conditions for onion and grapevine production, but their quality and yield are affected by high TE concentration in soils and water. Soils, water, grapevine and onion were sampled and TE content determined. In soils elevated As, B, Cr, Hg, and Tl concentrations were detected (506±46, 149±3, 2714±217, 16±7, and 12±3μgg -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured), and physicochemical properties of the soil promotes these elements mobility. Water samples had high As, B, Cr, and Fe concentrations (1438±400, 10,871±471, 11,516±2363, and 3071±257μgL -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured) while in onion bulbs and grapevine berries, As, Cr, Cu, and Fe (92±7 and 171±20, 1412±18 and 2965±32, 17±3 and 126±88, and 418±204 and 377±213μgg -1 , respectively, for maximum values measured) exceeded the limits for food consumption established by Argentinian law. Correlation analyses indicated that: i) there is a common source of TE in this area, ii) each elements concentration in plants is associated with different soil variables and different soils depths, and iii) the lack of correlation between soil and water indicates that concentration in water is not constant over the time and/or there exists a differential accumulation of elements in soils depending on their own properties. Data obtained demonstrate very high concentration of TE in soil, grapevines, and onion plants in Jáchal region, and different remediation techniques are necessary to stabilize and minimize the bioavailability of these elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Irrigation effects on soil attributes and grapevine performance in a 'Godello' vineyard of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño, María; Trigo-Córdoba, Emiliano; Martínez, Emma M.; Bouzas-Cid, Yolanda; Rey, Benjamín J.; Cancela, Javier J.; Mirás-Avalos, Jose M.

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation systems are increasingly being used in Galician vineyards. However, a lack of information about irrigation management can cause a bad use of these systems and, consequently, reductions in berry quality and loss of water resources. In this context, experiences with Galician cultivars may provide useful information. A field experiment was carried out over two seasons (2012-2013) on Vitis vinifera (L.) cv. 'Godello' in order to assess the effects of irrigation on soil attributes, grapevine performance and berry composition. The field site was a commercial vineyard located in A Rúa (Ourense-NW Spain). Rain-fed vines (R) were compared with two irrigation systems: surface drip irrigation (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Physical and chemical characteristics of soil were analyzed after installing irrigation systems at the beginning of each season, in order to assess the effects that irrigation might have on soil attributes. Soil water content, leaf and stem water potentials and stomatal conductance were periodically measured over the two seasons. Yield components including number of clusters, yield per plant and cluster average weight were taken. Soluble solids, pH, total acidity and amino acids contents were measured on the grapes at harvest. Pruning weight was also recorded. Soil attributes did not significantly vary due to the irrigation treatments. Stem water potentials were significantly lower for R plants on certain dates through the season, whereas stomatal conductance was similar for the three treatments in 2013, while in 2012 SDI plants showed greater stomatal conductance values. SDI plants yielded more than those R due to both a greater number of clusters per plant and to heavier clusters. Pruning weight was significantly higher in SI plants. Berry composition was similar for the three treatments except for the amino acids content, which was higher under SDI conditions. These results may be helpful for a sustainable management of irrigation

  10. Variation of anthocyanins and other major phenolic compounds throughout the ripening of four Portuguese blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sara; Costa, Eduardo M; Coelho, Marta C; Morais, Rui M; Pintado, Manuela E

    2017-01-01

    Blueberries are widely recognised as one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds, among which are anthocyanins, though the ripeness of berries has been reported as affecting the phytochemical composition of fruits. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate the variation of anthocyanins, and other major phenolics, throughout five ripening stages in four blueberry cultivars. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin content increased during ripening, reaching the highest values when the blueberries are collected from bunches comprised of 75% ripe blueberries. Antagonistically, the amount of phenolic acid decreases, while the quercetin-3-glucoside levels remain stable. Furthermore, Goldtraube blueberries appear to possess, systematically, higher amounts of phenolic compounds than the other cultivars studied. Thus, when seeking the highest yield of anthocyanins, the preferred harvest should occur in bunches that contain ca 75% of ripe blueberries and, considering the cultivars assayed, the Goldtraube cultivar appears to be the richest in phenolic compounds.

  11. CORRELATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DRIED BERRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    berry fruits dietary intake are linked to their high polyphenols content. As a consequence, a .... 60% berry fruits (aronia, black currant, apple, rose hip, raspberry) .... This is probably due to the fact that fruit juices are produced from fresh fruits ..... acid, and sugar contents of citrus species and mandarin hybrids. Turk. J. Agric.

  12. Characterization of a putative grapevine Zn transporter, VvZIP3, suggests its involvement in early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainza-Cortés Felipe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the most widespread mineral nutritional problems that affect normal development in plants. Because Zn cannot passively diffuse across cell membranes, it must be transported into intracellular compartments for all biological processes where Zn is required. Several members of the Zinc-regulated transporters, Iron-regulated transporter-like Protein (ZIP gene family have been characterized in plants, and have shown to be involved in metal uptake and transport. This study describes the first putative Zn transporter in grapevine. Unravelling its function may explain an important symptom of Zn deficiency in grapevines, which is the production of clusters with fewer and usually smaller berries than normal. Results We identified and characterized a putative Zn transporter from berries of Vitis vinifera L., named VvZIP3. Compared to other members of the ZIP family identified in the Vitis vinifera L. genome, VvZIP3 is mainly expressed in reproductive tissue - specifically in developing flowers - which correlates with the high Zn accumulation in these organs. Contrary to this, the low expression of VvZIP3 in parthenocarpic berries shows a relationship with the lower Zn accumulation in this tissue than in normal seeded berries where its expression is induced by Zn. The predicted protein sequence indicates strong similarity with several members of the ZIP family from Arabidopsis thaliana and other species. Moreover, VvZIP3 complemented the growth defect of a yeast Zn-uptake mutant, ZHY3, and is localized in the plasma membrane of plant cells, suggesting that VvZIP3 has the function of a Zn uptake transporter. Conclusions Our results suggest that VvZIP3 encodes a putative plasma membrane Zn transporter protein member of the ZIP gene family that might play a role in Zn uptake and distribution during the early reproductive development in Vitis vinifera L., indicating that the availability of this micronutrient

  13. Coupling effect on the Berry phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Tian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Berry phase has universal applications in various fields. Here, we explore the coupling effect on the Berry phase of a two-level system adiabatically driven by a rotating classical field and interacting with a single quantized mode. Our simulations clearly reveal that the Berry phase change is quadratic proportional to the coupling constant if it is less than the level spacing between neighboring instantaneous eigenstates. Remarkably, if the nearest neighbouring level spacing is comparable with the coupling constant, this simple quadratic dependence is lost. Around this resonance, the Berry phase can be significantly tuned by slightly adjusting the parameters, such as the coupling constant, the frequency of the quantized mode, and the transition frequency. These numerical results, agreeing well with the perturbation theory calculations, provide an alternative approach to tune the Berry phase near the resonance, which is useful in quantum information science, i.e. designing quantum logic gates.

  14. The Synthesis and Accumulation of Resveratrol Are Associated with Veraison and Abscisic Acid Concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) Berry Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfang; Wang, Shuqin; Liu, Guotian; Edwards, Everard J.; Duan, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA) can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening) and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA) on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin, and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis) berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis), i.e., 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity). Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 days pre-veraison, veraison or 7 days post-veraison), thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 days pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:27857716

  15. The synthesis and accumulation of resveratrol are associated with veraison and abscisic acid concentration in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrols are polyphenolic secondary metabolites that can benefit human health, and only occur in a few plant families including Vitaceae. It has been reported that abscisic acid (ABA can induce veraison (the onset of grape berry ripening and may induce the accumulation of resveratrol in berry skin. However, the relationships between ABA, veraison, the accumulation of anthocyanins and the accumulation of resveratrol in the berry are poorly understood. This study attempted to answer this question through an investigation of the effect of applied ABA and fluridone (a synthetic inhibitor of ABA on the biosynthesis and accumulation of ABA, anthocyanin and resveratrol in Beihong (Vitis vinifera × Vitis amurensis berry skin. Under natural conditions, resveratrol concentration was very low before 91 DAA (days after anthesis, i.e. 2 weeks after veraison, however, it increased sharply from this point to 126 DAA (maturity. Exogenous ABA applications all resulted in an increase in berry skin ABA and anthocyanin concentration, irrespective of the developmental stage at which the treatment occurred (20 and 10 d pre-veraison,veraison or 7 d post-veraison, thereby advancing veraison. In contrast, resveratrol concentration increased only when ABA was applied at 10 d pre-veraison or at veraison. As a result, the accumulation of resveratrol was associated with veraison in grape berry skin and this accumulation, together with that of anthocyanins, was associated with ABA concentration. The response of resveratrol biosynthesis in the berry skin to manipulation of ABA varied during berry development and was less sensitive to ABA than the response of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  16. The role of hexokinases from grape berries (Vitis vinifera L.) in regulating the expression of cell wall invertase and sucrose synthase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Q; Li, L M; Yang, P P; Gong, C L

    2014-02-01

    In plants, hexokinase (HXK, EC 2.7.1.1) involved in hexose phosphorylation, plays an important role in sugar sensing and signaling. In this study, we found that at Phase I of grape berry development, lower hexose (glucose or fructose) levels were concomitant with higher HXK activities and protein levels. After the onset of ripening, we demonstrated a drastic reduction in HXK activity and protein levels accompanied by a rising hexose level. Therefore, our results revealed that HXK activity and protein levels had an inverse relationship with the endogenous glucose or fructose levels during grape berry development. A 51 kDa HXK protein band was detected throughout grape berry development. In addition, HXK located in the vacuoles, cytoplasm, nucleus, proplastid, chloroplast, and mitochondrion of the berry flesh cells. During grape berry development, HXK transcriptional level changed slightly, while cell wall invertase (CWINV) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) expression was enhanced after véraison stage. Intriguingly, when sliced grape berries were incubated in different glucose solutions, CWINV and SuSy expression was repressed by glucose, and the intensity of repression depended on glucose concentration and incubation time. After sliced, grape berries were treated with different glucose analogs, CWINV and SuSy expression analyses revealed that phosphorylation of hexoses by hexokinase was an essential component in the glucose-dependent CWINV and SuSy expression. In the meantime, mannoheptulose, a specific inhibitor of hexokinase, blocked the repression induced by glucose on CWINV and SuSy expression. It suggested that HXK played a major role in regulating CWINV and SuSy expression during grape berry development.

  17. The multifunctionality of berries toward blood platelets and the role of berry phenolics in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2017-09-01

    Diet and nutrition have an important influence on the prophylaxis and progression of cardiovascular disease; one example is the inhibition of blood platelet functions by specific components of fruits and vegetables. Garlic, onion, ginger, dark chocolate and polyunsaturated fatty acids all reduce blood platelet aggregation. A number of fruits contain a range of cardioprotective antioxidants and vitamins, together with a large number of non-nutrient phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, which may possess both antioxidant properties and anti-platelet activity. Fresh berries and berry extracts possess high concentrations of phenolic compounds, i.e. phenolic acid, stilbenoids, flavonoids and lignans. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of current knowledge of the anti-platelet activity of berries, which form an integral part of the human diet. It describes the effects of phenolic compounds present in a number of berries, i.e. black chokeberries - aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa), blueberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), cranberries (Vaccinium sect. Oxycoccus), sea buckthorn berries (Hippophae rhamnoides) and grapes (Vitis), as well as various commercial products from berries (i.e. juices), on platelets and underlying mechanisms. Studies show that the effects of berries on platelet activity are dependent on not only the concentrations of the phenolic compounds in the berries or the class of phenolic compounds, but also the types of berry and the form (fresh berry, juice or medicinal product). Different results indicate that berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders, but the development of well-controlled clinical studies with berries is encouraged.

  18. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

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    Laura Zoratti

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L. and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L..The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness.The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period.Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  19. Modification of Sunlight Radiation through Colored Photo-Selective Nets Affects Anthocyanin Profile in Vaccinium spp. Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoratti, Laura; Jaakola, Laura; Häggman, Hely; Giongo, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the interest on the effects of the specific wavelengths of the light spectrum on growth and metabolism of plants has been increasing markedly. The present study covers the effect of modified sunlight conditions on the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in two Vaccinium species: the European wild bilberry (V. myrtillus L.) and the cultivated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.). The two Vaccinium species were grown in the same test field in the Alps of Trentino (Northern Italy) under modified light environment. The modification of sunlight radiation was carried out in field, through the use of colored photo-selective nets throughout the berry ripening during two consecutive growing seasons. The anthocyanin profile was then assessed in berries at ripeness. The results indicated that the light responses of the two Vaccinium species studied were different. Although both studied species are shade-adapted plants, 90% shading of sunlight radiation was beneficial only for bilberry plants, which accumulated the highest content of anthocyanins in both seasons. The same condition, instead, was not favorable for blueberries, whose maturation was delayed for at least two weeks, and anthocyanin accumulation was significantly decreased compared to berries grown under sunlight conditions. Moreover, the growing season had strong influence on the anthocyanin accumulation in both species, in relation to temperature flow and sunlight spectra composition during the berry ripening period. Our results suggest that the use of colored photo-selective nets may be a complementary agricultural practice for cultivation of Vaccinium species. However, further studies are needed to analyze the effect of the light spectra modifications to other nutritional properties, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the detected differences between the two relative Vaccinium species.

  20. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a scientific interpretation of the terroir concept: plasticity of the grape berry metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesi, Andrea; Stocchero, Matteo; Dal Santo, Silvia; Commisso, Mauro; Zenoni, Sara; Ceoldo, Stefania; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Siebert, Tracey E; Herderich, Markus; Pezzotti, Mario; Guzzo, Flavia

    2015-08-07

    The definition of the terroir concept is one of the most debated issues in oenology and viticulture. The dynamic interaction among diverse factors including the environment, the grapevine plant and the imposed viticultural techniques means that the wine produced in a given terroir is unique. However, there is an increasing interest to define and quantify the contribution of individual factors to a specific terroir objectively. Here, we characterized the metabolome and transcriptome of berries from a single clone of the Corvina variety cultivated in seven different vineyards, located in three macrozones, over a 3-year trial period. To overcome the anticipated strong vintage effect, we developed statistical tools that allowed us to identify distinct terroir signatures in the metabolic composition of berries from each macrozone, and from different vineyards within each macrozone. We also identified non-volatile and volatile components of the metabolome which are more plastic and therefore respond differently to terroir diversity. We observed some relationships between the plasticity of the metabolome and transcriptome, allowing a multifaceted scientific interpretation of the terroir concept. Our experiments with a single Corvina clone in different vineyards have revealed the existence of a clear terroir-specific effect on the transcriptome and metabolome which persists over several vintages and allows each vineyard to be characterized by the unique profile of specific metabolites.

  2. Metabolic changes of Vitis vinifera berries and leaves exposed to Bordeaux mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Teixeira, António; Bassil, Elias; Blumwald, Eduardo; Gerós, Hernâni

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of Bordeaux mixture in the late 1800's, copper-based fungicides have been widely used against grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) diseases, mainly in organic but also in conventional viticulture; however their intensive use has raised phytotoxicity concerns. In this study, the composition of grape berries and leaves upon Bordeaux mixture treatment was investigated during the fructification season by a metabolomic approach. Four applications of Bordeaux mixture till 3 weeks before harvest were performed following the regular management practices of organic viticulture. Results showed that the copper-based treatment affected the content in sugars, organic acids, lipids and flavan-3-ols of grapes and leaves at specific developmental stages. Nonetheless, the levels of sucrose, glucose and fructose, and of tartaric and malic acids were not significantly affected in mature grapes. In contrast, a sharp decrease in free natural amino acids was observed, together with a reduction in protein content and in mineral nitrogen forms. The treatment with Bordeaux mixture increased by 7-fold the copper levels in tissue extracts from surface-washed mature berries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Vitis vinifera L. grape berry skin color mutants and polyphenolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Vanessa; Fernandes, Fátima; Pinto-Carnide, Olinda; Valentão, Patrícia; Falco, Virgílio; Martín, Juan Pedro; Ortiz, Jesús María; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Andrade, Paula B; Castro, Isaura

    2016-03-01

    A germplasm set of twenty-five grapevine accessions, forming eleven groups of possible berry skin color mutants, were genotyped with twelve microsatellite loci, being eleven of them identified as true color mutants. The polyphenolic profiling of the confirmed mutant cultivars revealed a total of twenty-four polyphenols, comprising non-colored compounds (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and a stilbene) and anthocyanins. Results showed differences in the contribution of malvidin-3-O-glucoside to the characteristic Pinot Noir anthocyanins profile. Regarding the two Pique-Poul colored variants, the lighter variant was richer than the darker one in all classes of compounds, excepting anthocyanins. In Moscatel Galego Roxo the F3'H pathway seems to be more active than F3'5'H, resulting in higher amounts of cyanidin, precursor of the cyanidin derivatives. As far as we are aware, this is the first time that a relationship between the content of polyphenolic compounds is established in groups of grape berry skin color mutant cultivars. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

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    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  5. Functional effect of grapevine 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase substitution K284N on Muscat flavour formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilana, Juri; Emanuelli, Francesco; Gambino, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Ivana; Gasperi, Flavia; Boss, Paul K.; Grando, Maria Stella

    2011-01-01

    Grape berries of Muscat cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) contain high levels of monoterpenols and exhibit a distinct aroma related to this composition of volatiles. A structural gene of the plastidial methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (VvDXS), was recently suggested as a candidate gene for this trait, having been co-localized with a major quantitative trait locus for linalool, nerol, and geraniol concentrations in berries. In addition, a structured association study discovered a putative causal single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) responsible for the substitution of a lysine with an asparagine at position 284 of the VvDXS protein, and this SNP was significantly associated with Muscat-flavoured varieties. The significance of this nucleotide difference was investigated by comparing the monoterpene profiles with the expression of VvDXS alleles throughout berry development in Moscato Bianco, a cultivar heterozygous for the SNP mutation. Although correlation was detected between the VvDXS transcript profile and the accumulation of free monoterpenol odorants, the modulation of VvDXS expression during berry development appears to be independent of nucleotide variation in the coding sequence. In order to assess how the non-synonymous mutation may enhance Muscat flavour, an in vitro characterization of enzyme isoforms was performed followed by in vivo overexpression of each VvDXS allele in tobacco. The results showed that the amino acid non-neutral substitution influences the enzyme kinetics by increasing the catalytic efficiency and also dramatically affects monoterpene levels in transgenic lines. These findings confirm a functional effect of the VvDXS gene polymorphism and may pave the way for metabolic engineering of terpenoid contents in grapevine. PMID:21868399

  6. The study of antioxidants in grapevine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Tomášková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine seeds contain a large amount of antioxidant components, and are therefore recommended in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. For this research, we studied the antioxidant properties of grapevine seeds from the Marlen variety, as evidence suggests that these types have higher resistance against fungal diseases. Through high-performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection, a total of 10 antioxidant components were selected for further investigation, specifically: catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, caftaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid. The antioxidant activity was determinated spectrophotometrically through the adoption of three fundamentally different methods (the DPPH assay, the ABTS method, and the FRAP method. Using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, it was possible to determine the content of all the polyphenolic compounds. The results of the assessment antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenolic compounds were recalculated to gallic acid equivalents (GAE. The values of the antioxidant activity as determinated by the DPPH test were 6643 (±154 mg of GAE; 1984 (±88 mg of GAE when using the FRAP method; and 812 (±31 mg of GAE when the ABTS method was utilised. The content of the total polyphenolic compounds came to 6982 (±221 mg of GAE. The most abundant antioxidant was catechin, with a content of 115 mg.L-1, whilst the least represented compound was ferulic acid (0.139 mg.L-1. Overall, this study showed a high antioxidant potential of grapevine seeds. 

  7. Fenologia, produção e composição do mosto da 'Cabernet sauvignon' e 'Tannat' em clima subtropical Phenology, production and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Tannat' grapevines in subtropical climate

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    Alessandro Jefferson Sato

    2011-06-01

    , 2005 and 2006. For assessments, 20 representative grapevines were used of each variety. The phenology of the plants was evaluated as the duration in days, as well it was estimated the production and productivity of each variety. The ripening development was determined by the analysis of berries chemical characteristics, such as pH, total soluble solids (TSS and titratable acidity (TA. It was determined that the average cycle of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was 130.3 days, while the 'Tannat' was 131.3. The production per plant and productivity average estimates were 4.5 kg and 8.9 t ha-1, respectively for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 7.3 kg and 12.1 t ha-1, respectively for 'Tannat'. The mean levels of pH, TSS and TA were 3.3, 14.5 ºBrix and 1.1% tartaric acid respectively, for 'Cabernet Sauvignon', and 3.3, 17.7 ºBrix and 1.1% tartaric acid respectively for 'Tannat'.

  8. Functional diversification of grapevine MYB5a and MYB5b in the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in a petunia anthocyanin regulatory mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Erika; Zenoni, Sara; Finezzo, Laura; Guzzo, Flavia; Zamboni, Anita; Avesani, Linda; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-03-01

    Flavonoids play a key role in grapevine physiology and also contribute substantially to the quality of berries and wines. VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b are R2R3-MYB transcription factors previously proposed to control the spatiotemporal expression of flavonoid structural genes during berry development. We investigated the functions of these two proteins in detail by heterologous expression in a petunia an2 mutant, which has negligible anthocyanin levels in the petals because it lacks the MYB protein PhAN2. We also expressed VvMYBA1, the grapevine ortholog of petunia PhAN2, in the same genetic background. The anthocyanin profiles induced by expressing these transgenes in the petals revealed that VvMYBA1 is the functional ortholog of PhAN2 and that, unlike VvMYB5a, VvMYB5b can partially complement the an2 mutation. Transcriptomic analysis of petals by microarray hybridization and quantitative PCR confirmed that VvMYB5b up-regulates a subset of anthocyanin structural genes, whereas VvMYB5a has a more limited impact on the expression of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, we identified additional specific and common targets of these two regulators, related to vacuolar acidification and membrane remodeling. Taken together, these data provide insight into the role of VvMYB5a and VvMYB5b in flavonoid biosynthesis and provide evidence for additional regulatory roles in distinct pathways.

  9. Berry's Phase and Fine Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Binder, B

    2002-01-01

    Irrational numbers can be assigned to physical entities based on iterative processes of geometric objects. It is likely that iterative round trips of vector signals include a geometric phase component. If so, this component will couple back to the round trip frequency or path length generating an non-linear feedback loop (i.e. induced by precession). In this paper such a quantum feedback mechanism is defined including generalized fine structure constants in accordance with the fundamental gravitomagnetic relation of spin-orbit coupling. Supported by measurements, the general relativistic and topological background allows to propose, that the deviation of the fine structure constant from 1/137 could be assigned to Berry's phase. The interpretation is straightforward: spacetime curvature effects can be greatly amplified by non-linear phase-locked feedback-loops adjusted to single-valued phase relationships in the quantum regime.

  10. Modeling deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deployment of Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines is a key solution to mitigating economic losses caused by Xylella fastidiosa. While Pierce’s disease resistant grapevines under development display mild symptoms and have lower bacterial populations than susceptible varieties, all appear to remain ...

  11. Are Epiphytic Microbial Communities in the Carposphere of Ripening Grape Clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) Different between Conventional, Organic, and Biodynamic Grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskeméti, Elizabeth; Berkelmann-Löhnertz, Beate; Reineke, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Using barcoded pyrosequencing fungal and bacterial communities associated with grape berry clusters (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained from conventional, organic and biodynamic vineyard plots were investigated in two subsequent years at different stages during berry ripening. The four most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on fungal ITS data were Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Alternaria alternata which represented 57% and 47% of the total reads in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Members of the genera Sphingomonas, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Massilia constituted 67% of the total number of bacterial 16S DNA reads in 2010 samples and 78% in 2011 samples. Viticultural management system had no significant effect on abundance of fungi or bacteria in both years and at all three sampling dates. Exceptions were A. alternata and Pseudomonas spp. which were more abundant in the carposphere of conventional compared to biodynamic berries, as well as Sphingomonas spp. which was significantly less abundant on conventional compared to organic berries at an early ripening stage in 2011. In general, there were no significant differences in fungal and bacterial diversity indices or richness evident between management systems. No distinct fungal or bacterial communities were associated with the different maturation stages or management systems, respectively. An exception was the last stage of berry maturation in 2011, where the Simpson diversity index was significantly higher for fungal communities on biodynamic compared to conventional grapes. Our study highlights the existence of complex and dynamic microbial communities in the grape cluster carposphere including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on grape production. Such knowledge is particularly relevant for development, selection and application of effective control measures against economically important

  12. Estimation of the base temperature and growth phase duration in terms of thermal time for four grapevine cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, D.; Salazar, M.; Chaves, B.; Keller, M.; Hoogenboom, G.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal time models have been used to predict the development of many different species, including grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.). These models normally assume that there is a linear relationship between temperature and plant development. The goal of this study was to estimate the base temperature and duration in terms of thermal time for predicting veraison for four grapevine cultivars. Historical phenological data for four cultivars that were collected in the Pacific Northwest were used to develop the thermal time model. Base temperatures ( T b) of 0 and 10 °C and the best estimated T b using three different methods were evaluated for predicting veraison in grapevine. Thermal time requirements for each individual cultivar were evaluated through analysis of variance, and means were compared using the Fisher's test. The methods that were applied to estimate T b for the development of wine grapes included the least standard deviation in heat units, the regression coefficient, and the development rate method. The estimated T b varied among methods and cultivars. The development rate method provided the lowest T b values for all cultivars. For the three methods, Chardonnay had the lowest T b ranging from 8.7 to 10.7 °C, while the highest T b values were obtained for Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon with 11.8 and 12.8 °C, respectively. Thermal time also differed among cultivars, when either the fixed or estimated T b was used. Predictions of the beginning of ripening with the estimated temperature resulted in the lowest variation in real days when compared with predictions using T b = 0 or 10 °C, regardless of the method that was used to estimate the T b.

  13. Biochemical characterization of Tunisian grapevine varieties

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    Ferjani Ben Abdallah

    1998-03-01

    The study of GPI, PGM, AAT and peroxydase isozyme banding patterns in combination with berry colour has led to establish a classification of the 61 autochton varieties into 37 groups including 26 varieties definitely differentiated through the results of this biochemical study.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA-2 of grapevine deformation and Grapevine Anatolian ringspot viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, Nina Abou; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Digiaro, Michele; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2005-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of RNA-2 of Grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV) and Grapevine deformation virus (GDefV), two recently described nepoviruses, has been determined. These RNAs are 3753 nt (GDefV) and 4607 nt (GARSV) in size and contain a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein of 122 kDa (GDefV) and 150 kDa (GARSV). Full-length nucleotide sequence comparison disclosed 71-73% homology between GDefV RNA-2 and that of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), and 62-64% homology between GARSV RNA-2 and that of Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV) and Tomato black ring virus (TBRV). As previously observed in other nepoviruses, the 5' non-coding regions of both RNAs are capable of forming stem-loop structures. Phylogenetic analysis of the three proteins encoded by RNA-2 (i.e. protein 2A, movement protein and coat protein) confirmed that GDefV and GARSV are distinct viruses which can be assigned as definitive species in subgroup A and subgroup B of the genus Nepovirus, respectively.

  15. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  16. Aspects of Berry phase in QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggio, Marco [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven,Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Niarchos, Vasilis [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Center for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Papadodimas, Kyriakos [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-11

    When continuous parameters in a QFT are varied adiabatically, quantum states typically undergo mixing — a phenomenon characterized by the Berry phase. We initiate a systematic analysis of the Berry phase in QFT using standard quantum mechanics methods. We show that a non-trivial Berry phase appears in many familiar QFTs. We study a variety of examples including free electromagnetism with a theta angle, and certain supersymmetric QFTs in two and four spacetime dimensions. We also argue that a large class of QFTs with rich Berry properties is provided by CFTs with non-trivial conformal manifolds. Using the operator-state correspondence we demonstrate in this case that the Berry connection is equivalent to the connection on the conformal manifold derived previously in conformal perturbation theory. In the special case of chiral primary states in 2d N=(2,2) and 4d N=2 SCFTs the Berry phase is governed by the tt{sup ∗} equations. We present a technically useful rederivation of these equations using quantum mechanics methods.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  18. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  19. Effect of genotype x environment interactions of grapevine hybrids characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper was performed at two different locations: Radmilovac and Vršac in Serbia. Four new interspecific hybrids (9846, 9896, 19574 and 20506 which are intended for table consumption were used as a material. Grape yield per unit area, the properties of the bunch (bunch weight, bunch length, bunch width and number of berries in bunch, the properties of berry (berry weight, berry length and berry width, as well as the characteristic of grape quality (sugar content and total acids in the must were studied in selected hybrids. The highest yield per unit area in the localities Radmilovac and Vršac had a hybrid 9896 (14 998 kg/ha; 11 365 kg/ha. Analysis of variance results showed for the bunch weight, bunch width and number of berries in bunch, berry weight and berry length significant differences among the genotypes. Significant differences between investigated localities were determined for the bunch length and all the berry characters. The interaction between genotype and localities showed significant differences for bunch length, berry length and berry width. Since the genotypes in the initial yielding (third year after planting, they are showed satisfactory results in relation to the objectives of selection.

  20. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  1. Fruit sphere microenvironments and berry phenolic content of Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under rain-shelter systems with coloured plastic film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Fei MENG

    Full Text Available Abstract Rain-shelter cultivation has been proven an important cultivation method for grape-plantings in continental monsoon climate zones, of which white plastic films are the most common shelter material. However, while this method and material reduces the occurrence of the disease, it can also decrease the grape berry quality. Five colours (including red, yellow, blue, purple, and white of plastic films were covered above Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L. grapevine rows before veraison. Rain-shelter cultivation reduced air temperature, wind speed, and total solar radiation and enhanced relative humidity in the fruit sphere of grapevines. For each particular colour plastic film, the irradiance of its corresponding spectrum band in the canopy of vines was higher than with other colour plastic films. Meanwhile, the blue plastic film treatment significantly promoted the accumulation of total phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, and phenolic acids more than the other colours of plastic films. Blue plastic films are more beneficial for berry quality promotion of wine grapes, especially Cabernet Sauvignon, under rain-shelter cultivation in continental monsoon climate zones.

  2. BlackBerry for Work Productivity for Professionals

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, K

    2010-01-01

    The BlackBerry is cool, and the BlackBerry is fun, but the BlackBerry also means serious business. For those of you who bought your BlackBerry to help get your life organized and free yourself from the ball-and-chain of desktop computing, BlackBerry at Work: Productivity for Professionals is the book to show you how. There are plenty of general-purpose BlackBerry guides, but this book shows you how to complete all the traditional smartphone tasks, like to-dos, calendars, and email, and become even more efficient and productive. You'll learn mechanisms for developing effective workflows specifi

  3. BlackBerry All-in-One for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sarigumba, Dante; Petz, William

    2010-01-01

    Go beyond BlackBerry basics and get everything your BlackBerry can deliver. BlackBerry is the leading smartphone for business users, and its popularity continues to explode. When you discover the amazing array of BlackBerry possibilities in this fun and friendly guide, you'll be even happier with your choice of smartphones. BlackBerry All-in-One For Dummies explores every feature and application common to all BlackBerry devices. It explains the topics in depth, with tips, tricks, workarounds, and includes detailed information about cool new third-party applications, accessories, and downloads

  4. CrackBerry The Tales of BlackBerry Use and Abuse

    CERN Document Server

    Michaluk, Kevin J; Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A delayed train, a dip in the conversation, an early morning hour with no sleep - during these moments, do you feel an overwhelming urge to grab your BlackBerry? Do you know someone else who does? If the answer is yes, then look no further than this one-of-a-kind book...CrackBerry: True Tales of Blackberry Use and Abuse covers the phenomenon of "BlackBerry Addiction," offering true-life accounts of BlackBerry dependence and mishaps. You'll find comfort and humor in the unbelievable tales of BlackBerry abuse and also learn some valuable tips along the way. * The definitive guide to respons

  5. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  6. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    increased during ripening. Pepper compound concentrations peaked in the middle of the ripening period. Lipid oxidation products increased especially towards the end of ripening, in particular, the compounds 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-heptanone and 2-nonanone. Surface moulds probably caused 4-heptanone...

  7. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  8. Metabolic and molecular analyses of white mutant Vaccinium berries show down-regulation of MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB regulatory factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetta, Anja K; Karppinen, Katja; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2015-09-01

    MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor shows down-regulation in white mutant berries of Vaccinium uliginosum deficient in anthocyanins but not proanthocyanidins suggesting a role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of flavonoids. In this study, the expression of structural and regulatory flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of flavonoids in white mutant and blue-colored wild-type bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) fruits were measured at different stages of berry development. In contrast to high contents of anthocyanins in ripe blue-colored berries, only traces were detected by HPLC-ESI-MS in ripe white mutant berries. However, similar profile and high levels of flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins were quantified in both ripe white and ripe wild-type berries. Analysis with qRT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of structural genes chalcone synthase (VuCHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (VuDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (VuANS) as well as MYBPA1-type transcription factor VuMYBPA1 in white berries during ripening compared to wild-type berries. The profiles of transcript accumulation of chalcone isomerase (VuCHI), anthocyanidin reductase (VuANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (VuLAR) and flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (VuF3'5'H) were more similar between the white and the wild-type berries during fruit development, while expression of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VuUFGT) showed similar trend but fourfold lower level in white mutant. VuMYBPA1, the R2R3 MYB family member, is a homologue of VmMYB2 of V. myrtillus and VcMYBPA1 of V. corymbosum and belongs to MYBPA1-type MYB family which members are shown in some species to be related with proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in fruits. Our results combined with earlier data of the role of VmMYB2 in white mutant berries of V. myrtillus suggest that the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vaccinium species could differ

  9. Aplicação de ethephon e qualidade da uva 'Rubi' em Porto Feliz-SP Ethephon on 'Rubi' grapevine quality in Porto Feliz, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rodrigues

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de uvas de mesa é uma importante atividade econômica no Estado de São Paulo. A região de Porto Feliz, em clima Cwa, apresenta grande número de agricultores familiares dedicados a esta atividade. Condições climáticas e manejo da cultura durante a fase de amadurecimento determinam a qualidade dos bagos, sendo o uso de fitorreguladores uma ferramenta útil para o ajustamento de atributos da qualidade. Avaliaram-se sete concentrações de ethephon, aplicadas por imersão dos cachos no início da mudança de coloração dos bagos, sobre a qualidade de uva 'Rubi', durante os ciclos de 2007 e de 2008, em propriedade comercial localizada em Porto Feliz-SP. Os atributos de qualidade avaliados foram a coloração de bagos, teor de sólidos solúveis totais e desbagoamento pós-colheita, sendo determinado também o índice de velocidade de desbagoamento. Os dados coletados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Em 2007, observaram-se maiores coloração e teor de sólidos solúveis totais, associados às maiores temperaturas registradas no período entre o início de maturação e a colheita. O uso de ethephon, independentemente da concentração utilizada, promoveu coloração mais avermelhada dos bagos de 'Rubi' nas duas safras. Não houve efeito do uso do ethephon sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais. Não foi possível inferir sobre o efeito do etephon no desbagoamento em função do elevado coeficiente de variação. Estudos básicos para avaliar o efeito de fatores climáticos, nutricionais e de manejo do vinhedo são necessários no desenvolvimento de coloração dos bagos da cultivar 'Rubi' em clima tropical.Grapevine production for fresh market is an important economic activity in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The region of Porto Feliz is located in Cwa climate and concentrates several small producers. Climatic conditions and cultural practices during fruit maturation determine berry quality, and

  10. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  11. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liu, Xixia; Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing; Yuan, Debao

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits.

  12. Composição físico-química de uvas para vinho fino em ciclos de verão e inverno Physico-chemical composition of wine grapes berries in summer and winter growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial de maturação das cultivares Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay e Sauvignon Blanc submetidas ao regime de dupla poda, em Cordislândia, região cafeeira do sul de Minas Gerais. As plantas foram submetidas a dois ciclos de produção, um de primavera-verão, compreendido entre agosto e janeiro, e outro ciclo de outono-inverno, entre janeiro e julho. Como parâmetros de qualidade, foram avaliados os diâmetros transversal e longitudinal da baga, acidez, ácidos tartárico e málico, pH, sólidos solúveis, antocianinas, fenólicos totais e os teores de glicose, frutose e sacarose. Todas as variedades apresentaram maiores teores de pH, sólidos solúveis, açúcares, antocianinas e fenólicos totais, e redução nos diâmetros transversal e longitudinal na safra de inverno. A cultivar Syrah destacou-se das demais no conteúdo de antocianinas e fenólicos totais tanto no verão quanto no inverno, entretanto apresentou o menor conteúdo de açúcares. A alteração do ciclo de produção da videira através da técnica da dupla poda para colheita, no período de inverno, na região cafeeira de Minas Gerais, favorece a maturação dos frutos e melhora consideravelmente a qualidade das uvas para vinificação.This work aimed to evaluate some ripening parameters of cultivars Pinot Noir, Tempranillo, Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc submitted to the double-pruning management in Cordislândia, in the coffee region of the south of Minas Gerais State. Grapevines were cultivated in two different growing seasons, spring-summer from August to January and autumn-winter from January to July. Quality parameters such as berry transversal and longitudinal diameters, acidity, tartaric and malic acids, pH, soluble solids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, glucose, fructose and sucrose were evaluated. All cultivars showed higher pH, soluble solids

  13. Biotechnology of temperate fruit trees and grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laimer, Margit; Mendonça, Duarte; Maghuly, Fatemeh; Marzban, Gorji; Leopold, Stephan; Khan, Mahmood; Balla, Ildiko; Katinger, Hermann

    2005-01-01

    Challenges concerning fruit trees and grapevines as long lived woody perennial crops require adapted biotechnological approaches, if solutions are to be found within a reasonable time frame. These challenges are represented by the need for correct identification of genetic resources, with the foreseen use either in conservation or in breeding programmes. Molecular markers provide most accurate information and will be the major solution for questions about plant breeders rights. Providing healthy planting material and rapid detection of newly introduced pathogens by reliable methods involving serological and molecular biological tools will be a future challenge of increases importance, given the fact that plant material travels freely in the entire European Union. But also new breeding goals and transgenic solutions are part of the biotechnological benefits, e.g. resistance against biotic and abiotic stress factors, modified growth habits, modified nutritional properties and altered processing and storage qualities. The successful characterization of transgenic grapevines and stone fruit trees carrying genes of viral origin in different vectors constructed under ecological consideration, will be presented. Beyond technical feasibility, efficiency of resistance, environmental safety and Intellectual Property Rights, also public acceptance needs consideration and has been addressed in a specific project. The molecular determination of internal quality parameters of food can also be addressed by the use of biotechnological tools. Patient independent detection tools for apple allergens have been developed and should allow to compare fruits from different production systems, sites, and genotypes for their content of health threatening compounds.

  14. From 'Fire Esca' to 'Esca of Grapevine'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Graniti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of tinder (‘esca’ or ‘amadou’ prepared from basidiocarps of some bracket fungi, e.g. Fomes fomentarius and Phellinus igniarius as an easy-to-burn matter goes back to the man’s conquest of fire. Archaeological finds, such as fragments of tinder, flint-stones and traces of pyrite carried by the ‘Ice man’ on his way across the Alps more than 5,000 years ago, bear evidence of the use of tinder in the Neolithic age. In 1926, on the assumption that P. igniarius was one of the pathogens of the so-called ‘apoplexy’ of grapevine, the name ‘esca’ was given to the disease. For long time, esca was thought to affect old vines only. In the last decades, however, various forms of the disease have been found to be widespread and to cause losses even to young vines. Aetiological studies have shown that esca of grapevine is a complex disease, incited by wilt-inducing ascomycetes (Togninia, Phaeoacremonium, Phaeomoniella and/or the wood-decaying basidiomycete Fomitiporia mediterranea. Since the latter is not a tinder fungus, the advisability of retaining the name ‘esca’ for the disease is discussed.

  15. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shattir, A. E.; Abu-Goukh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO 2 / kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  16. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of ripening avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.B.; Smith, G.M.; Nichols, B.

    1987-01-01

    Ripening of avocado fruit is associated with a dramatic increase in respiration. Previous studies have indicated that the increase in respiration is brought about by activation of the glycolytic reaction catalyzing the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The authors reinvestigated the proposed role of glycolytic regulation in the respiratory increase using in vivo 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using an external surface coil and analysis of phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphofructophosphotransferase (PFP), and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru 2,6-P 2 ) levels in ripening avocado fruit. In vivo 31 P NMR spectroscopy revealed large increases in ATP levels accompanying the increase in respiration. Both glycolytic enzymes, PFK and PFP, were present in avocado fruit, with the latter activity being highly stimulated by fru 2,6-P 2 . Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels increased approximately 90% at the onset of ripening, indicating that the respiratory increase in ripening avocado may be regulated by the activation of PFP brought about by an increase in fru 2,6-P 2

  17. Characterization of major ripening events during softening in grape: turgor, sugar accumulation, abscisic acid metabolism, colour development, and their relationship with growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellarin, Simone D; Gambetta, Gregory A; Wada, Hiroshi; Krasnow, Mark N; Cramer, Grant R; Peterlunger, Enrico; Shackel, Kenneth A; Matthews, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Along with sugar accumulation and colour development, softening is an important physiological change during the onset of ripening in fruits. In this work, we investigated the relationships among major events during softening in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) by quantifying elasticity in individual berries. In addition, we delayed softening and inhibited sugar accumulation using a mechanical growth-preventing treatment in order to identify processes that are sugar and/or growth dependent. Ripening processes commenced on various days after anthesis, but always at similarly low elasticity and turgor. Much of the softening occurred in the absence of other changes in berry physiology investigated here. Several genes encoding key cell wall-modifying enzymes were not up-regulated until softening was largely completed, suggesting softening may result primarily from decreases in turgor. Similarly, there was no decrease in solute potential, increase in sugar concentration, or colour development until elasticity and turgor were near minimum values, and these processes were inhibited when berry growth was prevented. Increases in abscisic acid occurred early during softening and in the absence of significant expression of the V. vinifera 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases. However, these increases were coincident with decreases in the abscisic acid catabolite diphasic acid, indicating that initial increases in abscisic acid may result from decreases in catabolism and/or exogenous import. These data suggest that softening, decreases in turgor, and increases in abscisic acid represent some of the earliest events during the onset of ripening. Later, physical growth, further increases in abscisic acid, and the accumulation of sugar are integral for colour development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G E; Gaudillere, J-P; Pieri, P; Hilbert, G; Maucourt, M; Deborde, C; Moing, A; Rolin, D

    2006-09-06

    The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The

  20. Performance of a New Model for Predicting End of Flowering Date (bbch 69) of Grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilucci, Matteo

    2017-04-01

    The end of flowering date (BBCH 69) is an important phenological stage for grapevine (Vitis Vinifera L.), in fact up to this date the growth is focused on the plant and gradually passes on the berries through fruit set. The aim of this study is to perform a model to predict the date of the end of flowering (BBCH69) for some grapevine varieties. This research carried out using three cultivars of grapevine (Maceratino, Montepulciano, Sangiovese) in three different locations (Macerata, Morrovalle and Potenza Picena), places of an equal number of wine farms for the time interval between 2006 and 2013. In order to have reliable temperatures for each location, the data of 6 weather stations near these farms have been interpolated using cokriging methods with elevation as independent variable. The procedure to predict the end of flowering date starts with an investigation of cardinal temperatures typical of each grapevine cultivar. In fact the analysis is characterized by four temperature thresholds (cardinals): minimum activity temperature (TCmin = below this temperature there is no growth for the plant), lower optimal temperature (TLopt = above this temperature there is maximum growth), upper optimal temperature (TUopt = below this temperature there is maximum growth) and maximum activity temperature (TC max = above this temperature there is no growth). Thus this model take into consideration maximum, mean and minimum daily temperatures of each location, relating them with the four above mentioned cultivar temperature thresholds. In this way it has been obtained some possible cases (32) corresponding to as many equations, depending on the position of temperatures compared with the thresholds, in order to calculate the amount of growing degree units (GDU) for each day. Several iterative tests (about 1000 for each cultivar) have been performed, changing the values of temperature thresholds and GDU in order to find the best possible combination which minimizes error

  1. Induction of Terpene Biosynthesis in Berries of Microvine Transformed with VvDXS1 Alleles

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    Lorenza Dalla Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Terpenoids, especially monoterpenes, are major aroma-impact compounds in grape and wine. Previous studies highlighted a key regulatory role for grapevine 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 1 (VvDXS1, the first enzyme of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid precursor biosynthesis. Here, the parallel analysis of VvDXS1 genotype and terpene concentration in a germplasm collection demonstrated that VvDXS1 sequence has a very high predictive value for the accumulation of monoterpenes and also has an influence on sesquiterpene levels. A metabolic engineering approach was applied by expressing distinct VvDXS1 alleles in the grapevine model system “microvine” and assessing the effects on downstream pathways at transcriptional and metabolic level in different organs and fruit developmental stages. The underlying goal was to investigate two potential perturbation mechanisms, the former based on a significant over-expression of the wild-type (neutral VvDXS1 allele and the latter on the ex-novo expression of an enzyme with increased catalytic efficiency from the mutated (muscat VvDXS1 allele. The integration of the two VvDXS1 alleles in distinct microvine lines was found to alter the expression of several terpenoid biosynthetic genes, as assayed through an ad hoc developed TaqMan array based on cDNA libraries of four aromatic cultivars. In particular, enhanced transcription of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and carotenoid pathway genes was observed. The accumulation of monoterpenes in ripe berries was higher in the transformed microvines compared to control plants. This effect is predominantly attributed to the improved activity of the VvDXS1 enzyme coded by the muscat allele, whereas the up-regulation of VvDXS1 plays a secondary role in the increase of monoterpenes.

  2. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Grapevine Virus A in Jordan

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    G. Anfoka

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In a study on grapevines in Jordan conducted between 2002 and 2003, grapevine virus A (GVA was detected in all areas where grapevines were planted. DAS-ELISA analysis of samples from symptomatic trees found that 16.1% of samples were infected with GVA. Using a GVA- specific primer pair (H587/C995, a portion of the coat protein gene of the virus was amplified by IC-RT-PCR and RT-PCR, using leaf extracts and RNA extracted from infected grapevines respectively. After cloning and sequencing the coat protein gene of the Jordanian isolate of GVA (GVA-Jo, the sequence of the amplified product was compared with sequences of other GVA isolates from different countries.

  3. GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION INTERCEPTION BY GRAPEVINES TRAINED TO A VERTICAL TRELLIS SYSTEM

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    CLAUDIA GUIMARÃES CAMARGO CAMPOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this paper we assess the utilization of radiant energy in the growing of grapevines (Cabernet Sauvignon trained to a vertical trellis system, and estimate the global solar radiation interception taking into account the physical characteristics of the training system at different phenological stages. The experiment was based on daily measurements of global solar radiation made by an automatic weather station placed at the vineyard of a winery located in the municipality of São Joaquim, in the southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (Villa Francioni winery, 28º 15’ 14” S, 49º 57’ 02” W, 1294m a.s.l.. Growth and phenological development of the shoots were evaluated. The global solar radiation is intercepted by the canopy (trained to a vertical trellis system in different orientations and the accumulated total is slightly greater on the east than on the west face of the canopy, especially after flowering. The daily variability of global solar radiation intercepted by the canopy is greater after flowering. The accumulated solar energy incident on the canopy increases until the onset of ripening. From the results, vineyards trained to a vertical trellis system in the north-south direction provide favorable sunlight exposure to leaves and fruits and are promising in quality and productivity.

  4. New approaches for the management of European grapevine moth (Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff.

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    Altindisli Ferhunde Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available European Grapevine Moth (EGVM, Lobesia botrana (Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae is the key pest of grape in Turkey. It damages grape berries directly and requires strict control measures producing 3 or 4 generations per year. Since the ‘80s, farmers often preferred chemical control with organophosphorus insecticides against the pest because it is wieldy, very effective and cheap. Tendency to use environmentally friendly pesticides began at the beginning of the nineties because chemicals sprayed next to grape harvest threaten environment and consumer health, causing residue problem in export. Consequently, a bioinsecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis Berl., was put into practice against the pest. Forecasting System timing according to the larvicides against EGVM was reviewed as a result of the registration of an ovicide at the end of nineties. Modifications have been made in standard biological efficacy test method and Forecasting System taking the biological stages of EGVM into account to get optimal results from ovicides. Mating disruption and auto-confusion techniques against EGVM were tested and put into practice for the first time in the Aegean Region to decrease insecticide applications. Since 2005, mating disruption has been gradually preferred by the growers and firms because it is very effective and easy to apply.

  5. Effects of fudioxonil on Botrytis cinerea and on grapevine defence response

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    Anne-Noëlle PETIT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Botrytis bunch rot of grapes is mainly controlled by applying fungicides at three crop stages: the end of flowering (BBCH 68, bunch closure (BBCH 77 and the beginning of veraison (BBCH 81. The phenylpyrroles derivative fudioxonil is among the most effective fungicides registered to control Botrytis cinerea. Its effectiveness was investigated in relation to spray timing, fungicide resistance and defence responses of grapevine. Frequencies of B. cinerea strains which were resistant to fungicides were evaluated at harvest. The frequencies of resistant phenotypes were similar in all treatments except for a class of multidrug resistant strains (MDR 1 whose frequency increased after fudioxonil applications. None of the treatments tested induced defence responses in flowers/berries after fungicide application, suggesting that fudioxonil effectiveness was not related to a stimulation of plant defence processes. The standard program of three fungicide applications provided the best control of B. cinerea  in the Champagne region in comparison with a single treatment of fudioxonil at any of the crop stages tested.

  6. Phytonutrient analysis of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Litchi tomato) is grown ornamentally, and in Europe it is used as a trap crop for management of the potato cyst nematode (PCN). Its berries are edible, but little is known about their nutritional content. If more was known about their nutritional value this could provid...

  7. BlackBerry's Long March Into China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAYET SELLAMI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Some time in the coming weeks, Research In Motion Ltd (RIM) will launch its wireless BlackBerry e-mail service on the Chinese mainland in a partnership with China Mobile Ltd, which has two-thirds of the Chinese market and is the world's biggest mobile carrier by number of subscribers. The exact date of the launch has yet to be set.

  8. Using RPAS Multi-Spectral Imagery to Characterise Vigour, Leaf Development, Yield Components and Berry Composition Variability within a Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rey-Caramés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of precision viticulture techniques requires the use of emerging sensing technologies to assess the vineyard spatial variability. This work shows the capability of multispectral imagery acquired from a remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS, and the derived spectral indices to assess the vegetative, productive, and berry composition spatial variability within a vineyard (Vitis vinifera L.. Multi-spectral imagery of 17 cm spatial resolution was acquired using a RPAS. Classical vegetation spectral indices and two newly defined normalised indices, NVI1 = (R802 − R531/(R802 + R531 and NVI2 = (R802 − R570/(R802 + R570, were computed. Their spatial distribution and relationships with grapevine vegetative, yield, and berry composition parameters were studied. Most of the spectral indices and field data varied spatially within the vineyard, as showed through the variogram parameters. While the correlations were significant but moderate among the spectral indices and the field variables, the kappa index showed that the spatial pattern of the spectral indices agreed with that of the vegetative variables (0.38–0.70 and mean cluster weight (0.40. These results proved the utility of the multi-spectral imagery acquired from a RPAS to delineate homogeneous zones within the vineyard, allowing the grapegrower to carry out a specific management of each subarea.

  9. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  10. Functional Annotation, Genome Organization and Phylogeny of the Grapevine (Vitis vinifera Terpene Synthase Gene Family Based on Genome Assembly, FLcDNA Cloning, and Enzyme Assays

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    Toub Omid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terpenoids are among the most important constituents of grape flavour and wine bouquet, and serve as useful metabolite markers in viticulture and enology. Based on the initial 8-fold sequencing of a nearly homozygous Pinot noir inbred line, 89 putative terpenoid synthase genes (VvTPS were predicted by in silico analysis of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome assembly 1. The finding of this very large VvTPS family, combined with the importance of terpenoid metabolism for the organoleptic properties of grapevine berries and finished wines, prompted a detailed examination of this gene family at the genomic level as well as an investigation into VvTPS biochemical functions. Results We present findings from the analysis of the up-dated 12-fold sequencing and assembly of the grapevine genome that place the number of predicted VvTPS genes at 69 putatively functional VvTPS, 20 partial VvTPS, and 63 VvTPS probable pseudogenes. Gene discovery and annotation included information about gene architecture and chromosomal location. A dense cluster of 45 VvTPS is localized on chromosome 18. Extensive FLcDNA cloning, gene synthesis, and protein expression enabled functional characterization of 39 VvTPS; this is the largest number of functionally characterized TPS for any species reported to date. Of these enzymes, 23 have unique functions and/or phylogenetic locations within the plant TPS gene family. Phylogenetic analyses of the TPS gene family showed that while most VvTPS form species-specific gene clusters, there are several examples of gene orthology with TPS of other plant species, representing perhaps more ancient VvTPS, which have maintained functions independent of speciation. Conclusions The highly expanded VvTPS gene family underpins the prominence of terpenoid metabolism in grapevine. We provide a detailed experimental functional annotation of 39 members of this important gene family in grapevine and comprehensive information

  11. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

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    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  12. Developmental control of hypoxia during bud burst in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitha, Karlia; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Signorelli, Santiago; Gibbs, Daniel J; Considine, John A; Foyer, Christine H; Considine, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Dormant or quiescent buds of woody perennials are often dense and in the case of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) have a low tissue oxygen status. The precise timing of the decision to resume growth is difficult to predict, but once committed, the increase in tissue oxygen status is rapid and developmentally regulated. Here, we show that more than a third of the grapevine homologues of widely conserved hypoxia-responsive genes and nearly a fifth of all grapevine genes possessing a plant hypoxia-responsive promoter element were differentially regulated during bud burst, in apparent harmony with resumption of meristem identity and cell-cycle gene regulation. We then investigated the molecular and biochemical properties of the grapevine ERF-VII homologues, which in other species are oxygen labile and function in transcriptional regulation of hypoxia-responsive genes. Each of the 3 VvERF-VIIs were substrates for oxygen-dependent proteolysis in vitro, as a function of the N-terminal cysteine. Collectively, these data support an important developmental function of oxygen-dependent signalling in determining the timing and effective coordination bud burst in grapevine. In addition, novel regulators, including GASA-, TCP-, MYB3R-, PLT-, and WUS-like transcription factors, were identified as hallmarks of the orderly and functional resumption of growth following quiescence in buds. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genomics technologies to study structural variations in the grapevine genome

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    Cardone Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the most important crop plants in the world. Recently there was great expansion of genomics resources about grapevine genome, thus providing increasing efforts for molecular breeding. Current cultivars display a great level of inter-specific differentiation that needs to be investigated to reach a comprehensive understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypic differences, and to find responsible genes selected by cross breeding programs. While there have been significant advances in resolving the pattern and nature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on plant genomes, few data are available on copy number variation (CNV. Furthermore association between structural variations and phenotypes has been described in only a few cases. We combined high throughput biotechnologies and bioinformatics tools, to reveal the first inter-varietal atlas of structural variation (SV for the grapevine genome. We sequenced and compared four table grape cultivars with the Pinot noir inbred line PN40024 genome as the reference. We detected roughly 8% of the grapevine genome affected by genomic variations. Taken into account phenotypic differences existing among the studied varieties we performed comparison of SVs among them and the reference and next we performed an in-depth analysis of gene content of polymorphic regions. This allowed us to identify genes showing differences in copy number as putative functional candidates for important traits in grapevine cultivation.

  14. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  15. Spatial variability of night temperatures at a fine scale over the Stellenbosch wine district, South Africa

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    Valérie Bonnardot

    2012-03-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In the context of climate change, it is crucial to improve knowledge of current climatic conditions at fine scale during periods of grapevine growth and berry ripening in order to have a baseline from which to work when discussing and considering future local adaptations to accommodate to a warmer environnement.

  16. Research concerning the influence of soil type and fertilization prescriptions on nitrogen and phosphorus absorption by grapevine from fertilizers using 15N and 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdinescu, A.

    1994-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted with the aim to study the effect of two types of soils (reddish-brown and podzol) fertilized with different N, P, K rates and ratios, on nitrogen and phosphorus absorption by grapevine from fertilizers. The mineral fertilizers were applied in pots as binary and ternary combinations between N, P and K. In case of each combination there were applied different levels for each nutrient (two levels for nitrogen and three levels for phosphorus and potassium). Nitrogen was applied at 3 mg NO 3 /100 g soil (N 1 ) as 2.375% 15 N atom excess labelled ammonium nitrate, phosphorus at 5 mg P 2 O 5 /100 g soil (P 1 ) as monosodium phosphate labelled with 32 P (0.30 mCi/pot) and potassium at 10 mg K 2 0/100 g soil (K 1 ) as potassium sulphate. Nitrogen and phosphorus absorption was estimated by means of Ndff% and Pdff% values, established in grapevine at blooming and at the beginning of ripening. The experimental data indicated a higher nitrogen and phosphorus absorption from mineral fertilizers in the reddish-brown soil, as compared to podzol. In both soils the nitrogen absorption was positively influenced by the increase of the nitrogen rate and by the simultaneous administration of phosphorus and potassium. Phosphorus absorption was not thoroughly influenced by the use of nitrogen and potassium. (author)

  17. Profiling and Quantification of Regioisomeric Caffeoyl Glucoses in Berry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patras, Maria A; Jaiswal, Rakesh; McDougall, Gordon J; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2018-02-07

    On the basis of a recently developed tandem mass spectrometry-based hierarchical scheme for the identification of regioisomeric caffeoyl glucoses, selected berry fruits were profiled for their caffeoyl glucose ester content. Fresh edible berries profiled, including strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, blackberries, red currant, black currant, lingonberries, gooseberries, and juices of elderberries, goji berries, chokeberries, cranberries, açai berries, sea buckthorn berries, Montmorency sour cherries, and pomegranates, were investigated. 1-Caffeoyl glucose was found to be the predominant isomer in the majority of samples, with further profiling revealing the presence of additional hydroxycinnamoyl glucose esters and O-glycosides with p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, and sinapoyl substituents. A quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated, and all caffeoyl glucose isomers were quantified for the first time in edible berries.

  18. Avaliação de híbridos de videira destinados à elaboração de vinhos brancos em Caldas, Minas Gerais Agronomic characterisation of grapevine hybrids destined to white wine vinification grown in Caldas, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo de Albuquerque Regina

    2006-08-01

    using eight grafted on RR 101-14 rootstock cultivars grown at Epamig Experimental Farm vineyard in Caldas, MG, also cultivated in vertical system. The agronomic variables studied were: sprouting, blooming and ripening phenologic phases, total yield per vine, titratable acidity and total soluble solids in berries, and the incidence of bird's eye rot and downy mildew. The cycle from budding to harvest ranged from 147 days ('Seyve Villard 5276' to 169 days ('Seibel 10173'. Clusters of hybrids 'G 159 OC 32258', 'G159 OC 32458' and 'Seyve Villard 5276' were earlier harvested while 'Moscato Embrapa' and 'Baco blanc' delayed the ripening and had later harvest. Total yield per vine were higher than 10.4 kg.pl-1 for 'Couderc 13' followed by the 'Baco blanc' (9.27 kg.pl-1, 'Moscato Embrapa' (7.94 kg.pl-1 and 'G 159 OC 32458' (7.04 kg.pl-1 and were significantly lower for 'Seibel 10173' and 'G 159 0C 32258' (3.56 kg.pl-1. Soluble solids ranged from 14.63 ºBrix for 'Couderc 13' to 19.23 ºBrix for the 'G 159 OC 32258' hybrid, and the values of titrable acidity in the ripe berries ranged from 91.7 meq.L-1 ('Baco blanc' to 153.2 meq.L-1 ('Seibel 10173'.

  19. Possible role of Berry phase in inflationary cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B

    2012-01-01

    Here we have derived a cosmological analogue of Berry phase by obtaining the corresponding wavefunction for the system of inflationary cosmological perturbations solving the Schrodinger equation. We have further shown that cosmological Berry phase can be related inflationary observable parameters. As a result one can, atleast in principle, establish a supplementary probe of inflationary cosmology through the measurement of the associated Berry phase. But we do not make any strong comment on this.

  20. Berry Phenolic Antioxidants – Implications for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Berries contain a range of chemical compounds with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of such phenolic antioxidants, and to discuss whether these compounds may always be natural gifts for human health, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. It describes the antioxidant properties of fresh berries (including aronia berries, grapes, blueberries, sea buckthorn berries, strawberries and other berries) and their various products, especially juices and wines. Some papers report that these phenolic compounds may sometimes behave like prooxidants, and sometimes demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity, while others note they do not behave the same way in vitro and in vivo. However, no unwanted or toxic effects (i.e., chemical, hematological or urinary effect) have been associated with the consumption of berries or berry juices or other extracts, especially aronia berries and aronia products in vivo, and in vitro, which may suggest that the phenolic antioxidants found in berries are natural gifts for human health. However, the phenolic compound content of berries and berry products is not always well described, and further studies are required to determine the therapeutic doses of different berry products for use in future clinical studies. Moreover, further experiments are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far from the mechanistic point of view. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the development of well-controlled and high-quality clinical studies in this area. PMID:29662448

  1. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  2. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin, E-mail: karin@physics.utexas.edu; Sitte, Matthias [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Physics, 2515 Speedway, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects.

  3. Real-space Berry phases: Skyrmion soccer (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everschor-Sitte, Karin; Sitte, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Berry phases occur when a system adiabatically evolves along a closed curve in parameter space. This tutorial-like article focuses on Berry phases accumulated in real space. In particular, we consider the situation where an electron traverses a smooth magnetic structure, while its magnetic moment adjusts to the local magnetization direction. Mapping the adiabatic physics to an effective problem in terms of emergent fields reveals that certain magnetic textures, skyrmions, are tailormade to study these Berry phase effects

  4. Quantification of physical properties of dredged sediments during physical ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Dijk, S.G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The soil formation process ripening can be used as a bioremediation technique for dredged sediments that are polluted with organic chemicals. Currently, data are lacking that quantify the effects of physical ripening on parameters that affect aerobic bioremediation. We quantified the effects of

  5. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  6. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  7. Comparative expression profiling in grape (Vitis vinifera berries derived from frequency analysis of ESTs and MPSS signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Douglas R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitis vinifera (V. vinifera is the primary grape species cultivated for wine production, with an industry valued annually in the billions of dollars worldwide. In order to sustain and increase grape production, it is necessary to understand the genetic makeup of grape species. Here we performed mRNA profiling using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS and combined it with available Expressed Sequence Tag (EST data. These tag-based technologies, which do not require a priori knowledge of genomic sequence, are well-suited for transcriptional profiling. The sequence depth of MPSS allowed us to capture and quantify almost all the transcripts at a specific stage in the development of the grape berry. Results The number and relative abundance of transcripts from stage II grape berries was defined using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. A total of 2,635,293 17-base and 2,259,286 20-base signatures were obtained, representing at least 30,737 and 26,878 distinct sequences. The average normalized abundance per signature was ~49 TPM (Transcripts Per Million. Comparisons of the MPSS signatures with available Vitis species' ESTs and a unigene set demonstrated that 6,430 distinct contigs and 2,190 singletons have a perfect match to at least one MPSS signature. Among the matched sequences, ESTs were identified from tissues other than berries or from berries at different developmental stages. Additional MPSS signatures not matching to known grape ESTs can extend our knowledge of the V. vinifera transcriptome, particularly when these data are used to assist in annotation of whole genome sequences from Vitis vinifera. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here not only achieved a higher level of saturation than previous EST based analyses, but in doing so, expand the known set of transcripts of grape berries during the unique stage in development that immediately precedes the onset of ripening. The MPSS dataset also revealed

  8. On the classical limit of Berry's phase integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Berry's Phase is given by integration of a characteristic two form. We consider integrable systems defined by Weyl quantized classical Hamiltonians. It is shown that the limit of ℎ/i times this two form is the curvature of the classical connection whose holonomy are the Hannay angles. A result of this type was derived by Berry [B2]. (orig.)

  9. Population dynamics and distribution of the coffee berry borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics and distribution of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were studied on Coffea arabica L. in southwestern region of Ethiopia. Thirty coffee trees were sampled at weekly intervals from 2000 to 2001. Findings of this study showed that coffee berry borer population ...

  10. Nonadiabatic Berry phase in nanocrystalline magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skomski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is investigated how a Berry phase is created in polycrystalline nanomagnets and how the phase translates into an emergent magnetic field and into a topological Hall-effect contribution. The analysis starts directly from the spin of the conduction electrons and does not involve any adiabatic Hamiltonian. Completely random spin alignment in the nanocrystallites does not lead to a nonzero emergent field, but a modulation of the local magnetization does. As an explicit example, we consider a wire with a modulated cone angle.

  11. Quantitating Volatile Phenols in Cabernet Franc Berries and Wine after On-Vine Exposure to Smoke from a Simulated Forest Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-01-24

    Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity. An increase in total VPs after primary fermentation suggested the existence of VP-conjugates other than the acid-labile VP-glycosides already reported. This conclusion was supported with base hydrolysis on the same samples. Relative to published results, the data suggested a multifactorial regional identity for smoke-taint and they inform efforts to produce a predictive model for perceptible smoke-taint in wine based on the chemical composition of smoke-exposed berries.

  12. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  13. Control of grapevine wood fungi in commercial nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rego

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous surveys conducted in commercial nurseries found that different wood fungi, namely Cylindrocarpon spp., Botryosphaeriaceae, Phomopsis viticola and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora infect grapevine cuttings. Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of cyprodinil + fludioxonil, pyraclostrobin + metiram, fludioxonil and cyprodinil to prevent or reduce natural infections caused by such fungi. Rootstock and scion cuttings were soaked in fungicidal suspensions for 50 min prior to grafting. After callusing, the grafted cuttings were planted in two commercial field nurseries with and without a previous history of grapevine cultivation. After nine months in the nursery, the plants were uprooted and analysed for the incidence and severity of the wood fungi. Plants uprooted from the field without a previous history of grapevine cultivation were generally less strongly infected by wood fungi. Under this condition, only the mixture cyprodinil + fludioxonil simultaneously reduced the incidence of Cylindrocarpon and Botryosphaeriaceae fungi, as well as the severity of Cylindrocarpon infections. Treatments did not produce significant differences in the incidence and severity of P. viticola, and Pa. chlamydospora. For plants grown in the field with a grapevine history, all fungicides except cyprodinil significantly reduced the incidence and severity of Cylindrocarpon fungi. Also, the incidence and severity of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens were significantly decreased both by cyprodinil + fludioxonil and by cyprodinil. No significant differences were noticed for P. viticola incidence and severity, and Pa. chlamydospora was not detected again. These results suggest that the practice of soaking grapevine cuttings in selected fungicides prior to grafting significantly reduces Cylindrocarpon spp. and Botryosphaeriaceae infections, thus improving the quality of planting material.

  14. Comportamento vegetativo e produtivo de videiras 'Cabernet sauvignon' cultivadas sob cobertura plástica Vegetative growth and yield of 'Cabernet sauvignon' grapevine under overhead plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de cobertura plástica no cultivo de videira encontra-se em expansão no Rio Grande do Sul, por ser uma alternativa que visa a proteger as plantas da precipitação pluvial e do granizo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os impactos de uma cobertura plástica translúcida e impermeável sobre a fenologia, o crescimento (de ramos, folhas, cachos e bagas e a produtividade em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L., com cinco anos de idade, conduzidas em sistema 'Y', sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento, conduzido no município de Caxias do Sul-RS, seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, tendo os tratamentos sem e com cobertura plástica, com quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. As alterações microclimáticas impostas pela cobertura plástica não foram expressivas para alterar a fenologia da videira. As plantas cultivadas sob cobertura plástica apresentaram maiores valores de comprimento e massa fresca de ramos e de área, e massa seca foliar em comparação às plantas descobertas. O peso e o diâmetro de bagas foram superiores nas videiras cobertas apenas no início do ciclo e não diferiram próximo da colheita. As demais variáveis analisadas não foram afetadas pela cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica interferiu no crescimento vegetativo das plantas, mas não afetou a produção.There is an increasing adoption of overhead plastic covering for grapevines in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, to protect the plants from rain and hail storms. This study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of overhead plastic covering with a translucent and water-proof plastic film on phenological, growth (of branch, leaves, clusters, and berries, and yield attributes of five years old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. on Paulsen 1103 rootstock raised as 'Y' management system. The experiment was carried out in Caxias do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul, and followed a

  15. Levels of polonium-210 in the grapevine leaves in Alasehir district in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurboga, G.; Aytas Oelmez, S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of present work is the estimation of Po-210 (polonium) content in the edible grapevine leaves (Vitis viniferae, L.cv Sultana syn.) collected from Gediz plain in Western Turkey. Alasehir District in Gediz plain is one of the most important wine culture region of Turkey. Grapevine leaves are important food material for Dolma in Turkish cuisine. Dolma is a name applied to such vegetables as grapevine leaves, cabbage leaves and green peppers stuffed ground meat or spiked rice. Levels of Po-210 in the grapevine leaves had not been analyzed before in Turkey. In this study, after wet ashing of grapevine leaves, Po-210 was spontaneously plated onto a copper disc from dilute hydrochloric acid medium and deposited activity was measured. The results for Po-210 in the grapevine leaves are compared with the other foodstuff values in the literature

  16. A UDP-Glucose:Monoterpenol Glucosyltransferase Adds to the Chemical Diversity of the Grapevine Metabolome1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, Friedericke; Frotscher, Johanna; Stanitzek, Sarah; Rühl, Ernst; Wüst, Matthias; Bitz, Oliver; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Terpenoids represent one of the major classes of natural products and serve different biological functions. In grape (Vitis vinifera), a large fraction of these compounds is present as nonvolatile terpene glycosides. We have extracted putative glycosyltransferase (GT) sequences from the grape genome database that show similarity to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GTs whose encoded proteins glucosylate a diversity of terpenes. Spatial and temporal expression levels of the potential VvGT genes were determined in five different grapevine varieties. Heterologous expression and biochemical assays of candidate genes led to the identification of a UDP-glucose:monoterpenol β-d-glucosyltransferase (VvGT7). The VvGT7 gene was expressed in various tissues in accordance with monoterpenyl glucoside accumulation in grape cultivars. Twelve allelic VvGT7 genes were isolated from five cultivars, and their encoded proteins were biochemically analyzed. They varied in substrate preference and catalytic activity. Three amino acids, which corresponded to none of the determinants previously identified for other plant GTs, were found to be important for enzymatic catalysis. Site-specific mutagenesis along with the analysis of allelic proteins also revealed amino acids that impact catalytic activity and substrate tolerance. These results demonstrate that VvGT7 may contribute to the production of geranyl and neryl glucoside during grape ripening. PMID:24784757

  17. Micro-CT unveils the secret life of the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera, Curculionidae: Scolytinae) inside coffee berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...

  18. The grapevine VvWRKY2 gene enhances salt and osmotic stress tolerance in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzid, Rim; Zorrig, Walid; Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hamed, Karim; Ayadi, Mariem; Damak, Yosra; Lauvergeat, Virginie; Hanana, Mohsen

    2018-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the implication of WRKY transcription factor in the molecular mechanisms of grapevine adaptation to salt and water stresses. In this respect, a full-length VvWRKY2 cDNA, isolated from a Vitis vinifera grape berry cDNA library, was constitutively over-expressed in Nicotiana tabacum seedlings. Our results showed that transgenic tobacco plants exhibited higher seed germination rates and better growth, under both salt and osmotic stress treatments, when compared to wild type plants. Furthermore, our analyses demonstrated that, under stress conditions, transgenic plants accumulated more osmolytes, such as soluble sugars and free proline, while no changes were observed regarding electrolyte leakage, H 2 O 2 , and malondialdehyde contents. The improvement of osmotic adjustment may be an important mechanism underlying the role of VvWRKY 2 in promoting tolerance and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Principal component analysis of our results highlighted a clear partition of plant response to stress. On the other hand, we observed a significant adaptation behaviour response for transgenic lines under stress. Taken together, all our findings suggest that over-expression of VvWRKY2 gene has a compelling role in abiotic stress tolerance and, therefore, would provide a useful strategy to promote abiotic stress tolerance in grape via molecular-assisted breeding and/or new biotechnology tools.

  19. Composição de bagas de 'Niágara Rosada' e 'Folha-de-Figo' relacionadas ao sistema de condução Fruit composition of 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines under different training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do sistema de condução na qualidade de bagas de uvas 'Niágara Rosada' e 'Folha-de-Figo' cultivadas em Caldas-MG. Foram avaliados a produção por planta, o diâmetro, a massa, o teor de potássio e a temperatura das bagas, pH, teor de sólidos solúveis, açúcares redutores, acidez total e ácidos orgânicos do mosto, compostos fenólicos nas cascas e sementes, e antocianinas. As plantas foram conduzidas em espaldeira, lira, latada ou cordão simples, e os frutos, avaliados nas safras de 2006 e 2007. As videiras de 'Niágara Rosada' cultivadas em latada e 'Folha-de-Figo' em lira apresentaram produção significativamente superior aos demais sistemas de condução. Em todos os casos, as bagas apresentaram temperatura inferior à ambiente, indicando sombreamento completo ou parcial dos cachos. No sistema latada, houve menor acúmulo de sólidos solúveis e açúcares redutores nas duas cultivares. Estes resultados preliminares indicam que a composição das bagas foi pouco influenciada pelo sistema de condução.ABSTRACT This work aimed on evaluating the influence of training systems in berries composition of 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines grown in Caldas, MG. Yield per plant; diameter, weight, temperature and potassium content of the berries; pH, soluble solids, reducing sugars, total acidity and organic acids of the must; anthocyanins and phenolic compounds of the skins and phenolic compounds of the seeds were evaluated in grapevines training in vertical shoot position, lyre trellis, pergola Veronese or simple string in 2006 and 2007 seasons. 'Niágara Rosada' and 'Folha-de-Figo' grapevines training in pergola Veronese and lyre trellis, respectively, showed higher yield than the other training systems under study. Berries grown under the four different training systems were cooler than ambient temperature, resulting from partial or deep shade clusters. Berries

  20. SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIC FRESH BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Elena TĂNASE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes and particularly global warming are topics carefully treated by specialists already since decades. The most pregnant factor that influences climate change is pollution, namely the high level carbon dioxide emissions. Besides other substances used by the most of the industries (oil, charcoal, fertilizers, etc., plastics are not to be ignored when talking about pollution. Plastic waste affects animals and humans, as well as their habitat. In this respect, food industry engages in preserving the good functioning of the environment by developing and using biodegradable and bio-based resources for food packaging. The aim of this literature review was to identify the optimal sustainable packaging solution used for berries. The results of the study pointed out that the most used environmentally friendly packaging technique is the one that involves modified atmosphere. In terms of packaging materials, the literature is limited when it comes to biodegradable/bio-based solutions. However, active packaging gains popularity among researchers, considering the endless possibilities to include sustainable compounds in a biopolymer based matrix, in order to prolong the shelf-life of berries or fruits in general.

  1. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above

  2. Impact of Ozone Gradient on Grapevine Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebic-Juretic, Ana; Bokan-Vucelic, Itana; Mifka, Boris; Zatezalo, Marija; Zubak, Velimir

    2017-04-01

    Due to complex orography and air mass circulation, the Rijeka Bay area is characterized by O3 gradient, with concentrations risen with the altitude (1). Therefore AOT40 values were often exceeded and should result in harmful effects on vegetation. Based on previous controlled experiments (2), we examined the possible effect of atmospheric ozone on grape leaves under natural O3 gradient. Grapevine leaves (2-5) were collected from May to September 2016 at two sampling points in the proximity of two AQM stations: Site 1 in the city centre (20m asl) and Site 2 (186m asl) in the suburban settlement. Subsequent to weighing and determination of surface area, the leaves (0,5 g) were extracted in 95% ethanol and analysed on chlorophyl a (Chla), chlorophyl b (Chlb) and carotene (Car) content by UV-VIS spectrometry on 3 wavelengths (664, 649, 470 nm) (3) In summer 2016 O3 gradient was not that pronounced as usual (1), but stil the concentrations differed by approx. 20%, exceeding national AOT40 value at both sites (22.360 and 28.061 μg m-3 h, respectively, at Sites 1 and 2). The concentrations of other pollutants were bellow limit values (LV). The Cha and Chb in a sample leaves collected at the end of May at Site 2 are equal to that with filtered O3 in control experiment (2), i.e. without damage caused by ozone, while the Car content is lower approx. 50% and is kept at the same level. The con-centrations of pigments obtained in July prooved the possible damage by O3, while in subsequent months could speed up natural ageing. This is the first evidence of O3 damage on plants in the Rijeka Bay area, in spite of weaker O3 gradient and lacking visible signs of damage. Preliminary results indicate the need for more frequent sampling, particularly in the period included in AOT40 (May-July). References: 1. Alebić-Juretić A (2012) Int J Remote Sensing, 33(2): 335-345 2. Britvec M, Reichenauer T, Soja G., Ljubešić N, Pećina M (2001) Biologia (Bratislava),56/4: 417-424 3. Sumanata

  3. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  4. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  5. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. Effect of ripening period on composition of pepino (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    % for raw and ... of glucose and fructose declined during ripening, whereas sucrose showed an increase in ... Solanaceae like tomato, potato, tobacco and pepper ... Abbreviation: NDF, Neutral detergent fiber; ADF, acid detergent fiber;. HPLC,.

  7. Multi-Omics and Integrated Network Analyses Reveal New Insights into the Systems Relationships between Metabolites, Structural Genes, and Transcriptional Regulators in Developing Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera L. Exposed to Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Savoi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are one of the major fruit crops and they are cultivated in many dry environments. This study comprehensively characterizes the metabolic response of grape berries exposed to water deficit at different developmental stages. Increases of proline, branched-chain amino acids, phenylpropanoids, anthocyanins, and free volatile organic compounds have been previously observed in grape berries exposed to water deficit. Integrating RNA-sequencing analysis of the transcriptome with large-scale analysis of central and specialized metabolites, we reveal that these increases occur via a coordinated regulation of key structural pathway genes. Water deficit-induced up-regulation of flavonoid genes is also coordinated with the down-regulation of many stilbene synthases and a consistent decrease in stilbenoid concentration. Water deficit activated both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signal transduction pathways by modulating the expression of several transcription factors. Gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses showed that water deficit-responsive transcription factors such as bZIPs, AP2/ERFs, MYBs, and NACs are implicated in the regulation of stress-responsive metabolites. Enrichment of known and novel cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of several ripening-specific/water deficit-induced modules further affirms the involvement of a transcription factor cross-talk in the berry response to water deficit. Together, our integrated approaches show that water deficit-regulated gene modules are strongly linked to key fruit-quality metabolites and multiple signal transduction pathways may be critical to achieve a balance between the regulation of the stress-response and the berry ripening program. This study constitutes an invaluable resource for future discoveries and comparative studies, in grapes and other fruits, centered on reproductive tissue metabolism under abiotic stress.

  8. Multi-Omics and Integrated Network Analyses Reveal New Insights into the Systems Relationships between Metabolites, Structural Genes, and Transcriptional Regulators in Developing Grape Berries (Vitis vinifera L.) Exposed to Water Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoi, Stefania; Wong, Darren C J; Degu, Asfaw; Herrera, Jose C; Bucchetti, Barbara; Peterlunger, Enrico; Fait, Aaron; Mattivi, Fulvio; Castellarin, Simone D

    2017-01-01

    Grapes are one of the major fruit crops and they are cultivated in many dry environments. This study comprehensively characterizes the metabolic response of grape berries exposed to water deficit at different developmental stages. Increases of proline, branched-chain amino acids, phenylpropanoids, anthocyanins, and free volatile organic compounds have been previously observed in grape berries exposed to water deficit. Integrating RNA-sequencing analysis of the transcriptome with large-scale analysis of central and specialized metabolites, we reveal that these increases occur via a coordinated regulation of key structural pathway genes. Water deficit-induced up-regulation of flavonoid genes is also coordinated with the down-regulation of many stilbene synthases and a consistent decrease in stilbenoid concentration. Water deficit activated both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signal transduction pathways by modulating the expression of several transcription factors. Gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses showed that water deficit-responsive transcription factors such as bZIPs, AP2/ERFs, MYBs, and NACs are implicated in the regulation of stress-responsive metabolites. Enrichment of known and novel cis -regulatory elements in the promoters of several ripening-specific/water deficit-induced modules further affirms the involvement of a transcription factor cross-talk in the berry response to water deficit. Together, our integrated approaches show that water deficit-regulated gene modules are strongly linked to key fruit-quality metabolites and multiple signal transduction pathways may be critical to achieve a balance between the regulation of the stress-response and the berry ripening program. This study constitutes an invaluable resource for future discoveries and comparative studies, in grapes and other fruits, centered on reproductive tissue metabolism under abiotic stress.

  9. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R

    2012-12-18

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit

  10. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  11. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Kumar, A; Zachariah, T J

    2014-04-01

    To isolate, fermentatively evaluate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)-associated bacteria for the microbial decortication of fresh ripened berries and dried black pepper for preparation of off-odour-free white pepper. Among 45 bacterial isolates obtained from black pepper, seven of them were found to decorticate black pepper (>60%) and fresh pepper berries (98-100%) into white pepper within 5 days of immersion in bacterial suspension. The 16S rRNA genes (1500-bp amplicon) of these bacteria were sequenced, and species identity was established by closest match in GenBank. Superior-quality white pepper was obtained with Bacillus subtilis (IISR WP 33, 34, 38), Bacillus licheniformis (IISR WP 43), Acinetobacter baumanii (IISR WP 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (IISR WP 19) and Microbacterium barkeri (IISR WP25). The bacterial isolates were found to secrete multiple hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase, protease and xylanase. Bacterial cultures were deposited with International Depository Authority at Microbial Type Culture Collection, India, as patent deposits as prescribed in Budapest Treaty for microbial deposits. The white pepper, thus obtained from bacterial decortication process, was free from off-odour compound, especially skatole. Other biochemical constituents such as oleoresin, piperine and essential oils were found in the acceptable range. The bacterial decortication did not affect inherent constituents of pepper such as essential oil constituents, oleoresin and piperine content. One of the most significant findings of the work is identification of specific bacterial species for decortication of fresh berries or black pepper berries into value-added white pepper. This work paved way for developing a technological process for microbial decortication of fresh/black pepper for the production of superior-quality white pepper. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori

    2018-02-01

    Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.

  13. Protective, curative and eradicative activities of fungicides against grapevine rust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francislene Angelotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.

  14. Current perspectives in proteomic analysis of abiotic stress in Grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iniga Seraphina George

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapes are an important crop plant which forms the basis of a globally important industry. Grape and wine production is particularly vulnerable to environmental and climatic fluctuations, which makes it essential for us to develop a greater understanding of the molecular level responses of grape plants to various abiotic stresses. The completion of the initial grape genome sequence in 2007 has led to a significant increase in research on grapes using proteomics approaches. In this article, we discuss some of the current research on abiotic stress in grapevines, in the context of abiotic stress research in other plant species. We also highlight some of the current limitations in grapevine proteomics and identify areas with promising scope for potential future research.

  15. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of red guava (Psidium guajava) velva at different fruit ripening time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishartani, D.; Rahman, F. L. F.; Hartanto, R.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of red guava fruit ripening time on the physical (overrun and melting rate), chemical (vitamin C, pH, total dissolved solid) and sensory (color, taste, aroma, texture, and overall compare to control (without ripening) velva) characteristic of red guava velva. Red guava fruits were harvested at 90 days after flowering, ripened and then processed into velva. This research used Completely Randomized Design with fruit ripening time (without ripening, 4 days, and 6 days) as single factor. The research was conducted in triplicate. Chemical and physical characteristic data was analysed using One Way Analysis of Varian whether sensory characteristic data was analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. The result showed that fruit ripening time significantly affected the physical, chemical and sensory characteristic of the velva. Vitamin C, pH, and total solid of the velva were increased as the ripening time prolonged. In other hand, increasing of fruit ripening time decreased the overrun and melting rate of the velva. Red guava velva made from 6 days ripening had better sensory characteristics compared to velva made from red guava fruit without ripening or 4 day ripening. This research conclude that 6 days ripening time gives better chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of the velva compare to 4 days ripening time. Red guava fruits ripened for 6 days were recommended as raw material in velva making.

  16. Biostimulation of grapevine : mode of action and possible agronomic uses

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyzaniak, Yuko; Trouvelot, Sophie; Heloir, Marie-Claire; Fourquez, P.; Magnin-Robert, Jean-Bernard; Randoux, B.; Siah, A.; Halama, Patrice; Moreau, Emmanuelle; Adrian, Marielle

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest for the use of biostimulants in agriculture, only few methods allowing a precise description of their effects on plants have been reported. In the IRIS+ FUI project, two major and highly different worldwide crops, wheat (annual, monocotyledon) and grapevine (perennial, broadleaf), were chosen to deepen our knowledge of such compounds and explore their potential additional interest. The first objective is to develop in greenhouse conditions, a panel of tool...

  17. Influence of water stress on Botryosphaeriaceae disease expression in grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan VAN NIEKERK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species in Botryosphaeriaceae have been associated with grapevine trunk diseases. To evaluate the effect of water stress on infection of grapevines by Botryosphaeriaceae spp., 1-year-old Shiraz/101-14 Mgt nursery grapevine plants were planted in plastic potting bags and placed outdoors under shade netting. Five weeks after planting, vines were pruned and the pruning wounds inoculated with spore suspensions of Neofusicoccum australe, Neofusicoccum parvum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae or Diplodia seriata. Control treatments consisted of applications of sterile water or a Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension. Stem inoculations were done by inserting a colonised or uncolonised agar plug into a wound made in each stem. Four different irrigation regimes were introduced 12 weeks after planting to simulate varying degrees of water stress. Measurements of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and leaf spectrometry were made to monitor physiological stress. Eight months after inoculation, vines were uprooted and the root, shoot and plant mass of each vine determined. Lesions observed in the inoculated pruning wounds and stems were also measured. Vines subjected to the lowest irrigation regime were significantly smaller than optimally irrigated vines. Water stressed vines also had significantly lower photosynthetic rates and levels of stomatal conductance compared with vines receiving optimal irrigation, indicating that these plants experienced significantly higher levels of physiological stress. The mean lesion length was significantly longer in the pruning wounds and stems of plants subjected to the lowest irrigation regime, with lesion length declining linearly with increasing irrigation volume. These results clearly indicate that when a grapevine is exposed to water stress, colonisation and disease expression by Botryosphaeriaceae spp. are much more severe.

  18. Atmospheric circulation patterns and phenological anomalies of grapevine in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cola, Gabriele; Alilla, Roberta; Dal Monte, Giovanni; Epifani, Chiara; Mariani, Luigi; Parisi, Simone Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a fundamental crop for Italian agriculture as testified by the first place of Italy in the world producers ranking. This justify the importance of quantitative analyses referred to this crucial crop and aimed to quantify meteorological resources and limitations to development and production. Phenological rhythms of grapevine are strongly affected by surface fields of air temperature which in their turn are affected by synoptic circulation. This evidence highlights the importance of an approach based on dynamic climatology in order to detect and explain phenological anomalies that can have relevant effects on quantity and quality of grapevine production. In this context, this research is aimed to study the existing relation among the 850 hPa circulation patterns over the Euro-Mediterranean area from NOAA Ncep dataset and grapevine phenological fields for Italy over the period 2006-2013, highlighting the main phenological anomalies and analyzing synoptic determinants. This work is based on phenological fields with a standard pixel of 2 km routinely produced from 2006 by the Iphen project (Italian Phenological network) on the base of phenological observations spatialized by means of a specific algorithm based on cumulated thermal resources expressed as Normal Heat Hours (NHH). Anomalies have been evaluated with reference to phenological normal fields defined for the Italian area on the base of phenological observations and Iphen model. Results show that relevant phenological anomalies observed over the reference period are primarily associated with long lasting blocking systems driving cold air masses (Arctic or Polar-Continental) or hot ones (Sub-Tropical) towards the Italian area. Specific cases are presented for some years like 2007 and 2011.

  19. ADVANCES IN PROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE IN THE WORLD

    OpenAIRE

    GROHS, DANIEL SANTOS; ALMANÇA, MARCUS ANDRÉ KURTZ; FAJARDO, THOR VINICIUS MARTINS; HALLEEN, FRANCOIS; MIELE, ALBERTO

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Grapevine production by classical grafting methods and in commercial scale emerged over 130 years. This system remained handmade until the mid-1950s, when the first international certification programs aimed at obtaining mother plants with high viral sanity emerged. The necessity to increase the scale of production on industrial model and plant material production based on minimum morphological standards appeared at the end of the 1960s. Along the 1970s, research unlocked knowledge ...

  20. ADVANCES IN PROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL SANTOS GROHS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grapevine production by classical grafting methods and in commercial scale emerged over 130 years. This system remained handmade until the mid-1950s, when the first international certification programs aimed at obtaining mother plants with high viral sanity emerged. The necessity to increase the scale of production on industrial model and plant material production based on minimum morphological standards appeared at the end of the 1960s. Along the 1970s, research unlocked knowledge on semi-automated grafting, process hygiene, use of plant growth regulators and understanding of physiological events of rootstock-scion compatibility, callus formation and rooting. So, until the mid-2000s, certification schemes and propagation processes advanced little in technical standard. However, grapevine growing areas were expanded and demands for plant material increased, and new diseases emerged from contaminated nurseries. These new diseases (new viral complexes, phytoplasmas, bacteria and grapevine trunk diseases were discovered by high-sensitivity diagnostic methods. Today, there is a new discussion on the nursery segment worldwide. The propagation techniques have been reviewed from the perspective of reducing the incidence of new diseases and minimum physiological damage of nursery plants during the production stages. Therefore, technological innovations regarding equipment, practices and production inputs have been incorporated in new certification schemes. However, despite these advantages, these schemes have become more complex and multidisciplinary than previous ones, bringing difficulties in adaptation of nurserymen.

  1. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  2. Ostwald ripening: an approach with dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Lameiras

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This approach assumes three functions independently acting on a set of microparticles. The first one, w1, concerns re-distribution of mass to decrease the surface energy. The second one, w2, concerns re-distribution of mass to increase the entropy of the microparticle set. The third one, w3, is a further re-distribution of mass that vanishes a microparticle. Once vanished, its mass is distributed among its neighbors. w1 and w3 release energy, whereas w2 absorbs energy. Part of the energy released should be available to sustain w2. The action frequency of w1, w2, and w3, the amount of mass exchanged in each iteraction, the fraction of released energy available to sustain w2, and the size of a vanishing microparticle can be varied. As the dynamical system formed by w1, w2, and w3 act on an initial microparticle set, it is observed an evolution resembling the Ostwald ripening concerning steady-state size distribution and microparticle growth.

  3. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  4. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  5. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  6. Grapevine dynamics after manual tending of juvenile stands on the Hoosier National Forest, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Martin-Michel Gauthier; John A., Jr. Kershaw; Douglass F. Jacobs; Burnell C. Fischer; John R. Siefert

    2008-01-01

    Large woody vines, most notably grapevines, are a source of great concern for forest and wildlife managers in many parts of the Central Hardwood Forest Region of the United States. We examined grapevine dynamics in stands aged 21 - 35 years. The plots, located in regenerated clearcuts in the Hoosier National Forest (HNF), were evaluated for vine control, site, and tree...

  7. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  8. Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)

    2014-10-06

    By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.

  9. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  10. Effectiveness of some microorganisms in the limitation of grapevine cuttings infection by Phomopsis viticola Sacc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of using antagonistic fungi and bacteria in the limitation of grapevine stems infection by Phomopsis viticola Sacc. were studied. Trichodema koningii Oud., T.viride Persoon ex S.F.,T.harzianum Rifai, Gliocladium catenulatum Gilman and Abbott, G.fimbriatum Gilman and Abbott, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens and five unidentified isolates of bacteria i.e.: 22a, 35, 40, 45, 66 were estimated. It was appeared what Trichoderma spp. were the most effective in protection of grapevine stems against the infection by P.viticola. After these antagonistic fungi were used on protected grapevine canes not numerous necrosis were observed and few cultures of pathogen were reisolated from them. Moreover, Trichoderma spp. survived on the grapevine stems during the period of experiment. The abilities of other microorganisms tested to protect grapevine cuttings against P.viticola infection and to exist on the stems were less than Trichoderma spp.

  11. Pectic polysaccharides are attacked by hydroxyl radicals in ripening fruit: evidence from a fluorescent fingerprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airianah, Othman B; Vreeburg, Robert A M; Fry, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Many fruits soften during ripening, which is important commercially and in rendering the fruit attractive to seed-dispersing animals. Cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolases may contribute to softening, but sometimes appear to be absent. An alternative hypothesis is that hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) non-enzymically cleave wall polysaccharides. We evaluated this hypothesis by using a new fluorescent labelling procedure to 'fingerprint' (•)OH-attacked polysaccharides. We tagged fruit polysaccharides with 2-(isopropylamino)-acridone (pAMAC) groups to detect (a) any mid-chain glycosulose residues formed in vivo during (•)OH action and (b) the conventional reducing termini. The pAMAC-labelled pectins were digested with Driselase, and the products resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Strawberry, pear, mango, banana, apple, avocado, Arbutus unedo, plum and nectarine pectins all yielded several pAMAC-labelled products. GalA-pAMAC (monomeric galacturonate, labelled with pAMAC at carbon-1) was produced in all species, usually increasing during fruit softening. The six true fruits also gave pAMAC·UA-GalA disaccharides (where pAMAC·UA is an unspecified uronate, labelled at a position other than carbon-1), with yields increasing during softening. Among false fruits, apple and strawberry gave little pAMAC·UA-GalA; pear produced it transiently. GalA-pAMAC arises from pectic reducing termini, formed by any of three proposed chain-cleaving agents ((•)OH, endopolygalacturonase and pectate lyase), any of which could cause its ripening-related increase. In contrast, pAMAC·UA-GalA conjugates are diagnostic of mid-chain oxidation of pectins by (•)OH. The evidence shows that (•)OH radicals do indeed attack fruit cell wall polysaccharides non-enzymically during softening in vivo. This applies much more prominently to drupes and berries (true fruits) than to false fruits (swollen receptacles). (•)OH radical attack on polysaccharides

  12. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  14. Ostwald ripening in two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the temperature of a rapidly solidified solid-liquid mixture have been made over a range of volume fractions solid 0.23 to 0.95. These experiments demonstrate the viability of measuring the change in interfacial curvature with time via precision thermometry. The experimental measurements also indicate that there is no radical change in interface morphology over a wide range of volume fractions solid. A solution to the multi-particle diffusion problem (MDP) has been constructed through the use of potential theory. The solution to the MDP was used to describe the diffusion field within a coarsening two-phase mixture consisting of dispersed spherical second-phase particles. Since this theory is based upon the MDP, interparticle diffusional interactions are specifically included in the treatment. As a result, the theory yields, for the first time, insights into the influence of the local distribution of curvature on a particle's coarsening rate. The effect of interparticle interactions on the collective behavior of an ensemble of coarsening particles was also investigated. It was found that any arbitrary distribution of particle radii will tend to a specific time independent distribution when the particle radii are scaled by the average particle radius. Furthermore, it was determined that with increasing volume fraction of coarsening phase, these time independent distributions become broader and more symmetric. It was also found that the ripening kinetics, as measured by the growth rate of the average particle size, increases by a factor of five upon increasing the volume fraction of coarsening phase from zero to 0.5

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase gene from grapevine cultivar Muscat Bailey A (Vitis labrusca × V. vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kanako; Takase, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hironori; Matsuo, Hironori; Takata, Ryoji

    2015-10-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol) is an important aroma compound in fruits, such as pineapple and strawberry, and is reported to contribute to the strawberry-like note in some wines. Several grapevine species are used in winemaking, and furaneol is one of the characteristic aroma compounds in wines made from American grape (Vitis labrusca) and its hybrid grape. Furaneol glucoside was recently isolated as an important furaneol derivative from the hybrid grapevine cultivar, Muscat Bailey A (V. labrusca × V. vinifera), and this was followed by its isolation from some fruits such as strawberry and tomato. Furaneol glucoside is a significant 'aroma precursor of wine' because furaneol is liberated from it during alcoholic fermentation. In this study, a glucosyltransferase gene from Muscat Bailey A (UGT85K14), which is responsible for the glucosylation of furaneol was identified. UGT85K14 was expressed in the representative grape cultivars regardless of species, indicating that furaneol glucoside content is regulated by the biosynthesis of furaneol. On the other hand, furaneol glucoside content in Muscat Bailey A berry during maturation might be controlled by the expression of UGT85K14 along with the biosynthesis of furaneol. Recombinant UGT85K14 expressed in Escherichia coli is able to transfer a glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to the hydroxy group of furaneol, indicating that this gene might be UDP-glucose: furaneol glucosyltransferase in Muscat Bailey A. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening. PMID:26511917

  17. Natural Variation in Banana Varieties Highlights the Role of Melatonin in Postharvest Ripening and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hai; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Wang, Jiashui; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Shi, Haitao; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to investigate the role of melatonin in postharvest ripening and quality in various banana varieties with contrasting ripening periods. During the postharvest life, endogenous melatonin showed similar performance with ethylene in connection to ripening. In comparison to ethylene, melatonin was more correlated with postharvest banana ripening. Exogenous application of melatonin resulted in a delay of postharvest banana ripening. Moreover, this effect is concentration-dependent, with 200 and 500 μM treatments more effective than the 50 μM treatment. Exogenous melatonin also led to elevated endogenous melatonin content, reduced ethylene production through regulation of the expression of MaACO1 and MaACS1, and delayed sharp changes of quality indices. Taken together, this study highlights that melatonin is an indicator for banana fruit ripening in various varieties, and the repression of ethylene biosynthesis and postharvest ripening by melatonin can be used for biological control of postharvest fruit ripening and quality.

  18. Grapevine rootstocks shape underground bacterial microbiome and networking but not potential functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Michoud, Grégoire; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-03

    The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction

  19. Grapevine rootstocks shape underground bacterial microbiome and networking but not potential functionality

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Fusi, Marco; Michoud, Gregoire; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere.Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems.Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction

  20. Grapevine rootstocks shape underground bacterial microbiome and networking but not potential functionality

    KAUST Repository

    Marasco, Ramona

    2018-01-03

    The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere.Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities\\' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems.Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction

  1. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  2. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in vaccinium berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, Agnes M; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Magee, James B; Dewey, Jim; Ballington, James R

    2004-07-28

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and piceatannol in Vaccinium berries. Samples representing selections and cultivars of 10 species from Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, and Canada were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Resveratrol was found in Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry), Vaccinium arboretum (sparkleberry), Vaccinium ashei (rabbiteye blueberry), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium elliottii (Elliott's blueberry), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry), Vaccinium stamineum (deerberry), Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. vitis-ideae (lingonberry), and Vaccinium vitis-ideae var. minor (partridgeberry) at levels between 7 and 5884 ng/g dry sample. Lingonberry was found to have the highest content, 5884 ng/g dry sample, comparable to that found in grapes, 6471 ng/g dry sample. Pterostilbene was found in two cultivars of V. ashei and in V. stamineum at levels of 99-520 ng/g dry sample. Piceatannol was found in V. corymbosum and V. stamineum at levels of 138-422 ng/g dry sample. These naturally occurring stilbenes, known to be strong antioxidants and to have cancer chemopreventive activities, will add to the purported health benefits derived from the consumption of these small fruits. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  3. Berry phase via quantum Zeno effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascazio, S.; Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The 'quantum Zeno effect' is an interesting quantum phenomenon, deeply rooted in some fundamental features of the quantum mechanical laws. It consists in the hindrance of the temporal evolution of a quantum system due to a frequent series of measurements. During the last few years there has been much interest in this issue, mainly because of an idea due to Cook, who proposed using two-level systems to check this effect, and the subsequent experiment performed by Itano et al. Most of the work on this subject has dealt with what might be called the 'static' version of the quantum Zeno effect. However, the most potent action of the observer is not only to stop time evolution (e.g., by repeatedly checking if a system has decayed), but to guide it. In this talk we will be concerned with a 'dynamical' version of the phenomenon: we will show how guiding a system through a closed loop in its state space (projective Hilbert space) leads to a geometrical phase. This was predicted on general grounds by Aharonov and Anandan, but here we use a specific implementation on a neutron spin and propose a particular experimental context in which to see this effect. However, our proposal is valid for any system with the same two-level structure. It is remarkable that the Berry phase to be discussed is due to measurements only: no Hamiltonian is needed. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  4. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouamama-Gzara, Badra; Selmi, Ilhem; Chebil, Samir; Melki, Imene; Mliki, Ahmed; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Carra, Angela; Carimi, Francesco; Mahfoudhi, Naima

    2017-12-01

    Prospecting of local grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. 'Hencha' were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987). based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1 -1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1 -1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% 'Hencha' somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  5. Elimination of Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus and Grapevine virus A from a Tunisian Cultivar by Somatic Embryogenesis and Characterization of the Somaclones Using Ampelographic Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badra Bouamama-Gzara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3, Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV and Grapevine virus A (GVA, were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses. The association between GRSPaV and GVA viruses induces more rugose wood symptoms and damages. For this reason the cleansing of the infected cultivar is highly advisable. Direct and recurrent somatic embryos of cv. ‘Hencha’ were successfully induced from filament, when cultured on Chée and Pool (1987. based-medium, enriched with 2 mg 1−1 of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2.5 mg 1−1 of Thidiazuron, after 36 weeks of culture. After six months of acclimatization, RT-PCR carried on 50 somaplants confirmed the absence of GVA, GRSPa-V as well as GLRaV-3 viruses in all somaplants. Ampelographic analysis, based on eight OIV descriptors, was carried out on two years acclimated somaplants, compared to the mother plant. Results demonstrated that the shape and contours of 46 somaclones leaves are identical to mother plant leaves and four phenotypically off-type plants were observed. The healthy state of 100% ‘Hencha’ somaclones and the high percentage of phenotypically true-to-type plants demonstrate that somatic embryogenesis is a promising technique to adopt for grapevine viruses elimination.

  6. Kinetic synergistic transitions in the Ostwald ripening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkov, I. N.; Turygina, V. F.; Dolganov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    There is proposed approach to mathematical description of the kinetic transitions in Ostwald ripening processes of volatile substance in nonuniformly heated porous materials. It is based upon the finite element method. There are implemented computer software. The main feature of the software is to calculate evaporation and condensation fluxes on the walls of a nonuniformly heated cylindrical capillary. Kinetic transitions are detected for three modes of volatile substances migration which are different by condensation zones location. There are controlling dimensionless parameters of the kinetic transition which are revealed during research. There is phase diagram of the Ostwald ripening process modes realization.

  7. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  8. RNA-Seq analysis and annotation of a draft blueberry genome assembly identifies candidate genes involved in fruit ripening, biosynthesis of bioactive compounds, and stage-specific alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Estrada, April D; Blakley, Ivory; Reid, Rob; Patel, Ketan; Meyer, Mason D; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Brown, Allan F; Lila, Mary Ann; Loraine, Ann E

    2015-01-01

    Blueberries are a rich source of antioxidants and other beneficial compounds that can protect against disease. Identifying genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds could enable the breeding of berry varieties with enhanced health benefits. Toward this end, we annotated a previously sequenced draft blueberry genome assembly using RNA-Seq data from five stages of berry fruit development and ripening. Genome-guided assembly of RNA-Seq read alignments combined with output from ab initio gene finders produced around 60,000 gene models, of which more than half were similar to proteins from other species, typically the grape Vitis vinifera. Comparison of gene models to the PlantCyc database of metabolic pathway enzymes identified candidate genes involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, including bixin, an apocarotenoid with potential disease-fighting properties, and defense-related cyanogenic glycosides, which are toxic. Cyanogenic glycoside (CG) biosynthetic enzymes were highly expressed in green fruit, and a candidate CG detoxification enzyme was up-regulated during fruit ripening. Candidate genes for ethylene, anthocyanin, and 400 other biosynthetic pathways were also identified. Homology-based annotation using Blast2GO and InterPro assigned Gene Ontology terms to around 15,000 genes. RNA-Seq expression profiling showed that blueberry growth, maturation, and ripening involve dynamic gene expression changes, including coordinated up- and down-regulation of metabolic pathway enzymes and transcriptional regulators. Analysis of RNA-seq alignments identified developmentally regulated alternative splicing, promoter use, and 3' end formation. We report genome sequence, gene models, functional annotations, and RNA-Seq expression data that provide an important new resource enabling high throughput studies in blueberry.

  9. Potencial produtivo de videiras cultivadas sob cobertura de plástico Yield potential of grapevine cultivated under plastic cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do uso de cobertura de plástico sobre os componentes do rendimento da videira (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. O experimento foi realizado nas safras 2005/2006 e 2006/2007, em Flores da Cunha, RS, em duas áreas de vinhedo, uma com cobertura de plástico impermeável e outra sem cobertura (controle. O microclima foi avaliado quanto à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, radiação fotossinteticamente ativa e velocidade do vento próximo ao dossel vegetativo e a os cachos. A avaliação dos componentes de rendimento ocorreu em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, e foram identificadas dez plantas marcadas aleatoriamente em cada área. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta e por hectare, o número de cachos por planta e por metro quadrado, o número de sarmentos por metro quadrado, a massa e comprimento de cacho, a massa de engaço, o número de bagas por cacho, o diâmetro transversal de bagas e a relação entre massa de película e massa de polpa. Acobertura de plástico possibilita aumento na produtividade, não afeta a relação entre massa de casca e massa de polpa das bagas e favorece a estabilidade de produção, independentemente das condições meteorológicas no ciclo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of plastic cover on the yield components of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Moscato Giallo. The experiment was carried out in 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 crop seasons, in Flores da Cunha, RS, Brazil, in two vineyard areas, one covered with an impermeable plastic film and other without covering (control. The microclimate was evaluated in terms of air temperature, air relative humidity, photosynthetically active radiation and wind speed above canopy and close to clusters. The yield components were evaluated in a completely randomized design, in ten plants randomly selected in each area. Measures were made for production per plant, yield per

  10. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  11. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  12. Nucleotide sequence of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA1.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Brault, V; Dunez, J

    1989-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA1 of hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic virus, a nepovirus very closely related to tomato black ring virus, has been determined from cDNA clones. It is 7212 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail and contains a large open reading frame extending from nucleotides 216 to 6971. The presumably encoded polyprotein is 2252 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 250 kDa. The primary structure of the polyprotein was compared with that o...

  13. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DOD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  14. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DoD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  15. Metabolite and transcript profiling of berry skin during fruit development elucidates differential regulation between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz cultivars at branching points in the polyphenol pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degu, Asfaw; Hochberg, Uri; Sikron, Noga; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Ghan, Ryan; Plaschkes, Inbar; Batushansky, Albert; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Mattivi, Fulvio; Delledonne, Massimo; Pezzotti, Mario; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cramer, Grant R; Fait, Aaron

    2014-07-26

    Grapevine berries undergo complex biochemical changes during fruit maturation, many of which are dependent upon the variety and its environment. In order to elucidate the varietal dependent developmental regulation of primary and specialized metabolism, berry skins of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolite profiling from pre-veraison to harvest. The generated dataset was augmented with transcript profiling using RNAseq. The analysis of the metabolite data revealed similar developmental patterns of change in primary metabolites between the two cultivars. Nevertheless, towards maturity the extent of change in the major organic acid and sugars (i.e. sucrose, trehalose, malate) and precursors of aromatic and phenolic compounds such as quinate and shikimate was greater in Shiraz compared to Cabernet Sauvignon. In contrast, distinct directional projections on the PCA plot of the two cultivars samples towards maturation when using the specialized metabolite profiles were apparent, suggesting a cultivar-dependent regulation of the specialized metabolism. Generally, Shiraz displayed greater upregulation of the entire polyphenol pathway and specifically higher accumulation of piceid and coumaroyl anthocyanin forms than Cabernet Sauvignon from veraison onwards. Transcript profiling revealed coordinated increased transcript abundance for genes encoding enzymes of committing steps in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The anthocyanin metabolite profile showed F3'5'H-mediated delphinidin-type anthocyanin enrichment in both varieties towards maturation, consistent with the transcript data, indicating that the F3'5'H-governed branching step dominates the anthocyanin profile at late berry development. Correlation analysis confirmed the tightly coordinated metabolic changes during development, and suggested a source-sink relation between the central and specialized

  16. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of affi nity between grapevine rootstock and Vitis vinifera as scion, quality of reproductive materials and technological actions in grapevine rootstock production process determine success in grapevine rootstock production in large extent. Practical training showed that difference in level of compatibility between grapevine rootstock and grafted Vitis vinifera cultivars are existing. Direct effects of these differences are unequal yield of fi rst class grafted grapevine rootlings. In this paper, level of compatibility in nursery between clones of cv. Chardonnay BCL 75, VCR4 and cv. Merlot R18, MCL 519 and grapevine rootstocks Kober 5BB (Vitis berlandieri x V. riparia, SO4 (V. berlandieri x V. riparia and 41B (Chasselas x V.berlandieri were investigated. The trial was conducted in commercial grapevine nursery located in Velika Drenova, Serbia. As an index of compatibility, grade of high quality grapevine grafted rootlings, dry matter in mature shoots and root system development were used. Grafting was done by `tongue grafting` indoor technique. Stratifi cation was done in sand, on temperature of the stratifi cation material of 26-28oC, and humidity of around 90%. Grafted cuttings were waxed twice: before stratifi cation, and before planting in the nursery. Grafted rootlings were classed in two classes according to regulations of quality, (Yugoslav Offi cial Register, 26/79. Grafted rootlings that did not satisfi ed standard criteria were discarded. Both clones of cv. Chardonnay gave the highest percentage of I class grafted rootlings on grapevine rootstock 41B: clone BCL 75 – 60% and clone VCR4 – 61%. In the same combination, those grapevine grafted rootlings had the highest weight of the root system. Lower percentage of obtained I class grafted rootlings was established on rootstock Kober 5BB, while statistically signifi cantly lower yields were obtained on grapevine rootstock SO4: clone BCL75 – 43% and clone VCR4 – 48%. Dry

  17. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.

  18. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  19. Is gene transcription involved in seed dry after-ripening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Meimoun

    Full Text Available Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D, after-ripened non-dormant (ND and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05. Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression.

  20. Compositional changes in banana ( Musa ssp. ) fruits during ripening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein ...

  1. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... ripening time, seed count and ability to reflow (Wessels,. 1988; Pimienta, 1990 .... at 50°C for 120 min, and the absorbance was measured using a model EAR 400 micro .... regenerate the ''active” reduced antioxidant. Iron reducing .... adsorption to cell membranes, interaction with enzymes, substrate and ...

  3. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on

  4. Identification of a novel vitivirus from grapevines in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Arnaud G; Keenan, Sandi; Napier, Kathryn R; Barrero, Roberto A; MacDiarmid, Robin M

    2018-01-01

    We report a sequence of a novel vitivirus from Vitis vinifera obtained using two high-throughput sequencing (HTS) strategies on RNA. The initial discovery from small-RNA sequencing was confirmed by HTS of the total RNA and Sanger sequencing. The new virus has a genome structure similar to the one reported for other vitiviruses, with five open reading frames (ORFs) coding for the conserved domains described for members of that genus. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequence confirmed its affiliation to the genus Vitivirus, with the closest described viruses being grapevine virus E (GVE) and Agave tequilana leaf virus (ATLV). However, the virus we report is distinct and shares only 51% amino acid sequence identity with GVE in the replicase polyprotein and 66.8% amino acid sequence identity with ATLV in the coat protein. This is well below the threshold determined by the ICTV for species demarcation, and we propose that this virus represents a new species. It is provisionally named "grapevine virus G".

  5. Dissipation of glyphosate from grapevine soils in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma J. Salazar López

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the important crops in Sonora, due to revenue generation from its export to foreign countries. Among the most widely used herbicides for this crop is glyphosate, which is considered moderately toxic and persistent. The present research evaluates the dissipation of glyphosate in grapevine planted soil at three depths (5, 30 and 60 cm. Sampling was carried out before glyphosate application, and 5, 10, 18, 27, and 65 days after. Glyphosate was extracted from soil samples using ammonium hydroxide. The derivate extracts were partitioned with dichloromethane and analyzed using gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD. The results showed that average glyphosate residues are significantly greater at 5 cm (0.09 mg kg-1 than the other depths (30 and 60 cm, having a difference of 0.078 mg kg-1 between them (P < 0.03. Glyphosate concentration time profiles were similar; it reached maximum soil concentration in a range of 10 to 18 days after application. The half-life of glyphosate in soil has an average of 39 days at all depths. Our data suggests that the release in soil of glyphosate applied to weeds delays its transference to soil by 14 days, and extends residue half life to 55 days after application. These results could be the basis for further research, including more environmental parameters that could affect the dissipation or degradation process in soil.

  6. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Mugnai, Laura; Luque, Jordi; Surico, Giuseppe; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed. PMID:22295177

  7. Phytotoxins Produced by Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Evidente

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60 species of fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, genera Cadophora, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Fomitiporella, Fomitiporia, Inocutis, Phaeoacremonium and Phaeomoniella have been isolated from decline-affected grapevines all around the World. The main grapevine trunk diseases of mature vines are Eutypa dieback, the esca complex and cankers caused by the Botryospheriaceae, while in young vines the main diseases are Petri and black foot diseases. To understand the mechanism of these decline-associated diseases and the symptoms associated with them, the toxins produced by the pathogens involved in these diseases were isolated and characterised chemically and biologically. So far the toxins of only a small number of these decline fungi have been studied. This paper presents an overview of the toxins produced by the most serious of these vine wood pathogens: Eutypa lata, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and some taxa in the Botryosphaeriaceae family, and examines how these toxins produce decline symptoms. The chemical structure of these metabolites and in some cases their vivotoxin nature are also discussed.

  8. Review of the health effects of berries and their phytochemicals on the digestive and immune systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, Coen; Kasikci, Muzeyyen Berkel; Sluis, van der Addie A.; Mes, Jurriaan J.

    2018-01-01

    Berries are generally considered beneficial to health. This health-promoting potential has mainly been ascribed to berries' phytochemical and vitamin content, and little attention has been paid to the potential benefits of berries for the digestive tract, despite this being the first point of

  9. Berry syndrome in association with familial limb malformation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shahdadpuri, R

    2012-02-01

    We describe a newborn boy diagnosed with Berry syndrome consisting of a distal aortopulmonary septal defect, aortic origin of the right pulmonary artery, and interruption of the aorta. The child was noted to have reduplication of the right thumb. The child\\'s mother had a claw malformation of her left hand but a normal cardiovascular status. Genetic analysis for TBX5 and SALL4 mutations were negative in both the patient and his mother. This case describes the first ever report of Berry syndrome in an infant with reduplication of the right thumb and familial limb malformation.

  10. Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2016-11-18

    We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.

  11. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  13. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  14. Identification and antioxidant properties of polyphenols in lotus seed epicarp at different ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ma, Shuang-shuang; Ibrahim, S A; Li, Er-hu; Yang, Hong; Huang, Wen

    2015-10-15

    In this study, polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp (PLSE) at three different ripening stages were purified by column chromatography and identified by RP-HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). The antioxidant activities of PLSE were also investigated. We found that the contents of PLSE at the green ripening stage, half ripening stage and full ripening stage are 13.08%, 10.95% and 6.73% respectively. The levels of catechin, epicatechin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin in PLSE at the three different ripening stages were different. Moreover, the amounts of catechin and epicatechin decreased, while the contents of hyperoside and isoquercitrin increased as the seed ripened. We found that PLSE at three different ripening stages had good scavenging abilities on DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. However, the scavenging ability decreased with maturation. Our results may be valuable with regard to the utilization of lotus seed epicarp as a functional food material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  16. Water stress exacerbates the severity of Botryosphaeria dieback in grapevines infected by Neofusicoccum parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botryosphaeria dieback (causal fungus Neofusicoccum parvum) is a detrimental grapevine trunk disease, causing internal wood degradation, killing shoots, and reducing yields. We examined the interactive effects of drought and N. parvum infection, common vineyard stresses, on wood-lesion development. ...

  17. Xylella fastidiosa requires polygalacturonase for colonization and pathogenicity in Vitis vinifera grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, M Caroline; Greve, L Carl; Warren, Jeremy G; Labavitch, John M; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2007-04-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of Pierce's disease of grape, an economically significant disease for the grape industry. X. fastidiosa systemically colonizes the xylem elements of grapevines and is able to breach the pit pore membranes separating xylem vessels by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that X. fastidiosa utilizes cell wall degrading enzymes to break down pit membranes, based on the presence of genes involved in plant cell wall degradation in the X. fastidiosa genome. These genes include several beta-1,4 endoglucanases, several xylanases, several xylosidases, and one polygalacturonase (PG). In this study, we demonstrated that the pglA gene encodes a functional PG. A mutant in pglA lost pathogenicity and was compromised in its ability to systemically colonize Vitis vinifera grapevines. The results indicate that PG is required for X. fastidiosa to successfully infect grapevines and is a critical virulence factor for X. fastidiosa pathogenesis in grapevine.

  18. ‘Bois noir’: new phytoplasma disease of grapevine in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirchenari Seyed Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, grapevines showing symptoms suggesting the ‘bois noir’ phytoplasma disease were observed in vineyards located in several central provinces of Iran. Polymerase chain reaction assays using phytoplasma universal primer pair P1A/P7A followed by primer pair R16F2n/R16R2 in nested PCR, confirmed the association of phytoplasmas with symptomatic grapevines. The results of RFLP analyses using HpaII, HinfI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI restriction enzymes, indicated that grapevine phytoplasma isolates in these regions could be related to the 16SrXII group. Sequence analyses of the partial 16S rRNA gene confirmed that Iranian grapevine phytoplasmas are associated with ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma solani’. This is the first report of the ‘bois noir’ disease outbreak in Iran

  19. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora

    2016-08-18

    Background and Aims: Laboratory and greenhouse experiments have shown that root-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on grapevine growth; however, these effects have not been tested in the field. Here, we aimed to demonstrate whether bacteria of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant growth, we sorted fifteen bacterial strains from a larger isolate collection to study in vitro Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits. We analysed the ability of these strains to colonise the root tissues of grapevine and Arabidopsis using green-fluorescent-protein-labelled strain derivatives and a cultivation independent approach. We assessed the ability of two subsets randomly chosen from the 15 selected strains to promote grapevine growth in two field-scale experiments in north and central Italy over two years. Parameters of plant vigour were measured during the vegetative season in de novo grafted vine cuttings and adult productive plants inoculated with the bacterial strains. Results: Beneficial bacteria rapidly and intimately colonized the rhizoplane and the root system of grapevine. In the field, plants inoculated with bacteria isolated from grapevine roots out-performed untreated plants. In both the tested vineyards, bacteria-promotion effects largely rely in the formation of an extended epigeal system endowed of longer shoots with larger diameters and more nodes than non-inoculated plants. Conclusions: PGP bacteria isolated in the laboratory can be successfully used to promote growth of grapevines in the field. The resulting larger canopy potentially increased the photosynthetic surface of the grapevine, promoting growth.

  20. Efeito do porta-enxerto no teor de nutrientes em tecidos da videira "cabernet sauvignon" Effect of rootstock on nutrient content of 'cabernet sauvignon' grapevine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miele

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A nutrição mineral da videira constitui-se em importante fator para a qualidade dos vinhos. Devido a isso, avaliou-se o efeito de porta-enxertos no teor de nutrientes em diferentes tecidos da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' (Vitis vinifera L. na Serra Gaúcha. o experimento foi conduzido durante o ciclo vegetativo de 2004/2005, com os porta-enxertos Rupestris du lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, So4 e Paulsen 1103, enxertados em 1993 com a cv. 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. o delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos e três repetições, sendo quatro plantas/parcela. Coletaram-se folhas - separando-se os pecíolos dos limbos -, cachos - separando-se as bagas das ráquis - e ramos, os quais foram posteriormente secados em estufa e pesados. Analisaram-se os nutrientes n, P, K, Ca e Mg. os resultados mostram que houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto nos teores de N, P, K, Ca e Mg no limbo, pecíolo, ráquis e baga da videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e que este efeito variou em função do nutriente e do tecido considerado. Entretanto, não houve efeito significativo do porta-enxerto no teor desses nutrientes no ramo da videira. Além disso, a ordem de grandeza do teor dos nutrientes variou em função do tecido avaliado. Assim, os teores de n e de Ca foram maiores no limbo; os de P e K, na ráquis; e o de Mg, no pecíolo.Grapevine mineral nutrition is an important factor influencing wine quality. For this, the effect of rootstocks on the nutrient content in different tissues of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grown in the Serra Gaúcha region was evaluated. The experiment was carried out during the 2004/2005 vegetative cycle with the rootstocks Rupestris du Lot, 101-14, 3309, 420A, Kober 5BB, 161-49, SO4, and Paulsen 1103. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with eight treatments, three replicates, four plants/plot. leaves - petioles were separated from the limbs -, clusters - berries

  1. SOYBEAN AND CASEIN HYDROLYSATES INDUCE GRAPEVINE IMMUNE RESPONSES AND RESISTANCE AGAINST PLASMOPARA VITICOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihed eLachhab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, is one of the most devastating grape pathogen in Europe and North America. Although phytochemicals are used to control pathogen infections, the appearance of resistant strains and the concern for possible adverse effects on environment and human health are increasing the search for alternative strategies. In the present investigation, we successfully tested two protein hydrolysates from soybean (soy and casein (cas to trigger grapevine resistance against P. viticola. On Vitis vinifera cv. Marselan plants, the application of soy and cas reduced the infected leaf surface by 76 and 63%, as compared to the control, respectively. Since both hydrolysates might trigger the plant immunity, we investigated their ability to elicit grapevine defence responses. On grapevine cell suspensions, a different free cytosolic calcium signature was recorded for each hydrolysate, whereas a similar transient phosphorylation of two MAP kinases of 45 and 49 kDa was observed. These signalling events were followed by transcriptome reprogramming, including the up-regulation of defence genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR proteins and the stilbene synthase enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of resveratrol, the main grapevine phytoalexin. Liquid chromatography analyses confirmed the production of resveratrol and its dimer metabolites, δ- and ε-viniferins. Overall, soy effects were more pronounced as compared to the cas one. Both hydrolysates proved to act as elicitors to enhance grapevine immunity against pathogen attack.

  2. The grapevine kinome: annotation, classification and expression patterns in developmental processes and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaikai; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Jinyi; Tang, Jun; Cheng, Qunkang; Chen, Jin-Gui; Cheng, Zong-Ming Max

    2018-01-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) have evolved as the largest family of molecular switches that regulate protein activities associated with almost all essential cellular functions. Only a fraction of plant PKs, however, have been functionally characterized even in model plant species. In the present study, the entire grapevine kinome was identified and annotated using the most recent version of the grapevine genome. A total of 1168 PK-encoding genes were identified and classified into 20 groups and 121 families, with the RLK-Pelle group being the largest, with 872 members. The 1168 kinase genes were unevenly distributed over all 19 chromosomes, and both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to the expansion of the grapevine kinome, especially of the RLK-Pelle group. Ka/Ks values indicated that most of the tandem and segmental duplication events were under purifying selection. The grapevine kinome families exhibited different expression patterns during plant development and in response to various stress treatments, with many being coexpressed. The comprehensive annotation of grapevine kinase genes, their patterns of expression and coexpression, and the related information facilitate a more complete understanding of the roles of various grapevine kinases in growth and development, responses to abiotic stress, and evolutionary history.

  3. Title: Status of coffee berry damaging insects in the afromontane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    populations, which is relatively low incidences in less disturbed ecosystem. ..... Insect pests associated with forest coffee berries in south western Ethiopia. .... parasitoid was introduced to Latin American countries, .... indicators of ecological diversity, so more detailed studies .... western Ethiopia: Impacts of human use and.

  4. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maunula, L.; Kaupke, A.; Vasickova, P.; Soderberg, K.; Kozyra, I.; Lazic, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bouwknegt, M.; Rutjes, S.; Willems, K.A.; Moloney, R.; Agostino, D' M.; Husman, A.M.D.; Bonsdorff, C.H.; Rzezutka, A.; Pavlik, I.; Petrovic, T.; Cook, N.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses.

  5. A coffee berry borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...

  6. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204

  7. DYEING OF WOOL YARNS WITH LAURUS NOBILIS L. BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERKAN Gökhan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays natural dyes have been attracted by many researchers and firms due to demands on sustainable and nontoxic products. In this study the mature berries of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L. were collected from trees located Kuşadası Turkey. The berries dried at 25oC and % 20-25 relative humidity. Dried berries milled and extracted with ethanol. Extracted dye was used. Three mordanting procedure (pre, meta and post mordanting and two concentrations were applied to wool yarns. Cupric sulfate, ferric sulfate, potassium dichromate and alum was used as mordant Color strength and colorimetric values were measured by Konica-Minolta 3600D spectrophotometer. Fastness to washing, perspiration and light were applied according to ISO 105C06 (A1S, ISO 105E04 and ISO 105B02 (method 2 respectively. The highest color strength (K/S value was 16.6405 and was obtained in the case of premordanting with cupric sulfate at 2 gr/L concentration. If the a* and b* values were examined, the conditions at highest color strength, the yarns had yellow color with a reddish hue. Generally, the fastness properties were moderate and good results were obtained in the case of premordanting procedure. The results show us ethanol extract of bay laurel berries can be used for dyeing of woolen products.

  8. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  9. Metabolic Effects of Berries with Structurally Diverse Anthocyanins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Overall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overconsumption of energy dense foods and sedentary lifestyle are considered as major causes of obesity-associated insulin resistance and abnormal glucose metabolism. Results from both cohort studies and randomized trials suggested that anthocyanins from berries may lower metabolic risks, however these reports are equivocal. The present study was designed to examine effects of six berries with structurally diverse anthocyanin profiles (normalized to 400 µg/g total anthocyanin content on development of metabolic risk factors in the C57BL/6 mouse model of polygenic obesity. Diets supplemented with blackberry (mono-glycosylated cyanidins, black raspberry (acylated mono-glycosylated cyanidins, blackcurrant (mono- and di-glycosylated cyanidins and delphinidins, maqui berry (di-glycosylated delphinidins, Concord grape (acylated mono-glycosylated delphinidins and petunidins, and blueberry (mono-glycosylated delphinidins, malvidins, and petunidins showed a prominent discrepancy between biological activities of delphinidin/malvidin-versus cyanidin-type anthocyanins that could be explained by differences in their structure and metabolism in the gut. Consumption of berries also resulted in a strong shift in the gastrointestinal bacterial communities towards obligate anaerobes that correlated with decrease in the gastrointestinal luminal oxygen and oxidative stress. Further work is needed to understand mechanisms that lead to nearly anoxic conditions in the gut lumens, including the relative contributions of host, diet and/or microbial oxidative activity, and their implication to human health.

  10. Q & A with economist Albert Berry | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Listen to Berry describe the pitfalls of a resource-dependent ... One thing economists wonder about is whether — when you look at the whole economy — the total benefits from microfinance are as ... New life for old computers.

  11. Whole genome amplification and microsatellite genotyping of herbarium DNA revealed the identity of an ancient grapevine cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenica, Nenad; Šimon, Silvio; Besendorfer, Višnja; Maletić, Edi; Karoglan Kontić, Jasminka; Pejić, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Reconstruction of the grapevine cultivation history has advanced tremendously during the last decade. Identification of grapevine cultivars by using microsatellite DNA markers has mostly become a routine. The parentage of several renowned grapevine cultivars, like Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay, has been elucidated. However, the assembly of a complete grapevine genealogy is not yet possible because missing links might no longer be in cultivation or are even extinct. This problem could be overcome by analyzing ancient DNA from grapevine herbarium specimens and other historical remnants of once cultivated varieties. Here, we present the first successful genotyping of a grapevine herbarium specimen and the identification of the corresponding grapevine cultivar. Using a set of nine grapevine microsatellite markers, in combination with a whole genome amplification procedure, we found the 90-year-old Tribidrag herbarium specimen to display the same microsatellite profile as the popular American cultivar Zinfandel. This work, together with information from several historical documents, provides a new clue of Zinfandel cultivation in Croatia as early as the beginning of fifteenth century, under the native name Tribidrag. Moreover, it emphasizes substantial information potential of existing grapevine and other herbarium collections worldwide.

  12. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Grape Berries in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Gubler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Injured and non-injured grape berries were inoculated with spore suspension of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium aleophilum under field (intact berries and laboratory (detached berries conditions. In one test, berries were injured by pricking the skin with a syringe needle to a depth of approximately 1.5 mm. Brown to purple lesions appeared 5 to 7 days after inoculation in both the injured intact and detached berries. Lesions on these berries were larger when inoculated earlier in the season indicating that young, immature berries are more susceptible to infection than mature berries. In another test, berries were injured by rubbing the skin with carborundum dust using a cotton-tipped applicator. Esca-like lesions developed in 4 to 5 days after inoculation of detached but not intact berries. Occasional infection of non-injured berries occurred which appeared as small dots to pin-head size lesions around the lenticels. Scanning electron microscopy observations of these lesions showed abundant hyphal growth on the surface with apparent penetration through lenticels; however, fungal structures were not detected with certainty beneath the lenticels or intact cuticle. In both tests, the fungi were re-isolated from the advancing margin of the lesions.

  13. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  14. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene. PMID:23518588

  16. Two applications of Berry's phase in fermionic field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    When quantized fermions are coupled to a background field, nontrivial effects may arise due to the geometry and/or topology of the space of background field configurations. In this thesis, two examples of Berry's geometrical phase in a fermionic sea are studied: the anomalous commutator in gauge field theory and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum in superfluid 3 He-A. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction. Chapter 2 reviews Berry's Phase and several toy models. Effective actions are calculated for two models in gradient expansions and the role of a geometric term is discussed. Chapter 3 investigates the anomalous commutator in the generators of gauge symmetry in field theory. Using an idea introduced by Sonoda, the Berry phase of the vacuum state is found to be the sum of the Berry phases of the individual states in the sea plus a piece due to the infinite nature of the Dirac sea. The latter is the anomalous commutator. Also found is a relative minus sign between the commutator of the total gauge symmetry generators and the commutator of the fermionic charge generators. Examples are given. In Chapter 4, a geometric way of deriving the intrinsic orbital angular momentum term in the 3 He-A equations of motion is presented. Homogeneous, adiabatically evolving textures at zero temperature are found to pick up a nonzero groundstate Berry phase, where the ground state is taken to be a filled sea of Bogoliubov quasiparticles. Interpreting the phase as a Wess-Zumino effective action for the condensate provides a geometric origin for the intrinsic angular momentum. The idea of a ground-state phase is then extended to other gap functions and a more general result is obtained. Chapter 5 concludes with a discussion of the possibility of unifying the two problems in a more general framework and directions for further work

  17. Nitrogen metabolism in a grapevine in vitro system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Llorens

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, protein and individual and total amino acid contents were determined in grapevine (cv Sauvignon cultured in vitro. The enzyme activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthetase and dehydrogenase were also determined. The nitrogen taken up by the plants was 70% of the total nitrogen in the medium after 75 days of in vitro culture. Most of the nitrogen taken up was recovered in the leaves, yet only ammonia and amino acid concentrations were significantly higher in leaves. In roots, glutamine was the most abundant amino acid. In leaves, the most abundant amino acids were aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, alanine, arginine and g-aminobutirate. All enzyme activities were higher in roots than in leaves. These results suggest that both roots and leaves incorporate inorganic nitrogen into organic forms.

  18. Nucleotide sequence of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, O; Candresse, T; Brault, V; Dunez, J

    1989-10-11

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA1 of hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic virus, a nepovirus very closely related to tomato black ring virus, has been determined from cDNA clones. It is 7212 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail and contains a large open reading frame extending from nucleotides 216 to 6971. The presumably encoded polyprotein is 2252 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 250 kDa. The primary structure of the polyprotein was compared with that of other viral polyproteins, revealing the same general genetic organization as that of other picorna-like viruses (comoviruses, potyviruses and picornaviruses), except that an additional protein is suspected to occupy the N-terminus of the polyprotein.

  19. Tocopherols in rose hips (Rosa spp.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Johansson, Eva; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2012-08-15

    Rose hips are used as a food ingredient and in health products. They are rich in various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and vitamin C, but data on their vitamin E content (tocopherols and tocotrienols) are limited. In this study, four different species of Rosa were analysed for tocopherol and tocotrienol content during ripening in three different years. Only α- and γ-tocopherol were found in the fleshy parts of the rose hips, and the tocopherol content and vitamin E activity varied depending on date of harvesting, species and year. The amount of vitamin E activity differed between species of Rosa and years, whereas the changes during ripening were relatively small. The choice of species must be considered if tocopherol content is to be optimised when rose hips are used as a food ingredient. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen...... consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton...... was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6 f complex in chromorespiration...

  1. VitisNet: "Omics" integration through grapevine molecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genomic data release for the grapevine has increased exponentially in the last five years. The Vitis vinifera genome has been sequenced and Vitis EST, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic tools and data sets continue to be developed. The next critical challenge is to provide biological meaning to this tremendous amount of data by annotating genes and integrating them within their biological context. We have developed and validated a system of Grapevine Molecular Networks (VitisNet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequences from the Vitis vinifera (cv. Pinot Noir PN40024 genome sequencing project and ESTs from the Vitis genus have been paired and the 39,424 resulting unique sequences have been manually annotated. Among these, 13,145 genes have been assigned to 219 networks. The pathway sets include 88 "Metabolic", 15 "Genetic Information Processing", 12 "Environmental Information Processing", 3 "Cellular Processes", 21 "Transport", and 80 "Transcription Factors". The quantitative data is loaded onto molecular networks, allowing the simultaneous visualization of changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome for a given experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VitisNet uses manually annotated networks in SBML or XML format, enabling the integration of large datasets, streamlining biological functional processing, and improving the understanding of dynamic processes in systems biology experiments. VitisNet is grounded in the Vitis vinifera genome (currently at 8x coverage and can be readily updated with subsequent updates of the genome or biochemical discoveries. The molecular network files can be dynamically searched by pathway name or individual genes, proteins, or metabolites through the MetNet Pathway database and web-portal at http://metnet3.vrac.iastate.edu/. All VitisNet files including the manual annotation of the grape genome encompassing pathway names, individual genes, their genome identifier, and chromosome

  2. Burgundy regional climate change and its potential impact on grapevines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiwen [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); G.C. Rieber Climate Institute at the Nansen Environment and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Castel, Thierry [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); AgroSup, Department of Agriculture and Environment, Dijon (France); Richard, Yves; Cuccia, Cedric [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); Bois, Benjamin [University of Burgundy, Center for Climate Research, UMR 5210 CNRS, Dijon (France); IUVV, University of Burgundy, Dijon (France)

    2012-10-15

    ARPEGE general circulation model simulations were dynamically downscaled by The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for the study of climate change and its impact on grapevine growth in Burgundy region in France by the mid twenty-first century. Two time periods were selected: 1970-1979 and 2031-2040. The WRF model driven by ERA-INTERIM reanalysis data was validated against in situ surface temperature observations. The daily maximum and minimum surface temperature (T{sub max} and T{sub min}) were simulated by the WRF model at 8 x 8 km horizontal resolution. The averaged daily T{sub max} for each month during 1970-1979 have good agreement with observations, the averaged daily T{sub min} have a warm bias about 1-2 K. The daily T{sub max} and T{sub min} for each month (domain averaged) during 2031-2040 show a general increase. The largest increment ({proportional_to}3 K) was found in summer. The smallest increments (<1 K) were found in spring and fall. The spatial distribution of temperature increment shows a strong meridional gradient, high in south in summer, reversing in winter. The resulting potential warming rate in summer is equivalent to 4.7 K/century under the IPCC A2 emission scenario. The dynamically downscaled T{sub max} and T{sub min} were used to simulate the grape (Pinot noir grape variety) flowering and veraison dates. For 2031-2040, the projected dates are 8 and 12 days earlier than those during 1970-1979, respectively. The simulated hot days increase more than 50% in the two principal grapevine regions. They show strong impact on Pinot noir development. (orig.)

  3. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  4. Detection of artificially ripened mango using spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithun, B. S.; Mondal, Milton; Vishwakarma, Harsh; Shinde, Sujit; Kimbahune, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral sensing has been proven to be useful to determine the quality of food in general. It has also been used to distinguish naturally and artificially ripened mangoes by analyzing the spectral signature. However the focus has been on improving the accuracy of classification after performing dimensionality reduction, optimum feature selection and using suitable learning algorithm on the complete visible and NIR spectrum range data, namely 350nm to 1050nm. In this paper we focus on, (i) the use of low wavelength resolution and low cost multispectral sensor to reliably identify artificially ripened mango by selectively using the spectral information so that classification accuracy is not hampered at the cost of low resolution spectral data and (ii) use of visible spectrum i.e. 390nm to 700 nm data to accurately discriminate artificially ripened mangoes. Our results show that on a low resolution spectral data, the use of logistic regression produces an accuracy of 98.83% and outperforms other methods like classification tree, random forest significantly. And this is achieved by analyzing only 36 spectral reflectance data points instead of the complete 216 data points available in visual and NIR range. Another interesting experimental observation is that we are able to achieve more than 98% classification accuracy by selecting only 15 irradiance values in the visible spectrum. Even the number of data needs to be collected using hyper-spectral or multi-spectral sensor can be reduced by a factor of 24 for classification with high degree of confidence

  5. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  6. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  7. Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apples tissues during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Couto, Marcelo; Judacewski, Priscila; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The effect of variety and ripening stage on the distribution of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Gala, Fuji Suprema and Eva apples were evaluated. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were assessed in the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp of three varieties at three ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent). The Fuji Suprema variety distinguished by its content of flavonols at senescent stage, while Eva variety distinguished by its content of dihydrochalcones (unripe stage) and anthocyanins (ripe stage). In general, phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased with ripening in the epicarp and endocarp. However, in the mesocarp, the effect of ripening was related with the apple variety. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the influence of ripening in the apple tissue. The evolution of these compounds during ripening occurred irregularly and it was influenced by the variety.

  8. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  9. Effect of Stages of Maturity and Ripening Conditions on the Biochemical Characteristics of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Moneruzzaman; A. B.M.S. Hossain; W. Sani; M. Saifuddin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of tomato in different maturity stages and ripening conditions. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits (cv. Ruma VF) were harvested at the three maturity stages viz., mature green, half ripen and full ripen and stored at three condition control (without covering), straw covering and CaC2 + straw covering. At that time ascorbic acid, pH, titrable acidity, sugar (reducing, non-reducing sugar and total) percent...

  10. Transcriptome comparison of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from two regions with distinct climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runze; He, Fei; Lan, Yibin; Xing, Ranran; Liu, Rui; Pan, Qiuhong; Wang, Jun; Duan, Changqing

    2015-04-15

    Primary and secondary metabolism in grape berries is under the control of complex interactions among environmental conditions, genotypes, and management practices. To obtain an interpretation from the view of transcriptome on distinct metabolite accumulation between ecologically different regions in China, next-generation sequencing technology was performed on E-L 31, 35, and 38 stages of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries from Changli (CL, eastern) and Gaotai (GT, western). The transcript abundance of epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and xanthoxin dehydrogenase required for ABA biosynthesis was significantly higher in the GT berries at E-L 35 and 38 stages compared with the CL berries, which may explain the relatively short maturation period of berries in the western region. Some genes required for carbohydrate metabolism, such as hexose transporter, L-idonate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were significantly up-regulated in the CL berries in relation to the GT berries, which positively correlated with the sugar and organic acid accumulations. Pathway enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the CL berries had higher levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at E-L 38 stage than the GT berries, which may relate to the quick fading of the GT wines because of weak co-pigmentation. This observation lays a foundation for further study concerning the molecular basis for environmental effects on berry quality formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendranathan, K.K.; Nair, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  12. Revegetation of oil sands tailings. Growth improvement of silver-berry and buffalo-berry by inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and N/sub 2/-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, S.; Danielson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of actinorhizal shrubs to tolerate inhospitable conditions while improving soil fertility and organic matter status has led to increased usage of these plants for land reclamation and amenity planting purposes. Silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two such shrubs being tested as potential candidates for the revegetation of the oil sands tailings in northeastern Alberta. Associated with the roots of silver-berry and buffalo-berry are two symbiants, the N/sub 2/-fixing actimomycete Frankia and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi. Numerous studies have demonstrated that, particularly in nutrient-limited conditions, mycorrhization and nodulation can result in significantly better plant performance as a consequence of improved N and P nutrition. It was found in this study that in Alberta, silver-berry and buffalo-berry are strictly VA mycorrhizal; that they are highly dependent on their symbiants for optimum growth; and that the VAM inoculum potential of both stockpiled and undisturbed muskeg peak is negligible, due to the absence of VAM hosts. Means to increase the inoculum potential of peat have been studied. The efficacy of inoculating seedlings grown in greenhouses with VAM and Frankia has been demonstrated. Overwinter mortality was higher for inoculated shrubs, but after one growing season, shoot-weights of silver-berry were 3 to 7 times greater than for uninoculated shrubs, and shoot weights of buffalo-berry were 3 to 5 times greater. 122 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. Biochemical fate of N6 substituted purines (cytokinins) in normal ripening and mutant tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial rates of disappearance of cytokinins, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography, for tomatoes which were vacuum infused with benzyladenine and isopentenyladenine were dissimilar between the normal ripening (Ohio CR-6 and Rutgers), ripening inhibited mutant (RIN) and non-ripening mutant (NOR) tomato varieties. Radiolabeled [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolism was followed during a 2 h period utilizing thin layer chromatography and visualization by fluorography. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite patterns were different among the varieties. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite pattern in Ohio CR-6 tomato changed as the fruit ripened

  14. Caracterização fenológica e produtiva das videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' e 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. produzidas fora de época, no norte do Paraná Phenological and productive characterization out of season of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 'Alicante' (Vitis vinifera L. grapevines in the north of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Jubileu

    2010-06-01

    Intervin® Winery, in Maringá, PR. The grapevines were trained in pergola system in a 4.0 x 1.5 m spacing, grafted on 'IAC 766 Campinas' rootstock. The evaluations started from the pruning of production, held in the end of January 2007 and 2008. For assessments, 20 representative grapevines were used of each variety. The phenology of the plants was evaluated as the duration in days, as well it was estimated the production and productivity of each variety. The ripening development was determined by the analysis of berries chemical characteristics, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and maturity index (TSS/TA. It was determined that the average cycle of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was 128 days, while the 'Alicante' was 131 days, what indicates that the cycle of both varieties are late for the north of Paraná. The production per plant and productivity estimates were 12.4 kg and 22.3 t.ha-1, respectively for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' and 11.9 kg and 19.8 t.ha-1, respectively for 'Alicante'. The mean levels of TSS, TA and TSS/TA were 19.2 °Brix, 1.8% tartaric acid and 11.6 respectively, for 'Cabernet Sauvignon', and 19.1 °Brix, 1.3% tartaric acid and 14.1 respectively for 'Alicante'. Both varieties show high yields and suitable chemical characteristics for processing when produced out of season in the North of Parana.

  15. Characterization of Cadophora luteo-olivacea and C. melinii isolates obtained from grapevines and environmental samples from grapevine nurseries in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David GRAMAJE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight Cadophora luteo-olivacea and three C. melinii isolates were recovered from grapevines showing black vascular streaking and decline symptoms characteristic of Petri disease, and from different stages of the grapevine nursery process in Spain. The isolates were studied by means of phenotypical characterization, DNA analysis and pathogenicity tests. The morphological characters studied included conidiophore, phialide and conidial morphology. Colony characters and pigment production on MEA, PDA and OA were also examined. Phenotypical data were subjected to cluster analysis, which clearly separated C.luteo-olivacea isolates into four groups. Mating tests were performed on all possible combinations for each Cadophora species but no sexual fruiting bodies were produced. Partial sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS, beta-tubulin (BT and the elongation factor 1a (EF were analysed, but no genetic variation occurred within the C. luteo-olivacea isolates or within the C. melinii isolates in any of the regions studied. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on 1-year-old grapevine cuttings of four different rootstocksusing four C. luteo-olivacea isolates and one isolate of C. melinii. All Cadophora isolates except the C.melinii isolate caused significantly longer lesions in the xylem of grapevine rootstocks than in the controls.

  16. Multi-gene analysis and morphology reveal novel Ilyonectria species associated with black foot disease of grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabral, A.; Rego, C.; Nascimento, T.; Oliveira, H.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Black foot is an important disease of grapevines, which has in recent years been recorded with increased incidence and severity throughout the world, affecting grapevines both in nurseries and young vineyards. In the past the disease has been associated with infections by Ilyonectria macrodidyma,

  17. Development of a Grapevine Pruning Algorithm for Using in Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Great areas of the orchards in the world are dedicated to cultivation of the grapevine. Normally grape vineyards are pruned twice a year. Among the operations of grape production, winter pruning of the bushes is the only operation that still has not been fully mechanized while it is known as the most laborious jobs in the farm. Some of the grape producing countries use various mechanical machines to prune the grapevines, but in most cases, these machines do not have a good performance. Therefore intelligent pruning machine seems to be necessary in this regard and this intelligent pruning machines can reduce the labor required to prune the vineyards. It this study in was attempted to develop an algorithm that uses image processing techniques to identify which parts of the grapevine should be cut. Stereo vision technique was used to obtain three dimensional images from the bare bushes whose leaves were fallen in autumn. Stereo vision systems are used to determine the depth from two images taken at the same time but from slightly different viewpoints using two cameras. Each pair of images of a common scene is related by a popular geometry, and corresponding points in the images pairs are constrained to lie on pairs of conjugate popular lines. Materials and Methods Photos were taken from gardens of the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars province, Iran. At first, the distance between the plants and the cameras should be determined. The distance between the plants and cameras can be obtained by using the stereo vision techniques. Therefore, this method was used in this paper by two pictures taken from each plant with the left and right cameras. The algorithm was written in MATLAB. To facilitate the segmentation of the branches from the rows at the back, a blue plate with dimensions of 2×2 m2 were used at the background. After invoking the images, branches were segmented from the background to produce the binary

  18. Water deficit increases stilbene metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Decendit, Alain; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2011-01-12

    The impact of water deficit on stilbene biosynthesis in wine grape (Vitis vinifera) berries was investigated. Water deficit increased the accumulation of trans-piceid (the glycosylated form of resveratrol) by 5-fold in Cabernet Sauvignon berries but not in Chardonnay. Similarly, water deficit significantly increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbene precursors in Cabernet Sauvignon. Increased expression of stilbene synthase, but not that of resveratrol-O-glycosyltransferase, resulted in increased trans-piceid concentrations. In contrast, the transcript abundance of the same genes declined in Chardonnay in response to water deficit. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the promoters of stilbene synthase genes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, and Pinot Noir. These polymorphisms resulted in eight changes within the predicted cis regulatory elements in Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. These results suggest that cultivar-specific molecular mechanisms might exist that control resveratrol biosynthesis in grapes.

  19. The Schwinger term and the Berry phase in simple models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss quantization of fermions interacting with external fields and observe the occurrence of equivalent as well as inequivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations. Implementability of gauge and axial gauge transformations leads to generators which fulfill an algebra of charges with Schwinger term. This term can be written as a cocycle and leads to the boson-fermion correspondence. During an adiabatic transport along closed loops in a parameter space we may pick up a nonintegrable phase factor, usually called the Berry phase. We study the occurrence of such a topological phase in a model and give the parallel transport for density matrices. After second quantization one may pick up both a Berry phase and a Schwinger term. 13 refs. (Author)

  20. Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve

    2006-01-01

    We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field

  1. Estonian cow berries have not been affected by radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liiva, A.; Pihlik, U.

    1994-01-01

    According to Latvia n scientists cow berry leaves contain 0.15 kBq/kg of radioactive cesium ( Cs-137 + Cs-134). To check the situation in Estonia officials of forestry enterprises were asked to gather cow berry plants from five control areas in different parts of Estonia, two samples from each (one from a glade, the other from under trees). Analysis of the material collected has shown the specific Cs-137 activity of all samples to be less than 0.18 kBq/kg of dry leaf mass. This is 100 times lower than the limit set for dried medicinal herbs in the Soviet Union after the Chernobyl disaster. (author). 6 refs

  2. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Zohar E.; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence–drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. PMID:25956879

  3. Effect of ploughing-down of grapevine chips on soil structure when using special agricultural machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Badalíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period of 2008–2011, changes in soil structure were studied in two selected localities: one of them was situated in vineyards of the University Training Farm of Mendel University in Žabčice near Brno, the other was in vineyards situated in the cadastre of wine-growing municipality Velké Bílovice. Established were altogether three variants of experiments with application of crushed grapevine wood (chips: Variant 1 – control; Variant 2 – crushed grapevine wood ploughed down to the depth of 0.10 m; Variant 3 – crushed grapevine wood + grass spread on the soil surface as a mulch. Grapevine canes were crushed to chips using a special agricultural machinery while the soil in inter-rows was processed using conventional tilling machines. The obtained results showed that the best coefficient of structurality (expressing the degree of destruction of soil structure was recorded in Variants 2 in both localities. Considering values of this coefficient it could be concluded that just this variant showed a positive effect on soil structure. This variant reduced the compaction of soil caused by the movement of agricultural machines in vineyard inter-rows Crushed grapevine waste wood can therefore compensate losses of organic matter in soil. Better values of structurality coefficient were recorded in the locality Žabčice.

  4. Differential expression of genes of Xylella fastidiosa in xylem fluid of citrus and grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiangyang; Bi, Jianlong; Morse, Joseph G; Toscano, Nick C; Cooksey, Donald A

    2010-03-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes a serious Pierce's disease (PD) in grapevine. Xylella fastidiosa cells from a PD strain were grown in a pure xylem fluid of a susceptible grapevine cultivar vs. xylem fluid from citrus, which is not a host for this strain of X. fastidiosa. When grown in grapevine xylem fluid, cells of the PD strain formed clumps and biofilm formed to a greater extent than in citrus xylem fluid, although the PD strain did grow in xylem fluid of three citrus varieties. The differential expression of selected genes of a PD X. fastidiosa strain cultured in the two xylem fluids was analyzed using a DNA macroarray. Compared with citrus xylem fluid, grapevine xylem fluid stimulated the expression of X. fastidiosa genes involved in virulence regulation, such as gacA, algU, xrvA, and hsq, and also genes involved in the biogenesis of pili and twitching motility, such as fimT, pilI, pilU, and pilY1. Increased gene expression likely contributes to PD expression in grapevine, whereas citrus xylem fluid did not support or possibly suppressed the expression of these virulence genes.

  5. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  6. Berry-phase blockade in single-molecule magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that in the case of incoherent spin states it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the s...

  7. A new approach to calculating the Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lianao; Sun Jing; Zhong Jiyu

    1993-01-01

    It is proved that any time-dependent problem can be transformed into a time-independent one by a unitary transformation. The general equation satisfied by the transformation is given. For some time-dependent Hamiltonians the transformation can be found easily. More importantly, if the initial states are just eigenstates of the transformed Hamiltonians, the dynamical phase can be conveniently removed and the Berry phase can be found directly. (orig.)

  8. Braiding transformation, entanglement swapping, and Berry phase in entanglement space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Ge Molin; Xue Kang

    2007-01-01

    We show that braiding transformation is a natural approach to describe quantum entanglement by using the unitary braiding operators to realize entanglement swapping and generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as well as the linear cluster states. A Hamiltonian is constructed from the unitary R i,i+1 (θ,φ) matrix, where φ=ωt is time-dependent while θ is time-independent. This in turn allows us to investigate the Berry phase in the entanglement space

  9. An analogue of the Berry phase for simple harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslov, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    We evaluate a variant of Berry's phase for a ‘missing’ family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables (in a natural way). Instead, it is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. A simple closed formula for the phase (in terms of elementary functions) is found here by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  10. Berry Curvature and Nonlocal Transport Characteristics of Antidot Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antidot graphene denotes a monolayer of graphene structured by a periodic array of holes. Its energy dispersion is known to display a gap at the Dirac point. However, since the degeneracy between the A and B sites is preserved, antidot graphene cannot be described by the 2D massive Dirac equation, which is suitable for systems with an inherent A/B asymmetry. From inversion and time-reversal-symmetry considerations, antidot graphene should therefore have zero Berry curvature. In this work, we derive the effective Hamiltonian of antidot graphene from its tight-binding wave functions. The resulting Hamiltonian is a 4×4 matrix with a nonzero intervalley scattering term, which is responsible for the gap at the Dirac point. Furthermore, nonzero Berry curvature is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian, owing to the double degeneracy of the eigenfunctions. The topological manifestation is shown to be robust against randomness perturbations. Since the Berry curvature is expected to induce a transverse conductance, we have experimentally verified this feature through nonlocal transport measurements, by fabricating three antidot graphene samples with a triangular array of holes, a fixed periodicity of 150 nm, and hole diameters of 100, 80, and 60 nm. All three samples display topological nonlocal conductance, with excellent agreement with the theory predictions.

  11. Other Kinds of Violence: Wendell Berry, Industrialism, and Agrarian Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Major

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the need to understand pacifism and environmentalism as essentially consonant philosophies and practices, just as a proper theorization of ecocide must also include the violence inherent to industrialism and militarism. Few contemporary writers understand the stakes involved in this conflation as well as Wendell Berry, and few have had more occasion to enact the entwined values of pacifism and environmentalism than he has. Berry therefore marries pacifist politics to a land ethic of care, a union from which emerges an environmentalism highly critical of the violence of American corporate capitalism and militarism, the apotheosis of which can be seen in the guise of war (Vietnam, Afghanistan, Iraq, the “War on Terror”. Moreover, such violence has its domestic ecocidal analogy, best evidenced by strip mining and mountaintop removal. Berry’s union of peaceableness and agrarian environmentalism does, however, deserve critical examination, for it often rests upon the construction of a sometimes frustrating disconnection between a precious and benign domesticity and a theoretically corrupt public sphere. To be sure, in his reworking of the fluid boundaries between the private and public through which his agrarian ethics is often articulated, Berry simultaneously invokes and disavows a separation he clearly understands to be artificial. In Berry’s peaceful agrarian vision, then, the agrarian pacifist who is also by definition an environmentalist must draw upon enormous internal resources if she is to revolutionize the economies of ruin that characterize modern life.

  12. Decrease in fruit moisture content heralds and might launch the onset of ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Chaim; Hartman, Thomas G

    2012-10-01

    It is known that fruit ripening is a genetically programmed event but it is not entirely clear what metabolic cue(s) stimulate the onset of ripening, ethylene action notwithstanding. Here, we examined the conjecture that fruit ripening might be evoked by an autonomously induced decrease in tissue water status. We found decline in water content occurring at the onset of ripening in climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit, suggesting that this phenomenon might be universal. This decline in water content persisted throughout the ripening process in some fruit, whereas in others it reversed during the progression of the ripening process. Applied ethylene also induced a decrease in water content in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. In ethylene-mutant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit (antisense to1-aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase), cold-induced decline in water content stimulated onset of ripening processes apparently independently of ethylene action, suggesting cause-and-effect relationship between decreasing water content and onset of ripening. The decline in tissue water content, occurring naturally or induced by ethylene, was strongly correlated with a decrease in hydration (swelling) efficacy of cell wall preparations suggesting that hydration dynamics of cell walls might account for changes in tissue moisture content. Extent of cell wall swelling was, in turn, related to the degree of oxidative cross-linking of wall-bound phenolic acids, suggesting that oxidant-induced wall restructuring might mediate cell wall and, thus, fruit tissue hydration status. We propose that oxidant-induced cell wall remodeling and consequent wall dehydration might evoke stress signaling for the onset of ripening processes. This study suggests that decline in fruit water content is an early event in fruit ripening. This information may be used to gauge fruit maturity for appropriate harvest date and for processing. Control of fruit hydration state might be used to regulate the

  13. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimohammadi, M.; Shariati, A.

    2001-01-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  14. Berry phase for spin-1/2 particles moving in a space-time with torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimohammadi, M. [Dept. of Physics, Tehran Univ. (Iran); Shariati, A. [Inst. for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan (Iran); Inst. for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran)

    2001-06-01

    Berry phase for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a flat space-time with torsion is investigated in the context of the Einstein-Cartan-Dirac model. It is shown that if the torsion is due to a dense polarized background, then there is a Berry phase only if the fermion is massless and its momentum is perpendicular to the direction of the background polarization. The order of magnitude of this Berry phase is discussed in other theoretical frameworks. (orig.)

  15. Osmotic dehydration of fruit and berry raw materials in the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    N. A. Gribova; L. G. Eliseeva

    2017-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration has recently received more attention as an effective method of preserving fruits and berries. Osmosis is a simple process that facilitates the processing of fruits and berries in order to preserve the original characteristics, namely nutritional value and organoleptic properties: color, aroma and texture. Osmotic dehydration has found wide application in the preservation of food products, as the activity of water in fruits and berries decreases, in some of them up to 90% o...

  16. Management of Botryosphaeriaceae species infection in grapevine propagation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina BILLONES-BAAIJENS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In New Zealand grapevine propagation nurseries, Botryosphaeriaceae species have been reported to infect the source blocks of the nursery propagators leading to infection of the propagation materials. This research investigated the efficacy of different control methods which could prevent infection or eradicate the pathogen from harvested canes prior to plant propagation. In the source blocks, attempts to reduce infection of shoots by protecting trimming wounds were partially successful (P=0.036, with 19.5% incidence in fungicide-treated shoots and 24.3% infection in the control shoots. Further sampling showed that overall 19.9% of these infections were in the bark and 9.6% in the wood. Hot water treatment (HWT of dormant rootstock 5C canes, previously infected with Neofusicoccum luteum and N. parvum, at 50°C for 30 min resulted in internal infection incidences of 55 and 100%, respectively. HWT at 53°C reduced infection incidence to 0 and 8.5%, respectively, but killed the buds. In naturally infected canes, HWT of 50°C for 30 min reduced infection incidence from 35% in controls, to 0–15% over all Botryosphaeriaceae species. Shorter periods of HWT, at 55°C for 10 min, designed to kill bark infections, were effective in Sauvignon blanc but killed the buds of Pinot noir. Sauvignon blanc canes superficially infected with N. luteum were soaked for 30 min in the fungicides carbendazim, tebuconazole, thiophanate methyl and flusilazole, with and without a polyether-modified trisiloxane adjuvant. Results showed that carbendazim with no adjuvant and tebuconazole with 0.5 mL L-1 adjuvant eliminated 100% of bark infections. A further experiment that soaked 2,000 canes (Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir in a carbendazim solution prior to rooting found that all canes were free of Botryosphaeriaceae species infection, compared to 17% natural incidence. These results have indicated the potential efficacy of several methods for preventing or reducing infection

  17. Different Preclimacteric Events in Apple Cultivars with Modified Ripening Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available “Anna” is an early season apple cultivar exhibiting a fast softening and juiciness loss during storage, in comparison to two mid-late season cultivars “Galaxy” and “GD.” The poor storage capacity of “Anna” was correlated with high lipid oxidation-related autoluminescence, high respiration and ethylene production rates, associated with high expression of MdACO1, 2, 4, 7, and MdACS1. All cultivars at harvest responded to exogenous ethylene by enhancing ethylene production, typical of system-II. The contribution of pre-climacteric events to the poor storage capacity of “Anna” was examined by comparing respiration and ethylene production rates, response to exogenous ethylene, expression of genes responsible for ethylene biosynthesis and response, and developmental regulators in the three cultivars throughout fruit development. In contrast to the “Galaxy” and “GD,” “Anna” showed higher ethylene production and respiration rates during fruit development, and exhibited auto-stimulatory (system II-like effect in response to exogenous ethylene. The higher ethylene production rate in “Anna” was correlated with higher expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, MdACS3a MdACO2, 4, and 7 during early fruit development. The expression of negative regulators of ripening (AP2/ERF and ethylene response pathway, (MdETR1,2 and MdCTR1 was lower in “Anna” in comparison to the other two cultivars throughout development and ripening. Similar pattern of gene expression was found for SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box genes, including MdCNR and for MdFUL. Taken together, this study provides new understanding on pre-climacteric events in “Anna” that might affect its ripening behavior and physiology following storage.

  18. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  19. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  20. Activity of autoinducer two (AI-2) in bacteria isolated from surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    ). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....

  1. Local Correlation during Ostwald ripening of two-dimensional islands on Ag(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, Karina; Rosenfeld, G.; Comsa, George

    1999-01-01

    Using two-dimensional Ag adatom islands on Ag(111) as a model system, we study the importance of local correlations in diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening. For the coverages studied (0.08, 0.21, and 0.3 ML), we find that the ripening can be surprisingly well described in a nearest neighbour model

  2. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    Full Text Available Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene.

  3. Microbial succession of Debaryomyces hansenii strains during the production of Danish surfaced-ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Mee; Westall, Signe; Jespersen, Lene

    2002-01-01

    to be the dominant yeast species throughout the ripening period, whereas other yeast species such as Trichosporon spp., Rhodotorula spp., and Candida spp. were found in minor concentrations during early stages of cheese ripening. Mitochondrial DNA RFLP was used to show that several strains of D. hansenii were...

  4. Metabolomics analysis of postharvest ripening heterogeneity of ‘Hass' avocadoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi, R.; Munoz, P.; Robledo, P.; Becerra, C.; Defilippi, B.G.; Eekelen, van H.D.L.M.; Mumm, R.; Westra, E.H.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    The complex physiology of ‘Hass’ avocado renders its postharvest ripening heterogeneous and unpre-dictable. Several approaches have previously been undertaken to broaden our understanding of the causesof this postharvest ripening heterogeneity but without much success. In this study, a fruit biopsy

  5. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  6. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  7. A 3-D functional-structural grapevine model that couples the dynamics of water transport with leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqi; Dai, Zhanwu; Vivin, Philippe; Gambetta, Gregory A; Henke, Michael; Peccoux, Anthony; Ollat, Nathalie; Delrot, Serge

    2017-12-23

    Predicting both plant water status and leaf gas exchange under various environmental conditions is essential for anticipating the effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. This study developed a functional-structural grapevine model which combines a mechanistic understanding of stomatal function and photosynthesis at the leaf level (i.e. extended Farqhuhar-von Caemmerer-Berry model) and the dynamics of water transport from soil to individual leaves (i.e. Tardieu-Davies model). The model included novel features that account for the effects of xylem embolism (fPLC) on leaf hydraulic conductance and residual stomatal conductance (g0), variable root and leaf hydraulic conductance, and the microclimate of individual organs. The model was calibrated with detailed datasets of leaf photosynthesis, leaf water potential, xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and hourly whole-plant transpiration observed within a soil drying period, and validated with independent datasets of whole-plant transpiration under both well-watered and water-stressed conditions. The model well captured the effects of radiation, temperature, CO2 and vapour pressure deficit on leaf photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential, and correctly reproduced the diurnal pattern and decline of water flux within the soil drying period. In silico analyses revealed that decreases in g0 with increasing fPLC were essential to avoid unrealistic drops in leaf water potential under severe water stress. Additionally, by varying the hydraulic conductance along the pathway (e.g. root and leaves) and changing the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to ABA and leaf water potential, the model can produce different water use behaviours (i.e. iso- and anisohydric). The robust performance of this model allows for modelling climate effects from individual plants to fields, and for modelling plants with complex, non-homogenous canopies. In addition, the model provides a

  8. Transmission of Xylella fastidiosa to Grapevine by the Meadow Spittlebug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, D; Sicard, A; Zeilinger, A R; Porcelli, F; Purcell, A H; Almeida, R P P

    2016-11-01

    There is little information available on Xylella fastidiosa transmission by spittlebugs (Hemiptera, Cercopoidea). This group of insect vectors may be of epidemiological relevance in certain diseases, so it is important to better understand the basic parameters of X. fastidiosa transmission by spittlebugs. We used grapevines as a host plant and the aphrophorid Philaenus spumarius as a vector to estimate the effect of plant access time on X. fastidiosa transmission to plants; in addition, bacterial population estimates in the heads of vectors were determined and correlated with plant infection status. Results show that transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa by P. spumarius increased with plant access time, similarly to insect vectors in another family (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). Furthermore, a positive correlation between pathogen populations in P. spumarius and transmission to plants was observed. Bacterial populations in insects were one to two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in leafhopper vectors, and population size peaked within 3 days of plant access period. These results suggest that P. spumarius has either a limited number of sites in the foregut that may be colonized, or that fluid dynamics in the mouthparts of these insects is different from that in leafhoppers. Altogether our results indicate that X. fastidiosa transmission by spittlebugs is similar to that by leafhoppers. In addition, the relationship between cell numbers in vectors and plant infection may have under-appreciated consequences to pathogen spread.

  9. Iron deficiency stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in grapevine apical leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramanico, Leila; Rustioni, Laura; De Lorenzis, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Iron chlorosis is a diffuse disorder affecting Mediterranean vineyards. Beside the commonly described symptom of chlorophyll decrease, an apex reddening was recently observed. Secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, are often synthetized to cope with stresses in plants. The present work aimed to evaluate grapevine responses to iron deficiency, in terms of anthocyanin metabolism (reflectance spectrum, total anthocyanin content, HPLC profile and gene expression) in apical leaves of Cabernet sauvignon and Sangiovese grown in hydroponic conditions. Iron supply interruption produced after one month an increasing of anthocyanin content associated to a more stable profile in both cultivars. In Cabernet sauvignon, the higher red pigment accumulation was associated to a lower intensity of chlorotic symptoms, while in Sangiovese, despite the activation of the metabolism, the lower anthocyanin accumulation was associated to a stronger decrease in chlorophyll concentration. Gene expression data showed a significant increase of anthocyanin biosynthesis. The effects on the expression of structural and transcription factor genes of phenylpropanoid pathway were cultivar dependent. F3H, F3'H, F3'5'H and LDOX genes, in Cabernet sauvignon, and AOMT1 and AOMT genes, in Sangiovese, were positively affected by the treatment in response to iron deficiency. All data support the hypothesis of an anthocyanin biosynthesis stimulation rather than a decreased degradation of them due to iron chlorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. VESPUCCI: exploring patterns of gene expression in grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMoretto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale transcriptional studies aim to decipher the dynamic cellular responses to a stimulus, like different environmental conditions. In the era of high-throughput omics biology, the most used technologies for these purposes are microarray and RNA-Seq, whose data are usually required to be deposited in public repositories upon publication. Such repositories have the enormous potential to provide a comprehensive view of how different experimental conditions lead to expression changes, by comparing gene expression across all possible measured conditions. Unfortunately, this task is greatly impaired by differences among experimental platforms that make direct comparisons difficult.In this paper we present the Vitis Expression Studies Platform Using COLOMBOS Compendia Instances (VESPUCCI, a gene expression compendium for grapevine which was built by adapting an approach originally developed for bacteria, and show how it can be used to investigate complex gene expression patterns. We integrated nearly all publicly available microarray and RNA-Seq expression data: 1608 gene expression samples from 10 different technological platforms. Each sample has been manually annotated using a controlled vocabulary developed ad hoc to ensure both human readability and computational tractability. Expression data in the compendium can be visually explored using several tools provided by the web interface or can be programmatically accessed using the REST interface. VESPUCCI is freely accessible at http://vespucci.colombos.fmach.it.

  11. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  12. Overview of a surface-ripened cheese community functioning by meta-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dugat-Bony

    Full Text Available Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses to an experimental surface-ripened cheese composed of nine microbial species during four weeks of ripening. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. Furthermore, differential expression analysis was used to select a set of biomarker genes, providing a valuable tool that can be used to monitor the cheese-making process.

  13. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Tryptophan Levels during Grape Ripening: Effects of Cultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.

  15. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem [Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage.

  16. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage

  17. Using Support Vector Regression and Hyperspectral Imaging for the Prediction of Oenological Parameters on Different Vintages and Varieties of Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a support vector regression (SVR model with a Gaussian radial basis kernel to predict anthocyanin concentration, pH index and sugar content in whole grape berries, using spectroscopic measurements obtained in reflectance mode, was evaluated. Each sample contained a small number of whole berries and the spectrum of each sample was collected during ripening using hyperspectral imaging in the range of 380–1028 nm. Touriga Franca (TF variety samples were collected for the 2012–2015 vintages, and Touriga Nacional (TN and Tinta Barroca (TB variety samples were collected for the 2013 vintage. These TF vintages were independently used to train, validate and test the SVR methodology; different combinations of TF vintages were used to train and test each model to assess the performance differences under wider and more variable datasets; the varieties that were not employed in the model training and validation (TB and TN were used to test the generalization ability of the SVR approach. Each case was tested using an external independent set (with data not included in the model training or validation steps. The best R2 results obtained with varieties and vintages not employed in the model’s training step were 0.89, 0.81 and 0.90, with RMSE values of 35.6 mg·L−1, 0.25 and 3.19 °Brix, for anthocyanin concentration, pH index and sugar content, respectively. The present results indicate a good overall performance for all cases, improving the state-of-the-art results for external test sets, and suggesting that a robust model, with a generalization capacity over different varieties and harvest years may be obtainable without further training, which makes this a very competitive approach when compared to the models from other authors, since it makes the problem significantly simpler and more cost-effective.

  18. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Home cervical ripening with dinoprostone gel in nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Taylor, Rebecca; Mairs, Rebecca; Azaghdani, Abdulhamid; Hor, Kahyee; Smith, Imogen; Dundas, Kirsty; Kissack, Chris; Norman, Jane E; Denison, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether home cervical ripening is safe and results in shorter hospital stay. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies having induction of labor for postmaturity at a single center between January 2007 and June 2010. Women were offered home cervical ripening with 1 mg dinoprostone gel if they were nulliparous, had uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, and the indication for induction was postmaturity. Nine hundred seven of 1,536 (59.1%) nulliparous women having induction of labor for postmaturity were eligible for home cervical ripening. The median number of hours at home was 11.76 hours (range 0-24.82 hours). There were no cases of birth outside of the hospital, uterine rupture, or significant neonatal morbidity or neonatal death related to home cervical ripening. Eighty-five (5.5%) women who underwent hospital cervical ripening because of maternal preference or social issues formed a hospital cervical ripening comparison group. There was no significant difference in the total number of hours before delivery spent in the hospital between the two groups (26.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 25.27-27.23 in home cervical ripening group compared with 24.28; 95% CI 22.5-26.0 in the hospital group; P=.26). Clinical outcomes are comparable in nulliparous women who receive a single dose of dinoprostone gel for home cervical ripening compared with those who undergo hospital cervical ripening. However, preadmission home cervical ripening with 1 mg dinoprostone does not decrease the number of hours women spend in the hospital. II.

  20. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  1. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  2. Chemical Bonds of Cations in Grapevine Berries and Stems of Some Important Cultivars of Vitis vinifera (L. and Their Relevance for Viticulture and Enology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schaller

    2016-11-01

    An analysis of variance shows that the varieties have a significant influence on nutrient distribution in different tissues. It seems that the relation Ca/Mg (NaCl fraction in stems is a good indicator for BSN because susceptible varieties show lower ratios than resistant ones. Some more research is necessary to clear up this possible relationship.

  3. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  4. Non-invasive real-time monitoring of vineyard soils, berries and leaves with FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopo Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality wines requires a permanent monitoring during the entire winemaking process. A healthy production, ensured by tailor-made strategies that will lead to consumer's satisfaction is of the utmost importance. The influence of the terroir characteristics on the features of a wine has always been prone to much debate amongst the wine industry. The composition of grapes is the result of the characteristics of each individual terroir. Soil impact on growth of the vineyard, grape variety characteristics and ultimately wine quality is well known. Current strategy for analysing soils (pedology is based on wet chemistry methods, which are often laborious, expensive, time-consuming and may be of limited use. An efficient, high-throughput analytical method for estimating the impact of soil quality, tillage and thinning on the grapes quality is of paramount importance for the wine industry. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a rapid, non-destructive, inexpensive and accurate analysis technique and its use in soil evaluation for discriminating different types of soil as well as soil constituents is rapidly increasing. Results obtained from direct monitoring of four Portuguese vineyards in different locations (wine appellation regions “Alentejo”, “Dão”, “Douro” and “Vinhos Verdes” using two different portable near-infrared spectrometers are presented. In-situ measurements of soils (at different depths, plant leaves and berries were performed on different stages of the ripening period. Spectral analysis was performed with chemometric methods: PCA and PLS-DA. This monitoring approach revealed to be an excellent tool for the support of a vineyard's micro-zoning process.

  5. Evaluation of chemical parameters in soft mold-ripened cheese during ripening by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-del-Campo, S T; Picque, D; Cosío-Ramírez, R; Corrieu, G

    2007-06-01

    The suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) to follow the evolution throughout ripening of specific physicochemical parameters in Camembert-type cheeses was evaluated. The infrared spectra were obtained directly from raw cheese samples deposited on an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Significant correlations were observed between physicochemical data, pH, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, ammonia (NH4+), lactose, and lactic acid. Dry matter showed significant correlation only with lactose and nonprotein nitrogen. Principal components analysis factorial maps of physicochemical data showed a ripening evolution in 2 steps, from d 1 to d 7 and from d 8 to d 27, similar to that observed previously from infrared spectral data. Partial least squares regressions made it possible to obtain good prediction models for dry matter, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, lactic acid, and NH4+ values from spectral data of raw cheese. The values of 3 statistical parameters (coefficient of determination, root mean square error of cross validation, and ratio prediction deviation) are satisfactory. Less precise models were obtained for pH.

  6. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  7. Army Personnel Complied with the Berry Amendment but Can Improve Compliance with the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-07

    that supports the warfighter; promotes accountability, integrity , and efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the...not procuring Berry Amendment compliant athletic footwear for enlisted personnel. Athletic shoes are subject to the Berry Amendment and the Buy

  8. Geometric quantum discord and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)

  9. Time and Frequency Domain Response of Grape Berries to Nondestructive Impact during the Harvesting Period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, Jan; Pavloušek, P.; Nedomová, Š.; Buchar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2016), s. 24-33 ISSN 0022-4901 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : berry´s response * dominant frequency * elastic modulus * grape berries Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com

  10. Berry-Phase Blockade in Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gabriel; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2007-06-01

    We formulate the problem of electron transport through a single-molecule magnet (SMM) in the Coulomb blockade regime taking into account topological interference effects for the tunneling of the large spin of a SMM. The interference originates from spin Berry phases associated with different tunneling paths. We show that, in the case of incoherent spin states, it is essential to place the SMM between oppositely spin-polarized source and drain leads in order to detect the spin tunneling in the stationary current, which exhibits topological zeros as a function of the transverse magnetic field.

  11. Preoperative ripening of the cervix before operative hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fozan, Haya; Firwana, Belal; Al Kadri, Hanan; Hassan, Samar; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-04-23

    Hysteroscopy is an operation in which the gynaecologist examines the uterine cavity using a small telescopic instrument (hysteroscope) inserted via the vagina and the cervix. Almost 50% of hysteroscopic complications are related to difficulty with cervical entry. Potential complications include cervical tears, creation of a false passage, perforation, bleeding, or simply difficulty in entering the internal os (between the cervix and the uterus) with the hysteroscope. These complications may possibly be reduced with adequate preparation of the cervix (cervical ripening) prior to hysteroscopy. Cervical ripening agents include oral or vaginal prostaglandin, which can be synthetic (e.g misoprostol) or natural (e.g. dinoprostone) and vaginal osmotic dilators, which can be naturally occurring (e.g. laminaria) or synthetic. To determine whether preoperative cervical preparation facilitates cervical dilatation and reduces the complications of operative hysteroscopy in women undergoing the procedure for any condition. In August 2014 we searched sources including the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for published and unpublished studies in any language. Two review authors independently selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cervical ripening agents used before operative hysteroscopy in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cervical ripening agents could be compared to each other, placebo or no treatment. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently by two review authors. The primary review outcomes were effectiveness of cervical dilatation (defined as the proportion of women requiring mechanical cervical dilatation) and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcomes were mean time required to dilate the cervix, preoperative pain, cervical width

  12. Studies on retranslocation of accumulated assimilates in 'Delaware' grapevines, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yau-Shiang; Hori, Yutaka

    1979-01-01

    Potted Delaware grapevines were supplied with 14 CO 2 in summer or autumn, and the accumulation and retranslocation of 14 C-assimilates were investigated. At pruning time, 14 C-assimilates were distributed to the roots at higher ratio than to the trunks and canes, and this trend was more marked in the autumn feeding than the summer feeding. The respiratory consumption and retranslocation of 14 C during the growth period of new shoots were evaluated as the percentage of 14 C found in the vines just after pruning. The percentage of the respiratory consumption of 14 C was evidently higher in the autumn feeding. The retranslocation began with the bud burst, and reached maximum at the 6- to 8-leaf stages in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in autumn and at the 10-leaf stage in those fed in summer. The retranslocation in both groups ceased by the flowering stage. Such course of the retranslocation with time was recognized in radioautographs of the new shoots. The maximum percentage of the translocation to the newly developed shoots was 5.1 - 5.2 and 15.3 - 10.7 in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in summer and autumn, respectively. It was peculiar to the new shoots that nearly half of their ethanol-soluble 14 C was found in amino acids unlike the one-sided distribution to soluble carbohydrates in the trunks and roots. It was assumed that amino acids were retranslocated to the new shoots after they had been synthesized in the roots. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Complete sequence of RNA1 of grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiaro, Michele; Nahdi, Sabrine; Elbeaino, Toufic

    2012-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of RNA1 of grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV), a nepovirus of subgroup B, was determined from cDNA clones. It is 7,288 nucleotides in length excluding the 3' terminal poly(A) tail and contains a large open reading frame (ORF), extending from nucleotides 272 to 7001, encoding a polypeptide of 2,243 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 250 kDa. The primary structure of the polyprotein, compared with that of other viral polyproteins, revealed the presence of all the characteristic domains of members of the order Picornavirales, i.e., the NTP-binding protein (1B(Hel)), the viral genome-linked protein (1C(VPg)), the proteinase (1D(Prot)), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (1E(Pol)), and of the protease cofactor (1A(Pro-cof)) shared by members of the subfamily Comovirinae within the family Secoviridae. The cleavage sites predicted within the polyprotein were found to be in agreement with those previously reported for nepoviruses of subgroup B, processing from 1A to 1E proteins of 67, 64, 3, 23 and 92 kDa, respectively. The RNA1-encoded polyprotein (p1) shared the highest amino acid sequence identity (66 %) with tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and beet ringspot virus (BRSV). The 5'- and 3'-noncoding regions (NCRs) of GARSV-RNA1 shared 89 % and 95 % nucleotide sequence identity respectively with the corresponding regions in RNA2. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the close relationship of GARSV to members of subgroup B of the genus Nepovirus.

  14. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. Temperature dependent RNA metabolism in Xylella fastidiosa during cold stress and grapevine infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re-occurrence of Pierce’s disease of grapes, caused by Xylella fastidiosa, is known to be influenced by environmental factors, particularly cold temperatures during overwintering. Grapevines in colder regions are often cured of X. fastidiosa infection over the winter season, depending on cultivar, t...

  17. VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION IN GRAPEVINES HAS BEEN OVERESTIMATED BY THE CENTRIFUGE TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines are considered among the most vulnerable woody plant species to water stress-induced cavitation with embolism forming at slight tensions. However, we found that native embolism in stems of field grown Vitis vinifera cv. Chardonnay never exceeded 30% despite xylem water potentials ('x) rea...

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of water ascent in embolized xylem vessels of grapevine stem segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingtao Wang; Melvin T. Tyree; Roderick E. Wasylishen

    2013-01-01

    Temporal and spatial information about water refilling of embolized xylem vessels and the rate of water ascent in these vessels is critical for understanding embolism repair in intact living vascular plants. High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments have been performed on embolized grapevine stem segments while they were...

  19. Interaction of Ulocladium atrum, a Potential Biological Control Agent, with Botrytis cinerea and Grapevine Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Ronseaux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of biological control agent, Ulocladium atrum (isolates U13 and U16 in protecting Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay against gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea, and simulation of the foliar defense responses was investigated. A degraded mycelium structure during cultural assay on potato dextrose agar revealed that U. atrum isolates U13 and U16 were both antagonistic to B. cinerea, mainly when isolates were inoculated two days before Botrytis. Under in vitro conditions, foliar application of U. atrum protected grapevine leaves against gray mold disease. An increase in chitinase activity was induced by the presence of U. atrum isolates indicating that the biological control agents triggered plant defense mechanisms. Moreover, U13 has the potential to colonize the grapevine plantlets and to improve their growth. The ability of U. atrum isolates to exhibit an antagonistic effect against B. cinerea in addition to their aptitude to induce plant resistance and to promote grapevine growth may explain a part of their biological activity. Hence, this study suggests that U. atrum provides a suitable biocontrol agent against gray mold in grapevines.

  20. Pyrosequencing detects human and animal pathogenic taxa in the grapevine endosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sohail; Bulgari, Daniela; Bergna, Alessandro; Pancher, Michael; Quaglino, Fabio; Casati, Paola; Campisano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Generally, plants are not considered as hosts for human and animal pathogens (HAP). The recent produce-associated outbreaks of food-borne diseases have drawn attention toward significant deficiencies in our understanding of the ecology of HAP, and their potential for interkingdom transfer. To examine the association of microorganisms classified as HAP with plants, we surveyed the presence and distribution of HAP bacterial taxa (henceforth HAPT, for brevity's sake) in the endosphere of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) both in the plant stems and leaves. An enrichment protocol was used on leaves to detect taxa with very low abundance in undisturbed tissues. We used pyrosequencing and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA gene. We identified several HAPT, and focused on four genera (Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus, Clostridium, and Burkholderia). The majority of the bacterial sequences in the genus Propionibacterium, from grapevine leaf and stem, were identified as P. acnes. Clostridia were detected in leaves and stems, but their number was much higher in leaves after enrichment. HAPT were indentified both in leaves and wood of grapevines. This depicts the ability of these taxa to be internalized within plant tissues and maintain their population levels in a variety of environments. Our analysis highlighted the presence of HAPT in the grapevine endosphere and unexpected occurrence of these bacterial taxa in this atypical environment.

  1. Restructuring of endophytic bacterial communities in grapevine yellows-diseased and recovered Vitis vinifera L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Crepaldi, Paola; Daffonchio, Daniele; Quaglino, Fabio; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Bianco, Piero Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Length heterogeneity-PCR assays, combined with statistical analyses, highlighted that the endophytic bacterial community associated with healthy grapevines was characterized by a greater diversity than that present in diseased and recovered plants. The findings suggest that phytoplasmas can restructure the bacterial community by selecting endophytic strains that could elicit a plant defense response.

  2. Species of Diatrypaceae associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi LUQUE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and diversity of Diatrypaceae species occurring on grapevines in Eastern Spain were investigated. Several species were identified on the basis of morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of the complete sequence of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA and part of the β-tubulin gene. Five species of Diatrypaceae isolated from the wood of diseased grapevines, pruning debris and/or perithecia were identified, including Anthostoma decipiens, Cryptovalsa ampelina, Eutypa lata, Eutypella citricola and Eutypella microtheca. Additionally, four taxa could not be identified to the species level but were closely related to Eutypa tetragona based on phylogenetic analyses. Eutypa lata was the most prevalent species and showed the greatest degree of genetic diversity. Cryptovalsa ampelina and E. microtheca ranked second in the frequency of isolations, while all the remaining species were less frequently isolated. Eutypella citricola and E. microtheca are reported for the first time as occurring on grapevine in Spain and this is the first report of A. decipiens occurring on grapevine.

  3. Deep amplicon sequencing reveals mixed phytoplasma infection within single grapevine plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of phytoplasmas within single plants has not yet been fully investigated. In this project, deep amplicon sequencing was used to generate 50,926 phytoplasma sequences from 11 phytoplasma-infected grapevine samples from a PCR amplicon in the 5' end of the 16S region. After clustering ...

  4. Phakopsora euvitis Causes Unusual Damage to Leaves and Modifies Carbohydrate Metabolism in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Nogueira Júnior

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Asian grapevine rust (Phakopsora euvitis is a serious disease, which causes severe leaf necrosis and early plant defoliation. These symptoms are unusual for a strict biotrophic pathogen. This work was performed to quantify the effects of P. euvitis on photosynthesis, carbohydrates, and biomass accumulation of grapevine. The reduction in photosynthetic efficiency of the green leaf tissue surrounding the lesions was quantified using the virtual lesion concept (β parameter. Gas exchange and responses of CO2 assimilation to increasing intercellular CO2 concentration were analyzed. Histopathological analyses and quantification of starch were also performed on diseased leaves. Biomass and carbohydrate accumulation were quantified in different organs of diseased and healthy plants. Rust reduced the photosynthetic rate, and β was estimated at 5.78, indicating a large virtual lesion. Mesophyll conductance, maximum rubisco carboxylation rate, and regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate dependent on electron transport rate were reduced, causing diffusive and biochemical limitations to photosynthesis. Hypertrophy, chloroplast degeneration of mesophyll cells, and starch accumulation in cells close to lesions were observed. Root carbohydrate concentration was reduced, even at low rust severity. Asian grapevine rust dramatically reduced photosynthesis and altered the dynamics of production and accumulation of carbohydrates, unlike strict biotrophic pathogens. The reduction in carbohydrate reserves in roots would support polyetic damage on grapevine, caused by a polycyclic disease.

  5. The distribution and symptomatology of grapevine trunk disease pathogens are influenced by climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grapevine trunk diseases, caused by a range of phytopathogenic fungi, represent a serious impediment to wine and table grape production wherever these crops are cultivated. Previous studies have shown that the distribution of these pathogens is influenced by climate and that they are associated with

  6. Root-associated bacteria promote grapevine growth: from the laboratory to the field

    KAUST Repository

    Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Saderi, Stefano; Corretto, Erika; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Borin, Sara; Valenti, Leonardo; Sorlini, Claudia; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    of different geographical origins derived from different crop plants can colonize grapevine to gain a beneficial outcome for the plant leading to promote growth at the field scale. Methods: To link the ecological functions of bacteria to the promotion of plant

  7. Presence and uses of wild grapevine (Vitis spp. in the central region of Veracruz in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo

    2009-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: The exploration of Vitis spp. in the area studied raises the possibility of finding new hybrids or multi-hybrids between species. Wild grapevines could be used to produce natural products that could be sold on the market.

  8. Predicting the occurrence of iron chlorosis in grapevine with tests based on soil iron forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz de la Torre

    2010-06-01

    Significance and impact of study: This study has shown the limited usefulness of tests based on the contents and reactivity of the soil carbonate to predict the occurrence of Fe chlorosis in grapevine; tests capable of estimating the contents of the labile soil Fe forms constitute the best alternative.

  9. Design and validation of an STR hexaplex assay for DNA profiling of grapevine cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábek, A.; Smolíková, M.; Kalendar, R.; Pinto, F. A. L.; Pavloušek, P.; Klepárník, Karel; Frébort, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 23-24 (2016), s. 3059-3067 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : grapevine DNA analysis * multiplex PCR * STRs * Vitis vinifera L Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  10. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analyses for characterization and detection of grapevine pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapevines can become infected by a variety of devastating pathogens, including the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and canker fungi. Multiple strains of Xylella fastidiosa exist, each causing different diseases on various hosts. Although sequence-based genotyping can assist in distinguishing these str...

  11. A polyphasic approach for the characterization of endophytic Alternaria strains isolated from grapevines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polizzotto, Rachele; Andersen, Birgitte; Martini, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A polyphasic approach was set up and applied to characterize 20 fungal endophytes belonging to the genus Alternaria, recovered from grapevine in different Italian regions.Morphological, microscopical, molecular and chemical investigations were performed and the obtained results were combined in a...

  12. GRAPEVINE FE-CHLOROSIS ON PODUNAVLJE VINEGROWING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Drenjančević

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of Podunavlje vinegrowing area in the far east of the Republic of Croatia is carbonate soil with loess as a parent substrate. Chlorosis is common on this soil and it is often caused by excess concentrations of calcium and magnesium and deficiency of iron and zinc. It can also be resulted by inactivation, if it is transformed so that a plant can not use it. The lack of iron in grape vine is resulted in leaf vein, first in younger leaves where the venation remains green, and then marginal necrosis and defoliation are developed. The results of the study include the data based on the field researches of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion and exact research of fertilization field trial. Field research of Podunavlje vinegrowing subregion, vineyards of Srijem, Erdut and Baranya were conducted in July 2007. The field research consisted of locating plantations, measuring plantations chlorosis, determining their general condition and measuring total concentration of chloroplast pigments by an indirect method (chlorophyll meter on the chlorotic and nonchlorotic plants of a grapevine. The intensity of a relative chlorosis was calculated from data measured by a chlorophyll meter. Field research was located on the production area of a company Agro-Ilok ltd. in Ilok, locality Radoš, and carried out during the period 2008 and 2009. It included cultivar Welsh Riesling, grapevine stock Kober 5BB, the most important white cultivar and grapevine stock in the vinegrowing region Continental Croatia. The experiment was set up according to a split plot method at 5x3 levels. The main factor A consisted of different chemical treatments in a basic fertilization: : A1 = 0 control without fertilization; A2 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl; A3 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4; A4 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (KCl + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O; A5 = 150 kg P2O5 + 300 K2O kg ha-1 (K2SO4 + 25 kg ha-1 Fe - FeSO4x7H2O. Factor B had got three levels

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-03

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel genes to extend the available reference gene set. Second, 3958 genes in COS and 3503 genes in LSW177 showed at least two-fold variation in expression, and a large number of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during fruit ripening were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone pathways, and sugar and cell wall metabolism. Third, we noted a correlation between ripening-associated transcripts and metabolites and the key function of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. The results revealed several ripening-associated actions and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening.

  14. Use of Early Ripening Cultivars to Avoid Infestation and Mass Trapping to Manage Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericales: Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Emily; Koski, Carissa; Barsoian, Olivia; Faubert, Heather; Cowles, Richard S; Alm, Steven R

    2014-10-01

    Use of early ripening highbush blueberry cultivars to avoid infestation and mass trapping were evaluated for managing spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura). Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars were sampled for spotted wing drosophila infestation. Most 'Earliblue', 'Bluetta', and 'Collins' fruit were harvested before spotted wing drosophila oviposition commenced, and so escaped injury. Most fruit from 'Bluejay', 'Blueray', and 'Bluehaven' were also harvested before the first week of August, after which spotted wing drosophila activity led to high levels of blueberry infestation. In a separate experiment, damage to cultivars was related to the week in which fruit were harvested, with greater damage to fruit observed as the season progressed. Attractant traps placed within blueberry bushes increased nearby berry infestation by 5%, irrespective of cultivar and harvest date. The significant linear reduction in infestation with increasing distance from the attractant trap suggests that traps are influencing fly behavior to at least 5.5 m. Insecticides applied to the exterior of traps, compared with untreated traps, revealed that only 10-30% of flies visiting traps enter the traps and drown. Low trap efficiency may jeopardize surrounding fruits by increasing local spotted wing drosophila activity. To protect crops, traps for mass trapping should be placed in a perimeter outside fruit fields and insecticides need to be applied to the surface of traps or on nearby fruit to function as an attract-and-kill strategy. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  15. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  16. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Early ripening, productive soybean mutant variety suitable for combine harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1981 seeds of the early ripening Swedish variety ''Fiskeby V'' were treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea, sodium azide or gamma rays. Induced mutants were selected which are characterized by longer stalk, higher insertion point of the lowest pods and improved grain yield as well as sufficiently early maturity. Starting from 60 000 treated seeds, 6 mutant lines were developed, and in 1988 one variety named ''Dorado'' was released. Under optimal agrotechnical conditions in fields of 2-10 ha ''Dorado'' achieved grain yields between 1,5 and 2,3 t/ha during the last four years. It is intended to grow this variety in the middle and southern districts of the German Democratic Republic, primarily for human consumption. A technology for growing this variety was recommended

  19. Spatio-temporal effects of soil and bedrock variability on grapevine water status in hillslope vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; Bois, Benjamin; Mathieu, Olivier; Leveque, Jean

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope vineyards show various and complex water dynamics between soil and plants, and in order to gain further insight into this phenomenon, 8 grapevine plots were monitored during three vintages, from 2010 to 2013, on Corton Hill, Burgundy, France. Plots were distributed along a topolithosequence from 330 to 270 metres a.s.l. Grapevine water status was monitored weekly by surveying water potential, and, at the end of the season, by the use of the δ13C analysis of grape juice. Soil profile of each plot was described and analysed (soil texture, gravel content, organic carbon, total nitrogen, pH, CEC). Soil volumetric humidity was measured weekly, using TDR probes. A pedotransfer function was developed to transform Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) into soil volume wetness and therefore to spatialise and observe variation in the Fraction of Transpirable Soil Water (FTSW). During the three years of monitoring, grapevines experienced great variation in water status, which ranged from low to considerable water deficit (as expressed by pre-dawn leaf water potential and δ13C analysis of grape juice). With ERI imaging, it was possible to observe differences in water absorption pattern by roots, in different soils, and at different depth. In addition, significant differences were observed in grapevine water status in relation to variations in the physical characteristics of the terroir along the hillslope (i.e. the geo-pedological context, the elevation etc.). Grapevine water behaviour and plant-soil water relationships on the hillslope of Corton Hill have been extensively characterised in this study by ultimate technologies, allowing to present this terroir as a very interesting example for future generalisation and modelling of the hillslope vineyard water dynamics.

  20. Cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis activate distinct patterns of defence responses in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Giovanni; Fernandez, Olivier; Jacquens, Lucile; Coutte, François; Krier, François; Jacques, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Barka, Essaid Ait; Jacquard, Cédric; Dorey, Stéphan

    2015-02-01

    Non-self-recognition of microorganisms partly relies on the perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and leads to the activation of an innate immune response. Bacillus subtilis produces three main families of cyclic lipopeptides (LPs), namely surfactins, iturins and fengycins. Although LPs are involved in induced systemic resistance (ISR) activation, little is known about defence responses induced by these molecules and their involvement in local resistance to fungi. Here, we showed that purified surfactin, mycosubtilin (iturin family) and plipastatin (fengycin family) are perceived by grapevine plant cells. Although surfactin and mycosubtilin stimulated grapevine innate immune responses, they differentially activated early signalling pathways and defence gene expression. By contrast, plipastatin perception by grapevine cells only resulted in early signalling activation. Gene expression analysis suggested that mycosubtilin activated salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways, whereas surfactin mainly induced an SA-regulated response. Although mycosubtilin and plipastatin displayed direct antifungal activity, only surfactin and mycosubtilin treatments resulted in a local long-lasting enhanced tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea in grapevine leaves. Moreover, challenge with specific strains overproducing surfactin and mycosubtilin led to a slightly enhanced stimulation of the defence response compared with the LP-non-producing strain of B. subtilis. Altogether, our results provide the first comprehensive view of the involvement of LPs from B. subtilis in grapevine plant defence and local resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Bo. cinerea. Moreover, this work is the first to highlight the ability of mycosubtilin to trigger an immune response in plants. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  1. Physical mapping in highly heterozygous genomes: a physical contig map of the Pinot Noir grapevine cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurman Irena

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars grown today are those selected centuries ago, even though grapevine is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. Grapevine has therefore not benefited from the advances in modern plant breeding nor more recently from those in molecular genetics and genomics: genes controlling important agronomic traits are practically unknown. A physical map is essential to positionally clone such genes and instrumental in a genome sequencing project. Results We report on the first whole genome physical map of grapevine built using high information content fingerprinting of 49,104 BAC clones from the cultivar Pinot Noir. Pinot Noir, as most grape varieties, is highly heterozygous at the sequence level. This resulted in the two allelic haplotypes sometimes assembling into separate contigs that had to be accommodated in the map framework or in local expansions of contig maps. We performed computer simulations to assess the effects of increasing levels of sequence heterozygosity on BAC fingerprint assembly and showed that the experimental assembly results are in full agreement with the theoretical expectations, given the heterozygosity levels reported for grape. The map is anchored to a dense linkage map consisting of 994 markers. 436 contigs are anchored to the genetic map, covering 342 of the 475 Mb that make up the grape haploid genome. Conclusions We have developed a resource that makes it possible to access the grapevine genome, opening the way to a new era both in grape genetics and breeding and in wine making. The effects of heterozygosity on the assembly have been analyzed and characterized by using several complementary approaches which could be easily transferred to the study of other genomes which present the same features.

  2. Use of Endophytic and Rhizosphere Actinobacteria from Grapevine Plants To Reduce Nursery Fungal Graft Infections That Lead to Young Grapevine Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; González-García, Sandra; Cobos, Rebeca; Olego, Miguel Ángel; Ibañez, Ana; Díez-Galán, Alba; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2017-12-15

    Endophytic and rhizosphere actinobacteria isolated from the root system of 1-year-old grafted Vitis vinifera plants were evaluated for their activities against fungi that cause grapevine trunk diseases. A total of 58 endophytic and 94 rhizosphere isolates were tested. Based on an in vitro bioassay, 15.5% of the endophytic isolates and 30.8% of the rhizosphere isolates exhibited antifungal activity against the fungal pathogen Diplodia seriata , whereas 13.8% of the endophytic isolates and 16.0% of the rhizosphere isolates showed antifungal activity against Dactylonectria macrodidyma (formerly Ilyonectria macrodidyma ). The strains which showed the greatest in vitro efficacy against both pathogens were further analyzed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium minimum (formerly Phaeoacremonium aleophilum ). Based on their antifungal activity, three rhizosphere isolates and three endophytic isolates were applied on grafts in an open-root field nursery in a 3-year trial. The field trial led to the identification of one endophytic strain, Streptomyces sp. VV/E1, and two rhizosphere isolates, Streptomyces sp. VV/R1 and Streptomyces sp. VV/R4, which significantly reduced the infection rates produced by the fungal pathogens Dactylonectria sp., Ilyonectria sp., P. chlamydospora , and P. minimum , all of which cause young grapevine decline. The VV/R1 and VV/R4 isolates also significantly reduced the mortality level of grafted plants in the nursery. This study shows that certain actinobacteria could represent a promising new tool for controlling fungal trunk pathogens that infect grapevine plants through the root system in nurseries. IMPORTANCE Grapevine trunk diseases are a major threat to the wine and grape industry worldwide. They cause a significant reduction in yields as well as in grape quality, and they can even cause plant death. Trunk diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that enter through pruning wounds and/or the

  3. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and duration of infection on fruit composition and wine chemical profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Mundy, D; Albright, A; Grose, C; Trought, M C T; Cohen, D; Chooi, K M; MacDiarmid, R; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effects of Grapevine Leafroll associated Virus 3 (GLRaV-3) on fruit composition and chemical profile of juice and wine from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grown in New Zealand, composition variables were measured on fruit from vines either infected with GLRaV-3 (established or recent infections) or uninfected vines. Physiological ripeness (20.4°Brix) was the criterion established to determine the harvest date for each of the three treatments. Date of grape ripeness was strongly affected by virus infection. In juice and wine, GLRaV-3 infection prior to 2008 reduced titratable acidity compared with the uninfected control. Differences observed in amino acids from the three infection status groups did not modify basic wine chemical properties. In conclusion, GLRaV-3 infection slowed grape ripening, but at equivalent ripeness to result in minimal effects on the juice and wine chemistry. Time of infection produced differences in specific plant physiological variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Produção e composição química da uva de videiras Cabernet Sauvignon submetidas à adubação nitrogenada Grapes yield and chemistry composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine with nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Brunetto

    2009-10-01

    Sauvignon grapevines, at Udorthent soil at Southern Brazil, Bento Gonçalves city. The treatments were control, 15, 30, 45 and 60kg ha-1 N, added during the vegetative and productive period. In the maturation, the grape was collected. Grape yield by plant and by hectare, length and width of bunches were evaluated and 100 berries were weighted. Berries were collected and a part of them was used to evaluate soluble solids in the must, pH, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, total phenols, anthocyanins and N ammonia. The remaining berries were triturated and used to evaluated total N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The results showed that the yield of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines in soils with medium content of organic matter is maximum with the fertilization of 15 and 30kg ha-1 N. The N fertilization increased the values of ammonia in the must and potassium percentage in the berry, but decreased the values of anthocyanins, what interferes the color of red wines and the formation of precipitate

  6. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  7. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Two-dimensional nanoparticle self-assembly using plasma-induced Ostwald ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J; Photopoulos, P; Tsoukalas, D; Tserepi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel Ag nanoparticle self-assembly process based on plasma-induced two-dimensional Ostwald ripening is demonstrated. Ag nanoparticles are deposited on p-doped Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering process. With the assistance of O 2 /Ar plasma treatment, different sizes and patterns of Ag nanoparticles are formed, due to the Ostwald ripening. The evolution of plasma-induced nanoparticle ripening is studied and a clear increase in particle size and a decrease in particle density are observed with increasing plasma treatment. From the experiments, it is concluded that the initial nanoparticle density and the plasma gas mixture (Ar/O 2 ratio) are important factors that affect the ripening process. The proposed plasma-directed Ag nanoparticle self-assembly provides a rapid method of tailoring the nanoparticle distribution on substrates, with potential applications in the fields of solar cells, biosensors, and catalysis.

  9. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0

  10. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality.

  11. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    the ripening period could be explained by free-radical-induced cross-linking of myosin and the formation of aggregates. In addition, degradation of these aggregates correlated with the decrease in hardness observed at 371 days. CONCLUSIONS: Texture changes during ripening of salted herrings can be explained...... of salted herrings. The aim of this study was to measure the texture changes during ripening using two differentmethods and to correlate the texture changeswith brine composition andwith biochemical modifications at themolecular level. RESULTS: During ripening (up to 151 days), hardness was higher in salted...... herrings compared to raw herrings, irrespective of the brine composition. However, the increase in hardness of herring prepared with extra brine occurred later. After prolonged storage (371 days), hardness was found for both batches to decrease to the level of raw herring. The increase in hardness during...

  12. Favorable effects of berry consumption on platelet function, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlund, Iris; Koli, Raika; Alfthan, Georg; Marniemi, Jukka; Puukka, Pauli; Mustonen, Pirjo; Mattila, Pirjo; Jula, Antti

    2008-02-01

    Berries are a particularly rich source of polyphenols. They also contain other bioactive substances, such as vitamin C. Previous studies indicated that the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (eg, cocoa, tea, and red wine) may induce beneficial changes in pathways related to cardiovascular health. Whether the consumption of berries has similar effects is unknown. We aimed to investigate the effects of berry consumption on hemostatic function, serum lipids, and blood pressure (BP). Middle-aged unmedicated subjects (n = 72) with cardiovascular risk factors consumed moderate amounts of berry or control products for 8 wk in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention trial. Berry consumption inhibited platelet function as measured with a platelet function analyzer (using collagen and ADP as platelet activator) [changes: 11% and -1.4% in the berry and control groups, respectively; P = 0.018, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)]. Plasma biomarkers of platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis did not change during the intervention. Serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased significantly more (P = 0.006, ANCOVA) in the berry than in the control group (5.2% and 0.6%, respectively), but total cholesterol and triacylglycerol remained unchanged. Systolic BP decreased significantly (P = 0.050, ANCOVA); the decrease mostly occurred in subjects with high baseline BP (7.3 mm Hg in highest tertile; P = 0.024, ANCOVA). Polyphenol and vitamin C concentrations in plasma increased, whereas other nutritional biomarkers (ie, folate, tocopherols, sodium, and potassium) were unaffected. The consumption of moderate amounts of berries resulted in favorable changes in platelet function, HDL cholesterol, and BP. The results indicate that regular consumption of berries may play a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Technical approaches of a natural dye extracted from Phytolacca americana L.-berries with chemical mordants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Youn; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2014-01-01

    Phytolacca americana L. is a large semi-succulent herbaceous plant which reaches three meters in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is imported into Korea and has been frequently used as a traditional natural drug for diseases such as systemic edema and nephritis. Its berries, that is, fruits are shiny dark purple held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. They are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, maturing into white and then blackish purple. It is not well known how the berries are used for a natural staining yet. In this study, using Phytolacca americana L.-berries, a natural staining was analyzed. Moreover, due to the broad use of chemical mordants, five different mordants including copper acetate, aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid, Iron II sulfate and potassium dichromate were combined. Extracted dye from the berries stained silk fabrics with ivory. The original purple color from the berries disappeared and transformed into ivory. Although the silk fabrics were differentially stained by the berries that were combined with mordants of aluminum potassium sulfate, sodium tartrate plus citric acid and potassium dichromate, only differences in lightness and darkness were observed. Interestingly, the combination of the dye from the berries with a mordant of copper acetate and Iron II sulfate induced the staining of the silk fabrics into khaki and dark khaki, respectively. This study is the first systemic report on staining silk fabrics with Phytolacca americana L.-berries and chemical mordants and suggests application of natural products to the fiber industry.

  14. A NEW MID-RIPENING VARIETY OF PEA SOVINTER FOR CANNED-FOODS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Pronina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevariety‘Sovinter’isaresultofbreedingprogramandoriginatedat FGBNU, Federal Research Centre of Vegetable Breeding has been included into State Register of Breeding Achievements and permitted to be used in 2015 as mid-ripening, simultaneous-pod-ripening and very suitable for canned-foods industry. The variety can be used as a raw plant material for cannery and will be served in industrial techno-logical chain as permanent source for food production.

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R.; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-01

    Background Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. Results In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel g...

  16. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  17. THE RATIONALIZATION OF THE PARAMETERS OF MILK PROTEINS’ THERMO ACID COAGULATION BY BERRY COAGULANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena GREK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results related to the influence of berry coagulant amount, its proactive acidity and duration of thermo acid coagulation on the process of milk proteins’ sedimentation. In the present work, the regression equations and response surface analysis were used to design and optimize an industrial bioprocess. Increase in the berry coagulant amount to 11 % and reduction of active acidity to 2.4 units were determined. pH up to 3 minutes is characterized by the highest processes of destabilization. Moreover, it improves the organoleptic properties and has the biggest impact on the yield of protein-berry clot (to 25 % and active acidity.

  18. The Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Yu Lixian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the Berry phase in GaAs semiconductor with a quantized magnetic field in the rotating wave approximation. The eigenfunctions of the nuclear spin in the quantized external field are obtained and thus the Berry phase is evaluated explicitly in terms of the introduction of the phase shift. It is shown that the Berry phase can be easily controlled by the coupling strength, the anisotropy constant and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, which can be important in applications in geometric quantum computing

  19. Ensuring the Quality of the New Fruit and Berry Marmalade by Adding Kelp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Nepochatykh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of a new method for the production of fruit and berry marmalade, which is adding kelp to the traditional recipe of fruit and berry marmalade. The use of this additive is scientifically grounded in the amount of 5 %. This can improve the quality of fruit and berry marmalade, as well as update its assortment. Adding kelp to marmalade increases the content of iodine in it by 7.95 %, phosphorus – by 2.15 %, magnesium – by 8.5 %, potassium – by 48.5 %, iron – by 0.03 %, vitamin PP – by 0.015 %.

  20. Berry's phase, Josephson's equation, and the dynamics of weak link superconductors and their vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitan, F.; Shenoy, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    We examine the dynamical consequences of Berry's phase for Josephson junctions, junction arrays, and their vortices. Josephson's equation and the related phase slip voltages are shown to be unaffected by Berry's phase. In an annular Josephson junction, Berry's phase is seen to generate a new current drive on a vortex. In the continuum limit, vortex is expected in a 2D array is shown to map onto that of a 2D film. A Hall sing anomaly is expected arrays; and the merits of arrays for studies of disorder on vortex motion is discussed. (author). 12 refs

  1. A molecular approach to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi community in a typical Piedmont grapevine cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurno, F.; Bughi Peruglia, G.; Lumini, E.; Bianciotto, V.; Balestrini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Viticulture and wine production represent one of the most relevant agro-food sectors for the Piedmont Region (Italy) in terms of value, with more than 400 millions € a year (12 % of total agricultural production of the Region and the 10 % of the national grape and wine production). The soil where grapevines (Vitis spp.) grow is one of the first parameters influencing the complex grapevine-wine chain. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs), a main component of soil microbiota in most agrosystems, are considered crucial biomarkers of soil quality because of their biofertilisers role. As mutualistic symbionts, they colonize the roots of the majority of plants. Benefits in symbiosis are well showed as an improvement in shoot/root growth, mineral transport, water-stress tolerance and resistance to certain diseases. Grapevines roots are often heavily colonized by AMFs under field conditions and in some cases AMFs appear to be necessary for their normal growth and survival. Even so, little information are until now available about composition of AMFs communities living in the vineyards soil and in associations with grapevine roots, mainly related to morphological characterization. Vineyard of Nebbiolo, one of the most important Piedmont cultivar, was selected in order to study the AMFs community using a molecular approach. Soil samples and roots from an experimental vineyard located in Lessona (Biella, Piedmont, Italy) were analyzed using AM fungal-specific primers to partially amplify the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal DNA genes. Much more than 650 clones were sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses identified 32 OTUs from soil, clustered into Glomus groups Aa, Ab, Ad and B, Diversisporaceae and Gigasporaceae families. Thirteen OTUs from roots were determined, clustered into Glomus groups Ab, Ad and B, and Gigasporaceae family. In particular, Glomus group Ad was the best represented in both compartments, suggesting a correlation between intra and extra radical communities

  2. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  3. How to prevent ripening blockage in 1-MCP-treated 'Conference' pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Maria-Angeles; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Dupille, Eve; Recasens, Inmaculada

    2011-08-15

    Some European pear varieties treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) often remain 'evergreen', meaning that their ripening process is blocked and does not resume after removal from cold storage. In this work this was confirmed also to be the case in 'Conference' pears. To reverse the blockage of ripening 1-MCP treatments combined with external exogenous ethylene were tested. 1-MCP treatment of 'Conference' pears is very effective in delaying ripening and, more specifically, softening. The same 1-MCP concentration in different experimental years caused a different response. The higher dose of 1-MCP (600 nL L⁻¹) always resulted in irreversible blockage of ripening, whereas the behaviour of fruit receiving a lower dose (300 nL L⁻¹) depended on the year, and this did not depend on maturity at harvest or on storage conditions. Simultaneous exposure to 1-MCP and exogenous ethylene significantly affected fruit ripening, allowing significant softening to occur but at a lower rate compared with control fruit. The application of exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP simultaneously after harvest permitted restoration of the ripening process after storage in 'Conference' pears, extending the possibility of marketing and consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  5. Effects of Pu-erh ripened tea on hyperuricemic mice studied by serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Chen, Dong; Wu, Hualing

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate effects of Pu-erh ripened tea in hyperuricemic mice, a mouse hyperuricemia model was developed by oral administration of potassium oxonate for 7 d. Serum metabolomics, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was used to generate metabolic profiles from normal control, hyperuricemic and allopurinol-treated hyperuricemic mice, as well as hyperuricemic mice given Pu-erh ripened tea at three doses. Pu-erh ripened tea significantly lowered serum uric acid levels. Twelve potential biomarkers associated with hyperuricemia were identified. Pu-erh ripened tea and allopurinol differed in their metabolic effects in the hyperuricemic mice. Levels of glutamic acid, indolelactate, L-allothreonine, nicotinoylglycine, isoleucine, l-cysteine and glycocyamine, all involved in amino acid metabolism, were significantly changed in hyperuricemic mice treated Pu-erh ripened tea. Thus, modulating amino acid metabolism might be the primary mechanism of anti-hyperuricemia by Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantum gyroscope based on Berry phase of spins in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi

    2018-02-01

    Gyroscope is the crucial sensor of the inertial navigation system, there is always high demand to improve the sensitivity and reduce the size of the gyroscopes. Using the NV center electronic spin and nuclear spin qubits in diamond, we introduce the research of new types of quantum gyroscopes based on the Berry phase shifts of the spin states during the rotation of the sensor systems. Compared with the performance of the traditional MEMS gyroscope, the sensitivity of the new types of quantum gyroscopes was highly improved and the spatial resolution was reduced to nano-scale. With the help of micro-manufacturing technology in the semiconductor industry, the quantum gyroscopes introduced here can be further integrated into chip-scale sensors.