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Sample records for grape pomace electronic

  1. Evaluation of Grape Pomace Composting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of composting of grape pomace in strip compost piles. The three variants of compost piles formed from grape pomace and vegetables waste, wood chips and mature in varying proportions were tested. Turning of piles was performed using windrow turner PKS 2.8, in which the achieved performance was monitored. On the performance of windrow turner has a significant influence also cross section or width and height of turning piles and the bulk density of ingredients including their moisture. In evaluating, attention has been paid to assessment of selected parameters (temperature, moisture content of the composting process. From the viewpoint of temperature course, the highest temperature reached at the piles in Var. I (64.1 °C and Var. II (55.3 °C. Moisture of compost piles in the individual variants did not differ significantly and ranged between 25–35%.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grape pomace is a potential source of winery by-products having useful bioactive components. Antimicrobial activities of enzyme-assisted grape pomace polyphenols (GPP) were assessed against Escherichia coli IFO 3301 and Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732 using plate count and spectrophotometry assays. GPP have ...

  3. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  4. Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, gut morphology and histopathological responses in broiler chickens. ... The secondary titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased significantly in the birds fed 10% GP and the secondary IgG concentration of birds ...

  5. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

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    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Characterization of polyphenols and antioxidant potential of white grape pomace byproducts (Vitis vinifera L.).

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    González-Centeno, María Reyes; Jourdes, Michael; Femenia, Antoni; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-11-27

    A detailed assessment of the total phenolic and total tannin contents, the monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ol composition, the proanthocyanidin profile, and the antioxidant potential of the grape pomace byproducts (considered as a whole, both skins and seeds), derived from four white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), was performed. Significant differences (p grape pomace byproducts were observed among the different grape varieties studied. For the first time in the literature, the particular flavan-3-ol composition of the four grape varieties investigated was described for the whole fraction of their grape pomace byproducts. The phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape pomaces were compared to those of their corresponding stems. The global characterization of these white grape varieties provided a basis for an integrated exploitation of both winemaking byproducts as potential, inexpensive, and easily available sources of bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries.

  8. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

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    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  10. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

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    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  11. Quality characteristics of wheat flour dough and bread containing grape pomace flour.

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    Šporin, Monika; Avbelj, Martina; Kovač, Boris; Možina, Sonja Smole

    2018-04-01

    Wheat bread was enriched with 6%, 10% and 15% dried and milled grape pomace flour from two grape cultivars: 'Merlot' and 'Zelen'. Rheological, textural, sensory and antioxidant properties of the enriched dough and bread were evaluated, and compared to control samples. Grape cultivar had significant impact on the rheological characteristics of the dough, and on the sensory and antioxidant properties of the final bread. Development time and dough stability were longer when 'Merlot' grape pomace flour was added compared to 'Zelen' grape pomace flour and the control. Grape pomace flour addition affected bread volume, firmness, crumb and crust colour, and odour and taste intensity. Moreover, grape pomace flour addition resulted in a stickier and less springy crumb texture, and some negative sensorial properties, such as increased intensity of aftertaste and sand feeling in the mouth. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bread were positively correlated with grape pomace flour addition ( r = 0.987, p = 0.01 and r = 0.941, p = 0.01 between phenolic content and ferric reducing antioxidant power and phenolic content and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, respectively). The highest total phenolic contents were 5.92 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dw for 'Merlot' and 3.65 mg gallic acid equivalents /g dw for 'Zelen', which were seen for the bread prepared with the highest grape pomace flour addition (15%). The highest antioxidant activity determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were seen for the bread prepared with the highest 'Merlot' grape pomace flour addition (15%). Dough characteristic and sensory profile are strongly influenced by cultivar of grape pomace flour. Based on results of sensory profiling, the variety 'Zelen' is suggested for use.

  12. Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of grape pomace for ruminant using gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid ... WGP could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  13. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Hydrothermal carbonization and torrefaction of grape pomace: a comparative evaluation.

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    Pala, Mehmet; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha; Yanik, Jale

    2014-06-01

    Grape pomace was treated by hydrothermal carbonization (sub-critical water, 175-275°C) and torrefaction (nitrogen atmosphere, 250 and 300°C), with mass yield of solid product (char) ranging between 47% and 78%, and energy densification ratio to 1.42-1.15 of the original feedstock. The chars were characterised with respect to their fuel properties, morphological and structural properties and combustion characteristics. The hydrothermal carbonization produced the char with greater energy density than torrefaction. The chars from torrefaction were found to be more aromatic in nature than that from hydrothermal carbonization. Hydrothermal carbonization process produced the char having high combustion reactivity. Most interesting was the finding that aqueous phase from hydrothermal carbonization had antioxidant activity. The results obtained in this study showed that HTC appears to be promising process for a winery waste having high moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  16. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  17. Generation of Valuable Nanomaterials Using Biodegradable Waste: Rags to Riches Story of Red Grape Pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    In our sustainable research endeavors pertaining to environmental remediation, we envisioned utilizing winery waste, red grape pomace, as a primary source for the dual role of reduction of inorganic salts and capping of the ensuing nanomaterials This study shows that red grape po...

  18. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

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    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  19. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Sun, Shi; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-08-27

    Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc) and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay) were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight) significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin-induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. This is the

  20. Characterization and differentiation of monovarietal grape pomace distillate from native varieties of Galicia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; Bollaín, María Herminia; Moser, Sergio; Orriols, Ignacio

    2010-09-08

    Monovarietal grape pomace distillates (orujo) of six native varieties of Vitis vinifera L. from Galicia (Albarino, Treixadura, Godello, Loureira, Dona Branca, and Torrontes) have been thoroughly analyzed considering esters, alcohols, major aldehydes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, norisoprenoids, and diterpenes. Albarino and Loureira distillates showed similar profiles of terpenic compounds, with the Loureira products having higher contents of monoterpenols. Native Torrontes distillate from Galicia is principally characterized by marked levels of some sesquiterpenes such as cadinene isomers and epizonarene. On the other hand, Treixadura, Godello, and Dona Branca grape pomace distillates seem not to have any marked terpenic content, and their single separation is difficult. PCA data treatments showed a good separation among the terpenic-rich varieties. Also, the p-menthen-9-al isomers, typical flavors in honey citrus and dill herb (derived from 8-hydroxylinalool), are reported for the first time in grape pomace distillate.

  1. Inclusion of grape pomace in the diet of pigs on pork quality and oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched fat

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    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including grape pomace in the diet of pigs on pork quality and oxidative stability of body fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Four treatments were compared: T1 Control diet based on corn and soybean meal; T2 Diet with inclusion of 3% of a canola (50% and flaxseed (50% oil blend; T3 Diet with inclusion of 3% of the oil blend and sequential levels of 3 and 5% of grape pomace; T4 Diet with inclusion of 3% of the oil blend and sequential levels of 6 and 10% of grape pomace. Inclusion of grape pomace in the diet led to an increase (P0.10 with dietary inclusion of oils blend. Neither the inclusion of the oil blend, nor the grape pomace had any effect (P>0.10 on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in the loin samples, despite the higher PUFA content in the fat of pigs fed the oil blend. Antioxidant effect of grape pomace was not possible to prove when measured by TBARS, but the increased redness of the pork from pigs fed with this ingredient suggested a possible antioxidant effect of grape pomace.

  2. Combining hydrothermal pretreatment with enzymes de-pectinates and exposes the innermost xyloglucan-rich hemicellulose layers of wine grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zietsman, Anscha J.J.; Moore, John P.; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    Chardonnay grape pomace was treated with pressurized heat followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, with commercial or pure enzymes, in buffered conditions. The pomace was unfermented as commonly found for white winemaking wastes and treatments aimed to simulate biovalorization processing. Cell wall...... to a working model of the hitherto, poorly understood innermost xyloglucan-rich hemicellulose layers of unfermented grape pomace....

  3. Enzymatic biotransformation of polyphenolics increases antioxidant activity of red and white grape pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape pomace (GP) is a polyphenolic-rich byproduct of wine production. As most polyphenolics are either bound to cellular matrices or present as free polymeric forms, treatment with hydrolytic enzymes may act to increase GP functionalities. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of tannase ...

  4. Oxidation phenomena and color properties of grape pomace on nitrite-reduced meat emulsion systems.

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    Riazi, Fatemeh; Zeynali, Fariba; Hoseini, Ebrahim; Behmadi, Homa; Savadkoohi, Sobhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of different levels of red grape pomace (1 and 2%, w/w) on the color changes, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant activity, microbial counts, total phenol content and sensory attributes of the sausages formulated with various levels of sodium nitrite (30, 60 and 120mg/kg). It was found that the addition of grape pomace (1%, w/w) in combination of reduced nitrite levels to the beef sausage samples reduced TBARS content and the degree of lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity and total phenol contents were further evaluated based on DPPH scavenging activity method. A significant reduction in lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of systems containing grape pomace was observed, following by an increase in the oxidative stability and the radical scavenging activity. Acceptability of beef sausages was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by the addition of grape pomace and had relatively greater scores from a sensory point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of ultrafine grinding on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber from wine grape pomace.

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    Zhu, Feng-Mei; Du, Bin; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Wine grape pomace dietary fiber powders were prepared by superfine grinding, whose effects were investigated on the composition, functional and antioxidant properties of the wine grape pomace dietary fiber products. The results showed that superfine grinding could effectively pulverize the fiber particles to submicron scale. As particle size decrease, the functional properties (water-holding capacity, water-retention capacity, swelling capacity, oil-binding capacity, and nitrite ion absorption capacity) of wine grape pomace dietary fiber were significantly (p fiber components from insoluble to soluble fractions was observed. The antioxidant activities of wine grape pomace and dietary fiber before and after grinding were in terms of DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS diammonium salt radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Compared with dietary fiber before and after grinding, micronized insoluble dietary fiber showed increased ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content yet decreased DPPH radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were detected between ABTS radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total phenolic content.

  6. Drying kinetics of fermented grape pomace: Determination of moisture effective diffusivity

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    Kricelle M. Deamici

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to obtain the equilibrium moisture content of grape (variety ‘Tannat’ pomace through desorption isotherms, to evaluate the drying kinetics, determine the coefficient of effective diffusivity and physico-chemically characterize the grape pomace and the product obtained after drying. The desorption isotherms were determined at 50, 60 and 70 ºC and the experimental data were fitted using the GAB model (Gugghenheim, Anderson and de Boer. Drying was evaluated using a 22 factorial experimental design with three center points and effective diffusivity was obtained through the diffusion model of Fick’s second law. The grape pomace was characterized regarding the contents of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, ash and dietary crude fiber. The obtained isotherms showed sigmoid shape and the experimental data fitted well to the GAB model. The drying curves showed only a decreasing rate period. The effective diffusivity values were within the range for organic materials. Dry grape pomace showed high contents of protein and fiber and can be used in the development of new products, in order to increase the nutritional content and add value to this byproduct.

  7. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

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    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  8. Confidence intervals for modeling anthocyanin retention in grape pomace during nonisothermal heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D K; Dolan, K D; Yang, L

    2008-01-01

    Degradation of nutraceuticals in low- and intermediate-moisture foods heated at high temperature (>100 degrees C) is difficult to model because of the nonisothermal condition. Isothermal experiments above 100 degrees C are difficult to design because they require high pressure and small sample size in sealed containers. Therefore, a nonisothermal method was developed to estimate the thermal degradation kinetic parameter of nutraceuticals and determine the confidence intervals for the parameters and the predicted Y (concentration). Grape pomace at 42% moisture content (wb) was heated in sealed 202 x 214 steel cans in a steam retort at 126.7 degrees C for > 30 min. Can center temperature was measured by thermocouple and predicted using Comsol software. Thermal conductivity (k) and specific heat (C(p)) were estimated as quadratic functions of temperature using Comsol and nonlinear regression. The k and C(p) functions were then used to predict temperature inside the grape pomace during retorting. Similar heating experiments were run at different time-temperature treatments from 8 to 25 min for kinetic parameter estimation. Anthocyanin concentration in the grape pomace was measured using HPLC. Degradation rate constant (k(110 degrees C)) and activation energy (E(a)) were estimated using nonlinear regression. The thermophysical properties estimates at 100 degrees C were k = 0.501 W/m degrees C, Cp= 3600 J/kg and the kinetic parameters were k(110 degrees C)= 0.0607/min and E(a)= 65.32 kJ/mol. The 95% confidence intervals for the parameters and the confidence bands and prediction bands for anthocyanin retention were plotted. These methods are useful for thermal processing design for nutraceutical products.

  9. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT OF THE FETEASCĂ NEAGRĂ GRAPE POMACE AND ITS FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM WINE INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascariu Mariana Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the hereby study was to analyze and to compare the chemical content of the grape pomace and its fractions: skins and seeds from the red grape variety Fetească neagră (from Iași area, obtained in different years 2013 and 2014 respectively, from the winemaking process. Measurements targeted the dry matter content (DM%, organic matter (OM%, crude ash (CA%, crude protein (CP%, crude fat (EE%, crude fiber (CF%, neazotate extractive substances (SEN%, total polyphenols (TP% and tannins (Ta%. The results obtained showed significant differences in the chemical composition in favour of the grape pomace obtained in the 2014 climatic conditions: in the case of the seed for the content of DM%, SEN%, TP% and Ta%, in the case of the skins for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, TP%, Ta% and in the case of the grape pomace for the content of DM%, OM%, CF%, SEN%, TP%, and Ta%. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition showed an annual variation of the chemical components, which may be due to climatic conditions and winemaking process. Therefore, an annual chemical quality assessment of the grape pomace is necessary, for the efficient use in the animal feed.

  10. Wine by-Products: Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activity Evaluation of Grapes and Grape Pomaces from Six Different French Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grenache, Syrah, Carignan Noir, Mourvèdre, Counoise and Alicante Bouchet grape seeds and skins, harvested in 2009 and 2010 in the Rhône valley area of France, and their respective pomaces remaining after vinification, were analyzed for their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The polyphenol content was quantified by HPLC and the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The antioxidant potential was measured with four different assays: ORAC, FRAP, ABTS and DPPH. Seeds contained higher amounts of total polyphenols, up to 44.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight in Alicante pomace, than skin extracts. The maximum total phenolic in skins was 31.6 mg GAE/g dry weight detected in 2010 Alicante pomace. Seeds also had the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC analysis revealed that, despite the vinification process, pomaces still contained an appreciable amount of proanthocyanidins as well as several anthocyanin glycosides. Alicante and Syrah proved to be the varieties of most interest in terms of their potential development for nutraceutical purposes.

  11. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.

    2007-01-01

    Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic....../water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH...

  12. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic profile of grape pomace phenolic compounds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Fabio; Costabile, Giuseppina; Bresciani, Letizia; Tassotti, Michele; Naviglio, Daniele; Luongo, Delia; Ciciola, Paola; Vitale, Marilena; Vetrani, Claudia; Galaverna, Gianni; Brighenti, Furio; Giacco, Rosalba; Del Rio, Daniele; Mena, Pedro

    2018-05-15

    Grape pomace, the major byproduct of the wine and juice industry, is a relevant source of bioactive phenolic compounds. However, polyphenol bioavailability in humans is not well understood, and the inter-individual variability in the production of phenolic metabolites has not been comprehensively assessed to date. The pharmacokinetic and excretive profiles of phenolic metabolites after the acute administration of a drink made from red grape pomace was here investigated in ten volunteers. A total of 35 and 28 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma, respectively. The main circulating metabolites included phenyl-γ-valerolactones, hydroxybenzoic acids, simple phenols, hydroxyphenylpropionic acids, hydroxycinnamates, and (epi)catechin phase II conjugates. A high inter-individual variability was shown both in urine and plasma samples, and different patterns of circulating metabolites were unravelled by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis. Besides the huge variability in the production of microbial metabolites of colonic origin, an important variability was observed due to phase II conjugates. These results are of interest to further understand the potential health benefits of phenolic metabolites on individual basis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of grape pomace antioxidant extract on oxidative stress and inflammation in diet induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-11-10

    Norton grape is one of the most important wine grapes in Southern and Midwestern states and generates massive pomace byproducts. The objective of this study is to characterize the antioxidant compounds and activity in Norton grape pomace extract (GPE) and further assess the potential health promoting properties of Norton GPE using an animal disease model. The total phenolic content and anthocyanins in Norton GPE were 475.4 mg of gallic acid equiv/g and 156.9 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equiv/g, respectively. Catechin and epicatechin in GPE were 28.6 and 24.5 mg/g, respectively. Other major antioxidants in GPE included quercetin (1.6 mg/g), trans-resveratrol (60 μg/g), gallic acid (867.2 μg/g), coutaric acid (511.8 μg/g), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (408.3 μg/g), and protocatechuic acid (371.5 μg/g). The antioxidant activity of GPE was evaluated by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and was 4133 μmol of Trolox equiv/g. Male diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a normal diet (ND group), a high fat diet (HF group), and the high fat diet supplemented with GPE (HFGPE group). After 12-week treatment, mice in the high fat diet groups gained 29% more weight than the ND group. The GPE supplementation (estimated 250 mg/kg bw/d) lowered plasma C-reactive protein levels by 15.5% in the high fat diet fed mice (P < 0.05), suggesting a potential anti-inflammatory effect by dietary GPE. However, dietary GPE did not improve oxidative stress in DIO mice as determined by plasma ORAC, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. The results showed that GPE contained significant antioxidants and dietary GPE exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in diet induced obesity.

  14. Polyphenol screening of pomace from red and white grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Dietmar; Claus, Achim; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2004-07-14

    Phenolic compounds of 14 pomace samples originating from red and white winemaking were characterized by HPLC-MS. Up to 13 anthocyanins, 11 hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, and 13 catechins and flavonols as well as 2 stilbenes were identified and quantified in the skins and seeds by HPLC-DAD. Large variabilities comprising all individual phenolic compounds were observed, depending on cultivar and vintage. Grape skins proved to be rich sources of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, and flavonol glycosides, whereas flavanols were mainly present in the seeds. However, besides the lack of anthocyanins in white grape pomace, no principal differences between red and white grape varieties were observed. This is the first study presenting comprehensive data on the contents of individual phenolic compounds comprising all polyphenolic subclasses of grapes including a comparison of several red and white pomaces from nine cultivars. The results obtained in the present study confirm that both skins and seeds of most grape cultivars constitute a promising source of polyphenolics.

  15. Study of the possibility of the production of amino acid mixtures from yeast autolysates grown on the nutrient medium from grape and apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardzehveladze, E.G.; Mikeladze, G.G.; Gordienko, S.B.; Belikov, V.M.; Latov, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. ellipsoideus were grown on the juices diffused from apple and grape pomace. The amino acid composition of the yeasts was very similar to the amino acid composition of yeast grown on molasses.

  16. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shami, S. M.; El-Mallah, M. H.; Mohamed, S. S.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable a...

  18. Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Shen, Yixin; You, Minghong; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Jiajun; Li, Daxue; Bai, Shiqie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P fermentation. During aerobic exposure, the fungi count, pH value and silage temperature increased (P fermentation products, microbial counts, chemical and polyphenol composition were considered, the use of 10% GP+LAB at ensiling could provide a valuable source for improved fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  20. Conversion of a wet waste feedstock to biocrude by hydrothermal processing in a continuous-flow reactor: grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hart, Todd R.; Billing, Justin M.

    2017-05-13

    Wet waste feedstocks present an apt opportunity for biomass conversion to fuels by hydrothermal processing. In this study, grape pomace slurries from two varieties, Montepulciano and cabernet sauvignon, have been converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in a bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor system. Carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product up to 56 % was accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa) when using grape pomace feedstock slurry with a 16.8 wt% concentration of dry solids processed at a liquid hourly space velocity of 2.1 h-1. Direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification (CHG) was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup using a Ru on C catalyst in a fixed bed producing a gas composed of methane and carbon dioxide from water soluble organics. Conversion of 99.8% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) left in the aqueous phase was demonstrated. As a result, high conversion of grape pomace to liquid and gas fuel products was found with residual organic contamination in byproduct water reduced to <150 mg/kg COD.

  1. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM. The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p 65% of explained data variability, except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.

  2. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL -1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Phenolic Fractions from Muscadine Grape "Noble" Pomace can Inhibit Breast Cancer Cell MDA-MB-231 Better than those from European Grape "Cabernet Sauvignon" and Induce S-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianming; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Shengyu; Peng, Xichun; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Lu, Jiang

    2017-05-01

    Tons of grape pomace which still contained a rich amount of plant polyphenols, is discarded after winemaking. Plant polyphenols have multi-functional activities for human body. In this study, polyphenols of pomaces from Muscadinia rotundifolia "Noble" and Vitis vinifera "Cabernet Sauvignon" were extracted and fractionated, and then they were analyzed with LC-MS and the inhibitory effects on breast cancer cells were compared. The inhibition on MDA-MB-231 cells of fractions from "Noble" was further evaluated. The results showed that polyphenols from 2 grape pomaces could be separated into 3 fractions, and ellagic acid and/or ellagitannins were only detected in fractions from "Noble" pomace. All 3 fractions from "Noble" pomace inhibited MDA-MB-231 better than MCF-7. But fraction 2 from "Cabernet Sauvignon" inhibited MCF-7 better while fraction 1 and fraction 3 inhibited both 2 cells similarly. Moreover, the fractions from "Noble" pomace rather than "Cabernet Sauvignon" can inhibit MDA-MB-231 better. Finally, fractions from "Noble" pomace can induce S-phase arrest and apoptosis on MDA-MB-231. These findings suggested the extracts from grape pomace especially those from "Noble," are potential to be utilized as health beneficial products or even anti-breast cancer agents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds recovered from pomace resulting from white grape processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the lipid constituents of grape seeds, produced as by-product from white grape processing, were carried out. Gas liquid chromatography was used to determine the composition of fatty acid methyl esters and sterol silyl derivatives of the oil. The oil was found to contain appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, namely, oleic and linoleic acids, however, linolenic acid was not detected. Saturated fatty acids, namely, palmitic and stearic were found to be present in reasonable amounts. Myristic, palmitoleic, eicosanoic and eicosadienoic acids were detected as minor components. Isofucosterol was found among the other sterol constituents namely, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. HPLC analysis of the oil for determination of tocopherols, showed the presence of alpha-and gamma-tocotrienols, and alpha-and gamma-tocopherols to the extent of 53.2, 28.6, 16,4 and 1,8% respectively. The total tocopherols content of the oil was 470 ppm. The defatted meal of grape seeds was found to contain 24,6% protein which contained large proportions of all the essential amino acids as determined by amino acid analyzer.

    Se han realizado estudios sobre los constituyentes lipidiaos de semillas de uva producidas como subproducto del procesado de uva blanca. La cromatografía gas-líquido se usó para determinar la composición de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos y silil derivados esteroles del aceite. Se observó que el aceite contenía cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos insaturados, principalmente ácidos oleico y linoleico, no siendo sin embargo detectado el ácido linolénico. Se encontraron en cantidades razonables ácidos grasos saturados, principalmente, palmítico y esteárico. Como componentes minoritarios se detectaron los ácidos mirístico, palmitoleico, eicosanoico y eicosadienoico. El isofucosterol apareció junto a otros esteroles, principalmente, campesterol, estigmasterol y beta-sitosterol. El análisis por HPLC

  5. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L. from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. F. de Sales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  7. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  8. Wine grape pomace as antioxidant dietary fibre for enhancing nutritional value and improving storability of yogurt and salad dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Angela; Zhao, Yanyun

    2013-05-01

    Wine grape pomace (WGP) as a source of antioxidant dietary fibre (ADF) was fortified in yogurt (Y), Italian (I) and Thousand Island (T) salad dressings. During the 3 weeks of storage at 4 °C, viscosity and pH of WGP-Y increased and decreased, respectively, but syneresis and lactic acid percentage of WGP-Y and pH of WGP-I and WGP-T were stable. Adding WGP resulted in 35-65% reduction of peroxide values in all samples. Dried whole pomace powder (WP) fortified products had dietary fibre content of 0.94-3.6% (w/w product), mainly insoluble fractions. Total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were 958-1340 mg GAE/kg product and 710-936 mg AAE/kg product, respectively. The highest ADF was obtained in 3% WP-Y, 1% WP-I and 2% WP-T, while 1% WP-Y, 0.5% WP-I and 1% WP-T were mostly liked by consumers based on the sensory study. Study demonstrated that WGP may be used as a functional food ingredient for promoting human health and extending shelf-life of food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Riazi; Fariba Zeynali; Ebrahim Hoseini; Homa Behmadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP) as a natura...

  10. Effects of distillation system and yeast strain on the aroma profile of Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Garay, Y; Blanco, P; López-Vázquez, C; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Pérez-Correa, J R; López, F; Orriols, I

    2014-10-29

    Orujo is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in Galicia (northwest Spain) from distillation of grape pomace, a byproduct of the winemaking industry. In this study, the effect of the distillation system (copper charentais alembic versus packed column) and the yeast strain (native yeast L1 versus commercial yeast L2) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of orujo obtained from Albariño (Vitis vinifera L.) grape pomace has been analyzed. Principal component analysis, with two components explaining 74% of the variance, is able to clearly differentiate the distillates according to distillation system and yeast strain. Principal component 1, mainly defined by C6-C12 esters, isoamyl octanoate, and methanol, differentiates L1 from L2 distillates. In turn, principal component 2, mainly defined by linear alcohols, linalool, and 1-hexenol, differentiates alembic from packed column distillates. In addition, an aroma descriptive test reveals that the distillate obtained with a packed column from a pomace fermented with L1 presented the highest positive general impression, which is associated with the highest fruity and smallest solvent aroma scores. Moreover, chemical analysis shows that use of a packed column increases average ethanol recovery by 12%, increases the concentration of C6-C12 esters by 25%, and reduces the concentration of higher alcohols by 21%. In turn, L2 yeast obtained lower scores in the alembic distillates aroma profile. In addition, with L1, 9% higher ethanol yields were achieved, and L2 distillates contained 34%-40% more methanol than L1 distillates.

  11. Performance of purified grape pomace as a fining agent to reduce the levels of some contaminants from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Martínez, María Dolores; Gil-Muñoz, Rocío; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén

    2018-03-30

    The quality of red wine depends on the absence of compounds which may affect its safety and/or stability such as ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and some metals and trace compounds. The presence of ochratoxin A in musts and wines is due to fungal contamination of the grapes and has been classified as a possible human carcinogen. Biogenic amines are formed by the microbiological descarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid precursors during the fermentation or aging and storage, and, at high concentrations, they may induce adverse reactions in sensitive people. Trace elements may have both a nutritional and a toxic effect on health, but also can cause turbidity and stability problems. Their presence is affected mainly by natural factors such as soil mineral content and direct contact with tank surfaces and metallic tubing during winemaking. One of the best options to remove these compounds when present in excess in wine is fining. However, some fining agents commonly used may themselves present problems related with their allergenic properties or with their propensity to increase the protein content, which can cause turbidity problems. In an attempt to avoid such these problems, purified grape pomace was tested as a fining alternative since it has been seen to have a high capacity to reduce the astringency, turbidity and also the ochratoxin A content. The main aim of this work, therefore, was to study if this material can limit the presence of ochratoxin A, biogenic amines and metals and some trace elements in a Monastrell red wine, thus increasing the value and safety of this product.

  12. Impact of grape pomace consumption on the blood lipid profile and liver genes associated with lipid metabolism of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianmei; Bansode, Rishipal R; Smith, Ivy N; Hurley, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of grape pomace (GP) in diet on body weight, blood lipid profile, and expression of liver genes associated with lipid metabolism using a young rat model. In this study, twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats at 7 weeks of age were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were fed modified AIN-93G diets containing 0% (control), 6.9%, 13.8%, and 20.7% of GP for 10 weeks. Feed consumption and body weight were weekly determined. Blood samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the feeding period for cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and glucose analysis. At the end of the feeding period, all rats were fasted overnight and euthanized. Heart, kidney, and liver samples were obtained and weighed. Liver tissues were used for gene expression analysis. GP-containing diet did not influence the body weight of the rats. As GP content increased, blood triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) decreased (P consumption of a diet containing appropriate amount of GP may help in the reduction of body fat accumulation and prevention of obesity. This is the first study revealing the change in gene expression caused by long-term consumption of GP-containing diet.

  13. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Loreto; Melo, Ricardo; Montero, Ruth; Maisey, Kevin; Mendoza, Leonora; Wilkens, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics). Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the currently unused

  14. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Sanhueza

    Full Text Available Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics. Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  16. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  17. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

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    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  18. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  19. Effects of fining on phenolic compounds and colour of red wine obtained with addition of increased amounts of grape solid phase in pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the effect of grape pomace enrichment in solid phase (stems and seeds on phenolic compounds and colour stability of obtained red wines, before and after use of different fining agents. Results have shown increase in total phenols and flavan-3-ols content after grape solid phase addition. On the other hand, decrease in anthocyanins content has generally been recorded in all wine samples except in wines obtained with addition of 40 g/l of seeds during maceration. Stems addition caused decrease in colour intensity while addition of seeds has increased this colour parameter. The use of four fining agents (albumin, gelatine, bentonite and PVPP has been investigated and compared, especially in terms of their influence on potential stabilization effect of grape solid phase on wine colour. Fined wines tended to have considerably lower anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol levels, especially in the case of gelatine and PVPP treatment (decrease up to 60 and 70%, respectively. In the case of chromatic parameters, used fining agents caused colour intensity decrease but it is important to emphasize that their values, after fining, are still as high as expected from red wine. This can be explained by the stabilization effect of increased flavan-3-ols content.

  20. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

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    Fatemeh Riazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2% on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg, as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free  and control (full nitrite added samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP, Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count

  1. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu pomaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Wan [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheol [Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hwa [School of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki-Chang [Chemistry and Biotechnology Examinations Bureau, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Cheol [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sclee@kyungnam.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    After electron-beam irradiation of citrus pomaces (CP), the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power (RP) were evaluated. When CP were irradiated at 37.9 kGy; the TPC, RSA and RP of water extract of CP increased from 6543.2 to 7405.4 {mu}M, 37.6% to 52.9%, and 0.64 to 0.90, respectively, compared with the non-irradiated control. The results indicate that the electron-beam irradiation can be an efficient process for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  2. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

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    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  3. Comprehensive Characterization of Extractable and Nonextractable Phenolic Compounds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight of a Grape/Pomegranate Pomace Dietary Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara

    2018-01-24

    Grape and pomegranate are rich sources of phenolic compounds, and their derived products could be used as ingredients for the development of functional foods and dietary supplements. However, the profile of nonextractable or macromolecular phenolic compounds in these samples has not been evaluated. Here, we show a comprehensive characterization of extractable and nonextractable phenolic compounds of a grape/pomegranate pomace dietary supplement using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF techniques. The main extractable phenolic compounds were several anthocyanins (principally malvidin 3-O-glucoside) as well as gallotannins and gallagyl derivatives; some phenolic compounds were reported in grape or pomegranate for the first time. Additionally, there was a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds, including vanillic acid, and dihydroxybenzoic acid. Unidentified polymeric structures were detected by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. This study shows that mixed grape and pomegranate pomaces are a source of different classes of phenolic compounds including a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds.

  4. Preservation effect of high energy electron beam on kyoho grape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qiufeng; Chen Zhaoliang; Qiao Yongjin; Wang Haihong; Qiao Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoho grapes were kept in cold storage of-0.5 degree C ∼ 0.5 degree C, RH 85% ∼ 95% after irradiation of 400, 700, 1000, 1500, 2500 Gy and SO 2 treatment, and the antiseptic effect and storage quality were studied. The result showed that high energy electron beam could control the growth of bacteria, mould, yeast, coliform, alleviate the deterioration of grapes during storage. Irradiation below the dose 1000 Gy can decrease the respiration intensity, prevent the decreasing of titratable acid, ascorbic acid content, and keep higher activity of SOD enzyme. The Vc content was 3.79 mg /100 g after 700 Gy irradiation 90 days, the titratable acid and total soluble sugar content were 0.348%, 11.44%, and the activity of SOD was 14.89 U /g, which was higher than the control significantly (P 2 bleaching spot. Integrate the effects on microorganism control and grape quality, treatment of 700 Gy had the best preservation effect in this study. After preserved for 98 d, the good fruit rate of 700 Gy treatment was 93.33% , significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05). (authors)

  5. High Value Products from Waste: Grape Pomace Extract—A Three-in-One Package for the Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been the topic of intense research during the last decade. This is primarily due to their unique properties and potential applications from the technological point of view. The optical,[1] electronic,[2] magnetic,[3] and catalytic [4] pr...

  6. Antioxidative activity of red wine with the in-creased share of phenolic compounds from solid parts of grape

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    VESNA TUMBAS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and amount of phenolic compounds in the wine depend on the grapevine variety, agroecologic conditions and a way of vinification. The influence of pomace enrichment with solid parts of grape (stem and grape seeds during maceration on the antioxidative activity of red wines was investigated. The antioxidative activity of red wines towards DPPH• and hydroxyl (•OH radicals was determined by the electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The addition of stem to the pomace had no significant influence on the antioxidative wine activity increase, whereas enriching of pomace with 120 g seeds/kg of pomace resulted in the increase of antioxidative capacity of a wine. In the wine enriched with tannins and flavan-3-ols from the seeds, the antioxidative activity towards DPPH• (AADPPH• was 100%. None of the applied clarifiers showed a significant influence on the antioxidative activity of these wine samples. The antioxidative activity, measured as DPPH• scavenging activity, of the wine supplemented by seeds remained unchanged, showing 100% efficiency after the treatment by all tested fining agents. A significant difference in antioxidative activities towards hydroxyl radicals (AA•OH between the two wines was found. The antioxidative activity of the wine Merlot was higher than the antioxidative activity of the wine Cabernet sauvignon.

  7. Post-harvest Quality Evaluation of Grapes using Non-destructive Electronic Nose

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    RAJIN S. M. Ataul Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, electronic nose has opened a variety of possibilities and is becoming one of the most important non-destructive odour inspection technologies in the food industry. The objective of this study is to determine the quality degradation of the fruit by monitoring the change in the volatile compound while kept in storage using a lab manufactured electronic nose. Here, grapes are chosen as the fruit sample for experiment. Principal component analysis (PCA is used to determine the ability of the electronic nose to distinguish the different quality of the fruit stored over an interval of time. The result shows that using PCA analysis, the electronic nose is able to identify a clear distinction between the aromas of grapes stored for different time intervals.

  8. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Granny Smith apple pomace

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    Savatović Slađana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Granny Smith apple pomace was subjected to evaluation as valuable source of antioxidant and anticancer phytochemicals on the basis of its content in phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity. The total cotent of phenolics, flavonoids and flavan-3-ols in apple pomace determined spectrophotometrically, was 7.02 mg/g, 0.51 mg/g and 8.80 mg/g. Major phenolics (phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids and dihydrochalcons in apple pomace were identified and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant activity of apple pomace on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and reactive hydroxyl radicals, was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy. The IC50 DPPH and IC50 OH values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 9.51 mg/ml and 29.17 mg/ml, respectively. The antiproliferative activities of apple pomace on cervix epitheloid carcinoma (HeLa, colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7 cell lines were determined according to the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The IC50 HeLa , IC50 HT-29 and IC50 MCF7 values of Granny Smith apple pomace were 26.40 mg/ml, 22.47 mg/ml and 21.26 mg/ml, respectively. The significant correlations between antioxidant activities and antiproliferative activities were established (p<0.05.

  9. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  10. Induction of cyclic electron flow around photosystem I during heat stress in grape leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjiang; Geng, Qingwei; Du, Yuanpeng; Yang, Xinghong; Zhai, Heng

    2017-03-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) in plants is susceptible to high temperatures. The cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI is thought to protect both PSII and PSI from photodamage. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms of the photosynthetic electron transport process and the role of CEF in grape at high temperatures remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we examined the responses of PSII energy distribution, the P700 redox state and CEF to high temperatures in grape leaves. After exposing 'Cabernet Sauvignon' leaves to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C) in the light (600μmol photons m -2 s -1 ) for 4h, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) significantly decreased at high temperatures (40 and 45°C), while the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 (Pm) was not affected. As the temperature increased, higher initial rates of increase in post-illumination Chl fluorescence were detected, which were accompanied by an increase in high energy state quenching (qE). The chloroplast NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-dependent CEF (NDH-dependent CEF) activities were different among grape cultivators. 'Gold Finger' with greater susceptibility to photoinhibition, exhibited lower NDH-dependent CEF activities under acute heat stress than a more heat tolerant 'Cabernet Sauvignon'. These results suggest that overclosure of PSII reaction centers at high temperature resulted in the photoinhibition of PSII, while the stimulation of CEF in grape played an important role in the photoprotection of PSII and PSI at high temperatures through contributing to the generation of a proton gradient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  12. Remarkable proanthocyanidin adsorption properties of monastrell pomace cell wall material highlight its potential use as an alternative fining agent in red wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Ruiz-García, Yolanda; Marín, Fátima; Molero, Noelia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2015-01-21

    The existence of interactions between the polysaccharides of vegetal cell walls and proanthocyanins makes this cell wall material an interesting option for its use as a fining agent to reduce the level of proanthocyanins in wines. Pomace wastes from the winery are widely available and a source of cell wall material, and the identification of varieties whose pomace cell walls present high proanthocyanin binding capacity and of processing methods that could enhance their adsorption properties could be of great interest. This study compared the proanthocyanin adsorption properties of pomace cell wall material from three different grape varieties (Monastrell, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), and the results were compared with those obtained using fresh grape cell walls. Also, the effect of the vinification method has been studied. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins in the solution after reaction with the cell wall material, using phloroglucinolysis and size exclusion chromatography, provided quantitative and qualitative information on the adsorbed and nonadsorbed compounds. A highlight of this study was the observation that Monastrell pomace cell wall material showed a strong affinity for proanthocyanidins, with values similar to that obtained for fresh grapes cell walls, and a preferential binding of high molecular mass proanthocyanidins, so these pomace cell walls could be used in wines to reduce astringency. The use of maceration enzymes during vinification had little effect on the retention capacity of the pomace cell walls obtained from this vinification, although an increase in the retention of low molecular mass proanthocyanidins was observed, and this might have implications for wine sensory properties.

  13. A Wireless and Portable Electronic Nose to Differentiate Musts of Different Ripeness Degree and Grape Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aleixandre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two novel applications using a portable and wireless sensor system (e-nose for the wine producing industry—The recognition and classification of musts coming from different grape ripening times and from different grape varieties—Are reported in this paper. These applications are very interesting because a lot of varieties of grapes produce musts with low and similar aromatic intensities so they are very difficult to distinguish using a sensory panel. Therefore the system could be used to monitor the ripening evolution of the different types of grapes and to assess some useful characteristics, such as the identification of the grape variety origin and to prediction of the wine quality. Ripening grade of collected samples have been also evaluated by classical analytical techniques, measuring physicochemical parameters, such as, pH, Brix, Total Acidity (TA and Probable Grade Alcoholic (PGA. The measurements were carried out for two different harvests, using different red (Barbera, Petit Verdot, Tempranillo, and Touriga and white (Malvar, Malvasía, Chenin Blanc, and Sauvignon Blanc grape musts coming from the experimental cellar of the IMIDRA at Madrid. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Probabilistic Neural Networks (PNN have been used to analyse the obtained data by e-nose. In addition, and the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA method has been carried out to correlate the results obtained by both technologies.

  14. Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Aguilar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside and phenolic acids (caftaric acid were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits.

  15. Safety Evaluation of the Grape Marc Spirit by GC-FID Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated grape marc spirits regarding their safety on consumers. Major volatile compounds which present risk to human health (such as methanol, furfural, and acetaldehyde and ethyl alcohol content were compared to European Union Regulation and other values found in previous studies.  The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety of grape marc spirits considering their content in major volatile compounds by comparison with the requirements of European Union Regulation. We investigated the ethyl alcohol content by electronic densimetry and 10 major volatile compounds (acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol, amyl active alcohol and furfural by Gas Chromatography coupled with Flame Ionization Detector. We used reference chemicals to identify these compounds and 3-pentanol as internal standard to quantify the volatiles. Results were compared with the requirements of European Union Regulation. All major volatile compounds registered values in accordance to EU Regulation and the grape pomace spirits samples do not present any kind of risk for consumption.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... 1Department of General Animal Science and Animal Nutrition, Patuakhali ... be beneficial for human health (Liu, 2003; Georgiev et al., ... because of their diverse biological functions (Gulluce et .... active against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram- .... Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive.

  17. Inverse method to estimate kinetic degradation parameters of grape anthocyanins in wheat flour under simultaneously changing temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K P K; Dolan, K D; Ng, P K W

    2009-06-01

    Thermal and moisture effects on grape anthocyanin degradation were investigated using solid media to simulate processing at temperatures above 100 degrees C. Grape pomace (anthocyanin source) mixed with wheat pastry flour (1: 3, w/w dry basis) was used in both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments by heating the same mixture at 43% (db) initial moisture in steel cells in an oil bath at 80, 105, and 145 degrees C. To determine the effect of moisture on anthocyanin degradation, the grape pomace-wheat flour mixture was heated isothermally at 80 degrees C at constant moisture contents of 10%, 20%, and 43% (db). Anthocyanin degradation followed a pseudo first-order reaction with moisture. Anthocyanins degraded more rapidly with increasing temperature and moisture. The effects of temperature and moisture on the rate constant were modeled according to the Arrhenius and an exponential relationship, respectively. The nonisothermal reaction rate constant and activation energy (mean +/- standard error) were k(80 degrees C, 43% (db) moisture) = 2.81 x 10(-4)+/- 1.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) and DeltaE = 75273 +/- 197 J/g mol, respectively. The moisture parameter for the exponential model was 4.28 (dry basis moisture content)(-1). One possible application of this study is as a tool to predict the loss of anthocyanins in nutraceutical products containing grape pomace. For example, if the process temperature history and moisture history in an extruded snack fortified with grape pomace is known, the percentage anthocyanin loss can be predicted.

  18. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  19. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose from Different Fruit and Vegetable Pomaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szymańska-Chargot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new fractionation process was developed to achieve valorization of fruit and vegetable pomaces. The importance of the residues from fruits and vegetables is still growing; therefore; the study presents the novel route of a fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Hence, the biorefinery process is expected to convert them into various by-products offering a great diversity of low-cost materials. The final product of the process is the cellulose of the biofuel importance. The study presents the novel route of the fractioning process for the conversion of agro-industrial biomasses, such as pomaces, into useful feedstocks with a potential application in the fields of fuels, chemicals, and polymers. Therefore the aim of this paper was to present the novel route of the pomaces fraction and the characterization of residuals. Pomaces from apple, cucumber, carrot, and tomato were treated sequentially with water, acidic solution, alkali solution, and oxidative reagent in order to obtain fractions reach in sugars, pectic polysaccharides, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Pomaces were characterized by dry matter content, neutral detergent solubles, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Obtained fractions were characterized by the content of pectins expressed as galacturonic acid equivalent and hemicelluloses expressed as a xyloglucan equivalent. The last fraction and residue was cellulose characterized by crystallinity degree by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, microfibril diameter by atomic force microscope (AFM, and overall morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The hemicelluloses content was similar in all pomaces. Moreover, all the materials were characterized by the high pectins level in extracts evaluated as galacturonic acid content. The lignins content compared with other plant biomasses was on a

  1. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  2. Antioxidant activity of grape skin aqueous extracts from pressurized hot water extraction combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, Lenka; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2011), s. 2233-2240 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : antioxidant activity of grape skin polyphenols * PHWE * EPR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2011

  3. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  4. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  5. Effectiveness of Fibers from “Cabernet Sauvignon” (Vitis vinifera Pomace as Fining Agents for Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Gil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings have highlighted the potential of fibers from grape cell wall material to be fining agents for red wines as alternatives to animal-derived proteins. The affinity of those fibers for grape proanthocyanidins (also known as condensed tannins seems to depend on the initial phenolic composition of the wines to be fined and on the applied dose of fibers. In the present work, “Cabernet Sauvignon” grapes were harvested at three different maturity levels and used for making red wine. The pomaces of the three vinifications were used to obtain the cell wall fibers. Each wine was treated with the three purified fibers at two different doses (0.2 g/L and 2.5 g/L under winery-like conditions in order to check the potential of fibers as fining agents. Color and phenolic composition of the treated wines were determined immediately after the treatments and after four and nine months of wine bottle ageing. The effectiveness of the fining strongly depends on the initial wine matrix. Wines treated at high doses had lower color density and higher hue than control untreated wines. Small differences were observed in the phenolic content of the treated wines. Those differences were dose dependent and almost disappeared after several months of ageing. The maturity of the grapes from which the fibers came had no influence on the effectiveness of the fining. Additionally, there was no evidence of polysaccharide release from the fibers to the wine.

  6. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  7. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  8. Extraction of pectin from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helene Canteri-Schemin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As apple-processing units are now in expansion in Brazil, industrial by-products like pomace play an important role in pectin manufacture. The objective of this article was to determine a pratical follow-up to the extraction of pectin from apple pomace and to characterize it in a laboratory, on a small scale, aiming at establishing the optimum conditions for acid extraction. The highest yields were obtained when [1]apple pomace was dried and ground to obtain an apple flour to be used as raw material, [2] citric or nitric acids were used and [3] when the citric acid concentration was 6.2 g/100 ml and the time of reaction was 153 minutes. The apple variety in itself was not significant in pectin yield. The degree of esterification (DE = 68.84 % of the product obtained, as well as its physical looks, show the success of pectin extraction.No aproveitamento de resíduos das indústrias processadoras de maçã, em expansão no Brasil, a pectina alimentícia surge como importante subproduto. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram os seguintes: extração e caracterização da pectina de bagaço de maçã em bancada, em que as condições para maior rendimento de obtenção em relação ao tipo de ácido, ao tamanho das partículas e à variedade de maçã foram estabelecidas. Objetivou-se também a otimização da produção, levando-se em conta o tempo e a concentração do ácido cítrico. Foram considerados métodos de extração mais eficientes quanto ao rendimento: [1] acidificação com ácido cítrico ou ácido nítrico, [2] cominuição do bagaço, usando a farinha como matéria-prima, com partículas retidas no tamis de 106 µm, [3] concentração de ácido de 6,2 g% e tempo de extração de 153 minutos. A variedade da maçã não interferiu significativamente no rendimento. A alta metoxilação (DE= 68,84% das pectinas produzidas em bancada confirma o grau de maturidade das matérias-primas usadas nos experimentos.

  9. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... composition and estimation of nutritive value of dried tomato pomace (DTP) using in vitro gas ... of processed products such as tomato juice, paste, puree ..... of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance.

  10. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble) juice pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdevenes, Chad G; Gao, Chi; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Yagiz, Yavuz; Gu, Liwei

    2018-03-24

    Muscadine grape pomace, a by-product of juicing and wine-making, contains significant amounts of anthocyanin 3,5-diglucosides, known to be beneficial to human health. The objective of this research was to use mathematical modeling to investigate the adsorption/desorption characteristics of these anthocyanins from muscadine grape pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column. Anthocyanins were extracted using hot water and ultrasound, and the extracts were loaded onto a resin column at five bed depths (5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) using three flow rates (4, 6 and 8 mL min -1 ). It was found that adsorption on the column fitted the bed depth service time (BDST) model and the empty bed residence time (EBRT) model. Desorption was achieved by eluting the column using ethanol at four concentrations (25, 40, 55 and 70% v/v) and could be described with an empirical sigmoid model. The breakthrough curves of anthocyanins fitted the BDST model for all three flow rates with R 2 values of 0.983, 0.992 and 0.984 respectively. The EBRT model was successfully employed to find the operating lines, which allow for column scale-up while still achieving similar results to those found in a laboratory operation. Desorption with 40% (v/v) ethanol achieved the highest recovery rate of anthocyanins at 79.6%. The mathematical models established in this study can be used in designing a pilot/industrial- scale column for the separation and concentration of anthocyanins from muscadine juice pomace. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  13. Offline combination of pressurized fluid extraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for antioxidant activity of grape skin extracts assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polovka, M.; Šťavíková, Lenka; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 51 (2010), s. 7990-8000 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized fluid extraction * electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  14. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  15. Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siragakis, George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing. Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil, like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras. Los pasos de refinación son: decantado, neutralización, decoloración, y desodorización. La monitorización de una refinación efectiva así como el uso de procesos que eliminen una menor proporción de componentes menores del aceite de oliva, tales como polifenoles y tocoferoles, son algunos de los objetivos del proceso. La rigurosa normativa medioambiental y el interés de la industria por introducir mejoras y ahorro de costes han forzado a los fabricantes de equipos a innovar y desarrollar nuevos productos. La eliminación completa de los hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos durante el refinado del aceite de orujo y la utilización de los destilados son también áreas importantes de investigación y desarrollo.

  16. Effects of different levels of dried tomato pomace on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on performance, egg quality and serum metabolites in laying hens. A total of one hundred and forty four LOHMANN LSL-LITE hens were randomly allocated into 4 groups consisting of 6 replicates, each replicate has 6 birds.

  17. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  18. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Cruz Viggi, Carolina, E-mail: carolina.cruzviggi@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Toro, Luigi [Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  19. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Apple pomace improves gut health in Fisher rats independent of seed content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Krath, Britta N.; Markowski, Jarosław

    2018-01-01

    The mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effects of apple pomace, a polyphenol- and fibre rich by-product in apple juice production, was investigated. Groups of male F344 rats were fed a control feed or the same feed with 2.1% or 6.5% dry apple pomace with or without seeds for 4 weeks. Effects...... to the fibre and other fruit constituents present in the pomace. Presence of apple seeds seems to impart no toxicity even at 6.5% pomace in the feed and seeds also had no influence on the biological effect of the pomace. In the future, apple pomace could potentially be used as a bioactive and possibly health...

  1. Production of Geotrichum candidum polygalacturonases via solid state fermentation on grape pomace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Illková, K.; Zemková, Z.; Flodrová, Dana; Jäger, J.; Benkovská, Dagmar; Omelková, J.; Vadkertiová, R.; Bobálová, Janette; Stratilová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 852-860 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : geotrichum candidum * exopolygalacturonase * endopolygalacturonase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  2. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  3. Effect of Superfine Grinding on Physicochemical Properties of Apple Pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, X.; Sun, J.; Ma, H.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of superfine grinding on the physicochemical properties of apple pomace was investigated in this study. The optimal ultrafine powder could be obtained under the conditions of motor speed 450 rpm and fan speed 300 rpm, whose particle size, water-solubility index, angle of repose, total phenolic content and total sugar content were 10.23±0.42 micro m, 33.65±0.91 percent, 39.36±1.59 degree, 12.62±0.34 mg GAE/g and 136.14±3.1 mg/g, respectively. Compared with the traditional powder, the significant increase of water-solubility, total phenolic content and total sugar content could be found while the decrease of angle of repose could be observed. It could be concluded that the bioavailability of functional and nutritional ingredients of apple pomace could be significantly improved by superfine grinding. (author)

  4. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  5. The Use of Grape Seed Byproducts Rich in Flavonoids to Improve the Antioxidant Potential of Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Jara-Palacios

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of adding seeds from grape pomace during Syrah wine fermentation in a warm climate has been studied. Seeds of Pedro Ximenez variety were rich in phenolic compounds, mainly flavonoids such as catechin and procyanidins. Changes in total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant activity of red wines were observed. These changes depended on the vinification stage and the amount of seeds (SW: 450 g or DW: 900 g seeds/150 kg grapes applied. In general, antioxidant activity was greater when a simple dose (SW was considered. Results indicate that seeds rich in flavonoids could be used as wine additives, which could improve the antioxidant potential of red wines in a warm climate.

  6. Quality of pomegranate pomace as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Lech, Krzysztof; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; Figiel, Adam; Wojdyło, Aneta; Wasilewska, Malwina; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-03-01

    During the industrial manufacturing of pomegranate juice, large amounts of pomace are produced. The aim of this work was to find the effective method to dry pomegranate pomace to open new commercial applications for this co-product. The effects of three drying methods: (i) convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C; (ii) vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 240, 360, and 480 W, and (iii) a combined method (CPD-VMFD); convective pre-drying (60 °C) followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (360 W), on drying kinetics and quality of PomP (pomegranate pomace obtained after preparing pomegranate juice by squeezing only arils) were evaluated. The shortest treatments were VMD at 240 and 360 W (52 and 33 min, respectively); besides, these treatments led to interesting values of the green-red coordinate, a *, (12.2 and 4.1, respectively), total phenolic content (4.0 and 4.1 mg eq gallic acid g -1  dry weight, respectively), and antioxidant activity (30.8 and 29.0 µmol g -1  dry weight, respectively). On the other hand, this study demonstrated that this co-product is a rich source of punicic acid (average value = 66.4%), being a good opportunity for the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Moreover, no significant changes in the fatty acid profile was observed as affected by the drying treatments, and no off-flavors were generated by any of the drying methods.

  7. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  8. Olive pomace based lightweight concrete, an experimental approach and contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Amel Chaabane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to conventional aggregates resources depletion, material recycling has become an economic and ecologic alternative. In this paper, locally available natural residues such as olive pomace were investigated, when partially incorporated in the concrete formulation, since the mechanical characteristics of lightweight aggregate concrete strongly depend on its properties and proportions. Lightweight aggregates are more deformable than the cement matrix because of their high porosity, and their influence on the concrete strength remains complex. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the aggregates properties on lightweight concrete mechanical behaviour through an experimental approach. In addition, the different substitution sequences and the W/C ratio on lightweight concrete behaviour were evaluated, in order to determine the W/C ratio influence on the improvement of the lightweight concrete mechanical properties while knowing that the mixing water quantity gives the cement paste manoeuvrability and mechanical strength effects. The last part of this paper, therefore, was to provide statistical survey for estimating strength and weight reduction through the different natural aggregate substitutions to improve the lightweight concrete properties. The results achieved in a significant olive-pomace lower adhesion with the matrix after the cement setting, making the lightweight concrete mechanical strength weak. However, this work can open several perspectives: Results modeling and correlation with an experimental approach, the evolution and determination of lightweight concrete characteristics when exposed to high temperatures and thermohydric properties.

  9. LIKUIFASI ENZIMATIK β - KAROTEN SEBAGAI FUNCTIONAL FOOD YANG TERDAPAT DALAM POMACE DARI BUAH LABU KUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosa Herry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to separate the β carotene contained in pomace or pulp byproduct pumpkin fruit juicing process(Cucurbitae moschata is potential. The magnitude of benefit of β-carotene as a chemo preventive, high contentof β-carotene in pumpkin, strong pumpkin fruit shelf life and high content of β-carotene in the pomace, an initialconsideration of this research. β-Carotene enzmatik liquefaction using pectinase enzyme combination (P andcellulose (C, subject to the pomace. liquefaction / hydrolysis carried out in a stirred tank reactor to determine:the most influential variable ratio between enzyme ratio P: C; temperature and pH. Influential process variableswas determined using two-level factorial design method Quicker. From the experimental results of the data if itis known that the degree of acidity of pH is the single most influential variable in the process of β-caroteneliquefaction presents in pumpkin fruit pomace.

  10. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using in vitro gas ... The results showed that the crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), ... could be used as a valuable food industrial by-product in ruminant nutrition.

  11. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de......The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used......-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data...

  12. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Possibility of using apple pomaces in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piwowarek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.

  14. Production of Bioethanol from Carrot Pomace Using the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi-Yang Yu; Bo-Hong Jiang; Kow-Jen Duan [Tatung University, Tapei, Taiwan (China). Department of Bioengineering

    2013-03-15

    Carrot pomace, a major agricultural waste from the juice industry, was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production by fermentation with the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Treatment of the carrot pomace with Accellerase(TM) 1000 and pectinase at 50 °C for 84 h, resulted in conversion of 42% of its mass to fermentable sugars, mainly glucose, fructose, and sucrose. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 42 °C was performed on 10% (w/v) carrot pomace; the concentration of ethanol reached 18 g/L and the yield of ethanol from carrot pomace was 0.18 g/g. The highest ethanol concentration of 37 g/L was observed with an additional charge of 10% supplemented to the original 10% of carrot pomace after 12 h; the corresponding yield was 0.185 g/g. Our results clearly demonstrated the potential of combining a SSF process with thermotolerant yeast for the production of bioethanol using carrot pomace as a feedstock.

  15. Evaluation of Apple Pomace as a Raw Material for Alternative Applications in Food Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Falqué

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the potential of apple pomace as a raw material for manufacturing food-related products (such as lactic acid, fiber-rich concentrates and pectin, samples from cider industry were assayed for composition and enzymatic digestibility. Alcohol-soluble compounds (monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and malic acid accounted for 32–45 mass percent of oven-dry pomace. Glucose and fructose were the major components of this fraction. The alcohol-insoluble fraction accounted for 55–68 mass percent of oven-dry pomace and was mainly made up of neutral detergent fiber (62–69 percent of the mass fraction and pectin (16.2–19.7 percent of the mass fraction. The feedstock content of N, P and metal ions (K, Mg, Fe and Mn was favourable for further manufacture of lactic acid fermentation media. Apple pomace showed a high susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis: in media with a cellulase loading of 8.5 FPU/g of apple pomace and a cellobiase loading of 5 IU/FPU, about 80 % of the total glucan was converted into glucose after 15 h. Considering the low enzyme charge, liquor to solid ratio employed, reaction time needed to achieve the maximal sugars concentration and N, P and metal ion (K, Mg, Fe and Mn content of samples, it can be concluded that apple pomace is a promising raw material for lactic acid production.

  16. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  17. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Plaza, C.; Saja, J.A. de; Fernández-Escudero, J.A.; Barajas, E.; Medrano, G.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  18. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  19. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

  1. Application of rice rhizosphere microflora for hydrogen production from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Tetsuya [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hisami [Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Abe, Jun [AE-Bio, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Morita, Shigenori [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The combination of substrate materials and bacteria is an important factor affecting conversion technology for biological hydrogen production. We performed anaerobic hydrogen fermentation of apple pomace wastes using rhizosphere bacterial microflora of rice as the parent inoculum. In the vial test, the optimal condition for hydrogen fermentation was initial pH 6.0, 35 C, and 73.4 g pomace per liter of medium (equivalent to 10 g-hexose/L). In the batch experiment (pH 6.0, temperature 35 C) the hydrogen yield reached 2.3 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-hexose. The time course of biogas production and PCR-DGGE analysis suggest that Clostridium spp. decomposed degradable carbohydrates rapidly and a part of the refractory carbohydrate (e.g. pectin) gradually in the apple pomace slurry. In addition to hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced in the anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace, which can be a substrate for methane fermentation. The rice rhizosphere can be a promising source of inoculum bacteria for hydrogen fermentation in combination with plant material waste like apple pomace. (author)

  2. Single screw extrusion of apple pomace-enriched blends: Extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2018-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the single screw extrusion of apple pomace-defatted soy flour-corn grits blends and the product properties. Five different blends at a level of 0-20% w/w apple pomace were extrusion cooked with varied barrel and die temperature (100-140℃), screw speed (100-200 rpm), and feed moisture content (14-20% wet basis). Increasing apple pomace content in the blends significantly ( P extrudates. The expansion ratio increased with pomace inclusion level of 5% but decreased significantly ( P extruded snack products were at 140℃ barrel and die temperature, 20% feed moisture content, and 200 rpm screw speed. The results indicated active interaction between apple pomace and starch during expansion process.

  3. Dissecting the polysaccharide-rich grape cell wall matrix using recombinant pectinases during winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A; Moore, John P

    2016-11-05

    The effectiveness of enzyme-mediated-maceration in red winemaking relies on the use of an optimum combination of specific enzymes. A lack of information on the relevant enzyme activities and the corresponding polysaccharide-rich berry cell wall structure is a major limitation. This study used different combinations of purified recombinant pectinases with cell wall profiling tools to follow the deconstruction process during winemaking. Multivariate data analysis of the glycan microarray (CoMPP) and gas chromatography (GC) results revealed that pectin lyase performed almost as effectively in de-pectination as certain commercial enzyme mixtures. Surprisingly the combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin-methyl-esterase only unraveled the cell walls without de-pectination. Datasets from the various combinations used confirmed pectin-rich and xyloglucan-rich layers within the grape pomace. These data support a proposed grape cell wall model which can serve as a foundation to evaluate testable hypotheses in future studies aimed at developing tailor-made enzymes for winemaking scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste utilization of apple pomace as a source of functional ingredient in buffalo meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace was analyzed for its proximate analysis which showed protein content of 4.50% and total dietary fiber of 62.67%. Its functional properties were also carried out which showed high water- and oil-holding capacity of 3.89 gH2O g−1 Solid and 1.92 ml g−1, respectively. Its antimicrobial activity was also found against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and L. monocytogenes. Further, it has shown lower in vitro glucose retardation index. Buffalo meat sausages incorporated with apple pomace powder showed high cooking yield and emulsion stability of 94.46% and 74.70, respectively, as compared to control sausage. Additionally, the dietary fiber content got enhanced with the incorporation of apple pomace powder as expected.

  5. Pomace waste management scenarios in Québec--impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S K; Pelletier, F; Verma, M; Godbout, S; Tyagi, R D

    2011-09-15

    Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, "pomace" contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO(2) eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO(2) eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to consideration of some assumptions in order to calculate GHG emissions. Hence, supplementary experimental studies will be very important to calculate the GHG emissions coefficients during agro-industrial waste management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Miranda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene, sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide, 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  7. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassara, Fatma; Brar, S.K.; Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S.; Tyagi, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. → Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace → Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO 2 eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO 2 eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data in the literature which led to

  8. Pomace waste management scenarios in Quebec-Impact on greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassara, Fatma [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Brar, S.K., E-mail: satinder.brar@ete.inrs.ca [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada); Pelletier, F.; Verma, M.; Godbout, S. [Institut de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement inc. (IRDA), 2700 rue Einstein, Quebec (Quebec), Canada G1P 3W8 (Canada); Tyagi, R.D. [INRS-ETE, Universite du Quebec, 490, Rue de la Couronne, Quebec, Canada G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Incineration, landfill, animal feed, enzyme production by fermentation and, composting as apple pomace management strategies. {yields} Reduction of GHG emissions using solid state fermentation of apple pomace {yields} Highest GHG emissions during landfill. - Abstract: Fruit processing industries generate tremendous amount of solid wastes which is almost 35-40% dry weight of the total produce used for the manufacturing of juices. These solid wastes, referred to as, 'pomace' contain high moisture content (70-75%) and biodegradable organic load (high BOD and COD values) so that their management is an important issue. During the management of these pomace wastes by different strategies comprising incineration, landfill, composting, solid-state fermentation to produce high-value enzymes and animal feed, there is production of greenhouse gases (GHG) which must be taken into account. In this perspective, this study is unique that discusses the GHG emission analysis of agro-industrial waste management strategies, especially apple pomace waste management and repercussions of value-addition of these wastes in terms of their sustainability using life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The results of the analysis indicated that, among all the apple pomace management sub-models for a functional unit, solid-state fermentation to produce enzymes was the most effective method for reducing GHG emissions (906.81 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year), while apple pomace landfill resulted in higher GHG emissions (1841.00 tons CO{sub 2} eq. per year). The assessment and inventory of GHG emissions during solid-state fermentation gave positive indications of environmental sustainability for the use of this strategy to manage apple pomace and other agricultural wastes, particularly in Quebec and also extended to other countries. The analysis and use of parameters in this study were drawn from various analytical approaches and data sources. There was absence of some data

  9. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  10. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of dried tomato pomace and a multiple- enzyme mixture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... liquor and unprocessed green tomatoes picked by .... 6 mg; choline chloride, 200,000 mg; manganese, 40,000 mg; iron, 20,000 mg; zinc, 40,000 mg, copper, 4,000mg; ..... tomato pomace for laying and meat type cockerels.

  12. Fractionation and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenol-enriched extracts from apple pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianli Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive polyphenols are the predominant ingredients in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. The present work focused on fractionation of ethanol extract of apple pomace using macroporous absorbent resin chromatography and HPLC analysis of all fractions recovered from polyphenol-enriched extract and their inhibitory effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in lipo-polysaccharides (LPS -induced mouse RAW 264.7 cell line. Six fractions API-VI were achieved through fractionation eluting with aqueous alcohol. HPLC analysis indicated that APIII eluted by 40% ethanol had the highest content of total phenolics, which was 148.1 ± 3.11 mg gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of dry apple pomace. Anti-inflammatory assays showed that APIII had the strongest activity against COX-2 expression at 5 ?g mL-1 and procyanidin B2 and quercetin exhibited positive correlation with their anti-inflammatory effects. Our data suggested that phenolics could be prepared from apple pomace and applied in the management of inflammatory diseases.

  13. Effect of blueberry extract from blueberry pomace on the microencapsulated fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the addition of blueberry extract (BE) obtained from blueberry pomace on lipid oxidation of pollock liver oil (PO) during microencapsulation was evaluated. An emulsion containing PO and BE (EBE) was prepared and spray dried in a pilot scale spray dryer. Thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) of ...

  14. Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Bianchini, Andreia

    2014-11-15

    This study characterised pineapple pomace (PP) and evaluated its application in extrusion to enhance fibre content of the final product. The pomace had low fat (0.61%) and high dietary fibre (45.22%), showing its potential for fibre enrichment of nutritionally poor products, as some extruded snacks. Results also showed low microbiological counts, water activity, and pH indicating good microbiological quality and low risk of physicochemical deterioration. During extrusion, pomace (0%, 10.5% and 21%), moisture (14%, 15% and 16%) and temperature (140 and 160°C) were evaluated. The PP addition decreased expansion and luminosity; while increasing redness of the extrudates compared to the control (0% pomace/14% moisture/140°C). When hardness, yellowness, water absorption, and bulk density were compared to the control, there was no effect (p>0.05) of 10.5% PP addition on the extrudates, indicating that, at this level, PP could be added without affecting the properties of the final extruded product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  16. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  17. Dilute-acid hydrolysis of apple, orange, apricot and peach pomaces as potential candidates for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Üçüncü, Can; Tarı, Canan; Demir, Hande; Büyükkileci, Ali Oğuz; Özen, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of four selected fruit pomaces (agro-industrial wastes) was evaluated. The effect of temperature, time, acid concentration and solid:liquid (S:L) ratio on dilute-acid hydrolysis of selected pomaces were investigated using 24 factorial and central composite design and optimum hydrolysis conditions were determined. A preliminary study was initiated using apple hydrolysate and the fungus Tricoderma harzianum in order to explore and demonstrate their potential uses in bioetha...

  18. The effect of a diet supplemented with sea-buckthorn pomace on the colour and viscosity of the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn pomace is a very valuable product which contains not only important nutrients but also high-quality oils. The question addressed in the present study was to what extent the diet containing the sea-buckthorn pomace would affect the viscosity and colour of egg yolk measured in the CIELAB system. The feeding mixture for laying hens was supplemented with 20; 50 and 100 g∙kg-1 of sea-buckthorn pomace. As a result, colour indices of the egg yolk such as L*, a* and b* changed significantly (α = 0.01. The greatest relative enhancement was observed for indicator a* for the red colour. Visually, this corresponds to the more intense orange colour of the egg yolk. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet for laying hens resulted in a larger increase in indicator ∆E* (CIE total colour difference compared to the control group. Colour indicator hab is the only indicator whose value oscillated around that determined for the control group. The addition of sea-buckthorn pomace to the diet resulted in an increase in colour indices a*, b* and C*ab. Indicator ∆E* also increased significantly with an increasing amount of sea-buckthorn pomace in a diet. Egg yolks were darker, had more intense red and yellow colours, and showed lower viscosity which are all features preferred by the consumer.

  19. The influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential raw materials which could be used for production of food with added nutritional value is tomato pomace, a by-product from tomato processing. On the other hand, requirements of consumers for diverse food with potential for health benefits impose the need for creation of products made from different cereals. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies. The whole grain rye flour was substituted with tomato pomace powder in two levels (15% and 25% in the standard formulation of short-dough cookie. The quality of final products was evaluated by instrumental and sensory methods. The results clearly demonstrated that redness (+a* and yellowness (+b* were highly influenced by level of tomato pomace in the cookie formulations due to its content of carotenoid pigments. The spread factor of the cookies made with addition of tomato pomace powder was higher than the control sample. Hardness of the cookie samples decreased for approximately 50% for the cookie sample with 25% tomato pomace level substitution when compared with control sample. According to the results of sensory analysis, substitution level of 15% caused decrease of surface roughness, fracturability, and granularity, as well as increase of caramel flavour intensity. Substitution level of 25% caused higher degree of cookie softening and more pronounced tomato flavour.

  20. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  1. Quality Characteristics of Frankfurters Formulated with Apricot Pomace Obtained from Apricot Juice Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çilem Purma Adıbelli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of dried apricot pomace (AP on the technological, nutritional and sensory quality of frankfurters were investigated. Frankfurters formulated with 5% AP showed better quality compared to the addition of 10 and 15% AP. Protein and fat content decreased as the concentration of added AP was over 5%. AP addition resulted in lower pH and energy values. Frankfurters formulated with AP had higher cooking and process yield values. AP addition resulted with decrement in lightness and increment in yellowness of samples. 5% addition of AP resulted in good sensory scores. The results indicate that apricot pomace could be an effective functional ingredient in emulsion type meat products.

  2. Direct esterification of olive-pomace oil using mesoporous silica supported sulfonic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Alrouh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 containing propyl sulfonic acid groups were synthesized according to the literature and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption and the H+ exchange capacities of the sulfonic acid groups were titrated. The esterification reaction of glycerol with olive-pomace oil has been carried out by using prepared functionalized mesoporous silica (MCM-41 and SBA-15 as catalysts. It has been monitored by GC two fatty acids (palmitic and oleic acids as reactants in olive-pomace oil and their related monoacylglycerols (Glycerol monopalmitate GMP and monooleate GMO as reaction product. The catalytic activities of the functionalized mesoporous silica were compared with commercial catalysts, these included homogeneous catalysts (p-toluenesulfonic acid and heterogeneous catalysts (Amberlyst-15. The total yield of monoacylglycerols (GMO + GMP was nearly 40%. Remarkably, we found that MCM-41-SO3H was recycled at least 3 times without any loss of activity.

  3. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Lara, M A; Pagnanelli, F; Mainelli, S; Calero, M; Toro, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP>HPOP>OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na(+) in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  5. RBF–ARX model of an industrial furnace for drying olive pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova-Peláez, P.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Palomar-Carnicero, J.M.; Dorado, R.; López-García, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model a real furnace, fuelled with orujo, used to dry olive pomace. ► We apply a radial basic functions–auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs–RBFs) method. ► Root-mean-square error and r 2 are used to validate the ARX–RBF model. - Abstract: Drying operations are common in food industries. One of the main components in a drying system is the furnace. The furnace operation involves heat–mass transfer and combustion, thus it demands a complex mathematic representation. Since autoregressive methods are simple, and help to simulate rapidly a system, we model a drying furnace of olive pomace via an auto-regression with exogenous variables (ARXs) method. A neural network of radial basic functions (RBFs) defines the ARX experimental relation between the amounts of dry pomace (moisture content of 15%) used like fuel and the temperature of outlet gases. A real industrial furnace is studied to validate the proposed model, which can help to control the drying process.

  6. Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M L; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Pynam, Hasitha; Bhimangouder, Shivaleela V; Eipson, Sushma W; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam; Nanjarajurs, Shashirekha M

    2016-04-01

    Apple pomace (AP), the residue that remains after the extraction of juice from apple accounts for ~25 % of total apple weight. Current study is aimed at identification of phytochemicals and utilization of Dehydrated apple pomace (DAP) in the preparation of bakery products with potential health benefits. DAP was prepared by drying the pomace obtained by crushing peeled apple fruits. DAP was incorporated into bakery products such as bun, muffin and cookies for value addition. Bioactivity such as free radical scavenging, cyto/DNA protectivity was evaluated in these products. DAP contained 17 g/100 g starch, 49.86 g/100 g fructose and 37 g/100 g dietary fibre. The phenolics and flavonoids content was 1.5 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g, respectively. Increase in DAP resulted in decreased volume and enhanced firmness of buns and muffins. DAP at 15 % in buns, 30 % in muffins and 20 % in cookies were found to be acceptable. DAP blended products exhibited better free radical scavenging as well as cyto/DNA protective properties suggesting the retention of bioactivity after baking. Addition of DAP potentially enhanced the bioactivity of the products evaluated.

  7. Bio-based fractions by hydrothermal treatment of olive pomace: Process optimization and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazan, Aslihan; Celiktas, Melih Soner; Sargin, Sayit; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Olive pomace was utilized based on biorefinery concept. • Protein extraction in the high pressure reactor yielded 231 mg protein/L. • LHW treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis yielded 93.7% of the fermentable sugars. • At the end of the consecutive steps, 94.4% of the lignin present in the biomass were recovered. • Obtained hydrolysate was further converted to bioethanol. - Abstract: Olive pomace is an important lignocellulosic biomass for Mediterranean countries which is released in large quantities during industrial olive oil production and used for heating purposes for many years. In this study, the aim was to investigate the use of olive pomace to obtain value added fractions namely, proteins, fermentable sugars and lignin by sustainable biorefinery approach applying a sequence of high pressure extraction and hydrolysis. After pretreatment steps, 93.7% of the fermentable sugars and 94.4% of the lignin that present in the biomass were recovered. Liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment was shown to enhance the yield of enzymatic hydrolysis by an increase of 95.23%. The obtained sugars were used to produce bioethanol and based on the consumed sugar the yield and productivity were determined as 15.25% and 0.086 kg/m 3 h respectively

  8. Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Lara, M.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: marianml@ugr.es; Pagnanelli, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: francesca.pagnanelli@uniroma1.it; Mainelli, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Calero, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Toro, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Facolta di S.M.F.N., Universita degli Studi ' La Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid-base properties of all investigated biosorbents were characterised by two main kinds of active sites, whose nature and concentration were determined by a mechanistic model assuming continuous distribution for the proton affinity constants. Titration modelling denoted that all investigated biosorbents (OP, PAOP and HPOP) were characterised by the same kinds of active sites (carboxylic and phenolic), but with different total concentrations with PAOP richer than OP and HPOP. Single metal equilibrium studies in batch reactors were carried out to determine the capacity of these sorbents for copper and cadmium ions at constant pH. Experimental data were analysed and compared using the Langmuir isotherm. The order of maximum uptake capacity of copper and cadmium ions on different biosorbents was PAOP > HPOP > OP. The maximum adsorption capacity of copper and cadmium, was obtained as 0.48 and 0.10 mmol/g, respectively, for PAOP. Metal biosorption tests in presence of Na{sup +} in solution were also carried out in order to evaluate the effect of chemical treatment on biomass selectivity. These data showed that PAOP is more selective for cadmium than the other sorbents, while similar selectivity was observed for copper.

  9. Evaluation of Carrot Pomace (Daucus carota L. as Hypocholesterolemic and Hypolipidemic Agent on Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M.R. AFIFY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the attenuating influence of dietary carrot pomace powder (CaPP on hypercholesterolemia and various oxidative stress-associated with biochemical parameters in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thirty two male albino rats weighing 110±10 g were divided into four groups, the first group received the basal diet only and served as (negative control, the second group received the hypercholesterolemic diet and served as positive control, the other groups received hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 10%, 20% CaPP for six weeks. The obtained results revealed that groups supplemented with 10% and 20% CaPP significantly decrease total lipid, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, liver enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase compared to positive and negative groups. Organs weight, body weight gain significantly decreased compared with positive control. Moreover dietary carrot pomace powder can used to reduce the body weight and reducing hypercholesterolemic complications. In addition, dietary carrot pomace powder serves to improve the blood picture and to reduce the blood glucose level in hypercholesterolemic rats and could use in obese people for body loss. Data of kidney function (Urea record an increase in CaPP 20% level (26.9±2.96 but this increase was non significant with the negative control group (26.6±3.1.

  10. The effect of olive-pomace oil on different blood parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.J.; Naveed, A.K.; Khan, S.; Shah, S.Z.H.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of olive-pomace oil on glycemic status and lipid profile in diabetes. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Centre for Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health, Islamabad from March 2010 to June 2011. Material and Methods: Seventy male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were randomly divided into two groups of 35 rats each. Rats were rendered diabetic by injecting streptozotocin. Group 1 and group 2 were given normal rodent diet and olive pomace oil supplemented diet respectively for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured for comparison. Results: There was significant increase in high density lipoprotein and significant decrease of blood glucose, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein of group II rats when compared with group I (control). Conclusion: Olive pomace oil can significantly improve fasting blood glucose and lipid profile in diabetic rats. (author)

  11. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  12. Bioactive compounds in pindo palm (Butia capitata) juice and in pomace resulting of the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachna, Tiphaine J; Hermes, Vanessa S; Flôres, Simone H; Rios, Alessandro O

    2016-03-15

    Pindo palm (Butia capitata, Becc. 1916) is a tropical fruit native to South America and is relatively rich in bioactive compounds. It is often consumed as juice. The aim of this study was, first, to identify the degradation of these compounds by pasteurization and by cold storage (4 °C) of pindo palm juice. Physicochemical properties and concentrations of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C have been evaluated on fresh and pasteurized juices. Moreover, another objective was to characterize the nutritional composition and the bioactive compounds of pindo palm pomace, the by-product of juice processing. The results demonstrated a degradation of carotenoids with pasteurization and a degradation of vitamin C with both pasteurization and cold storage of juices. Furthermore, the evaluation of pindo palm pomace showed that it is relatively rich in total phenols (20.06 g gallic acid equivalents kg(-1) dry matter) and in β-carotene (0.22 g kg(-1) dry matter). Thus, from the nutrition viewpoint, it does not seem interesting to pasteurize juice. On the other hand, extraction of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from the pomace appears to be a relevant process. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  14. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  15. Fermented Apple Pomace as a Feed Additive to Enhance Growth Performance of Growing Pigs and Its Effects on Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran M. Ajila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace is a by-product from the apple processing industry and can be used for the production of many value-added compounds such as enzymes, proteins, and nutraceuticals, among others. An investigation was carried out to study the improvement in the protein content in apple pomace by solid-state fermentation using the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by tray fermentation method. The effect of this protein in terms of how it enriched apple pomace as animal feed for pigs has also been studied. There was a 36% increase in protein content in the experimental diet with 5% w/w fermented apple pomace. The efficiency of conversion of ingested food was increased from 43.5 ± 2.5 to 83.1 ± 4.4 in the control group and the efficiency of conversion of feed increased from 55.4 ± 4.5 to 92.1 ± 3.6 in the experimental group during the animal feed experiment. Similarly, the effect of a protein enriched diet on odor emission and greenhouse gas emission has also been studied. The results demonstrated that the protein enrichment of apple pomace by solid state cultivation of the fungus P. chrysosporium makes it possible to use it as a dietary supplement for pigs.

  16. Physalis peruviana pomace suppresses highcholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana (goldenberry is a promising fruits that can be an ingredient in several functional foods. No reports are available on the effect of the administration of goldenberry pomace on different aspects of the plasma lipid profile in experimental animals. According to the chemical composition of the fruit pomace which includes high levels of bioactive compounds, the hypothesis was that feeding Physalis peruviana pomace may have health-promoting and hypercholesterolemic impacts on rats fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding goldenberry pomace on hypercholesterolemia by analyzing the changes in lipid profiles in HCD fed rats. The chemical composition, lipid profiles (fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols and phenolic contents of the fruit pomace were determined. Generally, rats fed the fruit pomace showed lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triacylglycerol (TAG and total low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol as well as higher levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol in comparison with animals fed HCD and cholesterol free diets (CFD. Histological examinations of the liver and kidney were also studied. The results demonstrated that goldenberry pomace consumption provides overall beneficial effects on reversing HCD associated detrimental changes.Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto es un fruto prometedor que puede ser parte de diferentes alimentos funcionales. No hay datos disponibles sobre el efecto de la administración del orujo de aguaymanto sobre diferentes aspectos del perfil de lipídos plasmáticos en animales de experimentación. De acuerdo con la composición química del orujo de la fruta que incluye altos niveles de compuestos bioactivos, se demostró la hipótesis de que la alimentación con orujo de Physalis peruviana puede tener efectos saludables y sobre la hipercolesterolemia en ratas alimentadas con una dieta alta en colesterol (HCD

  17. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  18. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  19. The rheology, microstructure and sensory characteristics of a gluten-free bread formulation enhanced with orange pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Norah; Doran, Linda; Auty, Mark; Arendt, Elke; Gallagher, Eimear

    2013-12-01

    The present manuscript studied a previously optimised gluten-free bread formulation containing 5.5% orange pomace (OP) in relation to the batter characteristics (i.e. pre-baking), microstructure (of the flours, batter and bread) and sensory characteristics of the bread. Rheology, RVA and mixolab results illustrated that orange pomace improved the robustness of the gluten-free batter and decreased the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. This was confirmed from the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images, which showed potato starch granules to be more expanded in the control batter when compared to the sample containing orange pomace. Starch granules were also observed to be more enlarged and swollen in the CLSM bread images, suggesting a higher level of gelatinisation occurred in the control sample. Sensory analysis was carried out on the optimised and control bread; panellists scored the flavour, crumb appearance and overall acceptability of the OP-containing breads comparable to the control.

  20. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Clifford; Ross, Carolyn F

    2011-09-01

    Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at -20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread. This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  3. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  4. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the heart and blood vessels, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, ... symptoms, including pain and swelling. Treating varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Chronic ...

  5. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  6. Bioconversion of apple pomace into a nutritionally enriched substrate by Candida utilis and Pleurotus ostreatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato; Esposito, E.; de Mendonca, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    , into an enriched substrate with increased digestibility for use as ruminant feed. After C. utilis fermentation, the protein level increased 100% and the mineral content 60%, accompanied by 8.2% of increase in the digestibility. The level of free sugars decreased 97% after substrate supplementation with ammonium...... the fermentation with P. ostreatus alone due to pectin and hemicellulose degradation. Considering the time required for fermentation, the C. utilis treatment was the most efficient treatment to convert apple pomace into a more nutritive substrate for ruminant feed....

  7. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  8. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  9. Use of bottom ash from olive pomace combustion in the production of eco-friendly fired clay bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliche-Quesada, D; Leite-Costa, J

    2016-02-01

    Olive pomace bottom ash was used to replace different amounts (10-50wt%) of clay in brick manufacturing. The aim of this study is both studying bricks properties and showing a new way of olive pomace bottom ash recycling. Properties of waste bricks were compared to conventional products following standard procedures in order to determine the maximum waste percentage. The amount of olive pomace bottom ash is limited to 20wt%, obtaining bricks with superior engineering properties when 10wt% of waste is added. Adding higher amount of waste (30-50wt%) resulted in bricks with water absorption and compressive strength values on the edge of meeting those established by standards. Therefore, the addition of 10 and 20wt% of olive pomace bottom ash produced bricks with a bulk density of 1635 and 1527kg/m(3) and a compressive strength of 33.9MPa and 14.2MPa, respectively. Fired bricks fulfil standards requirements for clay masonry units, offering, at the same time, better thermal insulation of buildings due to a reduction in thermal conductivity of 14.4% and 16.8% respectively, compared to control bricks (only clay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Orange pomace improves postprandial glycemic responses: an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial in overweight men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange pomace (OP), a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-co...

  11. Fate of kelthane residues on apple pomace exposed to drying in the dark, sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, T.E.; Toscano, R.A.

    1972-01-01

    The present investigations were undertaken to determine the fate of Kelthane residues intentionally applied to apples under controlled laboratory conditions and the reduction of these residues in the pomace by exposure to drying in the dark, in sunlight, and ultraviolet light irradiation

  12. Comparative Study between Ethanolic and β-Cyclodextrin Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols from Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada El Darra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach byproducts are often regarded as food waste despite their high content in health-promoting components. Amongst the latter, polyphenols are bioactive molecules with significant health benefits. The present study investigated an eco-friendly and cost-effective method using a GRAS food additive, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, for the recovery of polyphenols from peach pomace. β-CD assisted extraction of polyphenols was compared to that of conventional solvent (ethanol extraction at the same concentrations (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 30 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 50 mg/mL in terms of quality (antiradical activity and quantity. The extract obtained by 50 mg/mL β-CD assisted extraction showed the highest polyphenol (0.72 mg GAE/g DM and flavonoid (0.35 mg catechin/g of DM concentrations as maximal antiradical activity (6.82% and a noted antibacterial activity. Our results showed the competitiveness of β-CD assisted extraction to recover a high quantity and quality of polyphenols from peach pomace suggesting β-CD as a green alternative method for phenolic extraction.

  13. Extraction and characterisation of pomace pectin from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliarti, Oni; Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Mawson, John; Brennan, Charles

    2015-11-15

    Gold kiwifruit pomace extracted using citric acid, water and enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L) were studied in terms of pectin yield, protein, ash, non-starch polysaccharide, galacturonic acid (GalA), neutral sugar composition, molar mass (Mw), viscosity and degree of branching. Water-extracted pectin was considered closest to its native form. Enzyme extracted pectin showed the highest yield (∼ 4.5%w/w) as compared with the acid and water extraction methods (∼ 3.6-3.8%w/w). Pectin obtained from different extraction methods showed different degree of branching. The Mw and root mean square (RMS) radius varied with the extraction methods with values of 8.4 × 10(5) g/mol and 92 nm, 8.5 × 10(5)g/mol and 102 nm, 6.7 × 10(5) g/mol and 52 nm for acid, water and enzymatic extraction methods, respectively. Similar trend was observed for pectin viscosity, with water-extracted pectin giving a slightly higher viscosity followed by acid and enzyme-extracted pectin. This study showed that gold kiwifruit pomace pectin has potential application in food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive pomace valorization by Aspergillus species: lipase production using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Moreira, Cláudia; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Pollution by olive mill wastes is an important problem in the Mediterranean area and novel solutions for their proper management and valorization are needed. The aim of this work was to optimize a solid-state fermentation (SSF) process to produce lipase using olive pomace (OP) as the main source of nutrients by several Aspergillus spp. Optimized variables in two different designs were: ratio between olive pomace and wheat bran (OP:WB), NaNO3 , Czapek nutrients, fermentation time, moisture content (MC) and temperature. Results showed that the mixture OP:WB and MC were the most significant factors affecting lipase production for all fungi strains tested. With MC and temperature optimization, a 4.4-fold increase in A. ibericus lipase was achieved (90.5 ± 1.5 U g(-1) ), using a mixture of OP and WB at 1:1 ratio, 0.02 g NaNO3 g(-1) dry substrate, absence of Czapek nutrients, 60% of MC and incubation at 30 °C for 7 days. For A. niger and A. tubingensis, highest lipase activity obtained was 56.6 ± 5.4 and 7.6 ± 0.6 U g(-1) , respectively. Aspergillus ibericus was found to be the most promising microorganism for lipase production using mixtures of OP and WB. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Ultrasounds pretreatment of olive pomace to improve xylanase and cellulase production by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Paulina; Salgado, José Manuel; Venâncio, Armando; Domínguez, José Manuel; Belo, Isabel

    2016-08-01

    Olive mills generate a large amount of waste that can be revaluated. This work aim to improve the production lignocellulolytic enzymes by solid-state fermentation using ultrasounds pretreated olive mill wastes. The composition of olive mill wastes (crude and exhausted olive pomace) was compared and several physicochemical characteristics were significantly different. The use of both wastes in SSF was evaluated and a screening of fungi for xylanase and cellulase production was carried out. After screening, the use of exhausted olive pomace and Aspergillus niger led to the highest enzyme activities, so that they were used in the study of ultrasounds pre-treatment. The results showed that the sonication led to a 3-fold increase of xylanase activity and a decrease of cellulase activity. Moreover, the liquid fraction obtained from ultrasounds treatment was used to adjust the moisture of solid and a positive effect on xylanase (3.6-fold increase) and cellulase (1.2-fold increase) production was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of supplementation with red wine pomace in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Croft, Kevin D; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-07-19

    Hypertension is associated with enhanced vascular oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function, which is related to an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide bioavailability. Short-term supplementation with a polyphenol-rich powdered red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) was investigated for its effects on blood pressure and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative status in a model of essential hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (12-week-old, 5 rats per group) were administered RWPS (300 mg kg -1 day -1 ; equivalent to 7.32 mg gallic acid per kg per day) or vehicle by gavage. In SHRs, 4-week RWPS supplementation progressively decreased blood pressure, reaching 11.5% reduction at the end of the study (p < 0.001). RWPS consumption also increased the ferric reducing ability of plasma and attenuated the oxidation of plasma lipids and proteins, as evidenced by F 2 -isoprostanes, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups as oxidative stress biomarkers. Moreover, nitric oxide production (indirectly measured) was 1.5-fold higher in SHRs + RWPS than that in SHRs (p < 0.05). These beneficial effects were partly attributed to the ability of RWPS-derived bioactive compounds to modulate aortic gene expression, with eNOS, SOD2 and HO-1 over-expression, ACE down-regulation, and no changes in NOX4. In conclusion, this study suggests the potential of red wine pomace-derived seasonings to help in the management of hypertension.

  17. Chemopreventive Potential of Powdered Red Wine Pomace Seasonings against Colorectal Cancer in HT-29 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; Rivero-Pérez, María D; González-SanJosé, María L; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; García Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-01-11

    This study evaluates the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic actions of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (Sk-S, seedless; W-S, whole; Sd-S, seeds). In vitro gastrointestinal digested and colonic fermented fractions of the seasonings were used as cell treatments. Phenolic acids from Sk-S showed the highest bioaccessibility in the small intestine, whereas polyphenols contained in Sd-S might be the most fermentable in the colon. Dietary fiber from Sk-S was the best substrate for short chain fatty acids production by gut microbiota. Colon cancerous (HT-29) cell viability was inhibited by 50% (IC 50 values) at treatment concentrations ranging from 845 (Sk-S) to 1085 (Sd-S) μg/mL prior digestion, but all digested fractions exhibited similar antiproliferative activities (mean IC 50 = 814 μg/mL). Oxidative DNA damage in cells was also attenuated by the treatments (200 μg/mL, 24 h preincubation), with all colonic fermented fractions displaying similar genoprotective action. These results suggest the potential of red wine pomace seasonings as chemopreventive agents in colorectal cancer.

  18. Modelling the effects of orange pomace using response surface design for gluten-free bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, N; Rößle, C; Arendt, E; Gallagher, E

    2015-01-01

    The development of gluten-free bread creates many challenges; producing bread that will match the properties of its wheat counterpart can be difficult. Fruit by-products are know from literature to contain a high level of dietary fibre which could improve the bread properties and fibre contents of gluten-free bread. Therefore, a mathematical design was created; three variables were identified from preliminary tests (water (85-100% flour weight, OP 0-8% flour weight and proofing time 35-100 min) as being crucial in the development of acceptable bread. Results illustrated longer proofing times (p<0.05) and lower orange pomace levels (OP) (p<0.001) produced a bread with a greater specific volume. OP had the most significant (p<0.0001) effect on hardness at 2h and 24h post-baking. The optimised formulation was calculated to contain 5.5% OP, 94.6% water and a proofing time of 49 min. Total fibre content of the control bread (2.1%) was successfully increased t o 3.9% in the OP containing bread. Substituting gluten-free flours with orange pomace flour can help improve the total dietary intake of a coeliac while not negating on the quality properties of the bread. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential biogas production from agricultural by-products in Sicily. A case study of citrus pulp and olive pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valenti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources represent a suitable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, due to the possible advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction. Anaerobic digestion of biomasses could be considered an environmental friendly way to treat and revalorise large amounts of by-products from farming industries because it ensures both pollution control and energy recovery. Therefore, the objective of this study was to define a methodology for evaluating the potential biogas production available from citrus pulp and olive pomace, which are suitable agricultural by-products for biogas production. In the first phase of the study, the spatial distribution of both olive and citrus-producing areas was analysed in Sicily, a geographical area of the Mediterranean basin highly representative of these types of cultivation. Then, a GIS-based model, which had been previously defined and utilised to evaluate the amount of citrus pulp and olive pomace production, was applied to this case study. Based on the results obtained for the different provinces of Sicily, the province of Catania was chosen as the study area of this work since it showed the highest production of both citrus pulp and olive pomace. Therefore, a further analysis regarded the quantification of olive pomace and citrus pulp at municipal level. The results of this analysis showed that the total amount of available citrus pulp and olive pomace corresponded theoretically to about 11,102,469 Nm3/year biogas. Finally, the methodology adopted in this study made it possible to identify suitable areas for the development of new biogas plants by considering both the spatial distribution of the olive and citrus growing areas and the locations of the existing processing industries.

  20. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  1. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  2. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type) labeling. 4.23 Section 4.23 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the...

  3. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  4. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins...

  5. Evaluation of apple pomace based reconstituted feed in rats after solid state fermentation and ethanol recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devrajan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To utilize apple pomace in an economical and effective way, a feed was developed by solid state fermentation (SSF using sequential interactive co-culture of Candida utilis and Kloeckera. Removal of ethanol and drying of the left - over residue. Feeding trial was conducted in white albino rats before and after reconstitution of apple pomace feed in the choice and no choice study. Feeding of apple pomace feed in the rats before reconstitution indicated that neither in fermented nor in unfermented form it was acceptable. In the no choice study both in 100% fermented and unfermented apple pomace group feed intake decreased continuously resulting in death of rats apparently due to decreased digestibility owing to high fibre content. Further, fermented or unfermented apple pomace based feed had lower digestibility and efficiency of conversion than the standard rat feed. Compared to the standard feed group, growth rates in all the feed groups were negative. The results of choice study of different feeds corroborated with the no-choice study mentioned earlier. Incorporation of fermented apple pomace into standard rat feed in the ratio of 1:1 gave better acceptability and digestibility. Reconstituted feed with 10% jaggery, 2% groundnut oil, 0.01% mixed flavour and 1% salt was the most acceptable. The post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial revealed generalized oedema, probably due to some hepatotoxin in the feed. The blood glucose level in the apple pomace feed group except that was reconstituted with jaggery, showed a general hypoglycemia, though falling in the range. The increased ALT and AST levels in the serum also suggest damage to the liver. The mortality rate, post-mortem examination of the rats that died during the feeding trial and blood biochemical analysis of rat serum suggest a more elaborative study for extended period of time.Para utilizar bagaço de maçã de uma maneira econômica e eficaz, foi desenvolvido

  6. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  7. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  8. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  9. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  10. The optimization of extraction of antioxidants from apple pomace by pressurized liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaard, Hilde; Brunton, Nigel

    2009-11-25

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is a green extraction technique that can enhance extraction rates of bioactive compounds. PLE was used to extract antioxidants and polyphenols from industrially generated apple pomace at two different temperature ranges: 160 to 193 degrees C and 75 to 125 degrees C. Antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging test), total phenol content and three individual polyphenol groups were determined. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the five response values. Maximum antioxidant activity was obtained at a temperature of 200 degrees C, but unwanted compounds such as hydroxymethylfurfural were formed. Therefore a lower temperature range between 75 and 125 degrees C is recommended. Using this temperature range, a maximum antioxidant activity was determined at 60% ethanol and 102 degrees C. By using PLE the antioxidant activity was increased 2.4 times in comparison to traditional solid-liquid extraction, and the technique may be a promising alternative to conventional techniques for extracting antioxidants.

  11. Physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of bleached pomace-olive oil on Tunisian activated clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahouach, Wafa

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to studying bleaching process, which is an important stage in refining of vegetable oils. This process permitted to reduce or convert undesired constituents to harmless ones from oils and fats. Virgin olive oil, considered as reference, and pomace-olive oil were bleached in optimal conditions using Tunisian activated clays ( collected from the South of Tunisia) which were prepared in our laboratory and compared with commercial bleaching earths. It was shown that activated Tunisian clays are characterized by a very important adsorptive capacity, which is similar to that of commercial ones. In addition, the study of physicochemical properties of bleached oils was considered. The fatty acid composition (GC), the triacylglycerol composition (HPLC), and oxidative stability (UV spectrometry) allowed to conclude that treated oils do not undergo considerable physicochemical alterations and their caracteristics remain in concordance with international standards relative to edible refined oils. (Author)

  12. Pectins from apple pomace - characterization by 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcon, M.V.; Carneiro, P.I.B.; Wosiacki, G.; Beleski-Carneiro, E.; Petkowicz, C.L.O.

    2005-01-01

    Pectins were extracted from apple pomace flour with 5% (w/v) aqueous citric acid solutions under different time and temperature according to an experimental design (factorial 2 2 with triplicate of central point). Monosaccharide composition of fractions was determined by colorimetric analysis and gas chromatography. The structure of pectins was studied by NMR spectroscopy. The degree of esterification (DE=30.5-55.9), determined by FT-IR spectroscopy, was indirectly correlated with increasing temperature and time of extraction, showing that drastic conditions for extraction promote hydrolysis of esterified units. High content of galacturonic acid is consistent with the smooth region of the polysaccharide. 13 C and 1 H NMR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of uronic acids in the free and methyl ester forms. NMR data also showed the presence of arabinan and galactan as side chains. (author)

  13. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  14. L-lactic acid production from apple pomace by sequential hydrolysis and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Alonso, José Luis; Parajó, J C

    2008-01-01

    The potential of apple pomace (a solid waste from cider and apple juice making factories) as a source of sugars and other compounds for fermentation was evaluated. The effect of the cellulase-to-solid ratio (CSR) and the liquor-to-solid ratio (LSR) on the kinetics of glucose and total monosaccharide generation was studied. Mathematical models suitable for reproducing and predicting the hydrolyzate composition were developed. When samples of apple pomace were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose and fructose present in the raw material as free monosaccharides were extracted at the beginning of the process. Using low cellulase and cellobiase charges (8.5 FPU/g-solid and 8.5 IU/g-solid, respectively), 79% of total glucan was saccharified after 12 h, leading to solutions containing up to 43.8 g monosaccharides/L (glucose, 22.8 g/L; fructose, 14.8 g/L; xylose+mannose+galactose, 2.5 g/L; arabinose+rhamnose, 2.8g/L). These results correspond to a monosaccharide/cellulase ratio of 0.06 g/FPU and to a volumetric productivity of 3.65 g of monosaccharides/L h. Liquors obtained under these conditions were used for fermentative lactic acid production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus CECT-288, leading to media containing up to 32.5 g/L of L-lactic acid after 6 h (volumetric productivity=5.41 g/L h, product yield=0.88 g/g).

  15. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  16. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Zou, Wan; Ma, Wen-rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine. PMID:29565999

  17. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  18. NATURAL MICROFLORA OF WINE GRAPE BERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kántor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of yeasts and bacterial species on grapes has been investigated in vineyards worldwide. For winemaking are very important three groups of microorganisms. First two includes acetic acid and lactic acid bacteria; they live and grow normally on grape surface. The third group includes more than 20 detectable genera of yeasts. There are three principal genera found on grapes Hanseniaspora uvarum (Kloeckera apiculata, Metschnikowia pulcherrima (Candida pulcherrima, and Candida stellata or new descripted Candida zemplinina. Aim of this study was investigate of number of three major groups of microorganisms which are important for grapes and winemaking. The number of bacteria on Acetobacter agar (AA ranged from 1.76 log CFU/mL to 2.80 log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria were counted on MRS agar and the number of detectable colonies ranged from 0.48 log CFU/mL to 2.06 log CFU/mL. Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA was used for cultivation of yeast and the number of yeasts ranged from 2.47 log CFU/mL to 2.76 log CFU/mL. For identification of yeast species were used different types of agar media with acid base indicator bromocresol green. Identified 10 yeasts species includes to genus: Candida, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Kluyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Candida, Debaromyces, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces. We identified only few bacterial species includes to genus Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Gluconobacter and Acetobacter.

  19. Genomics Assisted Ancestry Deconvolution in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawler, Jason; Reisch, Bruce; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Zhong, Gan-Yuan; Schwaninger, Heidi; Simon, Charles; Buckler, Edward; Myles, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The genus Vitis (the grapevine) is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world’s most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs). We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars. PMID:24244717

  20. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  1. Optimisation of phenolic compound biosynthesis in grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to improve metabolite accumulation of grape cells by manipulating culture and environmental conditions. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design and conduct the study with the independent variables being: percent depletion of KH2PO4 or NH4NO3 and light intensity.

  2. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF POMACE EXHAUSTED AND APPRECIATION OF THEIR COMPOSTABILITY IN THE DELEGATION OF KALAA KEBIRA (TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M'Sadak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive pomace is the solid by-product obtained from the extraction of olive oil revealing serious environmental problems in all Mediterranean countries olive growing. Generally, that pomace can be valued, among others, as a source of organic matter (composting. In this perspective, we have addressed in this work to the quantitive and qualitative characterization (limited to certain physico-chemical parameters of the solid by-product of olive oil extraction in the delegation of Kalaa Kebira (Sousse, Tunisia while appreciating their compostability. The results showed that those olive residues are essentially dry, carbon-rich and CF, low in nitrogen. They can be used as compost by combining them with other available sources of plant originand/or animal such as manure of cattle, sheep or poultry (in varying proportions and responsible of the nature very heterogeneous and the variable quality that can be applied to improve soil fertility and crop productivity.

  3. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  4. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić Bojana M.; Nedeljković Nataša M.; Šimurina Olivera D.; Pestorić Mladenka V.; Kos Jovana J.; Mandić Anamarija I.; Sakač Marijana B.; Šarić Ljubiša Ć.; Psodorov Đorđe B.; Mišan Aleksandra Č.

    2014-01-01

    Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookie...

  5. Solid-State Fermentation of Carrot Pomace for the Production of Inulinase by Penicillium oxalicum BGPUP-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram Sarup; Chauhan, Kanika; Singh, Jagroop; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Inulinases are an important class of industrial enzymes which are used for the production of high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharides. Inulin, a polyfructan, is generally employed for the production of inulinase, which is a very expensive substrate. A number of agroindustrial residues have been used for cost-effective production of inulinases. In the present study, carrot pomace was selected as a substrate for the production of inulinase by Penicillium oxalicum BGPUP-4 in solid-state fermentation. Carrot pomace is one of the good substrates for bioprocesses, because it is rich in soluble and insoluble carbohydrates. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) used in response surface methodology was employed for the optimal production of inulinase from carrot pomace. Using CCRD, 15 runs were practiced to optimize the range of three independent variables: moisture content (70-90%), incubation time (4-6 days) and pH (5.0-7.0) for inulinase production. Carrot pomace supplemented with 0.5% inulin as an inducer, 0.2% NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , 0.2% NaNO 3 , 0.2% KH 2 PO 4 , 0.05% MgSO 4 ·7H 2 O and 0.001% FeSO 4 ·7H 2 O was used for the production of inulinase in solid-state fermentation at 30 °C. Inulinase production (322.10 IU per g of dry substrate) was obtained under the optimized conditions, i.e . moisture content of 90%, incubation time 4 days and pH=7.0. The corresponding inulinase/invertase (I/S) ratio (3.38) was also high, which indicates the inulolytic nature of the enzyme. Multiple correlation coefficients R for inulinase production and I/S ratio were 0.9995 and 0.9947, respectively. The R value very close to one indicates an excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results.

  6. Distribution of Wild and Cultivated Grapes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H UZUN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of main gene centers in the world for grapes. It is believed that cultivated grapes have their origins in Turkey and the surrounding countries. Vitis vinifera ssp sylvestris is the only wild grape species in this region. That is why Turkey has a very large amount of wild grapevine populations and grape cultivars which offer to grapevine breeders a valuable gene pool. Wild grapevines have significant characters for inducing the resistence to biotic and abiotic stress factors, such as resistance to lime, drought, pests and diseases. Turkey has over 1.600 local grape cultivars, among which the majority of them are conserved at the national grape collection vineyard in Tekirda?. They are mostly used as table grapes, dried grapes or for local consumptions. Wild grapes are distributed all over the country territory, mainly in the river basins and forests. Wild grape collection vineyards were established at some universities in Turkey. These grapevines will be screened for the resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors.

  7. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  8. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  9. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods-A SUSFOOD Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Brennan, Charles; Turner, Charlotta; Günther, Edeltraud; Campbell, Grant; Hernando, Isabel; Struck, Susanne; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis

    2015-11-24

    This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD) network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  10. Adding Value to Fruit Processing Waste: Innovative Ways to Incorporate Fibers from Berry Pomace in Baked and Extruded Cereal-based Foods—A SUSFOOD Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article communicates the set-up of BERRYPOM, a European research project established in the second call of the SUStainable FOOD Production and Consumption (SUSFOOD network. The project deals with the by-product from berry processing, which is frequently recycled as animal feed, composted or utilized for biogas production. With BERRYPOM it is proposed to analyze the value of berry pomace, to optimize the recovery of bioactive compounds from pomace material, and to incorporate processed berry pomace in cereal-based foods to take advantage of nutritional benefits that originate from its fiber and the content of bioactive substances. Additionally, extraction methods will be evaluated to obtain products rich in phytochemicals, and the influence of processing steps on the antioxidant capacity of pomace will be analyzed. The fiber extracts will then also be utilized in different cereal-based foods and extruded products. As project outcome we expect a substantial increase of knowledge concerning fiber and phytochemicals extraction from berry pomace, its suitability for enhancing nutritional and sensory properties of cereal-based foods, and its effects on the sustainability of the food chain.

  11. Effect of pectinase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from pomace, for the production of puree-enriched cloudy apple juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Wojdyło, Aneta; Kolniak, Joanna

    2011-07-15

    Effects of pomace maceration on yield, turbidity, cloud stability, composition of phenolics, antioxidant activity and colour properties were studied, to evaluate the potential applicability of enzyme preparations in puree-enriched cloudy apple juice production. The yield of mixed juice and puree from pomace obtained in the enzymatic processing of apple ranged from 92.3% to 95.3%, significantly higher than the yield from the control without enzymatic pomace treatment (81.8%). Higher turbidity was obtained upon pomace treatment with Pectinex XXL and Pectinex Ultra SPL enzymes. The total content of phenolic compounds in apple pomace was higher than in raw juices (1520mg/kg and 441mg/L, respectively). The total polyphenol yields were higher in juices treated with Pectinex AFP L-4, Pectinex Yield Mash and Pectinex XXL, as compared to the control treatment. During 6months of storage, a significant change was observed in the content of polyphenols, especially in procyanidin fractions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On-farm energy flow in grape orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Karimi; Hossein Moghaddam

    2018-01-01

    Efficient use of energy is an important step toward enhancing the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this study, we evaluated the energy balance of grape orchards in Shahriar, Iran. We collected information of energy input and energy output in 120 grape orchards through face to face questionnaires. This information was further used to evaluate net energy, energy use efficiency, energy intensity, and energy productivity in these orchards. The total energy used in grape orchards was 317...

  13. Recent Advances and Uses of Grape Flavonoids as Nutraceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Vasil; Ananga, Anthony; Tsolova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Grape is one of the oldest fruit crops domesticated by humans. The numerous uses of grape in making wine, beverages, jelly, and other products, has made it one of the most economically important plants worldwide. The complex phytochemistry of the berry is characterized by a wide variety of compounds, most of which have been demonstrated to have therapeutic or health promoting properties. Among them, flavonoids are the most abundant and widely studied, and have enjoyed greater attention among grape researchers in the last century. Recent studies have shown that the beneficial health effects promoted by consumption of grape and grape products are attributed to the unique mix of polyphenolic compounds. As the largest group of grape polyphenols, flavonoids are the main candidates considered to have biological properties, including but not limited to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we discuss the recent scientific advances supporting the beneficial health qualities of grape and grape-derived products, mechanisms of their biological activity, bioavailability, and their uses as nutraceuticals. The advantages of modern plant cell based biotechnology as an alternative method for production of grape nutraceuticals and improvement of their health qualities are also discussed. PMID:24451310

  14. 7 CFR 925.304 - California Desert Grape Regulation 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for market as natural grapes by performing all the normal cultural practices, but not using any inorganic fertilizers or agricultural chemicals including insecticides, herbicides, and growth regulators...

  15. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  17. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  18. Ultrasound treated potato peel and sweet lime pomace based biopolymer film development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Purba Prasad; Das, Pulak; Badwaik, Laxmikant S

    2017-05-01

    Treatment and management of food processing waste is a major challenge for food industry. Potato processing industry generates tremendous amount of peel and consider it as zero valued waste. Again, pomace generated after juice extraction from sweet lime pulp is considered as waste and not properly utilized. Whereas these waste could be utilized for the development of biodegradable packaging film to overcome environmental issues. Composite films were prepared with varying proportion of potato peel powder (PP) and sweet lime pomace (SLP) in the ratio of 0:1(A), 0.5:1(B), 1:1(C), 1:0.5(D), 1:0(E) with an ultrasound treatment of 45min, and 0:1(F), 0.5:1(G), 1:1(H), 1:0.5(I), 1:0(J) with an ultrasound treatment of 60min. Ultrasound was applied for 45 and 60min to film forming solutions to break down biopolymer particles small enough to form a film. All the films were analyzed for their barrier and mechanical properties. It was observed that increasing ultrasound treatment times gives better result in film properties and less PP content also gives better film properties, from these observations film G prepared with 0.5:1 (PP:SLP) showed better characteristics among all other films. Water vapor permeability, moisture absorption, water solubility, breakage strength and elongation capacity of G film were reported as 7.25×10 -9 g/Pahm, 12.88±0.348%, 38.92±0.702%, 242.01±3.074g and 7.61±0.824mm respectively. However, thermal decomposition for film G took place above 200°C. The film forming solution of selected G film, added with clove essential oil (1.5%) as an antimicrobial agent was wrapped on bread and stored it for 5days. The film was successful in lowering the weight loss, reducing the hardness and inhibition of surface microbial load from bread sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Katrin; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas

    2004-06-30

    A method for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection was developed. Among the 22 major compounds, 11 caffeoylquinic acids and 8 flavonoids were detected. Quantification of individual compounds was carried out by external calibration. Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples investigated. 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid represented the major hydroxycinnamic acid, with 3890 mg/kg in artichoke heads and 3269 mg/kg in the pomace, whereas in the juice 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) was predominant, due to the isomerization during processing. Total phenolic contents of approximately 12 g/kg on a dry matter basis revealed that artichoke pomace is a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients.

  20. [Effects of herbicide on grape leaf photosynthesis and nutrient storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Wang, Hui; Zhai, Heng

    2011-09-01

    Selecting three adjacent vineyards as test objects, this paper studied the effects of applying herbicide in growth season on the leaf photosynthetic apparatus and branch nutrient storage of grape Kyoho (Vitis vinfrraxVitis labrusca). In the vineyards T1 and T2 where herbicide was applied in 2009, the net photosynthesis rate (Pa) of grape leaves had a significant decrease, as compared with that in vineyard CK where artificial weeding was implemented. The leaves at the fourth node in vineyard T1 and those at the sixth node in vineyard T2 had the largest decrement of Pn (40.5% and 32.1%, respectively). Herbicide had slight effects on the leaf stomatal conductance (Gs). In T1 where herbicide application was kept on with in 2010, the Pn, was still significantly lower than that in CK; while in T2 where artificial weeding was implemented in 2010, the Pn and Gs of top- and middle node leaves were slightly higher than those in T1, but the Pn was still lower than that in CK, showing the aftereffects of herbicide residual. The herbicide application in 2009 decreased the leaf maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm) and performance index (P1) while increased the relative variable fluorescence in the J step and K step, indicating the damage of electron transportation of PS II center and oxygen-evolving complex. Herbicide application decreased the pigment content of middle-node leaves in a dose-manner. Applying herbicide enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities significantly, increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of middle-node leaves, but decreased the SOD activity of top- and bottom node leaves. After treated with herbicide, the ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity of middle- and bottom node leaves increased, but that of top-node leaves decreased. Herbicide treatment aggravated leaf lipid peroxidation, and reduced the soluble sugar, starch, free amino acids, and soluble protein storage in branches.

  1. The development of global GRAPES 4DVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongzhu

    2017-04-01

    Four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) has given a great contribution to the improvement of NWP system over the past twenty years. Therefore, our strategy is to develop an operational global 4D-Var system from the outset. The aim at the paper is to introduce the development of the global GRAPES four-dimensional variation data assimilation (4DVAR) using incremental analysis schemes and to presents results of a comparison between 4DVAR using 6-hour assimilation window and simplified physics during the minimization with three-dimensional variation data assimilation (3DVAR). The dynamical cores of the tangent-linear and adjoint models are developed directly based on the non-hydrostatic forecast model. In addition, the standard correctness checks have been performed. As well as the development adjoint codes, most of our work is focused on improving the computational efficiency since the bulk of the computational cost of 4D-Var is in the integration of the tangent-linear and adjoint models. In terms of tangent-linear model, the wall-clock time is reduced to about 1.2 times as much as one of nonlinear model through the optimizing of the software framework. The significant computational cost savings on adjoint model result from the removing the redundant recompilations of model trajectories. It is encouraging that the wall-clock time of adjoint model is less than 1.5 times as much as one of nonlinear model. The current difficulty is that the numerical scheme used within the linear model is based on strategically on the numeric of the corresponding nonlinear model. Further computational acceleration should be expected from the improvement on nonlinear numerical algorithm. A series of linearized physical parameterization schemes has been developed to improve the representation of perturbed fields in the linear model. It consists of horizontal and vertical diffusion, sub-grid scale orographic gravity wave drag, large-scale condensation and cumulus convection

  2. Optimization of β-cyclodextrin-based flavonol extraction from apple pomace using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Indu; Sharma, Sowmya; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated five cyclodextrins (CDs) for the extraction of flavonols from apple pomace powder and optimized β-CD based extraction of total flavonols using response surface methodology. A 2(3) central composite design with β-CD concentration (0-5 g 100 mL(-1)), extraction temperature (20-72 °C), extraction time (6-48 h) and second-order quadratic model for the total flavonol yield (mg 100 g(-1) DM) was selected to generate the response surface curves. The optimal conditions obtained were: β-CD concentration, 2.8 g 100 mL(-1); extraction temperature, 45 °C and extraction time, 25.6 h that predicted the extraction of 166.6 mg total flavonols 100 g(-1) DM. The predicted amount was comparable to the experimental amount of 151.5 mg total flavonols 100 g(-1) DM obtained from optimal β-CD based parameters, thereby giving a low absolute error and adequacy of fitted model. In addition, the results from optimized extraction conditions showed values similar to those obtained through previously established solvent based sonication assisted flavonol extraction procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to optimize aqueous β-CD based flavonol extraction which presents an environmentally safe method for value-addition to under-utilized bio resources.

  3. Antioxidant activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace toward gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, T.M.M.; EL MASRY, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the anti oxidative activity of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male Swiss albino rats were orally administered by lycopene (1.2 mg/rat/day) using suitable stomach tube 7 days before exposure to a sublethal single dose (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) levels in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood were determined, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase activity (GGT) were investigated 7 and 15 days post-irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in plasma levels of MDA, serum ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, as well as significant reduction in GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity in blood. Administration of lycopene by using suitable stomach tube pre-irradiation has significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced disturbances in all the investigated parameters

  4. Enhancement of resistance to coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens by dietary muscadine pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, L R; Hofacre, C; Mathis, G; Fuller, L; Hargrove, J L; Greenspan, P; Hartle, D K

    2008-12-01

    Muscadine pomace (MP), a by-product of the production of wine and juice from Vitis rotundifolia, was dried and tested in chickens for effects on primary resistance to coccidiosis, development of protective immunity after vaccination with live coccidia, and resistance to necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by the joint action of Clostridium perfringens and coccidia. To test primary resistance to coccidiosis, 2-wk-old chicks were given 2% or 5% MP in the diet and inoculated with Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima. Birds given MP at either level had significantly (P chickens were given 2% or 5% MP and grown to 42 days to test the palatability of MP. Birds given 2% MP in feed grew similarly to untreated controls, but birds given 5% had poorer average live weight. This suggested a negative effect on feed intake at the higher level. The effects of dietary 0.5% or 2.0% MP on immune protection were tested after live coccidiosis vaccination in the hatchery. Chicks were removed from each pen at 21 days of age and challenged with E acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella. Resistance to infection was improved by MP as suggested by significantly (P chickens. Chicks were inoculated with live coccidia at 14 days of age and dosed orally with live cultures of C perfringens on day 19, day 20, and day 21. Enteritis caused 48% mortality in the first study and 67% mortality in the second study. Dietary MP at 0.5-2.0% significantly (P chickens.

  5. A spectrofluorimetric sensor based on grape skin tissue for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A spectrofluorimetric method based on the grape skin has been developed for the determination of Fe3+ at pH 5.0. The emission wavelength of the grape skin sensor occurs at 680 nm and the excitation wavelength at 421 nm. The fluorescence of sensor could be quenched by Fe3+ due to the complexing ability of ...

  6. Reduced-molecular-weight derivatives of frost grape polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new Type II arabinogalactan was recently described as an abundant gum exudate from stems of wildfrost grape (Vitus riparia Michx.). The purpose of the current study is to more thoroughly characterize the physical properties of this frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), and develop methods to modify th...

  7. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  8. Evolution of anthocyanin profile from grape to wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Squadrito

    2010-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: Only in varieties in which the anthocyanin profile of grapes is characterized by low percentages of di-oxygenated side-ring forms is it possible to gain information about the varietal origin of a young wine by comparing the profiles of both grape and wine. However, great care is required.

  9. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-dextrin. (2) Color additive mixtures for food use made with grape color extract may contain only those... part per million. (c) Uses and restrictions. Grape color extract may be safely used for the coloring of... promulgated under section 401 of the act, unless the use of added color is authorized by such standards. (d...

  10. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... types, in the county for which a premium rate is provided by the actuarial documents: (a) In which you... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance... avoirdupois. Type. A category of grapes (one or more varieties) identified as a type in the Special Provisions...

  11. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93...

  12. Comparing Wild American Grapes with Vitis vinifera: A Metabolomics Study of Grape Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narduzzi, Luca; Stanstrup, Jan; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-08-05

    We analyzed via untargeted UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS the metabolome of the berry tissues (skin, pulp, seeds) of some American Vitis species (Vitis cinerea, Vitis californica, Vitis arizonica), together with four interspecific hybrids, and seven Vitis vinifera cultivars, aiming to find differences in the metabolomes of the American Vitis sp. versus Vitis vinifera. Apart from the known differences, that is, more complex content of anthocyanins and stilbenoids in the American grapes, we observed higher procyanidin accumulation (tens to hundreds of times) in the vinifera skin and seeds in comparison to American berries, and we confirmed this result via phloroglucinolysis. In the American grapes considered, we did not detect the accumulation of pleasing aroma precursors (terpenoids, glycosides), whereas they are common in vinifera grapes. We also found accumulation of hydrolyzable tannins and their precursors in the skin of the wild American grapes, which has never been reported earlier in any of the species under investigation. Such information is needed to improve the design of new breeding programs, lowering the risk of retaining undesirable characteristics in the chemical phenotype of the offspring.

  13. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  14. 75 FR 34343 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... respond to an ongoing marketing opportunity to meet consumer needs. This marketing opportunity initially... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 925 and 944 [Doc. No. AMS-FV... Table Grapes; Relaxation of Handling Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  15. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Liang Yan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  16. Biosynthesis of anthocyanins and their regulation in colored grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Mu, Lin; Yan, Guo-Liang; Liang, Na-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2010-12-09

    Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.

  17. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  18. Research Update: Hard carbon with closed pores from pectin-free apple pomace waste for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinwei; Geng, Chenxi; Buchholz, Daniel; Passerini, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we report a hard carbon derived from industrial bio-waste, i.e., pectin-free apple pomace. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties of the hard carbon are reported. The impact of the bio-waste on the closed porosity is discussed, providing valuable insights into the sodium storage mechanism in hard carbons. Most importantly, the hard carbon delivers good electrochemical performance, high specific capacities of 285 mAh g-1, and a very good capacity retention of 96% after 230 cycles at 0.1 C.

  19. Sistema de gestión de recursos culturales y naturales santuario Bosque de Pomac, Lambayeque, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Salcedo, Ricardo Víctor

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación formula, analiza y desarrolla una estructura metodológica que valide un sistema de indicadores que, en clave de ordenamiento territorial, examine el territorio del Santuario Histórico Bosque de Pomac, unidad de protección de alta prioridad. Una vez ordenado territorialmente se pretende generar una propuesta de sistema de gestión y uso de los recursos culturales y naturales e incorporarse como una base técnica e instrumental de planificación sostenible. Tesis (Mast...

  20. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Sean; Boyko, Adam R.; Owens, Christopher L.; Brown, Patrick J.; Grassi, Fabrizio; Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K.; Prins, Bernard; Reynolds, Andy; Chia, Jer-Ming; Ware, Doreen; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Buckler, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The grape is one of the earliest domesticated fruit crops and, since antiquity, it has been widely cultivated and prized for its fruit and wine. Here, we characterize genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in over 1,000 samples of the domesticated grape, Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera, and its wild relative, V. vinifera subsp. sylvestris from the US Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection. We find support for a Near East origin of vinifera and present evidence of introgression from local sylvestris as the grape moved into Europe. High levels of genetic diversity and rapid linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay have been maintained in vinifera, which is consistent with a weak domestication bottleneck followed by thousands of years of widespread vegetative propagation. The considerable genetic diversity within vinifera, however, is contained within a complex network of close pedigree relationships that has been generated by crosses among elite cultivars. We show that first-degree relationships are rare between wine and table grapes and among grapes from geographically distant regions. Our results suggest that although substantial genetic diversity has been maintained in the grape subsequent to domestication, there has been a limited exploration of this diversity. We propose that the adoption of vegetative propagation was a double-edged sword: Although it provided a benefit by ensuring true breeding cultivars, it also discouraged the generation of unique cultivars through crosses. The grape currently faces severe pathogen pressures, and the long-term sustainability of the grape and wine industries will rely on the exploitation of the grape's tremendous natural genetic diversity. PMID:21245334

  1. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Riva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the CRA-VIT (Viticulture Research Centre Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. LCA (Life Cycle Assessment of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: (i using the spreadsheet “BioGrace, developed within the “Intelligent Energy Europe” program to support and to ease the RED (Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; (ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy. The comparison with other bioenergy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains.

  2. Severe immediate allergic reactions to grapes: part of a lipid transfer protein-associated clinical syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Tassios, Ioannis; Rigby, Neil R.; Mills, E. N. Clare; van Ree, Ronald; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grape allergy is considered rare; grape lipid transfer protein (LTP; Vit v 1), an endochitinase and a thaumatin-like protein (TLP) have been reported as grape allergens. A considerable number of patients have referred to our department for severe reactions to grapes, and several IgE

  3. Influence of gamma rays irradiation to chlorphyriphos insecticides residues in grapes (vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation methods to determination of chlorphyriphos insecticides residue in grapes cause effect gamma rays, was done. Fruits of grapes soaked with chlorpyriphos insecticide solution high level concentrated (100 ppm; 200 ppm; and 300 ppm) for 3 (three minutes). The treatment of the sample was direct of extraction after soaks; extract after storage for one week after soak, and extract after soak after storage for one week after irradiation at 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy; and 1.5 kGy dose. Extraction methods using ethyl acetate solvent, and using sodium sulphate as to dryed water level in grapes, and then extractan was injected to chromatography gas use electron capture detector. The result indicated that occur of descent of chlorpyrifos residues from eachs soaked consequence at storage for one week was amount 7,55; 8,42; and 18,88% respectively, while of consequence irradiation of gamma ray at 0,5 kGy doses, will be descent of chlorpyrifos residues in amount 13,90; 19,16; and 52,79% respectively, and at 1,0 kGy doses irradiation will be descent in amount 34,45; 36,15 and 49,79%, respectively. (author)

  4. Predictive Method for Correct Identification of Archaeological Charred Grape Seeds: Support for Advances in Knowledge of Grape Domestication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucchesu, Mariano; Orrù, Martino; Grillo, Oscar; Venora, Gianfranco; Paglietti, Giacomo; Ardu, Andrea; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    The identification of archaeological charred grape seeds is a difficult task due to the alteration of the morphological seeds shape. In archaeobotanical studies, for the correct discrimination between Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris and Vitis vinifera subsp. vinifera grape seeds it is very important to understand the history and origin of the domesticated grapevine. In this work, different carbonisation experiments were carried out using a hearth to reproduce the same burning conditions that occurred in archaeological contexts. In addition, several carbonisation trials on modern wild and cultivated grape seeds were performed using a muffle furnace. For comparison with archaeological materials, modern grape seed samples were obtained using seven different temperatures of carbonisation ranging between 180 and 340ºC for 120 min. Analysing the grape seed size and shape by computer vision techniques, and applying the stepwise linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method, discrimination of the wild from the cultivated charred grape seeds was possible. An overall correct classification of 93.3% was achieved. Applying the same statistical procedure to compare modern charred with archaeological grape seeds, found in Sardinia and dating back to the Early Bronze Age (2017–1751 2σ cal. BC), allowed 75.0% of the cases to be identified as wild grape. The proposed method proved to be a useful and effective procedure in identifying, with high accuracy, the charred grape seeds found in archaeological sites. Moreover, it may be considered valid support for advances in the knowledge and comprehension of viticulture adoption and the grape domestication process. The same methodology may also be successful when applied to other plant remains, and provide important information about the history of domesticated plants. PMID:26901361

  5. Bioconversion of Radiation Processed Dried Tomato Pomace to High Protein Animal Fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; El-Niely, H. F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 50 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of organic residues all over the world that they have become a threat to the environment. Bioconversion of these wastes seems to be a practical and promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value added product. Radiation processing has the capability to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria, insects and parasites, thereby increasing the utilization and sustainable management of waste organic matter from food production and processing while contributing to improve food quality and reducing the environmental impact of the wastes. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment at 25 kGy and fermentation process by Aspergillus niger, on crude and soluble protein, amino acid profile, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of dried tomato pomace (DTP), the by-product of the tomato canning industry. The study has also, investigated the effect of supplementation of 30% of raw or processed DTP meal in food of male Albino rats for six weeks on body and liver weight evaluation and the effect on blood lipid pattern. The work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of DTP at 25 kGy and fermentation process has increased the nutritional value of treated DTP meal and improved the plasma and liver lipid pattern of rats. Therefore, the combination treatment has beneficial effects on recycling of DTP and permits it to be included in monogastric animals' food without any health hazard or nutritional problem

  6. Effect of wheat bran and dried carrot pomace addition on quality characteristics of chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective Effect of addition of wheat bran (WB) and dried carrot pomace (DCP) on sensory, textural, colour, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of chicken sausage were evaluated. Methods WB and DCP were used as a source of dietary fibre at 3%, 6%, and 9% level individually. Different quality attributes of sausages were estimated. One product from each source with very good sensory acceptability was selected to analyze dietary fibre content and shelf life under refrigerated storage. Results Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre enriched sausage was comparable with control and a further increase in fibre level resulted in a decrease in sensory acceptability. Fibre enriched sausages were significantly harder and less cohesive than control sausage. Significant increase in gumminess and chewiness was observed at 6% level in WB treated sausages and 9% level in DCP treated sausages. Moisture content decreased significantly in all treated sausages, protein content decreased significantly in DCP-2 and DCP-3 sausages while fat content decreased in all WB and DCP-3 treated sausages in comparison to control. The fibre enriched sausage had significantly higher dietary fibre and lower cholesterol content. Cooking yield and emulsion stability increased in treated sausages and a significant difference was noticed at 6% level in both types of sausages. pH of WB treated sausages was significantly higher and DCP treated sausage significantly lower in comparison to control. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that fibre enriched chicken sausage with moderate acceptability can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP each up to 9% level. Chicken sausage with very good acceptability, higher dietary fibre content and storability up to 15 days at refrigerated temperature can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP at 6% level each. PMID:28823131

  7. Aeribacillus composti sp. nov., a thermophilic bacillus isolated from olive mill pomace compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finore, Ilaria; Gioiello, Alessia; Leone, Luigi; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterium, strain N.8 T , was isolated from the curing step of an olive mill pomace compost sample, collected at the Composting Experimental Centre (CESCO, Salerno, Italy). Strain N.8 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, was most closely related to Aeribacillus pallidus strain H12 T (=DSM 3670 T ) (99.8 % similarity value) with a 25 % DNA-DNA relatedness value. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile and grew optimally at 60 °C and pH 9.0, forming cream colonies. Strain N.8 was able to grow on medium containing up to 9.0 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 6.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The cellular membrane contained MK-7, and C16 : 0 (48.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (19.4 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.6 %) were the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization values and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N.8 T represents a novel species of the genus Aeribacillus, for which the name Aeribacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N.8 T (=KCTC 33824 T =JCM 31580 T ).

  8. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  9. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  10. Effects of Diets Supplemented with Ensiled Mulberry Leaves and Sun-Dried Mulberry Fruit Pomace on the Ruminal Bacterial and Archaeal Community Composition of Finishing Steers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Yuhong; Meng, Qingxiang; Li, Shengli; Ren, Liping; Zhou, Bo; Schonewille, Thomas; Zhou, Zhenming

    This study investigated the effects of ensiled mulberry leaves (EML) and sun-dried mulberry fruit pomace (SMFP) on the ruminal bacterial and archaeal community composition of finishing steers. Corn grain- and cotton meal-based concentrate was partially replaced with EML or SMFP. The diets had

  11. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Geuna, Filippo; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Hall, Allan; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashton, Peter D.; Ashford, David A.; Arthur, Paul; Campos, Paula F.; Kool, Johan; Willerslev, Eske; Collins, Matthew J.

    2010-02-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce, Italy) and a late (fourteenth-fifteenth century A.D.) medieval site in York (England). Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry documented good carbohydrate preservation, whilst amino acid analysis revealed approximately 90% loss of the original protein content. In the York sample, mass spectrometry-based sequencing identified several degraded ancient peptides. Nuclear microsatellite locus (VVS2, VVMD5, VVMD7, ZAG62 and ZAG79) analysis permitted a tentative comparison of the genetic profiles of both the ancient samples with the modern varieties. The ability to recover microsatellite DNA has potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown locally, whilst the remains from Supersano could represent a trace of contacts with the eastern Mediterranean.

  12. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Chulze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.

  13. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  14. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros trabalhos sôbre o melhoramento da videira no Brasil datam de 1895 e se devem a Pereira Barreto e seus colaboradores. Entre 1930 e 1940, em Amparo, Paulino Recch, Nicolau Martorano e Pedro Araujo, dedicaram-se ao melhoramento da videira obtendo espécimes de real valor. A partir de 1943, no Instituto Agronômico, a Seção de Viticultura vem desenvolvendo um programa traçado para prover a nossa viticultura de abundante material melhorado para múltiplas finalidades. Cogita-se da obtenção de variedades novas para porta-enxertos, para mesa, vinho, suco não fermentado e passa. Essas variedades devem apresentar características de adaptação e acomodação ao nosso meio ambiente ; resistência às moléstias e pragas, e ao apodrecimento ocasionado pelas chuvas ; boas características específicas para mesa, vinho e suco não fermentado (1 a 18. Para execução do programa foi utilizado o material existente nas coleções do Instituto Agronômico, e importado novo material das Américas do Norte e Central. Dos capítulos mais importantes, um que está sendo atacado é o da produção de uvas de mesa isentas de sementes, ou apirenas. Igual importância tem o referente às diferentes combinações com as variedades tropicais, principalmente Vitis gigas e V. tilixfolia. Os resultados até agora obtidos são animadores : o Instituto Agronômico já dispõe de novos porta-enxertos em estudo, novas variedades de mesa com características de grande valor, numerosas variedades para produção de bons vinhos, bem como outras que, combinadas em diferentes proporções, produzem excelente suco não fermentado. Os trabalhos prosseguem e, não sendo interrompidos, poderão trazer reais vantagens à viticultura nacional.Grape breeding, was first started in Brazil by Pereira Barreto in 1895. From 1930 to 1940, Paulino Reech, Nicolau Martorano, and Pedro Araujo, frorn. Amparo, São Paulo, did some breeding work with grapes and obtained several new

  15. The influence of baking time and temperature on characteristics of gluten free cookies enriched with blueberry pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Bojana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry pomace, by-product of juice production, was processed into a new food ingredient by drying and grinding and used for a new gluten-free cookies' formulation, with the aim of improving nutritional profile and antioxidant capacity. Since duration and temperature at which dough is thermally treated during baking highly influence the quality of a baked product, the objective of this work was to optimise the baking conditions in order to obtain the best technological quality of the cookies. Referring to the results obtained at 160 and 170 °C and different baking times, the following was found: the difference in baking conditions caused variation between cookies' diameters of less than 1%, more regular shape of the cookies was obtained when baking time was shorter, hardness of cookies is highly correlated with moisture content, water activity, baking loss and short/long diameter ratio values. The colour characteristics (L*, a* and b* of cookies' top and bottom surfaces indicated that the cookies were not overbaked under the chosen baking conditions. Baking time of 14 min at 170°C was found to be the optimal baking conditions for the blueberry pomace enriched gluten-free cookies.

  16. Co-composting of two-phase olive-mill pomace and poultry manure with tomato harvest stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülük, Kemal; Tosun, İsmail; Ekinci, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In this study, two-phase olive-mill pomace with poultry manure and chopped tomato harvest stalks were composted at different initial carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios with fixed free air space of 35%. Composting experiment was carried out in the 15 aerobic reactors made of stainless steel and was monitored for 28 days. During the composting process, temperature, moisture content, organic matter (OM), pH, electrical conductivity, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, total carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), nitrate nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), and total phosphorus were monitored. Compost mass and volume changes were determined at the beginning, during remixings, and at the end of composting. While the stabilization period took less time for the mixtures containing a high amount of poultry manure, the mixtures having the high portion of two-phase olive-mill pomace took a longer time due to the structure of olive stone and its lignin content. Dry matter loss (range: 18.1-34.0%.) in the mixtures increased with an increase in the share of poultry manure and tomato stalks in the initial mixture. OM loss (range: 21.7-46.1%) for tomato stalks (measured separately) during composting increased due to an increase in the ratio of poultry manure in the initial mixtures.

  17. Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2015-03-15

    Optimised of the extraction of polyphenol from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) pomace using response surface methodology was carried out. Two variables viz. temperature (°C) and ethanol concentration (%) with 5 levels (-1.414, -1, 0, +1 and +1.414) were used to design the optimisation model using central composite rotatable design where, -1.414 and +1.414 refer to axial values, -1 and +1 mean factorial points and 0 refers to centre point of the design. The two variables, temperature of 40°C and ethanol concentration of 65% were the optimised conditions for the response variables of total phenolic content, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity. The reverse phase-high pressure liquid chromatography chromatogram of the polyphenol extract showed eight phenolic acids and ascorbic acid. The extract was then encapsulated with maltodextrin (⩽ DE 20) by spray and freeze drying methods at three different concentrations. Highest encapsulating efficiency was obtained in freeze dried encapsulates (78-97%). The obtained optimised model could be used for polyphenol extraction from star fruit pomace and microencapsulates can be incorporated in different food systems to enhance their antioxidant property. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical properties and FTIR analysis of rice-oat flour and maize-oat flour based extruded food products containing olive pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, DanYang; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Lerisson, Julie; Pitts, Keith; Cheng, Lijiang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2017-10-01

    Olive pomace, a waste stream from olive oil processing, was fractionated by centrifugation to obtain a supernatant and a flesh-enriched fraction, and freeze dried to obtain a powder. The dried supernatant contained 5.8% moisture, 4.8% protein, 3.5% fat, 3.5% ash, 82.4% carbohydrate (including 17.2% dietary fiber) and polyphenols (2970mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g). The dried flesh-enriched fraction, contained 5.9% moisture, 13.4% protein, 14.2% fat, 3.5% ash, 63.1% carbohydrate (including 42.7% dietary fiber) and polyphenols (1960mg GAE/100g). The extruded products using rice-oat flour or maize-oat flour mixtures as the base were formulated to contain 5% or 10% olive pomace fractions (dry basis). The extruded products with added olive pomace fractions has higher fiber (2-7g/100g) and polyphenol contents (67-161mg GAE/100g) compared to the corresponding mixtures of rice-oat flour base (0.92g/100g fiber, 20mg GAE/100g) or maize-oat flour base (3.2g/100g fiber, 20mg GAE/100g) without olive pomace fractions. Addition of olive pomace fractions reduced the die pressure and specific mechanical energy during extrusion and resulted in lower radial expansion in the extruded product. The impact of the addition of olive pomace fraction on physical characteristics of the extruded product is higher for rice-oat flour base than maize-oat flour base. The underlining mechanism was explained by FTIR analysis. FTIR showed that there were significant changes in the carbohydrate components and the structure of the proteins on extrusion, with consequent effects on the expansion and density of the extruded product. This study showed the feasibility of preparing fiber and polyphenol enriched extruded products by incorporation of olive pomace. This shows the potential of recovery and diversion of edible components from waste streams of olive oil processing for formulation of extruded products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of Grape Polyphenols by Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF and Suspect Screening Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Flamini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspect screening analysis is a targeted metabolomics method in which the identification of compounds relies on specific available information, such as their molecular formula and isotopic pattern. This method, coupled to liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry, is effective in the study of grape metabolomics, in particular for characterization of flavonols, stilbene derivatives, and anthocyanins. For identification of compounds expected in the samples, a new database of putative compounds was expressly constructed by using the molecular information on potential metabolites of grape and wine from the literature and other electronic databases. Currently, this database contains around 1,100 compounds. The method allows identification of several hundred grape metabolites with two analyses (positive and negative ionization modes, and performing of data reprocessing using “untargeted” algorithms also provided the identification of some flavonols and resveratrol trimers and tetramers in grape for the first time. This approach can be potentially used in the study of metabolomics of varieties of other plant species.

  20. Genealogy of wine grape cultivars: "Pinot" is related to "Syrah".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillamoz, J F; Grando, M S

    2006-08-01

    Since the domestication of wild grapes ca 6000 years ago, numerous cultivars have been generated by spontaneous or deliberate crosses, and up to 10 000 are still in existence today. Just as in human paternity analysis, DNA typing can reveal unexpected parentage of grape cultivars. In this study, we have analysed 89 grape cultivars with 60 microsatellite markers in order to accurately calculate the identity-by-descent (IBD) and relatedness (r) coefficients among six putatively related cultivars from France ("Pinot", "Syrah" and "Dureza") and northern Italy ("Teroldego", "Lagrein" and "Marzemino"). Using a recently developed likelihood-based approach to analyse kinship in grapes, we provide the first evidence of a genetic link between grapes across the Alps: "Dureza" and "Teroldego" turn out to be full-siblings (FS). For the first time in grapevine genetics we were able to detect FS without knowing one of the parents and identify unexpected second-degree relatives. We reconstructed the most likely pedigree that revealed a third-degree relationship between the worldwide-cultivated "Pinot" from Burgundy and "Syrah" from the Rhone Valley. Our finding was totally unsuspected by classical ampelography and it challenges the commonly assumed independent origins of these grape cultivars. Our results and this new approach in grape genetics will (a) help grape breeders to avoid choosing closely related varieties for new crosses, (b) provide pedigrees of cultivars in order to detect inheritance of disease-resistance genes and (c) open the way for future discoveries of first- and second-degree relationships between grape cultivars in order to better understand viticultural migrations.

  1. Yeast species associated with wine grapes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang-Shi; Cheng, Chao; Li, Zheng; Chen, Jing-Yu; Yan, Bin; Han, Bei-Zhong; Reeves, Malcolm

    2010-03-31

    Having more information on the yeast ecology of grapes is important for wine-makers to produce wine with high quality and typical attributes. China is a significant wine-consuming country and is becoming a serious wine-producer, but little has been reported about the yeast ecology of local ecosystems. This study provides the first step towards the exploitation of the yeast wealth in China's vine-growing regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast population density and diversity on three grape varieties cultivated in four representative vine-growing regions of China. Yeast species diversity was evaluated by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and sequence analysis of the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) region of cultivable yeasts. The grapes harbored yeast populations at 10(2)-10(6)CFU/mL, consisting mostly of non-Saccharomyces species. Seventeen different yeast species belonging to eight genera were detected on the grape samples tested, including Hanseniaspora uvarum, Cryptococcus flavescens, Pichia fermentans, Candida zemplinina, Cryptococcus carnescens, Candida inconpicua, Zygosaccharomyces fermentati, Issatchenkia terricola, Candida quercitrusa, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Candida bombi, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Sporidiobolus pararoseus, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Issatchenkia orientalis and Pichia guilliermondii. H. uvarum and C. flavescens were the dominant species present on the grapes. For the first time Sporidiobolus pararoseus was discovered as an inhabitant of the grape ecosystem. The yeast community on grape berries was influenced by the grape chemical composition, vine-variety and vine-growing region. This study is the first to identify the yeast communities associated with grapes in China using molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of wine-related microorganisms, and can be used to promote the development of the local wine

  2. The value of powdery mildew resistance in grapes: Evidence from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Binzen Fuller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.9 billion to the value of farm production in 2011. Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $48 million per year in the subset of the industry covered by our analysis (Crimson Seedless table grapes, all raisin grapes, and Central Coast Chardonnay wine grapes, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems.

  3. A summary of recent results from the GRAPES-3 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S.K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The GRAPES-3 experiment is a combination of a high density extensive air shower (EAS array of nearly 400 plastic scintillator detectors, and a large 560 m2 area tracking muon telescope with an energy threshold Eμ >1 GeV. GRAPES-3 has been operating continuously in Ooty, India since 2000. By accurately correcting for the effects of atmospheric pressure and temperature, the muon telescope provides a high precision directional survey of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR intensity. This telescope has been used to observe the acceleration of muons during thunderstorm events. The recent discovery of a transient weakening of the Earth's magnetic shield through the detection of a GCR burst was the highlight of the GRAPES-3 results. We have an ongoing major expansion activity to further enhance the capability of the GRAPES-3 muon telescope by doubling its area.

  4. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  5. Identification and characterization of the grape WRKY family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Feng, Jian Can

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1-3). Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA). In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  6. Identification and Characterization of the Grape WRKY Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors have functions in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many studies have focused on functional identification of WRKY transcription factors, but little is known about the molecular phylogeny or global expression patterns of the complete WRKY family. In this study, we identified 80 WRKY proteins encoded in the grape genome. Based on the structural features of these proteins, the grape WRKY genes were classified into three groups (groups 1–3. Analysis of WRKY genes expression profiles indicated that 28 WRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to biotic stress caused by grape whiterot and/or salicylic acid (SA. In that 16 WRKY genes upregulated both by whiterot pathogenic bacteria and SA. The results indicated that 16 WRKY proteins participated in SA-dependent defense signal pathway. This study provides a basis for cloning genes with specific functions from grape.

  7. Economic characteristics of grape production in South Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine production in Serbia has a long tradition. Serbia has great potentials for the production of grape and wine, but they are at a low level of utilization. Grape production in Serbia takes place on only 25,000 ha with an average annual production of 285,571 t of grapes with variations according to year. The vineyards and wine production are in a significant decline, while the main bearers of production are small family households or individual producers. The research presented in this paper is the economic characteristics of grapes production in the region of South Banat, Vršac wine-growing region, which occupies 81.2% of the total vineyard area in this part of AP Vojvodina.

  8. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was ... electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry; PBS, phosphate .... The antibacterial tests were carried out by disc diffusion method.

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  11. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cangzhou ... of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer ... Conclusion: The combination of vorinostat and GSPs can be an effective and innovative ...

  12. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garavaglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health.

  13. Grape Seed Oil Compounds: Biological and Chemical Actions for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Markoski, Melissa M.; Oliveira, Aline; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Grape seed oil is rich in phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and vitamins, with economic importance to pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industry. Its use as an edible oil has also been suggested, especially due to its pleasant sensory characteristics. Grape seed oil has beneficial properties for health that are mainly detected by in vitro studies, such as anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, and may interact with cellular and molecular pathways. These effects have been related to grape seed oil constituents, mainly tocopherol, linolenic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, procyanidins, carotenoids, and phytosterols. The aim of this article was to briefly review the composition and nutritional aspects of grape seed oil, the interactions of its compounds with molecular and cellular pathways, and its possible beneficial effects on health. PMID:27559299

  14. Grape Preservation Using Chitosan Combined with β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Youwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 1% chitosan combined with 2% β-cyclodextrin to the preservation of fresh grapes under ambient temperature was investigated. The results indicated that the hydrogen bond formed between the hydroxyl group of β-cyclodextrin and the amidogen or hydroxyl group of chitosan and the crystal form of chitosan was also changed when cyclodextrin was doped into chitosan coating. The compound coating could prolong the shelf life of grapes, maintain lower respiration rate and higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase during storage time, and restrain weight loss and malonaldehyde content increase. Coating grapes with chitosan + β-cyclodextrin was a good method in postharvested grape preservation.

  15. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  16. Grape seed oil: a potential functional food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Branco SHINAGAWA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed oil (GSO is not often consumed in Brazil and little is known of its nutritional value. Around the world there are already studies that point to the high levels of minority bioactive compounds and their relation to health benefits. The main constituent of GSO is linoleic fatty acid, some works are controversial and there is no consensus in literature regarding their effect on the animal organism. Thus, this study aimed to present a review of GSO and show the potential health effects of its major components, not only linoleic acid, but also γ-tocotrienol and β-sitosterol, and finally, their influence on lipid-modulating, anti and pro oxidative parameters.

  17. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; McConnell, M.L.; Macri, J.R.; Bancroft, C.M.; Connor, T.P.; Ryan, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  18. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    OpenAIRE

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF GRAPE SEED PROANTHOCYANIDINS. ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kulciţki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an account of the basic technuques employed in the investigation of the grape seeds proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins. The importance and biological activity properties of these compounds are considered briefly in the introductory part, while isolation and structural investigation of grape seeds proanthocyanidins represent the basic part of the review. The references cover mostly the recent publications related to implementation of modern techniques of investigation, like high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS.

  20. Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis

    2016-10-14

    The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc for solid fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, Mikko; Kwong, Chi Wai; Broström, Markus; Yoshikawa, Kunio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on char and liquid properties. • Liquid pH had a statistically significant effect only on liquid carbon yield. • Higher treatment temperature increased char volatiles that can enhance ignitability. • Char showed promising fuel properties if elevated ash phosphorus can be tolerated. - Abstract: The treatment and disposal of grape marc, a residue from grape processing, represents a significant economic and environmental challenge for the winemaking industry. Hydrothermal treatment of grape marc could be an efficient way for producing solid fuels on-site at the wineries. In this work the effects of treatment temperature and liquid pH on grape marc char and liquid properties were determined based on laboratory experiments and the combustion characteristics of char were assessed through thermogravimetric analysis and fuel ash classification. The results showed that hydrothermal treatment increased the energy and carbon contents and decreased the ash content of grape marc. The effect of liquid pH was statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for the determined carbon yield of liquid samples. The energy yield from grape marc was maximized at lower treatment temperatures, which also decreased the content of less thermally stable compounds in the attained char. Higher treatment temperatures decreased grape marc solid, carbon and energy yields and led to an increase in thermally labile compounds compared to lower temperatures likely due to the condensation of liquid compounds or volatiles trapped in the pores of char particles. The alkali metal contents of char ash were reduced coupled with an increase in respective phosphorus. Overall the results support the use of hydrothermally treated grape marc in solid fuel applications, if elevated levels of ash phosphorus can be tolerated.

  2. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  4. 75 FR 5879 - Grapes Grown in a Designated Area of Southeastern California and Imported Table Grapes; Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... production history shows the majority of the grapes produced in the production area are shipped prior to July... for notifications under the U.S.- Chile Free Trade Agreement, the embassies of Argentina, Brazil...

  5. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  6. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: Influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Gil, A. M.; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Félix Lara, J.; Pardo, F.; Rosario Salinas, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids...

  7. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  8. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Influence of red wine pomace seasoning and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on carcinogens formation in barbecued beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lomillo, Javier; Viegas, Olga; Gonzalez-SanJose, Maria L; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) are carcinogenic compounds formed in barbecued meat. Conditions that reduce their formation are of major interest. This study aims to evaluate the influence of red wine pomace seasoning (RWPS) and high-oxygen atmosphere storage on the formation of PAHs and HAs in barbecued beef patties. In general, the levels of PAHs and HAs quantified were low. The storage (9days) promoted higher formation of PAHs in control patties without increase of HAs. RWPS patties cooked at preparation day presented higher levels of PAHs and HAs than control. Nevertheless, RWPS patties cooked after storage presented lower levels of PAHs and HAs than control. ABTS assay pointed out that higher radical scavenging activity may be related to with lower PAHs or HAs formation. In conclusion, RWPS can be an interesting ingredient to inhibit the formation of cooking carcinogens in barbecued patties stored at high-oxygen atmosphere. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling and Experimental Study of a Small Scale Olive Pomace Gasifier for Cogeneration: Energy and Profitability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Borello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of a combined heat and power (CHP plant, fed by syngas produced by dry olive pomace gasification is here presented. An experimental study is carried out to inform the proposed model. The plant is designed to produce electric power (200 kWel and hot-water by using a cogenerative micro gas turbine (micro GT. Before being released, exhausts are used to dry the biomass from 50% to 17% wb. The ChemCad software is used to model the gasification process, and input data to inform the model are taken from experimental tests. The micro GT and cogeneration sections are modeled assuming data from existing commercial plants. The paper analyzes the whole conversion process from wet biomass to heat and power production, reporting energy balances and costs analysis. The investment profitability is assessed in light of the Italian regulations, which include feed-in-tariffs for biomass based electricity generation.

  12. Efficiency of lycopene extracted from tomato pomace as antioxidant against gamma irradiation hazards in male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, I.Z.A.; Kattab, H.A.H.; Sheashea, E.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the roles of free radicals generated through oxidative stres. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidative role lycopene extracted from tomato processing wastes or pomace against hazards induced by gamma irradiation. Male rats were adminstered lycopene by a daily intragastric gavage(0.24mg/rat/day) or supplemented in a standard casein diet (6.5 Gy) of whole body gamma radiation. Lipid peroxides (MDA) reduced ghutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) were determined in liver homogenate, as well as serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). asparate aminotransferase (AST), toral protein, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio were investigated 2 and 13 days post irradiation and/or lycopene administration. The results revealed that exposure to ionizing radiation resulted in significant elevation in MDA, ALT,AST, albumin levels and A/G ratio. Meanwhile, radiation exposure caused significant reduction in weight gain, SOD activity, GSH, total protein and globulin levels

  13. Fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of apple seed oil obtained from apple pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Mayanka; Rawat, Kiran; Bhushan, Shashi; Padwad, Yogendra S; Singh, Bikram

    2014-03-30

    Apple pomace is generated in huge quantities in juice-processing industries the world over and continuous efforts are being made for its inclusive utilization. In this study, apple seeds separated from industrial pomace were used for extraction of oil. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical and antioxidant as well as in vitro anticancer properties of extracted oil were studied to assess its suitability in food and therapeutic applications. The fatty acid composition of seed oil revealed the dominance of oleic (46.50%) and linoleic acid (43.81%). It had high iodine (121.8 g I 100 g⁻¹) and saponification value (184.91 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil). The acid value, refractive index and relative density were 4.28 mg KOH g⁻¹, 1.47 and 0.97 mg mL⁻¹, respectively. The antioxidant potential (IC₅₀) of apple seed oil was 40.06 µg mL⁻¹. Cytotoxicity of apple seed oil against CHOK1, SiHa and A549 cancer cell lines ranged between 0.5 ± 0.06% and 88.6 ± 0.3%. The physicochemical properties of apple seed oil were comparable with edible food oil, indicating its better stability and broad application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Apple seed oil could be a good source of natural antioxidants. Also, the in vitro cytotoxic activity against specific cell lines exhibited its potential as an anticancer agent. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  15. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  16. Effect of the use of olive–pomace oil biodiesel/diesel fuel blends in a compression ignition engine: Preliminary exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, I.; Quintana, C.E.; Ruiz, J.J.; Cruz-Peragón, F.; Dorado, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Olive–pomace oil (OPO) biodiesel constitute a new second-generation biofuel. • Exergy efficiency and performance of OPO biodiesel, straight and blended with diesel fuel was evaluated. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar performance parameters. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided similar exergy efficiency compared to diesel fuel. • OPO biodiesel, straight and blended, provided no exergy cost increment compared to diesel fuel. - Abstract: Although biodiesel is among the most studied biofuels for diesel engines, it is usually produced from edible oils, which gives way to controversy between the use of land for fuel and food. For this reason, residues like olive–pomace oil are considered alternative raw materials to produce biodiesel that do not compete with the food industry. To gain knowledge about the implications of its use, olive–pomace oil methyl ester, straight and blended with diesel fuel, was evaluated as fuel in a direct injection diesel engine Perkins AD 3-152 and compared to the use of fossil diesel fuel. Performance curves were analyzed at full load and different speed settings. To perform the exergy balance of the tested fuels, the operating conditions corresponding to maximum engine power values were considered. It was found that the tested fuels offer similar performance parameters. When straight biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, maximum engine power decreased to 5.6%, while fuel consumption increased up to 7%. However, taking into consideration the Second Law of the Thermodynamics, the exergy efficiency and unitary exergetic cost reached during the operation of the engine under maximum power condition for the assessed fuels do not display significant differences. Based on the exergy results, it may be concluded that olive–pomace oil biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel may substitute the use of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines without any exergy cost increment

  17. A new process for simultaneous production of tannase and phytase by Paecilomyces variotii in solid-state fermentation of orange pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-03-01

    The production of enzymes such as tannases and phytases by solid-state fermentation and their use in animal feed have become a subject of great interest. In the present work, Paecilomyces variotii was used to produce tannase and phytase simultaneously. Solid-state fermentation, a process initially designed for tannase production, was implemented here using orange pomace as substrate. Orange pomace is the waste product of the large orange juice industry in Brazil, and it has also been used as an ingredient in animal feed. In addition to enzymatic production, biotransformation of the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the orange pomace were analyzed after fermentation. Fermentation conditions, namely moisture level and tannic acid concentration rate, were studied using CCD methodology. The response surface obtained indicated that the highest tannase activity was 5,000 U/gds after 96 h at 59% (v/w) and 3% (w/w) and that of phytase was 350 U/gds after 72 h at 66% (v/w) and 5.8% (w/w) of moisture level and tannic acid concentration, respectively. The amount of tannase production was similar to the levels achieved in previous studies, but this was accomplished with a 7% (w/w) reduction in the amount of supplemental tannic acid required. These results are the first to show that P. variotii is capable of producing phytase at significant levels. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of orange pomace when tested against the free radical ABTS was increased by approximately tenfold as a result of the fermentation process.

  18. Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, N.; Mendesa, F.; Pereira, O.; Pinho, P. Guedes de

    2002-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen compounds in grape musts on the content of sulphur compounds of wines was studied. Different vinifications were performed with the addition of methionine (20 mg l−1) and/or cysteine (40 mg l−1) to grape musts before alcoholic fermentation. Six grape musts, with different nitrogen composition, from cultivars of the ‘Vinhos Verdes’ Region, in Portugal, were used. Addition of methionine to grape musts enhanced the content of wines in 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, ...

  19. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Fia; Claudio Gori; Ginevra Bucalossi; Francesca Borghini; Bruno Zanoni

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvent...

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of amino acids from grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Ceferino; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2015-01-01

    Recent cultivar techniques on vineyards can have a marked influence on the final nitrogen content of grapes, specifically individual amino acid contents. Furthermore, individual amino acid contents in grapes are related to the final aromatic composition of wines. A new ultrasound-assisted method for the extraction of amino acids from grapes has been developed. Several extraction variables, including solvent (water/ethanol mixtures), solvent pH (2-7), temperature (10-70°C), ultrasonic power (20-70%) and ultrasonic frequency (0.2-1.0s(-)(1)), were optimized to guarantee full recovery of the amino acids from grapes. An experimental design was employed to optimize the extraction parameters. The surface response methodology was used to evaluate the effects of the extraction variables. The analytical properties of the new method were established, including limit of detection (average value 1.4mmolkg(-)(1)), limit of quantification (average value 2.6mmolkg(-)(1)), repeatability (average RSD=12.9%) and reproducibility (average RSD=15.7%). Finally, the new method was applied to three cultivars of white grape throughout the ripening period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  2. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  4. Preparation of procyanidin B2 from apple pomace and its inhibitory effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimeric procyanidin B2 (PB2 is one of phenolic compounds in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. This work focused on purification of PB2 from apple pomace using sephadex column chromatography and its potential effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation using RAW264.7 macrophages. PB2 with the purity of 72.28 ± 1.85% was successfully afforded using resin and gel column chromatographic technique. Anti-inflammatory tests suggested that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in LPS-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophages was suppressed in a PB2 concentration-dependent manner. PB2 at no less than 50 μg·mL-1 could significantly suppress inflammation in the LPS-induced cells. Moreover, this suppressive effect was not correlated with PB2 pretreating. However, the COX-2 expression was not reduced in LPS pretreatment way followed by PB2 exposure, which suggested that PB2 has no repairing function. The results showed that high pure PB2 prepared from apple pomace has a remarkable anti-inflammatory property.

  5. Insoluble Dietary Fiber from Pear Pomace Can Prevent High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats Mainly by Improving the Structure of the Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shimin; Cui, Xingtian; Guo, Mingzhang; Tian, Yiling; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Yuxing

    2017-04-28

    Supplement of dietary fibers (DF) is regarded as one of the most effective way to prevent and relieve chronic diseases caused by long-term intake of a high-fat diet in the current society. The health benefits of soluble dietary fibers (SDF) have been widely researched and applied, whereas the insoluble dietary fibers (IDF), which represent a higher proportion in plant food, were mistakenly thought to have effects only in fecal bulking. In this article, we proved the anti-obesity and glucose homeostasis improvement effects of IDF from pear pomace at first, and then the mechanisms responsible for these effects were analyzed. The preliminary study by real-time PCR and ELISA showed that this kind of IDF caused more changes in the gut microbiota compared with in satiety hormone or in hepatic metabolism. Further analysis of the gut microbiota by high-throughput amplicon sequencing showed IDF from pear pomace obviously improved the structure of the gut microbiota. Specifically, it promoted the growth of Bacteroidetes and inhibited the growth of Firmicutes. These results are coincident with previous hypothesis that the ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes is negatively related with obesity. In conclusion, our results demonstrated IDF from pear pomace could prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats mainly by improving the structure of the gut microbiota.

  6. Effects of rootstocks and irrigation levels on grape quality of Vitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, T1 or T2 treatments caused an increase in TA, TP, AA, TSS, total sugar content, ash, and CIRG index values of grape samples in comparison to that of vines irrigated with T3, T4 and T5 levels. Grape quality response to irrigation levels was altered by rootstocks and quality of grapes harvested from vines grafted on ...

  7. A Grape Production Guide for Vocational Agriculture Instructors in Washington. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Stewart L.; Cvancara, Joseph G., Ed.

    This curriculum guide is intended to provide vocational agriculture instructors with an up-to-date resource dealing with grape production in Washington. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: the history of grape production; grape types important to Washington; site selection for a vineyard; establishment and…

  8. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  9. Thermal control modeling approach for GRAPE (GRAntecan PolarimEter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Varano, I.; Woche, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2016-08-01

    GRAPE is the polarimeter planned to be installed on the main Cassegrain focus of GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias), having an equivalent entrance pupil of 10.4 m, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) , in La Palma, Canary Islands. It's meant to deliver full Stokes (IQUV) polarimetry covering the spectral range 0.420-1.6 μ, in order to feed the HORS instrument (High Optical Resolution Spectrograph), mounted on the Nasmyth platform, which has a FWHM resolving power of about 25,000 (5 pixel) designed for the wavelength range of 380-800 nm. Two calcite blocks and a BK-7 prism arranged in a Foster configuration are splitting the Ø12.5mm collimated beam into the ordinary and extraordinary components. The entire subunit from the Foster prisms down to the input fibers is rotated by steps of 45 degrees in order to retrieve Q, U components. By inserting a quarter wave retarder plate before the entrance to the Foster unit circular polarization is measured too. The current paper consist of two main parts: at first CFD simulations are introduced, which have been run compliant to the specifications derived by the environmental conditions and the transient thermal gradients taking into account the presence of the electronic cabinets installed, which are triggering the boundary conditions for the outer structure of the instrument; then a thermal control model is proposed based on heat exchangers to stabilize the inner temperature when compensation via passive insulation is not enough. The tools that have been adopted to reach for such goal are Ansys Multiphysics, in particular CFX package and Python scripts.

  10. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  11. Grape and wine culture in Georgia, the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghradze David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the National Wine Agency of the Republic of Georgia initiated a three-year “Research Project for the study of Georgian Grapes and Wine Culture. Through collaborative research by Georgian and foreign institutions and researchers, the project aims to: stimulate research of Georgian viticulture and viniculture, through the lens of the country with the earliest tradition of grape domestication and winemaking; and to reconstruct the continuous development of viticulture and wine culture through time. The project advances the study of grape and wine culture by utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, including: archaeology, history, ethnography, molecular genetics, biomolecular archaeology, palaeobotany, ampelography, enology, climatology and other scientific fields. These studies are diachronic in their approach, beginning with the oldest Neolithic civilizations, to present day, creating a holistic understanding of the continuity and complexity of Georgian Wine Culture to help popularize Georgian Wine throughout the global wine market.

  12. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  13. Methoxypyrazines biosynthesis and metabolism in grape: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yujuan; Xie, Sha; Guan, Xueqiang; Song, Changzheng; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-04-15

    This review summarizes research on the discovery, biosynthesis, accumulation, transport, and metabolism of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines (MPs) in grape. The MPs are a family of potent volatile compounds distributed throughout biological kingdoms. These compounds impart herbaceous/green/vegetal sensory attributes to certain varieties of wine. Generally, high levels of MPs in wine are derived mainly from the corresponding grapes. Although two pathways for MPs biosynthesis have been proposed, only the final step and the enzymes that catalyze it has been confirmed in grape, and the metabolic intermediates and key enzymes involved in other steps are still unknown. The limited understanding of MPs metabolism has restricted research on these compounds, and some empirical results cannot be explained by the current knowledge of MPs metabolism. This review provides insights into research on MPs biosynthesis and metabolism, and proposes directions for further research on this important class of flavour/odour compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Nutrition Value of Apple Pomace by NRC Model%用NRC模型评价苹果渣饲料营养价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓燕; 雷耀庚; 张志轩; 陈玉林; 杨雨鑫

    2012-01-01

    The trial was conducted to study the nutrition value of apple pomace by NRC method. Nylon-bag technique was used to determine the degradation rates and degradabilities of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) of apple pomace. Three Shaanbei white cashmere goats with rumen canula were used to incubating bags, and then the values of RDP and RUP by NRC were analyzed. The results showed that DM and CP disappearance rates of apple pomace at 48 h were 89. 16% and 82. 89%, moreover, the DM disappearance rates of apple pomace had significant correlation with the CP disappearance rates (P<0. 01). Effective degradation rates of DM and CP were 61. 02% and 58. 44%, respectively, and the RDP was 58. 52%. Hence, apple pomace can be used as ruminant animal feed due to its higher nutrition value and good palatability.%为了研究苹果渣用作反刍动物饲料的饲用价值,以3只安装瘤胃瘘管的陕北白绒山羊母羊为试验动物,采用尼龙袋法测定了苹果渣在陕北白绒山羊瘤胃内的干物质(DM)和粗蛋白质(CP)降解率,并用NRC模型分析了苹果渣的瘤胃降解蛋白(RDP)和瘤胃非降解蛋白(RUP).结果表明,苹果渣在48 h的DM降解率为89.16%,CP降解率为82.89%,且二者之间相关性显著(P<0.01);DM和CP有效降解率分别为61.02%和58.440%;RDP含量为58.52%,说明其蛋白质品质较好.因此,由苹果渣降解特性等可以看出,苹果渣含有较高的营养价值,且适口性好,可用作反刍动物饲料.

  15. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Tiţa; Ciprian Tuşa; Axenia Rădulescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  16. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

  17. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cádiz-Gurrea, María De La Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2017-02-10

    Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin-Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.

  18. The current status of the GRAPES-3 extensive air shower experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Antia, H.M.; Dugad, S.R.; Goswami, U.D.; Hayashi, Y.; Iyer, A.; Ito, N.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Karthikeyan, S.; Kawakami, S.; Minamino, M.; Mohanty, P.K.; Morris, S.D.; Nayak, P.K.; Nonaka, T.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B.S.; Ravindran, K.C.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-01-01

    The GRAPES-3 is a dense extensive air shower array operating with ∼400 scintillator detectors and it also contains a 560 m 2 tracking muon detector (E μ >1GeV), at Ooty in India. 25% of scintillator detectors are instrumented with two fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for extending the dynamic range to ∼5x10 3 particles m -2 . The scintillators, signal processing electronics and data recording systems were fabricated in-house to cut costs and optimize performance. The muon multiplicity distribution of the EAS is used to probe the composition of primary cosmic rays below the 'knee', with an overlap with direct measurements. Search for multi-TeV γ-rays from point sources is done with the aid of the muon detector. A good angular resolution of 0.7 deg. at 30 TeV, is measured from the shadow of the Moon on the isotropic flux of cosmic rays. A sensitive limit on the diffuse flux of 100 TeV γ-rays is placed by using muon detector to filter the charged cosmic ray background. A tracking muon detector allows sensitive measurements on coronal mass ejections and solar flares through Forbush decrease events. We have major expansion plans to enhance the sensitivity of the GRAPES-3 experiment in the areas listed above.

  19. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  20. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf, A.E.N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  1. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  2. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  3. Harnessing the wine dregs: An approach towards a more sustainable synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ballesteros, N; Rodríguez-González, J B; Rodríguez-Argüelles, M C

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the management of food waste processing has emerged as a major concern. One such type of food waste, grape pomace, has been shown to be a great source of bioactive compounds which might be used for more environmentally - friendly processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this study, grape pomace of Vitis vinifera has been used for the obtainment of an aqueous extract. Firstly, the reducing activity, total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity of the aqueous extract were determined. Then, the aqueous extract was used for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles. The formation of spherical and stable nanoparticles with mean diameters of 35.3±5.2nm for Au@GP and 42.9±6.4nm for Ag@GP was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the functional group of biomolecules present in grape pomace extract, Au@GP and Ag@GP, were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy prior to and after the synthesis, in order to obtain information about the biomolecules involved in the reducing and stabilization process. This study is the first to deal with the use of Vitis vinifera grape pomace in obtaining gold and silver nanoparticles through an eco-friendly, quick, one-pot synthetic route. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  5. Linkage of within vineyard soil properties, grapevine physiology, grape composition and sensory characteristics in a premium wine grape vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Hess, Sallie; Ebeler, Susan; Heymann, Hildegarde; Plant, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of numerous vineyards has revealed a very high degree of variation exists at the within vineyard scale and may outweigh in some cases broader mesoclimatic and geological factors. For this reason, selective harvest of high quality wine grapes is often conducted and based on subjective field sensory analysis (taste). This is an established practice in many wine growing regions. But the relationships between these subjective judgments to principle soil and grapevine physiological characteristics are not well understood. To move toward greater understanding of the physiological factors related to field sensory evaluation, physiological data was collected over the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons in a selectively harvested premium production Napa Valley estate vineyard, with a history of selective harvesting based on field sensory evaluation. Data vines were established and remained as individual study units throughout the data gathering and analysis phase, and geographic information systems science (GIS) was used to geographically scale physiological and other data at the vineyard level. Areas yielding grapes with perceived higher quality (subjective analysis) were characterized by vines with 1) statistically significantly lower (P grape berry diameter (R2 = 0.616 in 2007 and 0.413 in 2008) and similar strong correlations existed for berry weight (R2 = 0.626 in 2007 and 0.554 in 2008). A trained sensory panel performed a sensory analysis and characterized fruit using and a multivariate, principal components, analysis (PCA). This approach indicated that grapes from vines with lowest midday leaf water potential at veraison (grapes from vines of > -1.5 MPa were characterized by vegetal flavors and astringent and bitter seeds and skins. Data from vines were grouped into vines experiencing MD at veraison of -1.5 MPa and subjected to single factor analysis of variance. This analysis revealed statistically significant differences (P less than 0.05) in many of the above

  6. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  8. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  9. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... embryo rescue from interspecific hybridization between diploid and tetraploid grape species. Wakana et al. (2003) and Motosugi et al. (2003) studied the formation and developments of hybrid seeds from cross between diploid and tetraploid, and then obtained triploid progenies through embryo rescue.

  10. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape anthocyanin increased by soil conservation practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops and no-till (mown) systems provide multiple benefits to vineyard soils such as improvements in soil organic matter and reductions in erosion and dust generation. Understanding the effects of such practices on grape attributes will contribute to the sustainability of the production system...

  11. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grown for commercial sale for human consumption as fresh fruit on acreage where the cultural practices... determine the minimum quality grade will be: (i) The United States Standards for Grades of Table Grapes...; (6) Earthquake; (7) Volcanic eruption; or (8) Failure of irrigation water supply, if caused by an...

  12. Tryptophan Levels during Grape Ripening: Effects of Cultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.

  13. Early detection of gray mold in grape using conventional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botrytis cinerea affects grape quality and yield, and can be difficult to manage due in part to non-symptomatic, quiescent infection in berry development. The aim of this study was to develop a dual system for the detection, isolation and quantification of B. cinerea. After three days of samples replication on the modified ...

  14. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui×. Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55).

  15. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  16. Embryo rescue of crosses between diploid and tetraploid grape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cross combinations Jumeigui×Xinghua No.1, 87-1×Kyoho, Kyoho×Muscat Hamburg, Jumeigui× Hongqitezao and Red globle×Kyoho were used as the testing materials. Factors that affect embryo rescue from crossed seeds between diploid and tetraploid grape were studied applying L25(55) orthogonal experiment ...

  17. Combined Effect of Vorinostat and Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the effect of histone deacetylase-inhibitor, vorinostat, on antitumour activity of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods: Expression of thymidine phosphorlase (TP) and thymidylate synthase (TS) was measured by real-time PCR and western ...

  18. The Antibacterial Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Golvardzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Medicinal plants are highly taken into consideration due to having natural antimicrobial compounds which Iran can be introduced as one of the richest sources of medicinal plants. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of grape seed extract on shelf life of tilapia. Methods: The prepared fish were divided into 2 groups: the first group was treated by dipping for 30 min in grape seed extract (1.5%v/v, and the second group was dipped in distilled water as the control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological (total count of mesophilic aerobic micro organisms, PTC and sensory characteristictis over a perid of 20 days. Results: The study results indicated the extract treatment group significantly delayed (p<0.05 the spoilage process in comparison with the control group, which the total count of psychotrophic bacteria remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log cfu/g. According to sensory analysis, the treated fish with grape seed extract represented the highest quality during the storage. Conclusions: The present study findings revealed that grape seed extract seemed to be extremely effective in extending the shelf life of tilapia fish fillet during the refrigerated storage.

  19. Decision support for grape harvesting at a South African winery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available to be taken routinely. In this paper, two nested scheduling problems are considered. The first, referred to as the active cellar scheduling problem, is concerned with making good scheduling decisions within a winery (i.e. optimal assignments of grape intake...

  20. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    dismutase or catalase. Likewise, no effect was found on 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) residues, a plasma protein oxidation product, or on malondialdehyde in plasma or in LDL, which are markers of lipoprotein oxidation. A marginal effect of grape-skin intervention was observed on plasma ascorbate levels...

  1. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... A Jain1 S Kawakami2 S D Morris1 P K Nayak1 A Oshima2 B S Rao1. HECR Group, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India and GRAPES-3 Experiment, Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Ooty 643 001, India; Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585, Japan ...

  2. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  3. The effects of heat treatment on the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of red wine pomace seasonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino-García, Raquel; González-SanJosé, María L; Rivero-Pérez, María D; García-Lomillo, Javier; Muñiz, Pilar

    2017-04-15

    The impact of thermal processing on the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity (TAC) of powdered red wine pomace seasonings (RWPSs) obtained from different sources (seedless: Sk-S; whole: W-S; seeds: Sd-S) was assessed. High contents in anthocyanins, flavonol-3-O-glycosides, phenolic acids and flavan-3-ols were found in Sk-S, whereas flavan-3-ols and phenolic acids were the main compounds identified in Sd-S. Reductions in the anthocyanidin and flavonol-3-ol contents mainly determined the effect of heat on the total phenolic contents (Sk-S: -29.4%; W-S: -28.0%; Sd-S: -5.78%), although heating affected positively the phenolic acid and flavonol aglycon contents. Slight TAC decreases were observed in the RWPS-derived extracts (classical Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS assays). However, higher TAC reductions were detected when the powdered RWPSs were used directly as samples (QUENCHER approach). In conclusion, there is little evidence against submitting RWPSs to thermal processing, as heating affects differently each type of phenolic compound and does not induce very severe TAC decreases in these seasonings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adsorption of chromium(VI) on pomace-An olive oil industry waste: Batch and column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoc, Emine; Nuhoglu, Yasar; Dundar, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The waste pomace of olive oil factory (WPOOF) was tested for its ability to remove chromium(VI) from aqueous solution by batch and column experiments. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o have been calculated. The thermodynamics of chromium(VI) ion onto WPOOF system indicates spontaneous and endothermic nature of the process. The ability of WPOOF to adsorb chromium(VI) in a fixed bed column was investigated, as well. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and inlet metal ion concentration on the sorption characteristics of WPOOF was investigated. The longest breakthrough time and maximum of Cr(VI) adsorption is obtained at pH 2.0. The total adsorbed quantities, equilibrium uptakes and total removal percents of chromium(VI) related to the effluent volumes were determined by evaluating the breakthrough curves obtained at different flow rates and different inlet chromium(VI) concentrations for adsorbent. The data confirmed that the total amount of sorbed chromium(VI) and equilibrium chromium(VI) uptake decreased with increasing flow rate and increased with increasing inlet chromium(VI) concentration. The Adams-Bohart model were used to analyze the experimental data and the model parameters were evaluated

  5. Preparation and characterization of carbons from β-cyclodextrin dehydration and from olive pomace activation and their application for boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Jaouadi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An activated carbon was prepared by phosphoric activation of olive pomace and further oxidation by nitric acid. Another carbon was obtained from β-cyclodextrin dehydration in concentrated sulfuric acid. A composite of the oxidized activated carbon and the carbon from β-cyclodextrin was prepared. The four materials were characterized by N2 adsorption–desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, elemental analysis, “Boehm” titration and measurements of pH of the point zero charge. The obtained adsorbents were tested for boron adsorption in aqueous solution. Despite their lowest specific surface areas, the composite carbon and the amorphous carbon from cyclodextrin dehydration showed the highest boron adsorption uptake (1.41 and 1.68 mg·g−1 compared to the raw (1.05 mg·g−1 and oxidized (0.95 mg·g−1 activated carbons. The surface chemistry particularly rich in phenolic groups was responsible for the high boron adsorption uptake of the carbon composite and the amorphous carbon, both prepared through cyclodextrin dehydration.

  6. Orange Pomace Improves Postprandial Glycemic Responses: An Acute, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial in Overweight Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Oliver Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange pomace (OP, a fiber-rich byproduct of juice production, has the potential for being formulated into a variety of food products. We hypothesized that OP would diminish postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and lunch. We conducted an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, crossover trial with 34 overweight men who consumed either a 255 g placebo (PLA, a low (35% OP (LOP, or a high (77% (HOP dose OP beverage with breakfast. Blood was collected at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 5.5, 6, 6.5, 7, and 8 h. Lunch was consumed after the 5.5-h blood draw. OP delayed the time (Tmax1 to the maximum concentration (Cmax1 of serum glucose during the 2-h period post breakfast by ≥36% from 33 (PLA to 45 (HOP and 47 (LOP min (p = 0.055 and 0.013, respectively. OP decreased post-breakfast insulin Cmax1 by ≥10% and LOP delayed the Tmax1 by 14 min, compared to PLA at 46 min (p ≤ 0.05. HOP reduced the first 2-h insulin area under concentration time curve (AUC by 23% compared to PLA. Thus, OP diminishes postprandial glycemic responses to a high carbohydrate/fat breakfast and the second meal in overweight men.

  7. Frost Grape Polysaccharide (FGP), an emulsion-forming arabinogalactan gum from the stems of native North American grape species Vitis riparia Michx

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new arabinogalactan is described that is produced in large quantity from the cut stems of the North American grape species Vitis riparia (Frost grape). The sugar composition consists of L-arabinofuranose (L-Araf, 55.2 %) and D-galactopyranose (D-Galp 30.1%), with smaller components of D-xylose (11...

  8. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system extraction of polyphenolic compounds from Aronia melanocarpa pomace by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Yang; Qiu, Yang; Ren, Hui; Ju, Dong-Hu; Jia, Hong-Lei

    2017-03-16

    Aronia melanocarpa berries are abundant in polyphenolic compounds. After juice production, the pomace of pressed berries still contains a substantial amount of polyphenolic compounds. For efficient utilization of A. melanocarpa berries and the enhancement of polyphenolic compound yields in Aronia melanocarpa pomace (AMP), total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) from AMP were extracted, using ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system (UAE-ATPS) extraction method. First, the influences of ammonium sulfate concentration, ethanol-water ratio, ultrasonic time, and ultrasonic power on TP and TF yields were investigated. On this basis, process variables such as ammonium sulfate concentration (0.30-0.35 g mL -1 ), ethanol-water ratio (0.6-0.8), ultrasonic time (40-60 min), and ultrasonic power (175-225 W) were further optimized by implementing Box-Benhnken design with response surface methodology. The experimental results showed that optimal extraction conditions of TP from AMP were as follows: ammonium sulfate concentration of 0.324 g mL -1 , ethanol-water ratio of 0.69, ultrasonic time of 52 min, and ultrasonic power of 200 W. Meanwhile, ammonium sulfate concentration of 0.320 g mL -1 , ethanol-water ratio of 0.71, ultrasonic time of 50 min, and ultrasonic power of 200 W were determined as optimum extraction conditions of TF in AMP. Experimental validation was performed, where TP and TF yields reached 68.15 ± 1.04 and 11.67 ± 0.63 mg g -1 , respectively. Close agreement was found between experimental and predicted values. Overall, the present results demonstrated that ultrasound-assisted aqueous two-phase system extraction method was successfully used to extract total phenolics and flavonoids in A. melanocarpa pomace.

  9. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  10. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  11. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  12. Influence of skin hardness on dehydration kinetics of wine grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Caudana, Alberto; Giacosa, Simone; Gerbi, Vincenzo; Río Segade, Susana

    2011-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of initial mechanical properties on the evolution of the weight loss of berries through the drying process is scarce. Therefore, the main purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of skin hardness at two different physiological stages of off-vine drying kinetics of grapes. Skin hardness was evaluated as the berry skin-break force parameter, measured by the texture analysis test. The decrease of berry weight as a function of the drying time was linear, indicating that the drying rates were constant within each cultivar studied (Moscato bianco and Erbaluce), and for each ripening stage and berry skin hardness. The drying rates decreased as berry skin hardness increased for the ripest grapes in the cultivars studied. The study allowed the assessment of the correlation between the skin hardness of fresh berries and the weight loss determined for different drying days. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Application of pollen treated with ionizing radiation in grapes breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semin, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Problem concerning the priority of investigations into transformation inducing using plant pollen irradiation method is raised. Data on investigations into grape predominant type pollen irradiation with rigid 1-100 Gy dose gamma rays are considered. Using grape seedling morphological index analysis it is shown that gene transformation inducing is possible using high dose pollen irradiation for cross pollination process. Advantages of the given method are indicated: application of irradiated pollen for pollination allows one to transmit certain characters to progeny at some stages - without impregnation (1); with pollen irradiation dose increase the number of male plant characters transmitted to progeny is reduced (2); deep recessive characters of one of the parent plants can be manifested in progeny or valuable neoplasms can even occur

  14. Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A

    2000-04-01

    In this review the results obtained in the 1990s from research on the behavior of pesticide residues on grapes, from treatment to harvest, and their fate in drying, wine-making, and alcoholic beverage processing are reported. The fungicide residues on grapes (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, penconazole, tetraconazole, and triadimenol), the application rates of which were of a few tens of grams per hectare, were very low after treatment and were not detectable at harvest. Pyrimethanil residues were constant up to harvest, whereas fluazinam, cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, azoxystrobin, and fludioxonil showed different disappearance rates (t(1/2) = 4.3, 12, 12.8, 15.2, and 24 days, respectively). The decay rate of the organophosphorus insecticides was very fast with t(1/2) ranging between 0.97 and 3.84 days. The drying process determined a fruit concentration of 4 times. Despite this, the residue levels of benalaxyl, phosalone, metalaxyl, and procymidone on sun-dried grapes equalled those on the fresh grape, whereas they were higher for iprodione (1.6 times) and lower for vinclozolin and dimethoate (one-third and one-fifth, respectively). In the oven-drying process, benalaxyl, metalaxyl, and vinclozolin showed the same residue value in the fresh and dried fruit, whereas iprodione and procymidone resides were lower in raisins than in the fresh fruit. The wine-making process begins with the pressing of grapes. From this moment onward, because the pesticide on the grape surface comes into contact with the must, it is in a biphasic system, made up of a liquid phase (the must) and a solid phase (cake and lees), and will be apportioned between the two phases. The new fungicides have shown no effect on alcoholic or malolactic fermentation. In some cases the presence of pesticides has also stimulated the yeasts, especially Kloeckera apiculata, to produce more alcohol. After fermentation, pesticide residues in wine were always smaller than those on the

  15. Impact of Grape Varieties on Wine Distillates Flavour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Banović

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aroma is a phenomenon that occurrs when food and live organism mutually react during the process of consumption. Many factors influence the making of aroma of wine distillates (e.g. cognac during the technological process of distillation. It is extremely difficult to bring an objective judgement on the influence of individual factors since aroma is very subjective in its nature. The possibility of objective assessment of the influence of grape varieties on wine distillate was performed in this work using a computer in processing the results of cromatographic analyses of aroma substances. The given results were verified by sensor analyses. The achieved results have shown that mathematical model for calculating aroma chromatogram similarity can be successfully used for objective assessment of the influence of individual factors on aroma of wine distillates and that grape varieties have significant impact on aroma and the quality of wine distillates.

  16. TRANSMISSION OF IMPACTS DURING MECHANICAL GRAPE HARVESTING AND TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study vibrational stress on grapes during mechanical harvesting, transfer and delivery to the winery, in order to identify the most critical stages and the consequent effects on the winemaking. An instrumented sphere was used to evaluate and memorise the impacts in the grape harvester and means of transport. Three treatments, obtained by differing harvesting method (manual and mechanical and transport type (short and long distance, were compared. A correlation was sought between the transmitted stresses and characteristics of the harvested product. The effects on product quality were evaluated by chemical analyses of the musts and sensorial analysis of the end-product, vinified using the same procedure.

  17. In vitro neoformation of grape chimeras (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Verdisson

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Difference in grape sensitivity to Botrytis cinerea attacks between cultivars was explained by differences in the epidermic tissue of the fruit. Therefore, this work was conducted to create a grape periclinal chimera, whose fruits would combine the skin of a Botrytis tolerant cultivar with a pulp of an another cultivar admitted its good organoleptic quality and productivity. In a first time, graftings of two cultivars (Chardonnay and Pinot noir were conducted in vitro on 5 different media supplemented with various plant growth regulators. Adventitious shoots were only observed on medium containing BAP and GA3 from a mixed callus structure after four weeks of darkness followed by a light/dark regime. In a second time, RAPD analysis, conducted on these plants, showed their chimerical characteristics.

  18. Sequential treatment of diluted olive pomace leachate by digestion in a pilot scale UASB reactor and BDD electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-06-15

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of olive pomace leachate (OPL) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. Daily and cumulative biogas production was measured during the operational period. The maximum biogas flowrate was 65 L/d, of which 50% was methane. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment method for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated OPL was evaluated. The diluted OPL, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 5 g/L, was first treated in a 600 L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 71 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) in a temperature-controlled environment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days, and organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.33 and 1.67 g COD/(L.d). The UASB process led to a COD removal efficiency between 35 and 70%, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 18 A and in the presence of 0.17% NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 7 h of treatment predominantly through total oxidation reactions. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organo-chlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, along with the residual chlorine are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  20. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  1. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  2. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Postharvest Senescence of Grape by Modulating the Antioxidant Defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jing Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signal in plants. Here, we investigated the mechanism of H2S in alleviating postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape. Exogenous application of H2S released from 1.0 mM NaHS remarkably decreased the rotting and threshing rate of grape berries. H2S application also prevented the weight loss in grape clusters and inhibited the decreases in firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity in grape pulp during postharvest storage. The data of chlorophyll and carotenoid content suggested the role of H2S in preventing chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation in both grape rachis and pulp. In comparison to water control, exogenous H2S application maintained significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and flavonoid and total phenolics and reducing sugar and soluble protein in grape pulp. Meanwhile, H2S significantly reduced the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and superoxide anion (O2∙- in grape pulp. Further investigations showed that H2S enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX and catalase (CAT and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX in both grape peels and pulp. In all, we provided strong evidence that H2S effectively alleviated postharvest senescence and rotting of Kyoho grape by modulating antioxidant enzymes and attenuating lipid peroxidation.

  3. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  4. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  5. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60 Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  7. Biodiversity of wine grapes: less than we thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinder RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger M PinderInternational Journal of Wine Research, York, UKThe Editor of the International Journal of Wine Research has had a long-standing interest in the genetics of wine grape varieties. Two publications, in particular, piqued the interest from both the scientific and consumer point of view. Cabernet Sauvignon is the offspring of a chance cross-pollination of Sauvignon Blanc and Cabernet Franc in western France several centuries ago.

  8. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  9. Multi-experimental characterization of grape skin extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, L.; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Zemanová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2008), S43-S48 ISSN 1212-1800. [National Conference on Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : EPR * grape skin * PFE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  10. Theme and symbolism in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

    OpenAIRE

    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.; Andrejević Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    John Steinbeck aims to express the American political and social system as the reflection on characterization, plot, and symbols in The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck’s characters struggle desperately against forces beyond their understanding or control. Many of those characters suffer tragic fates, yet they almost always marriage to exhibit bravery and retain a sense of dignity throughout their struggles. Steinbeck’s ability to combine harsh critiques of the political and social systems of his t...

  11. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co 60 ) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  12. Ionizing radiation effects in Brazilian grape tree wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Gutierrez, Érika M.R., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br, E-mail: emrgutierrez@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Piracicaba (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Tecnologia em Alimentos. Dep. Roque Trevisan; Pires, Juliana A., E-mail: juliana.angelo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lúcia C.A.S., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate brazilian grape tree wines with gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) to investigate the effect of radiation on its components and to create a new product for the superior quality fermented beverages market. For this wine was produced in an artisan way, but with all the care of hygiene and sanitation. The brazilian grape tree was fermented for five days and the wine was then filtered and stored in inert material containers then irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy doses. The samples were evaluated in relation to the radiation doses used. Physical and chemical analyzes of pH; total and volatile acidity; alcohol content; anthocyanins; tannins and colorimetry were performed. As a result, in most product analysis, had little effect on irradiation, except for anthocyanins and tannins. For this can be concluded that it is possible to develop a new fermented drink based on brazilian grape tree, according to the standards required by the legislation and that the irradiation at the dose of 5kGy was the sample that shown to have the most effect on the color because it was the one that degraded most molecules of anthocyanins and tannins. (author)

  13. Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Pfusterschmied

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol, precise resonance frequency analysis, and a fast measurement procedure. Two sets of artificial model solutions are prepared, representing an ordinary and a stuck/sluggish wine fermentation process. The precision and reusability of the sensor are shown using repetitive measurements (10 times, resulting in standard deviations of the measured resonance frequencies of ~0.1%, Q-factor of ~11%, and an electrical conductance peak height of ~12%, respectively. With the applied evaluation procedure, moderate standard deviations of ~1.1% with respect to density values are achieved. Based on these results, the presented sensor concept is capable to distinguish between ordinary and stuck wine fermentation, where the evolution of the wine density associated with the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during fermentation processes causes a steady increase in the resonance frequency for an ordinary fermentation. Finally, the first test measurements in real grape must are presented, showing a similar trend in the resonance frequency compared to the results of an artificial solutions, thus proving that the presented sensor concept is a reliable and reusable platform for grape must fermentation monitoring.

  14. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  15. Structural investigations of flavonol glycosides from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) pomace by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-ESI-MS(n).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, Daniel; Krumbein, Angelika; Mügge, Clemens; Kroh, Lothar W

    2004-06-30

    Four flavonol glycosides were isolated from an extract of sea buckthorn pomace (Hippophaë rhamnoides) by Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by hydrolysis studies, ESI-MS(n), UV, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The occurrence of the major flavonol glycoside kaempferol 3-O-beta-sophoroside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside in sea buckthorn is described here for the first time. A further 21 flavonol glycosides of Sephadex LH-20 fractions of sea buckthorn pomace were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. The characteristic MS-MS and MS(3) fragmentation pattern of flavonol glycosides previously identified in sea buckthorn juice and of flavonol glycosides identified by NMR spectroscopy gave valuable indications for their identification. The results demonstrate that loss of the sugar moiety from C-7 of the aglycon is more favored than fission of the glycosidic linkage at the C-3 position. Thus, most of the compounds identified were 7-rhamnosides of isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, which exhibit different substitution patterns at the C-3 position, mainly glucosides, rutinosides, and sophorosides. In addition, numerous flavonol glycosides were detected lacking a sugar moiety at C-7. Finally, eight flavonol derivatives were identified that are acylated by hydroxybenzoic or hydoxycinnamic acids.

  16. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  17. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  18. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  19. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  20. In-Package atmospheric cold plasma treatment of bulk grape tomatoes for their microbiological safety and preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (DACP) treatment on the inactivation of Salmonella and the storability of grape tomato were investigated. Grape tomatoes, with or without inoculation with Salmonella, were packaged in a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) commercial clamsh...

  1. Phenol profiles and antioxidant properties of white skinned grapes and their coloured genotypes during growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyang Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are natural pigments that exhibit a wide range of protective effects with potential benefits for human health related to their antioxidant activities. Grape berries are rich anthocyanins, and these compounds have considerable influence on wine quality. However, these pigments are known to only be present in coloured grape berries. In the present study, we investigated three distinctive grapes, in which only a few reports of mutant strains on the skin colour of the grape berry were reported. Anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles of grape berry skin, pulp, and seeds at different growth stages were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Meanwhile, grape antioxidant properties were evaluated at growth stages, including the early stage, veraison, and mature stage. The results showed that some anthocyanins contents, such as malvidin 3-O-glucoside, are significantly different between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes, with high content in coloured but not in white skin grapes. However, other anthocyanins, such as delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes. Moreover, non-anthocyanin phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties, except cultivars Pinot Blanc and Pinot Noir, showed no significant differences between white skin grapes and their corresponding coloured genotypes at any growth stage, including the pulp and seeds. However, significant differences were noted between different cultivars, for example, white-ciputao and Pinot Noir, Pinot Blanc and Muscat Rouge, and coloured-ciputao and Muscat Blanc, showing that the antioxidant capacity was not always in correlation with skin colour of grape berries.

  2. Morphology, structure and ontogeny of trichomes of the grape genus (Vitis, Vitaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yao eMa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are widely distributed on surfaces of different organs in the grape genus Vitis and are of taxonomic utility. To explore the morphology, structure and ontogeny of Vitis trichomes, we investigated the diversity and distribution of trichomes in 34 species of Vitis. Two main types of trichomes in Vitis are documented: non-glandular and glandular. Within non-glandular trichomes, ribbon and simple trichomes are found on different vegetative plant organs. The morphology and ontogeny of these types of trichomes are further examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the glandular trichomes is explored with transmission electron microscopy. The ribbon trichomes are twisted, greatly elongated and unicellular, and this trichome type may be a morphological synapomorphy of Vitis and its closest tropical relative Ampelocissus and Pterisanthes in Vitaceae. The simple trichomes are documented in most species sampled in the genus. The glandular trichomes are multicellular, non-vascularized and composed of both epidermis and subjacent layers. We show that prickles occurring along the stems and petioles of Vitis davidii are modified glandular trichomes. In our observation, the glandular trichomes of V. romanetii can secret mucilage and send out volatile substance so that many insects are often glued to glands. Transmission electron microscopy indicates that metabolic products accumulate in vacuoles, the cytoplasm and intercellular spaces. We infer that glandular trichomes and young prickles are involved in the secretion of these metabolic products and the intercellular spaces may be the places of temporary storage of these secretions.

  3. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  4. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  5. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Borislav Miličević; Mara Banović; Srećko Tomas; Sanja Radeka; Đordano Peršurić; Igor Lukić

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples) were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Mu...

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE OPTIMAL MOMENT OF HARVESTING FOR CABERNET SAUVIGNON AND MERLOT GRAPES IN DRĂGĂŞANI VINEYARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Tiţa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the main characteristics of black grapes during ripening and determining the optimum moment to harvest the grapes in the vineyard Drăgăşani. Monitoring process of maturation of the grapes has been done on the varieties of grapes for red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot from Drăgăşani vineyard.

  7. PTR-MS monitoring of volatiles fingerprint evolution during grape must cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitri, G.; Ruth, van S.M.; Sacchetti, G.; Piva, G.; Alewijn, M.; Arfelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of volatiles during grape must concentration upon cooking. The evolution of the volatiles fingerprint of grape must heated at 80, 90, and 100 °C was studied by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass

  8. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE E.U. ROLE IN THE WORLD GRAPE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 position in the world grape production based on the data collected from FAO Stat data base for the period 2000-2008, using the index and share methods. The EU-27 is the most important vine cultivator and grape producer in the world. With its 3.5 million ha planted with vine, it accounts for 90.21 % of Europe’s area of vineyards and 48.14 % of the world vine area. In 2008, the EU-27 produced 25.1 million tones grapes placing it on the top position and contributing by 41.56 % to the world production. The top European countries: Italy, Spain, France, Germany and Romania achieved 21.8 million tones grapes, representing 86.98 % of the EU-27 and 32.96 % of the world grape production. Italy, Spain and France are among the top 10 grape producers in the world. As a conclusion, even thou the EU-27 planted area decreased by 8.24 % and its grape production declined by 16.16 %, the EU-27 continues to remain the main grape producer in the world.

  9. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  10. Microsatellite profiles as a basis for intellectual property protection in grape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibanez, J.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of microsatellite analysis in a forensic procedure for establishing infringement on plant breeders¿ rights in vegetatively propagated crops was evaluated. A reference collection of 45 seedless grape varieties was chosen as reference collection. Matching probabilities of grape microsatellite

  11. Mycotoxins in grapes and wine in Europe: Occurence, factors affecting the occurence and related toxicological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratakou, I.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the European Commission has established maximum levels for ochratoxin A in wine and grape products, using occurrence data up to 2001 and toxicity data up to 2006. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of the occurrence of mycotoxins in grapes and wine produced in Europe in the period

  12. The influence of virus diseases on grape polyphenols of cv. 'Refosk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, I.; Vrhovsek, U.; Korosec-Koruza, Z.

    2003-01-01

    External stimuli such as microbial infections, ultraviolet radiation, and chemical stressors can modulate the synthesis of polyphenols in the plants. Cv. 'Refosk' was used to show the influence of the GLRaV-1 and rugose wood (RW) on the polyphenols in grape. The infection shifted polyphenols from seeds to grape skins but had no impact on anthocyanins

  13. Evaluation of stratospheric temperature simulation results by the global GRAPES model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwei; Wang, Yangfeng; Ma, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yunhai

    2017-12-01

    Global final analysis (FNL) products and the general circulation spectral model (ECHAM) were used to evaluate the simulation of stratospheric temperature by the global assimilation and prediction system (GRAPES). Through a series of comparisons, it was shown that the temperature variations at 50 hPa simulated by GRAPES were significantly elevated in the southern hemisphere, whereas simulations by ECHAM and FNL varied little over time. The regional warming predicted by GRAPES seemed to be too distinct and uncontrolled to be reasonable. The temperature difference between GRAPES and FNL (GRAPES minus FNL) was small at the start time on the global scale. Over time, the positive values became larger in more locations, especially in parts of the southern hemisphere, where the warming predicted by GRAPES was dominant, with a maximal value larger than 24 K. To determine the reasons for the stratospheric warming, we considered the model initial conditions and ozone data to be possible factors; however, a comparison and sensitivity test indicated that the errors produced by GRAPES were not significantly related to either factor. Further research focusing on the impact of factors such as vapor, heating rate, and the temperature tendency on GRAPES simulations will be conducted.

  14. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  15. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  16. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE ADDED VALUE OF SULTANA SEEDLESS GRAPE PRODUCTION

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    Umut Burak Geyikci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey after USA is the second important raisin grape producer by cv “Sultana”in the world (Kara,2014. The Manisa district alone accounts for 31% of totalgrape production and 80% of the whole sultana seedless raisin grape production inTurkey. 95% of total grape output generated in Manisa is made up of Sultanaseedless grape(TUIK, 2012. In thisstudy, the added value of grape production inManisa has been calculated and according to the findings, the per capita addedvalue of grape production has been computed. In order to calculate the addedvalue of grape production in Manisa, costs of labor, fuel, fertilizer, disinfection,hormone, repair and maintenance of the businesses around have been investigated.After calculated costs had been deducted from total business income, the totaladded value of grape production in Manisa and the per capita added valueofgrape production in Manisa were attained The efficiency per hectare in the sampleproduction units, which was investigated during the field research, measures up to26.470 kg. The percentile distributions of cost items at this efficiency level are;27,8% fuel costs, 23,2% fertilizing costs, 19,9% irrigation costs, 11,4%disinfection costs, 7,5% hormone usage costs, 4,6% harvesting and transportingcosts and the rest consists of maintenance costs. When the costs are deducted from income per hectare (11.646 USD, the added value per hectare turns out to be8843 USD

  17. Near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of grapes and red-wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenbichler, W.

    2003-04-01

    In this work vine varieties of the genus Vitis as well as grape-must and fully developed wines were examined by Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). The spectra were obtained by methods of transflection and transmission measurements. It was shown, that spectra of different varieties of grapes and red-wines can be combined in clusters by means of NIR spectroscopy and subsequent principle components analysis (PCA). In addition to this, it was possible to identify blends of two different varieties of wines as such and to determine the ratio of mixture. In several varieties of grape-must these NIR spectroscopic measurements further allowed a quantitative determination of important parameters concerning the quality of grapes, such as: sugar, total acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid, and pH-value. The content of polyphenols in grapes was also analyzed by this method. The total parameter for polyphenols in grapes is a helpful indicator for the optimal harvest time and the quality of grapes. All quantitative calculations were made by the method of partial least square regression (PLS). As these spectroscopic measurements require minimal sample preparations and due to the fact that measurements can be accomplished and results obtained within a few seconds, this method turned out to be a promising option in order to classify wines and to quantify relevant ingredients in grapes. (author)

  18. Alleviation of Oxidative Stress by Using Olive Pomace in Crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) Calves Under Hot Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.B.; Khalil, F.K.; El - Masry, K.A.; Teama, F.E.; Emara, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ten female crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) calves , 8 – 10 months old with average live body weight of 112 kg at the be ginning of experimental period were used to investigate the effect of olive pomace (OP) supplementation which contains phenolic compounds on oxidant and antioxidant agents and some blood constituents, and its relation with growth performance in heat stressed calves. The animals were maintained under hot summer environmental conditions, where, ambient temperature and relative humidity average d 37.48°C ± 0.32 and 64.58 % ± 0.77 , (equivalent to THI 91) during day, and 28.38 °C ± 0.22 and 78.23 % ± 0.69 , (equivalent to THI 80) during night, respectively. The animals were divided into two equal groups (5 calves each). The first group control (received 0 % OP of the concentrate mixture, while the second group) treated received 15 % OP of the concentrate mixture, for two months. Body weight o f calves was recorded twice at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the end of experimental period to determine antioxidant and oxidant indices, some blood constituents and T 3 concentration. Our results showed that supplementation of OP significantly increased antioxidant status including catalase enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid as a non-enzymatic antioxidant and copper as a specific antioxidant protecting macromolecules. More over, OP significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation marker, iron concentration which act as a pro-oxidant, lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL – cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL – cholesterol), triglycerides and phospholipids. Also, OP caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea- N concentrations as well as AST activity. However, OP significantly elevated T3 level, and improved feed efficiency and daily

  19. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  20. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  1. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nami Goto-Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  2. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  4. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  5. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  6. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  7. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  8. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  9. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Sauvignon Blanc Grape Skin, Pulp and Seed and Relative Quantification of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Tian

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the main constituents of so-called protein hazes which can form in finished white wine and which is a great concern of winemakers. These soluble pathogenesis-related (PR proteins are extracted from grape berries. However, their distribution in different grape tissues is not well documented. In this study, proteins were first separately extracted from the skin, pulp and seed of Sauvignon Blanc grapes, followed by trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS. Proteins identified included 75 proteins from Sauvignon Blanc grape skin, 63 from grape pulp and 35 from grape seed, mostly functionally classified as associated with metabolism and energy. Some were present exclusively in specific grape tissues; for example, proteins involved in photosynthesis were only detected in grape skin and proteins found in alcoholic fermentation were only detected in grape pulp. Moreover, proteins identified in grape seed were less diverse than those identified in grape skin and pulp. TLPs and chitinases were identified in both Sauvignon Blanc grape skin and pulp, but not in the seed. To relatively quantify the PR proteins, the protein extracts of grape tissues were seperated by HPLC first and then analysed by SDS-PAGE. The results showed that the protein fractions eluted at 9.3 min and 19.2 min under the chromatographic conditions of this study confirmed that these corresponded to TLPs and chitinases seperately. Thus, the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases in protein extracts was carried out by comparing the area of corresponding peaks against the area of a thamautin standard. The results presented in this study clearly demonstrated the distribution of haze-forming PR proteins in grape berries, and the relative quantification of TLPs and chitinases could be applied in fast tracking of changes in PR proteins during grape growth and

  11. Xenia and metaxenia in grapes: differences in berry and seed characteristics of maternal grape cv. 'Narince' (Vitis vinifera L.) as influenced by different pollen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, A

    2015-03-01

    Literature investigations indicate that the grapes have quite complex fertilisation biology. This complexity necessitates extensive investigations to obtain reliable knowledge for both well-organised hybridisation studies and maximising grape yield. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the influences of self-, free- and cross-pollination on berry and seed characteristics in grape. Five different pollination treatments were applied to 'Narince', the most widely known and popular white wine grape in Turkey. Pollen tests indicated that all the cultivars had satisfactory in vitro pollen viability percentages. Free-pollination produced a significantly higher percentage berry set. Among the pollinizers, the use of pollen of 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Cardinal' varieties resulted in higher berry set percentage in 'Narince'. The free-pollination was also superior in giving the highest weight, length and width of the berry, as well as number of seeds per berry. These findings revealed that there were strong xenial and metaxenial effects in the studied grape cultivars. Among the pollinizer cultivars, the most effective pollinator was 'Thompson Seedless'. Hence, for better berry set and quality, the use of 'Thompson Seedless' as a pollinizer may be an attractive option in both grape production and breeding studies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

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    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  13. Nitrogen nutrition of the grape-vine (Vitis vinifera spp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, W.J.

    1985-12-01

    A thorough knowledge concerning the nitrogen relationship in the grape-vine is essential in order to appreciate how different patterns of uptake, assimilation, storage and utilisation of nitrogen might be advantageous in particular environmental situations. The 15 N-isotope technique has been used to determine the uptake and distribution of nitrogen absorbed during early spring, early summer and autumn. Apart from the total N fraction, protein N and soluble N were determined as well. The utilisation of labelled N applied in the field, was determined for vineyards on heavier and lighter soils

  14. Carbon Footprint Analysis for a GRAPE Production Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Masia, S.; Duce, P.; Zara, P.; Spano, D.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture activities can play a double role in emitting or sequestering carbon from the atmosphere. Mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture is one of the most urgent research subjects in the framework of enhancing environmental stewardship. However, little is known about the role of the agriculture in the global carbon balance, since most of the studies applied the Eddy Covariance technique in natural or semi-natural ecosystems to investigate their role in mitigate the anthropogenic carbon release. The application of the Eddy Covariance technique in agricultural systems could greatly improve our knowledge about their role on the global carbon budget and help in modeling the related processes. In addition, there is a growing request from producers, trade companies, and customers on the assessment of the environmental impact of a production process related to agricultural high quality products. In recent years, particular attention was put on the estimation of GHG emissions deriving from productive processes. In this context, a useful tool is the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which represents a methodology to estimate GHG emissions related to the entire life cycle of a product. The Carbon Footprint (CF) analysis represents a subset of the LCA, which only considers CO2 emissions with an impact on climate change. With respect to the wine industry, most of studies focused on the CF analysis related to the wine making process in the cellar, while a few studies analyzed the GHG emissions related to the grape production. The aim of this work was to quantify the CO2 emissions due to the grape production and emphasize the double role of a vineyard as a carbon sink or source. An Eddy Covariance station was set up in a representative vineyard located in the Mediterranean Basin (Sardinia, Italy) to measure the net carbon exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The CF analysis was also conducted to compute the carbon balance of the grape production

  15. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  16. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

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    Lei Zhu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  17. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Idris, I.; Taher, N.

    2011-01-01

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  18. Effects of future climate change on grape and wine quality: a case study for the Aglianico grape, Campania. Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Gambuti, Angelita; Monaco, Eugenia; Langella, Giuliano; Manna, Piero; Orefice, Nadia; Albrizio, Rossella; Basile, Angelo; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Water deficits limit yields and this is one of the negative aspects of climate change. However, this applies particularly when emphasis is on biomass production (e.g. for crops like maize, wheat, etc.) but not for plants where quality, not quantity is most relevant. For example, water stress occurring during specific phenological phases of grapevine development is an important factor when producing good quality wines. It induces, for example, the production of anthocyanins and aroma precursors. Water stress due to future increases of temperature and decreases of rainfall due to climate change can, therefore, represent an opportunity to increase winegrowers' incomes. This study was carried out in Campania region (Southern Italy), an area well known for high quality wine production. Growth of the Aglianico grapevine cultivar, with a standard clone population on 1103 Paulsen rootstocks, was studied on two different types of soil: Calcisols and Cambisols occurring along a slope of 90 m length with 11% gradient. The agro-hydrological model SWAP was calibrated and applied to estimate soil-plant water status at the various crop phenological phases for three vintages (2011-2013). Then, the Crop water stress index (CWSI), as estimated by the model, was related to physiological measurements (e.g. leaf water potential), grape bunches measurements (e.g. sugar content) and wine quality (e.g. tannins). For both soils, the correlation between measurements and CWSI were high (e.g. -0.97** with sugar; 0.895* with anthocyanins in the skins). Next, the model was applied to future climate conditions (2021-2051) obtained from statistical downscaling of Global Circulation Models (AOGCM) in order to estimate the effect of the climate on CWSI and hence on vine quality. Results show that the effects of climate change on grape and wine quality are not expected to be significant for this particular grape variety when grown on these Calcisols and Cambisols. However, significant differences

  19. Relationship between viticultural climatic indices and grape maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2017-10-01

    Historical temperature data and maturity records were analyzed for 45 vineyard blocks in 15 winegrowing regions across Australia in order to evaluate the suitability of common viticultural indices to estimate date of grape maturity. Five temperature-based viticultural indices (mean January temperature, mean growing season temperature, growing degree days, biologically effective degree days, Huglin Index) along with four springtime temperature indices (mean and maximum temperature summations for September, October, and November; growing degree days and biologically effective degree days modified to include September) were compared to maturity data in order to investigate index relationship to observed maturity timing. Daily heat summations for the months of September, October, and November showed the best correlation to day of year of maturity, suggesting that springtime temperatures are important relative to the timing of grape maturity. Mean January temperature, a commonly used index, had the poorest correlation with day of year of maturity of all the indices included in this study. Indices that included the month of April had poorer correlation than indices that shifted the months included in the growing season to be from September to March inclusive. Calculated index values for the past 30 years for every region included in this study showed increasing temporal trends to various degrees, indicating that all regions studied are experiencing warming temperatures during the growing season. These results emphasize the need to reevaluate viticultural indices in the context of a changing climate.

  20. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

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    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  1. Assimilation of GNSS radio occultation observations in GRAPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xue, J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the development of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations assimilation in the Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System (GRAPES) of China Meteorological Administration, including the choice of data to assimilate, the data quality control, the observation operator, the tuning of observation error, and the results of the observation impact experiments. The results indicate that RO data have a significantly positive effect on analysis and forecast at all ranges in GRAPES not only in the Southern Hemisphere where conventional observations are lacking but also in the Northern Hemisphere where data are rich. It is noted that a relatively simple assimilation and forecast system in which only the conventional and RO observation are assimilated still has analysis and forecast skill even after nine months integration, and the analysis difference between both hemispheres is gradually reduced with height when compared with NCEP (National Centers for Enviromental Prediction) analysis. Finally, as a result of the new onboard payload of the Chinese FengYun-3 (FY-3) satellites, the research status of the RO of FY-3 satellites is also presented.

  2. Antioxidant Activity and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition of Grape Skin Anthocyanin (GSA

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    Mehnaz Pervin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of the anthocyanin rich extract of grape skin. Grape skin anthocyanin (GSA neutralized free radicals in different test systems, such as 2,-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays, to form complexes with Fe2+ preventing 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis and oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, GSA decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in isolated mitochondria thus inhibiting 2',-7'-dichlorofluorescin (DCFH oxidation. In an in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were administered GSA, at 12.5, 25, and 50 mg per kg per day orally for 30 consecutive days. Herein, we demonstrate that GSA administration significantly elevated the level of antioxidant enzymes in mice sera, livers, and brains. Furthermore, GSA inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE in the in vitro assay with an IC50 value of 363.61 µg/mL. Therefore, GSA could be an excellent source of antioxidants and its inhibition of cholinesterase is of interest with regard to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Theme and symbolism in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath

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    Lončar-Vujnović Mirjana N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available John Steinbeck aims to express the American political and social system as the reflection on characterization, plot, and symbols in The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck’s characters struggle desperately against forces beyond their understanding or control. Many of those characters suffer tragic fates, yet they almost always marriage to exhibit bravery and retain a sense of dignity throughout their struggles. Steinbeck’s ability to combine harsh critiques of the political and social systems of his times with genuine artistry in his characterization, plot, and language is unique in American literature. The Grapes of Wrath is the historically authentic story of the Joad family; Oklahoma farmers dispossessed of their land and forced to become migrant farmers in California. 'The Turtle' is an excerpt from the opening pages of this novel, which won the National Book Award and the Pulitzer Prize. The book aroused public sympathy for the plight of migratory farm workers and established Steinbeck as one of the most highly regarded writers of his day. Steinbeck’s belief in social justice, and in the human ability to learn from and rise above suffering, infused all his work.

  4. Production and Properties of a Thermostable, pH-Stable Exo-Polygalacturonase Using Aureobasidium pullulans Isolated from Saharan Soil of Algeria Grown on Tomato Pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennamoun, Leila; Hiligsmann, Serge; Dakhmouche, Scheherazad; Ait-Kaki, Amel; Labbani, Fatima-Zohra Kenza; Nouadri, Tahar; Meraihi, Zahia; Turchetti, Benedetta; Buzzini, Pietro; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-10-29

    Polygalacturonase is a valuable biocatalyst for several industrial applications. Production of polygalacturonase using the Aureobasidium pullulans stain isolated from Saharan soil of Algeria was investigated. Its capacity to produce polygalacturonase was assessed under submerged culture using tomato pomace as an abundant agro-industrial substrate. Optimization of the medium components, which enhance polygalacturonase activity of the strain Aureobasidium pullulans , was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology. The composition of the optimized medium was as follows: tomato pomace 40 g/L, lactose 1.84 g/L, CaCl₂0.09 g/L and pH 5.16. Practical validation of the optimum medium provided polygalacturonase activity of 22.05 U/mL, which was 5-fold higher than in unoptimized conditions. Batch cultivation in a 20 L bioreactor performed with the optimal nutrients and conditions resulted in a high polygalacturonase content (25.75 U/mL). The enzyme showed stability over a range of temperature (5-90 °C) with an optimum temperature of 60 °C with pH 5.0, exhibiting 100% residual activity after 1h at 60 °C. This enzyme was stable at a broad pH range (5.0-10). The enzyme proved to be an exo-polygalacturonase, releasing galacturonic acid by hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Moreover, the exo-polygalacturonase was able to enhance the clarification of both apple and citrus juice. As a result, an economical polygalacturonase production process was defined and proposed using an industrial food by-product.

  5. Production and Properties of a Thermostable, pH—Stable Exo-Polygalacturonase Using Aureobasidium pullulans Isolated from Saharan Soil of Algeria Grown on Tomato Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Bennamoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase is a valuable biocatalyst for several industrial applications. Production of polygalacturonase using the Aureobasidium pullulans stain isolated from Saharan soil of Algeria was investigated. Its capacity to produce polygalacturonase was assessed under submerged culture using tomato pomace as an abundant agro-industrial substrate. Optimization of the medium components, which enhance polygalacturonase activity of the strain Aureobasidium pullulans, was achieved with the aid of response surface methodology. The composition of the optimized medium was as follows: tomato pomace 40 g/L, lactose 1.84 g/L, CaCl20.09 g/L and pH 5.16. Practical validation of the optimum medium provided polygalacturonase activity of 22.05 U/mL, which was 5-fold higher than in unoptimized conditions. Batch cultivation in a 20 L bioreactor performed with the optimal nutrients and conditions resulted in a high polygalacturonase content (25.75 U/mL. The enzyme showed stability over a range of temperature (5–90 °C with an optimum temperature of 60 °C with pH 5.0, exhibiting 100% residual activity after 1h at 60 °C. This enzyme was stable at a broad pH range (5.0–10. The enzyme proved to be an exo-polygalacturonase, releasing galacturonic acid by hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Moreover, the exo-polygalacturonase was able to enhance the clarification of both apple and citrus juice. As a result, an economical polygalacturonase production process was defined and proposed using an industrial food by-product.

  6. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  7. Olive-pomace harbors bacteria with the potential for hydrocarbon-biodegradation, nitrogen-fixation and mercury-resistance: promising material for waste-oil-bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2015-05-15

    Olive-pomace, a waste by-product of olive oil industry, took up >40% of its weight crude oil. Meanwhile, this material harbored a rich and diverse hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial population in the magnitude of 10(6) to 10(7) cells g(-1). Using this material for bioaugmentation of batch cultures in crude oil-containing mineral medium, resulted in the consumption of 12.9, 21.5, 28.3, and 43% oil after 2, 4, 6 and 8 months, respectively. Similar oil-consumption values, namely 11.0, 29.3, 34.7 and 43.9%, respectively, were recorded when a NaNO3-free medium was used instead of the complete medium. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria involved in those bioremediation processes, as characterized by their 16S rRNA-gene sequences, belonged to the genera Agrococcus, Pseudomonas, Cellulosimicrobium, Streptococcus, Sinorhizobium, Olivibacter, Ochrobactrum, Rhizobium, Pleomorphomonas, Azoarcus, Starkeya and others. Many of the bacterial species belonging to those genera were diazotrophic; they proved to contain the nifH-genes in their genomes. Still other bacterial species could tolerate the heavy metal mercury. The dynamic changes of the proportions of various species during 8 months of incubation were recorded. The culture-independent, phylogenetic analysis of the bacterioflora gave lists different from those recorded by the culture-dependent method. Nevertheless, those lists comprised among others, several genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic potential, e.g. Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Sphingobium, and Citrobacter. It was concluded that olive-pomace could be applied in oil-remediation, not only as a physical sorbent, but also for bioaugmentation purposes as a biological source of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  9. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-09-17

    This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A) and 99% (film B) invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that (E)-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  11. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A and 99% (film B invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA revealed that (E-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  12. Some advances in the knowledge of grape, wine and distillates chemistry as achieved by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2005-06-01

    Mass spectrometry plays a very important role in acquiring knowledge of the chemistry of grape and its derivative products. By liquid mass spectrometry, anthocyanins of grape were studied, and in hybrid grape extracts, delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin and malvidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-5-O-diglucosides were found. A semiquantitative procedure to estimate the amounts and percentages of monoglucoside and diglucoside anthocyanins without chromatography was developed. By gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS), aroma compounds of grape, wine and the distillate Italian grappa were studied, and molecular structures characterized. The representative aroma profile of Muscat grape was characterized by 23 terpenols, present in both free and bonded form, and direct correlation between aroma and genetic profile permitted to distinguish between different Muscat grape varieties. Aroma of Italian grappa resulted from and was characterized by several compounds linked to the grape variety, such as vitispiranes, terpenols, ethyl cinnamate, salicylic esters, benzaldehyde and farnesol. Synthesis of O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)-hydroxylamine (PFBOA) derivatives and GC/MS analysis resulted in a sensitive and selective method to study carbonyl compounds at the low levels occurring in wine.

  13. Grapevine yield components and composition of Isabel grape produced according to the organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for organic grapes by the juice industry of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil. This region presents a humid and hot summer, ideal climatic conditions for the development of a number of diseases. To control such diseases and problems brought about by other organisms, growers apply pesticides on the grapevines which may leave residues in grapes. However, in general, grapes produced by organic system have lower yield, but there is a lack of research data on this subject. Thus, an experiment was carried out over three years in order to compare the yield components and the physicochemical composition of the must of Isabel grapes conducted in both production systems. When the grapes were ripe, variables related to yield components were evaluated, such as the number of clusters/vine, yield/vine and weight/cluster. Then the grapes were sampled and taken to the laboratory where they were crushed and the musts were centrifuged and analyzed. The 3-year data mean were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The results show that conventional grapevines produced 2.18 times more than organic. However, the grapes from the organic system had higher density, Brix, pH, Brix/titratable acidity ratio, P and Mg but lower K, and Ca varied little between both production systems.

  14. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential health benefits from the flavonoids in grape products on vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folts, John D

    2002-01-01

    In the dog, monkey, a nd human we have shown that 5 ml/kg of red wine or 5-10 ml/kg of purple grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity, and protects against epinephrine activation of platelets. Red wine and purple grape juice enhances platelet and endothelial production of nitric oxide (Fitzpatrick et al., 1993, Parker et al., 2000). This is thought to be one of the mechanisms whereby purple grape juice significantly improved endothelial function in 15 patients with coronary artery disease. The consumption of purple grape juice by the patients also offered increased protection against LDL cholesterol oxidation, even though all the patients were also taking another antioxidant vitamin E, 400 IU/day. The number of people and animals in these studies was small; however, each one acted as their own control as measurements were made in each before, and then after consumption of red wine or purple grape juice. Thus these studies are thought to be significant. We feel that the results of these studies are encouraging and justify further research on larger numbers of subjects. This suggests that the flavonoids in purple grape juice and red wine may inhibit the initiation of atherosclerosis by one or more of the mechanisms described above. It will take years to fully characterize the potential benefits of daily consumption of red wine or purple grape juice for maintaining a healthy heart. Based on the existing evidence of antiplatelet and antioxidant benefits and improved endothelial function from red wine and purple grape juice, it seems reasonable to suggest that moderate amounts of red wine or purple grape juice be included among the 5-7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day as recommended by the American Heart Association to help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  16. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of the TIFY Gene Family in Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucheng; Gao, Min; Singer, Stacy D.; Fei, Zhangjun; Wang, Hua; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Background The TIFY gene family constitutes a plant-specific group of genes with a broad range of functions. This family encodes four subfamilies of proteins, including ZML, TIFY, PPD and JASMONATE ZIM-Domain (JAZ) proteins. JAZ proteins are targets of the SCFCOI1 complex, and function as negative regulators in the JA signaling pathway. Recently, it has been reported in both Arabidopsis and rice that TIFY genes, and especially JAZ genes, may be involved in plant defense against insect feeding, wounding, pathogens and abiotic stresses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant TIFY family members is limited, especially in a woody species such as grape. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of two TIFY, four ZML, two PPD and 11 JAZ genes were identified in the Vitis vinifera genome. Phylogenetic analysis of TIFY protein sequences from grape, Arabidopsis and rice indicated that the grape TIFY proteins are more closely related to those of Arabidopsis than those of rice. Both segmental and tandem duplication events have been major contributors to the expansion of the grape TIFY family. In addition, synteny analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that homologues of several grape TIFY genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of lineages that led to grape and Arabidopsis. Analyses of microarray and quantitative real-time RT-PCR expression data revealed that grape TIFY genes are not a major player in the defense against biotrophic pathogens or viruses. However, many of these genes were responsive to JA and ABA, but not SA or ET. Conclusion The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape TIFY genes should facilitate further research of this gene family and provide new insights regarding their evolutionary history and regulatory control. PMID:22984514

  17. Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CDPK Gene Family in Grape, Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Hu, Yang; Gao, Yu-Rong; Ma, Yan-Fei; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2015-06-30

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) play vital roles in plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, and hormone signaling. Little is known about the CDPK gene family in grapevine. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the 12X grape genome (Vitis vinifera) and identified nineteen CDPK genes. Comparison of the structures of grape CDPK genes allowed us to examine their functional conservation and differentiation. Segmentally duplicated grape CDPK genes showed high structural conservation and contributed to gene family expansion. Additional comparisons between grape and Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that several grape CDPK genes occured in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grapevine and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic analysis divided the grape CDPK genes into four groups. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the corresponding nineteen homologous CDPK genes in the Chinese wild grape (Vitis pseudoreticulata) under various conditions, including biotic stress, abiotic stress, and hormone treatments. The expression profiles derived from reverse transcription and quantitative PCR suggested that a large number of VpCDPKs responded to various stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating their versatile roles in the responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, we examined the subcellular localization of VpCDPKs by transiently expressing six VpCDPK-GFP fusion proteins in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts; this revealed high variability consistent with potential functional differences. Taken as a whole, our data provide significant insights into the evolution and function of grape CDPKs and a framework for future investigation of grape CDPK genes.

  18. Effects of native biodiversity on grape loss of four castes: testing the biotic resistance hypothesis

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    M. Nereu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural landscapes can influence the biodiversity and the ecological services provided by these ecosystems, such as natural biological pest control. Viticulture is a very important economic activity in most countries with Mediterranean climate, often shaping their landscapes and culture. Grape production is affected by a number of pests and diseases, and farmers use prophylactic and response-driven pesticides to control these pests. Here we quantified the main biotic causes of crop losses in four grape castes, two red (Touriga Nacional and Baga and two white (Arinto and Chardonnay, and evaluated the potential effect of native biodiversity to provide biotic resistance to pest outbreaks and grape losses. Specifically, the diversity and abundance of bird and insect communities in these vineyards were quantified and divided into functional guilds (pest, neutral or auxiliary, to test whether these natural communities hold the potential to naturally control grape pests (biotic resistance hypothesis under normal vineyard management (including pesticide application regimes. A potential association between distance to the vineyard edge and grape losses was also evaluated. We recorded a very small proportion of grape losses (mean  =  0.6 %; max  =  7.5 %, with insect pests showing a preference for the castes Baga (red and Chardonnay (white, while bird pests avoided the caste Arinto (white. Grape color did not influence losses caused by insect pests, but birds showed a preference for red castes. The caste Baga was also more vulnerable to losses caused by fungi. Despite their low impact on grape production, most insects and birds detected in the six vineyards were pests, which entails a potentially low level of biotic resistance in this highly managed agricultural ecosystem. Further research is necessary to fully evaluate the role of functional biodiversity in vineyards, particularly if alternative production processes

  19. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  20. Bone Response to Dietary Co-Enrichment with Powdered Whole Grape and Probiotics

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    Cynthia Blanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation and suppressed osteoclast activity. This study tested the effect of dietary enrichment with powdered whole grape and probiotics (composed of equal parts Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. bulgaricus on bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of age-related osteoporosis. Groups (n = 7 each of 10-month-old male mice were fed one of six diets for 6 months: 10% grape powder with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder; 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 10% grape powder + 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder + 1% probiotic; 20% sugar control. Femur, tibia and 4th lumbar vertebrae from 10-month-old mice served as comparator baseline samples. Bone microarchitecture was measured by micro-computed tomography and compared across diet groups using analysis of variance. Aging exerted a significant effect on tibia metaphysis trabecular bone, with baseline 10-month-old mice having significantly higher bone volume/total volume (BV/TV and trabecular number measurements and lower trabecular spacing measurements than all 16-month-old groups (p < 0.001. Neither grape nor probiotic enrichment significantly improved bone microarchitecture during aging compared to control diet. The combination of 20% grape + 1% probiotic exerted detrimental effects on tibia metaphysis BV/TV compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, and trabecular number and trabecular spacing compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, 1% probiotic and control groups (p < 0.05. Femur metaphysis trabecular bone displayed less pronounced aging effects than tibia bone, but also showed detrimental effects of the

  1. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

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    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  2. Assessment of Injuries Caused by Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Incidence of Bunch Rot Diseases in Table Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machota, R; Bortoli, L C; Cavalcanti, F R; Botton, M; Grützmacher, A D

    2016-08-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied.) is the main insect pest of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in the Southern Region of Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fruit puncturing by adult females and larval infestation by A. fraterculus on the occurrence of bunch rot disease in the grape (cultivar "Itália") by evaluating grapes (a) punctured for oviposition by females of A. fraterculus, sterilized in laboratory with novaluron (40 mg L(-1)) and further spray-inoculated separately with Botrytis cinerea (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), Glomerella cingulata (1 × 10(6) conidia mL(-1)), and bacteria and yeast that cause sour rot (1 × 10(5) cells mL(-1)), (b) grapes punctured for oviposition by non-sterilized females with pathogen spraying, (c) grapes with mechanical wounds and pathogen spraying, (d) grapes with no wounds and with pathogen spraying, (e) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus chemically sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (f) grapes punctured for oviposition by A. fraterculus non-sterilized in laboratory with novaluron, (g) grapes with mechanical wounds, and (h) grapes with no sterilization or pathogen spraying. Our data indicated that the mechanical and oviposition wounds caused by A. fraterculus increased the percentage of grapes infected by B. cinerea, G. cingulata, and microorganisms of acid rot. The grape puncturing by A. fraterculus and the mechanical wound allows the penetration of B. cinerea and microorganisms leading to acid rot. We conclude that the fruit fly A. fraterculus may facilitate phytopathogens penetration leading to bunch rots in the table grape Itália.

  3. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Grape Berries in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.D. Gubler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Injured and non-injured grape berries were inoculated with spore suspension of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium aleophilum under field (intact berries and laboratory (detached berries conditions. In one test, berries were injured by pricking the skin with a syringe needle to a depth of approximately 1.5 mm. Brown to purple lesions appeared 5 to 7 days after inoculation in both the injured intact and detached berries. Lesions on these berries were larger when inoculated earlier in the season indicating that young, immature berries are more susceptible to infection than mature berries. In another test, berries were injured by rubbing the skin with carborundum dust using a cotton-tipped applicator. Esca-like lesions developed in 4 to 5 days after inoculation of detached but not intact berries. Occasional infection of non-injured berries occurred which appeared as small dots to pin-head size lesions around the lenticels. Scanning electron microscopy observations of these lesions showed abundant hyphal growth on the surface with apparent penetration through lenticels; however, fungal structures were not detected with certainty beneath the lenticels or intact cuticle. In both tests, the fungi were re-isolated from the advancing margin of the lesions.

  4. Porous structure and morphology of granular chars from flash and conventional pyrolysis of grape seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Cordero, Diana; Heras, Francisco; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Gilarranz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the influence of the operating conditions used in the pyrolysis of grape seeds on the morphology and textural properties of the chars resulting. Flash and conventional (283 K min −1 heating rate) pyrolysis have been used within a wide range of temperature (300–1000 °C). The effect of a pretreatment for oil extraction has also been studied. The porous structure of the chars was characterized by adsorption of N 2 at 77 K, Ar at 77 K and 87 K, and CO 2 at 273 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. All the materials prepared revealed an essentially microporous structure, with a poor or even negligible contribution of mesopores. Increasing pyrolysis temperature led to higher specific surface areas and lower pore size. The highest specific surface area values occurred within 700–800 °C, reaching up to 500 m 2 g −1 with pore sizes in the 0.4–1.1 nm range. No significant morphological changes were observed upon carbonization so that the resulting chars were granular materials of similar size than the starting grape seeds. The hollow core structure of the chars, with most of the material allocated at the periphery of the granules can help to overcome the mass transfer limitations of most common (solid or massive) granular activated carbons. The chars showed a good mechanical strength during attrition tests. These chars can be potential candidates for the preparation of granular carbons molecular sieve or activated carbons raw materials. -- Highlights: •We use a raw material that has a very low price and a high availability. •Not very much attention has been paid to this waste for carbonaceous materials preparation. •The chars obtained have high specific surface area that is an interesting starting point for later activation processes. •The chars show a micro-macro porous bimodal distribution. •Pyrolysis does not affect to morphology or initial seed, leading a carbonized

  5. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  6. Chitosan and Laminarin as Alternatives to Copper for Plasmopara viticola Control: Effect on Grape Amino Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; Mancini, V; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Servili, A; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Foglia, R; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Romanazzi, G

    2017-08-30

    Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids. Moreover, treatments that have mostly decreased these compounds are those with copper hydroxide, especially when applied individually. LamE applied individually or alternately with copper hydroxide had the least negative effect on grape amino acid content. These results provide further information about the negative effects of copper on grape quality, which can be reduced when it is used in strategy with LamE or chitosan in GDM control.

  7. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmard, Zahra; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Reisi, Parham; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer's disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer's rats. Alzheimer's model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red grape juice for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for measuring memory and learning in rats. Our results showed that learning and memory in STZ-group decreased significantly compared to Sham group. However, intake of red grape juice increased speed of learning and improvement of memory in Alzheimer's rats. Our results suggest that there are active ingredients in red grape juice, which probably have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. An analysis of relationship between food safety and pesticides usages of grape growers in Manisa province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabat Selçuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Manisa which has the largest vineyard areas and grape production of Turkey. In this research, awareness of environment and pesticide using attitudes of growers and effects on food safety of pesticides were investigated. Main data of the study was collected by survey from 117 grape growers which are settled in Manisa province where sultana production is very widespread. Applying Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, for reaching quality raisin and table grape target, conventional and environment friendly pesticides preference priorities were estimated. The AHP was applied to determine conventional and environment friendly pesticides usages of grape growers related to food safety. As a conclusion, it is understood that this target could be reached with 66.8% using environment friendly pesticides.

  10. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  11. Shading of the fruit zone to reduce grape yield and quality losses caused by sunburn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The study highlights the effects of solar radiation on the composition of grape musts and suggests a potentially cost-effective method to control excessive radiation in vineyards.

  12. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  13. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-28

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  15. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2008-01-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety H elwani , was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  16. Temperature-Dependent Kinetics of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds Extraction: Experiment and Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucic´-Kojic´, A.; Sovová, Helena; Planinic´, M.; Tomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 136, 3-4 (2013), s. 1136-1140 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : kinetics modelling * temperature * grape seed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.259, year: 2013

  17. Transcriptome sequences resolve deep relationships of the grape family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Nie, Ze-Long; Mao, Likai; Zhu, Yabing; Kan, Xian-Zhao; Ickert-Bond, Stefanie M; Gerrath, Jean; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Fang, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape family (Vitaceae) yielded poorly resolved deep relationships, thus impeding our understanding of the evolution of the family. Next-generation sequencing now offers access to protein coding sequences very easily, quickly and cost-effectively. To improve upon earlier work, we extracted 417 orthologous single-copy nuclear genes from the transcriptomes of 15 species of the Vitaceae, covering its phylogenetic diversity. The resulting transcriptome phylogeny provides robust support for the deep relationships, showing the phylogenetic utility of transcriptome data for plants over a time scale at least since the mid-Cretaceous. The pros and cons of transcriptome data for phylogenetic inference in plants are also evaluated.

  18. Transcriptome sequences resolve deep relationships of the grape family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wen

    Full Text Available Previous phylogenetic studies of the grape family (Vitaceae yielded poorly resolved deep relationships, thus impeding our understanding of the evolution of the family. Next-generation sequencing now offers access to protein coding sequences very easily, quickly and cost-effectively. To improve upon earlier work, we extracted 417 orthologous single-copy nuclear genes from the transcriptomes of 15 species of the Vitaceae, covering its phylogenetic diversity. The resulting transcriptome phylogeny provides robust support for the deep relationships, showing the phylogenetic utility of transcriptome data for plants over a time scale at least since the mid-Cretaceous. The pros and cons of transcriptome data for phylogenetic inference in plants are also evaluated.

  19. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  20. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  1. Microclimate influence on mineral and metabolic profiles of grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G E; Gaudillere, J-P; Pieri, P; Hilbert, G; Maucourt, M; Deborde, C; Moing, A; Rolin, D

    2006-09-06

    The grape berry microclimate is known to influence berry quality. The effects of the light exposure of grape berry clusters on the composition of berry tissues were studied on the "Merlot" variety grown in a vineyard in Bordeaux, France. The light exposure of the fruiting zone was modified using different intensities of leaf removal, cluster position relative to azimuth, and berry position in the cluster. Light exposures were identified and classified by in situ measurements of berry temperatures. Berries were sampled at maturity (>19 Brix) for determination of skin and/or pulp chemical and metabolic profiles based on (1) chemical and physicochemical measurement of minerals (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), (2) untargeted 1H NMR metabolic fingerprints, and HPLC targeted analyses of (3) amino acids and (4) phenolics. Each profile defined by partial least-square discriminant analysis allowed us to discriminate berries from different light exposure. Discriminant compounds between shaded and light-exposed berries were quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, myricetin-3-glucoside, and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside for the phenolics, histidine, valine, GABA, alanine, and arginine for the amino acids, and malate for the organic acids. Capacities of the different profiling techniques to discriminate berries were compared. Although the proportion of explained variance from the 1H NMR fingerprint was lower compared to that of chemical measurements, NMR spectroscopy allowed us to identify lit and shaded berries. Light exposure of berries increased the skin and pulp flavonols, histidine and valine contents, and reduced the organic acids, GABA, and alanine contents. All the targeted and nontargeted analytical data sets used made it possible to discriminate sun-exposed and shaded berries. The skin phenolics pattern was the most discriminating and allowed us to sort sun from shade berries. These metabolite classes can be used to qualify berries collected in an undetermined environment. The

  2. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part I: polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometry, had and still has, a very important role for research and quality control in the viticulture and enology field, and its analytical power is relevant for structural studies on aroma and polyphenolic compounds. Polyphenols are responsible for the taste and color of wine, and confer astringency and structure to the beverage. The knowledge of the anthocyanic structure is very important to predict the aging attitude of wine, and to attempt to resolve problems about color stability. Moreover, polyphenols are the main compounds related to the benefits of wine consumption in the diet, because of their properties in the treatment of circulatory disorders such as capillary fragility, peripheral chronic venous insufficiency, and microangiopathy of the retina. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques are nowadays the best analytical approach to study polyphenols in grape extracts and wine, and are the most effective tool in the study of the structure of anthocyanins. The MS/MS approach is a very powerful tool that permits anthocyanin aglycone and sugar moiety characterization. LC-MS allows the characterization of complex structures of grape polyphenols, such as procyanidins, proanthocyanidins, prodelphinidins, and tannins, and provides experimental evidence for structures that were previously only hypothesized. The matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technique is suitable to determine the presence of molecules of higher molecular weight with high accuracy, and it has been applied with success to study procyanidin oligomers up to heptamers in the reflectron mode, and up to nonamers in the linear mode. The levels of resveratrol in wine, an important polyphenol well-known for its beneficial effects, have been determined by SPME and LC-MS, and the former approach led to the best results in terms of sensitivity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  4. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  5. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  6. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  7. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  8. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  9. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  10. Ampelographic Characterization of Turkish Indigenous Grape Accessions and European Cultivars (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    İşçi, Burçak; Altındişli, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    A total of 35 grape accessions and 3 reference cultivars were used to investigate the genetic polymorphism and relationships among Turkey and other European grape accessions by ampelographic characterization. Total of 74 ampelographic characteristics were identified for 38 genotypes. Ampelographic data were collected  two vegetation periods. The characteristics of the vines were defined and measured according to OIV descriptors. In this study, three synonym varieties (100% similarity) were id...

  11. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  13. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  14. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  15. Grape extract protects against γ-radiation-induced membrane damage strains of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The membrane integrity of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) is compromised by the deleterious actions of γ-radiation in humans. Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants due to presence of potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of the present study was to assess the radioprotective actions of grape extracts against the γ-radiation-induced membrane permeability of human erythrocytes. The scavenging activities in seeds of grape in DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, were higher than skin or pulp of different cultivars. Grape extracts also showed appreciable extent of total antioxidant capacity and effective antihemolytic action. Grape extracts significantly ameliorated the γ-radiation-induced increase of the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an index of lipid peroxidation) in the RBC membrane ghosts. Stored blood showed higher levels of K + ion as compared to the normal blood which was elevated by γ-radiation. Membrane ATPase was inhibited by the exposure to γ-radiation.Treatment of RBCs with the grape extracts prior to the exposure of γ-radiation significantly mitigated these changes in the erythrocyte membranes caused by the lower dose of radiation (4 Gy). (author)

  16. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  17. Research on the quality of the wine grapes in corridor area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The corridor area of Gansu Province is one of the most important wine grape growing regions in China, and this strip of land results in a significant difference in terms of terroir between its regions. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of the main wine grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L. cultivated in the corridor area of Gansu Province in northwest China were compared. Three regions (Zhangye, Wuwei, and Jiayuguan were selected to explain the influence of soil and climate conditions on the quality of wine grapes. This study aims to investigate the effect of different regions on berry composition and antioxidant capacity, providing a general evaluation of red and white wine grapes quality in the corridor area of China. The results showed that ‘Merlot’ grapes grown in Zhangye had the best quality among the different varieties in the three regions of Gansu evaluated. The moderate temperature and nitrogen deficiency were associated with improved fruit quality. It was identified that the most suitable grape variety from Zhangye is ‘Merlot’, and that ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Italian Resling’ are the most suitable varieties from Wuwei and Jiayuguan, respectively.

  18. On Grape, Feast and Community: An Ethnographic Note on the Making of a Grape Harvest Festival in an Italian Town in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the phenomenon of grape harvest festivals in Italy. By exploring ethnographically the grape harvest festival of Lu (Alessandria province, Piedmont region, the paper points out the economic and social roles played by the festivals in modern Italy. The historic analysis of the case study helps to focus on the history of these festivals in the country and the role played by television and localism in defining the present forms of the rite.

  19. On Grape, Feast and Community: An Ethnographic Note on the Making of the Grape Harvest Festival in an Italian Town in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the phenomenon of grape harvest festivals in Italy. By exploring ethnographically the grape harvest festival of Lu (Alessandria province, Piedmont region, the paper points out the economic and social roles played by the festivals in modern Italy. The historic analysis of the case study helps to focus on the history of these festivals in the country and the role played by television and localism in defining the present forms of the rite.

  20. Study of translocation of photosynthate in grapes with radiotracers with the dual purpose of increasing grape production and improving the technology required for the evaluation of the photosynthetic yield of other crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcar, J.

    1984-05-01

    Using [ 14 C]-CO 2 to label the products of photosynthesis formed at each leaf on developing, fruiting grape stems the pattern of translocation of sugar to competing ''sinks'' was determined. The studies, which used four economically important Uruguayan wine-grape varieties in field trials, established that the upper parts of the stems were 'parasitic' in that their leaves did not contribute sugars to grape cluster growth. From these results a technique was developed for shortening shoots which resulted in increased sugar content of clusters. Further research on ''source-sink'' relationships in grape will emphasis the role of plant growth regulators and their possible use in agronomic practice

  1. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  2. Investigation into effects of ionizing radiations on physical-chemical properties of bulgarian sorts of peaches and grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Kalinov, V.; Nikolova, M.; Pavlova, E.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the degree and direction of those changes in physicochemical characteristics of irradiated peaches and grapes which determine their quality after irradiation and during storage. The following main conclusions are made: irradiation with doses of 200 to 300 krad does not cause significant alterations in the chemical composition and physicochemical characteristics of peaches and grapes; irradiation has a direct effect on the consistancy of peaches and grapes, leading to their softening which is proportional to the radiation dose used; radiation treatment is advisable in the case of peaches and grapes in tended for short-term rather than long-term storage at low temperatures

  3. THE GRAPES AND WINE MARKET IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA: TRENDS AND INSIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion CERTAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine products were and are symbolizing both the agriculture and economy of Moldova. Until the 90s of last century the main consumer of our drinks was the Russian Federative Republic. On its markets we sold more than four fifths of wines from grapes and more than 90 percent of sparkling wine. After the approval of the Declaration of Independence (August 27, 1991, our country has made considerable efforts to reform the national economy, to transition from centrally managed economy to a market economy that - and allows the manufacturer to direct activities according to demand and primarily domestic market. The request of grapes and grape products on the domestic market rules according to our traditions and previous practice and must be covered entirely by the local production. The national market for vine products is characterized by excessive fluctuations generated by the dynamics of production of grapes and processed products thereof, price volatility, increased competition, etc. Grapes and grape products obtained in Moldova exceed the domestic market demand and our country is doomed to commercial relations with other countries and/or groups of countries. The emergence of new socio-economic system open to the world triggered the joint efforts of the international community's own produced undoubtedly important changes not only in shape, but also background in trade flows and wine grapes. The European Union has been and remains an important actor of major interest to us. The signing and ratification in 2014 of the Association Agreement between Moldova and the European Union will definitely contribute to increase the sales in the Common Market of the European Union, but our country is required to know the trade policies of the EU and should adjust its national trade policy to the EU requirements. In the paper the authors reflect on the grapes and grape products market, studying the import and export of such products, seek practical

  4. Combination of Garcinia cambogia Extract and Pear Pomace Extract Additively Suppresses Adipogenesis and Enhances Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kushal; Kang, Siwon; Gong, Dalseong; Oh, Sung-Hwa; Park, Eun-Young; Oak, Min-Ho; Yi, Eunyoung

    2018-01-01

    Inhibition of adipogenesis has been a therapeutic target for reducing obesity and obesity-related disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. For decades, anti-adipogenic potential of many herbal extracts has been investigated. One example is Garcinia cambogia extract (GE) containing (-)-hydroxycitric acid as an active ingredient. GE is currently marketed as a weight loss supplement, used alone or with other ingredients. Pear pomace extract (PE), another natural product, has been also shown to have anti-adipogenic activity in a recent report. It was tested if the mixture of PE and GE (MIX) would produce more effective anti-adipogenic activity than PE or GE alone. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte was induced by adding insulin, dexamethasone, and isobutylmethylxanthine and lipid accumulation was measured by Oil Red O staining. Cellular markers for adipogenesis and lipolysis such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP-α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was measured using immunocytochemistry. MIX, compared to PE or GE alone, showed greater inhibition of lipid accumulation. Furthermore, MIX reduced the expression of adipogenesis-related factors C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and FAS more than PE or GE alone did. In contrast, the expression of HSL the enzyme required for lipolysis was further enhanced in MIX-treated adipocytes compared to the PE or GE alone treated groups. Anti-adipogenic effect of PE and GE appears synergistic, and the MIX may be a useful therapeutic combination for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases. PE and GE efficiently inhibited adipocyte differentiation by suppressing the expression of adipogenic transcription factor CEBP-α and PPAR-γ.PE and GE significantly decreased the expression of adipogenic enzyme FAS.PE and GE increased the expression of lipid degrading enzyme HSL.Mixture of PE and GE exhibited additive or

  5. Oxidative stability of the meat of broilers supplemented with rosemary leaves, rosehip fruits, chokeberry pomace, and entire nettle, and effects on performance and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2013-11-01

    Prevention of lipid oxidation needs special attention because a high proportion of fatty acids in broiler meat are unsaturated. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effect of dietary addition of rosemary, chokeberry pomace, rosehip, or nettle in comparison with vitamin E. Male Ross PM3 broilers caged in groups of 6 (4 replicated cages per treatment) were fed a balanced diet supplemented with 25 g/kg of herbal additive, 200 IU of α-tocopheryl acetate/kg, or without supplementation from d 7 to 35. Intake, performance, and with the help of excreta samples, apparent fiber digestibility, ME content, and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per cage. Feed was analyzed for total phenols and tocopherols. In each bird (n = 24 per treatment), carcass weight and relative organ weights were recorded, and skin and liver color were assessed. Abdominal fat was analyzed for induction time (h) of lipid oxidation (Rancimat). Breast meat was analyzed for total tocopherol content (mg/kg) and development of TBA reactive substances (TBARS; μg of MDA/kg) over 9 d of storage. Data were subjected to ANOVA considering treatment and, where applicable, storage time. Rosemary supplementation reduced oxidation (TBARS d 9: 201; induction time: 2.48) and elevated tocopherol content (5.72) of the meat compared with control (470, 1.87, and 3.53, respectively). Rosemary-treated birds had a slightly lower carcass weight and a reduced nitrogen and energy metabolizability. Rosehip addition numerically decreased TBARS (319) and enhanced carcass weight (1.71 kg) compared with rosemary-treated birds (1.54 kg). Only a trend in antioxidant activity could be ascribed to chokeberry pomace, although dietary phenolic content was highest. Nettle did not improve oxidative stability (TBARS: 506; induction time: 1.91), although tocopherol content was elevated (6.51). Nettle treatment strongly intensified skin yellowness (b* of 20.6) compared with the control treatment

  6. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travelet, Christophe, E-mail: Christophe.Travelet@cermav.cnrs.fr [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Stemmelen, Mylene; Lapinte, Vincent [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); Dubreuil, Frederic [Universite Joseph Fourier (UJF), Institut de Chimie Moleculaire de Grenoble (ICMG-FR 2607 CNRS), PolyNat Carnot institute, Arcane LabEx, domaine universitaire de Grenoble, Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolecules Vegetales - CERMAV-UPR 5301 CNRS (France); Robin, Jean-Jacques [Universite de Montpellier II, Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier (UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-UM1-ENSCM), equipe ingenierie et architectures macromoleculaires (France); and others

    2013-06-15

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D{sub h}) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C{sub 19} to 19.2 nm for C{sub 57}). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D{sub h}-values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445-1458, 2013)].Graphical Abstract

  7. Amphiphilic copolymers based on polyoxazoline and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives: self-assemblies and dynamic light scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travelet, Christophe; Stemmelen, Mylène; Lapinte, Vincent; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Robin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly in solution of original structures of amphiphilic partially natural copolymers based on polyoxazoline [more precisely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)] and grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (linear, T-, and trident-structure) is investigated. The results show that such systems are found, using dynamic light scattering (DLS), to spontaneously self-organize into monomodal, narrow-size, and stable nanoparticles in aqueous medium. The obtained hydrodynamic diameters (D h ) range from 8.6 to 32.5 nm. Specifically, such size increases strongly with increasing natural block (i.e., lipophilic species) length due to higher hydrophobic interactions (from 10.1 nm for C 19 to 19.2 nm for C 57 ). Furthermore, increasing the polyoxazoline (i.e., hydrophilic block) length leads to a moderate linear increase of the D h -values. Therefore, the first-order size effect comes from the natural lipophilic block, whereas the characteristic size can be tuned more finely (i.e., in a second-order) by choosing appropriately the polyoxazoline length. The DLS results in terms of characteristic size are corroborated using nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and also by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging where well-defined spherical and individual nanoparticles exhibit a very good mechanical resistance upon drying. Moreover, changing the lipophilic block architecture from linear to T-shape, while keeping the same molar mass, generates a branching and thus a shrinking by a factor of 2 of the nanoparticle volume, as observed by DLS. In this paper, it is clearly shown that the self-assemblies of amphiphilic block copolymer obtained from grape seed vegetable oil derivatives (sustainable renewable resources) as well as their tunability are of great interest for biomass valorization at the nanoscale level [continuation of the article by Stemmelen et al. (Polym Chem 4:1445–1458, 2013)].Graphical AbstractAmphiphilic copolymers based

  8. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-11-22

    Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of transcripts, 4,151 Unigenes

  9. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluc, Laurent G; Grimplet, Jérôme; Wheatley, Matthew D; Tillett, Richard L; Quilici, David R; Osborne, Craig; Schooley, David A; Schlauch, Karen A; Cushman, John C; Cramer, Grant R

    2007-01-01

    Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I), berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate), tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II) is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening) marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III) in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose), and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system), through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35), to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38). Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry development (28% of

  10. Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlauch Karen A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grape berry development is a dynamic process that involves a complex series of molecular genetic and biochemical changes divided into three major phases. During initial berry growth (Phase I, berry size increases along a sigmoidal growth curve due to cell division and subsequent cell expansion, and organic acids (mainly malate and tartrate, tannins, and hydroxycinnamates accumulate to peak levels. The second major phase (Phase II is defined as a lag phase in which cell expansion ceases and sugars begin to accumulate. Véraison (the onset of ripening marks the beginning of the third major phase (Phase III in which berries undergo a second period of sigmoidal growth due to additional mesocarp cell expansion, accumulation of anthocyanin pigments for berry color, accumulation of volatile compounds for aroma, softening, peak accumulation of sugars (mainly glucose and fructose, and a decline in organic acid accumulation. In order to understand the transcriptional network responsible for controlling berry development, mRNA expression profiling was conducted on berries of V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon using the Affymetrix GeneChip® Vitis oligonucleotide microarray ver. 1.0 spanning seven stages of berry development from small pea size berries (E-L stages 31 to 33 as defined by the modified E-L system, through véraison (E-L stages 34 and 35, to mature berries (E-L stages 36 and 38. Selected metabolites were profiled in parallel with mRNA expression profiling to understand the effect of transcriptional regulatory processes on specific metabolite production that ultimately influence the organoleptic properties of wine. Results Over the course of berry development whole fruit tissues were found to express an average of 74.5% of probes represented on the Vitis microarray, which has 14,470 Unigenes. Approximately 60% of the expressed transcripts were differentially expressed between at least two out of the seven stages of berry

  11. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  12. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  13. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase in the number of motile spermatozoa in semen. The Panel...... the combination of pomegranate pomace extract and greater galangal rhizome powder was consumed for three months, that no other human studies in which these results have been replicated were provided, and that no evidence was provided for a mechanism by which the food could exert the claimed effect. The Panel...... concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the combination of pomegranate pomace extract (standardised by its content of punicalagins) and greater galangal rhizome powder (standardised by its content of acetoxychavicol acetate) and an increase...

  14. John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath: Narrating the Wrong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joxerramon Bengoetxea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath are incredibly modern. The setting can probably be universal, as are many of the underlying themes and narratives about human greed but also human solidarity. Some local cultural features like the federal camps as opposed to the state ‘law of the jungle’ also give us interesting clues on the creation of a national solidarity and welfare network, part of the national identity that moves internal migrants to California. Environmental disasters are also present in the background, as are some of the criticism of intensive agriculture in an ever expanding market treating agricultural produce as commodities. The role of the criminal justice system and social control is also modern, crimmigration, labour movements criminalisations and abuse of police force. All these elements make Grapes of Wrath a truly universal narrative on justice and hope Las uvas de la ira de Steinbeck es una obra increíblemente moderna. Probablemente, el argumento puede ser universal, como muchos de los temas que subyacen y las narraciones sobre la avaricia humana, pero también la solidaridad humana. Algunos rasgos culturales locales, como los campos federales opuestos a la “ley de la jungla” del estado también nos dan unas claves interesantes sobre la creación de una red de solidaridad y bienestar nacional, parte de la identidad nacional que provoca la migración interna a California. Los desastres medioambientales también están presentes de fondo, al igual que una crítica a la agricultura intensiva en un mercado en expansión que trata la producción agrícola como materias primas. El papel del sistema criminal de justicia y el control social también es moderno, crimigración, la criminalización de los movimientos obreros y el abuso de la fuerza policial. Todos estos elementos hacen de Las uvas de la ira una narrativa sobre la justicia y esperanza de carácter universal.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2532913

  15. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study on some efficient parameters in batch fermentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siahe sardasht grape is famous variety of grape in Iran that is used for red grape juice concentrate. The pomace of this grape (as byproduct of fruit juice concentrate industry) is a favorable medium for growth of all type of yeasts. The ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevesiae SC1 extracted from fermented siahe ...

  17. Comparative effects of red and white grapes on oxidative markers and lipidemic parameters in adult hypercholesterolemic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Ali Reza; Mahmoudabadi, Mohammad Mehdi Shakouri; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of consuming red versus white whole grapes on oxidative and lipidemic indices in people with hypercholesterolemia. Sixty nine patients were randomized into three groups. The two treatment groups consumed 500 g of either Condori red grapes or Shahroodi white grapes daily for 8 weeks, and the third group served as a control. Plasma glucose, triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined by colorimetric methods at baseline and at the end of the study. In addition, the polyphenol and fiber content of the two grape varieties was measured. TBARS was reduced in both study groups compared to the control group, and the reduction was greater in the group that consumed red grapes compared to the white grapes. TAC was increased significantly in both red and white grape consuming groups compared to the control group. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were decreased in the red grape group compared to the control group. No significant changes in fasting blood glucose, TG or HDL-C were observed among the groups. The results of this study suggest that consumption of the whole fruit of red grapes has more potent anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic effects compared to the white grapes in hyperlipidemic adult humans. Hence, the whole fruit of red grapes may be an excellent fruit choice not only to prevent oxidative stress related metabolic disorders but also cholesterol related cardiovascular diseases, particularly in hyperlipidemic adult humans.

  18. Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and lipid fractions from berry pomaces obtained by solid-state fermentation of two Sambucus species with Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Dulf, Eva-Henrietta; Toşa, Monica Ioana

    2015-04-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus niger on phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in Sambucus nigra L. and Sambucus ebulus L. berry pomaces. The effect of fermentation time on the total fats and major lipid classes (neutral and polar) was also investigated. During the SSF, the extractable phenolics increased with 18.82% for S. ebulus L. and 11.11% for S. nigra L. The levels of antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis indicated that the cyanidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside is the major phenolic compound in both fermented Sambucus fruit residues. In the early stages of fungal growth, the extracted oils (with TAGs as major lipid fraction) increased with 12% for S. nigra L. and 10.50% for S. ebulus L. The GC-MS analysis showed that the SSF resulted in a slight increase of the linoleic and oleic acids level.

  19. Optimization of lipase production by solid-state fermentation of olive pomace: from flask to laboratory-scale packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felisbela; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; Domínguez, José M; Venâncio, Armando; Belo, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Lipases are versatile catalysts with many applications and can be produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes. The aim of this work was to maximize the production of Aspergillus ibericus lipase under SSF of olive pomace (OP) and wheat bran (WB), evaluating the effect on lipase production of C/N ratio, lipids, phenols, content of sugars of substrates and nitrogen source addition. Moreover, the implementation of the SSF process in a packed-bed bioreactor and the improvement of lipase extraction conditions were assessed. Low C/N ratios and high content of lipids led to maximum lipase production. Optimum SSF conditions were achieved with a C/N mass ratio of 25.2 and 10.2% (w/w) lipids in substrate, by the mixture of OP:WB (1:1) and supplemented with 1.33% (w/w) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Studies in a packed-bed bioreactor showed that the lower aeration rates tested prevented substrate dehydration, improving lipase production. In this work, the important role of Triton X-100 on lipase extraction from the fermented solid substrate has been shown. A final lipase activity of 223 ± 5 U g -1 (dry basis) was obtained after 7 days of fermentation.

  20. Effects of the Soil Incorporation of Increasing Amounts of Non-Fermented Wet Pomace on the Oil Yield and Acid Profile of Sunflower Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of olive processing waste is a strategic resource in the integrated management of the agricultural system as it satisfies the two objectives of evacuating the olive-processing residue and using it beneficially for agricultural purposes. For such aims, a research was conducted in Bari (South of Italy to study the effects of the incorporation into the soil of increasing amounts of non-fermented wet pomace (WP (0, 17.5, 35, 70, 105, 140, 175, 210 Mg ha-1 on the oil yield and acid profile of sunflower seeds. The results obtained point out that the seed yield was negatively affected by the application of WP starting from 70 Mg ha-1; an opposite trend was observed for the seed oil yield. The incorporation of WP has also affected the oil fatty acids’ composition. Oleic and linoleic acids, the principal fatty acids (beyond 90% of total fatty acids, showed significant variations: from the control treatment to the one receiving the maximum application of waste, oleic acid decreased (-5.4%, linoleic acid increased (+ 6.6%, and the saturated fatty acids fraction decreased (-7.6%.