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Sample records for grape seed oil

  1. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  2. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

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    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  3. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  4. Seed oil content and selected qualitative parameters of oils from grape seeds

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    Vladimír Mašán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (Oleum vitis viniferae represents promising plant oil, which is used mainly in gastronomy and for pharmaceutical purposes as well as for various technical applications. In this paper, there were examined oil contents and oil quality properties of seeds taken from 8 grape cultivars. Oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 11.5% (Dornfelder to 17.5% (Riesling. The results showed a dependence between the length of the growing season for individual varie-ties and the total content of oil in seeds. Fatty acid concentrations in the evaluated oil samples were in various ranges, while the highest values were determined in linoleic acid 70.10 to 71.55%, oleic acid 15.61 to 17.14%, palmitic acid 6.87 to 8.18% and stearic acid 3.16 to 3.90%. Saturated fatty acid values were lower than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all oil samples. The degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil ranged between 88.6 - 89.21%. Thanks to its content, grape seed oil can be considered as a food supplement improving the nutri-tional value of the human diet.

  5. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

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    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  6. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  7. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  8. Seed oil triglyceride profiling of thirty-two hybrid grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Fabiola; Seraglia, Roberta; Molin, Laura; Traldi, Pietro; De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Gardiman, Massimo; Giust, Mirella; Flamini, Riccardo

    2012-09-01

    Triglyceride profile of seed oil samples from 32 hybrid grape varieties not studied before was investigated. A new method for the analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) has been developed based on the direct infusion in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source and employing tetrahydrofuran/methanol/water (85:10:5 v|v|v) as solvent; the formation of [M + Na](+) ions in high yield has been observed. TAGs were identified by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and the matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization and time-of-flight profile of samples was determined. Six were the principal TAGs identified in seed oil: trilinolein (LLL) was the most abundant (43%), followed by dilinoleoyl-oleoylglycerol (LOL, 23%), and dilinoleoyl-palmitoylglycerol (LPL, 15%). Compounds present in lower concentration were LSL and LOO (11%), LOP (6%), and LSP (2%). Compared with seed oils produced from V. Vinifera grapes, some significant differences in the relative abundances of TAGs were found, in particular hybrid grape seed oils showed higher LOL and lower LPL content, respectively. Among the samples studied, a particularly high content of LLL (rich in unsaturated fatty acids) was found in seed oils from two red varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO2: Experiments and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, Kurabachew Simon; Fiori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 for P: 20–50 MPa and T: 313–343 K. • Experimental procedure: dynamic method and oil dispersed on the surface of glass beads. • Eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model to fit the experimental data. • All the models predict the solubility of grape seed oil in SC-CO 2 to a reasonable degree. • Models by Chrastil, del Valle and Aguilera, Kumar and Johnston, and the thermodynamic model are preferable. - Abstract: The solubility of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil in supercritical CO 2 was measured in the temperature range 313–343 K and pressure range 20–50 MPa using the dynamic technique. Several data and global trends were reported. The results show that, at constant temperature, the solubility increases with the increase in pressure, while the effect of the temperature is different for low and high pressure. The experimental data were modeled by eight density-based models and a thermodynamic model based on the Peng-Robinson equation of state. By best fitting procedures, the “free parameters” of the various models were calculated: in general, all the tested models have proved to be able to predict the solubility of grape seed oil in supercritical CO 2 . Differences in model capabilities have been discussed based on the main characteristics of the various models, evidencing their distinct and common features. The predictive capability of the thermodynamic model was comparable to that of the density-based models.

  10. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  11. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  12. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Characterization of grape seed oil from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain

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    Bada, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and characteristics of red grape seed oils (Vitis vinifera L from wines with protected denomination of origin (PDO from Spain. Eight representative varieties of grape seed oils from the Spanish wine Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo and Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín and Verdejo were studied. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 13.89 to 10.18%, and the moisture was similar for all the seeds. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid in all samples, representing around 78%, followed by oleic acid with a concentration close 16%, the degree of unsaturation in the grape seed oil was over 90%. β-sitosterol and α-tocopherol were the main sterol and tocopherol, reaching values of 77.31% and 3.82 mg·100 g−1 of oil, respectively. In relation to the tocotrienols, α-tocotrienol was the main tocotrienol and accounted for 13.18 mg·100 g−1 of oil.El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar la composición y características de aceites de semillas de uvas rojas (Vitis vinifera L de vinos con denominación de origen protegida (DOP de España. Ocho variedades representativas de aceites de semillas de uvas españolas Ribera del Duero (Tempranillo, Toro (Tempranillo, Rioja (Garnacha, Valencia (Tempranillo y Cangas (Mencia, Carrasquín, Albarín y Verdejo fueron estudiadas. Los contenidos en aceite de las semillas oscilaron entre 13.89 y 10.18%, la humedad fué similar para todas las semillas. El contenido en ácido linoléico fué alto en todos los aceites alcanzando un valor del 78%, seguido del ácido oléico con una concentración cercana al 16%, registrando un grado total de insaturación del 90%. b-sitosterol y α-tocoferol fué el principal esterol y tocoferol, alcanzado niveles del 77.31% y de un 3.82 mg·100 g−1 de aceite respectivamente. En relación a los tocotrienoles, α-tocotrienol fué el mayoritario con

  14. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (P<0.001), but inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Irede; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Meireles, M. Angela A.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil/carbon dioxide and (grape oil/carbon dioxide + ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over the temperature range of (313.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 20.6 MPa. The experiments were carried out using (ethanol + CO 2 ) overall mass fractions ranging from 0.50 to 0.99, keeping a fixed ethanol to carbon dioxide molar ratio at 1:3. Results indicate the existence of complex phase behaviour for all temperatures investigated with the occurrence of vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid phase transitions observed.

  16. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

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    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  17. Phase behaviour and thermodynamic modelling for the system (grape seed oil + carbon dioxide + ethanol) at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Irede; Rigo, Aline A.; Corazza, Marcos L.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Meireles, M. Angela A.; Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This short communication reports phase equilibrium data (cloud points), employing the synthetic static method, for the system {grape seed oil (GSO) + carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) + ethanol} up to T = 343.15 K and 22.53 MPa. Experimental results were modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals quadratic mixing rule (PR-vdW2). It is shown that the thermodynamic model is able to represent satisfactorily the phase behaviour of the system investigated

  18. Grape Seed oil as Anti hepatic and Anti renal Dysfunction agent in Paracetamol Administrated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.; Osman, N.N.; Darwish, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The protection conferred by dietary grape seed oil (GSO) against paracetamol (PCL)-induced liver and kidney dysfunction have been evaluated in adult male albino Wistar rats. The animals (180-200 g) were randomly divided into four groups of seven rats each. Group l: normal control, group II: animals received GSO (3.7 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally), group III: animals received PCL (4 g Kg-1 body wt/day orally) and group IV: animals received PCL plus GSO. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and albumin (A) levels in serum and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. In addition, the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver and kidney homogenates were chosen for assessing. The PCL induced a significant elevation in the serum AST, ALT, AP and GGT. Moreover, a significant increase in serum U, Cr, A and BUN were evident. Furthermore, a significant rise in TBARS, while a significant declined activity of SOD and CAT and GSH content in liver and kidney homogenates were also observed. Oral administration of GSO resulted in a significant reduction in liver and kidney markers in serum, BUN as well hepatic and renal TBARS accompanied by a significant improvement in the tissue antioxidants and A, when compared with PCL damaged rats. It was suggested that GSO has potent hepatic and renal protective effects against the oxidative damage induced in rats due to PCL treatment, perhaps by its antioxidative effects hence eliminating the deleterious effects of PCL.

  19. Unsaponifiable fraction isolated from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed oil attenuates oxidative and inflammatory responses in human primary monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Linares, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Martin, Maria E; Muñoz, Ernesto; Abia, Rocio; Millan, Francisco; Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio

    2018-04-25

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed has well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Herein, we report that the unsaponifiable fraction (UF) isolated from grape seed oil (GSO) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties towards human primary monocytes. The UF isolated from GSO was phytochemically characterized by GC-MS and HPLC. Freshly obtained human monocytes were used to analyse the effects of GSOUF (10-100 μg mL-1) on oxidative and inflammatory responses using FACS analysis, RT-qPCR, and ELISA procedures. GSOUF skewed the monocyte plasticity towards the anti-inflammatory non-classical CD14+CD16++ monocytes and reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human primary monocytes diminishing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression and secretion. In addition, GSOUF showed a strong reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity, reducing significantly nitrite levels with a significant decrease in Nos2 gene expression. Our results suggest that the UF isolated from GSO has significant potential for the management of inflammatory and oxidative conditions and offer novel benefits derived from the consumption of GSO in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  20. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Travelet@cermav.cnrs.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Stemmelen, Mylene; Lapinte, Vincent [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); Dubreuil, Frederic [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Robin, Jean-Jacques [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D{sub h}) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C{sub 19} to 19.2 nm for C{sub 57}). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D{sub h}-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].Graphical Abstract

  1. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D h ) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C 19 to 19.2 nm for C 57 ). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h -values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445–1458, 2013)].Graphical AbstractAmphiphilic copolymers based

  2. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca) oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, D. S.; Menezes, M.; Gonçalves, G.; Mukai, H.; Lenzi, E. K.; Pereira, N. C.; Fernandes, P. R.G.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet) and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo) are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry result...

  3. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of

  4. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  5. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  6. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  7. Lipidomic and Antioxidant Response to Grape Seed, Corn and Coconut Oils in Healthy Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Wall-Medrano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specialty oils differ in fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant content, impacting their benefits for cardiovascular health. The lipid (fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant (total phenolics, radical scavenging capacity profiles of grapeseed (GSO, corn (CO and coconut (CNO oils and their physiological (triacylglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol and antioxidant capacity (FRAP in serum and fatty acid and phytosterol hepatic deposition and genomic (HL, LCAT, ApoA-1 and SR-BP1 mRNA hepatic levels responses after their sub-chronic intake (10% diet for 28 days was examined in healthy albino rats. Fatty acid, phytosterol and antioxidant profiles differed between oils (p ≤ 0.01. Serum and hepatic triacylglycerides and total cholesterol increased (p ≤ 0.01; serum HDL-Cholesterol decreased (p < 0.05; but serum FRAP did not differ (p > 0.05 in CNO-fed rats as compared to CO or GSO groups. Hepatic phytosterol deposition was higher (+2.2 mg/g; p ≤ 0.001 in CO- than GSO-fed rats, but their fatty acid deposition was similar. All but ApoA-1 mRNA level increased in GSO-fed rats as compared to other groups (p ≤ 0.01. Hepatic fatty acid handling, but not antioxidant response, nor hepatic phytosterol deposition, could be related to a more efficient reverse-cholesterol transport in GSO-fed rats as compared to CO or CNO.

  8. Milk Production of Ettawah Grade Goat Fed Diet Containing Different Protein and Energy Contents Supplemented with Organic Mineral and Grapes Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiani, A.; Kusumanti, E.; Harjanti, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different protein and energy contents and supplementation ofZinc (Zn), Chromium (Cr) and grapes seed oil on milk production in dairy goat.Randomized block design(RBD) was used in this study. Twelve lactating Ettawah crossbreed goats divided into three groupsbased on milk production. The treatment ration were:T1 = ration containing 16% CPand 66% TDN; T2 = ration containing 14% CP and 63% TDN supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2 ppm; and T3 = T2 + 22 ml grapes seed oil/head/day. The ration wasa dry complete feed in the form of pellet. The feed ingredients used were rice bran, cassava, wheat pollard, soybean meal, coconut meal, molasses, coffee husk and corn straw.Experiment was conducted over 30 days. Results revealed that the goat fed the ration supplemented with Zn and Cr(T2) producehigher milk yield (1012.29 g/day) and better in milk fat production (Poil in the T3 (P<0.05), but no significant in milk fat production compared with T1. In conclusion,drycomplete feed containingof CP 14%, TDN 63% supplemented with Zn 20 ppm + Cr 2ppm is recommended for lactating dairy goat.

  9. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  10. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  11. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  12. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  13. seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    processes, production of biodiesel, as lubricant and in deep-frying purposes. They could ... for its juice, nectars and fruit while its seeds are ... Malaysia. The fine seed powder was stored in a plastic container inside a refrigerator at between 4 o.

  14. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  15. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  16. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was ... electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate .... The antibacterial tests were carried out by disc diffusion method.

  17. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou ... of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer ... Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and GSPs can be an effective and innovative ...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  19. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  20. Oil seed marketing prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceroni, G.

    1992-01-01

    With its 100 million tonnes annual production, the American continent is by far the world's biggest producer of oil seed, followed by Asia - 52 million, and Europe - 27 million tonnes. The Italian and European Communities have the farming capacity to double their production, but international agreements currently prohibit such initiatives. After first providing a panorama of the world oil seed market, this paper discusses new reforms in European Communities internal agricultural policies which currently limit production. These reforms, intended to encourage the production of oil seed for use as an ecological automotive fuel alternative, call for an obligatory set-aside of 15% of producing farm-land in exchange for the compensatory removal of oil seed production limits

  1. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  2. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  3. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of histone deacetylase-inhibitor, vorinostat, on antitumour activity of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Expression of thymidine phosphorlase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was measured by real-time PCR and western ...

  4. The Antibacterial Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Golvardzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Medicinal plants are highly taken into consideration due to having natural antimicrobial compounds which Iran can be introduced as one of the richest sources of medicinal plants. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of grape seed extract on shelf life of tilapia. Methods: The prepared fish were divided into 2 groups: the first group was treated by dipping for 30 min in grape seed extract (1.5%v/v, and the second group was dipped in distilled water as the control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological (total count of mesophilic aerobic micro organisms, PTC and sensory characteristictis over a perid of 20 days. Results: The study results indicated the extract treatment group significantly delayed (p<0.05 the spoilage process in comparison with the control group, which the total count of psychotrophic bacteria remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log cfu/g. According to sensory analysis, the treated fish with grape seed extract represented the highest quality during the storage. Conclusions: The present study findings revealed that grape seed extract seemed to be extremely effective in extending the shelf life of tilapia fish fillet during the refrigerated storage.

  5. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of seed oils from edible fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Olubunmi Atolani; Joshua Omere; C.A. Otuechere; A. Adewuyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To propose a natural remedy for the some acute diseases the fatty acids profile, antioxidant and cytotoxicity potentials of seed oils from natural sources have been examined. Methods: The fatty acids profile of seed oils from sweet orange, grape, lime and watermelon obtained by soxhlet extraction were trans-esterified and examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay were examined and compared with ga...

  6. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  7. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  8. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  9. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  10. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  11. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  12. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  13. Effect of GA3 treatment on seed development and seed-related gene expression in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Cheng

    Full Text Available The phytohormone gibberellic acid (GA3 is widely used in the table grape industry to induce seedlessness in seeded varieties. However, there is a paucity of information concerning the mechanisms by which GAs induce seedlessness in grapes.In an effort to systematically analyze the cause of this GA3-induced seed abortion, we conducted an in depth characterization of two seeded grape cultivars ('Kyoho' and 'Red Globe', along with a seedless cultivar ('Thompson Seedless', following treatment with GA3. In a similar fashion to the seedless control, which exhibited GA3-induced abortion of the seeds 9 days after full bloom (DAF, both 'Kyoho' and 'Red Globe' seeded varieties exhibited complete abortion of the seeds 15 DAF when treated with GA3. Morphological analyses indicated that while fertilization appeared to occur normally following GA3 treatment, as well as in the untreated seedless control cultivar, seed growth eventually ceased. In addition, we found that GA3 application had an effect on redox homeostasis, which could potentially cause cell damage and subsequent seed abortion. Furthermore, we carried out an analysis of antioxidant enzyme activities, as well as transcript levels from various genes believed to be involved in seed development, and found several differences between GA3-treated and untreated controls.Therefore, it seems that the mechanisms driving GA3-induced seedlessness are similar in both seeded and seedless cultivars, and that the observed abortion of seeds may result at least in part from a GA3-induced increase in cell damage caused by reactive oxygen species, a decrease in antioxidant enzymatic activities, and an alteration of the expression of genes related to seed development.

  14. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  15. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  16. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  17. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  18. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  19. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  1. Seed production for fuel oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosca, G.

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of assessing commercialization prospects for vegetable oils to be used as diesel fuel alternatives, this paper provides maps indicating regional production quantities for soybean, rape and sunflower seeds in Italy. It then tables and discusses the results of energy input-output analyses carried out for rape and soybean oil production

  2. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Kinetics of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds Extraction: Experiment and Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucic´-Kojic´, A.; Sovová, Helena; Planinic´, M.; Tomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 136, 3-4 (2013), s. 1136-1140 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : kinetics modelling * temperature * grape seed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.259, year: 2013

  4. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  5. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  6. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  7. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  8. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent...... on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α......-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols...

  9. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  10. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Elastohydrodynamic Traction Properties of Seed Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and s...

  13. Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) traction properties of seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The elastohydrodynamic traction coefficient (tc) properties of nine seed oils of varying chemical structures, PAO and hexadecane, were investigated using a ball-on disk traction apparatus. The seed oils were: castor oil, a triglyceride with hydroxyl functional group; jojoba, a monoglyceride; and sev...

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  15. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An approach for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidin polymers into oligomers by sulphurous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Cheng, Jinhui; Fang, Bairui; Wei, Zongmin; Sun, Baoshan

    2018-08-01

    To develop an efficient method for degradation of grape seed and skin proanthocyanidins polymers into oligomers, an optimized sulphurous acid degradation conditions for grape seed with the temperature of 60 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, and for grape skin with the temperature of 40 °C, reaction time of 60 min and sample-sulphurous acid ratio of 1:0.2, were established. Afterwards, HSCCC and prep-HPLC were used to fractionate and isolate individual proanthocyanidin oligomers from the degradation products. Total of ten dimeric or trimeric procyanidins were obtained, and most of them presented high yield (from 0.7 mg to 13.6 mg per run in grape seed and from 0.5 mg to 4.1 mg per run in grape skin) and high purity (over 90%). The proposed method provides a new way for large preparation of oligomeric proanthocyanidins from naturally abundant and wasted polymeric ones. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Cordero, Diana; Heras, Francisco; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Gilarranz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min −1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N 2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO 2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m 2 g −1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized

  18. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  19. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

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    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  1. The Photostabilizing Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Three Common Sunscreen Absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincigh, Bice S; Ollengo, Moses A

    2016-11-01

    The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS, and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract. All sunscreens showed an improved photostability in the extract. The inherent photo-instability of BMDBM when exposed to UV radiation was almost eliminated in the presence of grape seed extract. A mixture of all three sunscreens in the extract showed very high photostability and a red shift covering the entire UVB and UVA regions, thereby improving the broad-spectrum protection. The incorporation of grape seed extract in sunscreen and other cosmetic formulations for topical application boosts photoprotection by stabilizing the UV filters and enhancing broad-spectrum coverage. This in turn helps in reducing the amounts of absorbers and other additives incorporated in a sunscreen product and consequently lowers the risk of an unprecedented buildup of photoproducts whose toxicities are currently unknown. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  3. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

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    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  4. Augmentation of chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine by incorporation of grape seeds during vinification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VenuGopal, K S; Cherita, Chris; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2018-03-01

    The role of grape seed tannins on improving organoleptic properties and its involvement in color stabilization in red wine are well established. The addition of grape seeds as the source of condensed tannins in fruit wine may provide a solution for its color instability and improvement of sensory attributes. Syzgium cumini is traditionally known for its therapeutic properties. In the current study, the influence of yeasts and grape seed addition during fermentation on the chromatic, phenolic and sensory attributes of the wine was accessed. Grape seed addition improved the color characteristics of wine and increased overall phenolic composition. Analysis by HPLC revealed 6 major anthocyanins, among which 3, 5-diglucoside form of delphidin and petunidin was found to be the major components. Cluster and PLSR analysis explained the impact of seed addition on the yeasts, as well as on the perception of panelists, with bitterness and astringency as the dominating attributes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

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    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  6. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  9. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  10. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

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    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (pextract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of phenolic compounds in dry fermented sausages added with cocoa and grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sárraga, Carmen; Guàrdia, M. Dolors; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The level of eleven target phenolic compounds was evaluated in dry fermented sausages added with vegetable extracts. Grape seed (GSE1 and GSE2) and cocoa extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, were added in the formulation of dry fermented sausages (“salchichón” and “fuet”). Evolution of the major monomeric and oligomeric phenolic compounds of these extracts was evaluated during sausage shelf life by UHPLC-MS/MS. Kind of sausage did not affect significantly overall stability of the target comp...

  13. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  14. The Use of Grape Seed Byproducts Rich in Flavonoids to Improve the Antioxidant Potential of Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Jara-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding seeds from grape pomace during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been studied. Seeds of Pedro Ximenez variety were rich in phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids such as catechin and procyanidins. Changes in total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity of red wines were observed. These changes depended on the vinification stage and the amount of seeds (SW: 450 g or DW: 900 g seeds/150 kg grapes applied. In general, antioxidant activity was greater when a simple dose (SW was considered. Results indicate that seeds rich in flavonoids could be used as wine additives, which could improve the antioxidant potential of red wines in a warm climate.

  15. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  16. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  17. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (pextract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (pextract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  18. Optimization of Subcritical Water Extraction of Resveratrol from Grape Seeds by Response Surface Methodology

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    Yajie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The subcritical water extraction (SWE is a high-efficiency and environment-friendly extraction method. The extraction of resveratrol (RES of grape seeds obtained from the wine production process was proposed using subcritical water extraction (SWE. The effects of different extraction process parameters on RES yield were investigated by single factors. Extraction optimization was conducted using response surface methodology (RSM. Extraction temperature was proven to be the most significant factor influencing RES yield. The optimal conditions was as follows: extraction pressure of 1.02 MPa, temperature of 152.32 °C, time of 24.89 min, and a solid/solvent ratio of 1:15 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted extraction RES yield was 6.90 μg/g and the recoveries was up to 91.98%. Compared to other previous studies, this method required less pollution and less treatment time to extract RES from grape seeds. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly extraction techniques.

  19. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  1. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Mazloom; Tariq, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Fu, Yao

    2014-01-01

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dioctyltin diacetate (C 8 H 17 ) 2 Sn(OOCCH 3 ) 2 , dibutyltin oxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C 8 H 17 ) 2 SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C 6 H 5 ) 2 SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C 4 H 9 ) 2 Sn(OH) 2 Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C 4 H 9 )Sn(=O)OH.xH 2 O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR ( 1 H and 13 C) characterization

  2. Comparative antioxidative properties of selected seed oils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číž, Milan; Gorinstein, S.; Lojek, Antonín; Martin-Belloso, A.; Leontowich, H.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, Suppl. 1 (2002), s. 64-65 ISSN 1071-5762. [European Research on Functional Effects of Dietary Antioxidants: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge, 25.09.02-28.09.02] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAB6004204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : antioxidants * polyphenols * seed oils Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.523, year: 2002

  3. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  4. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suaeda acuminata produces two morphologically distinct types of seeds on the same plant. This study was conducted to compare oil content and fatty acid composition of the two seed morphs. Though oil characteristics between dimorphic seeds showed statistically significant difference, these differences were relatively ...

  5. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  6. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  7. Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil Linn ( Euphor Biaceae ): Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was obvious that J. curcas seed oil is a volatile oil. It was also observed that tragacanth formed more stable primary emulsions than acacia gum. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seed oil has significant contraceptive activity and it could be formulated into stable oral emulsion at doses not exceeding 0.5g/kg. Nig.

  8. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naglaa Mohamed Samir Mohamed El hansi

    2013-01-01

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  9. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Clifford; Ross, Carolyn F

    2011-09-01

    Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at -20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread. This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  11. Synthesis biolubricant from rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Tran Dong; Tuyen, Dang Thi Hong; Viet, Tran Tan

    2017-09-01

    The objective was biolubricant preparation from rubber seed oil (RSO) using polymerization reactor with/without catalyst in batch reactor. Before become reactant in polymerization reaction, a non-edible rubber seed oil was converted into methyl ester by esterification/tranesterification reaction with methanol and acid/base catalyst. The polymerization reaction parameters investigated were reaction time, temperature and weight ratio (catalyst with feed), and their effect on the bio lubricant formation. The result show significant conversion of methyl ester to bio lubricant in the temperature reaction of 160°C, reaction time of 2h min and ratio of super acid catalyst (tetrafluoroboric acid-sHBF4) of 3 %w/w. The resulting products were confirmed by GC-MS, FTIR spectroscopy and also analyzed for the viscosity. The best viscosity value of RSOFAME polymer was 110.6 cSt when the condition polymerization reaction were 160 °C, reaction time 3h, 6 wt% mass ratio of oil:catalyst.

  12. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni Salni; Poedji Loekitowati Hariani; Hanifa Marisa Hanifa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  13. Influence of the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Salni, Salni; Hariani, Poedji Loekitowati; Hanifa, Hanifa Marisa

    2017-01-01

    This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester). Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level), Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level) and Lahat District (627 m above s...

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Seed and Seed Oil of the Potentially Medicinal Plant Ziziphus oenoplia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Joseph, Kadanthottu Sebastian; Madiwal, Abhishek; Gerald, Dinesh Rajen; Badiger, Mahananda; Kolkar, Lakshmi; Hiremath, Reshma

    2017-11-02

    The proximate composition of seeds, physicochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of Ziziphus oenoplia seed oil were determined in this study. The seeds possessed low moisture (4.54%) and high carbohydrate (42.96%) and protein content (40%), making the seed oil suitable for storage and consumption. The saponification value (197.80) of the seed oil makes it a promising source for the soap and shampoo industry. The iodine and saponification values are comparable to those of major edible seed oils such as groundnut and soybean. The high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids (53.41%), especially oleic acid (53.38%), present in the oil makes it a better source for a low-fat diet and may reduce the risk of various heart-related diseases.

  15. Effect of addition of commercial grape seed tannins on phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ana C; Spranger, Maria I; Zhao, Yuqing; Leandro, Maria C; Sun, Baoshan

    2010-11-24

    The effect of addition of grape seed tannins on the phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of red wine was studied. Two highly pure commercial grape seed tannins (GSE100 and GSE300) were selected, and their phenolic compositions were determined. Two types of red wines were made with Castelão/Tinta Miúda (3/2, w/w) grapevine varieties by fermentation on skin using two different maceration times, which correspond to the wines rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively. Each of these wines was used for experimentation with the addition of GSE100 and GSE300 before and immediately after alcoholic fermentation. Phenolic composition, chromatic characteristics, and antioxidant activity of the finished red wines were analyzed by HPLC-DAD, CIElab 76 convention, and DPPH radical test, respectively. The results showed that the addition of grape seed tannins had obvious effects of increasing color intensity and antioxidant activity only in the wines poor in polyphenols. Although GSE300 contained much higher amounts of di- and trimer procyanidins and a lower amount of polymeric proanthocyanidins, it provided effects of increasing the color intensity and antioxidant activity of the wines poor in polyphenols similar to those of GSE100. Furthermore, GSE100 released more gallic acid to wines than GSE300, although no gallic acid was detected in GSE100. Tannins added after alcoholic fermentation had a better effect on phenolic composition of red wine than tannins added before alcoholic fermentation.

  16. Influence the Rubber Seed Type and Altitude on Characteristic of Seed, Oil and Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salni Salni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research studies the influence of the type of rubber seed that is superior and local, altitude plant in South Sumatra province to the characteristic of seed, oil and biodiesel (methyl ester. Rubber plants planted from local rubber seed by seeds seedlings and superior rubber seed by selected clones. In the study, rubber plants planted at a different altitude, namely in Banyuasin district (18 m above sea level, Prabumulih District (176 m above sea level and Lahat District (627 m above sea level. The results showed that the weight of the flour, the water content and ash content in the local rubber seeds larger than the superior rubber seed for all altitude, but oil content a large in the superior rubber seeds. The major of fatty acids in the rubber seed oil in all types and altitude are a linoleic acid with a different percentage except local rubber seed oil from Lahat district with the large percentage of octadecanoic acid. Free fatty acids in the oil from the superior seeds rubber of 13.897-15.494 % large than local rubber seed oil was found 9.786-10.399 % for all altitude. By esterification process using sulfuric acid catalyst, Free Fatty Acid (FFA can be reduced to ≤ 2 %. The methyl ester made from the transesterification process of rubber seed oil after esterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Analysis of methyl esters includes cetane index, flash point, kinematic viscosity, carbon residue, density, moisture content, water and sediment content and distillation compared with SNI 7182 and ASTM 6751-02.  The result indicated that the quality of methyl ester from superior rubber seed oil in the Banyuasin and Prabumulih district better than another methyl ester. The types of rubber seed altitude affect the characteristics of the seed, oil and methyl ester  but the altitude are not significantly different. Keywords: rubber seed, type, altitude, oil, biodiesel Article History: Received March 21st 2017; Received in

  17. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  18. Fatty Acid Profile and Bioactivity from Annona hypoglauca Seeds Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants from Annona (Annonaceae) genus are present in tropical regions, where they have economic and medicinal potential. Information on the fatty acids profile and bioactivity from seed oil of Annona species are incipient. The objective of this work was to investigate Annona hypoglauca seeds oil in terms of its yield, ...

  19. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    Summary: The effects of T. occidentalis seed oil on some female reproductive indices were investigated in Wistar rats. The study was ... analysis of fluted pumpkin seed oil showed that it is ..... Akang, E., Oremosu, A. A., Dosumo, O. O., Noronhe, ... Current diabetes reports. ... reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans.

  20. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of three different extraction methods on oil yield, physicochemical properties and bioactive ingredients of radish seeds. Methods: Radish seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE).

  1. Extraction and characterization of Raphanus Sativus seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties and bioactive ingredients of Raphanus sativus seed oil. Methods: Raphanus sativus seed oil was prepared by traditional solvent extraction (SE), super-critical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) and sub-critical propane extraction (SPE). The yield, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and oxidative ...

  2. Seed oil and fatty acid composition in Capsicum spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of seed of 233 genebank accessions (total) of nine Capsicum species, and a single accession of Tubocapsicum anomalum, were determined. The physicochemical characteristics of oil extracted from seed of C. annuum and C. baccatum were also examined. Significan...

  3. Extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six edible seed samples were obtained from Yankura market in Kano metropolis, Kano state. The samples were subjected to extraction for their oil contents. The percentage oil yield from the seeds were 40.60% for Moringa oleifera, 49.39% for cashew, 47.80% for sesame, 11.92% for bitter kola, 38.30% for melon and ...

  4. QUALITY OF HEMP SEED OIL DEPENDING ON ITS OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is probably one of the oldest field crops used in nutrition, but also for the production of fibres for clothes, ropes or canvas. Cannabis sativa is one of the most spread species of cannabis which belongs to family Cannabinaceae. The seeds are important part of cannabis sativa, which contains high part of lipids and proteins. It provides also valuable essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to low content of THC is possible to produce valuable oil from seeds, which is used in cosmetic and food industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate composition of hemp seeds from one harvest, observe and compare quality of parameters both cold pressed hemp seed oil and hemp seed oil by CO2 extraction. Both oils are comparable in composition of fatty acids which follow from results of analyses. Also contents of sterols and moisture are similar in both oils. The saponification value is similar in both oils, conformable to as a iodine value. Also were found dissimilarities in colours, phospholipides, unsaponifiable matter, acid value and peroxide value. The cold pressed hemp seed oil contained lower values of unsaponifiable matter, colours and higher concentration of phospholipides and lower acid value. It is caused by influence of CO2. The oxidation stability of cold pressed hemp seed oil was four times higher than oil by CO2 extraction. doi:10.5219/32 

  5. Exploration of Shorea robusta (Sal seeds, kernels and its oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kumar C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of Shorea robusta seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel were investigated in the present work. The physico-chemical composition of sal oil was also analyzed. The physico-mechanical properties and proximate composition of seed with wing, seed without wing, and kernel at three moisture contents of 9.50% (w.b, 9.54% (w.b, and 12.14% (w.b, respectively, were studied. The results show that the moisture content of the kernel was highest as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The sphericity of the kernel was closer to that of a sphere as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The hardness of the seed with wing (32.32, N/mm and seed without wing (42.49, N/mm was lower than the kernels (72.14, N/mm. The proximate composition such as moisture, protein, carbohydrates, oil, crude fiber, and ash content were also determined. The kernel (30.20%, w/w contains higher oil percentage as compared to seed with wing and seed without wing. The scientific data from this work are important for designing of equipment and processes for post-harvest value addition of sal seeds.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  7. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. The oil quality varies from excellent to very poor, according to important aspects such as in the hulls and dust fraction, high free fatty acid values (13% vs. 0.6%) are found. This can be

  9. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Prevents Ovarian Aging by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress in the Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingting Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important inducement in ovarian aging which results in fecundity decline in human and diverse animals. As a potent antioxidant, grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE was investigated to ameliorate chicken ovarian aging in this study. Firstly, ovarian antioxidant capacity of hens at different ages (90, 150, 280, and 580 days old was compared to elucidate its age-related changes. Subsequently, a D-gal-induced (2.5 mg/mL aging ovarian model was established and the cultured ovarian tissues were treated with GSPE at 5 μg/mL for 72 h to evaluate the putative attenuating effects of GSPE on ovarian aging. Meanwhile, ovaries of D280 (young and D580 (old were treated with GSPE for 72 h in culture to verify the protective effects of GSPE on natural aging ovary. The results showed that GSPE could rescue the antioxidant capacity decline by increasing the antioxidase activities and their gene expression in either D-gal-induced or natural aging ovaries. Moreover, GSPE could maintain the homeostasis between cell proliferation and apoptosis in the D-gal-induced and natural aging ovaries, as well as alleviate D-gal-induced nucleus chromatin condensation in the ovarian granulosa cells. In conclusion, GSPE treatment can effectively prevent the ovarian aging process in hens by reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants.

  11. Grape Seed Procyanidins in Pre- and Mild Hypertension: A Registry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Belcaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a standardized grape seed procyanidins extract (GSPE, Enovita to decrease blood pressure when associated with nondrug intervention (diet and lifestyle modifications was investigated in a controlled registry study involving 119 healthy, pre- and mildly hypertensive subjects. Two dosages of Enovita were evaluated (150 and 300 mg/die, using blood pressure and heart rate as the primary endpoints and complementing these observations with a laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF investigation of the microcirculation state and an evaluation of the plasma oxidative status. After four months of treatment, a statistically significant higher, and dose-dependent, improvement in all endpoints was observed in the treatment groups compared to that of the control, with blood pressure normalizing in 93% of the higher dosage (300 mg treatment group. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSPEs have beneficial cardiovascular effects that complement current intervention strategies in the hypertension area. The effect on blood pressure adds to the beneficial effects of GSPEs on the cardiovascular disease (CVD phenotype associated with the oxidation of membrane lipids (endothelial dysfunction, formation of oxidized LDL, and activation of phagocytic cells.

  12. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  13. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

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    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  14. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, extraction of Jatropha oil from seeds was optimized using organic solvents. The effects of parameters on the oil extraction namely type of organic solvents and different techniques were also investigated to optimize the processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The acid value and antioxidant ...

  15. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

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    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in Bidaneh Qermez grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  16. Effects of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil on Decay Resistance and Quality of Iranian Table Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa GERANSAYEH

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives, foods preserved with natural additives have become popular. Medicinal plants have been used by human being since ages in traditional medicine due to their therapeutic potential and the search on medicinal plants have led the discovery of novel drug candidates used against diverse diseases. Therefore Thymus vulgaris essential oil was applied in �Bidaneh Qermez� grape cultivar at six concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?l/l in water. Quality characteristics (pH, decay, vitamin C, reducing sugars, weight loss, berry abscission, dehydration of rachis, berry cracking and sensory analyses were evaluated. The results showed that treated fruits with essential oil had lower decay percentage, dehydration of rachis, berry abscission, berry cracking and higher pH, reducing sugars and storage quality compared to control. As a general result, essential oil treatment caused lower decay incident and longer storability.

  17. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azime, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  19. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ Mice

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    Balaiya Velmurugan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE against intestinal/colon cancer development are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin/+ mice. Female APCmin/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt/wt mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps by 40%. The decrease in polyp formation in the small intestine was 42%, which was mostly in its middle (51% and distal (49% portions compared with the proximal one. GSE also decreased polyp growth where the number of polyps of 1 to 2 mm in size decreased by 42% and greater than 2 mm in size by 71%, without any significant change in polyps less than 1 mm in size. Immunohistochemical analyses of small intestinal tissue samples revealed a decrease (80%–86% in cell proliferation and an increase (four- to eight-fold in apoptosis. GSE feeding also showed decreased protein levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 (56%–64%, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS (58%–60%, and β-catenin (43%–59% but an increased Cip1/p21-positive cells (1.9- to 2.6-fold. GSE also decreased cyclin D1 and c-Myc protein levels in small intestine. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive potential of GSE against intestinal polyp formation and growth in APCmin/+ mice, which was accompanied with reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis together with down-regulation in COX-2, iNOS, β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc expression, but increased Cip1/p21. In conclusion, the present study suggests potential usefulness of GSE for the chemoprevention of human intestinal/colorectal cancer.

  20. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Azime, A S [Radiation Biology Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  1. The effect of grape seed extract on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goey, Andrew K L; Meijerman, Irma; Beijnen, Jos H; Schellens, Jan H M

    2013-11-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. To determine the clinical effect of GSE on CYP2D6, the pharmacokinetic interaction between GSE and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy adult volunteers was examined. In this open label, randomized, cross-over study, 30 subjects were assigned to cohort A or B. Both cohorts ingested 30 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide on day 1 and day 10. Cohort A received 100 mg GSE capsules three times daily on days 8, 9 and 10, while cohort B started with GSE on day -1 until day 1. After urine collection (0-8 h) on day 1 and day 10, the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio was determined. Among 28 evaluable subjects, an increase of the urinary metabolic ratio was observed in 16 subjects (57 %). The mean metabolic ratio (± standard deviation) before and after GSE supplementation was 0.41 (± 0.56) and 0.48 (± 0.59), respectively. This result was neither statistically (P = 0.342) nor clinically [geometric mean ratio 1.10, 90 % CI (0.93-1.30)] significant. Further, the majority (73 %) of the included subjects did not experience any adverse events after intake of dextromethorphan or GSE. Supplementation of GSE did not significantly affect the urinary dextromethorphan to dextrorphan metabolic ratio in healthy volunteers. The results of this clinical study indicate that GSE appears to be safe to combine with drugs extensively metabolized by CYP2D6, such as dextromethorphan and tamoxifen.

  2. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

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    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  3. Effects of grape seed extract on periodontal disease: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Otan ÖZDEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural compounds capable of modulating the host response have received considerable attention, and herbal products are suggested as adjunctive agents in periodontal disease treatment. Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE on periodontitis. Material and Methods Ligature induced periodontitis was created in 40 rats and they were assigned to four equal groups. One group was fed laboratory diet (group A while three groups received GSE additionally. Silk ligatures were placed around the cervical area of the mandibular first molars for four weeks to induce periodontitis. The GSE groups were reallocated regarding GSE consumption as: for two weeks before ligation (group B; totally eight weeks, from ligation to two weeks after removal of the ligature (group C; totally six weeks, and for two weeks from ligature removal (group D; totally two weeks. Sections were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammatory cell number (ICN, connective tissue attachment level (CAL, osteoclast density (OD, IL-10 and TGF-β stainings in gingival epithelium (GE, connective tissue (GC, and periodontal ligament (PL were used as the study parameters. Results Lower ICN, higher CAL, and lower OD were observed in the GSE groups (p<0.05. IL-10 was more intensive in the GSE groups and in the GEs (p<0.05. Group B showed the highest IL-10 for PL (p<0.05. TGF-ß was higher in the GEs of all groups (p<0.017. Conclusions The results suggest anti-inflammatory activities of GSE, but further investigations are needed for clarification of these activities.

  4. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  6. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMONDI-GUYA

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... spectrophotometer (Model JENWAY6705, multi-cell changer) against a blank ... All the tea seed oil extracts were golden yellow in color and liquid at .... respectively, the two being products of oxidative rancidity. (Chindo et al.

  7. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results .... reduction in free fatty acids. .... Development and Characterization of Biodiesel from Shea Nut ... comparative review of biodiesel production from Jatropha.

  8. Hypolipidemic effect of seed oil of noni (Morinda citrifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Diana C; Jiménez, Fabiola E; Garduño, Leticia; López, V Eric; Cruz, M Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia, has been reported to posses different biological activities and almost all parts of this have been studied phytochemically. However there are few studies on the seeds of fruit. The objective of present study was investigated the effect to Noni Seed Oil (NSO) on serum lipid levels in normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic induced mice. We find that administration of noni oil causes a reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides levels in both models. However hypolipidemic effect is higher when hyperlipidemia is presented.

  9. Changes of Flavan-3-ols with Different Degrees of Polymerization in Seeds of ‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ Grapes after Veraison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Qing Duan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavan-3-ols consist of flavan-3-ol monomers and polymers with different degrees of polymerization (DP. In this study, flavan-3-ol extracts from grape seeds were well separated into three fractions including monomers, oligomers (2 < DP < 10 and polymers (DP > 10, by means of normal-phase HPLC-MS. The different patterns of these three fractions were analyzed in three Vitis vinifera cultivars (‘Shiraz’, ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Marselan’ seeds from veraison to harvest. The results showed: (1 polymers were the main form of flavan-3-ols in grape seeds and monomers accounted for only a small proportion; (2 the contents of flavan-3-ol monomers in the seeds of three grape cultivars all exhibited a gradually decreasing trend with a little fluctuation, whereas the patterns of the change of contents of oligomers and polymers were extremely different among grape cultivars; the contents of flavan-3-ol oligomers were enhanced in the seeds of ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, but were reduced in the other two cultivars; (3 with regard to the proportion of flavan-3-ols with a certain DP to total flavan-3-ols, both flavan-3-ol monomers and flavan-3-ols with low DP fell in proportion, while the flavan-3-ols with high DP increased correspondingly. These findings indicate that flavan-3-ol polymerization in developing seeds is variety-dependent and may be genetically regulated.

  10. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange seed oil was extracted using the steam distillation method. The fungi isolated from the leather samples were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans and Alternaria sp. However, the fungal species vary from person to person. The orange seed ...

  11. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  12. Characterization of oils from Duranta repens leaf and seed

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    Agomuo Emmanuel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the chemical composition of unpopular sources of edible oils has become paramount to supplement the usage of widely known vegetable oils. In this study, the gas chromatographic quantification of fatty acids and phytochemicals was carried out, and the physicochemical and micronutrient composition of Duranta repens leaf and seed oil were evaluated using standard methods. The leaf oils contained significantly higher (p  oleic > myristic > stearic > capric > linoleic > lauric > palmitoleic for the seed oil, while for the leaf oil linoleic > palmitoleic > oleic > stearic > palmitic > myristic > capric > lauric > myristoleic. The major phytochemical constituents of the seed oils were catechin (68.12 ug/ml, saponin (44.03 ug/ml, rutin (32.89 ug/ml, linamarin (22.66 ug/ml and tannins (19.62 ug/ml, while kaempherol (84.05 ug/ml, rutin (62.26 ug/ml and saponins (45.63 ug/ml were mostly predominant in the leaf oil. Spartein, anthocyanins and phytates were among the least phytochemicals in composition, for both samples. These chemical properties evaluated, suggest that Duranta repens seed oil is more suitable for industrial and therapeutic purposes.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reazai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3% is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3% and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4% are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil.

  14. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  15. Small scale industrial application of rubber seed oil in soap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil, which was extracted from the rubber seed using the mechanical pressing method, was of high acid value, that is, the free fatty acid content is high and the oil is not edible, with an average saponification value. Its pH was slightly basic which makes it suitable for use in soap manufacture. It was, therefore, used as a ...

  16. Quality characterization of Niger seed oil ( Guizotia Abyssinica Cass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to find out cholesterol and total free fatty acid content in Niger seed oil which is the most available edible oil in Ethiopia. Acid value, peroxide value, saponification value and cholesterol content were determined. The analysis performed using Liebermann-Burchard ...

  17. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nyakudya, Trevor

    2013-02-20

    Feb 20, 2013 ... Erlwanger4, Mazuru B. Gundidza5, Michael L. Magwa6 and Perkin Muredzi7 ... possess several physiological side effects, hence the .... Physical and chemical properties of S. molle seed oil ..... composition of Schinus molle essential oil and its cytotoxic activity on ... cultivars (Linum usitatissimum L.). Gen.

  18. Physicochemical characterisation of hexanic seed oil extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical characterisation of oil extracts from Schinus molle seeds collected in South Africa was performed. The oils were extracted in hexane, physicochemical parameters determined and lipids profiled by gas chromatography, in order to determine its potential for use in industry, ethnomedicine and its ...

  19. Physico-chemical characteristics of Mesua ferrea seed oil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids present in the oils were separated and amounted to be (27.40-29.11 %) and (65.85- 68.31 %), respectively, depending upon the areas from where the seeds were collected. GLC analysis of the oil indicated the presence of palmitic acid (10.87%), linoleic acid (13.68%), oleic acid ...

  20. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  1. Detailed characterization of proanthocyanidins in skin, seeds, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wine grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlin, Rachel L; Kelm, Mark A; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Downey, Mark O

    2011-12-28

    The distribution of proanthocyanidin (PA) polymer lengths, proanthocyanidin concentration at each polymer length, and polymer composition were determined in the seed, skin, and wine of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries grown in southeast Australia. PA was fractionated by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by phloroglucinolysis and HPLC to report the degree of polymerization (DP), concentration, and composition at 11 DP values in seed and wine and 21 DP values in skin. In skin, the highest PA concentration was observed at a DP of 31 in Shiraz and 29 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing 15% of the total PA in both varieties. The distribution of seed PA had the highest concentration at a DP of 7 in Shiraz and 6 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 30% of the total PA. In the wine PA distribution, the highest concentration was observed at a DP of 11 in Shiraz and 9 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 26 and 32% of the distribution, respectively. A second peak in wine PA concentration was observed at the largest DP of 18 in Shiraz and 15 in Cabernet Sauvignon representing around 20% of the distribution. The composition in wine did not vary at different DP, but the proportion of epicatechin gallate varied in seed PA less than 4 DP. The proportion of epigallocatechin increased with increasing DP in skin PA. Wine PA had a DP range and composition similar to the distribution of skin PA between DP 4 and 18 suggesting that larger skin PAs are not extracted into wine. This study provides information that could be used to target the important PA fractions in grapes that need to be measured to understand (or predict) PA extraction into wine and eventual mouthfeel.

  2. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  3. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  4. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared. Key words: Thevetia seed, ...

  5. Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity in local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variability in seed traits, oil content and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. according to rainfall gradient in Senegal are hereby reported and discussed. Seed oil variability ranged from 58.61% in Sudanian zone to 46.94% in Sahelian zone. Seed oil content and seed thickness were correlated to rainfall with a correlation ...

  6. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  7. Fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene contents of Rosaceae seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-12-01

    The aim of current study is to establish the composition of these seeds belong to Rosaceae family with respect to fatty acid, tocopherol and squalene content. The oil contents of seeds varied between 3.49 (Cotoneaster bullatus) to 46.15 g/100 g (Prunus tenella). The main fatty acids of seed oils were oleic (6.50 - 67.11 %), linoleic (22.08 - 68.62 %) and 20:1n-7 (0.10 - 61.59 %). As observed, the oils of seed were rich in linoleic and oleic acids. Total tocopherol contents ranged between 7.06 mg/100 g (Prunus tenella) to 165.74 mg/100 g (Potentilla glandulosa ssp. pseudorupestris). The major tocopherols were γ-tocopherol, ranging from 2.08 mg/100 g to 106.01 mg/100 g; α-tocopherol ranging from 2.86 mg100 g to 74.26 mg/100 g and δ-tocopherol ranging used in this experiment were found between 0.02 mg/100 g (Alchemilla caucasica) to o.29 mg/100 g (Cotoneaster simonsii). These results show that Rosaceae seed oils can be a potential saurce of valuable oil which might be useful for the evaluation of dietary information in important food crops and other industrial applications.

  8. EXTRACTION OF OIL SEED PIN (Citrullus vulgaris BY LEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Londoño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of seed oil initially consisted in physicochemical study of the seed, in order to meet their nutritional content by performing various analyzes as moisture, ash, fat, phosphorus, proteins and carbohydrates. Then we proceeded with oil extraction equipment using solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet using hexane as a solvent using the factorial design of the type 23. After, the crude oil was characterized and refined by the methodology of COVENIN norms, where the oil presented potential properties to elaborate soap in the cosmetic industry. Finally, a lipid profile was obtained by a gas chromatographic, the results showed highly unsaturated fatty acid contents (linoleic and oleic that gives it the potential to be applied as a capable oil with excellent properties and quality to human consume.

  9. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile and plasma lipid profile in early lactating dairy cows fed grape seed and grape marc meal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Denise K; Winkler, Anne; Koch, Christian; Dusel, Georg; Liebisch, Gerhard; Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus

    2017-03-23

    It was recently reported that dairy cows fed a polyphenol-rich grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) during the transition period had an increased milk yield, but the underlying reasons remained unclear. As polyphenols exert a broad spectrum of metabolic effects, we hypothesized that feeding of GSGME influences metabolic pathways in the liver which could account for the positive effects of GSGME in dairy cows. In order to identify these pathways, we performed genome-wide transcript profiling in the liver and lipid profiling in plasma of dairy cows fed GSGME during the transition period at 1 week postpartum. Transcriptomic analysis of the liver revealed 207 differentially expressed transcripts, from which 156 were up- and 51 were down-regulated, between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Gene set enrichment analysis of the 155 up-regulated mRNAs showed that the most enriched gene ontology (GO) biological process terms were dealing with cell cycle regulation and the most enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were p53 signaling and cell cycle. Functional analysis of the 43 down-regulated mRNAs revealed that a great part of these genes are involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and inflammatory processes. Accordingly, protein folding, response to unfolded protein, unfolded protein binding, chemokine activity and heat shock protein binding were identified as one of the most enriched GO biological process and molecular function terms assigned to the down-regulated genes. In line with the transcriptomics data the plasma concentrations of the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin were reduced in cows fed GSGME compared to control cows. Lipidomic analysis of plasma revealed no differences in the concentrations of individual species of major and minor lipid classes between cows fed GSGME and control cows. Analysis of hepatic transcript profile in cows fed GSGME during the

  11. The protective effect of grape seed and Ginkgo biloba against hepatotoxicity induced by the antidysrhythmic drug “amiodarone” in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Abdul-Hamid

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone was an orally effective antiarrhythmic drug widely used throughout the world, had long-term administration side effects such as hepatotoxicity. The actions of two antioxidants; grape seed and Ginkgo biloba on the extent of tissue damage in amiodarone-induced hepatotoxicity were elucidated in this study. We equally divided thirty-six albino rats into six groups given doses by gastric tube daily for 8 weeks as follow; the 1st group (G1 served as an untreated control group under the same laboratory conditions and was given distilled water, the 2nd group (G2 grape seed-treated group that received (100 mg/kg/day, the 3rd group (G3 Ginkgo biloba-treated group that received (100 mg/kg/day, the 4th group (G4 amiodarone-treated group that received (40 mg/kg/day, the 5th group (G5 received amiodarone parallel with grape seed at the same time and the 6th group (G6 received amiodarone parallel with Ginkgo biloba at the same time. The current histological study revealed that amiodarone caused marked change in the liver including degeneration, proliferation of bile duct, inflammatory cells infiltration and fatty changes of hepatocytes in addition to deposition of collagen fibers in the hepatic tissue moreover, ultra-structural observations in the liver including vacuolation, fibrosis and pyknotic nuclei. In addition, histochemical study revealed depletion of glycogen and comet assay revealed marked of DNA damage.Treatment with the two used antioxidants reduced the extent of liver damage induced by amiodarone as indicated by decreased Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT activities. These antioxidants ameliorated the histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructure alternations of the liver tissue. In conclusion, grape seed was markedly effective than Ginkgo biloba in protecting rats against amiodarone. Keywords: Amiodarone, Grape seed, Ginkgo biloba, Comet assay, Hepatotoxicity, Histopathology, Ultrastructure

  12. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO.

  13. Chemical composition and functional characterisation of commercial pumpkin seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procida, Giuseppe; Stancher, Bruno; Cateni, Francesca; Zacchigna, Marina

    2013-03-30

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common product in Slovenia, Hungary and Austria and is considered a preventive agent for various pathologies, particularly prostate diseases. These properties are related to its high content of carotenoids and liposoluble vitamins. In this study the carotenoid (lutein and zeaxanthin), vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and fatty acid contents of 12 samples of commercial pumpkin seed oil were investigated together with the composition of the volatile fraction resulting from the roasting process. The aromatic profile obtained from the commercial samples was directly related to the intensity of the roasting process of the crushed pumpkin seeds. The roasting temperature played a crucial role in the concentrations of volatile substances originating from Strecker degradation, lipid peroxidation and Maillard reaction. The findings suggest that high-temperature roasting leads to the production of an oil with intense aromatic characteristics, while mild conditions, generally employed to obtain an oil with professed therapeutic characteristics, lead to a product with minor characteristic pumpkin seed oil aroma. The nutraceutical properties of the product are confirmed by the high content of α- and γ-tocopherol and carotenoids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Jorge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis, as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg, total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg, α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg. The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal to 70.2% (Pera-rio. According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants.

  15. comparison of antimicrobial activity of seed oil of garlic and moringa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    seed oil, while alkaloid and tannins were observed in seed oil of garlic. Furthermore, the ... purpose or which are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. About 80% ... pathogens and parasites, adverse effects of chemical drugs, increasing ...

  16. Effect of Pre-Bloom Gibberellic Acid Application on Seedlessness and Some Fruit Traits of Three Iranian Seeded Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Doulati Baneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basic characteristic of modern table grape production is its adaptation to the requirements of the market aiming to improve grape quality, such as equal cluster size, equal size and shape of the berry, and equal coloration of all the berries in the cluster. Furthermore, an important attribute of the grape berry quality is seedlessness. Seedless cultivars are characterized with small berries, which can be increased by using some management techniques. Plant hormones may play an important role in the growth and development of grape berries. Gibberellic acid (GA3 is known to stimulate development of parthenocarpic fruit in grapes and other fruits. The exogenous pre-bloom application of GA3 to grapevine is commonly used to induce seedlessness, accelerate early ripening, and enhance berry size in seedless cultivars. Although there are a large number of studies on seedless grape varieties, no previous research has been performed on the effect of GA3 on the seeded grape cultivars. Differences in the types of berry set affect the growth of berries and their size. It is well known that there is an important relationship between seed development and berry growth, which has been attributed to hormones such as auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of 100 mg/L pre-bloom (7 and 14 days before blooming GA3 application on the induction of seedlessness and some berry and cluster characteristics of three seeded Iranian cultivars, Qzl ouzum, Rish babab Qermez and Khalili Qermez, this research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with five replications. The vines of each cultivar were selected in the vineyard of Horticultural Research Center in West Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Urmia, Iran. The vines were 13 years old and bi-lateral cordon system had been used as their training system. Pollen germination test was performed

  17. Salvia macrosiphon seeds and seed oil: pharmacognostic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Wild Sage(Salvia macrosiphon Boiss. known as “Marvak” in Persian is one of the polymorphic and abundant plants of Lamiaceae. The plants whole seeds usually soaked or boiled in hot water are widely used for inflammatory ailments in folk medicine. Documents have shown that there is scant information on the chemical constituents of this plant seeds. The current study was carried out to assess the phytochemical constituents of Salvia macrosiphon seeds as well as anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The seed oil extracted via a Soxhlet extractor was subjected to pharmacognostic assays using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS analysis of fatty acids and sterols as well as evaluation of the possible anti-inflammatory activities in rats. Results: Total ash, acid insoluble and water soluble ash values were determined as 51.67±7.53, 10.00±0.02 and 30.01±5.01 mg/g, respectively. HPTLC assessment revealed the presence of different steroids, triterpenes and fatty acids. Amount of sterols in oil was found 2.44, 24.92 and 4.60 mg/g for esterified β-sitosterol, free β-sitosterol and free stigmasterol, respectively. The α-linolenic acid (77.69±6.10% was the principal fatty acid. Regarding the anti-inflammatory activity, the seed oil showed low activity in the early phase of formalin test; however, could not significantly inhibit the neutrophil-induced damage by reducing MPO activity in the paws of the rat. Conclusion: The seed oil did not exhibit satisfactory effects on acute inflammation in this study but considering the rich phytosterols content, the seed and its oil can be introduced as useful dietary supplements.

  18. New insight into the unresolved HPLC broad peak of Cabernet Sauvignon grape seed polymeric tannins by combining CPC and Q-ToF approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Alessandra Paissoni, Maria; Jourdes, Michäel; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-05-30

    Polymeric tannins from grapes have always been reported as an unresolved broad peak in HPLC chromatograms, and this has severely limited their identification to date. This study aimed to disassemble this broad peak and explore the polymeric tannin molecules inside. By applying centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), an efficient separation approach was developed to split the broad peak of grape seed tannins into fractions. Then, the fractions were analyzed by Q-ToF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry) to determine the corresponding structures of the tannins. The results suggest that grape seed polymeric tannins were eluted consecutively according to their degree of polymerization (DP). Condensed tannins identified in wine grape seed have a range of DP and degree of galloylation (DG) up to 20 and 11, respectively. The molecular mass of the largest molecule detected was 6067. To our knowledge, this is the first report to offer an insight into the broad peak of polymeric tannins found with HPLC and to characterize the tannins with a DP up to 20 as shown by HRMS and MS/MS data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Isolation of condensed tannins in individual size from grape seeds and their impact on astringency perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michael; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre Louis

    2016-01-01

    Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. The influence of DP size of condensed tannins on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5) was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the no...

  20. Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bazongo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%, crude oil (64.90%, protein (21.14%, total carbohydrate (10.85% and moisture (3.24%. Physicochemical properties of the oil were: refractive index, 1.473; melting point, 22.60°C; saponification value, 194.23 mg of KOH/g of oil; iodine value, 61.33 g of I2/100 g of oil; acid value, 1.21 mg of KOH/g of oil; peroxide value, 1.48 meq of O2/kg of oil and oxidative stability index, 43.20 h. Oleic (43.45%, palmitic (34.45%, linoleic (11.20% and stearic (8.35% acids were the most dominant fatty acids. Triacylglycerols with equivalent carbon number (ECN 48 and ECN 46 were dominant (46.96% and 37.31%, respectively. The major triacylglycerol constituents were palmitoyl diolein (POO (21.23%, followed by dipalmitoyl olein (POP (16.47%, palmitoyl linoleyl olein (PLO (12.03%, dipalmitoyl linolein (PLP (10.85% and dioleoyl linolein (LOO (9.30%. The total polyphenol and tocopherol contents were 1.39 mg GAE g−1 DW and 578.56 ppm, respectively. γ-Tocopherol was the major tocopherol (437.23 ppm. These analytical results indicated that the L. microcarpa seed oil could be used as a frying oil and in the cosmetic industry.

  1. Characteristics and composition of cucumis melo seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Batool, F.; Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive characterization study was carried out on Cucumis melo seed oil, in order to evaluate its suitability as an edible vegetable oil. The oil was extracted by sohxlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent that produced a yield of 47.33% (w/w). The oil was found to have light yellow colour and an agreeable odour, showing density up to 0.728 g/cm/sup 3/. The values of refractive index, iodine number and saponification number came out to be 1.466 (at 25 deg. C), 135.6 g/100 g and 301.6 mg KOH/100 g, respectively. GC-analysis gave total unsaturation content of 64.9% with linolenic acid (C18:3) being the predominant showing a proportion of 43.4%, followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) with 23.1% and palmitic acid (C16:0) with 8.7%. The physicochemical properties of this oil are highly comparable to those of soybean and sunflower oils. Therefore, the test melon seed-oil could be developed into different commercial products to serve as an alternate vegetable oil in region like Pakistan, where this melon grows abundantly. (author)

  2. An Experimental Study on the Diesel Engine Performance with Rape Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeong Og

    2002-02-01

    A four cycle diesel engine performance test was performed with four kinds of oils such as rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil, activated clay rape seed oil and light oil. The experiment was conducted at full load condition with constant injection time of the engine and the test oil temperature was maintained at 70±2 .deg. C. 1. The torque and the horsepower with rape seed fuel is increased about 10% compare with light seed oil at full load condition of the engine. High viscosity of the rape makes oil films in the combustor which leads to higher compression ratio and explosion. The results of the high viscosity make higher torque of the engine. The brake specific fuel consumption of the rape seed fuel increased 8%∼10% than that of the light oil. This effect could be the difference of heating value between the two kinds of oil. 2. The emission of the smoke gas was decreased 29%, 38% and 52% compare with light oil in rape seed oil, effective micro-organism rape seed oil and activated clay rape respectively due to the low volatility and high viscosity of the soot. The NOx emission with rape seed oil is twice larger than that of the light oil at full load condition. The reason is that the fuel temperature increment effects on the combustor temperature and it makes thermal NOx of the engine. 3. The test engine could be started over 40 .deg. C of the rape seed oil. Engine inspection results shows that the soot adherence amount of the cylinder head piston head is higher in following order; activated clay rape seed oil > effective micro-organism rape seed oil > rape seed oil > light oil

  3. Comparative Analysis of Biodiesels from Calabash and Rubber Seeds Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Awulu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of biodiesel from vegetable oils depend on the inherent properties of the oil-producing seeds. The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemical properties of biodiesels extracted from calabash and rubber seeds oils, as well as their combined oil mixtures with a view to ascertaining the most suitable for biodiesel production. Calabash and rubber seeds oils were separately extracted through the use of a mechanical press with periodic addition of water. Biodiesels were produced from each category of the oils by transesterification of the free fatty acid (FFA with alcohol under the influence of a catalyst in batch process. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesels were investigated and comparatively analysed. The results obtained indicated an average of 1.40 wt% FFA for biodiesel produced from the purified calabash oil, which has a specific gravity of 0.920, pH of 5.93, flash point of 116 0C, fire point of 138 0C, cloud point of 70 0C, pour point of -4 0C, moisture content of 0.82 wt% and specific heat capacity of 5301 J/kgK. Conversely, the results obtained for biodiesel produced from the purified rubber oil showed an average of 33.66 wt% FFA, specific gravity of 0.885, pH of 5.51, flash point of 145 0C, fire point of 170 0C, cloud point of 10 0C, pour point of 4 0C, moisture content of 1.30 wt% and specific heat capacity of 9317 J/kgK. However, results obtained for biodiesel produced from the combined oil mixtures indicated an average of 19.77 wt% FFA content, specific gravity of 0.904, API gravity of 25.036, pH value of 5.73, flash point of 157 0C, Fire point of 180 0C, cloud point of 9 0C, pour point of 5 0C, moisture content of 0.93 wt% and specific heat capacity of 6051 J/kgK. Biodiesel produced from calabash seed oil is superior in quality to rubber seed oil, particularly in terms of its low FFA and moisture contents.

  4. Effects of seed preparation and oil pressing on milkweed (Asclepias spp.) protein functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of seed cooking and oil processing conditions on functional properties of milkweed seed proteins were determined to identify potential value-added uses for the meal. Milkweed seeds were flaked and then cooked in the seed conditioner at 82°C for 30, 60 or 90 min. Oil was extracted by scre...

  5. Chemical Composition, Physicochemical Characteristics, and Nutritional Value of Lannea kerstingii Seeds and Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judicaël Thomas Ouilly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, main physicochemical properties, and nutritional value of seed flour and seed oil of Lannea kerstingii were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 3.61% moisture, 57.85% fat, 26.39% protein, 10.07% carbohydrates, and 2.08% ash. Potassium was the predominant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The essential amino acids were at higher levels than the estimated amino acid requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU except for lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that oleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids. Physicochemical properties of the seed oil were melting point, 19.67°C; refractive index (25°C, 1.47; iodine value, 60.72/100 g of oil; peroxide value, 0.99 meq. O2/kg of oil; p-anisidine value, 0.08; total oxidation (TOTOX value, 2.06; oxidative stability index (120°C, 52.53 h; free fatty acids, 0.39%; acid value, 0.64 mg of KOH/g of oil; saponification value, 189.73. Total amount of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols was 578.60, 4.60, and 929.50 mg/kg of oil, respectively. γ-Tocopherol (82%, lutein (80%, and β-sitosterol (93% were the most abundant forms of tocopherols, carotenoids, and sterols, respectively. Seeds of L. kerstingii constitute an alternative source of stable vegetable oil and protein for nutritional and industrial applications.

  6. Effect of irradiation and extractive solvents on the Thevetia seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil of irradiated thevetia seeds was extracted with different solvents. The effect of irradiation dosages on the extracted oils was studied by comparing the TLC chromatography of irradiated seed oil with that of non-radiated seeds. Saponification values were also compared.

  7. Thai jute seed oil: a potential polyunsaturated fatty acid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined lipid and fatty acid compositions of different varieties of jute (Po-kra-jao, Corchorus olitorius L. seed grown in Thailand. Four different jute seeds (Nonn-Soong, Keaw-Yai, Cuba and Khonkaen harvested from northeastern Thailand were ground, their lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v, and lipid composition was determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed using GLC with standard methods. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in jute seed oil, ranging from 70% to 74%, and other two minor components were phytosterol (12% to 28% and diacylglycerol (0% to 9%. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates, was approximately 2: 3: 4. Most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA was linoleic acid (18:2n-6, accounting for 40-67% of total fatty acid. Nonn-Soong had the highest amount of PUFA (67.7%, followed by Khonkaen (44.53%, Keaw-Yai (41.14%, and Cuba (40.19%. Another PUFA found was α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, accounting for about 1% of total fatty acid. The results indicated that jute seed oil was a potential edible PUFA source. The oils obtained from different kinds of jute seeds had significantly different lipid and fatty acid compositions.

  8. Nigella seed oil as alternative to avilamycin antibiotic in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to study the effect of nigella seed oil as an alternative to the antibiotic, avilamycin, on growth, digestibility, muscle fatty acid profile and some physiological parameters in broiler chickens. Fifty four chicks at 15 d of age (average weight, 320 ± 3 g) were divided into a control group and two treatment ...

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera seed oil supplemented diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) day old chicks comprising of two broiler genotypes (Arbor Acre and Ross 308) were fed to graded levels (0%, 4.5%, 5% and 5.5%) of Moringa oleifera Seed Oil (MOSO) to investigate its effect on their performance. The experiment was conducted for 35 days and the chickens were fed ad ...

  10. Pomegranate seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acids reduces in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil (PSO) on gas and methane (CH4) production, ruminal fermentation and microbial populations under in vitro conditions. Three treatments consisting of a control diet containing 10 mg tallow (CON); the control diet with 5 mg ...

  11. Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition and phytochemistry of seed oil five cultivars of Cajanus cajan in Nigeria. BA Iwalokun, OJ Adeyemi, TI Adeleke, EO Abayomi. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Food Journal Vol. 24(1) 2006: 50-60. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. The Effects of Dehulling on Physicochemical Properties of Seed Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil yield from dehulled seeds was significantly higher (31−35.1%) than the yield from ... in dark containers (wrapped with aluminium foil) and stored at 4°C to allow .... High refractive preliminary confirms the availability of differences in fatty.

  13. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  14. Disinfection studies of Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... with a k value of -0.040. Key words: Nahar (Mesua ferrea) seed kernel oil, extraction, gum Arabic, disinfection, kinetics. INTRODUCTION. Disinfection plays a key role in the reclamation and reuse of wastewater for eliminating infectious diseases, this, in part, augments domestic water supply and decreases ...

  15. Chemical investigation of Nigella sativa L. seed oil produced in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Gharby

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds are widely used in traditional Islamic medicine and for culinary purposes worldwide. Nigella seed oil is becoming popular in and out of the Islamic world. Composition of Nigella seed oil is known to be location-dependent. We investigated the composition of Nigella seed oil prepared by solvent- or cold press-extraction of Nigella seeds grown in Morocco. Oil extraction yield was 37% and 27% when solvent or cold press extraction methods were used, respectively. In terms of oil major components, composition of Nigella seed oil from Morocco is similar to that from other Mediterranean countries known for their Nigella seed-oil quality.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  17. Fatty Acid And Essential Oil Compositions Of The Seed Oil Of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid and essential oil compositions of the seed oil of Annona cherimola, A. muricata, A. reticulata, A. senegalensis and A. squamosa were investigated by GC and GC/MS spectra. About eleven fatty acids were identified of which oleic, gondoic, palmitic and stearic acids predominated in each sample, and others ...

  18. Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat Salimon; Rozaini Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/ w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02±0.01%, acid value (1.50±0.07%), iodine value (91.70±1.44 mg/ g), peroxide value (0.66±0.04 miliequivalence/ kg) and saponification value of 208.5±0.47 mg/ g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00±0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96±0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89±0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (22.00%), POP(16.48%), 000(16.48%), 00L(16.23%) and OLL(13.00%). (author)

  19. Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, Farooq; Nadeem, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Rashid, Umer [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, Muhammad [Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan)

    2010-03-15

    Biodiesel was derived from okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkali catalyst. Transesterification of the tested okra seed oil under optimum conditions: 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.00% (w/w) NaOCH{sub 3} catalyst, temperature 65 C and 600 rpm agitation intensity exhibited 96.8% of okra oil methyl esters (OOMEs) yield. The OOMEs/biodiesel produced was analyzed by GC/MS, which showed that it mainly consisted of four fatty acids: linoleic (30.31%), palmitic (30.23%), oleic (29.09%) and stearic (4.93%). A small amount of 2-octyl cyclopropaneoctanoic acid with contribution 1.92% was also established. Fuel properties of OOMEs such as density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, oxidative stability, lubricity, flash point, cold flow properties, sulfur contents and acid value were comparable with those of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214, where applicable. It was concluded that okra seed oil is an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production. (author)

  20. Recent developments, new trends in seed crushing and oil refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kővári Katalin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil processing was considered as slowly changing “traditional” industry but the recent decades’ developments and trends resulted in a lot of changes initiated by market, industry, environment protection and consumer needs. Driving force of the developments were centralization of the industry, more and more concerns on environmental impact, increased importance of food-feed safety, and last but not least research and development activity together with improved analytical capabilities. The presentation gives an overview on the results achieved on the field of the following areas: the criteria of applicability of physical refining of seed oils, solutions for proper degumming, the effect of seed pretreatment and crushing conditions on the crude oil quality, the importance and role of bleaching and active carbon treatment, the proper practice of deacidification/deodorization.

  1. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  2. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  3. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  4. Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L. cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalchat, Jean Claude

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L. seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%, linoleic (11,82%, palmitic (10.01% and stearic (2.41% acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%, daucene (8.74%, (Z,Z--farnesene (5.86%, germacrene D (2.34%, trans--bergamotene (2.41% and -selinene (2.20%. Whereas, carotol (30.55%, daucol (12.60% and copaenol (0.62% were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. obtenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos potenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso, el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceniza insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de 1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad relativa, el índice de refracci

  5. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  6. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly-(-a-hydroxy dibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In exploring alternative vegetable oils for non-food industrial applications, especially in temperate climates, tree seed oils that are not commonly seen as competitors to soybean, peanut, and corn oils can become valuable sources of new oils. Many trees produce edible fruits and seeds while others ...

  7. Synthesis and properties of cross-linked polymers from epoxidized rubber seed oil and triethylenetetramine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Iqbal, Muhammad; Picchioni, Francesco; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2015-01-01

    A series of epoxidized oils were prepared from rubber seed, soybean, jatropha, palm, and coconut oils. The epoxy content varied from 0.03 to 7.4 wt %, in accordance with the degree of unsaturation of the oils (lowest for coconut, highest for rubber seed oil). Bulk polymerization/curing of the

  8. Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil characteristics and fatty acid profile of seeds from three varieties of date palm ... of oils, as indicators of the quality and safety, and oxidative status of edible oils, ... industry, these data suggest that the potential applications of date seed oil for ...

  9. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated grape (Psidium guajava L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective this study was to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds at dose levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5). Immediately after irradiation, the antioxidant activity was studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the constituents (%) of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted guava seeds powder. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a γ-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, was determined in the extracts of non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. Meanwhile, noodles (homemade strips macaroni) were prepared from blends of 72% wheat flour containing 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% levels of non-irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. The results showed that samples of extracts from non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds had contained a considerable total polyphenolic compounds and marked scavenging activity on DPHH radical. On the other hand , the gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) separation technique led to identification of 26 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Also, the data revealed that guava seeds powder samples under investigation passes the most important essential amino acids and for human health such as trace elements iron, zinc and manganese. Noodles prepared from 2.5% level of guava seeds powder-wheat flour blend had high acceptable quality. Thus, guava seeds, a waste from guava industry can be utilized improved nutritional properties of noodles or used its extracts as natural antioxidant in food industry field

  10. EVALUATION OFAMATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR OIL EXTRACTION FROM OLEAGINOUS SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Toscano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical extraction from seeds represents an important process in the production of vegetable oils. The efficiency of this step can have an effect on the economic convenience of the entire production chain of vegetable oils. However, the mechanical presses used for extraction are designed following criteria based more on the experience and intuition of the operators than on rigorous analyses of the physical principles involved in the process. In this study we have tested the possibility of applying a mathematical model that reproduces oil extraction from seeds, on a laboratory type of continuous press. In other words, we have compared the results of our mathematical model with those obtained from real extractions with mechanical presses on sunflower seeds. Our model is based on determining the main operating parameters of mechanical extraction, such as temperature, pressure and compression time, and on the knowledge of some physical characteristics of the solid matrix of the seeds. The results obtained are interesting because they include the role of operating parameters involved in extraction while the application of the mathematical model studied here allows, although with potential for improvement, a mathematical instrument to be developed for optimising the sizing and the operating conditions of mechanical presses.

  11. Study for the degumming pretreatment of rubber seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Zhang, X.; Souliyathai, D.; Yang, S. P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of the aviation industry, appearing of the aviation carbon tax and the increasingly serious environmental problems have forced the world to research the development of renewable bio-aviation fuel. Renewable biological aviation fuel contains phosphorus that could reduce the synthesis of noble metal catalysts such as Pd, Pt activity. In order to get low content of phosphorus in degummed oil of non-edible vegetable oil, in this paper, with rubber seed oil as raw material, making the experiment of single factor at the influence of temperature, stirring speed, adding amount of monoethanolamine (MEA) and water amount. The experimental results show that the added amount of MEA is 2.5% in the weight of oil, and temperature is 60°C, while the amount of added water is 2% in the weight of oil, reaction time is 40 min, and stirring speed is 200 r/min. Under these conditions, the phosphorus content of rubber seed oil can be reduced to below 3 mg/kg, degumming rate is 91.37%, and the degumming effects are obvious, which also provides some foundation for follow-up studies.

  12. GC Analyses of Salvia Seeds as Valuable Essential Oil Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Ben Taârit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of seeds of Salvia verbenaca, Salvia officinalis, and Salvia sclarea were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. The oil yields (w/w were 0.050, 0.047, and 0.045% in S. verbenaca, S. sclarea, and S. officinalis, respectively. Seventy-five compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S. verbenaca seeds showed that over 57% of the detected compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed by sesquiterpenes (24.04% and labdane type diterpenes (5.61%. The main essential oil constituents were camphor (38.94%, caryophyllene oxide (7.28%, and 13-epi-manool (5.61%, while those of essential oil of S. officinalis were α-thujone (14.77%, camphor (13.08%, and 1,8-cineole (6.66%. In samples of S. sclarea, essential oil consists mainly of linalool (24.25%, α-thujene (7.48%, linalyl acetate (6.90%, germacrene-D (5.88%, bicyclogermacrene (4.29%, and α-copaene (4.08%. This variability leads to a large range of naturally occurring volatile compounds with valuable industrial and pharmaceutical outlets.

  13. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  14. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  15. Roasting pumpkin seeds and changes in the composition and oxidative stability of cold-pressed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczyk, Marianna; Siger, Aleksander; Radziejewska-Kubzdela, Elżbieta; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is valuable oil for its distinctive taste and aroma, as well as supposed health- promoting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate how roasting pumpkin seeds influences the physicochemical properties of cold-pressed oils. The fatty acid composition, content of phytosterols, carotenoids and tocopherols, oxidative stability and colour were determined in oils after cold pressing and storage for 3 months using GC-FID, GCxGC-ToFMS, HPLC, Rancimat and spectrophotometric methods. The results of this study indicate that the seed-roasting and storage process have no effect on the fatty acid composition of pumpkin seed oils, but does affect phytosterols and tocopherols. The carotenoid content decreased after storage. The colour of the roasted oil was darker and changed significantly during storage. Pumpkin oil obtained from roasted seeds shows better physicochemical properties and oxidative stability than oil from unroasted seeds.

  16. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  17. Effect of (OPC) oligomeric pronthocyanidine extracted of grape seed on chromosomal aberrations for Tc 99m sulfur colloid in laboratory animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwan, I. F.; Ahmed, A.M.; Mohamad, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    The aims study to assess the protective material (OPC) oligomeric pronthocyanidine grape seed extract, to decrease the effect of Technetium 99 m radiation used in on the (Chromosomal Aberration) in the genes for bone marrow in laboratory animals. Been diagnosed by a composite (OPC) optical spectrometer (UV.vis) to determine the wavelength of the compound, for the purpose of examination and analysis by a high-purity HPLC to determine the components of grape seed extract. Has been handing laboratory animals, grape seed extract material (OPC) at a dose (150 mg/kg) for two weeks and then were injected to the solution of sulfur colloidal label with Tc 99 m doses of radiation to the following quantity (400 u ci, 250 u ci, 150 u ci / 0.1 m1). The treated animals by extract (OPC) showed decrease in the proportion of chromosomal changes resulting from the impact of injection differences dose compared to animals injected to the same radiation dose and non treated animal with (OPC). The result indicated there are significant differences (p>0.05) at the level of changes in chromosomal in genes of animals untreated compared with the group of animals treated with (OPC) and injected with the same radiation dose compared a control animal group. (Author)

  18. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  19. Grape seed proanthocyanidins reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes in human skin cancer cells by targeting epigenetic regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaid, Mudit; Prasad, Ram; Singh, Tripti; Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been shown to have anti-skin carcinogenic effects in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the precise epigenetic molecular mechanisms remain unexplored. This study was designed to investigate whether GSPs reactivate silenced tumor suppressor genes following epigenetic modifications in skin cancer cells. For this purpose, A431 and SCC13 human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were used as in vitro models. The effects of GSPs on DNA methylation, histone modifications and tumor suppressor gene expressions were studied in these cell lines using enzyme activity assays, western blotting, dot-blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that treatment of A431 and SCC13 cells with GSPs decreased the levels of: (i) global DNA methylation, (ii) 5-methylcytosine, (iii) DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and (iv) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of DNMT1, DNMT3a and DNMT3b in these cells. Similar effects were noted when these cancer cells were treated identically with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. GSPs decreased histone deacetylase activity, increased levels of acetylated lysines 9 and 14 on histone H3 (H3-Lys 9 and 14) and acetylated lysines 5, 12 and 16 on histone H4, and reduced the levels of methylated H3-Lys 9. Further, GSP treatment resulted in re-expression of the mRNA and proteins of silenced tumor suppressor genes, RASSF1A, p16 INK4a and Cip1/p21. Together, this study provides a new insight into the epigenetic mechanisms of GSPs and may have significant implications for epigenetic therapy in the treatment/prevention of skin cancers in humans. -- Highlights: ►Epigenetic modulations have been shown to have a role in cancer risk. ►Proanthocyanidins decrease the levels of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. ►Proanthocyanidins inhibit histone deacetylase activity in skin cancer cells. ►Proanthocyanidins reactivate tumor suppressor genes in skin

  20. Distillation Time as Tool for Improved Antimalarial Activity and Differential Oil Composition of Cumin Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Gawde, Archana; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    A steam distillation extraction kinetics experiment was conducted to estimate essential oil yield, composition, antimalarial, and antioxidant capacity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed (fruits). Furthermore, regression models were developed to predict essential oil yield and composition for a given duration of the steam distillation time (DT). Ten DT durations were tested in this study: 5, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600 min. Oil yields increased with an increase in the DT. Maximum oil yield (content, 2.3 g/100 seed), was achieved at 480 min; longer DT did not increase oil yields. The concentrations of the major oil constituents α-pinene (0.14-0.5% concentration range), β-pinene (3.7-10.3% range), γ-cymene (5-7.3% range), γ-terpinene (1.8-7.2% range), cumin aldehyde (50-66% range), α-terpinen-7-al (3.8-16% range), and β-terpinen-7-al (12-20% range) varied as a function of the DT. The concentrations of α-pinene, β-pinene, γ-cymene, γ-terpinene in the oil increased with the increase of the duration of the DT; α-pinene was highest in the oil obtained at 600 min DT, β-pinene and γ-terpinene reached maximum concentrations in the oil at 360 min DT; γ-cymene reached a maximum in the oil at 60 min DT, cumin aldehyde was high in the oils obtained at 5-60 min DT, and low in the oils obtained at 240-600 min DT, α-terpinen-7-al reached maximum in the oils obtained at 480 or 600 min DT, whereas β-terpinen-7-al reached a maximum concentration in the oil at 60 min DT. The yield of individual oil constituents (calculated from the oil yields and the concentration of a given compound at a particular DT) increased and reached a maximum at 480 or 600 min DT. The antimalarial activity of the cumin seed oil obtained during the 0-5 and at 5-7.5 min DT timeframes was twice higher than the antimalarial activity of the oils obtained at the other DT. This study opens the possibility for distinct marketing and utilization for these improved oils. The antioxidant

  1. Citrus Seed Oils Efficacy against Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazrat Bilal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue fever is a serious public health issue in Pakistan for many years. Globally plants have been reported to contain compounds with insecticidal properties. These properties have been demonstrated more recently on the larval stages of mosquitoes. Therefore, Citrus cultivar seeds were evaluated for larvicidal potential against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti.Methods: Extraction of oil was done by a steam distillation method and oils were evaluated according to WHO guidelines for larvicides 2005 for evaluation of insecticidal properties of citrus seed extracts against mosquito larvae.Result: Among the Citrus cultivar seed oil, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri had the lowest LC50 value (200.79ppm, while musambi (C. sinensis var musambi had the highest LC50 value (457.30ppm after 24 h of exposure.Conclusion: Citrus cultivars have some larvicidal potential but C. jambhiri had the greatest potential against A. ae­gypti larvae. Further small-scale field trials using the extracts of C. jambhiri will be conducted to determine opera­tional feasibility.

  2. Investigations into the chemistry and insecticidal activity of euonymus europaeus seed oil and methanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euonymus europaeus seeds and seed oil were investigated for their volatiles using GC-MS-FID, Headspace-SPME/GC-MS-FID, and derivative GC-MS-FID for their volatiles and HPLC-DAD-CAD/MS for their non-volatile compounds. The seeds contain about 30% of fatty oil, mainly glyceryl trioleate, small amounts...

  3. Study of volatile oil component of petal and herbal and extraction of seed oil in Borage by Cold Press method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esfandiar Hassani Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a few reported about the volatile oil component of petal, herbal and component of seed oil of borage. This research worked carried out for analysis and identification the volatile oil in herbals, petals, and seed oil compositions of Borago officinalis L. in Lorestan province. Material and methods: Extraction of essential oil from petals carried out using steam distillation by Clevenger apparatus. The new SPME-GC/MS method is used for extraction and identification of volatile oil compounds in the herbal of borage. The oil of the seeds was extracted using a Cold-press method. The identification of chemical composition of extracted oil was carried out by GC/MS apparatus. Results: In petals of Borage only Carvacerol component, and in the herbal of Borage three components Carvacrol, Bisabolone oxide and 2-Phenylethyl benzoate, extracted and identified respectively. In the seed oil of borage 16 different components were separated and identified. The following components had the highest amount in seed oil: Hexadecane, N, N-dimethylethanolamine, Beta-d-glycoside, 3, 6-glucurono-methyl, Benzaldehde, 4-methyl 3-Hydroxytetrahydrofuran, Hexadecanoic acid, Heptanoic acid, Gamma butyrolactone and Ethyl octadec-9-enoate are the major components respectively. These components contain 63.4% of all components in borage seed oil and the 7 residual components only 9.5% all of the components in borage seed oil. Also one unknown (27.1% component identified. Conclusion: Using result obtained from this research the volatile oil a few amounts of the borage chemical composition. The results show that the seed oil of this species can be used for medicinal preparation. Cold Press method was found to be rapid and simple for identification of seeds oil components.

  4. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)

  5. physical, chemical, technological and biological properties of some mutant oil seeds induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to evaluated sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds induced by gamma rays, as plant breeding unit, plant research department, radioisotope application division, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority Inshas. the obtained results indicate the following : chemical composition of mutant seeds: the radiation mutation caused a significant increase in both oil and ash content total carbohydrates showed a significant decreased in sesame seeds. radiation mutation induced significant increase in oil and protein content of sunflower and safflower seeds. while the total carbohydrate showed a significant decrease. physiochemical properties of oils extracted mutant seeds: the radiation mutation had no real effect on the refractive index and A.V of oils extracted from control and mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds. while it caused a slight increase in red color and P.V. of sesame oil, the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of mutant sesame oil was not alter upon radiation mutation, but it induced a slight decrease in TBA of mutant sunflower and safflower oils. the unsaponifiable matter percentage of oils extracted from mutant sesame, sunflower and safflower seeds were slightly increased by radiation mutation .radiation mutation of seeds had no real effect on the total SFA and USFA of sesame oil. however, radiation mutation induced a remarkable changes in fatty acid profiles of sunflower and safflower oil as total SFA decreased, while USFA increased. Uric acid was only detected in oil extracted from mutant sunflower seeds

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-10-20

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.

  8. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  9. Isolation of condensed tannins in individual size from grape seeds and their impact on astringency perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astringency perception, as an essential parameter for high-quality red wine, is principally elicited by condensed tannins in diversified chemical structures. The influence of DP size of condensed tannins on astringency perception remains unclear for decades. In the present study, the astringency intensity of purified and identified grape oligomeric tannins (DP ranged from 1 to 5 was firstly explored. A novel non-solid phase strategy was used to rapidly exclude the galloylated PAs from the non-galloylated PAs and fractionate the latter according to their DP size. Then, a series of PAs with individual DP size and galloylation were purified. Furthermore, purified compounds were identified by both normal phase HPLC-FLD and reverse phase UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF. Finally, the contribution of the astringency perception of the individual purified tannins was examined with a salivary protein binding ability test. The results were observed by HPLC-FLD and quantified by changes in PA concentration remaining in the filtrate. In summary, a new approach without a solid stationary phase was developed to isolate PAs according to their DP size. And a positive relationship between the DP of PAs and salivary protein affinity was revealed.

  10. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  11. Disinfection of vegetable seed by treatment with essential oils, organic acids and plant extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Birnbaum, Y.E.; Zouwen, van der P.S.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    Various essential oils, organic acids, Biosept, (grapefruit extract), Tillecur and extracts of stinging nettle and golden rod were tested for their antimicrobial properties in order to disinfect vegetable seed. In in vitro assays, thyme oil, oregano oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil and Biosept had the

  12. Evaluation of essential oils in health and physiological quality of Schinus molle seeds and seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Cardoso Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of Mentha piperita, Cymbopogon nardus and Eucalyptus globules essential oils, in sanitary and physiological quality of Schinus molle L. seeds and seedlings. The seeds were treated with essential oils at concentrations of 10%, on 1 μL g-1, 20%, on 2 μL g-1, 30% , on 3 μL g-1 and control. After treatments, seeds were evaluated by sanity test, using filter paper method (“blotter test” and by germination test, where the seeds were placed between vermiculite substrate. For counts, sprouted and dead seeds were considered. Shoot length, root, total height and stem diameter were measured for seedlings evaluation. The use of citronella and mint essential oils reduced the incidence of different pathogens in S. molle seeds. Mint essential oil at 20% and 30% were effective to promote seeds germination. Eucalyptus essential oil in any concentration was efficient to increase seedlings growth.

  13. Characterization of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, C S; Mun, S P

    2008-05-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and triacylglyceride (TAG) composition of seed oils from fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) fruits and traditional Bokbunja wine processing waste were determined in this study. Oil contents of the fresh seeds and the seeds from wine processing waste were similar, accounting for about 18% of dry weight. The free fatty acid (FFA) content between the two seed oils was significantly different (0.50% for fresh seed oil and 73.14% for wine seed oil). Iodine, conjugated diene, saponification values, and unsaponifiable matter were very similar in the oil samples, but the specific extinction coefficients at 232 and 270 nm of wine seed oil were higher than those of fresh seed oil. Linoleic (C18:2, 50.45-53.18%, L) and linolenic (C18:3, 29.36-33.25%, Ln) acids were the dominant FAs in the two seed oils, whereas oleic (C18:1, 7.32-8.04%, O), palmitic (C16:0, 1.55-1.65%, P), and stearic (C18:0, 0.65-0.68%, S) acids were the minor FAs. LLL, OLL, LLLn, OOL, LLnLn, and OOO were the abundant TAGs, representing >90% of the oils.

  14. Study of fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Junaid; Yusup, Suzana; Bokhari, Awais; Kamil, Ruzaimah Nik Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This article presents the comparative studies of the fuel properties of rubber seed oil based biodiesel. • The design expert has been adopted for the optimization of the process variables. • The FTIR, cold flow properties and oxidation stability are the findings of present study. • All the fuel properties met the standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. • Present study reveals that rubber seed oil as a non-edible source potentially contributes for esters production. - Abstract: The scarcity of the fossil fuel, environmental pollution and food crisis are the world’s major issues in current era. Biodiesel is an alternative to diesel fuel, environment friendly and biodegradable and is produced from either edible or non-edible oils. In this study, a non-edible rubber seed oil (RSO) with high free fatty acid (FFA) content of 45% were used for the production of biodiesel. The process comprises of two steps. The first step is the acid esterification to reduce the FFA value and the second step is the base transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used for parametric optimization of the two stage processes i.e. acid esterification and base transesterification. The yield of biodiesel was analyzed using gas chromatography. The FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectrum was also determined to confirm the conversion of fatty acid to methyl esters. The fuel properties were analyzed according to the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 and were compared with the previous finding of researchers. All analyzed properties fulfilled the biodiesel standard criteria

  15. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Novizar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Yuliani, Sri; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Salimon, Jumat; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2014-01-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH co...

  16. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Elfiky

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total sperm abnormalities and significantly increased sperm count, percentage of PCEs, and enhanced the ratio of PCEs to NCEs. However, random amplified polymorphism of DNA (RAPD showed distinct differences in animal groups intoxicated with azathioprine before and after pumpkin seed oil treatment, which reflected a DNA protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Depletion of glutathione content in the testis was also observed in azathioprine treated mice, which was improved by an oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment with azathioprine.

  17. Protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against genotoxicity induced by azathioprine

    OpenAIRE

    Elfiky, S.A.; Elelaimy, I.A.; Hassan, A.M.; Ibrahim, H.M.; Elsayad, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin is a leafy green vegetable; it belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Pumpkin seed oil supplementation can prevent changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of pumpkin seed oil against cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of azathioprine. Oral administration of pumpkin seed oil either before or after treatment of azathioprine was effective in the reduction of the frequencies of Mn-PCEs, decreased the DNA fragmentation, total ...

  18. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  19. Triacylglycerols in some underutilised tropical seed oils 1. Systematic studies of ten oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Adebowale, Y.A.; Nicholson, G.

    2002-05-01

    Triacylglycerols composition of ten lesser known and underutilised tropical seed oils have been determined. The seed oils include Monodora tenuifolia, Monodora myristica, Colocynthis citrullus, Cyperus esculentus, Cucumeropsis edulis, Andenopus breviflorus, Telfairia occidentalis, Blighia sapida, Antiaris africana and Sesame indicum. In the Moreaceae family (M. tenuifolia, M. myristica) the dominant triacylglycerol are OPO/POO, LLO, OOL, and OOO. They accounted for over 60% of the total triacylglycerol content in the oils. In the Cyperaceae family (C. esculentus), OPP/POO, POL and OOO accounted for over 80% of the total triacylglycerol content. In the Cucurbitaceae family, SSP was the dominant triacylglycerol specie in A. breviflorus, while OPO/POO and OOO were the dominant species in C. citrullus and C. edulis. Blighia sapida recorded a different distribution of triacylglycerols composition. PLL occurred at the highest concentration, while other high molecular weight triacylglycerols were also identified in the oil. They include, SSA, OSA, LSA, OAA and LLA. Analysis of A. antiaris oil showed a different pattern in the distribution of the triacylglycerols. LaLaM, MMLa and LaLaLa accounted for about 80% of the total triacylglycerols. This result reflected the fatty acid composition of the oil. Lauric acid (C12:0) and Myristic acid (C14:0) accounted for 71.5% of the total fatty acid. The possible use of the oils as cocoa butter equivalents CBEs and cocoa butter substitutes CBSs are discussed. (author)

  20. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  1. Ecological audit of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester as a substitute for diesel fuel (ecological audit rape seed oil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, A.; Glante, F.; Schlueter, C.; Golz, C.; Noeh, I.; Reinhard, G.; Hoepfner, U.; Satorius, R.; Benndorf, R.; Bluemel, H.; Schaerer, B.; Rodt, S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the following central question: Is the environmental pollution burden resulting from the cultivation of rape and the use of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester to be rated less severe than that of the manufacture and use of diesel fuel, and should, therefore, farmland be used in Germany to grow rape for rape seed oil or rape methyl ester production as a substitute for diesel fuel? Firstly, the extent is investigated to which rape seed oil or rape methyl ester can contribute to cuts in emissions of climate-relevant trace gases as compared to diesel fuel from crude oil. Secondly, the environmental impact and hazards associated with the cultivation, transport and manufacture of rape seed oil or rape methyl ester (again as compared to diesel fuel) are investigated. The data analysed relate to the entire life cycle. (orig./UWA) [de

  2. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  3. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  4. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Parris M

    2009-09-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are increasingly receiving attention as dietary supplements for the homeostatic management of inflammation, to support detoxication, and for anticancer, weight loss, and other benefits. Their pro-homeostatic effects on genes, transcription factors, enzymes, and cell signaling pathways are being intensively explored, but the poor bioavailability of some polyphenols likely contributes to poor clinical trial outcomes. This review covers four polyphenol preparations with poor bioavailability and their complexation into phytosomes to bypass this problem. Silybin and the other silymarin flavonolignans from milk thistle conserve tissue glutathione, are liver-protective, and have anticancer potential. Curcumin and its related diphenolic curcuminoids have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties. The green tea flavan-3-ol catechins have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardio- and neuro-protective effects, and anti-carcinogenic benefits, with fat oxidation effects coupled to weight loss. The complex grape seed proanthocyanidin mix (including catechin and epicatechin monomers and oligomers) counters oxidative stress and protects the circulatory system. For each of these preparations, conversion into phytosomes has improved efficacy without compromising safety. The phytosome technology creates intermolecular bonding between individual polyphenol molecules and one or more molecules of the phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC). Molecular imaging suggests that PC molecule(s) enwrap each polyphenol; upon oral intake the amphipathic PC molecules likely usher the polyphenol through the intestinal epithelial cell outer membrane, subsequently accessing the bloodstream. PC itself has proven clinical efficacy that contributes to phytosome in vivo actions. As a molecular delivery vehicle, phytosome technology substantially improves the clinical applicabilities of polyphenols and other poorly absorbed plant medicinals.

  5. Bioproductive parameters and fatty acids profile of the meat from broilers treated with flax meal and grape seeds meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta OLTEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The 3-week feeding trial was conducted on 120, Cobb 500 chicks (14 days assigned to two groups (C, E. Compared to C diet formulation (corn, wheat, soybean meal and flax meal as basic ingredients, E diet formulation also included 3% grape seeds meal as natural antioxidant. The feed intake and the gains were not significantly (P>0.05 different between groups. Six broilers/group were slaughtered in the end of the trial and 6 samples of breast and thigh meat/group were formed and assayed for the feeding value. The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher in group E than in group C, both for the chicken breast: 32.6±0.87g (E vs 29.29±0.96 g/100 g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh: 37.68±2.07g (E vs 29.58±1.16 g/100g total fatty acids (C. The content of alfa linolenic acid (ALA was significantly (P≤0.05 higher also in group E, both in the breast meat: 0.99±0.02g (E vs 0.89±0.34g/100g total fatty acids (C, and in the thigh meat: 1.20±0.07g (E vs 0.90±0.0g/100g total fatty acids (C. The omega-3 PUFA content was the highest in the breast meat sample, 2.19±0.07g/100g total fatty acids (E, with no significant (P>0.05 differences between groups.

  6. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Salmabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE on triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12 including control (intact, Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection, control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. To induce the syndrome, a single subcutaneous injection of 2 mg estradiol valerate was applied. In experimental groups, PCOS rats were treated with different doses of 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW GSE by intraperitoneal injection for 10 consecutive days. After harvesting blood serum, TG was measured by Glycerol-3-phosphate Oxidase-Peoxidase (GPO- PAP, TC by Cholesterol Oxidase-Peroxidase (CHOD-PAP, and HDL-C by sedimentation method, LDL-C by Friedwald calculation and IL-6 by ELISA method. The serum values of each parameter were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at P≤0.05. Results In all experimental groups significant decrease of visceral fat was obvious as compared with control PCOS group. LDL-C, TC and IL-6 levels in experimental groups, particularly at dose of 50 mg/kg of GSE, were significantly decreased as compared with PCOS group. However, HDL-C levels were not significantly changed. Conclusion : According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that GSE with its effects on serum TC, LDL-C and IL-6 could reduce the effects of dyslipidemia and inflammation in PCOS rats and improve systemic symptoms of PCOS.

  7. Synergistic Radiation Protective Effect of Purified Auricularia auricular-judae Polysaccharide (AAP IV with Grape Seed Procyanidins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Bai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the synergistic antioxidant potential and protective effect of grape seed procyanidins (GSP in combination with Auricularia auricular-judae polysaccharides (AAP IV on radiation injury in splenocytes. Rat splenocyte irradiation resulted in significantly higher apoptosis rate, malondialdehyde (MDA (p < 0.005, reactive oxygen species (ROS (p < 0.01; cell viability, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD (p < 0.01, catalase (CAT (p < 0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX (p < 0.05, activity and glutathione (GSH (p < 0.01 levels were significantly reduced, compared with the control group. “GSP + AAP IV” treatment of rat splenocytes at doses of “GSP (0.3 μg/mL + AAP IV (50 μg/mL” displayed higher radioprotective and antioxidative effects than the administration of either GSP or AAP IV, as evident by lower levels of MDA (p < 0.001 concentration, as well as higher cell viability and T-SOD (p < 0.05, CAT (p < 0.005, GSH-PX (p < 0.01 and GSH content compared to the radiation group. In addition, in vivo studies have shown that “GSP + AAP IV” significantly ameliorated the decrease of spleen index (p < 0.005 and spleen GSH (p < 0.005 levels and significantly inhibited the increase of MDA (p < 0.005 levels of spleen with radiation-induced damage, compared with the non-treated group. The in vivo and in vitro results suggested that GSP and AAP IV have a synergistic protective effect against radiation-induced injury by improving the antioxidant and immunomodulation activities.

  8. Fatty acid composition of Tilia spp. seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowd, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of a study of the seed oil fatty acid composition of Malvaceae plants, the seeds of seven Tilia species (lime or linden trees were evaluated for their fatty acid profiles. Seeds were obtained from the Germplasm Research Information Network and from various commercial sources. After extraction of the seed oil with hexane, the glycerides were trans-methylated and analyzed by gas chromatography on two polar stationary phases. All of the seed oils analyzed were composed primarily of linoleic acid (49-60% with lesser amounts of oleic (16-22% and palmitic (8-10% acids. The usual secondary components were also found. In addition, cyclopropenoid acids (i.e., sterculic and malvalic acids were present at levels between 6 and 17%. In all samples, the level of malvalic acid was approximately twice the level of sterculic acid, indicating that considerable a-oxidation of sterculic acid had occurred in these seeds. Two additional a-oxidation products, 8-heptadecenoic acid and 8,11-heptadecadienoic acid were also detected. Combined, the level of these fatty acids was between 1.3 and 2.3%, roughly comparable to the levels of these acids recently reported in the seed oil of Thespesia populnea.Como parte de un estudio sobre la composición de aceites derivados de semillas de plantas Malvaceae, las semillas de siete especies de Tilia (árboles de tilia o lima fueron evaluadas con respecto a sus perfiles de ácidos grasos. Las semillas fueron obtenidas de Germplasm Research Information Network así como de varias fuentes comerciales. Tras la extracción del aceite con hexano, los glicéridos fueron trans-metilados y analizados por cromatografía de gases con dos fases polares estacionarias. Todos los aceites extraidos de las semillas analizados estaban compuestos principalmente de ácido linoleico (49-60% y, en cantidades más bajas de ácido oleico (16-22% y palmítico (8-10%. Otros componentes secundarios típicos también fueron encontrados. Además, los

  9. Mature seeds for in vitro sanitation of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiró, R.; Gammoudi, N.; Yuste, A.; Olmos, A.; Gisbert, C.

    2015-07-01

    The conservation of old grapevine varieties is important since they are adapted to specific climate conditions and may carry genes interesting to breeders. As virus infection is common in grapevine varieties, the use of virus free materials is of great importance. In this work, we used somatic embryogenesis for the sanitation of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses that were found after analyzing the putative presence of the five most common, economically important grape viruses by real-time multiplex RT-PCR in the old cultivar “Grumet Negre”. Unopened and opened inflorescences, fecundated ovaries, and, also, mature seeds were used as starting explants. Explants were cultured on plates with two embryogenesis induction media (Nitsch & McCown Woody plant medium) that contained the growth regulator thidiazuron and differed in their salt and vitamin compositions. One half of each kind of explant was cut prior to being cultured. After five months of culture, embryos had only developed from seeds that were cut previous to sowing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mature seeds have been used for inducing embryogenesis in grape. A total of 42% of the embryos transferred to tubes for germination regenerated into normal plantlets. The absence of both the GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses in all regenerated plants was confirmed by real-time uniplex RT-PCR. So, this protocol can be used for sanitation and also for micropropagation. (Author)

  10. Determination of total iron-reactive phenolics, anthocyanins and tannins in wine grapes of skins and seeds based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Liu, Xu; Jin, Xiaoduo; Li, Chen; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Shuqin; Ning, Jifeng; Yanne, Paul

    2017-12-15

    Phenolics contents in wine grapes are key indicators for assessing ripeness. Near-infrared hyperspectral images during ripening have been explored to achieve an effective method for predicting phenolics contents. Principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) models were built, respectively. The results show that SVR behaves globally better than PLSR and PCR, except in predicting tannins content of seeds. For the best prediction results, the squared correlation coefficient and root mean square error reached 0.8960 and 0.1069g/L (+)-catechin equivalents (CE), respectively, for tannins in skins, 0.9065 and 0.1776 (g/L CE) for total iron-reactive phenolics (TIRP) in skins, 0.8789 and 0.1442 (g/L M3G) for anthocyanins in skins, 0.9243 and 0.2401 (g/L CE) for tannins in seeds, and 0.8790 and 0.5190 (g/L CE) for TIRP in seeds. Our results indicated that NIR hyperspectral imaging has good prospects for evaluation of phenolics in wine grapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mature seeds for in vitro sanitation of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV-1andGLRaV-3 from grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Peiró

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of old grapevine varieties is important since they are adapted to specific climate conditions and may carry genes interesting to breeders. As virus infection is common in grapevine varieties, the use of virus free materials is of great importance. In this work, we used somatic embryogenesis for the sanitation of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses that were found after analyzing the putative presence of the five most common, economically important grape viruses by real-time multiplex RT-PCR in the old cultivar “Grumet Negre”. Unopened and opened inflorescences, fecundated ovaries, and, also, mature seeds were used as starting explants. Explants were cultured on plates with two embryogenesis induction media (Nitsch & McCown Woody plant medium that contained the growth regulator thidiazuron and differed in their salt and vitamin compositions. One half of each kind of explant was cut prior to being cultured. After five months of culture, embryos had only developed from seeds that were cut previous to sowing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mature seeds have been used for inducing embryogenesis in grape. A total of 42% of the embryos transferred to tubes for germination regenerated into normal plantlets. The absence of both the GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses in all regenerated plants was confirmed by real-time uniplex RT-PCR. So, this protocol can be used for sanitation and also for micropropagation.

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  13. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  14. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  15. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to producecavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system forimproving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was usedunder constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound canreduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describecorrelation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 –7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  17. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  18. Unique occurrence of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre: Screening the rich source of seed oil for bio-energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagi, Kariyappa S.; Munnolli, Ravindra S.; Hosamani, Kallappa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to characterize, isolate and elucidate the structure of unusual fatty acid in the seed oil of Aegle marmelos Corre. Further, this nonedible seed oil is screened for its bio-diesel or industrial feedstock property. The Aegle marmelos Corre seeds yielded 49.0% oil. The seed oil contains 12.5% of 12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid (ricinoleic acid) along with other normal fatty acids. The identification and characterization was supported by FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC analysis and chemical degradation technique. A good agreement is seen between the calculated and experimental results of iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV). The prominent parameters of bio-diesel such as cetane number (CN), lower heating value (LHV) and higher heating value (HHV) are deployed to envisage the quality of oil for use as bio-diesel. This seed oil is nonedible and is found to be the alternative feed stock for the production of bio-diesel since it convenes the major specifications of bio-diesel. The bio-diesel property of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of this seed oil is compared with other bio-diesels.

  19. Pre-fermentative addition of an enzymatic grape seed hydrolysate in warm climate winemaking. Effect on the differential colorimetry, copigmentation and polyphenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Jara-Palacios, M José; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2016-10-15

    The effect of adding an enzymatic hydrolysate of grape seeds (EH-GS) during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been evaluated. We focused on the polyphenolic composition as well as the application of differential and tristimulus colorimetry to colour data. This is the first attempt at using this oenological alternative to avoid common colour losses of red wines elaborated in a warm climate. The addition of 250g (simple dose, SW) of EH-GS to 120kg of fermentation material promoted a significant (p3 CIELAB units). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  1. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  2. Transesterified milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil as a biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Alan Holser; Rogers Harry-O' Kurua [United States Department of Agriculture, Peoria, IL (United States). Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Utilization Research

    2006-10-15

    The methyl and ethyl esters of milkweed (Asclepias) seed oil were prepared and compared to soybean esters in laboratory tests to determine biodiesel fuel performance properties. The pour points of the methyl and ethyl milkweed esters measured -6{sup o}C and -10{sup o}C, respectively, which is consistent with the high levels of unsaturation characteristic of milkweed seed oil. The oxidative stabilities measured by OSI at 100{sup o}C were between 0.8 and 4.1 h for all samples tested. The kinematic viscosities determined at 40{sup o}C by ASTM D 445 averaged 4.9 mm{sup 2}/s for milkweed methyl esters and 4.2 mm{sup 2}/s for soybean methyl esters. Lubricity values determined by ASTM D 6079 at 60{sup o}C were comparable to the corresponding soybean esters with average ball wear scar values of 118 {mu}m for milkweed methyl esters and 200 {mu}m for milkweed ethyl esters.

  3. Yellow passion fruit seed oil (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa: physical and chemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Roberta Malacrida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition -physico-chemical properties, fatty acid and tocopherol compositions and total phenolic compounds -and evaluate the radical-scavenging activity of crude oil extracted from passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa seeds, aiming to use the agro-industrial by-products. The oil seed extraction was performed by Soxhlet method and the oil yield from the seeds was 30.39%. The oil showed high levels of unsaturated fatty acids (87.59%, including mainly linoleic (73.14% and oleic (13.83% acids, tocopherol (499.30 mg/kg and phenolic compounds (1,314.13 mg GAE/kg. The physico-chemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oil showed significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, the potential utilization of the passion fruit seed oil as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries could be favorable.

  4. Extraction and the Fatty Acid Profile of Rosa acicularis Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huanan; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Ruchun; Zhang, Lu; Yu, Dianyu; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2017-12-01

    Rosa acicularis seed oil was extracted from Rosa acicularis seeds by the ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic method using cellulase and protease. Based on a single experiment, Plackett-Burman design was applied to ultrasonic-assisted aqueous enzymatic extraction of wild rose seed oil. The effects of enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature and initial pH on total extraction rate of wild rose seed oil was studied by using Box-Behnken optimize methodology. Chemical characteristics of a sample of Rosa acicularis seeds and Rosa acicularis seed oil were characterized in this work. The tocopherol content was 200.6±0.3 mg/100 g oil. The Rosa acicularis seed oil was rich in linoleic acid (56.5%) and oleic acid (34.2%). The saturated fatty acids included palmitic acid (4%) and stearic acid (2.9%). The major fatty acids in the sn-2 position of triacylglycerol in Rosa acicularis oil were linoleic acid (60.6%), oleic acid (33.6%) and linolenic acid (3.2%). According to the 1,3-random-2-random hypothesis, the dominant triacylglycerols were LLL (18%), LLnL (1%), LLP (2%), LOL (10%), LLSt (1.2%), PLP (0.2%), LLnP (0.1%), LLnO (0.6%) and LOP (1.1%). This work could be useful for developing applications for Rosa acicularis seed oil.

  5. Biorefinery methods for separation of protein and oil fractions from rubber seed kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.; Ratnaningsih, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber seeds can generate additional income for farmers, who already grow rubber trees for latex production. The aim of this study was to find the best method for protein and oil production from rubber seed kernel, with focus on protein recovery. Different pre-treatments and oil

  6. Volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of Catimbium latilabre (Ridl.) Holtt. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.A.; Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the seed and fruit skin oils of C. latilabre from Vietnam were analyzed by a combination of high resoln. GC and GC/MS. More than 55 components were present in the seed oil, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (25.8%), camphor (11.2%), caryophyllene oxide (5.7%),

  7. Comparative study of the chemical composition and mineral element content of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds and seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Ibironke Adetolu

    2008-07-01

    A comparative study of Artocarpus heterophyllus and Treculia africana seeds, both of Moraceae family, was carried out to establish their chemical compositions and evaluate their mineral element content in order to investigate the possibility of using them for human and or animal consumption and also to examine if there is a relationship between the properties of these seeds. A. heterophyllus and T. africana are rich in protein; their protein contents are higher than those from high protein animal sources such as beef and marine fishes. Both seeds have high carbohydrate content and could act as source of energy for animals if included in their diets. The oil contents of the seeds are 11.39% and 18.54% for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively. The oils are consistently liquid at room temperature. The results of the physicochemical properties of the two seeds are comparable to those of conventional oil seeds such as groundnut and palm kernel oils and could be useful for nutritional and industrial purposes. The seeds were found to be good sources of mineral elements. The result revealed potassium to be the prevalent mineral elements which are 2470.00 ppm and 1680.00 ppm for A. heterophyllus and T. africana, respectively followed by sodium, magnesium and then calcium. They also contain reasonable quantity of iron, in particular A. heterophyllus 148.50 ppm.

  8. Seed prepare for oil content determination by NMR method in six cotton varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondim-Tomaz, Rose Marry Araujo; Erismann, Norma de Magalhaes; Sabino, Nelson Paulieri; Kondo, Julio Isao; Cia, Edivaldo; Azzini, Anisio; Soave, Daise

    1998-01-01

    Three comparative methods (chemical seed-delinting with sulphuric acid solution, flaming and seed with linter) to prepare cotton seeds for oil determination by the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) technique were considered. The chemical treatment with sulphuric acid was the best as long the linter interference was eliminated. The seed oil contents were determined by the NMR method in six cotton varieties from the national variety test. The IAPAR (Instituto Agronomico do Parana) 71 PR3 and IAC (Instituto Agronomico de Campinas) 20 varieties presented the highest oil content followed by the CNPA 7H, CS 50, IAC 22 and CNPA Precoce 2. (author)

  9. Some physical and chemical properties of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. seed and fatty acid composition of seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem GÖLÜKÇÜ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible part and leaves of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. are used as food or medicine to control some diseases because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-hepatotoxic, antiviral, antiulcerogenic and larvicidal effects. Although fruits have considerable amount of seeds, they have not received much attention. In this study, some physical and chemical properties of the seed and also fatty acid composition of seed oil were determined. Oil content of the sample was determined by soxhlet apparatus as 26.10% in dried sample. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC-MS and seven fatty acids were identified and their ratios were determined in this seed oil. The main fatty acid was determined as α-eleostearic (45.60%. The other fatty acids were palmitic (3.69%, stearic (28.00%, oleic (12.45%, linoleic (8.90%, arachidic (0.71% and gadoleic acids (0.65%.

  10. Analysing seed systems performance: the case of oil palm in Bénin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpo, E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: Bénin, genetic quality, growth dynamics, innovation, institutions, multistakeholders

    process, oil palm, perennials, physiological quality, pot size, seed quality, seed

    systems, smallholders, social learning.

    The seed supply system used by smallholder

  11. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  12. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  14. Determination of oil in seeds by a wide line NMR instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marton, Aurel

    1983-01-01

    The oil content of sunflower, rape and soybean seeds was determined by a wide line NMR instrument. Using various model systems the following conclusions were drawn: the sensitivity of the instrument is much higher for the oil content of the seeds than for their water content. This observation can be interpreted in terms of the longer relaxation time of the water protons. The quantitative determination of the oil content of the seeds can be done with a high accuracy provided that the calibration curve for the respective oil is available and the signal of the solid state components of the seeds is corrected. If the water content of the seeds is reduced below 5 per cent, the oil content values obtained by NMR and extraction techniques are in agreement within the experimental error. (author)

  15. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  16. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  17. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Heidker

    Full Text Available Bile acid (BA sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and

  18. Novel Antihypertensive Prodrug from Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract via Acid-Mediated Depolymerization in the Presence of Captopril: Synthesis, Process Optimization, and Metabolism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Can; Shi, Ailong; Bai, Shuang; Yan, Pengyu; Li, Qing; Bi, Kaishun

    2018-04-11

    Grape seed extract contains a high content of proanthocyanidins that can be depolymerized into C-4-substituted (epi)catechin derivatives in the presence of nucleophiles. However, the biological and medicinal values of depolymerization products have been rarely investigated. Recently, we developed a novel depolymerization product (-)-epicatechin-4β- S-captopril methyl ester (ECC) derived from the reaction of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract with captopril in the presence of acidified methanol. A central composite design was employed to select the most appropriate depolymerization temperature and time to obtain the target product ECC with a high yield. A total of 16 metabolites of ECC in rat urine, feces, and plasma were identified using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The in vivo results suggested that ECC could release captopril methyl ester and epicatechin, followed by the generation of further metabolites captopril and epicatechin sulfate conjugates. Therefore, ECC may be used as a potential prodrug with synergistic or additive hypotensive effects.

  19. Genetic variability for phenotype, seed production, oil content, and fatty acid composition among 17 Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed oil and fatty acids in plants have human health implications. Oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds are used in Taiwan as a diuretic, laxative, and tonic. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seeds from 17 roselle accessions for oil and fatty acid variation in a greenhouse. S...

  20. Constituents of the seed and fruit peel oils of Alpinia breviligulata Gagnep. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Chinh, T.D.; Rang, D.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The chem. compn. of the seed and fruit peel oils of A. breviligulata was examd. by GC and GC/MS. More than 20 and 30 constituent were found to be present in the seed and fruit peel oils resp. The main compds., accounting for 79.9 and 41.4% of the resp. oils, were (E,E)-farnesol (65.0%), geranyl

  1. Determination of Antimicrobial Activity and Resistance to Oxidation of Moringa peregrina Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Chinou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the oil extracted with n-hexane from the seeds of Moringa peregrina was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. The oil proved effective against all of the tested microorganisms. Standard antibiotics (netilmycin, 5-flucytocine, intraconazole and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-3-acetic acid were used for comparison. The resistance to oxidation of the extracted seed oil was also determined.

  2. Studies on the Paint Forming Properties of Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes Edulis) Seed Oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Otaigbe, J.O.E; Oriji, O.G; Ekerenam, G.E

    2016-01-01

    Avocado(Persea Americana) and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) seed oils were investigated for their suitability as base materials for oil paint production. Soxhlet extraction of the oils from the powdered seeds using n-hexane gave 3.63% and 10.40% yields for Avocado and African Pear respectively. Proximate analysis and chemical characterization of the seed oils were carried out using standard procedures according to the American Oil Chemist Society (AOCS) and the American Society for Testing ...

  3. Physicochemical properties of Terminalia catappa seed oil as a novel dietary lipid source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supatcha Janporn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia catappa Linn (TC is an ornamental tree planted extensively in many countries. It has been known for a long time that the seeds are edible but no research has focused on the realm of its use as food. Our previous data showed that the seed contains high levels of oil content (600 g/kg and possesses the optimum fatty acid balance indicated in fat dietary guidelines. This study aims to investigate the physical and chemical properties and the possibility of using TC seed oil as a new dietary lipid. The effects of extraction conditions, partial refining process, and storage stability on TC oil properties were conducted compared with soybean oil. The results showed that physicochemical properties including the density, refractive index, melting point, acidity, free fatty acid, saponification value, unsaponifiable, peroxide, and fatty acid composition of the extracted oil were comparable with soybean oil and their values followed the dietary standard of edible oil.

  4. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  5. Composition of the seed oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhury, S.N.; Ahmed, R.Z.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (Bishop's weed, Ajowan) seeds was isolated by hydrodistillation. The oil, obtained in 1.2% yield, was analyzed by high resolution GC and GC/MS, and 99.8% of the compounds were identified. The principal oil constituents were carvone (46.2%),

  6. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial.

  7. Chemical characterization and oxidative stability of seeds and oil of sesame grown in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gharby

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to determine the characteristic features of the oil content and composition of nutrients of sesame seeds grown in Morocco. Characteristic features of the seed oil revealed a high degree of unsaturation and as determined by gas chromatography reported herein, the major unsaturated fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.9% followed by oleic acid (37.4%, while the main saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid (9.1%. Sesame seed oil was also found to be rich in tocopherols with a predominance of γ-tocopherol (90.5%. The phytosterol marker β-sitosterol accounted for 59.9% of total sterols contained in sesame seed oil. This oil, therefore, has a potential for its use in human nutrition or industrial applications. Compositional analysis revealed that the sesame seeds contained considerable amounts of protein (22% and high amounts of lipids (52%. Nutrient information reported herein illustrates the benefits to public health for consumers of these plant seeds. In terms of oil, sesame seed oil may be considered as a valuable source for new multi-purpose products as industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical uses.

  8. Characterization of seed and skin polyphenolic extracts of two red grape cultivars grown in Croatia and their sensory perception in a wine model medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurko, N; Kovačević Ganić, K; Gracin, L; Ðapić, M; Jourdes, M; Teissedre, P L

    2014-02-15

    A study of proanthocyanidin and anthocyanin composition and concentrations in seed and skin extracts of two Croatian native red grape cultivars (Plavac mali and Babić) by HPLC-UV-Fluo/MS analysis was conducted in this work. A sensory analysis of extracts astringency and bitterness intensity was also performed. In the seeds, Babić showed generally higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins, while in the skins, Plavac mali showed higher concentrations of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins. Babić proanthocyanidin seed fractions, greater in polymer size and percentage of galloylation, were perceived to be significantly more astringent. Babić proanthocyanidin skin fractions, greater in polymer size and lower in percentage of galloylation and prodelphinidins, were perceived to be significantly bitterer, but only in polymeric fractions. A positive correlation was found between the degree of polymerization, the percentage of galloylation and astringency intensity in the seeds. A negative correlation was found between the percentage of prodelphinidins and bitterness intensity in the skins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil to renewable fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tan Viet; Phung, Minh Tri

    2017-09-01

    Hydroprocessing of rubber seed oil (RSO) with various types of alumina-silica support catalyst was conducted at 400°C and a hydrogen partial pressure of 3.0 MPa in 3 hours. The effects of the alumina-silica and metal doping on alumina-silica on the conversion, and distribution of oil fraction products (initial boiling point (IBP) to 80°C, from 80-200°C, from 200-360°C and higher than 360°C boiling point) were investigated. Compared to the results obtained when using Mo@Al2O3-SiO2, hydroprocessing of RSO resulted in a higher conversion and much higher yield of the light fraction (BP <230°C). Both alumina-silica catalysts led to an improved conversion as well as a higher light fraction yield. Results show that hydroprocessing of RSO with metal doping on alumina-silica support was more efficient than that only Al2O3-SiO2.

  10. Analysis of components and study on antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in apple seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping; Li, Kai-Xiong

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the comprehensive utilization of major by-products in apple-juice processing, the components, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of oil in two species apple seeds, Fuji and New Red Star, were investigated. The Soxhlet extracted oil content of apple seeds raged from 20.69 to 24.32 g/100 g. The protein, fiber and ash contents were found to be 38.85-49.55 g/100 g, 3.92-4.32 g/100 g and 4.31-5.20 g/100 g, respectively; the extracted oils exhibited an iodine value of 94.14-101.15 g I/100 g oil; refractive index (40 degrees C) was 1.465-1.466; density (25 degrees C) was 0.902-0.903 mg/ml; saponification value was 179.01-197.25 mg KOH/g oil; and the acid value was 4.036-4.323 mg KOH/g oil. The apple seed oils mainly consisted of linoleic acid (50.7-51.4 g/100 g) and oleic acid (37.49-38.55 g/100 g). Other prominent fatty acids were palmitic acid (6.51-6.60 g/100 g), stearic acid (1.75-1.96 g/100 g) and arachidic acid (1.49-1.54 g/100 g). Apple seed oil was proven to possess interesting properties, emerging from its chemical composition and from the evaluation of its in vitro biological activities. The apple seed oil was almost completely active against bacteria, mildews were less sensitive to apple seed oil than yeasts, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of apple seed oil ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml. The observed biological activities showed that the oil had a good potential for use in the food industry and pharmacy.

  11. Chardonnay grape seed flour ameliorates hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance via altered hepatic gene expression for oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid and ceramide synthesis in diet-induced obese mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were fed high-fat (HF) diets containing either partially defatted flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour (ChrSd) or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control) for 5 weeks in order to determine whether ChrSd improved insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of hepatic ...

  12. Characterization of crude and purified pumpkin seed oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsaknis, John

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil from hulled pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita Maxima was extracted with hot petroleum ether, and then it was degummed, neutralized and bleached, consecutively Physical and chemical characteristics of crude and purified oils were determined. Density, refractive index, viscosity and peroxide value were not affected by purification, while decreases in acidity, colour, unsaponifiable, E1%1cm 232, and oxidative stability, and increases in smoke point and E1%1cm 270 were observed. Purification did not affect the fatty acid and sterol profiles. GLC analysis for the fatty acid composition of the seed oil showed that the predominant unsaturates were linoleic (42% and oleic (38%, while the major saturates were palmitic (12,7% and stearic (6%. Only α-tocopherol was detected at a level of 126 mg/kg, which reduced to 78 mg/kg after purification. The main sterols of pumpkin seed oil unsaponifiable were Δ7.22,25 -stigmastatrien-3β-ol, α-spinasterol, Δ7,25_stigmastadienol and Δ7-avenasterol, followed by stigmasterol, 24-methylcholest-7-enol and Δ7-stigmastenol, and also trace to minor amounts of cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, sitostanol, Δ5-avenasterol, erythrodiol and uvaol were found.

    Aceite de semillas de calabaza descascarada (Cucurbita pepo YCucurbita maxima fue extraído con éter de petróleo caliente, y luego desgomado, neutralizado y decolorado consecutivamente. Las características físicas y químicas de aceites crudo y purificado fueron determinadas. La densidad, el índice de refracción, la viscosidad y el índice de peróxido no se afectaron por la purificación, mientras que se observó una disminución en la acidez, color, insaponificable, E1%1cm 232, y estabilidad oxidativa, y un aumento en el punto de humo y de E1%1cm270. La purificaci

  13. Genetic variation and heritability for cotton seed, fiber and oil traits in gossypium hirsutum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Farhatullah; Batool, S.; Makhdoom, K.; Marwat, K.B.; Hassan, G.; Ahmad, W.; Khan, H.U.

    2010-01-01

    The research work pertaining to the study of genetic variability, heritability, genetic gain and correlation for cottonseed, fiber and cottonseed oil % in Gossypium hirsutum cultivars was conducted during 2005 at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan. Analysis of variance manifested highly significant differences among the genotypes for all the traits except seeds per locule. Genetic potential range of eight cotton cultivars for different parameters was recorded i.e. seeds locule-1 (6.33 to 6.60), seeds boll-1 (26.10 to 28.47), seed index (8.61 to 9.69 g), lint index (5.35 to 6.05 g), lint % (35.17 to 38.13 %), seed cotton yield (1200 to 2450 kg ha/sup -1/) and cottonseed oil % (27.52 to 30.15%). Genetic variances were found almost greater than the environmental variances for all the traits except seeds locule-1 and seed index. High broad sense heritability and selection response were also formulated for seeds boll-1 (0.67, 0.84), seed index (0.77, 0.47 g), lint index (0.96, 0.33 g), lint % (0.96, 1.66 %), seed cotton yield (0.98, 643.16 kg) and cottonseed oil % (0.87, 1.28 %), respectively. Correlation of yield with other traits was found positive for majority of traits except seeds locule-1 and cotton seed oil %. Seed cotton yield is our ultimate goal in growing cotton besides lint %. Highest seed cotton yield was recorded in CIM-499 followed by CIM-473, CIM-496 and CIM-506 and were also found as the second and third top scoring genotypes for seeds per boll, seed index, lint % and cottonseed oil %. Cultivar SLH-279 performed better for lint index, lint % and oil %. This type of correlation is rarely found and ultra desirable by the cotton breeders and a little genetic gain in seed and lint traits, and oil content is a great accomplishment. (author)

  14. Irradiated Sewage Sludge for Production of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) Plants in Sandy Soil 2- Seed production, oil content, oil constituents and heavy metals in seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Motaium, R. A.; Abo-El-Seoud, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the impact of irradiated and non-irradiated sewage sludge applied to sandy soil on fennel plants (Foeniculum vulgare L.) productivity. In this regards, four rates of sewage sludge application were used (20, 40, 60 and 80 ton/ha) in addition to the mineral fertilizer treatment (control). Sandy soil amended with sewage sludge showed a promising effect on fennel seed yield. A linear gradual increase in seeds yield was observed as the sludge application rate increases. Seeds production increased by 41% to 308% over the control at 80 t /ha application rate, for non-irradiated and irradiated sewage sludge treatments, respectively. Irradiated sewage sludge treatments showed higher fennel seed yield than non-irradiated sewage sludge treatments.Volatile oil percent exhibited no observable variation due to the use of sewage sludge. A few and limited fluctuations could be observed. However, total oil content (cc/plot) increased due to the increase in seeds yield. The magnitude of increase in volatile oil production in response to the sewage sludge application was parallel to the increase in seeds yield. The GLC measurements of the fennel volatile oil reveal that, the t-anethole is the predominant fraction. However, fenchone was detected in relatively moderate concentration. The applied sewage sludge treatment induced some variations in fennel volatile oil constituents. The t.anethole is relatively higher in volatile oil obtained from plants grown on sandy soil fertilized with non-irradiated sewage sludge than the one fertilized with irradiated sewage sludge or chemical fertilizer. In the meantime, the obtained increase in t.anethole was accompanied by a decline in fenchone content. Seeds heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were determined. Under all sludge application rates iron and zinc concentrations were in the normal plant concentration range whereas, Cd concentrations were traces.

  15. Different effects of diets rich in olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower-seed oil on postprandial lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and on lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Pedersen, A.; Sandstrøm, B.

    2002-01-01

    oxidation of fasting and postprandial lipoproteins eighteen males consumed diets enriched with rapeseed oil (RO), olive oil (OO), or sunflower-seed oil (SO) in randomised order for periods of 3 weeks followed by a RO test meal. In the postprandial state the concentrations of cholesterol and triacylglycerol...

  16. Physicochemical characterisation and radical-scavenging activity of Cucurbitaceae seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Neuza; da Silva, Ana Carolina; Malacrida, Cassia Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Oils extracted from Cucurbitaceae seeds were characterised for their fatty acid and tocopherol compositions. In addition, some physicochemical characteristics, total phenolic contents and the radical-scavenging activities were determined. Oil content amounted to 23.9% and 27.1% in melon and watermelon seeds, respectively. Physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of other edible oils and the oils showed significant antioxidant activities. Fatty acid composition showed total unsaturated fatty acid content of 85.2-83.5%, with linoleic acid being the dominant fatty acid (62.4-72.5%), followed by oleic acid (10.8-22.7%) and palmitic acid (9.2-9.8%). The oils, especially watermelon seed oil, showed high total tocopherol and phenolic contents. The γ-tocopherol was the predominant tocopherol in both oils representing 90.9 and 95.6% of the total tocopherols in melon and watermelon seed oils, respectively. The potential utilisation of melon and watermelon seed oils as a raw material for food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries appears to be favourable.

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties of the Oils and Fat from Crotalaria cleomifolia Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Wini Mazlan; Ikram Muhd Said

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of C. cleomifolia (locally known as kacang hantu) collected along Simpang Pulai - Berinchang Road, Cameron Highlands, was defatted with hexane and the resulting oil was analysed for their physico-chemical properties. The percentage yield of the oil was calculated as 5.3 %. The acid value (1.2 %), iodine value (85), peroxide value (0.6), saponification value (192.0) and unsaponifiable matter (2.3 %) were determined to assess the quality of the oil. The physico-chemical characterisation showed that C. cleomifolia seeds oil is unsaturated semi-drying oil, with high saponification and acidic values. The fatty acid composition of C. cleomifolia seed oil was determined by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (ToF). The seed oil of C. cleomifolia contained linoleic acid (57.59 %) and palmitic acid (5.07 %), the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, respectively. The polyunsaturated triacylglycerol (TAG) in C. cleomifolia seed oil determined by reverse phase High performance Liquid Chromatography; contained as PLL (18.04 %) followed by POL + SLL (11.92 %), OOL (7.04 %) and PLLn (6.31 %). The melting and cooling point of the oil were 16.22 degree Celsius and -33.54 degree Celsius, respectively. (author)

  18. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  19. Efficacy of oral iodized peanut oil is greater than that of iodized poppy seed oil among Indonesian schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Untoro, J.; Schultink, J.W.; West, C.E.; Gross, R.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Oral iodized poppy seed oil is an appropriate measure for controlling iodine deficiency in areas where iodized salt is not yet available. However, a more effective and cheaper iodized oil preparation is needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of iodized

  20. The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, S A; Joda, A O; Ashidi, J S

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  1. Composition and Biological Activity of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis Seed and Cone Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The increasing consumption of natural products lead us to discover and study new plant materials, such as conifer seeds and cones, which could be easily available from the forest industry as a waste material, for their potential uses. The chemical composition of the essential oils of Picea pungens and Picea orientalis was fully characterized by GC and GC/MS methods. Seed and cone oils of both tree species were composed mainly of monoterpene hydrocarbons, among which limonene, α- and β-pinene were the major, but in different proportions in the examined conifer essential oils. The levorotary form of chiral monoterpene molecules was predominant over the dextrorotary form. The composition of oils from P. pungens seeds and cones was similar, while the hydrodistilled oils of P. orientalis seeds and cones differed from each other, mainly by a higher amount of oxygenated derivatives of monoterpenes and by other higher molar mass terpenes in seed oil. The essential oils showed mild antimicrobial action, however P. orientalis cone oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial properties against tested bacterial species than those of P. pungens. Effects of the tested cone essential oils on human skin fibroblasts and microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were similar: in a concentration of 0 - 0.075 μl/ml the oils were rather safe for human skin fibroblasts and 0 - 0.005 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. IC 50 value of Picea pungens oils was 0.115 μl/ml, while that of Picea orientalis was 0.105 μl/ml. The value of IC 50 of both oils were 0.035 μl/ml for HMEC-1 cells. The strongest effect on cell viability had the oil from Picea orientalis cones, while on DNA synthesis the oil from Picea pungens cones. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Bioactive properties of faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) seeds, oil and press cake obtained during oilseed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Penha Patrícia Cabral; Silva, Denise Maria de Lima E; Assis, Cristiane Fernandes de; Correia, Roberta Targino Pinto; Damasceno, Karla Suzanne Florentino da Silva Chaves

    2017-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature concerning the bioactive properties of faveleira products. This work focuses on the physicochemical evaluation of faveleira oil, as well as it investigates the bioactive properties of faveleira seeds, faveleira oil and the press cake obtained during the oilseed processing. The seeds were cold pressed and the following tests were performed: physicochemical characteristics (acidity, peroxide values, moisture and volatile matter, density and viscosity) and fatty acid profile of faveleira oil; total phenolic and flavonoid content of faveleira seed and press cake; antibacterial activity of seed, oil and press cake; and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity, superoxide radical scavenging assay and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) of seed, oil and press cake. Our work demonstrated that the faveleira seed oil has low acidity (0.78 ± 0.03% oleic acid) and peroxide value (1.13 ± 0.12 mEq/1000g), associated with the relevant concentration of linoleic acid (53.56%). It was observed that important phenolics (398.89 ± 6.34 mg EAG/100 g), especially flavonoids (29.81 ± 0.71 mg RE/g) remain in the press cake, which indicates that the by-product of the faveleira oilseed production constitutes a rich residual source of bioactive compounds. No bacterial growth inhibition was detected, but all samples including faveleira seeds, press cake, oil and its fractions have potent antioxidant activities, mainly the press cake, with oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 28.39 ± 4.36 μM TE/g. Our results also show that faveleira oil has potential to be used as edible oil and the press cake should be used to contain the most antioxidants from seed.

  3. Effects of microwave roasting on the yield and composition of cold pressed orange seed oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydeniz Güneşer, B.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to valorize orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds, which are generated as waste. This study presents data about raw orange seed, the meal gained after cold pressing, and characterization data of the cold pressed seed oils. Furthermore, the effects of microwave roasting of the seds compared to regular roasting (control) were determined. The oil yield of orange seed cold pressing was around 52.93–62.99%. After cold pressing, 13.57–17.97% oil remained in the meal together with 20.68–25.61% protein. Hence, pressed meals could be valorized for different purposes. Except for turbidity, the color b* value, free acidity, the p-anisidine value and antioxidant capacity, there was no significant difference between the two oil samples for the measured physicochemical properties. Six different fatty acids were quantified and the major fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic and oleic acids. The fatty acid composition of the orange seed oil can be accepted as nutritionally balanced. Among the fifteen sterols quantified, β-sitosterol was dominant (around 77–78%). Likewise, the α-tocopherol content of the samples was not significantly different. The thermal onset and peak temperatures, and enthalpies for crystallization and melting were also reported. This study showed that good quality orange seed oils can be produced by cold pressing, and the oils could be used in food and non-food applications. [es

  4. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  5. Organic Oils as Seed Treatments for Soybeans to Inhibit Fungal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burgett, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Producing organic crops has become essential to satisfy the desires of the end consumer. To completely fulfill this task and meet the requirements of the National Organic Program in the U.S., the seeds planted must be organic. Seeds succumb to fungal infections without seed treatments. Organic seed treatments are not common. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of three organic oils (tea tree, coconut, and lemon) to act as organic seed treatments to inhibit fungal growth on soybea...

  6. An investigation of influence of solvent on the degradation kinetics of carotenoids in oil extracts of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAN BEZBRADICA; JELA MILIC-ASKRABIC; SLOBODAN D. PETROVIC; SLAVICA SILER-MARINKOVIC

    2005-01-01

    The stability of carotenoids was studied in marigold oil extracts prepared with following solvents: Myritol 312®, paraffin oil, almond oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil, and soybean oil. The concentration of the carotenoids was determined by spectroscopic measurement at 450 nm. Degradation rate showed a first order dependence on the concentration of carotenoids with a faster first stage (which lasted 3550 days, depending on the solvent) and a slower second stage. The highest degra...

  7. Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of ... distribution tables, mean, mode and percentages were used for the analysis. ... development agencies and provision of training by relevant stakeholders to ...

  8. Two Novel Non-Conventional Seed Oil Extracts with Antioxidant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The physicochemical characteristics of oil of the plant seeds were ... agar dilution method. .... Total phenols were quantified by Folin- ..... compounds by HPLC/UV and GC-MS. J Food ... flavonoids, coumarins, steroids and some other.

  9. Effect of rosemary extract and TBHQ on the stability of radish seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongling, Z.; Yancheng, G.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of rosemary extract (RE) and tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) on the storage stability of radish seed oil were studied according to the change of the acid value, peroxide value, tocopherol and sulforaphene in radish seed oil. The results showed that under conditions of accelerated oxidation by (60+-1) degree C, the storage stability of the radish seed oil with antioxidants could be significantly improved, among which TBHQ was better than RE. Besides, RE and TBHQ had a synergistic effect on antioxidation. The compound of 0.01% RE and 0.01% TBHQ had a better antioxidation effect than 0.07% RE and 0.02% TBHQ respectively, which recommended it can be a suitable antioxidant of radish seed oil. (author)

  10. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  11. Improvement in Memory and Brain Long-term Potentiation Deficits Due to Permanent Hypoperfusion/Ischemia by Grape Seed Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sarkaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Cerebral hypoperfusion/ischemia (CHI is a neurological disease where impaired hippocampus electrical activity and cognition caused by a serial pathophysiological events. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic oral administration of grape seed extract (GSE on passive avoidance memory and long-term potentiation (LTP after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO in male adult rats.   Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into: 1 Sham+Veh, 2 Isch+Veh, 3 Sham+GSE, 4 Isch+GSE. In order to make 2CCAO as an animal model of CHI, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. To evaluation of passive avoidance memory, step-down latency (STL was measured and LTP was recorded from hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG after high frequency stimulation (HFS in all rats. Results: We found that memory was significantly impaired in rats after CHI (P

  12. Protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jing; Wang, Lan; Lu, Yan; Ji, Yue; Wang, Yaqing; Dong, Ke; Kong, Xiangqing; Sun, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7.5 Gy. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used for the measurement of apoptotic cells and proteins, inflammation factors and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Seabuckthorn oil pretreatment increased the post-radiation survival rate and reduced the damage area of the small intestine villi. Both the pulp and seed oil treatment significantly decreased the apoptotic cell numbers and cleaved caspase 3 expression. Seabuckthorn oil downregulated the mRNA level of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Both the pulp and seed oils elevated the level of phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase and reduced the levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Palmitoleic acid (PLA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) are the predominant components of pulp oil and seed oil, respectively. Pretreatment with PLA and ALA increased the post-radiation survival time. In conclusion, seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils protect against mouse intestinal injury from high-dose radiation by reducing cell apoptosis and inflammation. ALA and PLA are promising natural radiation countermeasure candidates.

  13. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, K Z; Costa, V E.U.; Seidl, P R; Campos, M P.A.; Colnago, L A [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Quimica

    1981-11-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds.

  14. Optimization of Mechanical Expression of Castor Seeds Oil (Ricinus communis using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olaoye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the processing parameters of Castor seed on its oil yield was investigated. The castor seeds were passed through drying, crushing and separation into seeds and shells. These processing conditions were further succeeded by seed roasting and subsequent mechanical expression of the roasted nut by means of screw press in the course of its preparation for oil expression. Seed samples were conditioned by adding calculated amount of distilled water to obtain different moisture levels from the initial moisture content of the seeds. Samples were roasted at the temperatures of 83.18, 90.00, 100.00, 110.00 and 116.82°C, over periods of 6.59, 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 23.41min, seed moisture content of 6.32, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 9.68 % wb, respectively and the oil was expressed using a screw roaster-expeller. Optimization of the oil expression process was achieved by applying Central Composite Rotatable Design of Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for oil yield within the experimental range of the studied variables were 7%, 110°C and 20 min; moisture content, roasting temperature and roasting duration respectively. These values of the optimum process conditions were used to predict optimum value of oil yield to be 25.77%. A second-order model was obtained to predict oil yield as a function of moisture content, heating temperature and duration. Thus the result from this research work has established the optimal conditions for mechanical extraction of oil from castor seed. Closed agreement between experimental and predicted yield was obtained.

  15. An experimental study on performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usta, N.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco seeds are a by product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, unlike tobacco leaves, tobacco seeds are not collected from fields and are not commercial products. However, tobacco seeds contain significant amounts of oil. Although tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil, it can be utilized for biodiesel production as a new renewable alternative diesel engine fuel. In this study, an experimental study on the performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine fuelled with tobacco seed oil methyl ester was performed at full and partial loads. The results showed that the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester to the diesel fuel reduced CO and SO 2 emissions while causing slightly higher NO x emissions. Meanwhile, it was found that the power and the efficiency increased slightly with the addition of tobacco seed oil methyl ester. (Author)

  16. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  17. Mast cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines roles in assessment of grape seeds extract anti-inflammatory activity in rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Ahmed Mohamed Abd-Allah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-produced oxidative disorders were involved at the pathophysiology of many inflammatory processes via the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant defense system suppression. Although herbal antioxidants as mono-therapy relief many inflammatory diseases including, autoimmunity rheumatoid arthritis, but as combination therapy with other proven anti-inflammatory drugs in order to decreasing their toxic impacts has not yet been studied clearly, especially against chemical substances that’s induced local inflammation with characteristic edema. Materials and Methods: Grape seeds extract (GSE at a concentration of 40 mg/kg B. wt alone or in combination with indomethacin (Indo. at a dose of 5 mg/Kg B. wt orally given for 10 days prior (gps VI, VII, VIII or as a single dose after edema induction (gps IX, X, XI in rat's left hind paw by sub-planter single injection of 0.1 carrageenan: saline solution (1% (gp. V to assess the prophylactic and therapeutic anti-inflammatory activities of both through  the estimation of selective inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage-related biomarkers as well as tissue mast cell scoring. Furthermore, both substances were given alone (gps II, III, IV for their  blood, liver and kidney safety evaluation comparing with negative control rats (gp. I which kept without medication. Results: A marked reduction on the inflammatory mediators, edema volume and oxidative byproducts in edema bearing rats' prophylactic and treated with grape seeds extract and indomethacin was observed. Indomethacin found to induce some toxicological impacts which minimized when administered together with GSE. Conclusion: GSE is a safe antioxidant agent with anti-inflammatory property.

  18. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  19. Effect of Gamma Irradiation Doses on Some Chemical Characteristics of Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, O.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cotton Seeds c.v. Giza 85 (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy to improve some chemical characteristics of cotton seed oil i.e. saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, gossypol and βsitosterol that were bound oil. The presented study showed that, the saturated fatty acids; lauric, palmitic and stearic increased when the cotton seeds were exposed to gamma irradiation doses of 0.5 up to 1.5 kGy, On the other hand, arachidic acid content decreased in all the irradiated treatments compared with untreated cotton seed. The unsaturated fatty acid oleic was increased in irradiated cotton seed samples compared with untreated one, while linoleic, the major unsaturated fatty acid decreased in irradiated cotton seed oil than untreated seeds. Gossypol and βsitosterol, bound oil, in irradiated cotton seeds increased gradually with gamma irradiated doses compared with untreated control samples

  20. Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviara, N A; Musa, W B; Owolarafe, O K; Ogunsina, B S; Oluwole, F A

    2015-07-01

    Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content (4.78, 6.00, 8.00 and 10.00 % wet basis), heating temperature (50, 70, 85 and 100 °C) and heating time (15, 20, 25 and 30 min). Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1.1239 MPa was obtained at the processing conditions of 10.00 % moisture content, 50 °C heating temperature and 15 min heating time. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.3164 MPa and it occurred at the moisture content of 4.78 %, heating temperature of 100 °C and heating time of 30 min. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed that all the processing variables and their interactions had significant effect on the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed at 1 % level of significance. This was further demonstrated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions. The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination.

  1. GC-MS study of Nigella sativa (seeds fatty oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta, B. K.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The GC-MS study of N. sativa (seeds fatty oil revealed the presence of 26 compounds which were identified as methyl hept-6-enoate,1-phenylhepta-2,4-dione, pentadecane, hexadec-1-ene, 1-phenyldecan-2-one, octadec-1-ene, octadecane, methyl pentadecanoate, bis(3-chlorophenyl ketone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl octadec-7-enoate, methyl octadecanoate, tricos-9-ene, octadeca-9,12-dienoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, methyl hexadecanoate, methyl octadec-15-enoate, henicosan-10-one, 2-methyl octadecanoic acid, docos-1-ene, ethyl octadecanoate, methyl octadecanoate, pentacos-5-ene,12-methyltricosane, dibutyl phthalate and 2-methyltetracosane.El estudio por GC-MS del aceite de la semilla de Nigella sativa reveló la presencia de 26 compuestos los cuales fueron identificados como: hept-6-enoato de metilo, 1-fenilhepta-2,4-diona, pentadecano, hexadec-1-eno, 1-fenildecan-2-ona, octadec-1-eno, octadecano, pentadecanoato de metilo, bis(3-clorofenil cetona, ftalato de dietilo, octadec-7-enoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, tricos-9-eno, ácido octadeca-9,12-dienoico, ácido hexadecanoico, hexadecanoato de metilo, octadec-15-enoato de metilo, henicosan-10-ona, ácido 2-metil octadecanoico, docos-1-eno, octadecanoato de etilo, octadecanoato de metilo, pentacos-5-eno, 12-metiltricosano, ftalato de dibutilo y 2-metiltetracosano.

  2. Characterization of Barnyard Millet Starch Films Containing Borage Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Luyen Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, barnyard millet starch (BMS was used to prepare edible films. Antioxidant activity was conferred to the BMS film by incorporating borage seed oil (BO. The physical, optical, and thermal properties as well as antioxidant activities of the films were evaluated. The incorporation of BO into the BMS films decreased the tensile strength from 9.46 to 4.69 MPa and increased the elongation at break of the films from 82.49% to 103.87%. Water vapor permeability, water solubility, and moisture content of the BMS films decreased with increasing BO concentration, whereas Hunter b value and opacity increased, L and a values of the films decreased. The BMS films containing BO exhibited antioxidant activity that increased proportionally with increased BO concentration. In particular, the BMS film with 1.0% BO exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and light barrier properties among the BMS films. Therefore, the BMS films with added BO can be used as an antioxidant packaging material.

  3. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Ajmal; Fazal Rahman; Muhammad Ayaz

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g).Co...

  4. Evaluation of Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stability of Some Waste Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Uluata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (TPC and oxidative stability of cherry seed (SCO, sweet cherry seed (SCSO, mulberry seed (MSO and plum seed oil (PSO were determined. Oleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid (42.9-67.3%, and followed by linoleic acid (23.4-41.8% for SCO, SCSO and PSO. Linoleic acid was determined as primary fatty acid in MSO. γ-tocopherol was determined the main and highest tocopherol isomers varied from 579.9 to 605 mg/kg oil in SCO, SCSO and PSO, whereas δ-tocopherol was determined main tocopherol isomer with 1354mg/kg oil value in MSO. Plum seed oil (PSO was the highest antioxidant activity values in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS assays. There was no significant differences in lipid hydroperoxide and TBARS (2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation among SCO, SCSO and MSO. PSO had the highest induction period (15.1 h, followed by MSO (1.4 h, SCSO (1.5 h, SCO(1.3 h. PSO was oxidatively more stable than the other oil samples. This research shows that these waste seed oils have high antioxidant capacity and tocopherol content, so they could be used in food industry.

  5. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Montesano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L., was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively. The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%. The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  6. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Domenico; Blasi, Francesca; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Santini, Antonello; Cossignani, Lina

    2018-03-01

    Pumpkin ( Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ 7,22,25 -stigmastatrienol, Δ 7,25 -stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  7. Low molecular weight procyanidins from grape seeds enhance the impact of 5-Fluorouracil chemotherapy on Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker Y Cheah

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Grape seed procyanidins (PC are flavan-3-ol oligomers and polymers known for their biological activity in the gut. Grape seed extract (GSE have been reported to reduce intestinal injury in a rat model of mucositis. We sought to investigate effects of purified PC fractions differing in mean degree of polymerization (mDP combined with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU chemotherapy on the viability of colon cancer cells (Caco-2. DESIGN: SixPC fractions (F1-F6 were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon seeds at two ripeness stages: pre-veraison unripe (immature and ripe (mature, utilizing step gradient, low-pressure chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20 resin. Fractions were tested on Caco-2 cells, alone and in combination with 5-FU. Eluted fractions were characterized by phloroglucinolysis and gel permeation chromatography. Cell viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: All isolated fractions significantly reduced Caco-2 cell viability compared to the control (P<0.05, but F2 and F3 (mDP 2-6 were the most active fractions (immature F2 = 32% mDP 2.4, F3 = 35% mDP 5.8 and mature F2 = 13% mDP 3.6 and F3 = 17% mDP 5.9; percentage of viable cells remaining on Caco-2 cells. When combined with 5-FU, immature fractions F1-F3 enhanced the cell toxicity effects of 5-FU by 27-73% (P<0.05. Mature seed PC fractions (F1-F4 significantly enhanced the toxicity of 5-FU by 60-83% against Caco-2 cells (P<0.05. Moreover, some fractions alone were more potent at decreasing viability in Caco-2 cells (P<0.05; immature fractions = 65-68% and mature fractions = 83-87% compared to 5-FU alone (37%. CONCLUSIONS: PCs of mDP 2-6 (immature F1-F3 and mature F1 and F4not only enhanced the impact of 5-FU in killing Caco-2 cells, but also surpassed standard 5-FU chemotherapy as an anti-cancer agent.The bioactivity of PC is therefore attributed primarily to lower molecular weight PCs.

  8. DIETARY BLACK CUMIN (NIGELLA SATIVA SEED OIL AFFECTS SERUM LIPIDS IN CHICKEN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hodžić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed on 40 chicken broilers of Cobb provenience to investigate the effect of dietary black cumin seed oil on some blood biochemical parameters in chicken broilers. 40 chicken broilers who were included in the 42 days lasting experiment were divided into two groups, each one of 20 individuals. Group K was the control – with no added oil in feed mixture and the second group P was the experimental one – chickens were fed with 0,025 g of p.o. administered black cumin seed oil. Feed and water supplies were ad libitum. Microclimate conditions (light, temperature and airflow were maintained according to the technological procedure. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein of all animals from both groups at age of 25, 32 and 39 days. The following blood serum biochemical parameters were determined: total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumen and calcium. Dietary black cumin seed oil significantly (P<0.05 affected serum lipid components, particularly total lipids, but not albumen and calcium in chicken broilers. Possible reason for these findings could be dietary fat component as well as fatty-acid composition of added black cumin seed oil. Key words: black cumin seed oil, chicken broilers, blood serum biochemical parameters, fatty acid composition of oil

  9. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Cumin Seed Oil Nanoemulsion Stabilized by Sodium Caseinate- Guar Gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Farshi 1, Mahnaz Tabibiazar 2 * , Marjan Ghorbani 3, Hamed Hamishehkar 3

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to prepare the sodium caseinate- guar gum stabilized nanoemulsion of cumin seed oil (Cumminum cyminum using ultrasonication method. Meanwhile, the effect of nanoemulsification on the antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the cumin seed oil was evaluated. Method: The effect of concentration of sodium casienate and guar gum was investigated on droplet size, thermal and oxidative stability of cumin seed oil nanoemulsion using TBARS and z-average measurements, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH scavenging and iron reducing power measurements. The biocompatibility and the cytotoxicity of the cumin seed oil nanoemulsion were evaluated by MTT assay test and compared with cumin seed oil and cumin seed oil free-nanoemulsion. Results: GC–MS analysis indicated 15 compounds in the cumin seed oil. The nanoemulsions were stabilized by sodium caseinate-guar gum complex. The minimum and stable droplets (155 ± 8 nm of nanoemulsion were formulated when the concentration of essential oil in oil phase was 30 % (w/w. DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron reducing power and cytotoxicity of nanoemulsified cumin seed oil were significantly higher than cumin seed oil (p<0.05 Conclusion: In this study, cumin seed oil nanoemulsion was prepared and stabilized by sodium caseinate- guar gum. The aforementioned nanoemulsion had good stability even after 60 days storage at 4ºC. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity of cumin seed oil were increased by nanoemulsification. It can be concluded that cumin seed oil nanoemulsion has the potential to use as natural preservative and anticancer product in food industry.

  10. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Analysis of essential oil extracted from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Haji, Akber Aisa

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds growing in Xinjiang. The components of essential oil from Lactuca sativa seeds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 62 components were identified from 71 separated peaks,amounting to total mass fraction 95.07%. The dominant compounds were n-Hexanol (36.31%), n-Hexanal (13.71%), trans-2-Octen-l-ol (8.09%) and 2-n-Pentylfuran (4.41%). The research provides a theoretical basis for the exploitation and use of Lactuca sativa seeds resource.

  12. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  13. Liquid Soap Production with Blends Of Rubber Seed Oil (RSO) And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of liquid detergent using locally sourced palm fruit bunch (Elaeis Guineesis) waste saponier has been investigated. An optimum blend ratio of rubber seed oil to palm kernel oil RSO:PKO 20:80 being constituent elements used for the production of the soap; was obtained using the Duncan Multiple Range ...

  14. Effect of growing location on seed oil composition in the cultivated peanut germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A particularly important component of seed oils is the content of oleic acid as this fatty acid has several health benefits and contributes to increased oil stability, i.e. longer shelf life. We measured 8846 available accessions of the USDA peanut germplasm collection to gauge the range of variatio...

  15. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from Melanolepis multiglandulosa (alim) seed oil and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufficient supply of feedstock oils is a major issue facing biodiesel in order to increase the still limited amounts available. In this work, the fatty acid methyl esters, also known as biodiesel, of the seed oil of Melanolepsi multiglandulosa, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, were prepared and...

  16. Oil content in seeds of the NPGS jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) germplasm collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, (Link) Schneider is a shrub native to warm and arid land regions of North and Latin America. Its seeds contain vegetable oil composed of long (C20-22), straight-chain liquid wax of non-glyceride esters. Minute amounts of triglycerides in its composition make the oil a l...

  17. Nutraceutical Importance of Sesame Seed and Oil: A Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sesame seed is widely used in food and nutraceutical industries in many countries because of its high oil, protein and antioxidant contents. Sesame oil contains sesamin, sesamolin and sesaminol lignan fractions, which are known to play an important role in its oxidative stability and antioxidative activity. It is widely known ...

  18. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  19. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  20. Production of biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. seed oil using bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two agricultural residues, cocoa pod ash (CPA) and rice husk ash (RHA), were investigated as bio-based catalysts for the transesterification of Parinari polyandra seeds oil and the results obtained using these bio-based catalysts were compared with potassium hydroxide which is a conventional catalyst. Oil was extracted ...

  1. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  2. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  3. Comparison of Moringa Oleifera seeds oil characterization produced chemically and mechanically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eman, N. A.; Muhamad, K. N. S.

    2016-06-01

    It is established that virtually every part of the Moringa oleifera tree (leaves, stem, bark, root, flowers, seeds, and seeds oil) are beneficial in some way with great benefits to human being. The tree is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals. All Moringa oleifera food products have a very high nutritional value. They are eaten directly as food, as supplements, and as seasonings as well as fodder for animals. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of seeds particle size on oil extraction using chemical method (solvent extraction). Also, to compare Moringa oleifera seeds oil properties which are produced chemically (solvent extraction) and mechanically (mechanical press). The Moringa oleifera seeds were grinded, sieved, and the oil was extracted using soxhlet extraction technique with n-Hexane using three different size of sample (2mm, 1mm, and 500μm). The average oil yield was 36.1%, 40.80%, and 41.5% for 2mm, 1mm, and 500μm particle size, respectively. The properties of Moringa oleifera seeds oil were: density of 873 kg/m3, and 880 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity of 42.2mm2/s and 9.12mm2/s for the mechanical and chemical method, respectively. pH, cloud point and pour point were same for oil produced with both methods which is 6, 18°C and 12°C, respectively. For the fatty acids, the oleic acid is present with high percentage of 75.39%, and 73.60% from chemical and mechanical method, respectively. Other fatty acids are present as well in both samples which are (Gadoleic acid, Behenic acid, Palmitic acid) which are with lower percentage of 2.54%, 5.83%, and 5.73%, respectively in chemical method oil, while they present as 2.40%, 6.73%, and 6.04%, respectively in mechanical method oil. In conclusion, the results showed that both methods can produce oil with high quality. Moringa oleifera seeds oil appear to be an acceptable good source for oil rich in oleic acid which is equal to olive oil quality, that can be consumed in Malaysia where the olive oil

  4. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesagowda, Balaji; Ponugupaty, Ebenezer; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    Commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of Tamil Nadu (India) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. The oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. High Shannon-Index H' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low Index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). Maximum Colonization Frequency (%) was observed for Lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). Dominance Index (expressed in terms of the Simpson's Index D) was high (0.581) for coconut kernel-associated fungi, and low for pongamia seed-borne fungi. Species Richness (Chao) of the fungal isolates was high (47.09) in the case of neem seeds, and low (16.6) for peanut seeds. All 1279 fungal isolates were screened for lipolytic activity employing a zymogram method using Tween-20 in agar. Forty isolates showed strong lipolytic activity, and were morphologically identified as belonging to 19 taxa (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chalaropsis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Sclerotinia, Stachybotrys and Trichoderma). These isolates also exhibited amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities. Five fungal isolates (Aspergillus niger, Chalaropsis thielavioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Phoma glomerata) exhibited highest lipase activities, and the best producer was Lasiodiplodia theobromae (108 U/mL), which was characterized by genomic sequence analysis of the ITS region of 18S rDNA.

  6. Characterization of Acanthosicyos horridus and Citrullus lanatus seed oils: two melon seed oils from Namibia used in food and cosmetics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheikhyoussef, Natascha; Kandawa-Schulz, Martha; Böck, Ronnie; de Koning, Charles; Cheikhyoussef, Ahmad; Hussein, Ahmed A

    2017-10-01

    The physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid, tocopherol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and 1 H NMR profiles of Citrullus lanatus and Acanthosicyos horridus melon seed oils were determined and compared among different extraction methods (cold pressing, traditional, and Soxhlet). The oil content was 40.2 ± 3.45 and 37.8 ± 7.26% for C. lanatus and A. horridus , respectively. Significant differences ( p  yield, physicochemical characteristics, tocopherol, and fatty acid composition have the potential to replace or improve major commercial vegetable oils and to be used for various applications in the food industry and nutritive medicines.

  7. Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on the Fertilization Potency of Rat's Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikseresht, Mohsen; Fallahzadeh, Ali Reza; Toori, Mehdi Akbartabar; Mahmoudi, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Pomegranate has been taken great scientific attention in recent years due to its health benefits. Pomegranate seed oil is a rich source of 9-cis, and 11-trans conjugate linolenic acid. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary pomegranate seed oil on the fertilization potency of rat's sperm. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group, which served as the control group, received 1 mL of corn oil for seven weeks. Groups II, III, IV served as the experimental groups received 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of pomegranate seed oil, for the same period of time respectively. After seven weeks, all of the rats were sacrificed, and their epididymis sperm was collected and added to IVF medium (T6) containing metaphase II oocytes. Almost 21 oocytes had been removed from every female rat oviduct. In this medium, oocyte fertilization, cleavage rates, and embryo development into blastocysts, were evaluated by inverted microscopy. Levels of LD50 in the oral route in male rats were more than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Our data showed that the rates of fertilization, cleavage and embryo development into blastocysts were higher in the groups that had received 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of pomegranate seed oil. This study demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil had a positive effect on the fertilization potency of male rats. These beneficial effects may be useful in assisted reproductive technology.

  8. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  10. Antidiabetic Activity and Chemical Composition of Sanbai Melon Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haili; Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Ya; Qiu, Pengcheng; Li, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Many fruits and herbs had been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines for treating diabetes mellitus (DM); however, scientific and accurate evidences regarding their efficacy and possible mechanisms were largely unknown. Sanbai melon seed oil (SMSO) was used in folk medicine in treating DM, but there is no literature about these effects. The present study was aimed at confirming the treatment effects of SMSO in type 1 DM. Methods Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a dose of 65 mg/kg body weight. After diabetes induction, mice were treated with SMSO at dose of 1 g/kg, 2 g/kg, and 4 g/kg. Drugs were given by gavage administration once a day continuously for 28 days. At the end of treatment, several biochemical parameters and molecular mechanisms were determined by biochemical assays, ELISA, and Western blotting. The chemical compositions of SMSO were also tested. Results SMSO treatment significantly improved the symptoms of weight loss, polydipsia, reduced FBG level, increased plasma insulin levels, reduced plasma lipids levels, and protected islet injury. The results also showed that SMSO mitigated oxidative stress and alleviated the liver and renal injury in diabetes mice. SMSO also protected islet cells from apoptotic damage by suppressing ER mediated and mitochondrial dependent apoptotic pathways. Further constituent analysis results showed that SMSO had rich natural resources which had beneficial effects on DM. Conclusions This study showed that SMSO had excellent antidiabetes effect and provided scientific basis for the use of SMSO as the functional ingredients production and dietary supplements production in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:29853958

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of extract and oil from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed against sunflower oil autoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyam, K L; Teh, Y N; Tan, C P; Kamariah, L

    2012-08-01

    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants. In this study, roselle seed oil (RSO) and extract (RSE) were mixed with sunflower oil, respectively to monitor degradation rate and investigate antioxidant activity during accelerated storage. The antioxidant activity was found to stabilise sunflower oil of various samples and in the order of RSE>RSO>tocopherol>sunflower oil. The total percentage increased after 5 days of storage period in free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV) and anisidine value (AV). Total oxidation value (TOx) of sunflower oil supplemented with 1500 ppm RSE was 33.3%, 47.7%, 14.5%, and 45.5%, respectively. While the total percentage increased under different analysis methods, sunflower oil supplemented with 5% RSO was 17.2%, 60.4%, 36.2% and 59.0% in the order of FFA, PV, AV and TOTOX. Both RSO and RSE were found to be more effective in stabilisation of sunflower oil compared to tocopherol. Total phenolic content of RSE was 46.40 +/- 1.51 mg GAE/100g of oil while RSO was 12.51 +/- 0.15 mg GAE/ 100g of oil. The data indicates that roselle seed oil and seed extract are rich in phenolics and antioxidant activities and may be a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  12. Transfer of thallium from rape seed to rape oil is negligible and oil is fit for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loula, Martin; Kaňa, Antonín; Vosmanská, Magda; Koplík, Richard; Mestek, Oto

    2016-01-01

    Rape and other Brassicaceae family plants can accumulate appreciable amounts of thallium from the soil. Because some species of this family are common crops utilised as food for direct consumption or raw materials for food production, thallium can enter the food chain. A useful method for thallium determination is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection (0.2 pg ml(-1) Tl or 0.02 ng g(-1) Tl, taking in the account dilution during sample decomposition) found in the current study was very low, and the method can be used for ultra-trace analysis. Possible transfer of thallium from rape seed to the rape oil was investigated in two ways. The balance of thallium in rape seed meal (content 140-200 ng g(-1) Tl) and defatted rape seed meal indicated that thallium did not pass into the oil (p thallium in six kinds of edible rape seed oil and three kinds of margarines showed that the amount of thallium in rape seed oil is negligible.

  13. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (ptocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (ptocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars.

  14. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  15. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACIDS IN CARNAÚBA SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELLINSON GADÊLHA GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the composition of fatty acids in oil extracted from seeds of carnaúba ( Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, an important palm species native to Northeastern Brazil. After extracting the crude oil, the physico - chemical characteristics (density, refraction index, pH, acidity and saponi- fication index were registered and the chemical composition of the fatty acids was determined by gas chroma- tography (GC - FID. The predominance of saturated fatty acids does not make carnaúba seed oil a promising alternative for the food industry, and the small yield obtained (approx. 5% may constitute a limiting factor for commercial exploitation, but carnauba seed oil could potentially be used in the production of biofuels, cosmet- ics and detergents.

  16. Isolation and physico-chemical characterization of Butea parviflora seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaki, S.S.; Jabeen, T.; Reddy, J.R.C.; Ram Mohan, M.; Anjaneyulu, E.; Prasad, R.B.N.; Rao, B.V.S.K

    2016-01-01

    The seeds of Butea parviflora were investigated for oil extraction and the oil was studied for complete physico-chemical properties. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil showed oleic acid (18:1) at 27.5%, linoleic acid (18:2) at 26.4%, palmitic acid (16:0) at 16.1% and behenic acid (22:0) at 14.1% as the major fatty acids. The physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil were studied for parameters such as free fatty acids (0.71%), iodine value (76.2 g/100g), peroxide value (5.95 ppm), saponification value (177.32 mg KOH/g), unsaponifiable matter (0.82%), phosphorous content (197 ppm), triglyceride analysis, tocols, specific gravity and refractive index following standard procedures. [es

  17. Condições de armazenamento na viabilidade e dormência de sementes de videira Effect of storage conditions on the viability and dormancy of grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocely Andreuccetti Maeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A manutenção da viabilidade de sementes por períodos mais ou menos longos está bastante relacionada com as condições em que elas são armazenadas. Temperatura e teor de umidade estão entre os fatores que mais afetam sua longevidade. O objetivo deste trabalho é o estudo da viabilidade e dormência de uva do cultivar Patrícia, armazenada durante 24 meses em dois tipos de recipientes - em vidro hermético e saco de papel - a temperaturas de 10, 20 e 30°C, com dois diferentes teores iniciais de umidade. A porcentagem de sementes dormentes e viáveis foi determinada bimestralmente durante os primeiros 12 meses, e semestralmente nos períodos mais longos. O armazenamento não quebrou a dormência das sementes de uva em nenhuma das condições estudadas. Enquanto as sementes frescas mostraram melhor conservação a 10°C quando embaladas em vidro hermético, sementes secas se conservaram melhor a 20°C. Em saco de papel, foram poucas as diferenças encontradas entre os tratamentos, a não ser nos períodos finais do armazenamento, quando 20°C se mostrou a pior temperatura de conservação. Dessa maneira, a dormência não foi alterada pelo armazenamento, nas condições estudadas, e a viabilidade foi bastante afetada tanto pelo tipo de embalagem como pela temperatura de armazenamento.Longevity of seeds is affected by the storage conditions, being temperature and seed moisture content the major factors to keep seeds viable. Experiments described here are concerned to the study of dormancy ant viability of seeds of grape cv. Patrícia, stored with two different moisture contents, either in moisture proof containers or paper bags, at temperaturss of 10°C, 20°C and 30°C, for 24 months. Samples were taken every two months during the first 12 months and at 6 months intervals in the second year, to determine seed viability and dormancy level. Storage, in the studied conditions, did not alter dormancy levei of the seeds. When stored in hermetical

  18. Oxidative stability, chemical composition and organoleptic properties of seinat (Cucumis melo var. tibish) seed oil blends with peanut oil from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddeeg, Azhari; Xia, Wenshui

    2015-12-01

    Seinat seed oil was blended with peanut oil for the enhancement of stability and chemical characteristics of the blend. The physicochemical properties (relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, saponification value, iodine value and peroxide value) of seinat seed and peanut oil blends in ratios 95:5, 85:15, 30:70 and 50:50 proportions were evaluated, as well as oxidative stability index, deferential scanning calorimetric (DSC) characteristics and tocopherols content. Results of oil blend showed that there was no negative effect by the addition of seinat seed oil to peanut oil and also had decreased percentages of all saturated fatty acids except stearic acid, conversely, increased the levels of unsaturated fatty acids. As for the sensory evaluation, the panelist results showed that seinat seed oil blends had no significant differences (p blending of seinat seed oil with peanut oil had also increased the stability and tocopherols content. As Sudan is the first producer of seinat oil, blending of seinat seed oil with traditional oil like quality, and may decrease the consumption of other expensive edible oils.

  19. Chemical Composition of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Seed Oil from Six Saudi Arabian Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imeddedine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Rashid, Umer; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2018-03-01

    This investigation aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and physicochemical properties of seed oils from 6 date palm (Phoenix. dactylifera L.) cultivars (Barhi, Khalas, Manifi, Rezeiz, Sulaj, and Sukkari) growing in Saudi Arabia and to compare them with conventional palm olein. The mean oil content of the seeds was about 7%. Oleic acid (48.67%) was the main fatty acid, followed by lauric acid (17.26%), stearic acid (10.74%), palmitic acid (9.88%), and linolenic acid (8.13%). The mean value for free fatty acids content was 0.5%. The P. dactylifera seed oil also exhibited a mean tocol content of 70.75 mg/100 g. α-Tocotrienol was the most abundant isomer (30.19%), followed by γ-tocopherol (23.61%), γ-tocotrienol (19.07%), and α-tocopherol (17.52%). The oils showed high thermal and oxidative stabilities. The findings indicate that date seed oil has the potential to be used in the food industry as an abundant alternative to palm olein. This study showed that date seed had great nutritional value due to which it can be used for food applications especially as frying or cooking oil. In addition, date oil has also potential to be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical practices as well. The extraction of oil from Phoenix dactylifera seed on large scale can create positive socioeconomic benefits especially for rural communities and could also assist to resolve the environmental issues generated by excess date production in large scale date-producing countries such as Saudi Arabia. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Extraction of Lepidium apetalum Seed Oil Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Anti-Oxidant Activity of the Extracted Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchong Tang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Lepidium apetalum seed oil and its anti-oxidant activity were studied. The SFE process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with a central composite design (CCD. Independent variables, namely operating pressure, temperature, time and flow rate were evaluated. The maximum extraction of Lepidium apetalum seed oil by SFE-CO2 (about 36.3% was obtained when SFE-CO2 extraction was carried out under the optimal conditions of 30.0 MPa of pressure, 70 °C of temperature, 120 min of extraction time and 25.95 L/h of flow rate. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of four fatty acids in Lepidium apetalum seed oil, with a high content (91.0% of unsaturated fatty acid. The anti-oxidant activity of the oil was assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging assay and 2,2′-azino- bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS test. Lepidium apetalum seed oil possessed a notable concentration-dependent antioxidant activity, with IC50 values of 1.00 and 3.75 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  2. Abies Concolor Seeds and Cones as New Source of Essential Oils-Composition and Biological Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa; Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika

    2017-11-02

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, of essential oils from seeds and cones of Abies concolor was studied by chromatographic (GC) and spectroscopic methods (mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance), leading to the determination of 98 compounds. Essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons. The dominant volatiles of seed essential oil were: limonene (47 g/100 g, almost pure levorotary form) and α-pinene (40 g/100 g), while α-pinene (58 g/100 g), sabinene (11 g/100 g), and β-pinene (4.5 g/100 g) were the predominant components of the cone oil. The seed and cone essential oils exhibited mild antibacterial activity, and the MIC ranged from 26 to 30 μL/mL against all of the tested bacterial standard strains: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli , and Klebsiella pneumoniae . The cytotoxic studies have demonstrated that tested essential oils were cytotoxic to human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells at concentrations much lower than the MIC. The essential oils from A. concolor seeds and cones had no toxic effect on human skin fibroblasts and human microvascular endothelial cells, when added to the cells at a low concentration (0-0.075 μL/mL) and (0-1.0 μL/mL), respectively, and cultured for 24 h.

  3. Experimental determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from jatropha seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Omede, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal neutron technique was used for the determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from Jatropha seeds. The experimental arrangement consists of a source holder, Am-Be neutron source embedded in paraffin wax and 3 He detector was used to measure reflection coefficient as a function of hydrogen content of various hydrocarbon materials used as calibration standards. The hydrogen content which is an important property of fuel oils was determined for jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel using their measured values of neutron reflection coefficients and calibration data. The result obtained showed that the hydrogen content of Jatropha oil exceeds that of the synthetic diesel, thus indicating its suitability as a fuel oil for powering diesel engines. The results obtained also indicated that hydrogen content of jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture increases as the volumetric concentration of jatropha oil in the mixture increases, indicating that jatropha oil can serve as a suitable additive to synthetic diesel oil.

  4. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  5. Effect of essential oil of Origanum rotundifolium on some plant pathogenic bacteria, seed germination and plant growth of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaşoǧlu, Fatih; Kotan, Recep; Karagöz, Kenan; Dikbaş, Neslihan; Ćakmakçi, Ramazan; Ćakir, Ahmet; Kordali, Şaban; Özer, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine effect of Origanum rotundifolium's essential oil on some plant pathogenic bacterias, seed germination and plant growth of tomato. Xanthomonas axanopodis pv. vesicatoria strain (Xcv-761) and Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. michiganensis strain (Cmm) inoculated to tomato seed. The seeds were tested for germination in vitro and disease severity and some plant growth parameters in vivo. In vitro assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil treatment in seeds inoculated with Xcv-761 and at 62,5 µl/ml essential oil and streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. The least infected cotiledon number was observed at 500 µg/ml streptomycin treatment in seeds inoculated with Cmm. In vivo assay, maximum seed germination was observed at 250 µl/ml essential oil teratment in tomato inoculated with Cmm. Lowest disease severity, is seen in the CMM infected seeds with 250 µl/ml essential oil application these results were statistically significant when compared with pathogen infected seeds. Similarly, in application conducted with XCV-761 infected seed, the lowest disease severity was observed for seeds as a result of 250 µl/ml essential oil application. Also according to the results obtained from essential oil application of CMM infected seeds conducted with 62,5 µl/ml dose; while disease severity was found statistically insignificant compared to 250 µl/ml to essential oil application, ıt was found statistically significant compared to pathogen infected seeds. The results showed that essential oil of O. rotundifolium has a potential for some suppressed plant disease when it is used in appropriate dose.

  6. Effects of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil in Korean men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chun-Soo; Maeng, Sungho

    2009-01-01

    This study was to investigate the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the prevention and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this purpose, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed over 12 months on 47 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with average age of 53.3 years and international prostate symptom score over 8. Subjects received either sweet potato starch (group A, placebo, 320 mg/day), pumpkin seed oil (group B, 320 mg/day), saw palmetto oil (group C, 320 mg/day) or pumpkin seed oil plus saw palmetto oil (group D, each 320 mg/day). International prostate symptom score, quality of life, serum prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and maximal urinary flow rate were measured. In groups B, C and D, the international prostate symptom score were reduced by 3 months. Quality of life score was improved after 6 months in group D, while those of groups B and C were improved after 3 months, compared to the baseline value. Serum prostate specific antigen was reduced only in group D after 3 months, but no difference was observed in prostate volume in all treatment groups. Maximal urinary flow rate were gradually improved in groups B and C, with statistical significance after 6 months in group B and after 12 months in group C. None of the parameters were significantly improved by combined treatment with pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil. From these results, it is suggested that administrations of pumpkin seed oil and saw palmetto oil are clinically safe and may be effective as complementary and alternative medicine treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  7. Seed-specific RNAi in safflower generates a superhigh oleic oil with extended oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Craig C; Okada, Shoko; Taylor, Matthew C; Menon, Amratha; Mathew, Anu; Cullerne, Darren; Stephen, Stuart J; Allen, Robert S; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Liu, Qing; Oakeshott, John G; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2018-03-06

    Vegetable oils extracted from oilseeds are an important component of foods, but are also used in a range of high value oleochemical applications. Despite being biodegradable, nontoxic and renewable current plant oils suffer from the presence of residual polyunsaturated fatty acids that are prone to free radical formation that limit their oxidative stability, and consequently shelf life and functionality. Many decades of plant breeding have been successful in raising the oleic content to ~90%, but have come at the expense of overall field performance, including poor yields. Here, we engineer superhigh oleic (SHO) safflower producing a seed oil with 93% oleic generated from seed produced in multisite field trials spanning five generations. SHO safflower oil is the result of seed-specific hairpin-based RNA interference of two safflower lipid biosynthetic genes, FAD2.2 and FATB, producing seed oil containing less than 1.5% polyunsaturates and only 4% saturates but with no impact on lipid profiles of leaves and roots. Transgenic SHO events were compared to non-GM safflower in multisite trial plots with a wide range of growing season conditions, which showed no evidence of impact on seed yield. The oxidative stability of the field-grown SHO oil produced from various sites was 50 h at 110°C compared to 13 h for conventional ~80% oleic safflower oils. SHO safflower produces a uniquely stable vegetable oil across different field conditions that can provide the scale of production that is required for meeting the global demands for high stability oils in food and the oleochemical industry. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  10. Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Yang, Xudong; Raza Asim, M B; Sun, Qingzhu; Han, Yan; Zhang, Fujun; Cao, Yongxiao; Lu, Shemin

    2009-02-01

    The black seeds, from the Ranunculaceae family, have been traditionally used by various cultures as a natural remedy for several ailments. In this study, we examined the effect of black seed oil as an immunomodulator in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. Rats sensitized to ovalbumin and challenged intranasally with ovalbumin to induce an allergic inflammatory response were compared to ovalbumin-sensitized, intranasally ovalbumin-exposed rats pretreated with intraperitoneally administered black seed oil and to control rats. The levels of IgE, IgG1 and ova-specific T-cell proliferation in spleen were measured by ELISA. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression levels were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The intraperitoneal administration of black seed oil inhibited the Th2 type immune response in rats by preventing inflammatory cell infiltration and pathological lesions in the lungs. It significantly decreased the nitric oxide production in BALF, total serum IgE, IgG1 and OVA-specific IgG1 along with IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expression. Black seed oil treatment resulted in decreased T-cell response evident by lesser delayed type hypersensitivity and lower T-cell proliferation in spleen. In conclusion, black seed oil exhibited a significant reduction in all the markers of allergic inflammation mainly by inhibiting the delayed type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. The data suggests that inhibition of T-cell response may be responsible for immunomodulatory effect of black seed oil in the rat model of allergic airway inflammation.

  11. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition of annual halophyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of. Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China. 2Graduate University of ... of S. acuminata: brown with soft coarse seed coat and black with rigid smooth seed coat (Ding et al., 2010). Brown and black ...

  12. Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. MOHAMMED

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay. The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value and iodine value for both crude and refined castor oil produced, were within the ASTM standard specifications. In fact the iodine value obtained (84.8 for the refined oil indicates that the oil could certainly be used as lubricant, hydraulic break fluid and protecting coatings. The oil was modified via sulphation method to produce Turkey – red oil that was tested on wooden material, paper and cloth. The test revealed that the Turkey – red oil produced is suitable to be used as a good dying agent and polish.

  13. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  14. Allelopatic effects of some medicinal plant essential oils on plant seeds germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI SHOKOUHIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of essential oils from some medicinal plants on seed germination was studied with the aim of assessing their potential use as bioherbicides. The experiment was conducted as factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD with three replications. Seeds of 3 summer crops including lettuce (Lactuca sativa, pepper (Piper longum and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum were exposed to essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and anise (Pimpinella anisum at 3 different concentrations (25 and 50% diluted and undiluted. Treated seeds were grown in a growth chamber at 25°C for 5 days. The number of germinated seeds in each Petri dish was daily counted. After five days seed germination percentage (Ge was calculated. Biplot analysis was performed using genotype plus genotype environment interaction (GGE method. Results showed that the allelopathic effect on Ge was varied among studied plants, which was mainly due to i differences in the composition of the studied essential oils and ii different allelopathic effects of the studied essential oils on Ge. Accordingly, compared to the individual use, combining several essential oils would have a greater inhibitory effect on Ge of weeds.

  15. Oil quality of passion fruit seeds subjected to a pulp-waste purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Alvarenga Regis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Passion fruit seeds must be clean and dry before the extraction processing to obtain high-quality oil for edible and cosmetic purposes. This research studies the viability of a cleaning process of seeds by evaluating the oil quality. The research examined 2 maturation stages of the fruit and one purification process of the seeds, compared to the control. The oil quality was evaluated by fatty acid composition, acidity, peroxide value and oxidative stability. The pulp waste suffered a thermal treatment in an alkaline water solution at 60°C for 10min and was further purified in an experimental decanter. In the control treatment, the pulp waste was processed using only water at ambient conditions. The passion fruit seeds were totally cleaned by the thermal/chemical treatment, allowing a faster drying (less than 50% of the drying time of the seeds and a bit higher yield of oil extraction (proportionally around 7.7%, without changes in quality of the oil

  16. Efectos del D-002, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas - Effects of D-002, a grape seed extract and their combined therapy on oxidative markers in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Oyarzábal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Mas Ferreiro, Rosa; Jiménez Despaigne, Sonia; Curveco Sánchez, Dayisell

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACTD-002, a mixture of high molecular weight alcohols from beeswax (Appis mellifera), and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera, L), rich in flavonoids, presents antioxidant effects, but no previous study had compared such effects.RESUMEN El D-002, mezcla de alcoholes de alto peso molecular obtenida de la cera de las abejas (Appis mellifera) y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinifera, L), rico en flavonoides, presentan efectos antioxidantes, pero estudios previos no han comparado tale...

  17. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Monodora myristica seed oil | Odoh | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oil is colourless, bitter with nice smell and the density is 0.789 g/ml. The oil had antimicrobial activity of the oil against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus among the tested organism and can be incorporated into cream as antimicrobial agent and as a perfume. Key words: Monodora ...

  19. Extraction and characterization of radish seed oils using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, SCE oil had the best oxidative stability, and highest contents of vitamin ... that consumption of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) has positive ... rate of liquid CO2 was 35 L/h. The oil in the .... amounts of toxic solvents to extract plant oils.

  20. Investigating 'Egusi' (citrullus colocynthis l.) seed oil as potential biodiesel feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giwa, S.; Adam, N. M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA)/Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, L. Ch. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia); Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), University Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang Darul Ehsan, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 {sup o}C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm{sup 2}/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study. (author)

  1. Investigating “Egusi” (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Giwa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel’s acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 °C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1:6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm2/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.

  2. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of Emulsification Method and Particle Size on the Rate of in vivo Oral Bioavailability of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Mun; Tan, Chin Ping; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2018-05-26

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Extraction and Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Rosigold Mango (Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Oil for Bioresin Production

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    A. S. Sadiq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research report on extraction and assessment of physicochemical properties of Rosigold mango kernel oil. This is with a view to using the oil for bioresin production so as to mitigate some of the problems associated with petrochemical resins currently used for bulk of composite production activities. The seeds of the mango were identified and collected from the wastes discarded by marketers and consumers in Bauchi town. The Oil was obtained using soxhlet extraction with n-Hexane as solvent. The oil was characterized for yield, relative density, free fatty acid value, acid value, iodine value, and saponification value. Mean values of the characteristic parameters were: oil yield 19.6%, relative density 0.874 g/cm3, free fatty acid value 3.09 mg NaOH/g oil, acid value 6.18 mg KOH/g oil, iodine value 60.7 mg iodine/100 g oil and saponification value 143.6 mg KOH/ g oil. Analysis and comparison of these results with the physicochemical properties of palm oil, Soya bean oil and Hemp seed oil respectively, revealed that the iodine value of Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is higher than palm oil, but lower than Soya bean and Hemp seed oils respectively. Bioresin production is heavily dependent on the degree of unsaturation of the oil which is reflected by the iodine value. However, the overall results suggested that Rosigold mango seed kernel oil is suitable for bioresin production since the minimum iodine bench mark for renewable oil suitable for bioresin production is 50 mg iodine/100 g oil. The extracted oil has an added advantage in that the source (mango seed is a waste material that is readily available, affordable and sustainable in Nigeria and many other countries.

  5. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

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    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  6. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  7. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

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    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  8. Effect of seed quality on oxidative stability of cold-pressed sunflower oil

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    Dimić Etelka B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the storage time, content of the husk and impurities in the seed mass on the oxidative stability of the cold pressed sunflower oil. The oxidative stability of oil was analyzed by the RSM (Response Surface Methodology, where the response value (output of the model was the content of oxidation products measured via specific absorbance at 232 nm for conjugated dienes and 270 nm for conjugated trienes. Analyses were performed on the fresh oil samples and oil samples tempered under the Schaal-Oven’s test conditions (96 h at 63±2ºC. It was concluded that the seed storage time had significant impact on the primary (A1%232nm and secondary (A1%270nm oil oxidation products, both before (b1-p<0,001; b1-p=0,021 and after (b1-p=0,048; b1-p=0,033 the heating of oil. The content of impurities and husks in the seeds used for pressing also had an influence of the conjugated dienes and trienes contents in both, fresh and heated oil samples. However, their impact was not statistically significant. Interaction of seed storage time, the content of impurities and husks also exert some effect on the values of these quality parameters in the fresh oil as well as in the oil after the heat treatment, even though their influence is not significant. The obtained results have shown that the cold pressed sunflower oil had a good oxidative stability at temperatures up to 63±2ºC.

  9. Biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, Zeynab; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Harrison, Mark D.; Kusumo, Fitranto; Mazaheri, Hoora; Ilham, Zul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Need for alternative energy has led to explore new feedstock. • Ocimum basilicum seeds oil was used as biodiesel feedstock. • Biodiesel was produced via lipase-catalyzed transesterification by Novozym. • Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was employed. - Abstract: The increasing global demand for fuel, limited fossil fuel resources, and increasing concern about the upturn in gaseous CO_2 emissions are the key drivers of research and development into sources of renewable liquid transport fuels, such as biodiesel. In the present work, we demonstrate biodiesel production from Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) seed oil by lipase-catalyzed transesterification. Sweet basil seeds contain 22% oil on a dry weight basis. Artificial neural network with genetic algorithm modelling was used to optimize reaction. Temperature, catalyst concentration, time, and methanol to oil molar ratio were the input factors in the optimization study, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was the key model output. FAME composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The optimized transesterification process resulted in a 94.58% FAME yield after reaction at 47 °C for 68 h in the presence of 6% w/w catalyst and a methanol to oil ratio of 10:1. The viscosity, density, calorific value, pour point, and cloud point of the biodiesel derived from sweet basil seed oil conformed to the EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standard specifications. The antioxidant stability of the biodiesel did not meet these specifications but could be improved via the addition of antioxidant.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

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    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  11. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Leichang; Zhang, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%. The HM biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt%. • HM biodiesel satisfied ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards, with the exception of OS. • The transportation safety and cold flow properties of HM biodiesel were excellent. • After treatment with 400 ppm TBHQ, the OS of HM biodiesel satisfied EN 14214. - Abstract: Using inexpensive and high-quality oil feedstock is an effective means to produce low-cost biodiesel. This work investigated the production and fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa (HM). The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%, which is much higher than that of many potential oil plants. With traditional base-catalyzed transesterification, biodiesel was readily prepared from HM seed oil. The biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt% from HM seed oil. Biodiesel derived from HM met all ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications, except for oxidative stability (OS). The OS specifications of the two biodiesel standards were met after treatment of HM biodiesel with 400 ppm tertbutyl hydroquinone. The biodiesel exhibited excellent transportation safety and cold flow properties, with flash point of 153 °C, pour point of −9 °C, and cold filter plugging point of −7 °C

  12. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical Co2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjaneyulu, B.; Satyannarayana, S.; Kanjilal, S.; Siddaiah, V.; Prasanna Rani, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (Co2) extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar), temperature (50–70 °C) and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1). The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1) extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1). Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1) was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1). The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil. [es

  13. A comparative study of solvent and supercritical CO2 extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anjaneyulu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2 extraction of oil from Simarouba gluaca seeds was carried out at varying conditions of pressure (300–500 bar, temperature (50–70 °C and CO2 flow rate (10–30 g·min-1. The extraction condition for maximum oil yield was obtained at 500 bar pressure, 70 °C and at 30 g·min-1 flow rate of CO2. The extracted oil was analyzed thoroughly for physico-chemical properties and compared with those of conventional solvent extracted oil. An interesting observation is a significant reduction in the phosphorus content of the oil (8.4 mg·kg-1 extracted using supercritical CO2 compared to the phosphorous content of the solvent extracted oil (97 mg·kg-1. Moreover, the content of total tocopherols in supercritically extracted oil (135.6 mg·kg-1 was found to be higher than the solvent extracted oil (111 mg·kg-1. The rest of the physico-chemical properties of the two differently extracted oils matched well with each other. The results indicated the possible benefits of supercritical CO2 extraction over solvent extraction of Simarouba gluaca seed oil.

  14. Characterization of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new line of seeds rich in phytosterols and conventional seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguirre Marta R.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the chemical composition of sunflower oils obtained separately by pressing and subsequent solvent extraction from a new seeds rich in phytosterols (IASP-18 and conventional seeds (HA-89. Results have shown that the total content of oil was much lower in the IASP-18 (18.1% than in the conventional (37.5% seeds. The extraction yield obtained by pressing was as low as 3% in the IASP-18 seeds and 37.5% in HA-89, while in the solvent extraction it was of the same order (~18 wt% on seeds extracted by pressing for the two types of seeds. No significant changes in the fatty acid composition were found between the oils extracted by the two procedures, but the pressed oils presented significantly lower acidity and larger content of the unsaponifiable fraction. Expressed as free sterols, the total sterols were 37–38% more concentrated in the oils extracted with solvent, reaching amounts of 13 700 and 6500 mg/kg in the IASP-18 and HA-89 oils, respectively. No substantial differences were found in the composition of total sterols analysed as free sterols between the oils extracted with the two procedures, but the contents of free sterols and sterol glycosides were much higher in the oils extracted with solvent.

  15. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disparate metabolic effects of blackcurrant seed oil in rats fed a basal and obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgoński, Adam; Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy

    2015-09-01

    It was hypothesised that blackcurrant seed oil beneficially modulates metabolic disorders related to obesity and its complications. The study also aimed to investigate the potentially adverse effects of an unbalanced diet on the distal intestine. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of eight animals each and were fed a basal or obesogenic (high in fat and low in fibre) diet that contained either rapeseed oil (Canola) or blackcurrant seed oil. A two-way analysis of variance was then applied to assess the effects of diet and oil and the interaction between them. After 8 weeks, the obesogenic dietary regimen increased the body weight, altered the plasma lipid profile and increased the liver fat content and the plasma transaminase activities. In addition, the obesogenic diet decreased bacterial glycolytic activity and short-chain fatty acid formation in the distal intestine. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil improved the lipid metabolism by lowering liver fat accumulation and the plasma triglyceride concentration and atherogenicity as well by increasing the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. However, in rats fed an obesogenic diet containing blackcurrant seed oil, the plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration was comparable with both rapeseed oil-containing diets, and a significant elevation of the plasma transaminase activities was noted instead. The obesogenic dietary regimen causes a number of metabolic disorders, including alterations in the hindgut microbial metabolism. Dietary blackcurrant seed oil ameliorates the lipid metabolism; however, the beneficial effect is restricted when it is provided together with the obesogenic diet, and a risk of liver injury may occur.

  17. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  18. Quality and characteristics of fermented ginseng seed oil based on bacterial strain and extraction method

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    Myung-Hee Lee

    2017-07-01

    Results and Conclusion: The color of the fermented ginseng seed oil did not differ greatly according to the fermentation or extraction method. The highest phenolic compound content recovered with the use of supercritical fluid extraction combined with fermentation using the Bacillus subtilis Korea Food Research Institute (KFRI 1127 strain. The fatty acid composition did not differ greatly according to fermentation strain and extraction method. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method was highest at 983.58 mg/100 g. Therefore, our results suggested that the ginseng seed oil fermented with Bacillus subtilis KFRI 1127 and extracted using the supercritical fluid method can yield a higher content of bioactive ingredients, such as phenolics, and phytosterols, without impacting the color or fatty acid composition of the product.

  19. Chemotaxonomic Evaluation of Species of Turkish Salvia: Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Oils. II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Kılıç

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of seed oil of Salvia viridis, S. hydrangea, S. blepharochleana, S. chianantha, S. staminea, S. hypergeia,, S. cilicica, S. caespitosa, S. sclarea, S. cadmica, S. microstegia, S. pachystachys and S. verticillata were analyzed by GC/MS. The main compound were found to be as linoleic acid (18:2; 12.8 % to 52.2 %, linolenic acid (18:3; 3.2 % to 47.7 %, oleic acid (18:1; 11.3 % to 25.6 %, palmitic acid (16:0; 0.7 % to 16.8 % and stearic acid (18:0; 1.8 % to 4.8 %. A phylogenetic tree of species of Salvia were reported and compared to 18:3/18:2 ratio of the seed oils. Fatty acid composition of Salvia seed oils could be used as a chemotaxonomical marker.

  20. Phenolic profile and effect of growing area on Pistacia lentiscus seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezni, Faten; Slama, Awatef; Ksouri, Riadh; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2018-08-15

    In this investigation, we aimed to study, for the first time, the phenolic composition of Pistacia lentiscus seed oils from different growing areas. Extraction of the phenolic fraction from oils was done by methanol/water. Phenolic profiles were determined using chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-DAD/MSD) and its quantification was done using an internal standard which is unidentified in the studied oil (syringic acid). Forty phenolic compounds were quantified and only eighteen of them were identified. The eight studied oils showed different phenolic profiles. The total phenols amount varied from 538.03 mg/kg oil in Jbel Masour oils to 4260.57 mg/kg oil in oils from Kef Erraai. The highest amount of secoiridoids was reached by Bouchoucha oil containing 366.71 mg/kg oil of Oleuropein aglycon. Oils from Kef Erraai locality contained the highest concentrations in flavonols (377.44 mg/kg oil) and in phenolic acids (2762.67 mg/kg oil). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acids Through Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Ajmal, M.; Rehman, F.; Ayaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25 percentage, 12.5 percentage, 18.75 percentage and 25 percentage (T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/), butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2 degree C) for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g percentage). Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ were 4.17 percentage, 7.39 percentage, 12.55 percentage and 16.74 percentage. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T/sub 1/, T/sub 2/, T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/ was 2.81 percentage, 2.94 percentage, 3.15 percentage and 3.32 percentage. Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil. (author)

  2. Analytical Characterization of Butter Oil Enriched with Omega-3 and 6 Fatty Acid Sthrough Chia (Salvia hispanica L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical characterization of blends of butter oil and chia (Salvia hispanica L. seed oil was performed. Chia oil was added in butter oil at four different levels i.e. 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, butter oil without any addition of chia oil served as control. Blends of butter oil and chia oil were packaged in tin containers, stored at ambient temperature (34±2oC for 90-days. Iodine values of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 36.85, 45.63, 57.22, 67.45 and 76.37 (cg/g.Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 4.17%, 7.39%, 12.55% and 16.74%. The extent of omega-6 fatty acids in T1, T2, T3 and T4 was 2.81%, 2.94%, 3.15% and 3.32%.Concentration of omega-3 and 6 fatty acids in butter oil can be increased by chia oil.

  3. Repellent Action of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Oil Cream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    hemorrahagic fever (DHF) and filariasis, are serious public health problems in tropical ... mosquito bites is one of the main strategies to control or minimize incidence .... The neem seed kernel yields an acrid bitter greenish yellow to brown fixed.

  4. Genetic analysis among selected vernonia lines through seed oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Vernonia (Vernonia galamensis) is a new potential industrial oilseed crop. The seeds .... Syferkuil, the university of Limpopo's experimental farm. The farm ... ionisation gas chromatograph, with a fused silica capillary column,.

  5. Pilot study of the efficacy and safety of lettuce seed oil in patients with sleep disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoot M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Sherine Helmy2, Kamal Fawal31Green Clinic Research Center, 2Pharco Pharmaceutical Company, 3Mamorah Psychiatric Hospital, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Lactuca sativa (garden lettuce is a popular salad herb. It has been in use in folk medicine since ancient times as both an appetite stimulant and as an aid to sleep. L. sativa seed oil (Sedan® has demonstrated a pronounced sedative effect and potentiated the hypnotic effect of barbiturates in animal models. It also exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effects of L. sativa in patients suffering from insomnia.Methods: Sixty patients suffering from insomnia with or without anxiety were randomized to receive capsules containing L. sativa seed oil 1000 mg (n = 30 or placebo (n = 30. All patients were asked to complete a verbal questionnaire before the start of the trial and 1 week after starting treatment.Results: Improvements in the modified State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Sleep rating scale scores were significantly greater in patients receiving L. sativa seed oil compared with those on placebo (P < 0.05. No side effects were found to be attributable to L. sativa seed oil at the given dosage.Conclusion: L. sativa seed oil was found to be a useful sleeping aid and may be a hazard-free line of treatment, especially in geriatric patients suffering from mild-to-moderate forms of anxiety and sleeping difficulties.Keywords: Lactuca sativa seed oil, insomnia, sleeping disorder, anxiety

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Genotoxic Assessment of Crabwood (Andiroba, Carapa guianensis Aublet Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Araujo-Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Carapa guianensis (Aublet, a tree from the Meliaceae family commonly known as andiroba, is widely used in Brazilian traditional medicine because of its multiple curative properties against fever and rheumatism and as an anti-inflammatory agent, antibacterial agent, and insect repellant. Since there is no consensus on the best way to obtain the C. guianensis oil and due to its ethnomedicinal properties, the aim of the present research was to evaluate the chemical composition, free-radical scavenging activity, and mutagenic and genotoxicity properties of three C. guianensis oils obtained by different extraction methods. The phenolic contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry. Oil 1 was obtained by pressing the dried seeds at room temperature; oil 2 was obtained by autoclaving, drying, and pressing; oil 3 was obtained by Soxhlet extraction at 30–60°C using petroleum ether. The oil from each process presented differential yields, physicochemical properties, and phenolic contents. Oil 1 showed a higher scavenging activity against the DPPH radical when compared to oils 2 and 3, suggesting a significant antioxidant activity. All oils were shown to be cytotoxic to bacteria and to CHO-K1 and RAW264.7 cells. At noncytotoxic concentrations, oil 2 presented mutagenicity to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and induced micronuclei in both cell types. Under the same conditions, oil 3 also induced micronucleus formation. However, the present data demonstrated that oil 1, extracted without using high temperatures, was the safest for use as compared to the other two oils, not showing mutagenicity or micronucleus induction.

  7. Formulation, Characterization and Properties of Hemp Seed Oil and Its Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Mikulcová

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The formulation, characterization, and anticipated antibacterial properties of hemp seed oil and its emulsions were investigated. The oil obtained from the seeds of Cannabis sativa L. in refined and unrefined form was characterized using iodine, saponification, acid values, and gas chromatography, and was employed for the preparation of stable oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions were prepared using pairs of non-ionic surfactants (Tween, Span. The effects of the emulsification method (spontaneous emulsification vs. high-intensity stirring, hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB, type and concentration of surfactant, and oil type on the size and distribution of the emulsion particles were investigated. It was found that the ability to form stable emulsions with small, initial particle sizes is primarily dependent on the given method of preparation and the HLB value. The most efficient method of emulsification that afforded the best emulsions with the smallest particles (151 ± 1 nm comprised the high-energy method, and emulsions stable over the long-term were observed at HBL 9 with 10 wt % concentration of surfactants. Under high-intensity emulsification, refined and unrefined oils performed similarly. The oils as well as their emulsions were tested against the growth of selected bacteria using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antibacterial effect of hemp seed oil was documented against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus. The formulated emulsions did not exhibit the antibacterial activity that had been anticipated.

  8. Moringa oleifera Seeds and Oil: Characteristics and Uses for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Alessandro; Spada, Alberto; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Aristil, Junior; Bertoli, Simona

    2016-12-20

    Moringa oleifera seeds are a promising resource for food and non-food applications, due to their content of monounsaturated fatty acids with a high monounsaturated/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/SFA) ratio, sterols and tocopherols, as well as proteins rich in sulfated amino acids. The rapid growth of Moringa trees in subtropical and tropical areas, even under conditions of prolonged drought, makes this plant a reliable resource to enhance the nutritional status of local populations and, if rationalized cultivation practices are exploited, their economy, given that a biodiesel fuel could be produced from a source not in competition with human food crops. Despite the relatively diffuse use of Moringa seeds and their oil in traditional medicine, no pharmacological activity study has been conducted on humans. Some encouraging evidence, however, justifies new efforts to obtain clear and definitive information on the benefits to human health arising from seed consumption. A critical review of literature data concerning the composition of Moringa oil has set in motion a plan for future investigations. Such investigations, using the seeds and oil, will focus on cultivation conditions to improve plant production, and will study the health effects on human consumers of Moringa seeds and their oil.

  9. Nutritional quality of the seed oil in thirteen Asphodeline species (Xanthorrhoeaceae) from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, G.; Aktumsek, A.; Giron-Calle, J.; Vioque, J.; Megias, C.

    2016-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the seed oil from 13 Turkish Asphodeline species was analyzed. The seed oil content ranged between 0.9% and 4.6%, and included 26 different fatty acids from C12:0 to C22:5. The most abundant saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were C16:0 (5.7% to 23.7% of their total fatty acid content), C18:1ω9 (11.3% to 30.3%), and C18:2ω6 (49.2% to 66.1%). A. tenuior subsp. tenuiflora, which had the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids, also had the best fatty acid profile from a nutritional point of view. Asphodeline seed oil composition was similar to that of local, related vegetables such as onion seeds. Asphodeline species, which are most frequently grown to use the leaves in salads, may also be a good source of seed oil with good nutritional properties. Results of a cluster analysis using data on the fatty acid composition are consistent with the taxonomic classification of genus Asphodeline. [es

  10. Oil content and fatty acids composition of poppy seeds cultivated in two localities of Slovakia

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    Lančaričová Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oil content, fatty acids profile, acid and saponification values of poppy seeds grown on two localities of the Slovak Republic were evaluated in the study. Statistically significant effects of locality, genotype and their interaction (P < 0.05 for numerous descriptors were proved by non-parametric tests. Results confirmed that variation in the analysed parameters was influenced by the colour of seeds. Ochre variety Redy contained the highest oil level in both localities (49.9 and 52.4% and linoleic acid level (74.3 and 71.6%. White-seeded Racek and Albín had the highest acid value (2.8 and 2.4% of free fatty acids and grey-seeded Malsar and blue-seeded Maratón contained the highest saponification value. Buddha, a high-morphine poppy variety, differed significantly in all monitored parameters. High negative interrelation between linoleic and oleic acids levels was observed. Oil content was positively correlated with linoleic acid and negatively with oleic acid. Weather conditions at the end of vegetation influenced the accumulation of oil and essential linoleic acid.

  11. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of antioxidant activity and composition of pumpkin seed oils in 12 cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Kita, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2013-08-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant properties, and provide characteristics, of the oil obtained from the seeds of 12 pumpkin varieties belonging to the species Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucurbita pepo L. Another objective was to establish which of the two extracting agents, ethanol or methanol, is more effective. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties examined differ in chemical composition and antioxidant activity. The seeds of the cultivars belonging to the species C. maxima are characterised by a higher content of fatty acids than are the cultivars of the species C. pepo. In the seed oil, unsaturated acids are dominant (oleic and linoleic), and their proportion depends on the pumpkin variety. The highest content of unsaturated acids has been measured in the oil extracted from the seeds of the cultivar, Jet F1 (C. pepo). Antioxidant activity analysis has produced the following findings. The seeds of the pumpkin varieties that belong to the species C. pepo exhibit better antioxidant properties, regardless of the extraction solvent used. 50% ethanol is more efficient than 80% methanol when used as an extracting agent. The antioxidant activity values obtained with 50% ethanol are higher than those achieved with 80% methanol. Owing to the considerable differences in composition among the fatty acids examined, it is possible to choose the desired pumpkin variety for the intended use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Immediate analysis of the oil content of seeds by carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, K.Z.; Costa, V.E.U.; Seidl, P.R.; Campos, M.P.A.; Colnago, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (CMR) spectra of a series of Brazilian oilseeds was registered. The main constituents of the oils are identified and signals for each carbon atom are assigned. Chemical shifts are estimated for the free fatty acids and compared to those observed from the seeds, with good results. Besides being non-destructive, the RMC method proves to be fast and is useful in the determination of the principal components of the oil fraction of different types of seeds. (Author) [pt

  14. Radiotracer studies of pesticide residues in edible oil seeds and related products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers were presented in which chemical pollution due to insecticides was examined in edible oil seeds and their products. They include hexachlorocyclohexane residues in groundnut; carbaryl in groundnut; maize and cotton seed products, and in lactating goats; propoxur in cocoa beans; and leptophos residues in cotton seed and its products and in lactating goats. Eight of these papers constitute separate INIS entries. Egypt, Ghana, India, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, the Philippines, Poland, and the Sudan participated under the coordinated research programme. The progress of the programme is reviewed, and problems and priorities for future development of the programme are identified. A number of recommendations are addressed to the Joint FAO/IAEA Secretariat

  15. Efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semillas de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambar Oyarzábal Yera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El policosanol, mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores obtenida de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinífera, L, producen efectos antioxidantes demostrados experimental y clínicamente. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en comparar los efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en plasma e hígado de ratas. Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos: un control y 3 tratados con policosanol, extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada, respectivamente, todos a dosis de 25 mg/kg, durante 4 semanas. Las monoterapias redujeron significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído y de grupos carbonilos asociados a proteínas con respecto al control, lo que mostró similar eficacia. La terapia combinada redujo (p The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obteined from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L. and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinífera, L. produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of proetin-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001 the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01 the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous

  16. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile of butterfly tree seed oil (Bauhinia purpurea L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Riyanto, C. A.; Victoria, T.

    2018-04-01

    Butterfly tree (Kachnar) in Indonesia is only used as ornamental plants in garden, park, and roadsides. The seed of Butterfly tree was extracted with n-hexane and physicochemical properties were determined based on Standard Nasional Indonesia (SNI) 01-3555-1998 while the oil chemical composition was determined using GC-MS. The result showed that yield of the oil as 57.33±1.14 % (w/w) and the chemical characteristic of seed oil include acid value (13.7.8±0.23 mg KOH/g) saponification value (153.32±1.85 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (43.51±0.57. mg KOH/g). The butterfly tree seed oil showed that linoleic acid (28.11 %), palmitic acid (29.2%), oleic acid (19.82%) and stearic acid (10.7.4 %) were the main fatty acids in the crude seed oils. Minor amounts of neophytadiena and arachidic acid were also identified.

  17. Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegrijk, Irene O. C. M.; van Diepen, Janna A.; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Westbroek, Irene; Keizer, Hiskias; Gambelli, Luisa; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Zondag, Gerben C. M.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.; Voshol, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Pomegranate seed oil has been shown to protect against diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. To characterize the metabolic effects of punicic acid on high fat diet induced obesity and insulin resistance. High-fat diet or high-fat diet with 1% Pomegranate seed oil (PUA) was fed for 12weeks to

  18. Beauty in Baobab: a pilot study of the safety and efficacy of Adansonia digitata seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baatile M. Komane

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently there has been a renewed impetus in the search for novel ingredients to be used in the cosmetic industry and Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae seed oil has received high interest. In this study, a commercial Baobab seed oil sample was characterised (fatty acid content using GCxGC-ToF-MS and a pilot study on the safety and efficacy of the seed oil was performed. The safety and efficacy of Baobab seed oil after topical application was determined using healthy adult female caucasian participants (n = 20. A 2× magnifying lamp was used for visual analysis, while for monitoring and evaluation of the irritancy level, transepidermal water loss (TEWL and hydration level of the skin, Chromameter®, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments, respectively, were used. In addition, Aquaflux® and Corneometer® instruments were used to assess occlusive effects. Thirteen methyl esters were identified using GCxGC-ToF-MS. The major fatty acids included 36.0% linoleic acid, 25.1% oleic acid and 28.8% palmitic acid with 10.1% constituting trace fatty acids. The irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS in the patch test differed significantly compared to both de-ionised water (p < 0.001 and Baobab seed oil (p < 0.001 but the difference between the irritancy of Baobab seed oil and de-ionised water was not significant (p = 0.850. The moisture efficacy test indicated a reduced TEWL (p = 0.048 and an improved capacitance moisture retention (p < 0.001 for all the test products (Baobab oil, liquid paraffin, Vaseline® intensive care lotion and Vaseline®. The occlusivity wipe-off test indicated an increased moisture hydration (p < 0.001 and decreased TEWL particularly when Baobab oil was applied. Baobab possesses hydrating, moisturising and occlusive properties when topically applied to the skin. Baobab seed oil could be a valuable functional ingredient for cosmeceutical applications.

  19. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fractionation of hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis) into starch, protein, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann; Gray, Danielle

    2010-06-09

    Canary seed is an important specialty crop in Canada. The current market for this true cereal (i.e., belonging to the family Poaceae as wheat) is limited to feed for caged birds. However, canary seed holds a promise for many food and industrial applications based on its composition. Three wet milling procedures based on ethanol (E), water (W), and alkaline (A) extractions used in different order were investigated to determine extraction efficiency and purity of starch, protein, oil, and fiber separated from hairless canary seed, a variety developed for human consumption. Highest extraction efficiencies were obtained when canary seed was defatted with ethanol and then extracted with alkali and water (EAW process). Using this process, approximately 92% pure starch, 75% pure protein, and oil were recovered from canary seed groats. The highest purity of protein, however, was obtained when canary seed was fractionated by the EWA process, that is, defatted and then extracted with water followed by alkali. Fiber component separated prior to alkaline extraction contained high amounts of nonfiber components as indicated by its yield. The EAW extraction process seems to be more promising in canary seed fractionation based on recovery and purity of components.

  1. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  2. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  3. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  4. Direct and simultaneous quantification of tannin mean degree of polymerization and percentage of galloylation in grape seeds using diffuse reflectance fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christos; Kyraleou, Maria; Voskidi, Eleni; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Taranilis, Petros A; Kallithraka, Stamatina

    2015-02-01

    The direct and simultaneous quantitative determination of the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) and the degree of galloylation (%G) in grape seeds were quantified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS). The results were compared with those obtained using the conventional analysis employing phloroglucinolysis as pretreatment followed by high performance liquid chromatography-UV and mass spectrometry detection. Infrared spectra were recorded in solid state samples after freeze drying. The 2nd derivative of the 1832 to 1416 and 918 to 739 cm(-1) spectral regions for the quantification of mDP, the 2nd derivative of the 1813 to 607 cm(-1) spectral region for the degree of %G determination and PLS regression were used. The determination coefficients (R(2) ) of mDP and %G were 0.99 and 0.98, respectively. The corresponding values of the root-mean-square error of calibration were found 0.506 and 0.692, the root-mean-square error of cross validation 0.811 and 0.921, and the root-mean-square error of prediction 0.612 and 0.801. The proposed method in comparison with the conventional method is simpler, less time consuming, more economical, and requires reduced quantities of chemical reagents and fewer sample pretreatment steps. It could be a starting point for the design of more specific models according to the requirements of the wineries. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Topical grape seed proanthocyandin extract reduces sunburn cells and mutant p53 positive epidermal cell formation, and prevents depletion of Langerhans cells in an acute sunburn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Wei; Hao, Jian-Chun; Gu, Wei-Jie; Zhao, Yan-Shuang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can provide photoprotection against ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Study has shown that GSPE is a natural oxidant, and is used in many fields such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, chronic pancreatitis, and even cancer. However, the effect of GSPE on UV irradiation is as yet unknown. Cutaneous areas on the backs of normal volunteers were untreated or treated with GSPE solutions or vehicles 30 min before exposure to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of solar simulated radiation. Cutaneous areas at different sites were examined histologically for the number of sunburn cells, or immunohistochemically for Langerhans cells and mutant p53 epidermal cells. On histological and immunohistochemical examination, skin treated with GSPE before UV radiation showed fewer sunburn cells and mutant p53-positive epidermal cells and more Langerhans cells compared with skin treated with 2-MED UV radiation only (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively). GSPE may be a possible preventive agent for photoprotection.

  6. Fluoride-induced iron overload contributes to hepatic oxidative damage in mouse and the protective role of Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qiang; He, Ping; Xu, Shangzhi; Ma, Ruling; Ding, Yusong; Mu, Lati; Li, Shugang

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence has demonstrated that iron overload plays an important role in oxidative stress in the liver. This study aimed to explore whether fluoride-induced hepatic oxidative stress is associated with iron overload and whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) alleviates oxidative stress by reducing iron overload. Forty Kunming male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated for 5 weeks with distilled water (control), sodium fluoride (NaF) (100 mg/L), GSPE (400 mg/kg bw), or NaF (100 mg/L) + GSPE (400 mg/kg bw). Mice exposed to NaF showed typical poisoning changes of morphology, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities in the liver. NaF treatment also increased MDA accumulation, decreased GSH-Px, SOD and T-AOC levels in liver, indicative of oxidative stress. Intriguingly, all these detrimental effects were alleviated by GSPE. Further study revealed that NaF induced disorders of iron metabolism, as manifested by elevated iron level with increased hepcidin but decreased ferroportin expression, which contributed to hepatic oxidative stress. Importantly, the iron dysregulation induced by NaF could be normalized by GSPE. Collectively, these data provide a novel insight into mechanisms underlying fluorosis and highlight the potential of GSPE as a naturally occurring prophylactic treatment for fluoride-induced hepatotoxicity associated with iron overload.

  7. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  8. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  9. Physicochemical characterization of Quassia undulata seed oil for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... peroxide value (6.756). The values obtained from Q. undulata were uniquely different from common vegetable oils but with a superior combination of properties to suit a promising industrial process such as biodiesel production. Keywords: Quassia undulata, physicochemical properties, vegetable oil, biodiesel production ...

  10. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  11. Lipid composition of seed oils of different pomegranate (Punica granatum L. cultivars from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is an ancient fruit tree traditionally cultivated in the Near and Middle East. Presently, its most important growing regions include Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, USA, Italy and Spain, the latter country the largest European exporter. The pomegranate fruit can be divided into several anatomical compartments: outside peel, inside peel, and arils (pulp and seeds, the last part being usually used for consumption as is or for juice, jams and jellies production. Even though pomegranate seeds are an industrial by-product, recent reports have highlighted their potential use as a source of oil with beneficial chemical attributes. Therefore, the main objective of the present work was to characterize the seed oil of nine European pomegranate varieties, collected in Spain, for their fatty acid and vitamin E compositions. All seed lipid fractions consisted mainly of punicic acid (c9,t11,c13 C-18:3, ranging between 77.3% and 83.6% of total fatty acids, followed by small amounts of linoleic acid (C18:2n6, oleic acid (C18:1n9 and palmitic acid (C16:0. Regarding vitamin E composition, α-, γ-, δ-tocopherols were found in all pomegranate seed oils, but mainly γ-tocopherol, with total tocopherols ranging from 174.5 to 627.3 mg/100g oil.The richness of these pomegranate varieties seed oils in punicic acid, a conjugated linolenic acid with interesting anti-carcinogenic activity, and the elevated amount of tocopherols on the extracted lipids, of technological and nutritional relevance, make this by-product interesting for further exploitation.

  12. Challenges and issues concerning mycotoxins contamination in oil seeds and their edible oils: Updates from last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Reddy, Kasa Ravindra Nadha

    2017-01-15

    Safety concerns pertaining towards fungal occurrence and mycotoxins contamination in agri-food commodities has been an issue of high apprehension. With the increase in evidence based research knowledge on health effects posed by ingestion of mycotoxins-contaminated food and feed by humans and livestock, concerns have been raised towards providing more insights on screening of agri-food commodities to benefit consumers. Available reports indicate majority of edible oil-yielding seeds to be contaminated by various fungi, capable of producing mycotoxins. These mycotoxins can enter human food chain via use of edible oils or via animals fed with contaminated oil cake residues. In this review, we have decisively evaluated available data (from the past decade) pertaining towards fungal occurrence and level of mycotoxins in various oil seeds and their edible oils. This review can be of practical use to justify the prevailing gaps, especially relevant to the research on presence of mycotoxins in edible plant based oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Involvement of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol Isomers from
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) Seed Oil or Oil Mixtures in
the Biphasic DPPH˙ Disappearance Kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Broznić, Dalibor; Jurešić, Gordana Čanadi; Milin, Čedomila

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three types of pumpkin seed oil or oil mixtures (cold- -pressed, produced from roasted seed paste and salad) produced in the northern part of Croatia and the kinetics of their behaviour as free radical scavengers were investigated using DPPH˙. In addition, the involvement of oil tocopherol isomers (α-, γ- and δ-) in different steps of DPPH˙ disappearance and their impact on the rate of reaction were analysed. The kinetics of DPPH˙ disappearance is a two-step proces...

  14. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  15. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL STABILITY PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL NANOEMULSION DOSAGE FORMS WITH LONG-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AND MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AS THE OIL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartanti Yuliani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo preventive activities. Pomegranate seed oil is lipophilic substance suitable to be prepared in emulsion dosage forms. Long-chain triglyceride (LCT and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT are commonly used as oil phase in emulsion dosage forms. This research aimed to compare the use of LCT and MCT in the Nano emulsion formula of pomegranate seed oil dosage forms. Formulation of pomegranate seed oil Nano emulsion was conducted using high energy emulsification. Parameters observed were pH, Nano emulsion type, percent transmittance, viscosity, turbidity, and droplet size before and after 3 cycles of freeze-thaw. The result showed that there was no significant difference between physical properties of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase and pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase. Moreover, physical stability of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase was better than pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase.

  16. Characterization of constituents, quality and stability of pomegranate seed oil (Punica granatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illana Louise Pereira de MELO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to characterize pomegranate seed oil and evaluate its quality and stability parameters against those of linseed oil. The profile of fatty acids and phytosterols and the content of tocopherols were analyzed by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The quality of both oils was assessed as recommended by the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS and stability was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, β-carotene bleaching (coupled oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid and Rancimat® assays. While α-linolenic acid (52% was the most abundant fatty acid in linseed oil (LO, punicic acid (55% was highest in pomegranate seed oil (PSO. Tocopherols and phytosterols (175 and 539 mg/100 g, respectively were greater in PSO than in LO (51 and 328 mg/100 g, respectively. Both oils met quality standards. The β-carotene bleaching and the DPPH assays showed greater oxidative stability for PSO than for LO. The Rancimat® method, on the other hand, indicated low stability for both oils.

  17. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Felipe A.; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A.; Herrera, G.; Vasco-Leal, José F.; Mosquera-Artamonov, José D.; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  18. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production.

  19. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  20. Development of a method and technology for obtaining vegetable oil from safflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is designed and engineered compact line for processing grain safflower, which used the equipment of the increased efficiency, implementing progressive processes with application of modern physical methods of treatment. This line includes bucket Elevator (Noria, a receiving hopper , the air-sieve separator , intermediate tank, Trier (osgoodby and qualitronic, stone-dividing machine and separator for separation of Caucalis lappula, screw conveyor, intermediate bunker, peeler, oil press machines, the device for the deposition of oil (the sump, pump, frame filter. The process of collapse in the grinding pilot plant, in which the destruction of the epithelial layer of the shell is due to the fact that the compression stress in the impact zone exceeds the limit of elastic deformation of the shell of the grain. Conducted sieve analysis, which was studied granulometric composition fed to the compression of the particles of safflower seed , in this case to characterize the granulometric composition of the raw material, consisting of particles of irregular shape, used the concept of equivalent diameter. As a result of the experiments was the dependence of the equivalent particle diameter from the diameter of the sieve. Since the degree of extraction of safflower seed are hugely influenced by the moisture source of the product, was therefore carried out experimental studies of compaction with different moisture content of the seeds , and with the addition of Luz-Ki. From the analysis of graphic dependences were established a range of optimum moisture safflower seed 8,5--10%, providing the lowest residual oil content and hence the greatest yield of oil. Also managed to significantly increase the efficiency of extraction of oil by adding safflower seed pre-milled husks, which allowed to obtain cake with a residual oil content of 12% when you multiply pre-pressing and to 6% at the final extraction

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil during a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Ko, Hsiang-Kai; Huang, Brian E T-G; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST.

  2. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  3. The effects of process technology on the physicochemical properties of peony seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, J.; Zhang, F.; Thakur, K.; Shi, J.J.; Zhang, J.G.; Faisal, S.; Wei, Z.J.

    2017-01-01

    Peony seed oils (PSOs) were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC) and compared with soxhlet extraction (SE) and mechanical screw press extraction (SPE) methods. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were determined, and the physicochemical properties of the oils, including free radical-scavenging activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, thermal and rheological properties were evaluated. The unsaturated fatty acids in the SE oils were higher than SC and SPE oils due to the higher percentage of olefinic, allylic methylene and allylic methine protons in the SE oils. The SPE oils also displayed the highest DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity at the tested concentrations. However, the SE oils showed stronger inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes under in vitro conditions when compared with the other oil samples. The three oils had similar melting and crystalline point due to similar contents of fatty acids (FAs). The SC oils had a lower Ea than the others. [es

  4. OPTIMIZATION OF SESAME SEEDS OIL EXTRACTION OPERATING CONDITIONS USING THE RESPONSE SURFACE DESIGN METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAITHAM OSMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies Response Surface Design (RSD to model the experimental data obtained from the extraction of sesame seeds oil using n-hexane, chloroform and acetone as solvents under different operating conditions. The results obtained revealed that n-hexane outperformed the extraction obtained using chloroform and acetone. The developed model predicted that n-hexane with a rotational speed of 547 rpm and a contact time between the solvent and seeds of 19.46 hours with solvent: seeds ratio of 4.93, yields the optimum oil extracted of 37.03 %, outperforming chloroform and acetone models that gave prediction for 4.75 and 4.21 respectively. While the maximum predictions yield for chloroform is 6.73 %, under the operating conditions of 602 rpm, and 24 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1.74. On the other hand the acetone maximum prediction is only 4.37 %, with operational conditions of 467 rpm, and 6.00 hours contact time, with a ratio of solvent: seeds of 1. It is has been found that the maximum oil extraction yield obtained from the chloroform (6.73 % and Acetone (4.37 % is much lower than that predicted by n-hexane 37.03 %.

  5. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. Lipase Activity in Fermented Oil Seeds of Africa Locust Bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    was determined. The peak lipase activity for fermented Africa locust bean, Castor seed, and African ..... Lipase by Penicillium restrictum in solid state ... sp. Rev. Microbiol. 28(2): 90-95. Martinek, G.H. (1969). Microbiology and amino acid ...

  7. Improvement of oil-seed and industrial crops by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 22 papers presented, seven dealing with the genetic improvement of crops using ionizing radiations, fall within the INIS subject scope. Other topics covered were oil-seed quality requirements for industrial processing and concepts of improving biomass production from higher plants

  8. Osage orange (Maclura pomifera L) seed oil poly(alpha-hydroxydibutylamine) triglycerides: Synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milled Osage orange seeds (Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid) were Soxhlet extracted with hexane, and portions of the extract were treated with activated carbon before solvent removal. The crude oil was winterized and degummed by centrifugation at low temperature. Decantation of the centrifuge gave an...

  9. Composition of the seed oil of Hibiscus abelmoschus L. (Malvaceae) growing in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Khien, P.V.; Nhuan, D.D.; Hoi, T.M.; Ban, N.K.; Leclercq, P.A.; Muselli, A.; Bighelli, A.; Casanova, J.

    1999-01-01

    The essential oils of ambrette (Hibiscus abelmoschus 1., syn. Abelmoschus moschatus) were produced from seeds collected in the different provinces of Vietnam. Five samples were investigated and 35 components were identified by a combination of high resolution GC, GC/MS and 13C-NMR spectrometry. The

  10. Methyl esters (biodiesel) from and fatty acid profile of Gliricidia sepium seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing the supply of biodiesel by defining and developing additional feedstocks is important to overcome the still limited amounts available of this alternative fuel. In this connection, the methyl esters of the seed oil of Gliricidia sepium were synthesized and the significant fuel-related prop...

  11. Ameliorative effect of pumpkin seed oil against emamectin induced toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Zeid, Shimaa M; AbuBakr, Huda O; Mohamed, Mostafa A; El-Bahrawy, Amanallah

    2018-02-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of emamectin insecticide in mice and the possible protective effect of pumpkin seed oil. Treated mice received emamectin benzoate in the diet at 75-ppm for 8 weeks, while another group of animals received emamectin in addition to pumpkin seed oil at a dose of 4 ml/kg. Biochemical analysis of MDA, DNA fragmentation, GSH, CAT and SOD was performed in liver, kidney and brain as oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers. In addition, gene expression of CYP2E1 and Mgst1 and histopathological alterations in these organs were evaluated. Emamectin administration induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney evidenced by elevated levels of MDA and percentage of DNA fragmentation with suppression of GSH level and CAT and SOD activities. Brain showed increase of MDA level with inhibition of SOD activity. Relative expressions of CYP2E1 and Mgst1 genes were significantly elevated in both liver and kidney. Emamectin produced several histopathological changes in liver, kidney and brain. Co-administration of pumpkin seed oil produced considerable protection of liver and kidney and complete protection of brain. In conclusion, pumpkin seed oil has valuable value in ameliorating the toxic insult produced by emamectin in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of seed oil of garlic and Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial activity of the seed oil of Moringa oleifera and garlic against some selected food-borne microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) using disc diffusion method. The results ...

  13. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  14. Technological Desition of Extraction of Melanin from the Waste of Production of Sunflower-Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Yu N.; Nefedieva, E. E.; Sevriukova, G. A.; Gracheva, N. V.; Zheltobryukhov, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    The research was realized in the field of the technology for re-use of waste of sunflower-seed oil production. A technological scheme of production of melanin from sunflower husk as a waste was developed. Re-cycling will give the opportunity to reduce the amount of waste and to obtain an additional source of income.

  15. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  16. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  17. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Antipov; S. V. Shakhov; A. N. Martekha; A. A. Berestovoy

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of saf...

  18. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  19. Model-free pyrolysis kinetics of sunflower seed and its de-oiled cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Kilic, Murat; Pütün, Ersan; Pütün, Ayşe E.

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed wastes from oil production are a potential biomass source for bio- energy production due to extensive and excessive oil production from sunflower seeds. Considering global energy requirement, pyrolysis seems a promising route for utilisation of such industrial biomass wastes. To develop, scale-up and operate pyrolysis plants efficiently, a fundamental understanding of pyrolysis behaviour and kinetics is essential. In this study, sunflower seeds and their waste cakes after extraction were evaluated as a potential biomass feedstock in pyrolysis process. In order to enlighten pyrolytic degradation behaviours, samples were pyrolysed under dynamic conditions from room temperature to 1000 °C using multiple heating rates. The main degradation regimes of the structures were characterized by high weight loss rates. Reaction kinetics was investigated with respect to conversion degree. It is anticipated that this study will be beneficial in optimizing the thermochemical processes, which may be utilize industrial biomass wastes. (full text)

  20. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  1. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOH/g, SN of 72.8. Degumming (with 0.2%Na2CO3 and 0.2%H3PO4) and bleaching gave oils with lower AV (7.45 mgKOH/gfat) and higher acid value (9.4 mgKOH/gfat), respectively. Iodine value (48.78 ml/g) of the 0.2% Na2CO3 degummed oil was higher than that of the seed oil degummed with 0.2% H3PO4 (25.35ml/g).

  2. Development of a hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil press-cake spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Vujasinović, Vesna

    2012-09-01

    A stable, oil-based spread rich in the omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) fatty acids was developed using a hull-less pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo L.) oil press-cake, a by-product of the pumpkin oil pressing process, along with cold-pressed hemp oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to investigate the effects of two factors, as the formulation's compositional variables: a commercial stabilizer (X(1) ) and cold-pressed hemp oil (X(2) ) added to the pumpkin seed oil press-cake in the spread formulations. A central composite, 2-factorial experimental design on 5 levels was used to optimize the spreads where model responses were ω-3 fatty acids content, spreadability (hardness), oil separation, and sensory evaluation. The selected responses were significantly affected by both variables (P spreads resembled commercial peanut butter, both in appearance, texture and spreadability; were a source of ω-3 fatty acids and with no visual oil separation after 1 mo of storage. An optimum spread was produced using 1.25% (w/w) of stabilizer and 80% of hemp oil (w/w, of the total added oil) which had 0.97 g of ω-3 fatty acids per serving size; penetration depth of 68.4 mm; oil separation of 9.2% after 3 mo of storage; and a sensory score of 17.5. A use of by-products generated from different food processing technologies, where the edible waste is successfully incorporated as a value-added ingredient, has become a very important area of research to support global sustainability efforts. This study contributes to the knowledge of a product design process for oil-based spread development, where oil press-cake, a by-product of the oil pressing process of the naked pumpkin seeds, was used and where results have demonstrated that a new product can be successfully developed and potentially manufactured as a functional food. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Repellent Action Of Neem (Azadiracta India Seed Oil Against Aedes Aegypti Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hati A K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadiracta India seed oil in appropriate amount when smeared on the surface of the hand showed excellent repellent action against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. When 1 ml of oil was spread on the hand, with an approximate area of 160 sq cm the percentage of alighting and blood fed mosquitoes in the experimental cages varied from 14 to 78 and 4 to 46 respectively. This percentage decreased to 6 to 18 and 0 to 16 respectively when the amount of oil applied was 1.5 ml. Only 0-4% of the mosquitoes alighted on the skin of which 2% only took the blood meal when 2 ml of the oil was used to cover the hand. In the control cages cent percent of the mosquitoes alighted and sucked blood. The repellent action was directly proportional to the hour of exposure to the oil. It was also observed that even after alighting on a oil- smeared skin a sizeable proportion of mosquitoes were not able to imbibe blood meal. Neem seed oil was non-toxic, non- irritating to skin.

  4. Determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in seeds of coastal halophytic Sueada aegyptica plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Assadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suaeda aegyptica (S. aegyptica species belong to the Chenepodiaceae family, the second largest family in the world of plants kingdom. It is indigenous to arid and semi-arid regions of the world and salty coastal zones Persian Gulf of Iran. It is an annual succulent halophyte plant which is characterized by producing oily seeds, high growth rate and large number of biomass. The aim of this study was analysis and determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in the S. aegyptica seed. Material and Methods: The seeds of S. aegyptica were collected form coastal zones of Persian Gulf in Bushehr province, washed and dried. The fatty acids content of the dried seeds were extracted in n-hexane solvent by soxhellet apparatus. The residue of n-hexane in oily phase was evaporated by rotary evaporator and remaining oil was collected for fatty acids analysis. In the presence of potassium hydroxide and BF3 by refluxing for 30 minutes, the methyl ester derivative of fatty acids were produced. Then the resulted derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID. Results: The seeds of S. aegyptica contains eight fatty acids as: Pelargonic (C9, Capric (C10, Undecylic (C11, Tridecylic (C13, Myristic (C14, Palmitic (C16, Stearic (C18, Linoleic (18:2 and Linolenic (18:3. Average oil content in seeds 014/0 ± 87 / percent. Conclusion: The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than the saturated ones. Linoleic and Palmitic acids are major unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of S. aegyptica seed respectively.

  5. Antioxidative Activities of Both Oleic Acid and Camellia tenuifolia Seed Oil Are Regulated by the Transcription Factor DAF-16/FOXO in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Cheng Wei

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil is a high quality edible oil, yet lacking sufficient scientific evidences to support the nutritional and medical purposes. We identified major and minor components in Camellia tenuifolia seed oil and investigated the antioxidative activity and its underlying mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans.The results showed that the major constitutes in C. tenuifolia seed oil were unsaturated fatty acids (~78.4%. Moreover, two minor compounds, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol, were identified and their antioxidative activity was examined. We found that oleic acid was the major constitute in C. tenuifolia seed oil and plays a key role in the antioxidative activity of C. tenuifolia seed oil in C. elegans.This study found evidences that the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO was involved in both oleic acid- and C. tenuifolia seed oil-mediated oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans. This study suggests the potential of C. tenuifolia seed oil as nutrient or functional foods.

  6. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO.

  7. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Composition, physical properties and drying characteristics of seed oil of Citrullus lanatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, S. A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Muhammad, A.; Abdullah, M.; Elham, O. S. J.; Mamat, M. S.

    2017-09-01

    A study to investigate the effect of different drying methods for the pre-treatment process on the quality and quantity of oil extracted from Citrulllus lanatus seeds was conducted. The red type Citrulllus lanatus seeds from local supermarket in Shah Alam is used in this experiment. The amount of seed was divided into two portions; one portion was subjected to sun drying while the other portion was subjected to oven drying (at a temperature of 70°C). After the drying process, the seeds were ground in a laboratory grinder to turn them into powder. The ground seeds then will be fed to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide unit (SC-CO2) for extraction. Once the extracted oil is obtained, it will be analysed by using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). Results indicated that the amount of the moisture content from the sun-dried was lower compared to oven-dried. The results also indicated that, there were no significant difference in the quantity of oil obtained from both samples of oven-dried and sun-dried. However, the acid value and other component content in the sample were higher in the sun-dried sample relative to the oven-dried sample. Linoleic acid is the only compound that was found in the oven-dried sample, whereas linoleic acid and oleic acid were found in the sun-dried sample. Based on the results, it shows that the drying effect were important when the quality of oil was to be considered. The other compounds like Naphtalenol, 9-17-Octadecadeinal, 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, and Carboxin also are found in the sun-dried sample. Other that that, drying method does not give any effect to the physical appearance of the extracted oil, as similar color and other physical appearance was produced by the both sample.

  9. Enzymatic production of sterculic acid from the novel Phoenix tree seed oil: Optimization and kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Sun, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phoenix tree (Firmiana simplex) seed oil is a novel oil which is rich in sterculic acid. Sterculic acid, a cyclopropene fatty acid, can be used as the inhibitor of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase system and mammary carcinomas growth. In this work, Lipozyme TLIM-catalyzed hydrolysis of the novel Phoenix tree seed oil was used to prepare sterculic acid. High temperature GC-FID and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were used to monitor the reaction progress. Effects of reaction variables on the hydrolysis were evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology. Results showed that sterculic acid can be successfully prepared from the novel seed oil, and the effect of reaction variables on the hydrolysis decreased in the order of reaction time > enzyme load > temperature. A high yield of fatty acids (DH, 98.2±0.8%) can be obtained under optimized conditions (45 ºC, mass ratio of water to oil 10:1, enzyme load 10%, and 18 h). The Arrhenius equation for the hydrolysis was LnV0 = 9.12 − 4721/T. The activation energy was 39.25KJ/mol. The kinetic values for Vmax, K/m were 0.232mol/(L∙min) and 0.084 mol/L, respectively. [es

  10. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First report of Rhazia stricta seed oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. • Biodiesel is prepared by alkaline transesterification. • Biodiesel from R. stricta oil meets specifications in biodiesel standards. - Abstract: Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by 1 H-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world

  11. Biodiesel from the seed oil of Treculia africana with high free fatty acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewuyi, Adewale [Redeemer' s University, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Redemption City, Ogun State (Nigeria); Oderinde, Rotimi A.; Ojo, David F.K. [University of Ibadan, Industrial Unit, Department of Chemistry, Ibadan, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2012-12-15

    Oil was extracted from the seed of Treculia africana using hexane. The oil was characterized and used in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel was produced from the seed oil of T. africana using a two-step reaction system. The first step was a pretreatment which involved the use of 2 % sulfuric acid in methanol, and secondly, transesterification reaction using KOH as catalyst. Saponification value of the oil was 201.70 {+-} 0.20 mg KOH/g, free fatty acid was 8.20 {+-} 0.50 %, while iodine value was 118.20 {+-} 0.50 g iodine/100 g. The most dominant fatty acid was C18:2 (44 %). The result of the method applied showed a conversion which has ester content above 98 %, flash point of 131 {+-} 1.30 C, and phosphorus content below 1 ppm in the biodiesel. The biodiesel produced exhibited properties that were in agreement with the European standard (EN 14214). This study showed that the high free fatty acid content of T. africana seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification reaction using H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as catalyst. (orig.)

  12. RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE EXTRACTION OF FLAX (LINUM USITATISSIMUM SEED OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Maliar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Flax seed is an important source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids essential for human physiology. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of major parameters of the lipid extraction from flax seed, in relation to the recovery of oil as well as the oil quality properties. The independent variables of extraction were proposed as: organic solvents, temperature, extraction time and solid-liquid ratio. The following quantitative and qualitative parameters were chosen as dependent variables: yield of the lipid fraction, acid value of oil and the absorbance at 490 nm. After calculating the optimal values of the extraction, the validation analysis was carried out and it was found out that the predicted and experimentally verified dependent variables were in agreement with the optimal extraction parameters.doi:10.5219/168

  13. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  14. Thermal stabilisation of pvc with jatropha seed, khaya seed and rubber seed oils. Effect of barium and cadmium soaps of the seed oils on the thermal degradation of pvc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okieimen, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride was mixed with barium and cadmium soaps of Jatropha seed, Khaya seed and rubber seed oils and mixtures of the metal soaps and degraded at 190 deg. C under oxidative and non oxidative conditions. The effectiveness of the additives in stabilizing PVC against thermal degradation was evaluated by comparing (a) the kinetic data measured at 1% conversion for the degradation of PVC in the presence of the additives with the corresponding values obtained in the absence of the additives (b) the intrinsic viscosity and level of unsaturation in the polymer samples degraded for the under graded polymer and (c) the thermogravimetric data obtained for the degradation of PVC in the presence of the additives at a constant heating rate of 10 degree C min/sup -1/ up to 500 degree C. It was found that the additives retarded the rate of dehydro chlorination of PVC (by up to about 50% and 1% conversion) and reduced the extent of decomposition of the polymer by as much as 60%. The mixtures of the metal soaps containing more than 70% (wt) cadmium soap showed marked synergistic stabilizing effect on the degradation of PVC. (author)

  15. Catalytic Activity of a Bifunctional Catalyst for Hydrotreatment of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Dávila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotreating process of vegetable oils (HPVO involves the transformation of vegetable oil triglycerides into straight chain alkanes, which are carried out by deoxygenation reactions, generating multiple hydrocarbon compounds, cuts similar to heavy vacuum oil. The HPVO is applied to Jatropha curcas oil on USY zeolite supported with gamma alumina and platinum deposition on the catalytic as hydrogenation component. The acid of additional activity of the supports allows the development of catalytic routes that the intervention of catalytic centers of different nature reaches the desired product. The products of the hydrotreating reaction with Jatropha curcas seed oil triglycerides were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by mass spectroscopy to identify and analyze the generated intermediate and final hydrocarbon compounds.

  16. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  17. Biodiesel from Mandarin Seed Oil: A Surprising Source of Alternative Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Azad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin (Citrus reticulata is one of the most popular fruits in tropical and sub-tropical countries around the world. It contains about 22–34 seeds per fruit. This study investigated the potential of non-edible mandarin seed oil as an alternative fuel in Australia. The seeds were prepared after drying in the oven for 20 h to attain an optimum moisture content of around 13.22%. The crude oil was extracted from the crushed seed using 98% n-hexane solution. The biodiesel conversion reaction (transesterification was designed according to the acid value (mg KOH/g of the crude oil. The study also critically examined the effect of various reaction parameters (such as effect of methanol: oil molar ratio, % of catalyst concentration, etc. on the biodiesel conversion yield. After successful conversion of the bio-oil into biodiesel, the physio-chemical fuel properties of the virgin biodiesel were measured according to relevant ASTM standards and compared with ultra-low sulphur diesel (ULSD and standard biodiesel ASTM D6751. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs were analysed by gas chromatography (GC using the EN 14103 standard. The behaviour of the biodiesel (variation of density and kinematic viscosity at various temperatures (10–40 °C was obtained and compared with that of diesel fuel. Finally, mass and energy balances were conducted for both the oil extraction and biodiesel conversion processes to analyse the total process losses of the system. The study found 49.23 wt % oil yield from mandarin seed and 96.82% conversion efficiency for converting oil to biodiesel using the designated transesterification reaction. The GC test identified eleven FAMEs. The biodiesel mainly contains palmitic acid (C16:0 26.80 vol %, stearic acid (C18:0 4.93 vol %, oleic acid (C18:1 21.43 vol % (including cis. and trans., linoleic acid (C18:2 4.07 vol %, and less than one percent each of other fatty acids. It is an important source of energy because it has a higher

  18. Essential oil and their microconstituents of cumin and coriander seeds during storage under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Abdullah, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Both cumin and coriander seeds were treated with gamma irradiation (10 KGy). The volatile oil and micro constituents were identified over seven months of storage. No marked changes were noticed regarding the volatile oil content and oil components between irradiated and non-irradiated of the two spices during the storage period at egyptian ambient temperature

  19. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Physico-chemical characteristics of oil produced from seeds of some date palm cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S S; Al-Obeed, R S; Ahmed, T A

    2015-03-01

    The oil content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with some physico-chemical properties and nutrients were investigated in oil produced from seeds of six important date palm cultivars and one seed strain present in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that the oil extracted from six seed cultivars of date palm ranged from 6.73-10.89% w/w oil. The refractive index of date seeds oil was found to be between 1.4574 to 1.4615. The iodine values, acid values and saponification values were in the range of 74.2-86.6 g iodine 100 g(-1); 2.50-2.58 mg KOH g(-1) and 0.206-0.217 mg KOH g(-1), respectively. Lauric acid, Myristic acid, Palmitic acid C15, Palmitic acid C16 Stearic acid, Arachidic acid and Behenic acid of date seeds oil contents were found between 8.67-49.27; 7.01-15.43; 0-0.57; 4.82-18.09; 1.02-7.86; 0-0.08; and 0-0.15% w/w, in that order. Omega-6 and Omega-9 of date seeds oil were found between 7.31-17.87 and 52.12-58.78%, respectively. Khalas, Barhy cvs. and seed strain gave highest K and Ca, Na and Fe, Mg as compared with other studied cultivars.

  1. Fatty acid composition and some physicochemical characteristics of Sterculia apetala seed oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera-Meza, S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropical rain forests of southeastern Mexico, the use of Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia apetala seed oils for human and animal nutrition is common. However, the seeds contain cyclopropene fatty acids, whose consumption is related with beneficial as well as detrimental physiological effects. The aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid profile and the physicochemical characteristics of S. apetala seed oil and to evaluate the effect of roasting on both aspects. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, sterculic acid and malvalic acid were identified in the natural and roasted seed oils. The major component in the seed oil was sterculic acid, as has been reported for Sterculia mexicana and Sterculia foetida. The roasting process modified some physicochemical properties and the fatty acid composition of the seed oil, particularly by decreasing its content of sterculic acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the fatty acid composition of S. apetala seed oil.En zonas tropicales del sureste de México, el uso de semillas de Sterculia mexicana y Sterculia apetala es común para consumo humano y animal. Sin embargo, dichas semillas contienen ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos, los cuales se les ha relacionado tanto con efectos fisiológicos beneficiosos como adversos para la salud. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el perfil de ácidos grasos y las características fisicoquímicas de la especie S. apetala, así como la evaluación del aceite sometido a un proceso de tostado. Se identificaron ácidos grasos ciclopropenoicos como el ácido estercúlico y malválico, en el aceite natural y tostado. Para las especies S. mexicana y S. foetida, el componente mayoritario en las semillas fue el ácido estercúlico. El proceso de tostado modificó algunas propiedades fisicoquímicas y la composción de los ácidos grasos, especificamente disminuyó el contenido de ácido estercúlico. Para nuestro conocimiento, este es la primera informaci

  2. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Specht, James E; Hyten, David L; Costa, Jose; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-01-02

    Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r2) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise

  3. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SODIUM SOAP FROM NYAMPLUNG SEED OIL (Calophyllum inophyllum L. AND TEST ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST Staphilococus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Chasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was used nyamplung seed oil as antibacterial soap material. The soap from nyamplung seed oil was performed by saponification reactions, characterization of soap based on SNI 06-3632-1994. The antibacterial activity was tested against bacteria Staphylococus aureus. The result of this research showed that soap had yellow color with weight 13,028 g from 10,028 g nyamplung seed oil. The characteristic of soap based on SNI were water content of 25,287%, fatty acid of 72,177%, free alkali 0,082%, unsoap fatty or free fatty 0,834%, and mineral oil was negative. Soap base on nyamplung seed oil have antibacterial activity against bacteria Staphylococus aureus with diameter of inhibition zone 14,701 mm.

  4. Evaluation of seed yield and oil contents in four materials of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido Armando

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Four castor materials were evaluated in 2009 in the middle region of Valle del Sinu, Colombia. The variables were phonological development, plant height, seed production and oil yield, in order to determine the best material for commercial purposes. All materials reported high yields of oil seeds and highlighting the commercial genotype Nordestina BRS149, 2.2 t ha-1 seed and 47% oil content. Planting distances were 1.5 x 1.5 m and 2.0 x 2.0 m, with densities of 6,666 and 3,906 plants ha-1, respectively. The plant height, seed productivity and oil yield showed significant differences for the interaction density × material; while comparing each material density, seed production only showed differences. These variables were significantly different between population densities, which shows that the higher the plant height, lower productivity. The planting distance of 2.0 x 2.0 m, provides higher productivity per plant values but seed oil yields were not different between densities. The oil quality parameters were assessed using free fatty acid value

  5. Comparative Analysis of Major Mosquito Vectors Response to Seed-Derived Essential Oil and Seed Pod-Derived Extract from Acacia nilotica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Vivekanandhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS -. Larvicidal and adulticidal efficacy of seed hydrodistilled essential oil and solvent extracts were tested against larval and adult mosquitoes. The seed hydrodistilled oil provided strong larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, (LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae = 5.239, LC90 (lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae = 9.713 mg/L; Aedes aegypti, (LC50 = 3.174, LC90 = 11.739 mg/L; and Culex quinquefasciatus, (LC50 = 4.112, LC90 = 12.325 mg/L. Smoke toxicities were 82% in Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% in Ae. aegypti, and 80% mortality in An. stephensi adults, whereas 100% mortality was recorded for commercial mosquito coil. The GC-MS profile of seed essential oil from A. nilotica showed the presence of hexadecane (18.440% and heptacosane (15.914%, which are the main and active compounds, and which may be involved in insecticidal activity. Overall findings suggest that the seed oil showed strong mosquitocidal activity against mosquito vectors and therefore may provide an ecofriendly replacement to chemical insecticides.

  6. liquid soap production with blends of rubber seed oil (rso)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Chemical Engineering, Edo State Institute of Technology and Management, Usen,. P.M.B 1104, Benin City, Edo State. ... The basic processes for making soap have re- mained unchanged for the past 200 years. How- ... palm kernel oil for good quality liquid soap using locally produced caustic potash from ...

  7. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... Design: Samples were purchased from local retail stores. ... Results: The total TFA content of the three types of sampled oils was below 0.5%, and the peroxide (meq ... South Africa, and is also an ingredient in a range of products. The .... Statements with the intention of provoking fear are often misinformed.

  8. extraction and physico chemical properties of some edible seed oils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The free fatty acids values ranged from 0.096mgKOH/g – 1.34mgKOH/g. The results of these ... Nutritional and industrial processes have increased the demands for oils ..... Sarwar, M. (2013): The theatrical usefulness of olive. Oleaeuropaea L.

  9. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Seed Oil Reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oil (EZSO), which is rich in ALA, on serum lipid level, oxidation status and underlying mechanism in hyperlipidemic ..... The plasma lipoprotein profile, bile acid pool composition, and metabolic responses to changes in ... platelet aggregation, or inflammatory markers. [17]. In another randomized trial in 62 healthy men in the ...

  10. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil from Chinese Licorice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CO2) extraction. The oil was analysed by GC-MS after methylation. Compounds were identified according to their mass spectra (EI, 70 eV) by comparison with authentic reference substances and literature data. Five fatty acids were identified, with ...

  11. South African seed oils are safe for human consumption | Opperman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reported parameters included the fatty acid profile, TFA content, peroxide level and conjugated diene (CD) content. Design: Samples were purchased from local retail stores. Two independent researchers de-identified the oils, and stored them in numbered containers under nitrogen until commencement of the analysis.

  12. Triacylglycerols of the seed oil of Linum grandiflorum Desf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M.D.; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; Ali, Sanaa A.

    2018-01-01

    -flux anticancer-drug screening method was employed, and recorded IC50 values of 30±2.4, 30±2.5, >100, and >100 μg/mL against EL4, MCF7, PC3, and McCoy, respectively. In addition, the antihepatotoxic activity supplemented by a histopathological examination was done, and proved that, the oil enhanced all parameters...

  13. Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and domestic horse (Equus caballus) hindgut microflora demonstrate similar fermentation responses to grape seed extract supplementation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, N F; Naumann, H D; Kenny, A L; Kerley, M S

    2017-10-01

    The domestic horse is used as a nutritional model for rhinoceros maintained under human care. The validity of this model for browsing rhinoceros has been questioned due to high prevalence of iron overload disorder (IOD) in captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Iron chelators, such as tannins, are under investigation as dietary supplements to ameliorate or prevent IOD in prone species. Polyphenolic compounds variably affect microbial fermentation, so the first objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE; a concentrated source of condensed tannins; CT) on black rhinoceros hindgut fermentation. Equine nutrition knowledge is used to assess supplements for rhinoceros; therefore, the second objective was to evaluate the domestic horse model for black rhinoceros fermentation and compare fermentation responses to GSE using a continuous single-flow in vitro culture system. Two replicated continuous culture experiments were conducted using horse and black rhinoceros faeces as inoculum sources comparing four diets with increasing GSE inclusion (0.0%, 1.3%, 2.7% and 4.0% of diet dry matter). Diet and GSE polyphenolic compositions were determined, and sodium sulphite effect on neutral detergent fibre extraction of CT-containing forages was tested. Increasing GSE inclusion stimulated microbial growth and fermentation, and proportionally increased diet CT concentration and iron-binding capacity. Horse a