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Sample records for grape juice concentrates

  1. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  2. Production of grape juice powder obtained by freeze-drying after concentration by reverse osmosis

    Poliana Deyse Gurak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the freeze-drying process for obtaining grape juice powder by reverse osmosis using 50% grape juice pre-concentrated (28.5 °Brix and 50% hydrocolloids (37.5% maltodextrin and 12.5% arabic gum. The morphology of the glassy food showed the absence of crystalline structure, which was the amorphous wall that protected the contents of the powder. The samples were stored in clear and dark containers at room temperature, evaluated for their physical (X-ray diffraction for 65 days and chemical (polyphenol content stability for 120 days. During the storage time in plastic vessels, samples remained physically stable (amorphous and the phenolic concentration was constant, indicating the potentiality of this technique to obtain a stable product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the freeze-drying process promoted the encapsulation of concentrated grape juice increasing its stability and shelf life, as well as proving to be an applicable process to food industry

  3. Grape juice concentrate modulates p16 expression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in Wistar rats.

    Ferreira, Andressa Orlandeli; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Noguti, Juliana; da Silva, Victor Hugo Pereira; Yamamura, Elsa Tiemi Hojo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect the liver from high fat diet injury in rats. The effects of grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry for p53, p16 and p21 were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n = 18) were distributed into three groups: group 1: negative control; group 2: cholesterol at 1% (w/w) in their diet, treated during 5 weeks; and group 3: cholesterol at 1% in their chow during 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg per day in their drinking-water in the last week only. The results pointed out that treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in the cholesterol-exposed group when compared to group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to modulate p16 immunoexpression when compared to high fat diet group. p53 and p21 did not show any significant statistical differences among groups. Taken together, our results suggest that subchronic grape juice concentrate administration was able to modulate cell cycle control by downregulation of p16 immunoexpression in high fat diet-induced liver steatosis in rats.

  4. Grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells of rats subjected to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Aguiar, Odair; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; de Moraes, Bárbara Bueno; Pasquini, Gabriela; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Ihara, Silvia Saiuli Miki; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate whether subchronic treatment with grape juice concentrate is able to protect liver and peripheral blood cells against cholesterol-induced injury in rats. The effects of the grape juice concentrate treatment on histopathological changes, immunohistochemistry for cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and basal and oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 using a single-cell gel (comet) assay were evaluated. Male Wistar rats (n 18) were divided into three groups: group 1--negative control; group 2--cholesterol at 1 % (w/w) in their diet, treated for 5 weeks; group 3--cholesterol at 1 % in their chow, treated for 5 weeks, and grape juice concentrate at 222 mg/d in their drinking-water in the final week only. The results indicated that the treatment with grape juice concentrate did not show remarkable differences regarding liver tissue in group 3 compared with group 2. However, grape juice concentrate was able to decrease oxidative DNA damage induced by H2O2 in peripheral blood cells, as depicted by the tail moment results. COX-2 expression in the liver did not show statistically significant differences (P>0·05) between groups. Taken together, the present results suggest that the administration of subchronic grape juice concentrate prevents oxidative DNA damage in peripheral blood cells.

  5. Improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by an enzymatic treatment and Membrane Separation Processes

    PLÍNIO R.F. CAMPOS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this work, the improvement on the concentrated grape juice physico-chemical characteristics by using an enzymatic treatment followed by Membrane Separation Process (MSP has been investigated. By using Novozym 33095(r and Ultrazym AFP L(r enzymes varying three operating parameters, the best result on the grape pulp characteristics was attained for the Novozym 33095(r performed at 35oC, 15 min. and 50 mgL-1. In micro/ultra filtration processes after enzymatic pretreatment, the best performance of the MSP with high permeate flux value and suitable grape juice characteristics was attained using 0.05 mm membrane pore size, 1 bar pressure and 40 oC treatment temperature. When reverse osmosis process is operated at 40 bar and 40oC, high soluble solid and low turbidity values are attained. An enzymatic treatment along with MSP has shown an alternative and efficient grape juice processing system, being possible to extend to other foods.

  6. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  7. Grape juice concentrate alleviates epididymis and sperm damage in cadmium-intoxicated rats.

    Lamas, Celina de A; Cuquetto-Leite, Livia; do Nascimento da Silva, Emanueli; Thomazini, Bruna F; Cordeiro, Gabriel da S; Predes, Fabrícia de S; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of long-term grape juice concentrate (GJC) consumption conferring a protective effect against cadmium (Cd)-induced damage to the epididymis, completely preserving sperm profile, was evaluated here for the first time in the scientific literature. Male Wistar rats (n = 6/per group) received an intraperitoneal Cd injection (1.2 mg/Kg) at age 80 days and GJC (2 g/Kg) by gavage from 50 days until 136 days old. Groups receiving either Cd or GJC were added. An intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.9%) and water by gavage was administered in the absence of treatment with Cd or GJC. Animals were anaesthetized and exsanguinated at 136 days; the vas deferens, left testis and epididymis were removed; and perfusion continued with fixative. The right epididymis was collected for morphological analysis. Cd had a devastating effect demonstrated by reduced sperm count in testes and epididymis, sperm production and normal sperm count, besides increased epididymis sperm transit time and completely disorganized morphology. These alterations were attributed to higher Cd levels in the testes and a lipid peroxidation (LP) process. Consumption of GJC plus Cd intoxication was effective, reducing metal accumulation and LP. Consequently, we could identify a preserved sperm profile, with improvement in testis and epididymis sperm count, normal sperm structure and sperm transit time. Moreover, GJC extends its protective effect to the epididymis, allowing complete re-establishment of its morphology, ensuring successful sperm maturation process. In conclusion, our study indicates long-term GJC as a promising therapy against reproductive chemical intoxication injury damage, preserving sperm prior to ejaculation. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  9. Grape Juice: Same Heart Benefits as Wine?

    ... eating Does grape juice offer the same heart benefits as red wine? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. ... juices may provide some of the same heart benefits of red wine, including: Reducing the risk of blood clots Reducing ...

  10. Bioactive compounds and juice quality from selected grape cultivars

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juices have been valued due to their potential health benefits, which have demanded increased grape productivity and quality. Five grape cultivars grown in Brazil, Isabel Precoce, Carmem, Violeta, Concord and Bordo were evaluated in 2013 and 2014 seasons for bioactive components and also for juice processing quality traits. Production cycle was the longest for Carmem but lower and similar for Violeta, Isabel, Bordo and Concord. Isabel showed higher productivity (5.4 kg∙plant-1 but lowest soluble solids content (16.9 °Brix, anthocyanins (26.7 mg∙100 g-1 and total phenolics (110.7 mg∙100 g-1. The highest anthocyanins contents were observed in Violeta (189.9 mg∙100 g-1 and Bordo (133.8 mg∙100 g-1. These cultivars were also rich in phenolics (356.1 and 239.5 mg∙100 g-1, respectively. The highest anthocyanin and total phenolics concentrations were found in Violeta juice (2.68 and 6.33 g∙L-1 followed by Bordo (1.44 and 2.86 g∙L-1. Isabel juice had the lowest content, 0.14 and 1.29 g∙L-1, respectively. Biogenic amines were found at low concentrations only in the juices. Putrescine and spermidine were the major amines detected in juices. Phenylethylamine was detected only in Bordo juice from 2013 season and tryptamine was detected only in 2014 season. Blends were preferred over varietal juices except for Carmem.

  11. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.

  12. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part I: Cabernet Sauvignon.

    de Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; de Carvalho, Gisandro Reis; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R 2 =0.99957 and relative error=7.77%). The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates presented a non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behavior (n<1). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations. The flow activation energy ranged from 28.87 (45.0Brix) to 38.05KJ/mol (37.0Brix) with a R 2 =0.9798 for both cases. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration. The Cabernet Sauvignon juice concentrates will be useful as wine chaptalization agent in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental study of physical and rheological properties of grape juice using different temperatures and concentrations. Part II: Merlot.

    de Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; de Carvalho, Gisandro Reis; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the temperature and concentration on rheological behavior of Merlot juice concentrates was assessed using a rheometer over a wide range of temperature (1-66°C) and concentrations (13.6-45.0Brix) at shear rates of 0.84-212.1 1/s. The Ostwald-De Waele was the best rheological model fitted the data (R 2 =0.99967 and relative error=7.99%). The consistency levels were significantly reduced with the increase of temperature and increased with the increase of the concentrations, ranging from 0.1766 (13.6Brix at 66°C) to 19.1140Pa·s n (45.0Brix at 1°C). The flow behavior index presented no up or downward pattern when the temperatures were compared. The flow activation energy ranged from 13.95 (45.0Brix) to 24.88KJ/mol (21.0Brix) with a R 2 =0.9822 and 0.9812, respectively. Density and specific heat were influenced by both temperature and concentration; however, thermal conductivity was only influenced by concentration and temperature in two cases (13.6 and 29.0Brix). The data showed the potential use of Merlot juice concentrates as wine chaptalization agent in winemaking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape juice

    Vívian Maria Burin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Viticultural practices in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, have shown economic growth, with the production of grapes used to produce wines and grape juice. Grapes are rich in phenolic compounds which have drawn attention not only because of their important role in the development of products derived from grapes, but also for their potential beneficial health effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate commercial, organic and homemade grape juices produced in Santa Catarina. Grape juices were analyzed for total phenolic content, colour, and antioxidant activity. The commercial juices had the highest average values for total monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolics. There was a strong positive correlation (R = 0.9566 between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content for the commercial juice. In addition, the Principle Components Analysis showed a strong positive correlation between the red colour and total monomeric anthocyanins. However, the total monomeric anthocyanis and polymeric anthocyanins showed a negative correlation.

  15. Ascorbic acid improves the antioxidant activity of European grape juices by improving the juices' ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of human LDL in vitro

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    . Red grape juice concentrate inhibited lipid peroxidation of LDL by prolonging the lag phase by 2.7 times relative to a control when evaluated at a total phenolic concentration of 10 muM gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Both red grape juices tested blocked lipid peroxidation of LDL at 20 muM GAE. White.......96, P acid alone did not exert antioxidant activity towards LDL, but combinations of 5 muM ascorbic acid with 5 muM GAE juice phenols eliminated the prooxidant activity of white grape juice, and significantly...

  16. Bioactive potential of Vitis labrusca L. grape juices from the Southern Region of Brazil: phenolic and elemental composition and effect on lipid peroxidation in healthy subjects.

    Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Cruz, Fernanda Alves; Alves, Tatiana de Lima; de Gois, Jefferson Santos; Borges, Daniel L G; Cunha, Heloisa Pamplona; da Silva, Edson Luiz; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2015-04-15

    Grapes are rich in polyphenols with biologically active properties. Although the bioactive potential of grape constituents are frequently reported, the effects of Brazilian Vitis labrusca L. grape juices ingestion have not been demonstrated in humans. This study identified the phenolic and elemental composition of red and white grape juices and the effect of organic and conventional red grape juice consumption on lipid peroxidation in healthy individuals. Concentrations of anthocyanins, flavanols and phenolic acids and the in vitro antioxidant activity were significantly higher in the organic juice. The macro-elements K, Ca, Na and Mg were the most abundant minerals in all juices. The acute consumption of red grape juices promoted significant decrease of lipid peroxides in serum and TBARS levels in plasma. It is concluded that red V. labrusca L. grape juices produced in Southern Brazil showed lipid peroxidation inhibition abilities in healthy subjects, regardless of the cultivation system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dehydrated melon containing antioxidants and calcium from grape juice

    Hulda N. M. Chambi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grape juice has a high antioxidant potential, capable of fighting oxidative processes in the body. The juice is mainly marketed in its concentrated form, which has a high content of glucose and fructose. The juice concentrate may then be used as an osmotic agent to dehydrated fruit with a relatively short shelf-life at room temperature, such as melon. The osmotic dehydration process can also be combined with conventional drying in order to further reduce the water activity (a w of the product. Finally, the antioxidant-rich melon meets the consumers’ demand for foods which contain ingredients that may impart health benefits. Results: Melon dehydrated by osmotic process at 200, 400 and 600 mbar, using grape juice concentrate (GJC, showed no significant differences in physical characteristics (a w , °Brix, and moisture content. Higher efficiency was observed when dehydration was performed at 200 mbar. After osmotic dehydration with GJC, both plasmolysis of the melon cells and an increase in intercellular spaces were observed by optical microscopy, with no negative impact on the mechanical properties (True stress, Hencky’s strain and deformability modulus. Calcium present in GJC was impregnated into the melon matrix, thus contributing with the mineral composition and mechanical properties of the final product. No significant differences were observed for the antioxidant capacity of melon dehydrated both with GJC and GJC followed by air-drying at 50 and 70°C. This demonstrates that it is possible to combine the two processes to obtain a product with intermediate moisture without decreasing its antioxidant capacity. The samples scored above the acceptable limit (>5 varying between like slightly to like moderately, resulting in a purchase intent with average scores between 3 (maybe/maybe not buy and 4 (probably would buy. Conclusions: A product with intermediate water activity, acidic, firm, high antioxidant capacity, rich in calcium

  18. Concord Grape Juice Supplementation Improves Memory Function In Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Concord grape juice contains flavonoid polyphenol compounds, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and influence neuronal signaling. Concord grape juice supplementation has been shown to reduce inflammation, blood pressure, and vascular pathology in individuals with cardiovascular...

  19. Impact of the Botrytis cinerea strain and metabolism on (-)-geosmin production by Penicillium expansum in grape juice.

    La Guerche, Stéphane; De Senneville, Laure; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Geosmin, an off-flavour of some rotten grapes, has been implicated in wine defects. Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum were the most common among the numerous microorganisms isolated from rotten grapes. P. expansum produces geosmin on model media but not healthy grape juice. However, geosmin synthesis by P. expansum was demonstrated in grape juice and on crushed grapes that had been pre-cultured with certain B. cinerea strains. 34 out of 156 B. cinerea strains ([bot +] phenotype) isolated from the centre of grape bunches were able to induce high geosmin production, up to 494 ng/l, by P. expansum in grape juice. A study of the impact of grape juice composition on geosmin synthesis by P. expansum revealed the importance of nitrogen composition, particularly amino-acid deficiency. Metabolism of amino acids by B. cinerea was shown to be favourable to geosmin synthesis by P. expansum. However, the amino-acid and ammonium concentrations in grape juices pre-cultured with B. cinerea [bot -] and [bot +] strains were very similar implying that other factors are involved as well. Indeed, an ethanol-precipitable fraction, probably a polysaccharide, synthesized by B. cinerea [bot -], but not [bot +] strains, inhibited geosmin production by P. expansum.

  20. Grape juice quality control by means of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometric analyses

    Grandizoli, Caroline Werner Pereira da Silva; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Simonelli, Fabio; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil). Departamento de Química

    2014-07-01

    This work shows the application of {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics for quality control of grape juice. A wide range of quality assurance parameters were assessed by single {sup 1}H NMR experiments acquired directly from juice. The investigation revealed that conditions and time of storage should be revised and indicated on all labels. The sterilization process of homemade grape juices was efficient, making it possible to store them for long periods without additives. Furthermore, chemometric analysis classified the best commercial grape juices to be similar to homemade grape juices, indicating that this approach can be used to determine the authenticity after adulteration. (author)

  1. Organic grape juice intake improves functional capillary density and postocclusive reactive hyperemia in triathletes

    Mariana Correa Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic grape juice intake on biochemical variables and microcirculatory parameters in triathlon athletes. INTRODUCTION: The physiological stress that is imposed by a strenuous sport, such as a triathlon, together with an insufficient amount of antioxidants in the diet may cause oxidative imbalance and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Ten adult male triathletes participated in this study. A venous blood sample was drawn before (baseline and after 20 days of organic grape juice intake (300 ml/day. Serum insulin, plasma glucose and uric acid levels, the total content of polyphenols, and the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity were determined. The functional microcirculatory parameters (the functional capillary density, red blood cell velocity at baseline and peak levels, and time required to reach the peak red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia after a one-min arterial occlusion were evaluated using nailfold videocapillaroscopy. RESULTS: Compared with baseline levels, the peak levels of serum insulin ( p = 0.02, plasma uric acid ( p = 0.04, the functional capillary density ( p = 0.003, and the red blood cell velocity (p < 0.001 increased, whereas the plasma glucose level (p,0.001, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity ( p = 0.04, and time required to reach red blood cell velocity during postocclusive reactive hyperemia ( p = 0.04 decreased after organic grape juice intake. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that organic grape juice intake improved glucose homeostasis, antioxidant capacity, and microvascular function, which may be due to its high concentration of polyphenols. These results indicate that organic grape juice has a positive effect in endurance athletes.

  2. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View

    Fernanda Cosme

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for food products that promote health has grown over the years. Phenolic compounds present in grapes and in their derivatives, such as grape juices, represent today a broad area of research, given the benefits that they have on the human health. Grape juice can be produced from any grape variety once it has attained appropriate maturity. However, only in traditional wine producing regions, grape juices are produced from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. For example, Brazilian grape juices are essentially produced from Vitis labrusca grape varieties, known as American or hybrid, as they preserve their characteristics such as the natural flavour after pasteurisation. Grapes are one of the richest sources of phenolic compounds among fruits. Therefore, grape juices have been broadly studied due to their composition in phenolic compounds and their potential beneficial effects on human health, specifically the ability to prevent various diseases associated with oxidative stress, including cancers, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, this review will address grape juices phenolic composition, with a special focus on the potential beneficial effects on human health and on the grape juice sensory impact.

  3. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  4. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine.

  5. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China

    Yan, Yin-zhuo; Zou, Wan; Ma, Wen-rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high quality bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were used for taxonomic classification, revealed five fungal and eight bacterial phyla. At the genus level, the dominant fungi were Ascomycota, Sordariales, Tetracladium and Geomyces in soil, Aureobasidium and Pleosporaceae in grapes leaves, Aureobasidium in grape and grape juice. The dominant bacteria were Kaistobacter, Arthrobacter, Skermanella and Sphingomonas in soil, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Kaistobacter in grape and grapes leaves, and Oenococcus in grape juice and wine. Principal coordinate analysis showed structural separation between the composition of fungi and bacteria in all samples. This is the first study to understand microbiome population in soil, grape, grapes leaves, grape juice and wine in Xinjiang through High-throughput Sequencing and identify microorganisms like Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Oenococcus spp. that may contribute to the quality and flavor of wine. PMID:29565999

  6. ‘BRS MAGNA’ – a novel grape cultivar for juice making, with wide climatic adaptation

    Patricia Ritschel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ‘BRS Magna’ is a-novel cultivar to make grape juice, which presents intermediate productive cycle and wide climatic adaptation, released as an alternative to improve the color, the sweetness and the flavor of grape juice in Brazil.

  7. Changes induced by radiations in unfermented grape juice. Preliminary results

    Jona, Roberto; Gribaudo, Ivana; Vigliocco, Rosanna

    Tightly bottled samples of grape juice pressed out of cv 'Merlot' were irradiated at an industrial plant with 0, 500, 1000 and 2500 krad. The samples were stored at room temperature and analyzed after eight months. Irradiation, even at the higher doses was unable to eradicate completely the yeast population and some fermentation took place. Surprisingly after such long lag of time, fermentation was not equal in all the treatments, but the amount of alcohol appeared to be inversely propotional to the dose. Sugars followed, though less markedly, a complementary trend: they were more abundant in the samples irradiated with higher doses. Furthermore a peculiar taste of honey developed into the juice with irradiation and was more marked at higher doses.

  8. Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging.

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carey, Amanda; Simon, Laura; Mark, David A; Joseph, James A

    2006-03-01

    Animals and humans show increased motor and cognitive declines with aging that are thought to be due to increased susceptibility to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Previous findings have suggested that reversals in these age-related declines might be accomplished by increasing the dietary intake of polyphenolics found in fruits and vegetables, especially those identified as being high in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the beneficial effects of two concentrations of Concord grape juice (10% and 50%) compared with a calorically matched placebo for their effectiveness in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and neuronal functions in aged Fischer 344 rats. Rats that drank the 10% grape juice from age 19 to 21 mo had improvements in oxotremorine enhancement of K+-evoked release of dopamine from striatal slices and in cognitive performance on the Morris water maze, and the 50% grape juice produced improvements in motor function. These findings suggest that, in addition to their known beneficial effects on cancer and heart disease, polyphenolics in foods may be beneficial in reversing the course of neuronal and behavioral aging, possibly through a multiplicity of direct and indirect effects that can affect a variety of neuronal parameters.

  9. Freeze concentration of lime juice

    Ampawan Tansakul

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to study the effects of processing conditions, i.e. cooling medium temperature (-6, -12 and -18C and scraper blade rotational speed (50, 100 and 150 rpm on the freeze concentration of lime juice. The initial soluble solid content of lime juice was 7.6 Brix. Results showed that soluble solid content of lime juice increased as cooling medium temperature decreased while scraper blade rotational speed increased. It was also found that the processing condition with -18˚C cooling medium temperature and 150 rpm rotational speed of the scraper blade was the best among all studied conditions, although the loss of the soluble solids with ice crystals during ice separation was relatively high at 35%.

  10. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  11. Influence of processing and storage of integral grape juice (Vitis labrusca L.) on its physical and chemical characteristics, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity in vitro.

    Düsman, E; Almeida, I V; Pinto, E P; Lucchetta, L; Vicentini, V E P

    2017-05-31

    Integral grape juice is extracted from the grape through processes that allow the retention of their natural composition. However, due to the severity of some processes, fruit juices can undergo changes in their quality. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of integral grape juice by a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay in Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro. Vitis labrusca L. (variety Concord) were produced organically and by a conventional system, and their juice was extracted by a hot extraction process. The organic grapes were subjected to ultraviolet-type C radiation (UV-C). Experiments were performed after production and after 6 months in storage. Physicochemical analyses revealed that UV-C irradiation of organic grapes, the juice production process, and storage resulted in nutraceutical alterations. However, none of the juice concentrations were cytotoxic to HTC cells by the cytokinesis-blocked proliferation index results or were mutagenic, because the formation of micronucleated cells was not induced. In general, juice induced cell proliferation, possibly due to the presence of vitamins and sugar content (total soluble solid). The data increased the understanding of food technology and confirmed the quality and safety consumption of these juices.

  12. Berry ripening, pre-processing and thermal treatments affect the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) juice.

    Genova, Giuseppe; Tosetti, Roberta; Tonutti, Pietro

    2016-01-30

    Grape juice is an important dietary source of health-promoting antioxidant molecules. Different factors may affect juice composition and nutraceutical properties. The effects of some of these factors (harvest time, pre-processing ethylene treatment of grapes and juice thermal pasteurization) were here evaluated, considering in particular the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L., red-skinned variety Sangiovese) were collected twice in relation to the technological harvest (TH) and 12 days before TH (early harvest, EH) and treated with gaseous ethylene (1000 ppm) or air for 48 h. Fresh and pasteurized (78 °C for 30 min) juices were produced using a water bath. Three-way analysis of variance showed that the harvest date had the strongest impact on total polyphenols, hydroxycinnamates, flavonols, and especially on total flavonoids. Pre-processing ethylene treatment significantly increased the proanthocyanidin, anthocyanin and flavan-3-ol content in the juices. Pasteurization induced a significant increase in anthocyanin concentration. Antioxidant capacity was enhanced by ethylene treatment and pasteurization in juices from both TH and EH grapes. These results suggest that an appropriate management of grape harvesting date, postharvest and processing may lead to an improvement in nutraceutical quality of juices. Further research is needed to study the effect of the investigated factors on juice organoleptic properties. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    Siahmard, Zahra; Alaei, Hojjatollah; Reisi, Parham; Pilehvarian, Ali Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer's disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer's rats. Alzheimer's model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red grape juice for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for measuring memory and learning in rats. Our results showed that learning and memory in STZ-group decreased significantly compared to Sham group. However, intake of red grape juice increased speed of learning and improvement of memory in Alzheimer's rats. Our results suggest that there are active ingredients in red grape juice, which probably have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-01-01

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75±1.55 μm versus after supplementation: 70.25±1.31 μm; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels

  15. Daily grape juice consumption reduces oxidative DNA damage and plasma free radical levels in healthy Koreans

    Park, Yoo Kyoung; Park, Eunju; Kim, Jung-Shin; Kang, Myung-Hee

    2003-08-28

    Grape contains flavonoids with antioxidant properties which are believed to be protective against various types of cancer. This antioxidative protection is possibly provided by the effective scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus defending cellular DNA from oxidative damage and potential mutations. This study of healthy adults tested whether a daily regimen of grape juice supplementation could reduce cellular DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes and reduce the amount of free radicals released. Sixty-seven healthy volunteers (16 women and 51 men) aged 19-57 years were given 480 ml of grape juice daily for 8 weeks in addition to their normal diet, and blood samples were drawn before and after the intervention. The DNA damage was determined by using the single cell gel (comet) assay with alkaline electrophoresis and was quantified by measuring tail length (TL). Levels of free radicals were determined by reading the lucigenin-perborate ROS generating source, using the Ultra-Weak Chemiluminescence Analyzer System. Grape juice consumption resulted in a significant decrease in lymphocyte DNA damage expressed by TL (before supplementation: 88.75{+-}1.55 {mu}m versus after supplementation: 70.25{+-}1.31 {mu}m; P=0.000 by paired t-test). Additionally, grape juice consumption for 8 weeks reduced the ROS/photon count by 15%, compared to the beginning of the study. The preventive effect of grape juice against DNA damage was simultaneously shown in both sexes. These results indicate that the consumption of grape juice may increase plasma antioxidant capacity, resulting in reduced DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes achieved at least partially by a reduced release of ROS. Our findings support the hypothesis that polyphenolic compounds contained in grape juice exert cancer-protective effects on lymphocytes, limiting oxidative DNA damage possibly via a decrease in free radical levels.

  16. Reflectance of botanical, production and geographical origin on the unique compositional traits of purple grape juices

    Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Grape juices represent one of the most consumed fruit juices because of its sensory properties, availability, reasonable price, and more recently because of their functional properties demonstrated by a vast number of in vitro, in vivo, clinical, and epidemiological studies.

  17. Lack of modulatory effect of asparagus, tomato, and grape juice on ...

    We investigated the potency of asparagus-, tomato- and red grape-juice to modify the proportion of polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in male NIH mice. Groups of five mice were given the fruit juices (25, 50 or 100%) ...

  18. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  19. Effect of high voltage atmospheric cold plasma on white grape juice quality.

    Pankaj, Shashi Kishor; Wan, Zifan; Colonna, William; Keener, Kevin M

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the effects of novel, non-thermal high voltage atmospheric cold plasma (HVACP) processing on the quality of grape juice. A quality-based comparison of cold plasma treatment with thermal pasteurization treatment of white grape juice was done. HVACP treatment of grape juice at 80 kV for 4 min resulted in a 7.4 log 10 CFU mL -1 reduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without any significant (P > 0.05) change in pH, acidity and electrical conductivity of the juice. An increase in non-enzymatic browning was observed, but total color difference was very low and within acceptable limits. Spectrophotometric measurements showed a decrease in total phenolics, total flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity, but they were found to be comparable to those resulting from thermal pasteurization. An increase in total flavonols was observed after HVACP treatments. HVACP treatment of white grape juice at 80 kV for 2 min was found to be comparable to thermal pasteurization in all analyzed quality attributes. HVACP has shown the potential to be used as an alternative to thermal treatment of white grape juice. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. 21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146... Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared by mixing water with frozen concentrated orange juice as defined in § 146.146 or with...

  1. Fate of DDT in grape juice when fermented and distilled into arak

    Kawar, N.S.

    1975-01-01

    Since DDT is still used on grapevines to control insect pests, the fate of this insecticide in grape juice fermented and distilled into arak was investigated. Fermentation of the juice resulted in extensive conversion of DDT to DDD. Distillation of the fermented juice resulted in further conversion of DDT to DDD. Moreover, the major portion of both DDT and DDD remained in the undistilled fraction. The second distillation resulted in further distribution of DDT and DDD among the four fractions, thus leaving very low levels of both compounds in the finished product. DDT residue in arak constituted only 2% of the amount added to the fresh juice. (author)

  2. Chemical characteristics of grape juices from different cultivar and rootstock combinations

    Rita de Cássia Mirela Resende Nassur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different combinations of grape cultivars and rootstocks on chemical characteristics of grape juices. Six treatments were evaluated, consisting of combinations between the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora grape cultivars and the 'IAC 766', 'IAC 313', and 'IAC 572' rootstocks. Approximately 10 L of juice were obtained per treatment. Analyses of color, total soluble solids content, pH, anthocyanins, total phenolics, total sugars, and quantification and identification of biogenic amines by HPLC were performed. Biogenic amines, such as putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine, were found in all evaluated cultivars. By principal component analysis (PCA, treatments can be divided into two groups, according to the cultivar. Juices obtained from 'Isabel Precoce' are characterized by higher levels of total sugar content and soluble solids; however, juices from 'BRS Cora' are positively correlated with phenolic content, anthocyanins, and color and acidity parameters. The differences found by PCA for juices from the Isabel Precoce and BRS Cora cultivars indicate that, regardless of the rootstock used, the most important factor in the chemical characterization of juices is the grape cultivar.

  3. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 146.146 - Frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.146 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.146 Frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Frozen concentrated orange juice is the food prepared by removing water from the juice of mature oranges as provided in § 146.135...

  5. Effect of grape juice press fractioning on polysaccharide and oligosaccharide compositions of Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines.

    Jégou, Sandrine; Hoang, Duc An; Salmon, Thomas; Williams, Pascale; Oluwa, Solomen; Vrigneau, Céline; Doco, Thierry; Marchal, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Press fractioning is an important step in the production of sparkling base wines to segregate the grape juices with different qualities. Grape juice fractions were collected during the pressing cycle at industrial and laboratory scales. The Pinot meunier and Chardonnay Champagne base wines obtained from the free-run juice and the squeezed juices exhibited strong differences from the beginning to the last step of pressing cycle for numerous enological parameters. Significant changes in polysaccharide (PS) and oligosaccharide (OS) base wine composition and concentration were found as the pressing cycle progressed. During the pressing cycle, the total PS concentration decreased by 31% (from 244 to 167mg/L) and 32% (from 201 to 136mg/L) in the Pinot meunier and Chardonnay wines respectively. The wine OS amounts varied between 97 and 139mg/L. The polysaccharide rich in arabinose and galactose (39-54%) and mannoproteins (38-55%) were the major PS in the base wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension.

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F; Vita, Joseph A

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (± SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809.

  7. Effects of Concord grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension123

    Dohadwala, Mustali M; Hamburg, Naomi M; Holbrook, Monika; Kim, Brian H; Duess, Mai-Ann; Levit, Aaron; Titas, Megan; Chung, William B; Vincent, Felix B; Caiano, Tara L; Frame, Alissa A; Keaney, John F

    2010-01-01

    Background: Consumption of flavonoid-containing foods may be useful for the management of hypertension. Objective: We investigated whether 100% Concord grape juice lowers blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension. Design: We conducted a double-blind crossover study to compare the effects of grape juice (7 mL · kg−1 · d−1) and matched placebo beverage on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, stress-induced changes in blood pressure, and biochemical profile. Participants consumed each beverage for 8 wk with a 4-wk rest period between beverages. They ceased consumption of grapes and other flavonoid-containing beverages throughout the study. Results: We enrolled 64 otherwise healthy patients taking no antihypertensive medications (31% women, 42% black, age 43 ± 12 y). Baseline mean (±SD) cuff blood pressure was 138 ± 7 (systolic)/82 ± 7 (diastolic) mm Hg. No effects on the primary endpoint of 24-h mean systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or stress-induced changes in blood pressure were observed. A secondary endpoint was nocturnal dip in systolic pressure. At baseline, nocturnal pressure was 8.3 ± 7.1% lower at night than during daytime. The mean nocturnal dip increased 1.4 percentage points after grape juice and decreased 2.3 percentage points after placebo (P = 0.005). Fasting blood glucose was 91 ± 10 mg/dL at baseline for the entire cohort. Glucose decreased 2 mg/dL after consumption of grape juice and increased 1 mg/dL after consuming the placebo (P = 0.03). Conclusions: We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00302809. PMID:20844075

  8. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is not...

  9. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer′s disease in rats

    Zahra Siahmard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer′s disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer′s rats. Materials and Methods: Alzheimer′s model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red grape juice for 21 days. Passive avoidance learning test was used for measuring memory and learning in rats. Results: Our results showed that learning and memory in STZ-group decreased significantly compared to Sham group. However, intake of red grape juice increased speed of learning and improvement of memory in Alzheimer′s rats. Conclusions: Our results suggest that there are active ingredients in red grape juice, which probably have therapeutic and preventive effects on cognitive impairments in Alzheimer′s disease.

  10. Adsorption of ochratoxin A from grape juice by yeast cells immobilised in calcium alginate beads.

    Farbo, Maria Grazia; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Fiori, Stefano; Marceddu, Salvatore; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-18

    Grape juice can be easily contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA), one of the known mycotoxins with the greatest public health significance. Among the different approaches to decontaminate juice from this mycotoxin, microbiological methods proved efficient, inexpensive and safe, particularly the use of yeast or yeast products. To ascertain whether immobilisation of the yeast biomass would lead to successful decontamination, alginate beads encapsulating Candida intermedia yeast cells were used in our experiments to evaluate their OTA-biosorption efficacy. Magnetic calcium alginate beads were also prepared by adding magnetite in the formulation to allow fast removal from the aqueous solution with a magnet. Calcium alginate beads were added to commercial grape juice spiked with 20 μg/kg OTA and after 48 h of incubation a significant reduction (>80%), of the total OTA content was achieved, while in the subsequent phases (72-120 h) OTA was slowly released into the grape juice by alginate beads. Biosorption properties of alginate-yeast beads were tested in a prototype bioreactor consisting in a glass chromatography column packed with beads, where juice amended with OTA was slowly flowed downstream. The adoption of an interconnected scaled-up bioreactor as an efficient and safe tool to remove traces of OTA from liquid matrices is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    Roland Bitsch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp. in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine and 0.23% (red grape juice of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity.

  12. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of optional...

  13. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin.

    Li, Yuan; Ma, Ruijing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Junhan; Chen, Tong; Chen, Fang; Wang, Zhengfu

    2013-04-01

    The anthocyanins of Kyoho grape juice-making pomace, Cabernet Sauvignon grape winemaking pomace and their fresh skin were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and the influence of processing on the anthocyanin profiles was investigated. Twenty-three and 16 anthocyanins were found in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. Malvidin 3-(trans)-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside and malvidin 3-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanin in fresh skin of Kyoho and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes, respectively. The cis and trans isomers of malvidin 3-coumaroyl-5-diglucoside are reported in Kyoho grape for the first time. In addition, the anthocyanin content of juice-making pomace of Kyoho grapes and winemaking pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was significantly lower than the fresh skin samples (p < 0.05). The percentage variation of non-acylated anthocyanins was lower than that of acylated anthocyanins in all pomace samples. Kyoho grape and Cabernet Sauvignon grape showed distinctive anthocyanin profiles. Juice-making pomace is a better source of anthocyanins for use in functional foods than winemaking pomace. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of high-pressure processing and thermal pasteurization on overall quality parameters of white grape juice.

    Chang, Yin-Hsuan; Wu, Sz-Jie; Chen, Bang-Yuan; Huang, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chung-Yi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial levels, physicochemical and antioxidant properties and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities as well as to conduct a sensory analysis of white grape juice treated with high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal pasteurization (TP), over a period of 20 days of refrigerated storage. HPP treatment of 600 MPa and TP significantly reduced aerobic bacteria, coliform and yeast/mold counts. At day 20 of storage, HPP-600 juice displayed no significant differences compared with fresh juice in terms of physicochemical properties such as titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids, and retained less than 50% PPO and POD activities. Although significant differences were observed in the color, antioxidant contents and antioxidant capacity of HPP-treated juice, the extent of these differences was substantially lower than that in TP-treated juice, indicating that HPP treatment can better retain the quality of grape juice. Sensory testing showed no significant difference between HPP-treated juice and fresh juice, while TP reduced the acceptance of grape juice. This study shows that HPP treatment maintained the overall quality parameters of white grape juice, thus effectively extending the shelf life during refrigerated storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or... fruit juice to which spirits have been added will be included in the appropriate tax class of any wine inventory and will be properly identified. Juice or concentrated juice to which wine spirits are added will...

  16. Optimising the inactivation of grape juice spoilage organisms by pulse electric fields.

    Marsellés-Fontanet, A Robert; Puig, Anna; Olmos, Paola; Mínguez-Sanz, Santiago; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2009-04-15

    The effect of some pulsed electric field (PEF) processing parameters (electric field strength, pulse frequency and treatment time), on a mixture of microorganisms (Kloeckera apiculata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Gluconobacter oxydans) typically present in grape juice and wine were evaluated. An experimental design based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used and results were also compared with those of a factorially designed experiment. The relationship between the levels of inactivation of microorganisms and the energy applied to the grape juice was analysed. Yeast and bacteria were inactivated by the PEF treatments, with reductions that ranged from 2.24 to 3.94 log units. All PEF parameters affected microbial inactivation. Optimal inactivation of the mixture of spoilage microorganisms was predicted by the RSM models at 35.0 kV cm(-1) with 303 Hz pulse width for 1 ms. Inactivation was greater for yeasts than for bacteria, as was predicted by the RSM. The maximum efficacy of the PEF treatment for inactivation of microorganisms in grape juice was observed around 1500 MJ L(-1) for all the microorganisms investigated. The RSM could be used in the fruit juice industry to optimise the inactivation of spoilage microorganisms by PEF.

  17. Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines.

    Fredericks, Ilse N; du Toit, Maret; Krügel, Maricel

    2011-05-01

    Since sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) is associated with health risks, the wine industry endeavours to reduce SO(2) levels in wines with new innovative techniques. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the efficacy of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-C (254 nm) as an alternative technology to inactivate microorganisms in grape juices and wines. A pilot-scale UV-C technology (SurePure, South Africa) consisting of an UV-C germicidal lamp (100 W output; 30 W UV-C output) was used to apply UV-C dosages ranging from 0 to 3672 J l(-1), at a constant flow rate of 4000 l h(-1) (Re > 7500). Yeasts, lactic and acetic acid bacteria were singly and co-inoculated into 20 l batches of Chenin blanc juice, Shiraz juice, Chardonnay wine and Pinotage wine, respectively. A dosage of 3672 J l(-1), resulted in an average log(10) microbial reduction of 4.97 and 4.89 in Chardonnay and Pinotage, respectively. In Chenin blanc and Shiraz juice, an average log(10) reduction of 4.48 and 4.25 was obtained, respectively. UV-C efficacy may be influenced by liquid properties such as colour and turbidity. These results had clearly indicated significant (p radiation may stabilize grape juice and wine microbiologically in conjunction with reduced SO(2) levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced NMR-based profiling of polyphenols in commercially available grape juices using solid-phase extraction

    Savage, A.K.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Tucker, G.; Daykin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Grapes and related products, such as juices, and in particular, their polyphenols, have previously been associated with many health benefits, such as protection against cardiovascular disease. Within grapes, a large range of structurally diverse polyphenols can be present, and their characterisation

  19. The effect of red grape juice on Alzheimer′s disease in rats

    Zahra Siahmard; Hojjatollah Alaei; Parham Reisi; Ali Asghar Pilehvarian

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer′s disease is a neurodegenerative disease appearing as a result of free radicals and oxidative stress. Antioxidants agents boost memory and control Alzheimer′s disease. Since red grape juice contains antioxidant agents, its effects on speed of learning and improvement of memory was studied in Alzheimer′s rats. Materials and Methods: Alzheimer′s model was induced by bilateral infusion of streptozocine into lateral ventricles of brain of male rats. Rats drank 10% red g...

  20. Atributos sensoriais e aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

    Pamella Rio Branco Pontes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos, incluindo questões sobre consumo e compra. Os resultados apontam que o suco integral apresentou cor e gosto amargo mais intensos; o suco concentrado (reconstituído apresentou baixa intensidade em todos os atributos; e o néctar de uva apresentou maior intensidade de gosto doce e sabor característico de uva. O teste de aceitação mostrou que o néctar de uva e o suco integral foram os mais aceitos. A maioria dos consumidores relatou consumir quatro ou mais copos suco de uva por mês. O suco integral recebeu maior intenção de compra e o néctar foi a bebida mais consumida. Concluiu-se que o consumidor aprecia o suco integral da uva, com equilibrada intensidade nos atributos sensoriais investigados, todavia, consume com maior frequência o néctar, bebida à qual são adicionadas água e sacarose.Grape juice contains phenolic compounds in considerable amounts, and it is fit for human consumption since it can increase the intake of natural antioxidants. The objectives of this study were to investigate the sensory attributes and to evaluate the acceptance of commercial grape juices. Three types of commercial grape juices were analyzed: pasteurized juice, concentrated juice, and sugar added pasteurized juice. A modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and an Acceptance Test with a structured nine-point hedonic scale were used including questions about consumption and purchase intention. The results indicated that the pasteurized

  1. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships

    Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Vita, Joseph A.; Chen, C. -Y. Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. PMID:26633488

  2. Effect of Black Grape Juice against Heart Damage from Acute Gamma TBI in Rats

    Edson Ramos de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential positive effect of black grape juice (BGJ on lipid peroxidation considering Total Body Irradiation (TBI in Wistar rats. As a potential feasible means of evaluation in situ, blood serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels were evaluated as a marker for heart damage from acute radiation syndrome (ARS. Twenty rats were divided into four groups, two of them being irradiated by gamma-rays from a Co-60 source. Animals were treated by gavage with 2 mL per day of BGJ or placebo for one week before and 4 days after 6 Gy whole body gamma-irradiation, when they were euthanasiated. LDH on serum and lipid peroxidation on heart tissue were evaluated. High concentration of metabolites from lipid peroxidation in heart, and high LDH level on serum were found only in gamma-irradiated group given placebo, mainly at the first 24 h after radiation. Phytochemical analysis of BGJ was performed by determining total phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins followed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD analysis, which showed resveratrol as the major constituent. Results suggest that BGJ is a good protective candidate compound against heart damage from ARS and its effects suggest its use as a radiomodifier.

  3. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  4. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  5. Rapid detection of microbial contamination in grape juice by flow cytometry

    Marielle Bouix

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of flow cytometry to evaluate rapidly the viable micro-organisms in grape juice. In this method, viable cells are firstly specitically labelled with a fluorescent reagent. The sample is then injected into the flow cytometer where the labelled micro-organisms are individually illuminated by a laser beam. The emission of fluorescence is measured. The system counts the number of fluorescent events and prints out a histogram of the fluorescence intensity which is characteristic of the micro-organism being analysed. In laboratory conditions, preliminary trials have been undertaken with an artificially inoculated grape juice with pure yeast and bacteria cultures. This method succeeded in counting simultaneously yeasts and bacteria within 15 minutes, with a high degree of sensitivity, 5.103 yeasts perml and 5.104 bacteria per ml. This technique can also be applied to the detection of mould contamination and the test has been done with Botrytis spores. The method makes direct cell counts possible and is capable of analysing 30 samples per hour. It can be automatised and easily used in industrial laboratory. During the last harvest, more than a thousand of must samples were controled using this technique. The results let to determine the yeast contamination level of a grape juice tank even before unloading. The results obtained by flow cytometry were compared to the plate count reference method. The correlation between cytometry and count by plate culture was 99 p. cent for the threshold of 5.1 04 yeasts/ml which seemed to point out a high contamination. By using this flow cytometry method during the harvest period, the results were supplied in real time. This allowed a rapid selection of the musts, depending upon the scale of their contamination and improved the quality of the wine by corrective actions.

  6. Characterization of Conventional, Biodynamic, and Organic Purple Grape Juices by Chemical Markers, Antioxidant Capacity, and Instrumental Taste Profile

    Granato, D.; Margraf, T.; Brotzakis, I.; Capuano, E.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize organic, biodynamic, and conventional purple grape juices (n = 31) produced in Europe based on instrumental taste profile, antioxidant activity, and some chemical markers and to propose a multivariate statistical model to analyze their quality and

  7. Effects of geographical origin, varietal and farming system on the chemical composition and functional properties of purple grape juices

    Granato, Daniel; Magalhães Carrapeiro, de Mariana; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grape juice is a beverage derived from Vitis sp genus, mainly V. labrusca, V. vinifera and V. rotundifolia species, in which sales have increased steeply because of the alleged beneficial health effects it exerts when consumed regularly. However, the isolated and interlinked impacts

  8. Effects of concord grape juice on appetite, diet, body weight, lipid profile, and antioxidant status of adults

    Concord grape juice (CGJ) is a rich source of phenolic antioxidants with a range of putative health benefits. However, high beverage energy and fructose intake may lead to weight gain and insulin resistance, respectively. This study assessed the effects of CGJ consumption for 12-wk on appetite, di...

  9. Geographical provenancing of purple grape juices from different farming systems by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry using supervised statistical techniques

    Granato, Daniel; Koot, Alex; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organic, biodynamic and conventional purple grape juices (PGJ; n = 79) produced in Brazil and Europe were characterized by volatile organic compounds (m/z 20-160) measured by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), and classification models were built using supervised

  10. Microbial Safety and Shelf Life of UV-C Treated Freshly Squeezed White Grape Juice.

    Unluturk, Sevcan; Atilgan, Mehmet R

    2015-08-01

    The effects of UV-C irradiation on the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 (ATCC 25253), a surrogate of E. coli O157:H7, and on the shelf life of freshly squeezed turbid white grape juice (FSWGJ) were investigated. FSWGJ samples were processed at 0.90 mL/s for 32 min by circulating 8 times in an annular flow UV system. The UV exposure time was 244 s per cycle. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 5.34 log cycles after exposure to a total UV dosage of 9.92 J/cm(2) (1.24 J/cm(2) per cycle) at 0.90 mL/s flow rate. The microbial shelf life of UV-C treated FSWGJ was extended up to 14 d at 4 °C. UV exposure was not found to alter pH, total soluble solid, and titratable acidity of juice. There was a significant effect (P shelf life of FSWGJ was doubled after UV-C treatment, whereas the quality of juice was adversely affected similarly observed in the control samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Potential of Organic and Conventional Grape Juices in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Iselde Buchner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the chronic use of conventional (CGJ or organic (OGJ grape juice from the Bordeaux variety grape on oxidative stress and cytoarchitecture in the liver of rats supplemented with a high-fat diet (HFD for three months. The results demonstrated that HFD induced an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, catalase (CAT activity and 2′,7′-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH oxidation and a decrease in sulfhydryl content and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. HFD also induced hepatocellular degeneration and steatosis. These alterations were prevented by CGJ and OGJ, where OGJ was more effective. Therefore, it was concluded that HFD induced oxidative stress and liver damage and that the chronic use of grape juice was able to prevent these alterations.

  12. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  13. Cultural Meanings Construction: An Analysis of the Organic Grape Juice Market

    Marlon Dalmoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the meanings networks that involve markets, this research aims to analyze cultural meanings production in the organic grape juice market, involving consumers and producers agents. It was adopted a qualitative approach with an interpretative character by interviews with 25 consumers and producers. Cultural meanings construction description and analysis involved the socio-cultural context, interaction between agents (producers and consumers and meanings assigned by each agent. Organics are meant as food for both agents. However, others meanings associated to organics operate in dichotomic levels. It results in a non-homogeneous network between producers and consumers, reflecting the different cultural universe of each agent. These results mainly contribute in understanding the patterns of production and consumption around the food market. The lack of consolidated networks of meanings limit the construction and establishment of organic products market structures.

  14. Color, physicochemical parameters and antioxidant potential of whole grape juices subject to different UV-C radiation doses

    Paôla de Castro Henrique

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing that moderate stress such as UV radiation can activate defense mechanisms in plants, the use of UV-C radiation appears as hypothesis of a promising technique that would help to stimulate and enhance beneficial compounds for health, through a clean and healthy technology. In this study, the possible induction of secondary metabolism, the increase in the content of phytochemical compounds and physicochemical changes through the use of UV-C radiation were evaluated on whole grape juices produced with Vitis labrusca grapes, cultivar Isabel Precoce. Grapes were harvested, sanitized, exposed to UV-C radiation at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 KJ m-2, and then the juices were prepared and packed into amber glass bottles at room temperature. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. Based on results obtained and conditions in which the experiment was performed, UV-C treatment in grapes caused abiotic stress in the fruits, affecting color, titratable acidity, soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio, vitamin C and percentage of protection against oxidation. Application of UV-C did not change levels of phenolic compounds in fruit juices or the percentage of scavenging free radicals, pH and soluble solids.

  15. Effects of resveratrol, grape juice or red wine consumption Irisin levels and fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 and uncoupoling protein gene expression modulation in rats

    Gabrielle de Souza Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Resveratrol and grape juice were able to increase muscle tissue FNDC5 gene expression, and high-fat diet, red wine and resveratrol, increased UCP2 gene expression in this tissue. Grape juice was capable of increasing adipose tissue UCP2 gene expression. High-fat diet, isolated or associated to beverages rich in polyphenols, have decreased FNDC5 gene expression in adipose tissue. Nevertheless, the interventions did not affect irisin levels.

  16. Acute and long term effects of grape and pomegranate juice consumption on endothelial dysfunction in pediatric metabolic syndrome

    Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of consumption of grape and pomegranate juices on markers of endothelial function and inflammation in adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods: In a non-pharmacologic randomized controlled trial, 30 individuals were randomly assigned to two groups of drinking natural grape or pomegranate juice for 1 month. Measurements of inflammatory factors [Hs-CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM, and interleukin 6 (IL-6] and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were made at baseline, 4 hours after first juice consumption and after one month of juice consumption. Results: The percent changes of FMD were significant in both groups in the short- and long-term. Hs-CRP had a nonsignificant decrease. sE selectin had a significant decrease after 4 hours in total and in the pomegranate juice group, followed by a significant decrease after 1 month in both groups. After 4 hours, sICAM-1 significantly decreased in the pomegranate juice group, and after 1 month it decreased in total and pomegranate juice group. Interleulkin-6 (IL-6 had a significant constant decrease at 4-hour and 1-month measurements after drinking pomegranate juice, and in both groups after 1 month. Significant negative correlations of changes in sICAM-1 and sE-selectin with changes in FMD were found in both periods of follow-up; and at 1 month for IL-6. Conclusions: Decline in inflammation was associated with improvement in FMD without changes in conventional risk factors. Daily consumption of natural antioxidants may improve endothelial function in adolescents with MetS.

  17. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical components of beverages based in soy milk and grape juice

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Coscolin, Renata B.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2013-01-01

    The beverages based of soy milk and grape juice contains bioactive compounds that help in maintaining the health of the individual, attributing functional characteristics to the beverage. The gamma irradiation technique of is used to reduce and / or eliminate the microbial count of foods extending shelf life. However, it has been demonstrated that certain dosages of gamma irradiation are capable of inducing changes in the structure of molecules in food. Thus, the aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical in beverages based in smokily and grape juice. For the tests, were obtained soy milk in the ratio 1:6, to which were added integral grape juices (red and white). The beverages were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation to be analyzed. The doses of irradiation may have induced inversion of sucrose to fructose and glucose. Phenolic compounds of the beverage with white grape juice didn't differ significantly between treatments. The antioxidant capacity was higher for the beverage with red grape juice regardless of irradiation dose. It was concluded that beverages based soy milk and grape juice (red and white) differ from each other for most of the analyzes conducted. However, the average results of the control samples were not far from the results obtained for treatments. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the effects of gamma radiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical components of beverages based in soy milk and grape juice

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Coscolin, Renata B.; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: ericabarros@fca.unesp.br, E-mail: broetto@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: daybressan@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: renata.coscolin@gmail.com, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica

    2013-07-01

    The beverages based of soy milk and grape juice contains bioactive compounds that help in maintaining the health of the individual, attributing functional characteristics to the beverage. The gamma irradiation technique of is used to reduce and / or eliminate the microbial count of foods extending shelf life. However, it has been demonstrated that certain dosages of gamma irradiation are capable of inducing changes in the structure of molecules in food. Thus, the aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation about the physicochemical, chemical and biochemical in beverages based in smokily and grape juice. For the tests, were obtained soy milk in the ratio 1:6, to which were added integral grape juices (red and white). The beverages were treated with increasing doses of gamma radiation to be analyzed. The doses of irradiation may have induced inversion of sucrose to fructose and glucose. Phenolic compounds of the beverage with white grape juice didn't differ significantly between treatments. The antioxidant capacity was higher for the beverage with red grape juice regardless of irradiation dose. It was concluded that beverages based soy milk and grape juice (red and white) differ from each other for most of the analyzes conducted. However, the average results of the control samples were not far from the results obtained for treatments. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the anthocyanin release and health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir grape juices after pulsed electric fields.

    Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the health-promoting properties of Pinot Noir juices (Vitis vinifera L.) obtained at different maceration times after pulsed electric fields (PEF) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and human intestinal Caco-2 cells assays. Juice quality, anthocyanins, total phenolics and vitamin C were also determined. The evaluation of bioprotective capacity of the juice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells was determined using biomarkers for cellular health and integrity: cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Compared to untreated grape juice, PEF pre-treatment on grapes enhanced the release of the major anthocyanin found in Pinot Noir, i.e. malvidin-3-O-glucoside (+224%). Increase in the content of total phenolic (+61%) and vitamin C (+19%) as well as improvement in the DPPH scavenging activity (+31%) and bioprotective capacity (+25% for cell viability and +30% for LDH leakage) were observed in grape juices following PEF treatment. Bioprotective capacity determined by the cellular biomarkers had significant linear correlations with malvidin-3-O-glucoside content (0.71⩽r⩽0.73) whereas DPPH scavenging activity was not well correlated with malvidin-3-O-glucoside (r=0.30) and total phenolics (r=0.30). Therefore, evaluation of the bioprotective capacities using Caco-2 cell assay performed in this study makes a novel contribution to the current knowledge that demonstrates the capability of PEF technology to produce plant-based foods with better phytochemical composition and exhibiting the capacity to protect cells from oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New oenological practice to promote non-Saccharomyces species of interest: saturating grape juice with carbon dioxide.

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Coulon, Joana; Marullo, Philippe; Albertin, Warren; Bely, Marina

    2018-04-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeast species, naturally found in grape must, may impact wine quality positively or negatively. In this study, a mixture of five non-Saccharomyces species (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Metschnikowia spp., Starmerella bacillaris (formerly called Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia kluyveri), mimicking the composition of the natural non-Saccharomyces community found in grape must, was used for alcoholic fermentation. The impact of CO 2 saturation of the grape juice was studied first on this mixture alone, and then in the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two isogenic strains of this species were used: the first with a short and the second a long fermentation lag phase. This study demonstrated that saturating grape juice with CO 2 had interesting potential as an oenological technique, inhibiting undesirable species (S. bacillaris and H. uvarum) and stimulating non-Saccharomyces of interest (T. delbrueckii and P. kluyveri). This stimulating effect was particularly marked when CO 2 saturation was associated with the presence of S. cerevisiae with long fermentation lag phase. The direct consequence of this association was an enhancement of 3-SH levels in the resulting wine.

  1. Assessment of changes in energy metabolism parameters provoked by carbon tetrachloride in Wistar rats and the protective effect of white grape juice

    Tatiane Gabardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic and conventional grape juices consumption on the behavior of rats and their neuroprotective effect on the activity of brain energy metabolism enzymes in different brain areas of adult rats on the experimental model of hepatic encephalopathy. Male Wistar rats (90-days-old were treated once a day with conventional or organic white grape juice by gavage for 14 days (7 μL/g. On the 15th day the rats received carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 in a single dose of 3.0 mL/kg. Cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected to measure the activity of creatine kinase (CK and pyruvate kinase (PK. No changes in feeding behavior were observed after the treatment with the grapes juices. However, there was an increase in grooming behavior in the open field test provoked by both juices. CCl4 inhibited CK activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the rats and CCl4 also reduced PK activity in all brain structures studied. Furthermore, both white grape juices prevented the decrease in the activity of CK and PK. Therefore, we can suggest that organic and conventional white grape juices could restore the activity of enzymes with a central role in brain energy metabolism.

  2. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells.

    Copetti, Cristiane; Franco, Fernanda Wouters; Machado, Eduarda da Rosa; Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Quatrin, Andréia; Ramos, Vitor de Miranda; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Sautter, Cláudia Kaehler; Penna, Neidi Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes ( Vitis labrusca ) in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA) and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT) were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays). Furthermore, juice inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS) and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized) exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Acute Consumption of Bordo Grape Juice and Wine Improves Serum Antioxidant Status in Healthy Individuals and Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neuron-Like Cells

    Cristiane Copetti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies investigated the biological effects of American grape cultivars. We investigated the metabolic response after acute consumption of grape juice or wine from Bordo grapes (Vitis labrusca in a placebo-controlled crossover study with fifteen healthy volunteers. Blood samples were collected 1 hour after the intake of 100 mL of water, juice, or wine to measure TBARS, ABTS, FRAP, glucose, and uric acid levels. To evaluate differences in cellular response, intracellular reactive species production (DCFH-DA and metabolic mitochondrial viability (MTT were assessed after exposure of human neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y to juice or wine. Glycemia was reduced after juice or wine consumption, whereas blood levels of uric acid were reduced after juice consumption but increased after wine consumption. Juice and wine consumption reduced plasma lipid peroxidation and increased plasma antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP assays. Furthermore, juice inhibited H2O2-induced intracellular production of reactive species (RS and increased the viability of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, wine (dealcoholized exhibited a per se effect by inducing the production of RS and reducing cell viability. These results indicate a positive impact of acute consumption of Bordo juice and wine on human oxidative status, whereas only juice had protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity.

  4. EFFECT OF UNRIPE GRAPE JUICE (VERJUICE ON PLASMA LIPID LEVELS IN RABBITS RENDERED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC BY FEEDING EGG YOLK

    A. Aminian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Since many years it has been a general belief in Iranian traditional medicine that unripe grape juice (verjuice has lipid-lowering effect. This study was designed to test this hypothesis. Fifty rabbits were selected and divided into 5 groups with 10 rabbits in each. Group 1 had no supplemental diet. Group 2 were fed 10 ml egg yolk daily and group 3 were fed 10 ml egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for six weeks. In the second part of study, 20 rabbits rendered hypercholesterolemic by feeding egg yolk for six weeks, then they were divided into two groups: Group 4 received 10 ml of the egg yolk daily, and group 5 received 10 ml of the egg yolk plus 20 ml verjuice daily for the next 6 weeks. The plasma lipid profiles were measured at the beginning and then every two weeks. In the first part of study total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C concentrations in group 2 rose 10 times in comparison with group 1, but addition of verjuice in group 3 did not prevent rising of these values. In the second part of study, TC and LDL-C values rose in groups 4 and 5 in a parallel fashion. Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride (TG were not statistically significant throughout the study. In conclusion, this study did not support preventive or therapeutic effect of verjuice in hypercholesterolemia.

  5. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  6. REVERSE OSMOSIS CONCENTRATION OF ORANGE JUICE USING SPIRAL WOUND MEMBRANES

    W. A. de ARAUJO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavor and odor components of foods are often lost during processing which leads to a poorer quality final product compared with the fresh ingredients. The orange juice industry concentrates juice (45-66ºBrix in TASTE (Thermally Accelerated Short Time Evaporator to remove excess water, and thus reduce storage and transportation costs, but also to improve product stability. Evaporation results in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. Methods using less heat for thermal damage reduction must be investigated to establish parameters for future commercial processes. The promising alternative is Reverse Osmosis (RO, but it cannot achieve concentrations greater than 30ºBrix. RO has advantages over traditional evaporation techniques in removing water. Because less heat is used, thermal damage to products is generally eliminated. In this project tests were performed using unpasteurised Single Strength Orange Juice (SSOJ, spiral wound membranes (Polyamide, and a DESAL pilot system model 4040. The aim was to evaluate spiral wound membranes on the basis of flux as a function of time. Retentate concentrations were 15-20ºBrix, and GC-FID analyses were used in order to understand aroma losses. KEYWORDS: Orange; juice; membrane; concentration; osmosis; reverse.

  7. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Boss, Paul; Pearce, Anthony; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily; Dennis, Eric; Jeffery, David

    2015-01-01

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl est...

  8. Analytical characteristics and discrimination of Brazilian commercial grape juice, nectar, and beverage Características analíticas e discriminação de suco, néctar e bebida de uva comerciais brasileiros

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The production and commercialization of Brazilian grape juice is increasing annually, mainly due to its typicality, quality, and nutritional value. The present research was carried out in view of the great significance of Brazilian grape juice for the grape and wine industry. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess its composition as well as the discrimination between grape juice and other beverages. Twenty four samples of whole, sweetened, and reprocessed grape juices, grape nectar, and grape beverage were evaluated. Classical variables were analyzed by means of physicochemical methods; tartaric and malic acids, by HPLC; methanol, by gas chromatography; minerals, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. These products were discriminated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results show that whole and sweetened grape juices were discriminated from other grape products because they featured higher values of total soluble solids, tartaric and malic acids, most minerals, phenolic compounds, and K/Na ratio, whereas grape nectar and grape beverage presented higher values of ºBrix/titratable acidity ratio. Reprocessed juice was discriminated due to its higher concentrations of Li and Na and lower hue.A produção e a comercialização de suco de uva brasileiro estão aumentando anualmente devido a sua tipicidade, qualidade e valor nutritivo. Por isso, realizou-se este trabalho em face de sua importância para a agroindústria de vinho e de suco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição e discriminação do suco de uva em relação a outras bebidas dele derivadas. Avaliaram-se 24 amostras de sucos de uva −integral, adoçado e reprocessado −, néctar de uva e bebida de uva. As variáveis clássicas foram determinadas por meio de métodos físico-químicos; os ácidos tartárico e málico, por HPLC; o metanol, por cromatografia gasosa; e os minerais, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Esses produtos foram

  9. Influence of foliar riboflavin applications to vineyard on grape amino acid content.

    González-Santamaría, Rosario; Ruiz-González, Rubén; Nonell, Santi; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Pérez-Álvarez, Eva P

    2018-02-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking, which affects plant development, grape juice fermentation and has a potential effect in modulating wine quality. The aim was to study the influence of foliar applications of riboflavin (vitamin B2) to vineyard on grape nitrogen composition. This vitamin has a reported capacity to protect different plant species, but its application to favor grape and grape juice quality had not previously been studied. This work reports the oenological properties and the effect on amino acid concentration of grape juices obtained from grapes treated with riboflavin at two different doses compared to control. Results showed that probable alcohol, malic acid, color intensity and hue had significant differences when the riboflavin treatments were applied. Most of the amino acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest riboflavin dose was used. These results are promising in terms of fermentation development and grape juice nitrogen composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory and Field Age of Aqueous Grape Juice Bait and Capture of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A

    2017-06-01

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This is a highly dynamic system and time period of fermentation is an important factor in bait efficacy. A series of field tests were conducted that evaluated effects of laboratory versus field fermentation and sampling period (days after placement [DAP]) on bait effectiveness as the first step in identifying the chemicals responsible for attraction. Tests of traps with bait that had been aged in the laboratory for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d and then sampled 3 DAP found higher capture in traps with 0- and 3-d-old baits than in traps with 6- or 9-d-old baits. To further define the time period that produced the most attractive baits, a subsequent test evaluated baits aged for 0, 2, 4, and 6 d in the laboratory and sampled after 1-4 DAP, with traps sampled and bait discarded at the end of each DAP period. The highest capture was in traps with 4-d-old bait sampled 1 DAP, with the second best capture in traps with 0-d-old bait sampled 3 DAP. However, there tended to be fewer flies as DAP increased, indicating potential loss of identifiable flies owing to decomposition in the actively fermenting solutions. When traps were sampled and bait recycled daily, the highest capture was in 2- and 4-d-old baits sampled 1 DAP and in 0-d-old baits sampled 2-4 DAP. Similar patterns were observed for capture of nontarget drosophilids. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Favorable effects of concord grape juice on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy smokers.

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Kokkou, Eleni; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Kollia, Maria-Eleni; Verveniotis, Aleksis; Gouliopoulos, Nikolaos; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Plastiras, Aris; Maniatis, Konstantinos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is associated with impaired vascular function. Concord grape juice (CGJ), a rich source of flavonoids, can modify cardiovascular risk factors. Endothelial function and arterial stiffness are surrogate markers of arterial health. We examined the impact of CGJ on arterial wall properties in healthy smokers. We studied the effect of a 2-week oral treatment with CGJ in 26 healthy smokers on 3 occasions (day 0 (baseline), day 7, and day 14) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Measurements were taken before (pSm), immediately after (Sm0), and 20 minutes after (Sm20) cigarette smoking. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured as an index of aortic stiffness. Compared with placebo, treatment with CGJ resulted in a significant improvement in pSm values of FMD (P = 0.02) and PWV (P = 0.04). At baseline, smoking decreased FMD in both the CGJ group (P FMD on day 7 (P = 0.02) and day 14 (P < 0.001). Moreover, at baseline, smoking induced a significant elevation in PWV in both the CGJ group (P = 0.02) and the placebo group (P = 0.04). Treatment with CGJ prevented the smoking-induced elevation in PWV on day 7 (P = 0.003) and day 14 (P < 0.001). CGJ consumption improved endothelial function and vascular elastic properties of the arterial tree in healthy smokers and attenuated acute smoking-induced impairment of arterial wall properties.

  12. Influence of Grape Berry Maturity on Juice and Base Wine Composition and Foaming Properties of Sparkling Wines from the Champagne Region.

    Liu, Pin-He; Vrigneau, Céline; Salmon, Thomas; Hoang, Duc An; Boulet, Jean-Claude; Jégou, Sandrine; Marchal, Richard

    2018-06-06

    In sparkling wine cool-climate regions like Champagne, it is sometimes necessary to pick the healthy grape clusters that have a relatively low maturity level to avoid the deleterious effects of Botrytis cinerea . In such conditions, we know that classical oenological parameters (sugars, pH, total acidity) may change but there is little information concerning the impact of grape berry maturity on wine proteins and foaming properties. Therefore, healthy grapes (Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) in 2015 and 2016 were picked at different maturity levels within the range of common industrial maturity for potential alcohol content 8⁻11% v/v in the Champagne region. Base wine protein content and foamability, and oenological parameters in grape juice and their corresponding base wines, were investigated. The results showed that base wine protein contents (analyzed by the Bradford method and by electrophoresis) and foamability were higher when the grapes were riper. The Pearson’s correlation test found significant positive correlations ( r = 0.890⁻0.997, p < 0.05) between Chardonnay grape berry maturity degree (MD) and base wine foamability in both vintages. Strong correlations between MD and most of the oenological parameters in grape juice and base wine were also found for the two cultivars. Under the premise of guaranteed grape health, delaying harvest date is an oenological decision capable of improving base wine protein content and foamability.

  13. Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Pirinççioğlu, Mihdiye; Kızıl, Göksel; Kızıl, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Aydın

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl₄ in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 μg ml⁻¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 μg ml⁻¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl₄ caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl₄ along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA.

  14. Purple grape juice improves endothelial function and reduces the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Stein, J H; Keevil, J G; Wiebe, D A; Aeschlimann, S; Folts, J D

    1999-09-07

    In vitro, the flavonoid components of red wine and purple grape juice are powerful antioxidants that induce endothelium-dependent vasodilation of vascular rings derived from rat aortas and human coronary arteries. Although improved endothelial function and inhibition of LDL oxidation may be potential mechanisms by which red wine and flavonoids reduce cardiovascular risk, the in vivo effects of grape products on endothelial function and LDL oxidation have not been investigated. This study assessed the effects of ingesting purple grape juice on endothelial function and LDL susceptibility to oxidation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifteen adults with angiographically documented CAD ingested 7.7+/-1.2 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) of purple grape juice for 14 days. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution brachial artery ultrasonography. Susceptibility of LDL particles to oxidation was determined from the rate of conjugated diene formation after exposure to copper chloride. At baseline, FMD was impaired (2.2+/-2. 9%). After ingestion of grape juice, FMD increased to 6.4+/-4.7% (P=0.003). In a linear regression model that included age, artery diameter, lipid values, and use of lipid-lowering and antioxidant therapies, the effect of grape juice on FMD remained significant (mean change 4.2+/-4.4%, PFMD and reduces LDL susceptibility to oxidation in CAD patients. Improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation and prevention of LDL oxidation are potential mechanisms by which flavonoids in purple grape products may prevent cardiovascular events, independent of alcohol content.

  15. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Jiang, Hu; Li, Xiangmin; Xiong, Ying; Pei, Ke; Nie, Lijuan; Xiong, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA) was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen)32+-doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs) were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs. PMID:28264472

  16. Silver Nanoparticle-Based Fluorescence-Quenching Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Sensitive Detection of Ochratoxin A in Grape Juice and Wine

    Hu Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A silver nanoparticle (AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching lateral flow immunoassay with competitive format (cLFIA was developed for sensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA in grape juice and wine samples in the present study. The Ru(phen 3 2 + -doped silica nanoparticles (RuNPs were sprayed on the test and control line zones as background fluorescence signals. The AgNPs were designed as the fluorescence quenchers of RuNPs because they can block the exciting light transferring to the RuNP molecules. The proposed method exhibited high sensitivity for OTA detection, with a detection limit of 0.06 µg/L under optimized conditions. The method also exhibited a good linear range for OTA quantitative analysis from 0.08 µg/L to 5.0 µg/L. The reliability of the fluorescence-quenching cLFIA method was evaluated through analysis of the OTA-spiked red grape wine and juice samples. The average recoveries ranged from 88.0% to 110.0% in red grape wine and from 92.0% to 110.0% in grape juice. Meanwhile, less than a 10% coefficient variation indicated an acceptable precision of the cLFIA method. In summary, the new AgNP-based fluorescence-quenching cLFIA is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for quantitative detection of OTA in grape juice and wine or other foodstuffs.

  17. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Zarina Shulgau

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the beneficial properties of polyphenols. Standard operating procedures were developed in our laboratories to collect alcohol free concentrate of polyphenols from the Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon collection of grapes. The purpose of the study was to investigate the composition, biological safety, and potential therapeutic effects of the polyphenol concentrate.Methods. The total polyphenol amount was determined using the Enology Analyzer Y15 (BioSystems, Spain. HPLC analysis of the polyphenol composition was performed using Agilent 1290 chromatograph. The polyphenol concentrate was analyzed for the microbiological purity and the presence of the toxic elements. The cytoprotective effect of the polyphenol concentrate was studied in experimental models of diabetes, toxic hepatitis, doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and acute radiation sickness.Results. The total polyphenol amount in one sample was 12,819 mg/l. Polyphenol composition analysis showed presence of the following polyphenols: catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, quercetin, miricetin, 3-glucosylkaempferol, epicatechin gallate, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl-2-propenoic acid, catechin gallate, pitseid, kaempferol, n-hydroxy-cinnamic acid, resveratrol and chlorogenic acid. The concentrate was proven to be biologically safe and acceptable for use as a dietary supplement. The polyphenol concentrate demonstrated high antioxidant activity against ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. It also showed the following impacts on the various

  18. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  19. Maternal consumption of high-fat diet and grape juice modulates global histone H4 acetylation levels in offspring hippocampus: A preliminary study.

    Gonçalves, Luciana Kneib; da Silva, Ivy Reichert Vital; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Frusciante, Marina Rocha; de Mello, Alexandre Silva; Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Funchal, Claudia; Dani, Caroline

    2017-11-20

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of maternal consumption of a hyperlipid diet and grape juice on global histone H4 acetylation levels in the offsprinǵs hippocampus at different stages of development. During pregnancy and lactation of offspring, dams were divided into 4 groups: control diet (CD), high-fat diet (HFD), control diet and purple grape juice (PGJCD) and purple grape juice and high-fat diet (PGJHFD). Male Wistar rats were euthanized at 21days of age (PN21, adolescents) and at 50days of age (PN50, adults). The maternal consumption of grape juice increased global histone H4 acetylation levels in hippocampus of adolescents pups (PN21), an indicative of enhanced transcriptional activity and increased gene expression. On the other hand, the maternal high-fat diet diminished significantly this epigenetic marker in the adult phase (PN50), suggesting gene silencing. These preliminary findings demonstrated that the maternal choices are able to induce changes on histone H4 acetylation status in hippocampus of the offspring, which may modulate the expression of specific genes. Interestingly, this response occurs in an age and stimuli-dependent manner and strongly reinforce the importance of maternal choices during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of UV and Ozonised Water Treatment on Trans-resveratrol Content in Berry Skins and Juices of Franc and Green Veltliner Grapes

    Landfeld, A.; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Totušek, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Halama, R.; Houška, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2015), s. 267-276 ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grape juices * stilbens content * UV irradiation * ozonisation Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.728, year: 2015

  1. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  2. Biocontrol activity of four non- and low-fermenting yeast strains against Aspergillus carbonarius and their ability to remove ochratoxin A from grape juice.

    Fiori, Stefano; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Hammami, Walid; Razzu, Salvatorico; Jaoua, Samir; Migheli, Quirico

    2014-10-17

    Aspergillus spp. infection of grape may lead to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in processed beverages such as wine and grape juice. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the biocontrol potential of two non-fermenting (Cyberlindnera jadinii 273 and Candida friedrichii 778) and two low-fermenting (Candida intermedia 235 and Lachancea thermotolerans 751) yeast strains against the pathogenic fungus and OTA-producer Aspergillus carbonarius, and their ability to remove OTA from grape juice. Two strains, 235 and 751, showed a significant ability to inhibit A. carbonarius both on grape berries and in in vitro experiments. Neither their filtrate nor their autoclaved filtrate culture broth was able to prevent consistently pathogen growth. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by all four selected yeasts were likely able to consistently prevent pathogen sporulation in vitro. VOCs produced by the non-fermenting strain 778 also significantly reduced A. carbonarius vegetative growth. Three yeast strains (235, 751, and 778) efficiently adsorbed artificially spiked OTA from grape juice, while autoclaving treatment improved OTA adsorption capacity by all the four tested strains. Biological control of A. carbonarius and OTA-decontamination using yeast is proposed as an approach to meet the Islamic dietary laws concerning the absence of alcohol in halal beverages. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The performance of five fruit-derived and freeze-dried potentially probiotic Lactobacillus strains in apple, orange and grape juices.

    Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira Araújo, Amanda; Luciano, Winnie Alencar; de Albuquerque, Thatyane Mariano Rodrigues; de Oliveira Arcanjo, Narciza Maria; Madruga, Marta Suely; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos; Magnani, Marciane; Saarela, Maria; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2018-03-30

    This study assessed the survival of the fruit-derived and freeze-dried L. plantarum 49, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108, L. fermentum 111 and L. pentosus 129 strains during frozen storage and when incorporated into apple, orange and grape juice stored under refrigeration. Physicochemical parameters of juices containing the freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains and the survival of the test strains in the fruit juices during in vitro digestion were also evaluated. No decreases in survival rates (log N/log N0) of the freeze-dried cells were observed up to 1 month of storage. The survival rates of the freeze-dried strains L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 were >0.75 up to 4 months of storage. All freeze-dried strains exhibited survival rates of >0.75 up to 2 weeks of storage in apple juice; only L. plantarum 49 and L. paracasei 108 showed similar survival rates in orange and grape juices up to 2 weeks of storage. The contents of the monitored organic acids or sugars during storage varied depending on the added strain and the type of fruit juice. At the end of the in vitro digestion, L. brevis 59, L. paracasei 108 and L. fermentum 111 showed survival rates of >0.80 in apple juice. Apple juice was as the best substrate to the survival of the tested freeze-dried Lactobacillus strains over time. L. paracasei 108 and L. plantarum 49 as the strains presenting the best performance for incorporation in potentially probiotic fruit juices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Process intensification on membrane-based process for blackcurrant juice concentration

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Rong, Ben-Guang; Christensen, Knud Villy

    Juice concentrate production is a field where process intensification and novel concentration processes need to be implemented. The paper presents a systematic approach for process synthesis based on membrane processes for the concentration of blackcurrant juice, exemplified by the aroma recovery...... using combinations of vacuum membrane distillation and traditional distillation. Furthermore, the paper further suggests a novel method for the combination of nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and membrane distillation for the concentration of the dearomatized juice....

  5. New vineyard fields: Grape Juice. Selection of grapevine species, juice making, stabilization / Nouvelle filière : jus de raisin. Sélection des cépages, élaboration, stabilisation

    Escudier Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed by FOULON-SOPAGLY society and INRA, a six years applied research program was developed in France to enable creation of create specific lines to elaborate high quality juice with new adapted grapevine varieties and specialized vineyards, with adapted technology. 448 vine varieties from INRA Vassal first international collection of grapevine species were evaluated to finally select 14: 2 V.vinifera,9 hybrids, and 3 from INRA creation (ref A. Bouquet by hybridization. These last references, obtained from 4 or 5 back crossing between Muscadinia. rotondifolia.X.V.vinifera, have in particular a high level of resistance against mildew and oidium.These varieties have RUN 1 and RPV1. resistance genes, with several other secondary genes on one chromosome locus. This makes access to organic market easier. Agronomic criteria are studied for this selection. Among the 14 selected grapevine species, some have high level of polyphenols (6 times more than alicante. Others (white and red have a high aromatic potential. Others have a low sugar content 135 g/l to 150 g/l and adapted sugar/ acidity ratio. -In the cellar: The absence of fermentation and alcohol requires optimization of the process for juice making. For example by increasing polyphenols extraction and colour stability by using thermo-treatment. Flash release process coupled with enzymatic soaking on grapes at 45°C for example, increases 2 or 3 fold polysaccharide juice content, and increases anthocyanins extraction and hence colour intensity. With this process the draining of grape marc and juice production increase. Pressure technology by on line horizontal decanter is possible. -In juice storehouse. Electro membrane process, (oenodia membrane process with specific membranes gives possibilities to achieve two objectives on juice: - Decrease pH and increase acidity of juice and colour stabilization, without any additive.

  6. Evaluation of the acerola juice concentrated by reverse osmosis

    Eliane Rodrigues dos Santos Gomes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain the acerola juice using separation processes with membranes. The acerola pulp was initially defrosted and treated with 100 ppm of Citrozym Ultra L enzyme at 45ºC for one hour, then ultrafiltrated at 3 bar at 45ºC using 0.1 µm ceramic membrane, and concentrated by reverse osmosis using a spiral membrane of a compound film. The pressures on the reverse osmosis were 20, 30, and 40 bar at environmental temperature, thus, resulting a juice with 9.76, 14.56, and 17.36 ºBrix, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the juice were preserved and, studies on evaluation of the public acceptability, showed that 75% of the consumers liked the juice.O objetivo deste trabalho foi à obtenção de suco de acerola utilizando processos de separação com membranas. Combinou-se a ultrafiltração e a osmose inversa, visando a melhoria do processo produtivo, utilizando-se uma tecnologia limpa. Para a acerola, visou-se manter e concentrar significativamente seu teor de vitamina C, obtendo-se um suco com sabor agradável, o mais próximo possível do suco in natura. A polpa de acerola foi inicialmente descongelada e tratada com 100 ppm da enzima Citrozym Ultra L, à 45º C por 1 hora e posteriormente ultrafiltrada a 3 bar na mesma temperatura em membrana cerâmica de 0,1 µm e na seqüência, concentrada por osmose inversa utilizando membrana espiral de filme composto. As pressões na osmose inversa foram 20, 30 e 40 bar em temperatura ambiente, obtendo-se um suco com 9,76, 14,56 e 17,36 ºBrix respectivamente. As características físico-químicas foram preservadas e na avaliação da aceitabilidade, 75% dos consumidores gostaram do suco, indicando boa aceitação.

  7. Effects of red wine, grape juice and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters of Wistar rats submitted to high-fat diet and physical training.

    Cardoso, Letícia Monteiro da Fonseca; Pimenta, Nina Da Matta Alvarez; Fiochi, Raiza Da Silva Ferreira; Mota, Bruna Ferreira Mota; Monnerat, Juliana Arruda de Souza; Teixeira, Cristiane Correia; Ramalho, Renata Beatriz Da Rocha; Maldronato, Isabelle Waleska; Dolisnky, Manuela; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Blondet, Vilma; Barroso, Sergio Girão; Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da; Rocha, Gabrielle De Souza

    2017-10-27

    intake of diets with high saturated fat may produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization. Lifestyle changes help reduce the bone loss observed in osteoporosis. Resveratrol, present in grape juice and red wine, has osteogenic and osteoinductive effects, being potentially beneficial for bone health. to evaluate the effects of red grape juice, red wine and resveratrol consumption on bone parameters in Wistar rats submitted to a high-fat diet and physical training. female Wistar rats, with 90 days of age, were divided into five groups and followed up for 60 days: a) control group; b) high-fat group; c) grape juice group; d) red wine group; and e) resveratrol group. The different groups of animals performed a physical training protocol. Animal's weight and consumption were monitored weekly. After 60 days, femoral dimensions, bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were evaluated. there was no difference in body mass; however, all groups consuming the high-fat diet had higher consumption (p diet.

  8. Concord grape juice, cognitive function, and driving performance: a 12-wk, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover trial in mothers of preteen children.

    Lamport, Daniel J; Lawton, Clare L; Merat, Natasha; Jamson, Hamish; Myrissa, Kyriaki; Hofman, Denise; Chadwick, Helen K; Quadt, Frits; Wightman, JoLynne D; Dye, Louise

    2016-03-01

    Daily consumption of Concord grape juice (CGJ) over 3-4 mo has been shown to improve memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment and reduce blood pressure in hypertensive adults. These benefits likely result from the high concentration of polyphenols in CGJ. Increased stress can impair cognitive function and elevate blood pressure. Thus, we examined the potential beneficial effect of CGJ in individuals with somewhat stressful and demanding lifestyles. We sought to examine the effects of the daily consumption of CGJ for 12 wk on cognitive function, driving performance, and blood pressure in healthy, middle-aged working mothers. Twenty-five healthy mothers (aged 40-50 y) of preteen children who were employed for ≥30 h/wk consumed 12 ounces (355 mL) of either CGJ (containing 777 mg total polyphenols) or an energy-, taste-, and appearance-matched placebo daily for 12 wk according to a randomized crossover design with a 4-wk washout. Verbal and spatial memory, executive function, attention, blood pressure, and mood were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 wk. Immediately after the cognitive battery, a subsample of 17 women completed a driving performance assessment at the University of Leeds Driving Simulator. The 25-min driving task required participants to match the speed and direction of a lead vehicle. Significant improvements in immediate spatial memory and driving performance were observed after CGJ relative to placebo. There was evidence of an enduring effect of CGJ such that participants who received CGJ in arm 1 maintained better performance in the placebo arm. Cognitive benefits associated with the long-term consumption of flavonoid-rich grape juice are not exclusive to adults with mild cognitive impairment. Moreover, these cognitive benefits are apparent in complex everyday tasks such as driving. Effects may persist beyond the cessation of flavonoid consumption, and future studies should carefully consider the length of washout within

  9. Polyphenol Concentrate from Kazakhstan Cabernet Sauvignon Collection of Grapes

    Zarina Shulgau; Vladislav Tritek; Alexander Gulyaev; Gulsim Adilgozhina; Talgat Nurgozhin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Nowadays, most of the research in the field of gerontology is focused on the effects of the grape polyphenols. In particular, resveratrol has been shown to increase life expectancy of various living organisms, including mammals. Resveratrol also plays an important role in cancer prevention and decreases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In our research, we proposed the development of the therapeutic product from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes that would exhibit the benef...

  10. Comparison of analytical methods for prediction of prefermentation nutritional status of grape juice

    Gump, B. H.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Fugelsang, K. C.; Whiton, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Five methods for evaluating nitrogen status were compared using 70 Cabernet Sauvignon juice samples: nitrogen by o-phthaldialdehyde (NOPA), arginine NOPA, enzymatic ammonia, Formol, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Parallel recovery studies using model solutions of various amino acids and ammonia, presented singly and in combination, were also conducted. The results from two fruit-processing methods were compared using immature and mature berries. NOPA measurements were sign...

  11. Influence of Technological Processes on Biologically Active Compounds of Produced Grapes Juices

    Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Strohalm, J.; Novotná, P.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Lefnerová, D.; Landfeld, A.; Híc, P.; Tománková, E.; Veverka, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2016), s. 421-429 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258; GA MZe QI91B094 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Grapevine juices * Thermomaceration * Biologically active compounds * Antioxidative capacity * Total polyphenols * Antimutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  12. Concentration of pineapple juice by reverse osmosis: physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptance

    Daniel Simões Couto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse osmosis has been used for the concentration of fruit juices with promising considering the quality of the obtained products. The objective of this study was to concentrate single strength pineapple juice by reverse osmosis. The concentration was carried out with polyamide composite membranes in a 0.65 m² plate and frame module at 60 bar transmembrane pressure at 20 °C. The permeate flux was 17 L.hm-2. The total soluble solid content of the juice increased from 11 to 31 °Brix corresponding to a Volumetric Concentration Factor (VCF of 2.9. The concentration of soluble solids, total solids, and total acidity increased proportionally to FCV. The concentrated juice and three commercial concentrated pineapple juices were evaluated regarding preference and purchase intention by 79 pineapple juice consumers. The concentrated juice by reverse osmosis was the preferred among consumers. It can be concluded that this process may be considered an alternative to the pre-concentration of fruit juices.

  13. 75 FR 76754 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China

    2010-12-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-841 (Second Review)] Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on non- frozen apple juice concentrate from China would...

  14. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Coimbra, S R; Lage, S H; Brandizzi, L; Yoshida, V; da Luz, P L

    2005-09-01

    Although red wine (RW) reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM), and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 +/- 8.1 years) without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ), 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 +/- 28.7 mg/dl) but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 +/- 7.1 vs 12.1 +/- 4.5%; P effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  15. Changes in pectins and product consistency during the concentration of tomato juice to paste.

    Anthon, Gordon E; Diaz, Jerome V; Barrett, Diane M

    2008-08-27

    Concentrating tomato juice to paste during the tomato season allows for preservation and long-term storage, but subsequent dilution for formulation of value-added products is known to result in a loss of consistency. To understand the reasons for this, samples of unconcentrated juice, processing intermediates, and concentrated paste were collected from an industrial processing plant during normal commercial production. All samples were diluted with water to 5 degrees Brix and then analyzed for consistency and pectin content. Whole juice consistency, measured with a Bostwick consistometer, decreased through the course of juice concentration, with the largest change occurring early in the process, as the juice was concentrated from 5 to 10 degrees Brix. This decrease in consistency occurred during the production of paste from both hot- and cold-break juices. The change in Bostwick value was correlated with a decrease in the precipitate weight ratio. The loss of consistency during commercial processing was not the direct result of water removal because a sample of this same 5 degrees Brix juice could be concentrated 2-fold in a vacuum oven and then diluted back to 5 degrees Brix with no change in consistency or precipitate ratio. Total pectin content did not change as the juice was concentrated to paste, but the proportion of the total pectin that was water soluble increased. The greatest increases in pectin solubility occurred during the hot break and late in the process where the evaporator temperature was the highest.

  16. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in beer, red wine, and grape juice.

    Cao, Jiliang; Kong, Weijun; Zhou, Shujun; Yin, Lihui; Wan, Li; Yang, Meihua

    2013-04-01

    A simple, reliable, and low-cost method based on molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent of SPE was proposed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer, red wine, and grape juice by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Samples were diluted with water and cleaned up with an AFFINIMIP® SPE OTA column. After washing and eluting, the analyte was analyzed by HPLC-FLD. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ for OTA were 0.025 and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of OTA from beer, red wine, and grape spiked at 0.1, 2, and 5 ng/mL ranged from 91.6 to 101.7%. Furthermore, after a simple regenerated procedure, the molecularly imprinted polymer based SPE column could be reused at least 14 times to achieve more than 80% recoveries of OTA in real samples. The developed method was applied to the detection of 30 beer, red wine, and grape juice samples and only four samples were contaminated by OTA with levels below the legal limits. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.

    Juliana Silva de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  18. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. PMID:25506607

  19. Production, characterization of tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF using agroindustrial wastes, and application in the clarification of grape juice (Vitis vinifera L.).

    de Lima, Juliana Silva; Cruz, Roberta; Fonseca, Julyanna Cordoville; de Medeiros, Erika Valente; Maciel, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Motta, Cristina Maria de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m.

  20. Not-from-concentrate blueberry juice extraction utilizing frozen fruit, heated mash, and enzyme processes

    Juice production is a multibillion dollar industry and an economical way to use fruit past seasonal harvests. To evaluate how production steps influence not-from-concentrate (NFC) blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) juice recovery, bench top and pilot scale experiments were performed. In bench-top, southern h...

  1. Not-from-concentrate pilot plant ‘Wonderful’ cultivar pomegranate juice changes: Volatiles

    Pilot plant ultrafiltration was used to mimic the dominant U.S. commercial pomegranate juice extraction method (hydraulic pressing whole fruit), to deliver a not-from-concentrate (NFC) juice that was high-temperature short-time pasteurized and stored at 4 and 25 °C. Recovered were 46 compounds, of ...

  2. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  3. Determinação de resveratrol em sucos de uva no Brasil Determination of resveratrol in grape juice produced in Brazil

    Cláudia K. Sautter

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de resveratrol em vinhos vem sendo estudada mais intensamente nos últimos anos. O isômero trans-resveratrol tem reconhecidas atividades biológicas, e algumas delas são de uso terapêutico, tais como ação antiinflamatória, inibição da enzima lipoxigenase e ação anticarcinogênica in vitro. A presença do composto resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihidroxiestilbeno, em seus isômeros (trans e cis, foi determinada nos diferentes tipos de sucos de uva produzidos no Brasil. Além destes, também foram quantificados os polifenóis totais, acidez, açúcares redutores, sólidos solúveis e densidade, em conformidade com a legislação vigente. O resveratrol foi quantificado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência segundo SOUTO et al. [23], com adaptação da temperatura para 50° C. Foi detectada a presença de trans-resveratrol em todos os sucos analisados na concentração de 0,19mg.L-1 a 0,90mg.L-1 e o isômero cis-resveratrol foi de 0,07 a 1,59mg.L-1 .The resveratrol detection in wines has been studied more intensely in the last years. The isomeric trans-resveratrol has recognized biological activities, and some of them are therapeutic, such as anti-inflammatory action, enzyme lipoxigenase inhibition and anti-carcinogenic action in vitro. The presence of resveratrol (4,3',5'-trihydroxystilbene, trans and cis isomers, was investigated in industrial grape juices produced in Brazil. Additionally, total phenols, acidity, reducing sugars, soluble solids and specific gravity of samples were determined in accordance with law. Resveratrol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography by SOUTO et al. [23], adapted to the temperature of 50°C. Trans and cis-resveratrol were found in all the juices analyzed, tran-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.19 to 0.90mg.L-1 and cis-resveratrol in the concentration range of 0.07 to 1.59mg.L-1.

  4. Azuki Bean Juice Lowers Serum Triglyceride Concentrations in Healthy Young Women

    Maruyama, Chizuko; Araki, Risa; Kawamura, Mito; Kondo, Naoko; Kigawa, Mieko; Kawai, Yukari; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Miyashita, Koichi; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2008-01-01

    Effects of azuki bean juice supplementation, prescribed according to a Kanpo medicine regimen, on serum lipid concentrations were studied. Healthy young Japanese women were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of the three groups using a parallel-group design. Control (n = 10), azuki (n = 11) and Concentrated azuki (CA) (n = 12) juice groups consumed 150 g daily of the isocaloric assigned juice for one menstrual cycle with their usual diet. Triglyceride concentrations were decreased in...

  5. Effects on grape amino acid concentration through foliar application of three different elicitors.

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Portu, J; Santamaría, P; López, R; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    Elicitors play an important role in the defense against pathogens as an alternative to chemical pesticides by increasing secondary metabolites. Their effect on grape amino acid has been little investigated. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the influence of methyl jasmonate (MeJ), chitosan (CHT), and a yeast extract (YE) on grape amino acid composition, through foliar applications to grapevines. The must amino acid concentration was analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that CHT and YE treatments decreased the must concentration of several amino acids, affecting total amino acid content (from 2364 to 1961, and 1818mg/L, respectively). However, MeJ treatment had a slight effect on grape amino acid content, increasing the concentration of Met (from 8.95 to 12.13mg/L) and Phe (from 7.96 to 9.29mg/L). It seems to be that, the resistance induction through CHT and YE treatments results in physiological costs to grapevines associated with a decrease on grape amino acid concentration. Consequently, MeJ applications, as a viticultural practice, could be a better tool than CHT and YE treatments, because did not affect grape amino acid concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 61127 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ This... currently due no later than October 28, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the...

  7. Effect of ultrasound and chemical treatment on total phenol, flavonoids and antioxidant properties on carrot-grape juice blend during storage.

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Ubaid, Numra; Qureshi, Tahir Mahmood; Munir, Masooma; Mehmood, Arshad

    2018-07-01

    Ultrasonics is one of the developing technologies which is being studied extensively on different food commodities. Our aim was to study the effect of sonication and chemical (Potassium metabisulfite, K 2 S 2 O 5 ,) preservation method on grape-carrot juice blend. Sonication/ultrasound treatments (20 kHz frequency, 70% amplitude level (525 W power), and pulse duration 5 s on and 5 s off, 5 min at 15 °C) of all the samples (250 mL) were performed by using an ultrasonic processor with 0.5 in. probe at 2 in. depth of the sample. Additionally, impact of sonication on 90 days of storage period at refrigerated temperature was also measured. It was observed that sonication had a positive effect on nutritional status of juice blend as it enhanced the total phenolic, flavonoid, reducing power and antioxidant properties of juice significantly (p < 0.05) with increase in sonication time. Sonication can be employed successfully for treatment of juice with better nutritional attributes from consumers' point of view. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Storage Stability of Anthocyanins in Mao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. Juice and Concentrate

    Prommakool Arunya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mao or Makmao (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg. is a wild plant found in the northeast of Thailand. Mao is one of fruits which are source of anthocyanins. Mao fruits are used for juice and concentrate which are consumed for healthy drinks. Determination of the kinetic parameters is essential to predict the quality changes and stability of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate that occur during storage. The purpose of this research was to study the degradation of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate during storage at 5, 30 and 37°C for 15 days. The storage stability of Mao anthocyanins was studied in 15°Brix juice and 45°Brix concentrate. The degradation kinetic (k, half-life (t1/2, activation energy (Ea and Q10 values for Mao anthocyanins degradation were determined. The results indicated that analysis of kinetic data for the degradation of anthocyanins followed a first-order reaction. An increase storage temperature from 5 to 30 and 37°C increased k value of anthocyanins in Mao juice and concentrate. Increasing storage temperature decreased t1/2 value of anthocyanins in both concentrations. At 5, 30 and 37°C, the t1/2 of anthocyanins decreased from 35 to 13 and 5 days for Mao juice and 32 to 25 and 21 days for Mao concentrate. The Ea value of the anthocyanins degradation in Mao juice and concentrate were 38.03 and 8.42 kJ/mol, respectively. Q10 values of both Mao juice and concentrate at 30-37°C were higher than those were storaged at 5-30°C. Thus higher stability of anthocyanins was achieved by using concentration and storage at lower temperature.

  9. Apple, grape or orange juice: Which one offers the best substrate for lactobacilli growth? — A screening study on bacteria viability, superoxide dismutase activity, folates production and hedonic characteristics

    Carlin, Frederic; Renard, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation can contribute to improve functional aspects of foods. The first goal of this study was to determine amongst apple, grape and orange juices, the onewith the best bacterial growth performance during fermentation by Lactobacillus strains from commercial and artisanal food origins, at 40 °C for 48 h. The juice with the highest bacterial growth was evaluated for bacteria viability during 4 weeks of cold storage, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and folates production a...

  10. Identification of crystaline sediments in apple juice concentrate with the method of structural rentgenography

    Pogorzelski, E.; Wieczorek, M.; Lubecka, I.

    2001-01-01

    The juice before concentrating was exposed to the pectinolysis and ultrafiltration. The researches to find the causes of coming to being the connection of the calcium with the malic acid are performing. It's supposed that raised quantity of calcium ions in the juice designed to concentration is the effect of pectinolysis. The preparations with low contents of pectinoestherase don't initiate the reaction of calcium precipitation with pectin acid after demethylation

  11. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). T...

  12. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals.

  13. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on vascular reactivity is independent of plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients

    Coimbra S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although red wine (RW reduces cardiovascular risk, the mechanisms underlying the effect have not been identified. Correction of endothelial dysfunction by RW flavonoids could be one mechanism. We measured brachial artery reactivity by high-resolution ultrasonography, plasma lipids, glucose, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM, and platelet function in 16 hypercholesterolemic individuals (8 men and 8 women; mean age 51.6 ± 8.1 years without other risk factors. Twenty-four normal subjects were used as controls for vascular reactivity. Subjects randomly received RW, 250 ml/day, or purple grape juice (GJ, 500 ml/day, for 14 days with an equal wash-out period. At baseline, all 16 subjects were hypercholesterolemic (mean LDL = 181.0 ± 28.7 mg/dl but HDL, triglycerides, glucose, adhesion molecules, and platelet function were within normal limits. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was significantly decreased compared to controls (9.0 ± 7.1 vs 12.1 ± 4.5%; P < 0.05 and increased with both GJ (10.1 ± 7.1 before vs 16.9 ± 6.7% after: P < 0.05 and RW (10.1 ± 6.4 before vs 15.6 ± 4.6% after; P < 0.05. RW, but not GJ, also significantly increased endothelium-independent vasodilation (17.0 ± 8.6 before vs 23.0 ± 12.0% after; P < 0.01. GJ reduced ICAM-1 but not VCAM and RW had no effect on either molecule. No significant alterations were observed in plasma lipids, glucose or platelet aggregability with RW or GJ. Both RW and GJ similarly improved flow-mediated dilation, but RW also enhanced endothelium-independent vasodilation in hypercholesterolemic patients despite the increased plasma cholesterol. Thus, we conclude that GJ may protect against coronary artery disease without the additional negative effects of alcohol despite the gender.

  14. 75 FR 69628 - Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Non-Frozen Apple Juice... order on non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because the... June 5, 2000, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on certain non-frozen apple juice...

  15. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  16. Examination of heat treatments at preservation of grape must

    Péter Korzenszky

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is a well-known process in food preservation. It is made to avoid and to slow down food deterioration. The process was developed by Louise Pasteur French scientist to avoid late among others wine further fermentation. The different heat treatments influence the shelf life in food production. In our article we present the process of grape must fermentation, as grape must is the base material of wine production. The treatment of harvested fresh grape juice has a big influence on end product quality. It is our experiments we examined the same grape must with four different methods in closed and in open spaces to determine CO2 concentration change. There are four different methods for treatment of grape juice: boiling, microwave treatment, treatment by water bath thermostat and a control without treatment. As a result of the comparison it can be stated that the heat treatment delays the start of fermentation, thereby increasing shelf life of grape must. However, no significant differences were found between two fermentation of heat-treated grape must by the microwave and water-bath thermostat. The different heat treatment of grape must base materials was done at the laboratory in Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Szent István University. The origin of the table grapes used for the examination was Gödöllő-hillside. Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE

  17. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    (white 20%, purple 24%) [p juice, two after apple juice and two after purple grape juice and these children had the highest BH2 levels in their respective groups. No other symptoms were reported. The data show that the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption of one age-specific serving of juice increases with advancing age of children. Decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more often after ingestion of juices that contain more sorbitol, a nonabsorbable sugar and higher concentrations of fructose over glucose than after ingestion of juices which lack sorbitol and contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose.

  18. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  19. Protection of polyphenols in blueberry juice by vacuum-assisted block freeze concentration.

    Orellana-Palma, Patricio; Petzold, Guillermo; Pierre, Lissage; Pensaben, José Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Block freeze concentration allows produces high-quality cryoconcentrates with important protection of valuable components from fresh fruit juices. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of vacuum-assisted block freeze concentration under different experimental conditions to protect polyphenols in the elaboration of concentrated blueberry juice. Fresh blueberry juice was radial or unidirectional frozen at -20 and -80 °C for 12 h and vacuum process was performed at 80 kPa during 120 min. Results showed a significant solute increased in the concentrated fraction in all treatments, and the best treatment was - 20 °C/unidirectional with a value of ≈63 °Brix, equivalent to an increase of 3.8 times in the total polyphenol content (76% of retention). The color of concentrated samples was darker than the initial sample, with ΔE* values of >25 CIELab units in all treatments. The vacuum-assisted block freeze concentrations was an effective technology for protecting polyphenols and obtain a concentrated with a higher concentration of solids from blueberry juice, as well as interesting values of process parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A quantitative approach for pesticide analysis in grape juice by direct interfacing of a matrix compatible SPME phase to dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Mirabelli, Mario F; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Zenobi, Renato

    2018-02-12

    We evaluated the performance of a dielectric barrier discharge ionization (DBDI) source for pesticide analysis in grape juice, a fairly complex matrix due to the high content of sugars (≈20% w/w) and pigments. A fast sample preparation method based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was developed, and novel matrix compatible SPME fibers were used to reduce in-source matrix suppression effects. A high resolution LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer allowed for rapid quantification in full scan mode. This direct SPME-DBDI-MS approach was proven to be effective for the rapid and direct analysis of complex sample matrices, with limits of detection in the parts-per-trillion (ppt) range and inter- and intra-day precision below 30% relative standard deviation (RSD) for samples spiked at 1, 10 and 10 ng ml -1 , with overall performance comparable or even superior to existing chromatographic approaches.

  1. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CONCENTRATION AND RECOVERY OF PROTEIN FROM TUNA COOKING JUICE BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

    KHONGNAKORN W.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuna cooking processing plants generate large amount of cooking juice containing a significant content of protein. Recovery and concentrating process of this valuable compound together with a low energy consumption process are of interest regarding full utilization concept and green process approach. Forward osmosis (FO was employed in this work to recover and concentrate tuna cooking juice. FO process could increase the protein concentration up to 9% with an average permeate flux of 2.54 L/m2h. The permeate flux however tended to decrease as protein concentration increased due to the impact of osmotic pressure of the feed and fouling on the membrane surface. Since tuna cooking juice consists of protein and minerals, membrane analyses indicated that fouling was more severe compared to the fouling caused by standard bovine serum albumin pure protein. However, the presence of minerals rendered it a quicker and lower energy process by comparison. These results indicated that FO is a promising technique in the recovery and concentration of tuna cooking juice protein.

  3. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  4. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. 75 FR 81564 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-855] Certain Non-Frozen Apple... order covering certain non-frozen apple juice concentrate from the People's Republic of China. See...: Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate From the People's Republic of China, 65 FR 35606 (June 5, 2000...

  6. 75 FR 5763 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of...

    2010-02-04

    ... Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review... concentrate (``apple juice'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), received on December 15, 2009... fifty-one days after the end of that POR. The Department finds that extending the POR to capture this...

  7. Optimization of Progressive Freeze Concentration on Apple Juice via Response Surface Methodology

    Samsuri, S.; Amran, N. A.; Jusoh, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a progressive freeze concentration (PFC) system was developed to concentrate apple juice and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of various operating conditions such as coolant temperature, circulation flowrate, circulation time and shaking speed to effective partition constant (K) were investigated. Five different level of central composite design (CCD) was employed to search for optimal concentration of concentrated apple juice. A full quadratic model for K was established by using method of least squares. A coefficient of determination (R2) of this model was found to be 0.7792. The optimum conditions were found to be coolant temperature = -10.59 °C, circulation flowrate = 3030.23 mL/min, circulation time = 67.35 minutes and shaking speed = 30.96 ohm. A validation experiment was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the optimization procedure and the best K value of 0.17 was achieved under the optimized conditions.

  8. Preservation of grass juice and wet leaf protein concentrate for animal feeds

    Matti Näsi

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Formic acid, mixtures of acids (AIV 1, AIV 2 and formalin-acid mixtures (Viher solution, Viher acid were tested as preservatives of juice and wet leaf protein concentrate (LPC obtained from grass, clover and pea. The main criteria used in judging the success of preservation were changes in the protein fraction, fermentation of sugars, and losses of dry matter and true protein during storage. Fermentation of sugars and moulding could be inhibited in plant juices by adding 0.5 % v/w preservative, but proteolysis continued and true protein was degraded in unheated juices. Ensiling losses of pea juice were considerable, 4.0-15.6 % of DM, in all treatments. For wet leaf protein concentrate precipitated by steaming (85°C, good preservation could be obtained with the additives used in silage making applied at a level of 1 % v/w. In these treatments protein breakdown was minimal, because heating eliminated proteolytic enzymes and partly sterilized the LPC product.

  9. THE EFFECT OF THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS ON THE CITRUS JUICE ON THE CONCENTRATIONS OF FLAVANONES

    Lílian Maria MOURA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds in fruits, vegetables, grains, etc with antioxidant capacity and anti-inflamatory, anticoagulant, antiallergic proprieties that contributes to human health. The effect of the pasteurization and concentration processes on the citric juices can influence the composition of the flavanones. The flavanones composition in the orange juice (a mixture of Pera and Valencia and of the tangor Murcott was determined by HPLC. The flavanones (narirutin and hesperidin were extracted with methanol, heated in 55°C for 15 minutes and separated from the insoluble solids by centrifugation. The separation was done in C18 column (5μm, 250x4.6mm using the isocratic system of acetonitrile mixture: water, acetic acid (21:75:4v/v/v in a flow of 0.6L/min, detention of 280nm and quantification by external pattern. The effect of the pasteurization and concentration on the citric juice did not affect significantly the amount of flavones in the samples of murcott and orange juice (mixture Pera and Valencia.

  10. Co-administration of fresh grape fruit juice (GFJ and bergamottin prevented paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose in rats

    Refuoe Baleni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate small doses of known cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitors, grapefruit juice (GFJ and one of its components, bergamottin (BGT, for the prevention of paracetamol (PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after overdose in rats. Six groups of 15 Sprague Dawley (SD rats each were treated with single oral doses of either saline, PAR only 1725 mg/kg, PAR + GFJ low dose (2 ml and PAR + GFJ high dose (3 ml, PAR + BGT 0.05 mg/kg (BGT-low and PAR + BGT 0.22 mg/kg (BGT-high. Thereafter, 5 rats from each group were sacrificed after 24, 48 and 72 h and, on each occasion, blood samples were collected for determination of liver and renal function, full blood count (FBC and PAR concentration. A piece of liver was sent for histopathology. By 48 h the liver enzymes in the PAR-only group were significantly (P < 0.05 higher than in the PAR + GFJ and PAR + BGT groups, i.e., alanine transaminase (ALT 837 ± 268 u/L and aspertate transaminase (AST 1359 ± 405 for PAR only; versus ALT 34 ± 48.8 u/L and AST 238 ± 221 for PAR + GFJ-high; ALT 22 ± 13.9 and AST168 ± 49.6 for PAR + BGT-high; and ALT 52 ± 7.2 u/L and AST 147 ± 153 for the control group. The results correlated with the histopathology findings where livers of the PAR-only group exhibited severe centrilobular and hepatocyte necrosis. In conclusion, GFJ and BGT prevented PAR-induced hepatotoxicity after PAR overdose in rats, and this calls for appropriate observation studies in humans.

  11. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentration of phenolic acids and flavonoids in aronia melanocarpa (choke berry) juice by osmotic membrane distillation

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Horn, Vibeke G

    2009-01-01

    melanocarpa is among the red fruits with the highest content of antioxidants [2] and has gained must interest due to the content of phenolic acids, procyanidins and polyphenolic compounds as anthocyanins [3]. In this study, osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) has been tested for the concentration of not only...... sugars, but in particular potentially bioactive components such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. OMD is carried out on 37 kg aronia juice at 30°C and the juice is concentrated from 12 wt% to 74 wt% dry matter. The juice is filtered to remove kernels, peel residues etc before concentration by OMD...

  13. Meat juice: An alternative matrix for assessing animal health by measuring acute phase proteins. Correlations of pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentrations in pig meat juice and plasma.

    Piñeiro, M; Gymnich, S; Knura, S; Piñeiro, C; Petersen, B

    2009-10-01

    Quantification of acute phase proteins (APPs) in blood can be used for monitoring animal health and welfare on farms, and could be also of interest for the detection of diseased animals during the meat inspection process. However serum or plasma is not always available for end-point analysis at slaughter. Meat juice might provide an adequate, alternative matrix that can be easily obtained for post-mortem analysis at abattoirs. The concentrations of pig Major Acute phase Protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin, two of the main APPs in pigs, were determined in approximately 300 paired samples of plasma and meat juice from the diaphragm (pars costalis), obtained after freezing and thawing the muscle. APPs concentrations in meat juice were closely correlated to those in plasma (r=0.695 for haptoglobin, r=0.858 for pig-MAP, panimal health in pig production, with implications for food safety and meat quality.

  14. Rapid determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in grape juices and wines by RP-HPLC/DAD: Method validation and characterization of commercial products of the new Brazilian varieties of grape.

    Padilha, Carla Valéria da Silva; Miskinis, Gabriela Aquino; de Souza, Marcelo Eduardo Alves Olinda; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Lima, Marcos Dos Santos

    2017-08-01

    A method for rapid determination of phenolic compounds by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), using a new column of faster resolution was validated and used to characterize commercial products produced with new grape Brazilian varieties of Northeast of Brazil. The in vitro antioxidant activity was also measured. The method showed linearity (R>0.9995), good precision (CV%<2.78), recovery (91.8-105.1%) and limits of detection (0.04-0.85mgL -1 ) and quantification (0.04-1.41mgL -1 ) according to other methods previously published with the difference of a run time of only 25min. The results obtained in the characterization of the samples differed for juices and wines from other world regions, mainly because of the high values of (-)-epigallocatechin and trans-caftaric acid. The products analyzed showed high antioxidant activity, especially the wine samples with values higher than those from wines of different regions of the world. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of Cross-Flow Filtration Technique in Purification and Concentration of Juice from Vietnamese Fruits

    Huynh Cang Mai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is to offer a 1st insight in the use of membrane process for the purification and concentration of Vietnamese fruit juices: cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Line., dragon fruit (Cactus hémiépiphytes, pineapple (Ananas comosus, pomelo (Citrus grandis L., and gac aril oil (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.. On a laboratory scale, the effect of different operating parameters such as trans-membrane pressures (TMP, temperature and membrane pore sizes on permeate flux was determined in order to optimize process conditions that would ensure acceptable flux with adequate juice quality. The quality of the samples coming from the ultrafiltration (UF process was evaluated in terms of: total soluble solids (TSS, suspended solids (SS, and vitamin C. For example, the purification process of cashew apple juice by cross-flow filtration was optimized at 0.5 μm membrane pore size, 2.5 bars TMP, and 60 min filtration time. Besides, this technique was applied to enhance carotenoids concentration from gac oil. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. Carotenoids were concentrated higher than that in feeding oil.

  16. Sensory evaluation of orange juice concentrate as affected by irradiation and storage

    Spoto, M.H.F.; Domarco, R.E.; Walder, J.M.M.; Scarminio, I.S.; Bruns, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of storage temperature and time on orange juice concentrates were studied for samples irradiated with 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. Samples were stored at 0, 5 and 25C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. ''Quantitative Descriptive Analysis'' was used to measure concentrate juice quality. Samples stored for more than one day lost quality as indicated by increases in ratings for ''bitterness'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' attributes. Storage at 0 and 5C seemed to have lesser effect on ''sweetness'', ''oily'', ''acidic'' and ''medicinal'' characteristic than those evaluated for samples stores at 25C. Effect of radiation dose on flavor and aroma attributes depended on storage temperature and time. In most cases, higher doses resulted in lower ''orange'' and higher ''bitter'', ''medicinal'' and ''cooked'' ratings. These results indicated that 2.5 kGy combined with 0 and 5C of storage conditions, provided a feasible approach for preserving juice concentrate

  17. 75 FR 47270 - Certain Non-Frozen Apple Juice Concentrate from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    2010-08-05

    ... negotiate and sign contracts and other agreements; and (4) has autonomy from the government regarding the... concentrate. In addition, we have surrogate financial ratios from a Polish juice company. Of the countries...

  18. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... produce grape juice or wine. It contains the common components of grape juice; namely, anthocyanins...

  19. PRODUTIVIDADE DE CULTIVARES DE UVAS PARA SUCO SOBRE DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS IAC EM MOCOCA-SP YIELD OF JUICE GRAPE CULTIVARS GRAFTED ON SOME IAC ROOTSTOCKS

    MAURILO MONTEIRO TERRA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se o potencial de produção de uvas das cultivares copa Concord, Isabel e Seibel 2, recomendadas para produção de suco, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos IAC 313 'Tropical', 'IAC 571-6', IAC 572 'Jales', e IAC 766 'Campinas', num experimento conduzido, durante seis anos, na Estação Experimental de Mococa (21º28'S, 47º01'W do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas. Para a variedade Concord, as maiores produções médias foram obtidas quando se utilizaram os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6' e 'IAC 572', totalizando 3,86kg/planta, 3,81kg/planta e 3,65kg/planta, respectivamente; para 'Isabel', quando se empregaram os porta-enxertos 'IAC 572', 'IAC 571-6' e 'IAC 313', somando 3,85kg/planta, 3,63kg/planta e 3,26kg/planta; para o cv. Seibel 2, quando se fez uso dos porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 571-6', auferiram-se 2,61kg/planta, 2,40kg/planta e 2,10kg/planta; por outro lado, para as três variedades, o porta-enxerto de pior performance foi o 'IAC 766'. Quanto ao vigor, representado pela massa dos ramos podados ao longo dos anos, os melhores porta-enxertos para 'Concord' foram 'IAC 572' e 'IAC 313'; para 'Isabel': 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 313'; e para 'Seibel 2': 'IAC 766' e 'IAC 572'.The yield potential of juice grape cultivars, namely Concord, Isabel and Seibel 2, grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', 'IAC 572' and 'IAC 766' rootstocks was studied in an experiment conducted for six years at Mococa Experimental Station (21º28'S, 47º01'W. Regarding Concord cultivar, the greatest mean yields were achieved when grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6' and 'IAC 572'rootstocks, respectively 3.86kg/plant, 3.81 kg/plant and 3.65 kg/plant. 'Isabel' gave the largest grape productions when grafted on 'IAC 572' (3.85kg/plant, 'IAC 571-6' (3.63kg/plant and 'IAC 313' (3.26kg/plant. The best grape yields of 'Seibel-2' were obtained when it was grafted on 'IAC 313', 'IAC 572' and 'IAC 571-6', being respectively 2.61kg/plant, 2.40 kg/plant and 2.10 kg

  20. Preservation of concentrated orange juice by gamma radiation: physical, chemical and sensory characteristics

    Spoto, M.H.F.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the conservation of concentrated orange juice, through the synergic action of heat and irradiation in different temperatures and storage periods. A source of cobalt-60, type Gammabean-650, with an activity of approximately 4,912 Ci was utilized at the dose rate of 5.37 kGy/h. The chemical and sensory analyses were done after 1, 30, 60, 90 and 180 days of storage. The irradiation doses effect caused small variations in the total soluble solids, acidity, pH and ascorbic acid. The degradation of ascorbic acid was influenced by temperatures and storage time. Color changes were detected on the juice stored at room temperature. The characteristic of quality received score 5, in a 9-point scale. There were no differences on the color of the juice stored at o sup(0)C and 5 sup(0)C, which remained similar to the control (stored at -18 sup(0)C). (author)

  1. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process

    Beatriz de Cássia Martins Salomão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37ºC, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  2. Survey of molds, yeast and Alicyclobacillus spp. from a concentrated apple juice productive process.

    de Cássia Martins Salomão, Beatriz; Muller, Chalana; do Amparo, Hudson Couto; de Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria and molds may spoil and/or contaminate apple juice either by direct microbial action or indirectly by the uptake of metabolites as off-flavours and toxins. Some of these microorganisms and/or metabolites may remain in the food even after extensive procedures. This study aim to identify the presence of molds (including heat resistant species) and Alicyclobacillus spp., during concentrated apple juice processing. Molds were isolated at different steps and then identified by their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics after cultivation on standard media at 5, 25 and 37 °C, during 7 days. Among the 19 isolated found, 63% were identified as Penicillium with 50% belonging to the P. expansum specie. With regards to heat resistant molds, the species Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys fulva and also the genus Eupenicillium sp., Talaromyces sp. and Eurotium sp. were isolated. The thermoacidophilic spore-forming bacteria were identified as A. acidoterrestris by a further investigation based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity. The large contamination found indicates the need for methods to eliminate or prevent the presence of these microorganisms in the processing plants in order to avoid both spoilage of apple juice and toxin production.

  3. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate.

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachman, S

    1988-09-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased.

  4. Effect of irradiation on the patulin content and chemical composition of apple juice concentrate

    Zegota, H.; Zegota, A.; Bachmann, S.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on the patulin content of apple juice concentrate was investigated. The results indicated that patulin, at an initial concentration of about 2 mg/kg, disappeared after irradiation of the concentrate with doses as low as 2.5 kGy. For lower doses, the extent of patulin degradation was proportional to the absorbed dose. Irradiation of the concentrate with doses sufficient for patulin disappearance did not change the titratable acidity, the content of reducing sugars and carbonyl compounds or the amino acid composition. The content of ascorbic acid slightly decreased and the colour of the concentrate brightened. The intensity of the patulin absorption spectra after irradiation of mycotoxin in aqueous solutions decreased. (orig.) [de

  5. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  6. The significance of pancreatic juice trace-element concentration in chronic pancreatitis

    Persigehl, M.; Loeffler, A.; Hoeck, A.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of exocrine pancreas insufficiency in patients with chronic pancreatitis is still not easy. The best-suited method to confirm the diagnosis seems to be the secretin pancreozymin test (SPT). As previous results have shown, the determination of trace elements in the pancreatic juice can improve the diagnostic value of the SPT. During the SPT, the concentrations of Zn, Fe, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Cs, Sc and Ag were measured in the duodenal aspirate of 50 patients by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Of the 50 patients, 24 suffered from pancreatic insufficiency in chronic pancreatitis and 26 had no signs of pancreatic insufficiency. Only the concentration of zinc differed significantly in the two groups; the other elements showed a similar behaviour. In patients without disease of the exocrine pancreas the zinc content of the pancreatic juice during the SPT ws 0.46+-0.13μg/ml, whereas in patients with pancreatic insufficiency it was only 0.18+-0.07μg/ml. The corresponding output was 171+-49.3μg zinc in controls and 41+-17.4μg in patients. After stimulation with pancreozymin the concentrations of zinc increased in normal patients to 1.13+-0.14μg/ml and to 0.22+-0.12μg/ml in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The data demonstrate that the measurement of zinc in the duodenal juice during the SPT improves the diagnostic value of the test and that zinc should also be determined in doubtful cases of pancreatic insufficiency. (author)

  7. Chemometric techniques on evaluation of the flavor of irradiated orange juice concentrate

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of storage temperature and time on can orange juice concentrated were studied for samples irradiated at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0 0 C, 5 0 C and 25 0 C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. The concentrated orange juice was subjected to sensorial evaluations and gas chromatographic analysis. The free profile technique was applied using eight trained panel applying the Quantitative Descriptive Analyses, using a 10 cm unstructured category scale for each attribute. Samples stored for more than one day showed a diminution in the orange attribute rating and correspondent increases in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0 0 C and 5 0 C showed smaller effects on the sweetness ratings as well as on the oily, acidic and medicinal flavor characteristics. In most cases increased radiation levels were accompanied by lower intensity of orange attribute values and higher intensity of bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes. Forty three chemical compounds were characterized. Mircene, octanal, δ-3-carene, limonene, citronelal, and neral were highly correlated and statistically significant correlation coefficients. All these components showed low, but 95% confidence significant level correlations with the orange attribute. On the other hand the correlated group of hexanal, octanol, oxidation products, terpinene-4-ol, cis-carveol, nerol, carvona, geraniol, perilyl alcohol and cariophilene substances can be associated the bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes of the irradiated orange juice concentrate. (author). 83 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs

  8. Chemical composition and properties of spray-dried sugar beet concentrate obtained after ultrafiltration of diffusion juice

    Regiec Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of diffusion juice is a method that can reduce environmental pollution during the production of sugar. A by-product (concentrate of ultrafiltration contains a large amount of sucrose, but due to its properties, it is difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the temperature used during drying of diffusion juice concentrates on the content of certain components and characteristics of resultant preparations. Diffusion juice obtained from one of the Polish sugar plants was subjected to ultrafiltration and the obtained concentrates were dried in a spray dryer. In the dried samples, the following parameters were analyzed: dry mass, sucrose, total ash, protein, crude fiber and color. It has been declared that the degree of concentration and drying temperature influenced the chemical composition and the properties of the dehydrated diffusion juice concentrates. An increase in drying temperature was accompanied by the increased content of dry mass, protein, ash and fiber content in the preparations. The greater the degree of juice concentration, the greater was the content of dry mass, ash, and fiber. Inversely, the greater the degree of juice concentration, the lower the content of sucrose. The brightest color of the dehydrated product was observed at the drying temperature of 200°C. Spray-drying may be used for waste management after the diffusion juice membrane filtration, and the resultant preparations might be used in the production of feedstuff or food industry in general e.g. as sucrose source, in fermentation processes or in microorganisms propagation.

  9. Utilization of concentrate after membrane filtration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production.

    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Witold; Regiec, Piotr; Stencel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The subject of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the concentrate obtained after membrane ultrafiltration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production and selection of fermentation conditions (yeast strain and media supplementation). Resulting concentrate was subjected to batch ethanol fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red and Safdistill C-70). The effect of different forms of media supplementation (mineral salts: (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, MgCl2; urea+Mg3(PO4)2 and yeast extract) on the fermentation course was also studied. It was stated that sugar beet juice concentrate is suitable for ethanol production yielding, depending on the yeast strain, ca. 85-87 g L(-1) ethanol with ca. 82% practical yield and more than 95% of sugars consumption after 72 h of fermentation. Nutrients enrichment further increased ethanol yield. The best results were obtained for media supplemented with urea+Mg3(PO4)2 yielding 91.16-92.06 g L(-1) ethanol with practical yield ranging 84.78-85.62% and full sugars consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Fermentation behaviour and volatile compound production by agave and grape must yeasts in high sugar Agave tequilana and grape must fermentations.

    Arrizon, Javier; Fiore, Concetta; Acosta, Guillermina; Romano, Patrizia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have been performed on the characterization of yeasts involved in the production of agave distilled beverages and their individual fermentation properties. In this study, a comparison and evaluation of yeasts of different origins in the tequila and wine industries were carried out for technological traits. Fermentations were carried out in high (300 g l(-1)) and low (30 g l(-1)) sugar concentrations of Agave tequilana juice, in musts obtained from Fiano (white) and Aglianico (red) grapes and in YPD medium (with 270 g l(-1) of glucose added) as a control. Grape yeasts exhibited a reduced performance in high-sugar agave fermentation, while both agave and grape yeasts showed similar fermentation behaviour in grape musts. Production levels of volatile compounds by grape and agave yeasts differed in both fermentations.

  11. Amino Acid profile as a feasible tool for determination of the authenticity of fruit juices.

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-12-01

    Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  12. Optimization of ohmic heating parameters for polyphenoloxidase inactivation in not-from-concentrate elstar apple juice using RSM

    Abedelmaksoud, Tarek; Mohsen, Sobhy Mohamed; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    In this study, optimization of ohmic heating (OH) process parameters (temperature and voltage gradient) to inactivate polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of not-from-concentrate (NFC) apple juice was conducted. Response surface methodology was used for optimization of OH parameters, where the voltage gradient...... and temperature on the PPO activity in the NFC apple juice was evaluated. Then the optimized condition was used to produce the NFC apple juice and the quality parameters were evaluated and compared to NFC apple juice prepared by conventional heating (CH). The studied parameters were: PPO activity, total phenolic......, total carotenoids, ascorbic acid, cloud value, color as well as physical properties (i.e., TSS, acidity, electric conductivity and viscosity). The reduction of PPO activities was 97 and 91% for OH (at 40 V/cm and 80 °C) and CH (at 90 °C and 60 s), respectively. The reduction of the ascorbic acid...

  13. Effect of irradiation and storage on patulin disappearance and some chemical constituents of apple juice concentrate.

    Zegota, H; Zegota, A; Bachmann, S

    1988-10-01

    The effect of irradiation on the patulin content and on the chemical composition of apple juice concentrate during storage at 4 degrees C over a period of several weeks was investigated. The radiation-induced disappearance of the mycotoxin in relation to the absorbed dose followed an exponential relationship. The radiation dose (D50), i.e., the dose which reduced the patulin content to 50% of its initial value was equal to 0.35 kGy. Storage of the irradiated concentrate had no effect on the patulin content; however, storage did lead to a slight increase in the titratable acidity and a decrease in the amounts of the carbonyl compounds and the ascorbic acid concentration. The development of non-enzymatic browning during storage of the irradiated samples followed the same kinetics as that of the non-irradiated samples.

  14. Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate.

    Fazaeli, Mahboubeh; Hojjatpanah, Ghazale; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2013-02-01

    Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.

  15. Impact of Leaf Removal, Applied Before and After Flowering, on Anthocyanin, Tannin, and Methoxypyrazine Concentrations in 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera L.) Grapes and Wines.

    Sivilotti, Paolo; Herrera, Jose Carlos; Lisjak, Klemen; Baša Česnik, Helena; Sabbatini, Paolo; Peterlunger, Enrico; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2016-06-08

    The development and accumulation of secondary metabolites in grapes determine wine color, taste, and aroma. This study aimed to investigate the effect of leaf removal before flowering, a practice recently introduced to reduce cluster compactness and Botrytis rot, on anthocyanin, tannin, and methoxypyrazine concentrations in 'Merlot' grapes and wines. Leaf removal before flowering was compared with leaf removal after flowering and an untreated control. No effects on tannin and anthocyanin concentrations in grapes were observed. Both treatments reduced levels of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in the grapes and the derived wines, although the after-flowering treatment did so to a greater degree in the fruit specifically. Leaf removal before flowering can be used to reduce cluster compactness, Botrytis rot, and grape and wine IBMP concentration and to improve wine color intensity but at the expense of cluster weight and vine yield. Leaf removal after flowering accomplishes essentially the same results without loss of yield.

  16. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  17. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias não afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

    Jeanine Schütz Cardoso Teófilo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração dos compostos fenólicos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. Métodos: A avaliação ocorreu após diferentes períodos de aquecimento (100°C em dois sistemas: i panela de alumínio e chama de fogão e ii balão de vidro e manta térmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas à fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e após cada período de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor férrico, e o teor de fenóis totais foi quantificado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferenças foram comparadas pela análise de variância para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100°C using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  18. Effects of an Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate on Obesity-Induced Systemic Inflammation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Evan J. Williams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals from fruit and vegetables reduce systemic inflammation. This study examined the effects of an encapsulated fruit and vegetable (F&V juice concentrate on systemic inflammation and other risk factors for chronic disease in overweight and obese adults. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 56 adults aged ≥40 years with a body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m2. Before and after eight weeks daily treatment with six capsules of F&V juice concentrate or placebo, peripheral blood gene expression (microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, plasma tumour necrosis factor (TNFα (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, body composition (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA and lipid profiles were assessed. Following consumption of juice concentrate, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα decreased and total lean mass increased, while there was no change in the placebo group. In subjects with high systemic inflammation at baseline (serum C-reactive protein (CRP ≥3.0 mg/mL who were supplemented with the F&V juice concentrate (n = 16, these effects were greater, with decreased total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and plasma TNFα and increased total lean mass; plasma CRP was unchanged by the F&V juice concentrate following both analyses. The expression of several genes involved in lipogenesis, the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK signalling pathways was altered, including phosphomevalonate kinase (PMVK, zinc finger AN1-type containing 5 (ZFAND5 and calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, respectively. Therefore, F&V juice concentrate improves the metabolic profile, by reducing systemic inflammation and blood lipid profiles and, thus, may be useful in reducing the risk of obesity-induced chronic disease.

  19. Fuel and energy saving in open pan furnace used in jaggery making through modified juice boiling/concentrating pans

    Anwar, S.I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the concept of fins has been used for heating purpose for improving efficiency of open pan jaggery making furnace. Pan is the integral part of these furnaces where boiling/concentration of sugarcane juice take place. Parallel fins were provided to the bottom of main pan and gutter pan of IISR Lucknow 2-pan furnace. Choice for type of fins was based on movement of flames and hot flue gases generated due to combustion of bagasse. Fins helped in more heat transfer to the sugarcane juice being concentrated. Considerable improvement in heat utilization efficiency (9.44%) was observed which resulted in saving of fuel and energy (31.34%).

  20. Avaliação do potencial de cinco cultivares de videiras americanas para sucos de uva no sul de Minas Gerais Potential evaluation of five american cultivars for grape juices in the south of Minas Gerais state

    Giuliano Elias Pereira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho realizar uma caracterização dos sucos de uva de cinco cultivares de videira americana Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel segundo suas características visuais, olfativas e gustativas, utilizando um método descritivo por um painel de degustadores da Embrapa Uva e Vinho (EMBRAPA/CNPUV de Bento Gonçalves e da Associação Brasileira de Enologia (ABE, constituído por doze degustadores. De acordo com os resultados, os sucos das cultivares Isabel e Folha de Figo foram superiores aos demais, segundo a análise de componentes principais (ACP, principalmente pelas variáveis limpidez, equilíbrio olfativo, intensidade e corpo gustativo, persistência olfato-gustativa e julgamento geral (notas. O suco Folha de Figo foi superior ao Isabel quanto à tonalidade, sendo o primeiro caracterizado como vermelho-violáceo. A cultivar Folha de Figo é a mais utilizada na região para a produção de suco, podendo os produtores utilizarem também a cultivar Isabel, que mostrou potencial nas condições edafo-climáticas do sul de Minas Gerais.The present work was designed to accomplish the characterization of the different grape juices of five grapevine cultivars of Vitis labrusca (Folha de Figo, Alwood, Concord, BRS-Rúbea e Isabel according to their visual, smell and taste characteristics utilizing a descriptive method by a panel of tasters of Embrapa Grape and Wine (EMBRAPA/CNPUV of Bento Gonçalves, and of the Brazilian Enology Association (ABE consisting of 12 tasters. According to the results, the juices of the cultivars Isabel and Folha de Figo were higher than the others, analyzed statistically according to the Principal Component Analysis (PCA, mainly by the visual cleanliness variables, olfatory equilibrium, gustative body and quality, olfato-gustative persistence and general judgement (scores and the juice of Folha de Figo was higher than Isabel according to visual shade, the former

  1. Altered Fermentation Performances, Growth, and Metabolic Footprints Reveal Competition for Nutrients between Yeast Species Inoculated in Synthetic Grape Juice-Like Medium

    Stephanie Rollero

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, sequential inoculations of three yeast species (Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae with S. cerevisiae were performed individually in a synthetic medium. Different species-dependent interactions were evidenced. Indeed, the three sequential inoculations resulted in three different behaviors in terms of growth. P. burtonii and Z. meyerae declined after the inoculation of S. cerevisiae which promptly outcompeted the other two species. However, while the presence of P. burtonii did not impact the fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae, that of Z. meyerae rendered the overall kinetics very slow and with no clear exponential phase. K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae both declined and became undetectable before fermentation completion. The results also demonstrated that yeasts differed in their preference for nitrogen sources. Unlike Z. meyerae and P. burtonii, K. marxianus appeared to be a competitor for S. cerevisiae (as evidenced by the uptake of ammonium and amino acids, thereby explaining the resulting stuck fermentation. Nevertheless, the results suggested that competition for other nutrients (probably vitamins occurred during the sequential inoculation of Z. meyerae with S. cerevisiae. The metabolic footprint of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts determined after 48 h of fermentation remained until the end of fermentation and combined with that of S. cerevisiae. For

  2. Altered Fermentation Performances, Growth, and Metabolic Footprints Reveal Competition for Nutrients between Yeast Species Inoculated in Synthetic Grape Juice-Like Medium

    Rollero, Stephanie; Bloem, Audrey; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Camarasa, Carole; Divol, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    The sequential inoculation of non-Saccharomyces yeasts and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in grape juice is becoming an increasingly popular practice to diversify wine styles and/or to obtain more complex wines with a peculiar microbial footprint. One of the main interactions is competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen sources, that directly impacts not only fermentation performance but also the production of aroma compounds. In order to better understand the interactions taking place between non-Saccharomyces yeasts and S. cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, sequential inoculations of three yeast species (Pichia burtonii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Zygoascus meyerae) with S. cerevisiae were performed individually in a synthetic medium. Different species-dependent interactions were evidenced. Indeed, the three sequential inoculations resulted in three different behaviors in terms of growth. P. burtonii and Z. meyerae declined after the inoculation of S. cerevisiae which promptly outcompeted the other two species. However, while the presence of P. burtonii did not impact the fermentation kinetics of S. cerevisiae, that of Z. meyerae rendered the overall kinetics very slow and with no clear exponential phase. K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae both declined and became undetectable before fermentation completion. The results also demonstrated that yeasts differed in their preference for nitrogen sources. Unlike Z. meyerae and P. burtonii, K. marxianus appeared to be a competitor for S. cerevisiae (as evidenced by the uptake of ammonium and amino acids), thereby explaining the resulting stuck fermentation. Nevertheless, the results suggested that competition for other nutrients (probably vitamins) occurred during the sequential inoculation of Z. meyerae with S. cerevisiae. The metabolic footprint of the non-Saccharomyces yeasts determined after 48 h of fermentation remained until the end of fermentation and combined with that of S. cerevisiae. For instance

  3. Conservation of apple and pear juice concentrates. Synergic effect of heat and radiation

    Kaupert, N.L.; Lescano, H.G.; Kotliar, N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility for conserving apple and pear-juice concentrates through the synergic action of heat and radiation. The material was packed in sterile 100-μm polyethylene bags and, after the treatment was applied, the resulting fractions were stored under room temperature (25 0 C+-1 0 C). The temperature applied to the samples before irradiation was 50 0 C during 10 minutes and the doses were 100, 200, 300 and 400 krad. For such purposes, a 60 Co 165-krad/h source was used, located in a mobile irradiator. Periodical microbiological, chemical and organoleptic controls of the food were performed on both control and on irradiated samples, with or without heat. A single alterating microorganism was isolated from all the samples, which was featured as Saccharomyces rouxii. Adopting the temperature as an application variable and the absorbed dose as a constant, the above osmophilic yeast is considerably more sensitive to radiations when it is suspended in a 50% sucrose solution, after the latter was submitted to a 50 0 C temperature treatment. It has been proved that 72.5 krad are needed to attain the reduction of a logarithmic cycle in the Saccharomyces rouxii population irradiated at room temperature, while 36 krad are needed if the sample has been previously heated to 50 0 C for 10 minutes. An attempt was made to apply the synergism of such process to the juice concentrate. Below 50 0 C associated with 400 krad gamma radiation, a total inactivation took place in the Saccharomyces rouxii during the 150 days under analysis. Colour changes were detected in the concentrate; however, the acceptability features for consumption remained at a normal value (level 5) in a hedonic scale of 7 points. (author)

  4. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    Mostafa Asadpoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA. Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis.

  5. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice

    Boudreau, Thomas F.; Peck, Gregory M.; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest f...

  6. Outlining a future for non-Saccharomyces yeasts: selection of putative spoilage wine strains to be used in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape juice fermentation.

    Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Comitini, Francesca; Gobbi, Mirko; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-06-30

    The use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts that are generally considered as spoilage yeasts, in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for grape must fermentation was here evaluated. Analysis of the main oenological characteristics of pure cultures of 55 yeasts belonging to the genera Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces revealed wide biodiversity within each genus. Moreover, many of these non-Saccharomyces strains had interesting oenological properties in terms of fermentation purity, and ethanol and secondary metabolite production. The use of four non-Saccharomyces yeasts (one per genus) in mixed cultures with a commercial S. cerevisiae strain at different S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratios was investigated. This revealed that most of the compounds normally produced at high concentrations by pure cultures of non-Saccharomyces, and which are considered detrimental to wine quality, do not reach threshold taste levels in these mixed fermentations. On the other hand, the analytical profiles of the wines produced by these mixed cultures indicated that depending on the yeast species and the S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces inoculum ratio, these non-Saccharomyces yeasts can be used to increase production of polysaccharides and to modulate the final concentrations of acetic acid and volatile compounds, such as ethyl acetate, phenyl-ethyl acetate, 2-phenyl ethanol, and 2-methyl 1-butanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. THE APPLE JUICE CONCENTRATE ANTI-DUMPING CASE AGAINST CHINA: AN ESTIMATE OF CHANGE IN WASHINGTON'S REVENUES

    van Voorthuizen, Hilde; Cho, Sung-Yeol; Schotzko, R. Thomas; Mittelhammer, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing volumes of apple juice concentrate imports from China into the U.S. began in the mid 90s as a result of low Chinese prices. In 1999, the U.S. Apple Association launched a complaint with the US International Trade Commission (USITC) regarding the Chinese price strategy. During the course of investigation, the U.S. Apple Association requested that the Department of Agricultural Economics at Washington State University analyze the impact on the total value of juice apples utilized in ...

  8. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice.

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L -1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L -1 ammonium. Observed YAN values ranged from nine to 249 mg N L -1 , with a mean value of 59 mg N L -1 . Ninety-four percent of all samples analyzed in this study contained yeast to fully utilize all of the fermentable sugars. FAN concentration was correlated with total YAN concentration, but ammonium concentration was not. Likewise, there was no correlation between FAN and ammonium concentration.

  9. The use of fuzzy logic to determine the concentration of betel leaf essential oil and its potency as a juice preservative.

    Basak, Suradeep

    2018-02-01

    The present study was attempted to determine organoleptically acceptable concentration of betel leaf essential oil (BLEO) in raw apple juice using fuzzy logic approach, and to evaluate the efficacy of the acceptable concentration in the juice under refrigerated storage. The presence of BLEO components in treated juice was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. Based on similarity values, the acceptable concentration in the juice was found to be 0.19µl/ml of BLEO. Total antioxidant capacity of untreated juice was found to be 16% less than treated juice at the end of storage. The treated juice exceeded total aerobic plate count of 2 log 10 (cfu/ml) on 15th day of storage. Based on safe limits of microbial load, the shelf life of treated juice was extended by 6days as compared to untreated juice under refrigerated storage. BLEO contributes to green consumerism and its application as food preservative will add value to the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity and Concentration of Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Apple Juice. 2. Effect of Novel Production Methods

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is

  11. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice 1 Effect of existing production methods

    Sluis, van der A.A.; Dekker, M.; Skrede, G.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that

  12. Assessment of colour changes during storage of elderberry juice concentrate solutions using the optimization method.

    Walkowiak-Tomczak, Dorota; Czapski, Janusz; Młynarczyk, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Elderberries are a source of dietary supplements and bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins. These dyes are used in food technology. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in colour parameters, anthocyanin contents and sensory attributes in solutions of elderberry juice concentrates during storage in a model system and to determine predictability of sensory attributes of colour in solutions based on regression equations using the response surface methodology. The experiment was carried out according to the 3-level factorial design for three factors. Independent variables included pH, storage time and temperature. Dependent variables were assumed to be the components and colour parameters in the CIE L*a*b* system, pigment contents and sensory attributes. Changes in colour components X, Y, Z and colour parameters L*, a*, b*, C* and h* were most dependent on pH values. Colour lightness L* and tone h* increased with an increase in experimental factors, while the share of the red colour a* and colour saturation C* decreased. The greatest effect on the anthocyanin concentration was recorded for storage time. Sensory attributes deteriorated during storage. The highest correlation coefficients were found between the value of colour tone h* and anthocyanin contents in relation to the assessment of the naturalness and desirability of colour. A high goodness-of-fit of the model to data and high values of R2 for regression equations were obtained for all responses. The response surface method facilitates optimization of experimental factor values in order to obtain a specific attribute of the product, but not in all cases of the experiment. Within the tested range of factors, it is possible to predict changes in anthocyanin content and the sensory attributes of elderberry juice concentrate solutions as food dye, on the basis of the lack of a fit test. The highest stability of dyes and colour of elderberry solutions was found in the samples at pH 3.0, which confirms

  13. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather

    Lemuel M. Diamante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC, blackcurrant concentrate (BCC and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  14. Effects of Apple Juice Concentrate, Blackcurrant Concentrate and Pectin Levels on Selected Qualities of Apple-Blackcurrant Fruit Leather.

    Diamante, Lemuel M; Li, Siwei; Xu, Qianqian; Busch, Janette

    2013-09-12

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of apple juice concentrate (AJC), blackcurrant concentrate (BCC) and pectin on the moisture content, water activity, color, texture and ascorbic acid content of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather using the response surface methodology. The results showed the moisture content increased with increasing pectin level and with greater increases at higher AJC and BCC levels while the water activity increased with increasing pectin level and with increasing AJC level, at low pectin levels, but with decreasing AJC, at high pectin levels. The chroma decreased with increasing pectin level and with lower values at the middle AJC level. The puncturing force decreased with increasing AJC level but with a lower value at the middle pectin level. Lastly, the ascorbic acid content increased with increasing BCC level regardless of AJC and pectin levels. There is a need to reduce the drying temperature or time of apple-blackcurrant fruit leather just enough to bring the water activity closer to 0.60, thereby increasing the moisture content resulting in higher product yield.

  15. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40 °C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25 % ascorbic acid, pH 4.0, and pasteurization at 65 °C for 30 min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220 rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models.

  16. Potassium uptake and redistribution in Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah grape tissues and its relationship with grape quality parameters.

    Ramos, María Concepción; Romero, María Paz

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the potassium (K) levels in petiole and other grape tissues during ripening in Vitis vinifera Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, grown in areas with differences in vigour, as well as with and without leaf thinning. Potassium levels in petiole, seeds, skin and flesh were related to grape pH, acidity, berry weight and total soluble solids. Differences in K levels in petiole were in accordance with the differences in soil K. Leaf thinning gave rise to higher K levels in petiole but, in grape tissues, the differences were not significant in all samplings, with greater differences at the end of the growing cycle. Potassium levels per berry in grape tissues increased from veraison to harvest, with K mainly accumulated in skins and, to a lesser extent, in flesh. Potassium levels in flesh positively correlated with pH and total soluble solids, whereas the correlation with titratable acidity was negative. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids positively correlated with K, whereas titratable acidity correlated negatively. Leaf thinning increased K levels in petiole, although differences in K levels in grape tissues were not significant. This suggests the need to consider the K berry concentration when aiming to optimise K fertilisation programmes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior.

  18. Pear distillates from pear juice concentrate: effect of lees in the aromatic composition.

    García-Llobodanin, L; Achaerandio, I; Ferrando, M; Güell, C; López, F

    2007-05-02

    Pear juice obtained from pear concentrate was fermented at room temperature using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BDX, ENOFERM, France) as the fermentation microorganism. During the fermentation process, total sugars were measured. High performance liquid chromatography analyses were used to monitor the fermentation process and to characterize the pear wine. The pear wine obtained was distilled with its lees using three different equipments: a glass alembic (a glass pot still coupled to a glass column), a copper alembic, and a glass alembic with the addition of 5 g/L of copper shavings to the pot still. The same distillations were repeated with the wine without its lees (separated by decanting). Several distillation fractions were collected, up to a total of 500 mL of distillate. Gas chromatography was used to identify and quantify the volatile compounds in each fraction, and the methanol and ethanol contents. Based on these results, the heart fraction was defined. ANOVA tests were performed on the heart fractions to determine quantitative differences between some volatile compounds depending on the equipment used and the presence or absence of the wine lees. From this series of ANOVA tests, it can be concluded that the concentrations of the compounds that are considered to have a negative effect on the quality of the distillates (methanol, ethyl acetate, furfural) decrease or do not change when they are distilled in the presence of lees and in the copper alembic. In addition, the concentrations of the positive compounds (ethyl decanoate and ethyl-2-trans-4-cis-decadienoate) increase in the presence of lees for all of the equipment tested. So, it can be assumed that the distillation of pear wine with its lees in copper alembic leads to a better quality product.

  19. Chemical, sensory, and functional properties of whey-based popsicles manufactured with watermelon juice concentrated at different temperatures.

    Martins, Carolina P C; Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius S; Esmerino, Erick A; Moraes, Jeremias; Pimentel, Tatiana C; Rocha, Ramon S; Freitas, Mônica Q; Santos, Jânio S; Ranadheera, C Senaka; Rosa, Lana S; Teodoro, Anderson J; Mathias, Simone P; Silva, Márcia C; Raices, Renata S L; Couto, Silvia R M; Granato, Daniel; Cruz, Adriano G

    2018-07-30

    The effects of the concentration of watermelon juice at different temperatures (45, 55, or 65 °C) on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, antioxidant capacity, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of whey-based popsicles were investigated. Total phenolic content, lycopene, citrulline, VOCs, melting rate, instrumental colour, antioxidant capacity, and the sensory characteristics (hedonic test and free listing) were determined. The temperature led to a significant decrease in bioactive compounds (total phenolics, lycopene, and citrulline). The popsicle manufactured with reconstituted watermelon juice concentrated to 60 °Brix at 65 °C presented higher antioxidant capacity and was characterized by the presence of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones and presented a similar acceptance to the untreated popsicle (except for flavour). It is possible to combine whey and concentrated watermelon juice for the manufacture of bioactive-rich popsicles, using the concentration temperature of 65 °C as a suitable processing condition for potential industrial applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polifenóis totais e avaliação sensorial de suco de uvas Isabel tratadas com ultrassom Phenolic compounds and sensory evaluation of juice from Isabel grapes treated with ultrasound

    Carine Glaucia Comarella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O suco de uva no Brasil é um produto amplamente consumido por suas características sensoriais e nutricionais; porém, tratamentos durante o seu processamento podem ocasionar perdas de compostos fenólicos importantes na definição dessas características. O ultrassom é apontado como um possível elicitor desses compostos, visto que o estresse mecânico provocado por cavitação acústica e microagitação estimula respostas de defesa na planta que levam à síntese dessas substâncias. Neste estudo, diferentes densidades de potência (53 e 113 W.cm-2 e tempos de exposição (1, 5 e 10 minutos de ultrassom foram aplicados em uvas Isabel e seu efeito sobre o conteúdo de polifenóis totais e o aspecto sensorial dos sucos foi avaliado. O ultrassom causou um acréscimo de até 83% no teor de polifenóis totais, melhorando também as características sensoriais dos sucos, tendo sido estes os preferidos pelos provadores.Grape juice in Brazil is a product widely consumed for their sensory and nutritional characteristics, however, treatments during processing can cause loss of phenolic compounds important in defining these characteristics. Ultrasound is cited as a possible elicitor of these compounds, since the mechanical stress caused by acoustic cavitation and microstreaming stimulates the plant defense responses that lead to synthesis of these substances. In this study, different power densities (53 and 113 W.cm-2 and exposure times (1, 5 and 10 minutes of ultrasound were applied in Isabel grapes and its effect on the total polyphenols content and sensory aspect of the juices was evaluated. The ultrasound caused an increase of up to 83% in total polyphenols content, improving the sensory characteristics of juices, being chosen as preferred by the tasters.

  1. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  2. Chronological development of element concentrations in grapes during growth and ripeness and during fermentation of must determined by instrumental neutron-activation analyses

    Feige, Markus; Hampel, Gabriele; Kratz, Jens Volker; Wiehl, Norbert [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernchemie; Koenig, Helmut [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie und Weinforschung; Wagner, Andreas [Weingut Wagner, Essenheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The chronological development of element concentrations during growth and ripeness of grapes described in the literature has only been concerned with the macro elements Mg, K, and Ca. Concentrations of trace elements in must are only described as a snapshot at the end of the ripeness. Therefore, the motivation for the present work was to accompany the growth and the ripening process of grapes successively by systematically determining element concentrations in grapes of Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon by neutron-activation analyses. While for a number of elements, the concentrations in the grapes increased as a function of grape development (e.g., Na, K, Rb, Al), other concentrations decreased (e.g., Mg, Ca, Mn). These decreases are not only to be attributed to a dilution by an increasing uptake of water during growth, but also by an active transport of the cations out of the berries. Furthermore, the interest focused on the influence of mineral substances on the process of fermentation and on the uptake of trace elements by the yeasts. (orig.)

  3. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  4. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar.

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Casassa, L Federico; Gutha, Linga R; Larsen, Richard C; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  5. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivar

    Gutha, Linga R.; Larsen, Richard C.; Henick-Kling, Thomas; Harbertson, James F.; Naidu, Rayapati A.

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS) and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease. PMID:26919614

  6. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  7. INFLUENCE AT DIFFERENT OPERATION CONDITIONS ON THE ACEROLA JUICE CONCENTRATION BY REVERSE OSMOSIS, USING SPIRAL MEMBRANE OF COMPOSITE FILM

    E. R.S. GOMES

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The concentration of acerola juice, involves removal of water with the objective of reducing packing, storage and transport costs. The reverse osmosis (RO is a process of increasing interest in food industry and among the advantages they stand out: the low consumption of energy and the minimum thermal damages is caused to the products. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different operation conditions in relation to the permeate flux, in the concentration process of the acerola juice by RO. All the RO experiments were carried out with retentate recycling. The concentration by RO, were carried on the transmembrane pressures of 20, 30 and 40 bar and at 23ºC and 40ºC, being used a membrane of composite film in spiral module (99% NaCl rejection. The acerola pulp was defrosted and treated with Citrozym Ultra L enzyme (100 ppm, 45ºC ,1 hour, then it was ultrafiltrated at 3 bar at the same temperature, in 0.1 µm ceramic membrane, and so it was concentrated by RO. It was verified that the pressure and the temperature influenced the concentration and the permeate flux obtained in the RO process. The flux decreased along the processing, once the feeding becomes more concentrate, increasing the viscosity, osmotic pressure and retained sugar. KEYWORDS: Acerola juice concentration; reverse osmosis; membrane of composite film.

  8. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone) had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM) compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg), predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle. PMID:25942487

  9. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  10. Tomato juice intake suppressed serum concentration of 8-oxodG after extensive physical activity

    Harms-Ringdahl Mats

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA is constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS, spontaneously arising during the normal oxygen metabolism. ROS may result in temporary as well as permanent modifications in various cellular components such as lipids, proteins and DNA, which may have deleterious consequences. Demonstrating that a dietary supplementation of antioxidants can reduce oxidative DNA damage may provide evidence for the value of such supplementation in prevention of cancer and age related diseases. Findings The present study was conducted to address whether tomato juice protects against ROS induced by extensive physical exercise in untrained individuals. As a marker of oxidative stress, serum levels of 8-oxodG were monitored using a modified ELISA. An intervention was performed involving 15 untrained healthy subjects who performed a 20 min physical exercise at 80% of maximum pulse using an ergometer bicycle. Blood samples were taken before and one hour after the exercise. The procedure was repeated after 5 weeks with a daily intake of 150 ml tomato juice and followed by a 5 weeks wash-out period and another 5 weeks with a daily intake of tomato juice. The results indicated that a daily intake of tomato juice, equal to 15 mg lycopene per day, for 5 weeks significantly reduced the serum levels of 8-oxodG after an extensive physical exercise. Conclusion These data strongly suggest that tomato juice has a potential antioxidant effect and may reduce the elevated level of ROS induced by oxidative stress.

  11. [The antioxidant activity of the products of processing of red grape of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi].

    Avidzba, A M; Kubyshkin, A V; Guguchkina, T I; Markosov, V A; Katsev, A M; Naumova, N V; Shramko, Yu I; Zaytsev, G P; Chernousova, I V; Ogay, Yu A; Fomochkina, I I

    2016-01-01

    Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2-6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice). Among non-flavonoid polyphenols hydroxybenzoic (gallic, syringic) and hydroxycinnamic (caftaric, cautaric) acids are identified, the relative content of which in the amount of polyphenols in the juice is maximum, and minimum is in concentrates. It was found that antioxidant activity for all products in standard Trolox method can be estimated by the equation: Y = 0.53627+0.1395X+0.080439X2-0.00064708X3, with a correlation coefficient r = 0.9952; where: Y--antioxidant activity, g/dm3 by Trolox method; X--mass concentration of phenolic substances on the Folin-Ciocalteu, g/dm3. The equation is valid for Y = 0.76-196.22; X = 1.0-82.67. The results of biological testing of wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi and polyphenol concentrates from grape on the biological model of bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 demonstrated the applicability of bioassay to assess the antioxidant activity, which correlates well with the polyphenols content and antioxidant activity by trolox method.

  12. Factors Affecting the Levels of Heavy Metals in Juices Processed with Filter Aids.

    Wang, Zhengfang; Jackson, Lauren S; Jablonski, Joseph E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated factors that may contribute to the presence of arsenic and other heavy metals in apple and grape juices processed with filter aids. Different types and grades of filter aids were analyzed for arsenic, lead, and cadmium with inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry. Potential factors affecting the transfer of heavy metals to juices during filtration treatments were evaluated. Effects of washing treatments on removal of heavy metals from filter aids were also determined. Results showed that diatomaceous earth (DE) generally contained a higher level of arsenic than perlite, whereas perlite had a higher lead content than DE. Cellulose contained the lowest level of arsenic among the surveyed filter aids. All samples of food-grade filter aids contained arsenic and lead levels that were below the U.S. Pharmacopeia and National Formulary limits of 10 ppm of total leachable arsenic and lead for food-grade DE filter aids. Two samples of arsenic-rich (>3 ppm) food-grade filter aids raised the level of arsenic in apple and grape juices during laboratory-scale filtration treatments, whereas three samples of low-arsenic (filter aids did not affect arsenic levels in filtered juices. Filtration tests with simulated juices (pH 2.9 to 4.1, Brix [°Bx] 8.2 to 18.1, total suspended solids [TSS] 0.1 to 0.5%) showed that pH or sugar content had no effect on arsenic levels of filtered juices, whereas arsenic content of filtered juice was elevated when higher amounts of filter aid were used for filtration. Authentic unfiltered apple juice (pH 3.6, °Bx 12.9, TSS 0.4%) and grape juice (pH 3.3, °Bx 16.2, TSS 0.05%) were used to verify results obtained with simulated juices. However, body feed ratio did not affect the arsenic content of filtered authentic juices. Washing treatments were effective at reducing arsenic, but not cadmium or lead, concentrations in a DE filter aid. This study identified ways to reduce the amount of arsenic transferred to juices

  13. PIST – IS THE NEWEST BLACK BERRY WINE GRAPE VARIETY WITH COLORED FLESH AND JUICE, FOR THE PRODUCTION GLOBAL BENEFIT RED WINES

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    Newest technical black berry variety named Piste (“Faith” in Greek) with colored flesh and juice breeded at Athens Institute of Viticulture (Greece) by researchers Zamanidi P., L. Troshin and P. Radchevskii in 2007 by crossing the Greek varieties Afoos (Mavrodafni x Alicante Boucher) with Ukrainian variety Odessa black (Alicante Bouchet x Cabernet Sauvignon). Duration of production period is 146-155 days. Growth of shoots is strong (2,1-3,0 m). The percentage of productive shoots is more than...

  14. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  15. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review.

    Chen, Meng; Zhou, Shu-Yi; Fabriaga, Erlinda; Zhang, Pian-Hong; Zhou, Quan

    2018-04-01

    This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice- 99m Tc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine), increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids). Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food-drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice-drug interactions and help

  16. Full scale plant with membrane based concentration of blackcurrant juice on the basis of laboratory and pilot scale tests

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, K. V.; Andresen, R.

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual process design with the use of integrated membrane processes is prepared for blackcurrant juice concentrate (BCJC) production to replace traditional multiple step evaporators and aroma recovery. The combination of membrane processes includes aroma recovery with vacuum membrane distil...... is 0.40 (sic)/kg BCJC, which is lower than the price of a traditional operation by about 43%. Therefore, the economical potential of the process is very promising and could supersede conventional evaporators. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF ETHANOL CONCENTRATION, GLYCEROL CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS OF GRAPE-MAHUA WINE TO MAXIMIZE THE QUALITY AND OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY

    Mandeep Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Black grapes (Vitis vinifera and mahua (Madhuca longfolia extract was used in 90:10 grape-mahua ratio for fermentation for 15 days and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatin as fining agents. Ageing was allowed for three months and studies were conducted using response surface methodology to assess the effect of ethanol, glycerol and temperature on viscosity, color, specific gravity, pH and overall acceptability. Experimental designs were conducted and 20 samples were prepared containing varying concentration of ethanol (7.55%-13.44%, glycerol (6.19-18.8g/l and temperature (5.6-22.4oC respectively. The maximum desirability of 93% was obtained for wine under the optimized conditions 13.44% ethanol, 6.19g/l glycerol and 14oC temperature, having viscosity (efflux time, 12.9 s; color absorbance, 4.61; SG, 1.0012; pH, 3.34 and overall acceptability, 8.47.

  18. Ochratoxin A in wines and grape juices commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil Ocratroxina A em vinhos e sucos de uva comercializados na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Luzia Shundo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the summer of 2005, a total of 101 samples of wines and grape juices purchased from supermarkets and retail stores in São Paulo city were analysed for the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA. OTA was evaluated in 29 red wines and 38 grape juices produced in Brazil and in 34 imported red wines (from Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and South Africa. OTA was extracted in an immunoaffinity column and detected by HPLC with fluorescence detection, according to EN 14133/2003. The detection and quantification limits established were 0.01 and 0.03 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries for wine samples were 94.1, 82.5, 86.1% and the relative standard deviation were 6.10, 1.03, 4.11% at levels of 0.03, 2.0, 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. For grape juice, the recovery was 86.2% and the RSD was 2.01% at a level of 0.4 ng/mL. OTA contamination was found in nine of the 29 Brazilian red wines with levels ranging from 0.10 to 1.33 ng/mL and in 18 of the 34 imported red wines with levels ranging from 0.03 to 0.32 ng/mL. OTA was not detected in any of the grape juice samples analysed. Although the results from the wine samples analysed for the presence of OTA were below to the limits established by EC 123/2005 (2.0 ng/mL, low and continuous exposure to this mycotoxin could be a risk to human health.Durante o verão de 2005, um total de 101 amostras de vinho tinto e suco de uva, compradas em supermercados e lojas especializadas na cidade de São Paulo, foram analisadas para a presença de Ocratoxina A (OTA. OTA foi pesquisada em 29 amostras de vinho tinto e 38 de suco de uva produzidos no Brasil e em 34 amostras importadas de vinho tinto (provenientes da Argentina, Chile, Uruguai, França, Itália, Portugal, Espanha e África do Sul. OTA foi extraída em coluna de imunoafinidade e detectada por CLAE com detector de fluorescência, de acordo com EN 14133/2003. Os limites de detecção e quantificação estabelecidos foram 0,01 e 0,03 ng

  19. Direct stamp of technology or origin on the genotypic and phenotypic variation of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae population in a natural model of boiled grape juice fermentation into traditional Msalais wine in China.

    Zhu, Li-Xia; Wang, Guan-Qiong; Xue, Ju-Lan; Gou, Dong-Qi; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2017-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains worldwide show genetic and phenotypic diversity and their population substructures are greatly affected by their technological application or geographical origins. Msalais is a traditional wine obtained via a unique method of spontaneous fermentation of local boiled grape juice in Southern Xinjiang. We analyzed 436 indigenous S. cerevisiae strains associated with Msalais fermentation. These strains were highly diverse with respect to the interdelta region and 24 phenotypic traits, with apparent differentiation according to strain origins and technologies used to produce Msalais. The genetic and phenotypic diversity of strains from traditional workshops was higher than in strains from modern plants. These local strains had different origin- or technology-specific fermentative characteristics. Strains growing in large-scale fermentation tanks tolerated high temperature, whereas strains from traditional workshops tolerated high alcohol content (16%) and low temperature (13°C). Almost all the strains were characterized by the highest fermenting vigor, with weak H2S production and no histamine, cadaverine, phenethylamine and tryptamine production. Majority of strains had pronounced autolytic activity with high β-glucosidase and polygalacturonase activity and alcohol production. Our study reveals a direct stamp of technology or origin on genotypic and phenotypic variation of an indigenous S. cerevisiae population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  1. Simulating Aerosol Size Distribution and Mass Concentration with Simultaneous Nucleation, Condensation/Coagulation, and Deposition with the GRAPES-CUACE

    Zhou, Chunhong; Shen, Xiaojing; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Yangmei; Xin, Jinyuan

    2018-04-01

    A coupled aerosol-cloud model is essential for investigating the formation of haze and fog and the interaction of aerosols with clouds and precipitation. One of the key tasks of such a model is to produce correct mass and number size distributions of aerosols. In this paper, a parameterization scheme for aerosol size distribution in initial emission, which took into account the measured mass and number size distributions of aerosols, was developed in the GRAPES-CUACE [Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System-China Meteorological Administration (CMA) Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment model]—an online chemical weather forecast system that contains microphysical processes and emission, transport, and chemical conversion of sectional multi-component aerosols. In addition, the competitive mechanism between nucleation and condensation for secondary aerosol formation was improved, and the dry deposition was also modified to be in consistent with the real depositing length. Based on the above improvements, the GRAPES-CUACE simulations were verified against observational data during 1-31 January 2013, when a series of heavy regional haze-fog events occurred in eastern China. The results show that the aerosol number size distribution from the improved experiment was much closer to the observation, whereas in the old experiment the number concentration was higher in the nucleation mode and lower in the accumulation mode. Meanwhile, the errors in aerosol number size distribution as diagnosed by its sectional mass size distribution were also reduced. Moreover, simulations of organic carbon, sulfate, and other aerosol components were improved and the overestimation as well as underestimation of PM2.5 concentration in eastern China was significantly reduced, leading to increased correlation coefficient between simulated and observed PM2.5 by more than 70%. In the remote areas where bad simulation results were produced previously, the correlation coefficient

  2. Substitution of commercial concentrate with soy bean meal protected by tannin from banana stem juice for lambs

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to evaluate the optimal utilization of protected soy bean meal with secondary compound from banana stem juice in ration for sheep and its effect on sheep performance. Soy bean meal was mixed with banana stem juice at ratio 1:1 (w/v then dried in the oven at temperature 90oC. This protected soy bean meal was used to substitute commercial concentrate in sheep ration. The experiment used 24 head male lamb Sumatera composite breed. The lambs were grouped into six group based on its body weight and was assigned to one of 4 diets treatment. The sheep was fed on grass basal diet and supplemented with commercial concentrate. Data recorded were feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, average daily gain, feed efficiency and nitrogen utilization. Study was conducted in randomized complete block design and data obtained were analyzed using general linier model from SAS program. Results show that dry matter intake (DMI significantly (P 0.05 between R10, R20 and R30. The increasing in DMI is followed by the increasing crude protein (CP from 8.75 (R0 to 10.64; 11.68 and 12.32 g/BB0.75 respectively for R10; R20 and R30. Commercial concentrate substitution by protected soy bean meal significantly increased DM and CP digestibility at all levels. However, this substitution did not significantly affected organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF digestibility. Nitrogen excretion in urine was only increased at this level 30% substitution but nitrogen retention increased at substitution levels 20 and 30%. From this study can be concluded that commercial concentrate substitution with protected soy bean meal in the diet only increased CP consumption and CP digestibility but not average daily gain of lamb.

  3. Influence of temperature, concentration and shear rate on the rheological behavior of malay apple (Syzygium malaccense juice

    Pedro Henrique Santos

    Full Text Available Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the rheological behavior of malay apple, a traditional Amazonian fruit with high bioactive properties, at different temperatures and soluble solids concentrations. The experiments were carried out in a Brookfield R/S Plus rheometer with concentric cylinders geometry. Power Law, Herschel-Bulkley, Mizrahi-Berk, and Sisko rheological models were fitted to the experimental data. The malay apple juice (pulp and skin showed a pseudoplastic behavior for all temperatures and concentrations with flow behavior indexes lower than 1. The temperature effect on the samples’ apparent viscosity was analyzed by the Arrhenius equation. The activation energy increased with a decrease in the soluble solids concentration, showing that the lower the concentration, the greater the temperature influence on the apparent viscosity. The soluble solids effect was described by the exponential equation. The exponential factor increased with the temperature increasing, showing that the higher the temperature, the greater the effect of the soluble solids concentration on samples’ apparent viscosity. Finally, a triparametric mathematical model combining temperature, concentration, and shear rate was proposed aiming to evaluate its effects on the samples’ apparent viscosity and has accurately adjusted to the data with high correlation index R2.

  4. Redox-sensitive up-regulation of eNOS by purple grape juice in endothelial cells: role of PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK, JNK, FoxO1 and FoxO3a.

    Mahmoud Alhosin

    Full Text Available The vascular protective effect of grape-derived polyphenols has been attributable, in part, to their direct action on blood vessels by stimulating the endothelial formation of nitric oxide (NO. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Concord grape juice (CGJ, which contains high levels of polyphenols, stimulates the expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS in porcine coronary artery endothelial cells and, if so, to determine the signaling pathway involved. CGJ dose- and time-dependently increased eNOS mRNA and protein levels and this effect is associated with an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ on eNOS mRNA is not associated with an increased eNOS mRNA stability and inhibited by antioxidants such as MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase, and by wortmannin (an inhibitor of PI3-kinase, SB 203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, and SP 600125 (an inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, CGJ induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in endothelial cells and this effect is inhibited by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, and catalase. The CGJ-induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK kinases is abolished by MnTMPyP. CGJ induced phosphorylation of transcription factors FoxO1 and FoxO3a, which regulate negatively eNOS expression, and this effect is prevented by MnTMPyP, PEG-catalase, wortmannin, SB203580 and SP600125. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the FoxO3a protein is associated with the eNOS promoter in control cells and that CGJ induced its dissociation. Thus, the present study indicates that CGJ up-regulates the expression of eNOS mRNA and protein leading to an increased formation of NO in endothelial cells. The stimulatory effect of CGJ is a redox-sensitive event involving PI3-kinase/Akt, p38 MAPK and JNK pathways, and the inactivation of the FoxO transcription factors, FoxO1 and FoxO3a, thereby preventing their repression of the eNOS gene.

  5. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  6. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL -1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Lloyd, Steven W; Bett-Garber, Karen L; Grimm, Casey C; Watson, Michael A; Lea, Jeanne M

    2017-01-01

    High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensorial attributes in not-from-concentrate (NFC) 'Tifblue' rabbiteye blueberry juices. Processing prior to pasteurization generally resulted in increased L * and hue angle color, while a * , b * , and C * decreased. After 4 months pasteurized storage, non-clarified juice (NCP) lost 73.8% of total volatiles compared with 70.9% in clarified juice (CJP). There was a total anthocyanidin decrease of 84.5% and 85.5% after 4 months storage in NCP and CJP, respectively. Storage itself resulted in only 14.2% and 7.2% anthocyanidin loss after pasteurization in NCP and CJP. Storage significantly affected nine flavor properties in juices; however, there were no significant differences in the blueberry, strawberry, purple grape, floral, sweet aroma, or sweet tastes between processed and stored juices. NFC pasteurized blueberry juices maintained desirable flavors even though highly significant volatile and anthocyanidin losses occurred through processing. Maintenance of color and flavor indicate that NFC juices could have an advantage over more abusive methods often used in commercial juice operations. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Protective effects of red grape (Vitis vinifera) juice through restoration of antioxidant defense, endocrine swing and Hsf1, Hsp72 levels in heat stress induced testicular dysregulation of Wister rat.

    Halder, Soma; Sarkar, Mrinmoy; Dey, Sananda; Kumar Bhunia, Sujay; Ranjan Koley, Alok; Giri, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Ability of red grape juice (RGJ), a known antioxidant, on testis of adult Wister rat to protect from oxidative stress induced damages by heat stress has been investigated in this study. Heat stress was induced maintaining body and testicular temperature at 43°C for 30min/day for 15 days using a hyperthermia induction chamber. Four groups of rats (n=6 per group) comprising of Group-I (control) -kept at 32°C, Group-II -exposed to heat stress alone, Group-III received RGJ (0.8ml/rat/day) alone and Group-IV -exposed to heat stress and received RGJ at same dose. Analysis of blood and testicular tissue exhibited significant reduction in serum testosterone, testicular superoxide dismutase, testicular catalase and testicular glutathione (all p rise in the level of serum corticosteroid, testicular lipid peroxidase and the apoptotic enzyme caspase-3 of testis (all p < 0.001) were observed along with substantial increase in testicular Hsp72 and Hsf-1, and decrease in 17β-HSD3 were noted in heat stressed rats compared to controls. In Group-IV rats, RGJ administration could restore these parameters to normal levels. The signs of retention were clear in Group-IV rats and found to be significantly different as compared to that of the Group-II rats. In testicular histology of rats exposed to heat stress alone revealed remarkable germ cell degeneration and tubular deformations which were prevented by RGJ treatment (Group-IV). The reduced number of sperm level in Group-II also restored in RGJ treatment (Group-IV). The above results indicate that consumption of RGJ may substantially protect testis from heat stress induce dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Selected Fruit Juice Concentrates Used as Osmotic Agents on the Drying Kinetics and Chemical Properties of Vacuum-Microwave Drying of Pumpkin

    Krzysztof Lech

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the osmotic dehydration of pumpkin slices in chokeberry, flowering quince, and raspberry concentrated juices. Products obtained were subjected to vacuum-microwave finish drying (VMD. The objective of the study was to evaluate the drying kinetics and the chemical properties, that is, total polyphenolics content and antioxidant capacity of the vacuum-microwave-dried pumpkin products. The concentration and temperature of the juices were 40°Brix and 45°C, respectively. The pumpkin slices were pretreated in concentrated juices for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 6 hours. Vacuum-microwave finish drying was carried out at the power of magnetrons that ensured the maintenance of the safe temperature (below 90°C of the slices measured with the use of infrared camera. The results of the study showed that the moisture content of samples during the pretreatment in concentrated juices was decreasing until the equilibrium stage. The logarithmic model was used to describe the drying kinetics of pumpkin during VMD. Osmotic pretreatment resulted in a decrease in colour coordinates, improved the antioxidant activity of dried product, and prolonged the duration of VMD.

  10. A combination of grapefruit seed extract and concentrated cranberry juice as a potential antimicrobial preservative for the improvement of microbiological stability of hypromellose gel.

    Bernatoniene, Jurga; Keraitė, Rasa; Masteiková, Ruta; Pavilonis, Alvydas; Savickas, Arūnas

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous hypromellose gels are not microbiologically stable - they show signs of microorganism growth during storage. To extend the shelf-life of the gels, antimicrobial preservatives are needed. Some substances of plant origin are known for their antimicrobial properties, and thus they may be used as an alternative to synthetic preservatives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological stability of aqueous hypromellose gel and the effectiveness of natural substances - grapefruit seed extract (GSE), concentrated cranberry juice, and a combination thereof - on the antimicrobial protection of the gel. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of GSE and cranberry juice showed that their antimicrobial effects differed. Both cranberry juice and GSE inhibited the growth of the standard gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the effect of GSE was significantly stronger. Candida albicans was sensitive only to GSE. For this reason, in order to affect all the microorganisms studied, either a combination of 0.7% GSE and 10% cranberry juice, or 5% GSE alone may be used. The combination of GSE and cranberry juice was effective only in acidic medium (pH being 2.5-5), while the antimicrobial effect of GSE was not dependent on the pH value.

  11. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of a flavonoid-rich concentrate recovered from Opuntia ficus-indica juice.

    Matias, A; Nunes, S L; Poejo, J; Mecha, E; Serra, A T; Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Bronze, M R; Duarte, C M M

    2014-12-01

    In this work, Opuntia ficus indica juice was explored as a potential source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients towards intestinal inflammation. An adsorption separation process was used to produce a natural flavonoid-rich concentrate (FRC) from Opuntia ficus-indica juice. The FRC effect (co- or pre-incubation) on induced-oxidative stress and induced-inflammation was evaluated in human Caco-2 cells. The main constituents identified and present in the extract are flavonoids (namely isorhamnetins and their derivatives such as isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnose-rutinoside and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside) and phenolic acids (such as ferulic, piscidic and eucomic acids). Our results showed that co-incubation of FRC with the stress-inducer attenuates radicals production in a much more significant manner than pre-incubation. These results suggest that FRC compounds which cannot pass the cell membrane freely (isorhamnetin derivatives) have an ability to inhibit the formation of H2O2-induced radicals in the surrounding environment of intestinal epithelial cells. The capacity of FRC (co-incubation) for suppressing (at the extracellular level) free radicals chain initiation or propagation reaction was probably related with a more pronounced reduction in protein oxidation. A similar response was observed in the inflammatory state, where a marked decrease in IL-8 secretion and blocked degradation of IκBα was achieved for FRC co-incubation. Simultaneously, treatment with FRC significantly reduces NO and TNF-α expression and modulates apparent permeability in Caco-2 cells. In these cases, no significant differences were found between pre- and co-incubation treatments suggesting that bioavailable phenolics, such as ferulic, eucomic and piscidic acids and isorhamnetin, act at the intracellular environment.

  12. Potential health benefits from the flavonoids in grape products on vascular disease.

    Folts, John D

    2002-01-01

    In the dog, monkey, a nd human we have shown that 5 ml/kg of red wine or 5-10 ml/kg of purple grape juice but not orange or grapefruit juice inhibits platelet activity, and protects against epinephrine activation of platelets. Red wine and purple grape juice enhances platelet and endothelial production of nitric oxide (Fitzpatrick et al., 1993, Parker et al., 2000). This is thought to be one of the mechanisms whereby purple grape juice significantly improved endothelial function in 15 patients with coronary artery disease. The consumption of purple grape juice by the patients also offered increased protection against LDL cholesterol oxidation, even though all the patients were also taking another antioxidant vitamin E, 400 IU/day. The number of people and animals in these studies was small; however, each one acted as their own control as measurements were made in each before, and then after consumption of red wine or purple grape juice. Thus these studies are thought to be significant. We feel that the results of these studies are encouraging and justify further research on larger numbers of subjects. This suggests that the flavonoids in purple grape juice and red wine may inhibit the initiation of atherosclerosis by one or more of the mechanisms described above. It will take years to fully characterize the potential benefits of daily consumption of red wine or purple grape juice for maintaining a healthy heart. Based on the existing evidence of antiplatelet and antioxidant benefits and improved endothelial function from red wine and purple grape juice, it seems reasonable to suggest that moderate amounts of red wine or purple grape juice be included among the 5-7 daily servings of fruits and vegetables per day as recommended by the American Heart Association to help reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  13. Impact of grape cluster defoliation on TDN potential in cool climate Riesling wines

    Schüttler Armin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cool climate grape vine growing regions are and will be affected by the global climate change. It is likely that increasing temperatures, as well as changing precipitation pattern will impact the wines’ composition and wine styles. In the last decades the sensory concept of German Riesling wines was considered to represent fresh and fruity notes. However, aged wines of this variety are characterized by petrol like aroma, which is not appreciated in modern Riesling wines. The C13-norisoprenoid 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN is considered to be the marker compound for this undesired sensory impression. The biogenesis of this compound is impacted by grape vine growth conditions. Wines made from Riesling grapes grown in warmer climates have higher concentrations of TDN. Therefore “TDN management” will be one of the most challenging tasks in viticulture in Riesling growing regions in general and particularly in cool climate regions. Two approaches considered are the canopy management of the grape vines as well as an appropriate selection of yeast strain for alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, the aim of this project was to study the impact of grape zone defoliation on potential TDN concentrations in grapes, must and finished wines under cool climate conditions, in example of regional conditions of the landmark Hessische Bergstraße, in com- bination with the usage of two commercially available yeast strains during alcoholic fermentation. The experiment consisted of four treatments in a balanced incomplete block design, grape zone defoliation at berry set on the eastern side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at berry set on eastern and western side of the canopy, grape zone defoliation at veraison on eastern and western side of the canopy, and a non-defoliated treatment. The treatments and repetitions were harvested separately, pressed, and then fermented with two different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Grape

  14. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera)

    Giovanna Fia; Claudio Gori; Ginevra Bucalossi; Francesca Borghini; Bruno Zanoni

    2018-01-01

    The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvent...

  15. A Traditional Turkish Fermented Non-Alcoholic Grape-Based Beverage, “Hardaliye”

    Fatma Coskun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardaliye is a non-alcoholic fermented beverage produced in a traditional way in Thrace, the European part of Turkey. The nutritional value of hardaliye is derived from the grapes and the fermentation process. Health benefits of hardaliye are also related to etheric oils present in mustard seeds. Hardaliye is a lactic acid fermented traditional beverage produced from grape juice and crushed grapes with the addition of different concentrations of whole/ground or heat-treated mustard seeds and sour cherry leaves. The color of hardaliye reflects the original color of the grapes and has a characteristic aroma. Dark red grape is preferred. Benzoic acid is used as preservative during production. Benzoic acid inhibits or decreases alcohol production by affecting the yeast. Fermentation occurs at room temperature for 7–10 days. If the ambient temperature is low, fermentation process can be extended until 20 days. Once fermented, the hardaliye is stored at 4 °C for three to four months. The hardaliye is consumed either fresh or aged. If it is aged, hardaliye may contain alcohol. The industrial production is just in small-scale and it must be developed. More studies are required to determine characteristic properties of hardaliye. Identification of the product properties will supply improvement for industrial production.

  16. Comparison of consecutive harvests versus blending treatments to produce lower alcohol wines from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes: Impact on wine volatile composition and sensory properties.

    Schelezki, Olaf J; Šuklje, Katja; Boss, Paul K; Jeffery, David W

    2018-09-01

    This study extends previous work on Cabernet Sauvignon wines of lowered alcohol concentrations produced by pre-fermentatively substituting proportions of juice from an overripe crop with "green harvest wine" or water to adjust initial sugar concentrations. Resulting wines were assessed for their volatile compositions and sensory characteristics to evaluate the suitability of this winemaking approach to managing wine alcohol concentrations in warm viticulture regions. Wines from water or green harvest wine substitution were also compared to wines of similar alcohol content produced from earlier harvested grapes. Implementation of water substitution in particular resulted in minor alterations of wine volatile composition compared to the control, and positive aroma and flavour characteristics were preserved. However, overripe sensory attributes such as 'hotness' and 'port wine' were conserved whereas they were absent in wines of similar alcohol level made from earlier harvested grapes, thereby emphasising the relevance of grape (over)maturity when producing lower alcohol wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  18. Impacts of a liberalization in the USA market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice: why Florida's producers are so afraid?

    Paulo Sérgio Fracalanza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining the resource allocation and welfare implications of the reduction of barriers in the United States market for Frozen Concentrated Orange Juice (FCOJ imported from Brazil. The present paper is organized as follows: section 2 presents an overview of the main features of the market and current trade regime for orange juice, as well as the possible impacts of liberalization within FTAA and with the European Union; section 3 describes the partial equilibrium model of imperfect substitute goods used to estimate the impact of trade liberalization in the United States, on prices and quantities and on welfare; in section 4 two possible scenarios for liberalization are designed using the large country model. The last section summarizes the main conclusions.Este artigo tem por objetivo contribuir para o exame das implicações em termos da alocação de recursos e de bem-estar de uma eventual redução das barreiras tarifárias no mercado dos EUA de suco de laranja concentrado e congelado (FCOJ importado do Brasil. Depois da introdução, uma segunda seção apresenta uma visão geral das principais características do mercado e do regime de comércio para o suco de laranja, bem como uma avaliação preliminar dos possíveis impactos da liberalização comercial dentro do quadro de acordos comerciais com o NAFTA e com a União Européia. A terceira seção descreve os modelos de equilíbrio parcial com bens substitutos utilizados para o exame dos impactos em termos de quantidades, preços e bem-estar da redução tarifária nos mercados de FCOJ dos EUA. A quarta seção apresenta dois possíveis cenários da liberalização comercial usando o modelo de «país grande». A última seção sumariza os principais resultados.

  19. Grape Expectations.

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  20. Fermentative activity and production of volatile compounds by Saccharomyces grown in synthetic grape juice media deficient in assimilable nitrogen and/or pantothenic acid.

    Wang, X D; Bohlscheid, J C; Edwards, C G

    2003-01-01

    To understand the impact of assimilable nitrogen and pantothenic acid on fermentation rate and synthesis of volatile compounds by Saccharomyces under fermentative conditions. A 2 x 3 factorial experimental design was employed with the concentrations of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) (60 and 250 mg l(-1)) and pantothenic acid (10, 50 and 250 microg l(-1)) as variables. In media containing 250 microg l(-1) pantothenic acid, H2S production by two different species of Saccharomyces decreased when YAN was increased from 60 to 250 mg l(-1). Conversely, H2S production was significantly higher when the concentration of assimilable nitrogen was increased if pantothenic acid was deficient (10 or 50 microg l(-1)). Yeast synthesis of other volatile compounds were impacted by both assimilable nitrogen and pantothenic acid. While growth and fermentative rate of Saccharomyces was more influenced by nitrogen than by pantothenic acid, complicated interactions exist between these nutrients that affect the synthesis of volatile compounds including H2S. This study has important implications for the winemaking industry where a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of Saccharomyces is necessary to reduce fermentation problems and to improve final product quality.

  1. Food-drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice: An update review

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This review addressed drug interactions precipitated by fruit juices other than grapefruit juice based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Literature was identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science till December 30 2017. Among 46 finally included RCTs, six RCTs simply addressed pharmacodynamic interactions and 33 RCTs studied pharmacokinetic interactions, whereas seven RCTs investigated both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Twenty-two juice-drug combinations showed potential clinical relevance. The beneficial combinations included orange juice-ferrous fumarate, lemon juice-99mTc-tetrofosmin, pomegranate juice-intravenous iron during hemodialysis, cranberry juice-triple therapy medications for H. pylori, blueberry juice-etanercept, lime juice-antimalarials, and wheat grass juice-chemotherapy. The potential adverse interactions included decreased drug bioavailability (apple juice-fexofenadine, atenolol, aliskiren; orange juice-aliskiren, atenolol, celiprolol, montelukast, fluoroquinolones, alendronate; pomelo juice-sildenafil; grape juice-cyclosporine, increased bioavailability (Seville orange juice-felodipine, pomelo juice-cyclosporine, orange-aluminum containing antacids. Unlike furanocoumarin-rich grapefruit juice which could primarily precipitate drug interactions by strong inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme and P-glycoprotein and thus cause deadly outcomes due to co-ingestion with some medications, other fruit juices did not precipitate severely detrimental food–drug interaction despite of sporadic case reports. The extent of a juice-drug interaction may be associated with volume of drinking juice, fruit varieties, type of fruit, time between juice drinking and drug intake, genetic polymorphism in the enzymes or transporters and anthropometric variables. Pharmacists and health professionals should properly screen for and educate patients about potential adverse juice

  2. Changes in the free amino acid composition with maturity of the noble cultivar of Vitis rotundifolia Michx. grape.

    Lamikanra, O; Kassa, A K

    1999-12-01

    The changes in amino acid composition that occur with maturity of the Noble cultivar of the Vitis rotundifolia Michx. (muscadine) grape were determined by HPLC. Eighteen amino acids were identified. Histidine was the most prominent amino acid followed by alanine. The concentrations of most of the major amino acids (alanine, glycine, histidine, valine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, and serine) were highest at verasion. Glutamine and threonine contents dropped sharply after fruit set, while those of arginine and proline increased gradually with maturity and ripening. Tyrosine content increased gradually with maturity and ripening following a slight drop after fruit set. In ripe grapes, seeds contained most of the amino acids in mature grapes (50%) followed by the pulp (23%), the juice (15%), and the skin (11%). Alanine, histidine, and arginine were the principal amino acids identified in the juice. Alanine, histidine, arginine, valine, glutamine, aspartic acid, proline, serine, and threonine accounted for about 90% of the amino acids in the pulp. In seeds, alanine, proline, asparagine, and histidine accounted for over 55% of the amino acids, while alanine and histidine were found to be the predominant free amino acids in the skin. The profile indicates some differences in the changes in amino acid composition with berry maturity and relative amounts of amino acids present in muscadine compared to those in nonmuscadine grape species.

  3. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  4. Identification of specific microorganisms in fresh squeezed street vended fruit juices

    K Sahithi Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In developing country like India, street foods such as salads and fresh cut fruits are widely consumed. Among all street foods, fruit juices are common beverages, consumed more because of higher consumer preference both in terms of taste and health. Moreover, there is a dearth of Indian studies on contamination of street vended fruit juices. Aim: To determine the pH and specific microorganisms in freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices. Materials and Methods: Four fruit juices i.e., Grapes, Sweet Lime, Pineapple and Sapota were chosen for the study. Juices were collected in summer season in months between April and June 2013. Ten samples of 50 ml each fruit juice was collected in sterile bottles from various street vendors of Dilshuknagar area of Hyderabad city. Transportation of samples to Food Toxicology laboratory, National Institute of Nutrition was done in the ice box and processing was done within 2–4 h. Results: All juices showed bacterial contamination except one sample of grape juice. Pineapple juice samples showed the high bacterial contamination with all samples positive for fecal coliforms and Shigella spp. (100%. Salmonella spp. was detected only in one sample of Sapota juice (10%. Significant difference among fruit juices for prevalence of microorganisms was seen only for Escherichia coli (P = 0.03 with least count in Grape juice (20%. Conclusion: Freshly squeezed street vended fruit juices were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, which significantly attributed to public health problem.

  5. Radioactivity distribution of the fruit trees ascribable to radioactive fall out (6). Effect of heterogeneity of caesium-137 concentration in soil on transferability to grape trees and fig trees

    Takata, Daisuke; Yasunaga, Eriko; Tanoi, Keitaro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the heterogeneity of 137 Cs concentration in soil on transferability to shallow rooted fig and non-shallow rooted grapes. Three-year-old trees were planted into the pots filled with soil changed to the concentration of radioactivity Cs in surface (0 - 5cm) and deep soil (5 - 15cm). Transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher in fig than in grapes when grown under the same conditions. In fig trees, transfer rate of radioactive 137 Cs to plants from the soil was higher the plants cultivated under high concentration of 137 Cs in surface soil than in deep soil. (author)

  6. Influence of Grape Seeds and Stems on Wine Composition and Astringency.

    Pascual, Olga; González-Royo, Elena; Gil, Mariona; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; García-Romero, Esteban; Canals, Joan Miquel; Hermosín-Gutíerrez, Isidro; Zamora, Fernando

    2016-08-31

    The aim of this paper is to study the real influence of seeds and stems on wine composition, astringency, and bitterness. A decolored grape juice and a grape juice macerated for 4 days from the same Cabernet Sauvignon grapes were fermented with or without supplementation with 100% seeds, 300% seeds, or 100% stems. Once alcoholic fermentation had finished, the wines were analyzed and tasted. The presence of seeds and stems increased the concentration of flavan-3-ol monomers with respect to the controls. However, the seeds mainly released (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, whereas the stems mainly released (+)-catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. The seeds and stems also released proanthocyanidins; those from seeds have a lower mDP and a high percentage of galloylation, whereas those from stems have a higher mDP and a relatively high percentage of prodelphinidins. The presence of seeds and stems brought about a slight but significant increase in pH and lowered titratable acidity and ethanol content. The presence of seeds boosted color intensity, whereas stems had the opposite effect. Finally, both seeds and stems increased wine astringency and bitterness.

  7. Climate change trends, grape production, and potential alcohol concentration in wine from the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (Italy)

    Teslić, Nemanja; Zinzani, Giordano; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The trend of climate change and its effect on grape production and wine composition was evaluated using a real case study of seven wineries located in the "Romagna Sangiovese" appellation area (northern Italy), one of the most important wine producing region of Italy. This preliminary study focused on three key aspects: (i) Assessment of climate change trends by calculating bioclimatic indices over the last 61 years (from 1953 to 2013) in the Romagna Sangiovese area: significant increasing trends were found for the maximum, mean, and minimum daily temperatures, while a decreasing trend was found for precipitation during the growing season period (April-October). Mean growing season temperature was 18.49 °C, considered as warm days in the Romagna Sangiovese area and optimal for vegetative growth of Sangiovese, while nights during the ripening months were cold (13.66 °C). The rise of temperature shifted studied area from the temperate/warm temperate to the warm temperate-/warm grape-growing region (according to the Huglin classification). (ii) Relation between the potential alcohol content from seven wineries and the climate change from 2001 to 2012: dry spell index (DSI) and Huglin index (HI) suggested a large contribution to increasing level of potential alcohol in Sangiovese wines, whereas DSI showed higher correlation with potential alcohol respect to the HI. (iii) Relation between grape production and the climate change from 1982 to 2012: a significant increasing trend was found with little effect of the climate change trends estimated with used bioclimatic indices. Practical implication at viticultural and oenological levels is discussed.

  8. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  9. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  10. Extraction of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins and Phenolics in Sauvignon Blanc as Affected by Grape Harvesting and Processing Conditions

    Bin Tian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs and chitinases are the two main groups of pathogenesis-related (PR proteins found in wine that cause protein haze formation. Previous studies have found that phenolics are also involved in protein haze formation. In this study, Sauvignon Blanc grapes were harvested and processed in two vintages (2011 and 2012 by three different treatments: (1 hand harvesting with whole bunch press (H-WB; (2 hand harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (H-DC-3; and (3 machine harvesting with destem/crush and 3 h skin contact (M-DC-3. The juices were collected at three pressure levels (0.4 MPa, 0.8 MPa and 1.6 MPa, some juices were fermented in 750 mL of wine bottles to determine the bentonite requirement for the resulting wines. Results showed juices of M-DC-3 had significantly lower concentration of proteins, including PR proteins, compared to those of H-DC-3, likely due to the greater juice yield of M-DC-3 and interactions between proteins and phenolics. Juices from the 0.8–1.6 MPa pressure and resultant wines had the highest concentration of phenolics but the lowest concentration of TLPs. This supported the view that TLPs are released at low pressure as they are mainly present in grape pulp but additional extraction of phenolics largely present in skin occurs at higher pressing pressure. Wine protein stability tests showed a positive linear correlation between bentonite requirement and the concentration of chitinases, indicating the possibility of predicting bentonite requirement by quantification of chitinases. This study contributes to an improved understanding of extraction of haze-forming PR proteins and phenolics that can influence bentonite requirement for protein stabilization.

  11. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  12. Investigation of freeze concentration as a process for industrial energy conservation in black liquor, acetic acid, and citrus juice applications. Final report

    None

    1979-07-01

    One of the largest consumers of energy in industrial processing is the equipment that concentrates weak aqueous solutions to stronger more sellable or reusable concentrations. The technical and economic feasibility of applying freeze concentration (that is, crystallization and removal from solution of pure solvent - water) as an alternative to heat evaporation (or distillation) to three industrial applications is established. For each of the applications - pulp mill black liquor concentration, acetic acid recovery and orange juice concentration - the economic analyses indicate that the energy savings achievable by freezing justify the respective capital investments with pay out periods of generally one to three years. Past freeze concentration operations have been in the 10,000 to 100,000 gallons per day range for sea water desalination. Research and development work will be required to adapt this work to the three industrial applications.

  13. Rootstock and vineyard floor management influence on 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grape yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN).

    Lee, Jungmin; Steenwerth, Kerri L

    2011-08-01

    This is a study on the influence that two rootstocks (110R, high vigour; 420A, low vigour) and three vineyard floor management regimes (tilled resident vegetation - usual practise in California, and barley cover crops that were either mowed or tilled) had upon grape nitrogen-containing compounds (mainly ammonia and free amino acids recalculated as YAN), sugars, and organic acids in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' clone 8. A significant difference was observed for some of the free amino acids between rootstocks. In both sample preparation methods (juiced or chemically extracted), 110R rootstock grapes were significantly higher in SER, GLN, THR, ARG, VAL, ILE, LEU, and YAN than were 420A rootstock grapes. Differences in individual free amino acid profiles and concentrations were observed between the two sample preparations, which indicate that care should be taken when comparing values from dissimilar methods. No significant differences among vineyard floor treatments were detected, which suggests that mowing offers vineyard managers a sustainable practise, alternative to tilling, without negatively affecting grape nitrogen compounds, sugars, or organic acids. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Chemometric techniques on evaluation of the flavor of irradiated orange juice concentrate; Tecnicas quimiometricas na avaliacao do sabor de aroma do suco de laranja concentrado e irradiado

    Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    1994-12-31

    The effects of storage temperature and time on can orange juice concentrated were studied for samples irradiated at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy doses from a gamma-ray source as well as for untreated samples. All samples were stored at 0{sup 0} C, 5{sup 0} C and 25{sup 0} C for periods of 1, 30, 60 and 90 days. The concentrated orange juice was subjected to sensorial evaluations and gas chromatographic analysis. The free profile technique was applied using eight trained panel applying the Quantitative Descriptive Analyses, using a 10 cm unstructured category scale for each attribute. Samples stored for more than one day showed a diminution in the orange attribute rating and correspondent increases in ratings for the bitterness, medicinal and cooked attributes. Storage at 0{sup 0} C and 5{sup 0} C showed smaller effects on the sweetness ratings as well as on the oily, acidic and medicinal flavor characteristics. In most cases increased radiation levels were accompanied by lower intensity of orange attribute values and higher intensity of bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes. Forty three chemical compounds were characterized. Mircene, octanal, {delta}-3-carene, limonene, citronelal, and neral were highly correlated and statistically significant correlation coefficients. All these components showed low, but 95% confidence significant level correlations with the orange attribute. On the other hand the correlated group of hexanal, octanol, oxidation products, terpinene-4-ol, cis-carveol, nerol, carvona, geraniol, perilyl alcohol and cariophilene substances can be associated the bitter, medicinal and cooked attributes of the irradiated orange juice concentrate. (author). 83 refs., 7 figs., 12 tabs.

  15. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  16. Rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl-anthranilate, 2'-aminoacetophenone and furaneol by GC-MS: Method validation and characterization of grape derivatives.

    Prudêncio Dutra, Maria da Conceição; de Souza, Joyce Fagundes; Viana, Arão Cardoso; de Oliveira, Débora; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; Dos Santos Lima, Marcos

    2018-05-01

    A methodology for the rapid determination of the aromatic compounds methyl anthranilate (MA), 2'-aminoacetophenone (2-AAP) and furaneol by GC-MS was validated and used to characterize grape juice and wine elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties cultivated in northeastern Brazil, and Brazilian grape nectars. The method presented linearity (R 2  ˃ 0.9952), good accuracy (CV furaneol in the aroma of grape juice and wines elaborated with the new Brazilian grape varieties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  18. Mathematical modeling of the ethanol fermentation of cashew apple juice by a flocculent yeast: the effect of initial substrate concentration and temperature.

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; da Silva Pereira, Andréa; Barros, Emanuel Meneses; Antonini, Sandra Regina Ceccato; Cartaxo, Samuel Jorge Marques; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha B

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of initial sugar concentration and temperature on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCA008, a flocculent yeast, using cashew apple juice in a 1L-bioreactor was studied. The experimental results were used to develop a kinetic model relating biomass, ethanol production and total reducing sugar consumption. Monod, Andrews, Levenspiel and Ghose and Tyagi models were investigated to represent the specific growth rate without inhibition, with inhibition by substrate and with inhibition by product, respectively. Model validation was performed using a new set of experimental data obtained at 34 °C and using 100 g L -1 of initial substrate concentration. The model proposed by Ghose and Tyagi was able to accurately describe the dynamics of ethanol production by S. cerevisiae CCA008 growing on cashew apple juice, containing an initial reducing sugar concentration ranging from 70 to 170 g L -1 and temperature, from 26 to 42 °C. The model optimization was also accomplished based on the following parameters: percentage volume of ethanol per volume of solution (%V ethanol /V solution ), efficiency and reaction productivity. The optimal operational conditions were determined using response surface graphs constructed with simulated data, reaching an efficiency and a productivity of 93.5% and 5.45 g L -1  h -1 , respectively.

  19. ESTABILIDAD DE ANTOCIANINAS EN JUGO Y CONCENTRADO DE AGRAZ (VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW. STABILITY OF ANTHOCYANINS IN JUICE AND CONCENTRATE OF AGRAZ(VACCINIUM MERIDIONALE SW.

    José Jobanny Martínez Zambrano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la cinética de la estabilidad térmica y de almacenamiento de las antocianinas en jugo y concentrado de agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. siguiendo una cinética de primer orden. La degradación de las antocianinas con la temperatura fue modelada adecuadamente con la ecuación de Arrhenius. El efecto del pH en la estabilidad térmica de las antocianinas en los concentrados de agraz se estudió a seis diferentes valores (3,0 - 8,0 en buffer citrato-fosfato. La degradación de las antocianinas fue mayor para el jugo que para el concentrado. Una disminución significante en la estabilidad de las antocianinas del concentrado se observó a pH cercano a 5,0.The kinetics of thermal and storage stabilities of anthocyanins in agraz (Vaccinium meridionale Sw. juice and concentrate were studied with first-order reaction kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled on the Arrhenius equation. The effect of pH on thermal stability of anthocyanins in concentrate of agraz was studied at six different pHs (3.0 - 8.0 in citrate-phosphate buffer solutions. The results indicated that anthocyanins degradation was higher in juice than concentrate. A significant decrease in anthocyanin stability was observed at pHs above 5.0.

  20. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  1. Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry.

    Bindon, Keren; Varela, Cristian; Kennedy, James; Holt, Helen; Herderich, Markus

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to quantify the effects of grape maturity on wine alcohol, phenolics, flavour compounds and polysaccharides in Vitis vinifera L. cv Cabernet Sauvignon. Grapes were harvested at juice soluble solids from 20 to 26 °Brix which corresponded to a range of wine ethanol concentrations between 12% and 15.5%. Grape anthocyanin and skin tannin concentration increased as ripening progressed, while seed tannin declined. In the corresponding wines, monomeric anthocyanin and wine tannin concentration increased with harvest date, consistent with an enhanced extraction of skin-derived phenolics. In wines, there was an observed increase in yeast-derived metabolites, including volatile esters, dimethyl sulfide, glycerol and mannoproteins with harvest date. Wine volatiles which were significantly influenced by harvest date were isobutyl methoxypyrazine, C(6) alcohols and hexyl acetate, all of which decreased as ripening progressed. The implications of harvest date for wine composition is discussed in terms of both grape composition and yeast metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Sulfur SC 80% and Penconazole EW 20% Effects on Grape Powdery Mildew Disease and Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Grape

    Hossein Karbalaei Khiavi

    2017-12-01

    grape juice titration using sodium hydroxide, 1.0 M was carried out. To determine the yield of grapes per healthy and infected plants and determination of the quantity of the yield damage caused by the disease, after fruit ripening, all clusters of grapes were picked by hand and weighed. Then in each province data were transformed and statistical analysis of data using SAS software was carried out. The mean comparisons were conducted with Duncan's Multiple Range test and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD test at the 5% level. Results and Discussion: Combined analysis of variance studied traits showed that between locations in terms of severity of disease in leaves and fruits, between treatment and locations and treatment interaction in terms of severity of disease in leaves and fruits, yield there was the significant difference. Analysis of variance amounts of sugar and acid concentration in the grapes in Ardabil (Meshginshahar showed between treatments in terms of the amount of sugar and acid concentration in grape was observed the significant difference. According to the results sulfur SC 80% fungicide at concentrations of 2.5 and 3 per thousand the greatest effect in reducing the powdery mildew disease and increase yield and quality of grapes. Analysis of variance for amounts of sugar and acid levels in the grapes in Ardabil (Meshginshahar showed highly significant differences among treatments in grape sugar and acid concentration at 1% level. Comparison of means indicated that control treatment (without spraying had the highest concentration of sugar and acid. In this study, increasing the severity of the disease on the leaves and fruit tended to increased acid concentration in the fruit. In this study, the yield of the grape was decreased depending on the disease severity on the leaves and clusters. In this experiment, increasing the severity of the disease on the leaves and fruit tended to increased sugar amount. The intensity of infection was higher in

  3. A Standard Addition Method to Assay the Concentration of Biologically Interesting Polyphenols in Grape Berries by Reversed-Phase HPLC

    Serkos A. Haroutounian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A reversed-phase HPLC method which allows the simultaneous assay of (+- catechin, (–-epicatechin, trans-resveratrol, quercetin and quercetin glycosides in grape berries is described. Kromasil 100 served as stationary phase and a gradient of acetic acid, water and methanol was used. The analytical run requires 42 min for complete sample elution. Satisfactory peak resolution was achieved following a novel extraction process and direct injection of a 20 μL sample. The method was used for the analyses of eighteen samples. Linearities were in the range of 0.98 to 0.999 regression coefficient, for all phenolics, while detection limits ranged from 30 μg mL–1 for trans-resveratrol to 1.5 mg mL–1 for (+-catechin. Recoveries ranged from 95.1 to 98.7% while the method provided good precision, with standard deviations between 3.5 and 6.1%, n=5.

  4. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  5. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  6. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children...... by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self...

  7. An Overview of Stress-Induced Resveratrol Synthesis in Grapes: Perspectives for Resveratrol-Enriched Grape Products

    Mohidul Hasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is the most important stilbene phytoalexin synthesized naturally or induced in plants, as a part of their defense mechanism. Grapes and their derivative products, including juice and wine, are the most important natural sources of resveratrol, consisting of notably higher amounts than other natural sources like peanuts. Consumption of red wine with its presence of resveratrol explained the “French Paradox”. Hence, the demand of resveratrol from grapes is increasing. Moreover, as a natural source of resveratrol, grapes became very important in the nutraceutical industry for their benefits to human health. The accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, juice, and wine has been found to be induced by the external stimuli: microbial infection, ultrasonication (US treatment, light-emitting diode (LED, ultra violet (UV irradiation, elicitors or signaling compounds, macronutrients, and fungicides. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, coumaroyl-CoA ligase, and stilbene synthase play a key role in the synthesis of resveratrol. The up-regulation of those genes have the positive relationship with the elicited accumulation of resveratrol. In this review, we encapsulate the effect of different external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses or signaling compounds in order to obtain the maximum accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin, leaves, juice, wine, and cell cultures.

  8. fruit juice

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... The soursop juice without treatment (T1) was used as the control while others in .... The fruits were washed carefully under flowing tap water, peeled, cut .... hygiene, pre and post harvest wounds on processed fruits, and the ...

  9. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P

    2013-01-25

    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Ampelographic and chemical characterization of Reggio Emilia and Modena (northern Italy) grapes for two traditional seasonings: 'saba' and 'agresto'.

    Simone, Giuseppe Vasile; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Matrella, Valentina; Imazio, Serena Anna; Antonelli, Andrea; Bignami, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    'Saba' and 'agresto' are traditional Italian products both based on unfermented grape juices that are concentrated by heating. The former is obtained from ripe grapes and the latter from unripe grapes. In this work, we have characterized the main red-skinned (Ancellotta, Fortana, Lambrusco di Sorbara, Lambrusco grasparossa, Lambrusco salamino and Uva Tosca) and white-skinned (Lugliatica, Spergola, Trebbiano di Spagna and Trebbiano modenese) cultivars used for 'saba' and 'agresto' production, focusing on the variability expressed by ampelographic traits, physical and chemical parameters and anthocyanin profile. The cultivars examined were effectively discriminated on the basis of their different composition profile by analysis of variance and principal component analysis. In particular, a peculiar anthocyanin profile was traced by absolute and relative values for each cultivar. The identification of the main anthocyanins of some local cultivars, their chemical characterization and their ampelographic description were one of the main achievements of this work. The use of red grapes to obtain 'saba' seems more rational for the presence of higher amounts of antioxidant substances. Ancellotta showed several factors interesting for 'saba' production, such as the very high anthocyanin content, including anthocyanin antioxidants. A more detailed investigation on 'agresto' technology is required. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Study of the evolution of nitrogen compounds during grape ripening. application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems.

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Ancín-Azpilicueta, Carmen; Salinas, M Rosario

    2009-03-25

    The aim of this work was to study the evolution of amino acids and ammonium during grape ripening and to evaluate its application to differentiate grape varieties and cultivated systems (organic and nonorganic). For this purpose, Monastrell, Syrah, Merlot, and Petit Verdot grapes produced using conventional agriculture and Monastrell grape cultivated using organic agriculture, collected during two consecutive harvests at different stages of ripening, were studied. These years of harvest were very different climatic years; even so, the grape varieties presented similar qualitative compositions. Therefore, the percentage of amino acids at harvest moment allowed differentiation of grapes according to variety and cultivated system, regardless of the year. The nitrogen composition could allow estimation of the fermentative aroma potential of grapes. Thus, Syrah was the grape with the greatest aroma potential at harvest. Monastrell nonorganic grape had a concentration of nitrogen compounds superior to that of Monastrell organic grape. In Monastrell, Syrah, and Merlot, traditional varieties in the area, the highest concentration of nitrogen compounds coincided with the highest degrees Baume/total acidity ratio and color index during 2007. Consequently, technological and phenolic maturity of these grape varieties coincided with the maximum composition of nitrogen compounds. However, in 2008, this did not happen because grape ripening was irregular as a consequence of different climatological conditions.

  12. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  13. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit.

  14. Multilaboratory Validation of First Action Method 2016.04 for Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry.

    Kubachka, Kevin; Heitkemper, Douglas T; Conklin, Sean

    2017-07-01

    Before being designated AOAC First Action Official MethodSM 2016.04, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's method, EAM 4.10 High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometric Determination of Four Arsenic Species in Fruit Juice, underwent both a single-laboratory validation and a multilaboratory validation (MLV) study. Three federal and five state regulatory laboratories participated in the MLV study, which is the primary focus of this manuscript. The method was validated for inorganic arsenic (iAs) measured as the sum of the two iAs species arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) by analyses of 13 juice samples, including three apple juice, three apple juice concentrate, four grape juice, and three pear juice samples. In addition, two water Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed. The method LODs and LOQs obtained among the eight laboratories were approximately 0.3 and 2 ng/g, respectively, for each of the analytes and were adequate for the intended purpose of the method. Each laboratory analyzed method blanks, fortified method blanks, reference materials, triplicate portions of each juice sample, and duplicate fortified juice samples (one for each matrix type) at three fortification levels. In general, repeatability and reproducibility of the method was ≤15% RSD for each species present at a concentration >LOQ. The average recovery of fortified analytes for all laboratories ranged from 98 to 104% iAs, DMA, and MMA for all four juice sample matrixes. The average iAs results for SRMs 1640a and 1643e agreed within the range of 96-98% of certified values for total arsenic.

  15. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvement of physico-chemical properties and phenolic compounds bioavailability by concentrating dietary fiber of peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product.

    Rodríguez-González, Sarahí; Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Amaya-Llano, Silvia; Rodríguez-García, Mario E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to concentrate dietary fiber (DF) from peach (Prunus persica) juice by-product (PJBP), to improve its functional properties, and its polyphenols bioavailability. The dietary fiber concentrates (DFCs) were obtained from PJBP using water/ethanol treatments (100:0, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20, and 0:100, v/v) at 1:5 ratio (wet weight/solvent, w/v) for 5 and 20 min at 21 °C. All treatments concentrated condensed tannins, total and insoluble DF, with the highest content found with 100% H 2 O treatment. The major polyphenols of DFC were 4-O-caffeoylquinic, chlorogenic, and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acids. Water and oil retention capacity and maximum glucose diffusion rate were improved mainly with 100% H 2 O treatment. Healthy rats were fed with a standard diet supplemented with 8% of PJBP, DFC obtained with 100% H 2 O for 5 min, or DFC obtained with 20% EtOH for 5 min. Gastrointestinal digesta weight and viscosity were increased in animals supplemented with 100% H 2 O DFC. Moreover, the urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites, mainly glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, was increased with this treatment, indicating a greater bioavailability of PJBP polyphenols, which was associated with an increased dietary fiber porosity. Water treatment could be used to potentiate PJBP functional properties and polyphenols bioavailability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. A STUDY OF MICROBES IN FRUIT JUICES, KIMS-AMALAPURAM

    Nagaraja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fruit and sugarcane juices are nutritious drinks with great taste and health benefits. Food borne illnesses associated with consumption of Fruit and sugarcane juices at several places in India and elsewhere. Fruit juices were served with added ice pieces. Hygienic standards are not maintained while transporting from the field to the place of extraction and preparation. Hence a rapid review of the fruit juices from street vendors has been undertaken along with sugarcane juice. Raw sugarcane juice is a refreshing juice in many parts of Andhra Pradesh. The present study is to assess the prevalence of different organisms from different fruit juices collected from street vendors. METHODS Fruit juices are collected namely sugarcane, sweet lemon, orange, grape apple, pineapple pomegranate. A total 100 samples of fruit juices were collected from road side from different vendors. 150 ml of each variety of fruit juices were collected from different vendors in screw capped bottles and subjected to microbial analysis, processed with in 30mts in the department of microbiology at KIMS by standard methods. RESULTS The analysed samples of fruit juices are found to be contaminated with different bacteria, Escherichia coli 30% Klebsiella pneumoniae 10% Staphylococcus aureus 20% Enterococcus faecalis 04% Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10% ASB 04% (aerobic spore bearers Micrococci 02% Proteus 20% Salmonella. Shigella and Vibrios were not isolated. CONCLUSION It is high time that street vendors should have health education by volunteers, health workers from PHC (primary health centers and people well versed with community medicine practice for implementation of standard hygienic protocols may reduce contamination of fruit and sugarcane juices The concerned health authorities need to ensure and insist to follow the protocols by the vendors and license holders to the vendors.

  18. Grape Seed Extract

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  19. Effect of some nutrients on nutritional and physiological status of grape plants

    Sharaf, A.E.N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The grape is as old as that of man and is intermingled with it; details of grape growing of figure in mosaics of fourth dynasty of Egypt(2440 B.C) and later the grape as commercial crop is assuming increasing importance. In addition; grapes are the world's biggest most widespread deciduous fruit crop. About one acre in every 125 cultivated acres in the world is in grapes and one person in every 100 works in more phase of the grape and products business. About 55% of the world grape production goes into wine and about 15% into raisins. The balance is grown mainly for the table grapes, juice and other products. The vinfera grape is predominate (Chiders, 1983). According to the statistics of FAO in 1989 the total acreage of grape vine was about 8, 424, 000 hectare which produced 59, 158, 000 metric tones of fruits. Nowadays, in A.R.E, grapes are considered the second fruit in egypt. The total area increased in last few years under the new land reclamation and different soil types, its total area reached about 118826 faddans produced about 786968 metric tons according to the last statistics of the ministry of agriculture in 1994. 25 tabs., 104 refs

  20. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  1. Low dose irradiation influence on yield and quality of fruit juice

    Mitchell, G.E.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, D.J.; McLauchlan, R.L.; Nottingham, S.M.; Hammerton, K.

    1991-01-01

    Granny Smith apples, Valencia oranges, and Pearlette grapes grown in Queensland, Australia were irradiated at 0, 75, 300 and 600 Gy. Following irradiation, juice was extracted and analysed for quality and compositional changes. Irradiation treatment significantly (p0.05) decreased yield of apple juice (by 6.3% w/w at 600 Gy) and grape juice (by 4.8% w/w at 600 Gy) but did not significantly (p0.05) affect yield of orange juice (OJ). Acceptability significantly (p0.05) decreased in OJ after 600 Gy treatment. Other changes in quality and composition were minimal. Juice from irradiated apples and oranges stored at 5 degrees C for 8 wk showed similar results

  2. Dietary supplementation with apple juice concentrate alleviates the compensatory increase in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that accompanies dietary- and genetically-induced oxidative stress.

    Tchantchou, F; Graves, M; Ortiz, D; Rogers, E; Shea, T B

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can arise from dietary, environmental and/or genetic sources, contributes to the decline in cognitive performance during normal aging and in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Supplementation with fruits and vegetables that are high in antioxidant potential can compensate for dietary and/or genetic deficiencies that promote increased oxidative stress. We have recently demonstrated that apple juice concentrate (AJC) prevents the increase in oxidative damage to brain tissue and decline in cognitive performance observed when transgenic mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) are maintained on a vitamin-deficient diet and challenged with excess iron (included in the diet as a pro-oxidant). However, the mechanism by which AJC provided neuroprotection was not conclusively determined. Herein, we demonstrate that supplementation with AJC also prevents the compensatory increases in glutathione synthase transcription and activity that otherwise accompany maintenance of ApoE-/- mice on this vitamin-free diet in the presence of iron. Inclusion of the equivalent composition and concentration of sugars of AJC did not prevent these increases. These findings provide further evidence that the antioxidant potential of AJC can compensate for dietary and genetic deficiencies that otherwise promote neurodegeneration.

  3. Survey of South African fruit juices using a fast screening HILIC-MS method.

    Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F

    2013-01-01

    Adulteration of fruit juices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruit juices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruit juices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruit juice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruit juices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruit juice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruit juice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing.

  4. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  5. The effect of grape ripening stage on red wine color

    Ana Belén Bautista-Ortín

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and chromatic characteristics of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Monastrell harvested at six different degree of ripeness (from August 16 to October 24, 2002 and that of the wines obtained from these grapes have been studied. The grape anthocyanins content (mg/kg of berry fresh weight was maximum in those grapes harvested on September 11 and 16 (804.1 and 822.6 mg/kg, respectively and decreased for grapes harvested in October. However, the results showed that the grapes with the highest anthocyanin concentration did not lead to the highest colored wines. The wines elaborated from grapes harvested on October 16 (671.9 mg of anthocyanins per kg of berry fresh weight had the best chromatic characteristics and better withstood aging in the bottle; the extent of cell wall degradation in overly matured grapes probably facilitated the extraction of phenolic compounds from skins. However, the chromatic quality of wines made from grapes harvested one week later (October 24, the most mature grapes was lower than that from October 16, with lower color intensity (13%lower in the wine elaborated from grapes harvested in October 24 and a percentage of yellow color 6 % higher in this wine.

  6. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  7. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-07-14

    Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (Pjuice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals.

  8. Study of the possibility of the production of amino acid mixtures from yeast autolysates grown on the nutrient medium from grape and apple pomace

    Sardzehveladze, E.G.; Mikeladze, G.G.; Gordienko, S.B.; Belikov, V.M.; Latov, V.K.

    1980-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. ellipsoideus were grown on the juices diffused from apple and grape pomace. The amino acid composition of the yeasts was very similar to the amino acid composition of yeast grown on molasses.

  9. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  10. Effects of vegetable juice powder concentration and storage time on some chemical and sensory quality attributes of uncured, emulsified cooked sausages.

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-06-01

    Uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products can be manufactured with vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus, resulting in quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The 1st objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of emulsified-frankfurter-style-cooked (EFSC) sausages over a 90-d storage period. The 2nd objective was to compare residual nitrate and nitrite content resulting from different processing treatments and the 3rd objective was to assess sensory properties of finished products. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation (TBARS) between any TRTs and C or over time were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) for CIE L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed that TRTs 2, 4, and C were redder than TRTs 1 and 3 at day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings for cured aroma, cured color, cured flavor, uniform color, and firmness determined that all but TRT 1 were similar to C. These results indicate a longer incubation time (120 compared with 30 min) was found more critical than VJP level (0.20% or 0.40%) to result in products comparable to a sodium nitrite-added control.

  11. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  12. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  13. Clarificação e concentração de suco de caju por processos com membranas Clarification and concentration of cashew apple juice by membrane processes

    Fernando C. Cianci

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de separação por membranas têm sido estudados como alternativa aos processos térmicos de conservação de alimentos, por serem conduzidos em condições amenas de temperatura, permitindo, assim, a preservação de compostos termosensíveis como as vitaminas, por exemplo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização da microfiltração e da osmose inversa para a obtenção de suco de caju clarificado e concentrado. O processamento consistiu de três etapas principais: o tratamento enzimático do suco integral; a microfiltração para obtenção do suco clarificado; e a concentração do suco clarificado por osmose inversa. Para o tratamento enzimático, utilizou-se um complexo pectinolítico durante 1 hora. A clarificação foi conduzida em uma unidade de microfiltração tubular e, em seguida, foi utilizado um sistema de osmose inversa, do tipo quadro e placas, para concentrar o suco clarificado. Os fluxos médios de permeado obtidos foram de 184,0 e 11,3L/hm² para a microfiltração e a osmose inversa, respectivamente. Os taninos, responsáveis pela adstringência do suco, foram retidos pela membrana de microfiltração e, por isso, não foram detectados nos sucos clarificado e concentrado. O suco clarificado contendo 12,1° Brix foi concentrado até 28,6° Brix. A vitamina C aumentou de 162mg/100g no suco clarificado para 372mg/100g, no concentrado.Membrane separation processes have been studied as alternatives to heat processes due to their characteristics being conducted at low temperatures, permitting the preservation of heat sensitive compounds such as vitamins. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of microfiltration and reverse osmosis for obtaining clarified and concentrated cashew apple juice. Processing consisted of three main stages that were an enzymatic treatment of the pulp, microfiltration for obtaining the clarified juice and concentration of clarified juice by reverse osmosis. A

  14. Differentiation of Vitis vinifera varieties by MALDI-MS analysis of the grape seed proteins.

    Pesavento, Ivana Chiara; Bertazzo, Antonella; Flamini, Riccardo; Vedova, Antonio Dalla; De Rosso, Mirko; Seraglia, Roberta; Traldi, Pietro

    2008-02-01

    Until now the study of pathogenic related proteins in grape juice and wine, performed by ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS, and MALDI/MS, has been proposed for differentiation of varieties. In fact, chitinases and thaumatin-like proteins persist through the vinification process and cause hazes and sediments in bottled wines. An additional instrument, potentially suitable for the grape varieties differentiation, has been developed by MALDI/MS for the grape seed protein analysis. The hydrosoluble protein profiles of seeds extract from three different Vitis vinifera grape (red and white) varieties were analyzed and compared. In order to evaluate the environmental conditions and harvest effects, the seed protein profiles of one grape variety from different locations and harvests were studied. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products

    Tabita Aguilar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside and phenolic acids (caftaric acid were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits.

  16. Electronic tongue response to chemicals in orange juice that change concentration in relation to harvest maturity and citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease

    In an earlier study, the electronic tongue system (etongue) was used to differentiate between orange juice made from healthy fruit and from fruit affected by the citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease. This study investigated the reaction of an etongue system to the main chemicals in orange ...

  17. Combination Chemoprevention with Grape Antioxidants

    Singh, Chandra K.; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A.; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resver...

  18. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults.

    Novotny, Janet A; Baer, David J; Khoo, Christina; Gebauer, Sarah K; Charron, Craig S

    2015-06-01

    Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively. Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment × baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 ± 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 ± 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 ± 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 ± 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 ± 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 ± 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 ± 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035). LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684. © 2015

  20. A Comparison of Total Antioxidant Capacities of Concord, Purple, Red, and Green Grapes Using the CUPRAC Assay

    Connor M. Callaghan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering how popular grapes are in terms of their antioxidant benefits, we compared concord, purple, red, and green grapes for total antioxidant capacity (TAC and carbohydrate concentration. All grapes were acquired from commercial sources and samples of each were separated into skinned and not skinned groups. Each whole grape and the skins were individually homogenized and then separated into pulp and supernatant fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for total TAC and carbohydrates. The concord grapes and purple grapes had significantly higher TAC in the homogenates than did the red or green grapes. The concord grapes and green grapes had significantly higher TAC in the pulp than in the cytosol whereas the red and purple grapes had approximately the same amount. The majority of the TAC of the purple and red grapes was in the skin whereas the concord and green grapes had approximately the same TAC in the skin and pulp. The concord and purple grapes had the highest TAC when compared to the red and green grapes, whereas the red and green grapes had approximately the same total TAC.

  1. A screening method based on UV-Visible spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices.

    Boggia, Raffaella; Casolino, Maria Chiara; Hysenaj, Vilma; Oliveri, Paolo; Zunin, Paola

    2013-10-15

    Consumer demand for pomegranate juice has considerably grown, during the last years, for its potential health benefits. Since it is an expensive functional food, cheaper fruit juices addition (i.e., grape and apple juices) or its simple dilution, or polyphenols subtraction are deceptively used. At present, time-consuming analyses are used to control the quality of this product. Furthermore these analyses are expensive and require well-trained analysts. Thus, the purpose of this study was to propose a high-speed and easy-to-use shortcut. Based on UV-VIS spectroscopy and chemometrics, a screening method is proposed to quickly screening some common fillers of pomegranate juice that could decrease the antiradical scavenging capacity of pure products. The analytical method was applied to laboratory prepared juices, to commercial juices and to representative experimental mixtures at different levels of water and filler juices. The outcomes were evaluated by means of multivariate exploratory analysis. The results indicate that the proposed strategy can be a useful screening tool to assess addition of filler juices and water to pomegranate juices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  3. Antioxidant activity of polyphenol-enriched apple juice

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that it is possible to improve antioxidant activity of apple juice by extraction of polyphenolic compounds from apple pomace, as waste, and their addition to the apple juice. Raw apple juice was prepared by pressing of apple mash. After thermal treatment of raw apple juice, depectinisation, additional clarification and filtration, the clarified juice was obtained. In raw and clarified apple juice soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars and brown component content were determined, as well as total dry matter, ash, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugars, total pectins, cellulose and starch content in apple mash and pomace. The total cotent of phenolics in clarified apple juice and apple pomace extract, determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent, was 0.496 mg/ml and 6.505 mg/g, respectively. The antioxidant activity of clarified and polyphenol-enriched clarified juice (with addition of apple pomace extract in the concentrations 0.05 g, 0.1 g, 0.5 g and 1 g of phenolic compounds per liter of clarified apple juice was examined on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that polyphenol-enriched clarified juice was more effective on DPPH radicals than the clarified apple juice.

  4. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  6. Oleate functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as sorbent for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in juices

    Pérez, Rosa Ana; Albero, Beatriz; Tadeo, José Luis; Sánchez -Brunete, Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic oleate-coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were applied to the extraction of PCBs from fruit juices that were quantified by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Two methods were evaluated: The first method involves a two-step procedure that combines dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with dispersive micro-solid phase extraction, and the second one involves magnetic solid-phase extraction (mSPE) carried out in a single step. The mSPE procedure is shown to be more sensitive, and therefore, it was optimized and applied to the analysis of PCBs in juices. The detection limits for all target PCBs are below 6 ng∙L −1 for apple juice, and 3 ng∙L −1 for grape juice. The enrichment factor is 125. Analysis of spiked fruit juice samples gave relative recoveries higher than 70 % for all PCBs except for PCB28 and PCB52. (author)

  7. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    2012-08-27

    ... standards in order to encourage uniformity and consistency in commercial practices.'' AMS is committed to... Grapefruit Juice. The petitioner requested the removal of the maximum limit for ``free and suspended pulp... concentrate, grapefruit juice, and frozen concentrated grapefruit juice establish limits for maximum free and...

  9. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  11. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  12. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-01-01

    that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  13. Grape juice, berries and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD). A recent report has indicated that individuals who consumed a diet containing 2.5 servings of fruit and vegetables/day...

  14. Sensory attributes and acceptance of commercial grape juices

    Pontes, Pamella Rio Branco; Santiago, Savanna Santos; Szabo, Tatiana Nogueira; Toledo, Luciana Passos; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago

    2010-01-01

    O suco de uva contém compostos fenólicos em quantidades importantes e, portanto, seu consumo é desejável como aporte de substâncias antioxidantes naturais. Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar os atributos sensoriais e avaliar a aceitação de sucos de uva comerciais. Foram analisados três tipos de suco de uva comercializados no Brasil: suco integral, suco concentrado e néctar. Utilizaram-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa modificada e o Teste de Aceitação com escala hedônica estruturada d...

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of apple juice containing enzyme preparations

    Prestes, Rosilene A.; Almeida, Denise Milleo; Barison, Andersson; Pinheiro, Luis Antonio; Wosiacki, Gilvan

    2012-01-01

    In this work, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was employed to evaluate changes in apple juice in response to the addition of Panzym Yieldmash and Ultrazym AFP-L enzymatic complexes and compare it with premium apple juice. The juice was processed at different temperatures and concentrations of enzymatic complexes. The differences in the results were attributed mainly to the enzyme concentrations, since temperature did not cause any variation. A quantitative analysis indicated that the concentration of fructose increased while the concentrations of sucrose and glucose decreased in response to increasing concentrations of the enzymatic complexes. (author)

  16. Volatile compounds formation in alcoholic fermentation from grapes collected at 2 maturation stages: influence of nitrogen compounds and grape variety.

    Martínez-Gil, Ana M; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Lorenzo, Cándida; Lara, José Félix; Pardo, Francisco; Salinas, M Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the formation of volatile compounds during the alcoholic fermentation carried out with 4 nonaromatic grape varieties collected at 2 different maturation stages. To do this, Monastrell, Merlot, Syrah, and Petit Verdot grapes were collected 1 wk before harvest and at harvest. Then, the musts were inoculated with the same Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain and were fermented in the same winemaking conditions. Amino acids that showed the highest and the lowest concentration in the must were the same, regardless of the grape variety and maturation stage. Moreover, the consumption of amino acids during the fermentation increased with their concentration in the must. The formation of volatile compounds was not nitrogen composition dependent. However, the concentration of amino acids in the must from grapes collected 1 wk before harvest can be used as a parameter to estimate the concentration of esters in wines from grapes collected at harvest and therefore to have more information to know the grape oenological capacity. Application of principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the possibility to estimate the concentration of esters in the wines with the concentration of nitrogen compounds in the must. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Cadmium and lead occurrence in soil and grape from Murfatlar Vineyard

    Matei Nicoleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the pollution with heavy metals of grapes and soil. The grapes nourish from the respective soil, with all existing substances: either nutrients or toxic materials. This link, between grapes and soil, made mandatory to focus on observing the level of toxic materials in both samples grapes and land. The aim of this research is to analyze the level of Cd and Pb in Vitis vinifera L. grape fruits and soil, by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS method. The grapes and the soil used in this work were sampled from the Murfatlar City, a nonindustrial area, placed far from the car traffic pollution. Cd and Pb were quantified, after the chemical mineralization of the samples using nitric acid. It can be noticed that the values of cadmium and lead concentrations in grapes were lower than the recommendable maximum limit.

  18. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  19. Analytical characterization of some pasteurized apple juices during storage

    Damian Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the effect of three weeks of storage on the chemical and rheological properties of apple juices obtained from Idared and Jonatan apples variety. Total antioxidant activity, levels of bio-active compound groups and the viscosity were measured to characterize the investigated juices. The method applied for the determination of ascorbic acid concentration was with 2, 6-diclorophenolindophenol. Total phenols (TP in apple juices were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. The viscosity of apple juices was investigated by a rotational viscometer, Brookfield viscometer (Brookfield Engineering Inc., Model RV-DV I Prime with RV spindles. During three weeks of storage, different rates of all measured properties have been observed decreasing for both studied apples varieties juices. The juices from Jonatan apples have higher antioxidant activities that are correlated with the higher content in polyphenols and lower values of viscosity.

  20. Research on the Influencing Factors of China Apple Juice Trade

    Du Juan

    2013-01-01

    China is the first country in the world in which apple juice is produced and exited and the main producing area is concentrated in the north of China. Some domestic companies which export apple juice are founded. China’s apple juice, mainly exported to USA, Japan and the Europe, has a strong international competitiveness. However, due to the breed and raw material, Chinese apple juice export faces some challenge, like the loss happening in the transport process. The objective of this study is...

  1. Wound-healing activity of the skin of the common grape (Vitis Vinifera) variant, Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Ramdath, D Dan; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin N; Eversley, Mathew; Xue, Sophia; Shi, John

    2010-08-01

    The common Grape L. (Vitaceae) is regarded as an important medicinal plant. European healers have suggested the use of grapevine sap, juice, and whole grape in the treatment of pain, allergic reactions, inflammation, and to promote wound healing. We evaluated grape-skin powder for its wound-healing activity using an excision wound model in rats. Animals were randomly divided into three groups of six (n = 6) each. The test group animals were treated topically with the grape-skin powder (100 mg/kg/day). The controls and standard group animals were treated with petroleum jelly and mupirocin ointment respectively. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and hydroxyproline content. On day 13, treatment of the wounds with grape-skin powder enhanced significantly the rate of wound contraction (100 %). Treated animals showed significant decrease in the epithelialization period (p < 0.000) and increase in the hydroxyproline content (p < 0.05) when compared to control and the standard. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that grape-skin powder exhibits significant wound-healing potential. Increased rate of wound contraction, hydroxyproline content, and decrease in epithelialization time in the treated animals support the use of grape-skin powder in the management of wound healing. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Grapevine yield components and composition of Isabel grape produced according to the organic and conventional systems

    Miele Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for organic grapes by the juice industry of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil. This region presents a humid and hot summer, ideal climatic conditions for the development of a number of diseases. To control such diseases and problems brought about by other organisms, growers apply pesticides on the grapevines which may leave residues in grapes. However, in general, grapes produced by organic system have lower yield, but there is a lack of research data on this subject. Thus, an experiment was carried out over three years in order to compare the yield components and the physicochemical composition of the must of Isabel grapes conducted in both production systems. When the grapes were ripe, variables related to yield components were evaluated, such as the number of clusters/vine, yield/vine and weight/cluster. Then the grapes were sampled and taken to the laboratory where they were crushed and the musts were centrifuged and analyzed. The 3-year data mean were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The results show that conventional grapevines produced 2.18 times more than organic. However, the grapes from the organic system had higher density, Brix, pH, Brix/titratable acidity ratio, P and Mg but lower K, and Ca varied little between both production systems.

  3. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Otimização no planejamento agregado de produção em indústrias de processamento de suco concentrado congelado de laranja Optimization in the aggregate production planning in frozen concentrated orange juice processing industry

    José Renato Munhoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentam-se modelos de programação linear e programação por metas para apoiar decisões no processo de planejamento agregado da produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja, com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos. Além das decisões de produção, mistura e estocagem de sucos, os modelos também incorporam o planejamento de colheita da laranja, levando-se em consideração suas curvas de maturação. Desta maneira, os modelos consideram grande parte da cadeia de suprimento envolvida no setor de produção de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Outro ponto a destacar é a consideração do processo de mistura de diferentes tipos de sucos para a obtenção da especificação de ratio do produto acabado, utilizando a acidez da laranja como base de cálculo para a especificação de ratio. Para resolver os modelos de programação linear e programação por metas, utilizou-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um aplicativo de última geração de solução de problemas de programação matemática. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma empresa de suco de laranja localizada no Estado de São Paulo, envolvendo várias plantas e com uma rede de distribuição internacional com características típicas de outras empresas do setor. Os resultados indicam que a abordagem aqui proposta pode ser aplicada em situações reais.This work presents models using linear programming and goal programming to support decision making in the frozen concentrated orange juice planning process with multiple products, stages, and periods. Besides decisions about the production, blending, and juice storage, the models also include orange harvesting plan, which takes into account oranges maturation curves. Thus, the models take into consideration a large portion of the supply chain involved in the frozen concentrated orange juice sector. Another point to highlight is the inclusion of the blending process of different types of

  5. Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production

    ESHMATOV FOZIL KHIDIROVICH; MAKSUMOVA DILRABO KUCHKAROVNA; DODAEVA LAYLO KUCHKAROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of acidity and reduction of turbidity in the clarified pomegranate juice production. From sour varieties of pomegranates may obtain normal natural pomegranate juice by anion-exchange resin. There are determined problems quantity of precipitate and unstable color in the pomegranate juice and concentrate by experimentally.

  6. Influence of manganese fertilizer on efficiency of grapes on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic

    Batukaev A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the studies, there has been obtained new information about the manganese influence on productivity of grape plantations, on sandy soils of the Chechen Republic. Manganese fertilizing of 4 kg active ingredient per 1 ha, against the background of nitrogen 90 kg, phosphorus 90 kg and potassium 90 kg/ha, made it into a phase of grape sap flow, which contributes to higher yields, increase of the sugar content of the berries and a significant decrease in juice acidity, in comparison with other options.

  7. Effect of temperature, water activity, and pH on growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus carbonarius from Brazilian grapes.

    Passamani, Fabiana Reinis Franca; Hernandes, Thais; Lopes, Noelly Alves; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Santiago, Wilder Douglas; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-11-01

    The growth of ochratoxigenic fungus and the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and their derivatives can be caused by a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological factors. The determination of interactions between these factors and fungal species from different climatic regions is important in designing models for minimizing the risk of OTA in wine and grape juice. This study evaluated the influence of temperature, water activity (aw), and pH on the development and production of OTA in a semisynthetic grape culture medium by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger strains. To analyze the growth conditions and production of OTA, an experimental design was conducted using response surface methodology as a tool to assess the effects of these abiotic variables on fungal behavior. A. carbonarius showed the highest growth at temperatures from 20 to 33°C, aw between 0.95 and 0.98, and pH levels between 5 and 6.5. Similarly, for A. niger, temperatures between 24 and 37°C, aw greater than 0.95, and pH levels between 4 and 6.5 were optimal. The greatest toxin concentrations for A. carbonarius and A. niger (10 μg/g and 7.0 μg/g, respectively) were found at 15°C, aw 0.99, and pH 5.35. The lowest pH was found to contribute to greater OTA production. These results show that the evaluated fungi are able to grow and produce OTA in a wide range of temperature, aw, and pH. However, the optimal conditions for toxin production are generally different from those optimal for fungal growth. The knowledge of optimal conditions for fungal growth and production of OTA, and of the stages of cultivation in which these conditions are optimal, allows a more precise assessment of the potential risk to health from consumption of products derived from grapes.

  8. Microbiological testing and physical and chemical analysis of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water
    Avaliação microbiológico e caracterização físico-quimica de refrescos e água de coco

    F. B. PILÓ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water sold for immediate consumption in bars, restaurants and bakeries, and by street vendors in Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil. Microbial quality was determined by counting coliforms, yeasts, staphylococci and salmonellae. Total titratable acidity, pH and total soluble solids of these beverages were recorded. For coconut water samples, the total reducing sugar content was also determined. The “juices” collected included reconstituted orange, cashew and grape-fl avored juice powders and concentrated cashew juice. Sixty samples of these juices and 45 of coconut water were collected. More than half (55% of the juice samples did not comply with current Brazilian legislation, which states that there must be a total absence of coliforms in a 50 mL sample. Sixteen percent of the coconut water samples exceeded the bacterial count limits defi ned in Brazilian law, with thermotolerant coliform densities above 102 MPN / mL. The high levels of sugar and low pH found in the coconut water were possibly related to the high yeast counts in most samples. Forty-seven percent of coconut water samples showed staphylococcal counts above 103 CFU/mL. The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, yeasts and staphylococci found suggest unsatisfactory hygienic practices during the preparation of these beverages. Salmonellae were not detected in any of the samples. The physical and chemical properties of the drinks varied among the samples. Our results suggest that both the reconstituted juices and coconut waters need better hygienic and sanitary control.

  9. Melhoramento da videira Grape breeding in Brazil

    José Ribeiro Almeida Santos Neto

    1955-01-01

    types 'that proved valuable. In the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, grape breeding work was initiated in 1943 by the Section of Viticulture. The grape breeding program of the Section of Viticulture aimed at obtaining improved varieties for rootstocks, for fresh fruit and raisin consumption, and also for the making of wines and juice. Besides the specific qualities required for each different use, the types to be selected had to be well adapted to local environmental conditions, present resistance to insect pests and diseases, and also be resistant to handling and shipping. The basic material used in the improvement program consisted of the collection of grape varieties of the Instituto Agronômico that included many European and American standard varieties, supplemented by new and wild types imported from North and Central America. In this program special attention is being given to the production of seedless types and to hybrids between standard European and American varieties and the wild species, Vitis gigas and V. tilixfolia. Results already obtained are very encouraging and indicated that some of the new types are very good as rootstocks, whereas others are excellent for table uses or for wine or juice making.

  10. Influence of kinnow juice on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in healthy male volunteers.

    Garg, S K; Bhargava, V K; James, H; KuJan-Mar, N; Prabhakar, S; Naresh, Ku

    1998-01-01

    Kinnow juice produces a marked and variable increase in carbamazepine bioavailability. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine was studied after drug administration with 300 ml water or kinnow juice in a randomized cross over trial on nine healthy male volunteers. With kinnow juice peak serum concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC) was significantly (P kinnow juice enhances carbamazepine bioavailability could be due to inhibition of cytochrome P-450 enzyme, since kinnow juice contains naringin which is considered to be inhibitor of liver microsomal dihydropyridine oxidation.

  11. Effect of alcoholic fermentation on the quality of grape brandies

    Vukosavljević Vera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape brandy is a product obtained by fermentation and distillation of crushed grapes of cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera. Grape brandy quality depends on many factors such as: grapevine varieties, climate, soil, time and method of distillation, storage methods and other distillates. The grapevine variety 'Neoplanta' grown in the experimental field of the PD 'Center for Viticulture and Enology' in Niš was used in the experiment. Tests were performed in the laboratory of the Centre. Healthy grapes of harvest maturity were squashed by a stalk-removing electric crusher. Fermentation was performed in plastic containers in the presence of the indigenous microflora of wine yeasts. This paper presents the influence of pH and inorganic nitrogen added to the fermentation medium on the content of volatile components and concentrations of higher alcohols.

  12. 6'7'-Dihydroxybergamottin contributes to the grapefruit juice effect.

    Kakar, Shefali M; Paine, Mary F; Stewart, Paul W; Watkins, Paul B

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the contribution of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) to the inhibitory effect of grapefruit juice toward intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. An aqueous extract was prepared from grapefruit juice by centrifugation, filtration, and repeated washing of the particulate with water. The concentrations of various furanocoumarins in this grapefruit juice "serum" and in whole grapefruit juice were measured by HPLC and their identities confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Five healthy volunteers were given a single tablet of felodipine (10 mg) with whole grapefruit juice, orange juice-containing serum, or plain orange juice (control). The pharmacokinetic outcomes of felodipine were evaluated by noncompartmental methods. The effects of serum and purified DHB (at the same concentrations as those measured in the orange juice-containing serum used in the clinical study) were compared, in vitro, with regard to (1) the reversible and mechanism-based inhibition of the catalytic activity of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid-expressed CYP3A4 and (2) the time-dependent loss of immunoreactive CYP3A4 protein in modified Caco-2 cells. The concentration of DHB in serum was comparable to that measured in whole grapefruit juice (38 micromol/L versus 43 micromol/L), and the concentrations of other known furanocoumarins were well below the lowest published concentration required to inhibit catalytic activity by 50%. Relative to plain orange juice, orange juice-containing serum significantly increased the median felodipine area under the plasma concentration-time curve by 1.9-fold (P =.04) and increased the maximum concentration by 1.7-fold (P =.01). In vitro, serum and purified DHB had similar inhibitory effects toward CYP3A4 activity with respect to both reversible inhibition (95% confidence interval, 85% +/- 5.7% and 75% +/- 4.5%, respectively) and mechanism-based inhibition after a 15-minute preincubation (95% confidence interval, 79

  13. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste (Pyogurt. PMID:28078255

  14. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Yogurt Supplemented with Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Juice.

    Nguyen, Linh; Hwang, Eun-Sun

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of yogurt supplemented with 1%, 2%, and 3% aronia juice and fermented for 24 h at 37°C. The total acidity increased with increasing levels of aronia juice and incubation time. Lightness and yellowness of the yogurt decreased, but redness increased, with increasing aronia juice content and incubation time. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased with increased incubation time, and yogurt containing 2% and 3% aronia juice showed higher LAB counts than 1% aroinia juice-supplemented yogurt. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. Antioxidant activity of aronia-containing yogurt was significantly higher than that of the control and increased proportionally with aronia juice concentration. Yogurt with 2% aronia juice had the best taste ( P antioxidant potential of yogurt.

  15. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    Renato Marcio dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in order to make possible selection of all interveners involved in the chain. The study using the Social Network Analysis (SNA showed that the densest relationships in the network are from exporters to importers and from orange growers to the orange processing industry. No difference was found in the values of the network geodesic distance or the clustering coefficients from 2005 to 2009. The degree of centrality increased steadily throughout the years indicating that the processing industry attempts to minimize the risks by centralizing the actions. A decrease in export of orange juice from 2007 (2.07 10(6 t to 2008 (2.05 10(6 t was found, probably due to the world's financial crisis with recovery in 2009. Since 2004, there has been an increase of nearly 10% per year in the market preference of concentrate juice (OFCJ when compared to the "not from concentrated" juice (NFC. Nowadays the NFC market represents nearly 50% of all Brazilian export which impacted in the logistic distribution and transportation issues.

  16. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. LC-MS/MS and UPLC-UV evaluation of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins during rabbiteye blueberry juice processing

    Blueberry juice processing includes multiple steps and each affect the chemical composition of the berries, including thermal degradation of anthocyanins. Not from concentrate juice was made by heating and enzyme processing blueberries before pressing followed by ultrafiltration and pasteurization. ...

  18. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Comparison of Flavour and Volatile Flavour Compounds of Mixed Elderberry Juices

    Eva Vítová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to find the best composition for fruit drink based on elderberries with optimal flavour characteristics. For this purpose elderberry juice was mixed with various fruit juices (grape, black currant, apple, orange, carrot in various ratios, flavour was evaluated sensorially and instrumentally as the content of aroma compounds. Five flavour characteristics (sweet, acid/sour, bitter, astringent, characteristic elderberry, off-flavour, odour, texture (mouth-feel, colour and overall acceptability were evaluated sensorially using scale. Aroma compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction and assessed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The significant differences (P < 0.05 in flavour were found between samples, which could be explained by differences in their volatile profiles. In total 57 compounds were identified in fruit juices and included 20 alcohols, 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 7 acids, 7 esters and 5 other compounds. Alcohols were quantitatively the most important group of all juices. The grape-elderberry juice, in optimum ratio 7:3 (70% v/v of elderberry, was proposed for practical use owing to the pleasant sweetish, elderberry flavour, and excellent other sensory characteristics.

  20. Integrative Inferences on Pattern Geometries of Grapes Grown under Water Stress and Their Resulting Wines

    Hsieh, Fushing; Hsueh, Chih-Hsin; Heitkamp, Constantin; Matthews, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Multiple datasets of two consecutive vintages of replicated grape and wines from six different deficit irrigation regimes are characterized and compared. The process consists of four temporal-ordered signature phases: harvest field data, juice composition, wine composition before bottling and bottled wine. A new computing paradigm and an integrative inferential platform are developed for discovering phase-to-phase pattern geometries for such characterization and comparison purposes. Each phas...

  1. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  2. Effect of grape bunch sunlight exposure and UV radiation on phenolics and volatile composition of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir wine.

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard; Wang, Hua; Dambergs, Bob; Sparrow, Angela; Qian, Michael C

    2015-04-15

    The effect of canopy leaf removal and ultraviolet (UV) on Pinot noir grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Limited basal leaf removal in the fruit zone was conducted, compared to shaded bunches. The UV exposure was controlled using polycarbonate screens to block UV radiation, and acrylic screens to pass the UV. The results showed that bunch sunlight and UV exposure significantly increased the Brix and pH in the grape juice, and increased substantially wine colour density, anthocyanins, total pigment, total phenolics and tannin content. Bunch sunlight and UV exposure affected terpene alcohols, C13-norisprenoids and other volatile composition of the wine differently. Sunlight exposure and UV resulted in increase of nerol, geraniol and citronellol but not linalool. Sunlight exposure slightly increased the concentration of β-ionone, but the increase was not statistically significant for UV treatment. Neither sunlight nor UV treatment showed any impact on the concentration of β-damascenone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino Acid Composition of Grape Cultivars ( Vitis Spp.) in Japan

    Shiraishi, Shin-ichi; 白石, 眞一

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of free amino acids and other chemical constituents in 75 grape cultivars at maturity were examined. The amino acid concentrations were found to be in decreasing order of arginine, proline, threonine and alanine in Vitis vinifera cultivars and alanine, arginine, threonine and proline in Vitis labmsca cultivars. The concentration of total amino acid was 5,083 ,umol in ‘Campbell Early’ and 3,391 pmol in ‘Yates’, both Vitis labrusca and table grapes. The amounts of total amino ...

  4. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely use...... processes in the wine industry.......Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...

  5. Combination chemoprevention with grape antioxidants.

    Singh, Chandra K; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; El-Abd, Sabah; Mukhtar, Hasan; Ahmad, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant ingredients present in grape have been extensively investigated for their cancer chemopreventive effects. However, much of the work has been done on individual ingredients, especially focusing on resveratrol and quercetin. Phytochemically, whole grape represents a combination of numerous phytonutrients. Limited research has been done on the possible synergistic/additive/antagonistic interactions among the grape constituents. Among these phytochemical constituents of grapes, resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins (cyanidin and malvidin) constitute more than 70% of the grape polyphenols. Therefore, these have been relatively well studied for their chemopreventive effects against a variety of cancers. While a wealth of information is available individually on cancer chemopreventive/anti-proliferative effects of resveratrol and quercetin, limited information is available regarding the other major constituents of grape. Studies have also suggested that multiple grape antioxidants, when used in combination, alone or with other agents/drugs show synergistic or additive anti-proliferative response. Based on strong rationale emanating from published studies, it seems probable that a combination of multiple grape ingredients alone or together with other agents could impart 'additive synergism' against cancer. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of continuous ohmic heating to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice.

    Lee, S-Y; Sagong, H-G; Ryu, S; Kang, D-H

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different treatment times. The temperature of the samples increased with increasing treatment time and electric field strength. The rate of temperature change for tomato juice was higher than for orange juice at all voltage gradients applied. Higher electric field strength or longer treatment time resulted in a greater reduction of pathogens. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was reduced by more than 5 log after 60-, 90- and 180-s treatments in orange juice with 40, 35 and 30 V cm(-1) electric field strength, respectively. In tomato juice, treatment with 25 V cm(-1) for 30 s was sufficient to achieve a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7. Similar results were observed in Salm. Typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. The concentration of vitamin C in continuous ohmic heated juice was significantly higher than in conventionally heated juice (P pasteurize fruit and vegetable juices in a short operating time and that the effect of inactivation depends on applied electric field strengths, treatment time and electric conductivity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Biocontrol ability and action mechanismof Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina isolated from wine musts against grey mold disease agent Botrytis cinerea on grape and their effects on alcoholic fermentation

    Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold is one of the most important diseases of grapevine in temperate climates. This plant pathogen affects plant growth and reduces wine quality. The use of yeasts as biocontrol agents to apply in the vineyard have been investigated in recent years as an alternative to agrochemicals. In this work, fermenting musts obtained from overripe grape berries, therefore more susceptible to infection by fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea, were considered for the selection of yeasts carrying antifungal activity. Thirty-six isolates were identified as Starmerella bacillaris, a species recently proven to be of enological interest. Among them 14 different strains were studied and antifungal activity against B. cinerea was demonstrated, for the first time, to be present in S. bacillaris species. The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, tested in vitro, was found to be the main responsible of S. bacillaris antifungal effects. All the strains were able to reduce B. cinerea decay on wounded grape berries artificially inoculated with gray mold. The colonization level of wound was very high reaching, after five days, a concentration of 106 cells per ml of grape juice obtained after berry crushing. At this cell concentration S. bacillaris strains were used to ferment synthetic and natural musts. The sequential yeast inoculation, performed by adding S. cerevisiae 48 h after S. bacillaris, was needed to complete sugar consumption and determined a significant increase in glycerol content and a reduction of ethanol and acetic acid concentrations.The high wound colonization ability, found in this work, together with the propensity to colonize grape berry and the interesting enological traits possessed by the selected S. bacillaris strains allow the use of this yeast as biocontrol agent on vine and grape berries with possible positive effects on must fermentation, although the presence of S. cerevisiae is needed to complete the fermentation process

  8. Study of flavour compounds from orange juices by HS-SPME and GC-MS

    Schmutzer, G.; Avram, V.; Covaciu, F.; Feher, I.; Magdas, A.; David, L.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The flavour of the orange juices, which gives the taste and odour of the product, is an important criterion about the products quality for consumers. A fresh single strength and two commercial orange juices (obtained from concentrate) flavour profile were studied using a selective and sensitive gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analytical system, after a solvent free, single step preconcentration and extraction technique, the headspace solid phase microextraction (HP-SPME). In the studied orange juices 55 flavour compounds were detected and classified as belonging to the esters, alcohols, ketones, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes chemical families. The fresh single strength orange juice was characterized by high amount of esters, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Limonene and valencene were the most abundant flavours in this fresh natural orange juice. Alcohols and ketones were found in higher concentration in the commercial orange juices made from concentrate, than in the single strength products. Nevertheless, in commercial juices the most abundant flavour was limonene and α-terpineol. The results highlight clear differences between fresh singles strength orange juice and juice from concentrate. The orange juices reconstructed from concentrate, made in Romania, present low quantity of flavour compounds, suggesting the absence or a low rearomatization process, but extraneous components were not detected.

  9. PTR-MS monitoring of volatiles fingerprint evolution during grape must cooking

    Dimitri, G.; Ruth, van S.M.; Sacchetti, G.; Piva, G.; Alewijn, M.; Arfelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of volatiles during grape must concentration upon cooking. The evolution of the volatiles fingerprint of grape must heated at 80, 90, and 100 °C was studied by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass

  10. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  11. Composition of apple juice.

    Mattick, L R; Moyer, J C

    1983-09-01

    Thirty-one samples from 8 geographic growing regions of the United States and 15 varieties common to these areas were converted to apple juice and analyzed for their attributes over the 3 year period 1979, 1980, and 1981. The total of 93 samples were analyzed for ash, brix, pH, proline, specific gravity, total acid, sorbitol, sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The elements cadmium, calcium, iron, lead, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc were also determined. These data are presented to serve as a data base for the detection of fraudulent or adulterated apple juice.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia cv. Noble) juice pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column.

    Uzdevenes, Chad G; Gao, Chi; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Yagiz, Yavuz; Gu, Liwei

    2018-03-24

    Muscadine grape pomace, a by-product of juicing and wine-making, contains significant amounts of anthocyanin 3,5-diglucosides, known to be beneficial to human health. The objective of this research was to use mathematical modeling to investigate the adsorption/desorption characteristics of these anthocyanins from muscadine grape pomace on Amberlite FPX66 resin in a fixed bed column. Anthocyanins were extracted using hot water and ultrasound, and the extracts were loaded onto a resin column at five bed depths (5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm) using three flow rates (4, 6 and 8 mL min -1 ). It was found that adsorption on the column fitted the bed depth service time (BDST) model and the empty bed residence time (EBRT) model. Desorption was achieved by eluting the column using ethanol at four concentrations (25, 40, 55 and 70% v/v) and could be described with an empirical sigmoid model. The breakthrough curves of anthocyanins fitted the BDST model for all three flow rates with R 2 values of 0.983, 0.992 and 0.984 respectively. The EBRT model was successfully employed to find the operating lines, which allow for column scale-up while still achieving similar results to those found in a laboratory operation. Desorption with 40% (v/v) ethanol achieved the highest recovery rate of anthocyanins at 79.6%. The mathematical models established in this study can be used in designing a pilot/industrial- scale column for the separation and concentration of anthocyanins from muscadine juice pomace. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of lycopene beta-carotene concentrations in carotenoid mixtures of the extracts from tomatoes, papaya and orange juice

    Hammed, M.A.; Bello, I.A.; Oladoye, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive spectrophotometric equation model for the simultaneous determination of lycopene and Beta-carotene concentrations in a mixture of carotenoids is proposed. Lycopene could be exclusively determined (with the relative accuracy of more than 95%) using the absorbance data at 502 nm. Because quantifying the Beta-carotene concentration in a carotenoid minture using the sole absorbance at 450 nm is prone to error, an equation to determine the concentration of this compound from the absorbances data at two wavelengths was modeled. Using the modeled equations to re-check the molar absorptivity of lycopene at 472 nm, the value obtained was about 98% close to the value reported in literature. The relative accuracy of the predicted concentrations of two carotenoids using the modeled equations is a function of the ratio of these carotenoids in the samples. (author)

  14. Prunus fruit juices

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The juice drinks obtained from Prunus fruit species, apricot (Prunus armeniaca), cherry (sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)), peach (Prunus persica), and plum (Prunus domestica), are gaining increasing interest as a convenient alternative to fresh fruits. The conventional

  15. Determination of boron in natural water and products derived from grape using an automated flow injection analysis system with piezoelectric detection

    Jesus, Dosil P. de; Saito, Renata M.; Lago, Claudimir L. do

    2004-01-01

    An automated flow injection analysis system with piezoelectric detection is proposed as a sensitive and selective method for boron. The detector is an electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal coated with N-methyl-D-glucamine-modified poly(epichlorohydrin). The film ability to retain boron allows the adjustment of the linear dynamic range and the sensitivity by varying the injected sample volume. In the present work, the sample volumes were varied from 0.5 to 5.0 mL. Among several ionic species, germanate is the only one that can interfere in the method. Nevertheless, it can be eliminated by addition of sulfide to the sample. The method was successfully applied to the determination of boron concentration in samples of natural water (from 1.71 to 309 μL -1 ) and products derived from grape juice (from 2.06 to 6.21 mg L -1 ). A pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium was required due to the great amount of sugars in the grape products (author)

  16. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  17. Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.

    Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

    1978-10-01

    Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

  18. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Medina-Plaza, C.; Saja, J.A. de; Fernández-Escudero, J.A.; Barajas, E.; Medrano, G.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  19. Array of biosensors for discrimination of grapes according to grape variety, vintage and ripeness

    Medina-Plaza, C. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Saja, J.A. de [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Fernández-Escudero, J.A. [Estacion Enologica de Castilla y Leon, Rueda (Spain); Barajas, E. [ITACYL, Valladolid (Spain); Medrano, G. [Bodega Cooperativa de Cigales, Valladolid (Spain); Rodriguez-Mendez, M.L., E-mail: mluz@eii.uva.es [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Engineers School, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2016-12-01

    A bioelectronic tongue based on nanostructured biosensors specific for the simultaneous detection of sugars and phenols has been developed. The array combined oxidases and dehydrogenases immobilized on a lipidic layer prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique where Glucose oxidase, D-Fructose dehydrogenase, Tyrosinase or Laccase were imbibed. A phthalocyanine was co-immobilized in the sensing layer and used as electron mediator. The array thus formed has been used to analyze grapes and provides global information about the samples while providing specific information about their phenolic and their sugar content. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) the array of voltammetric biosensors has been successfully used to discriminate musts prepared from different varieties of grapes (Tempranillo, Garnacha, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Prieto Picudo and Mencía). Differences could be also detected between grapes of the same variety and cultivar harvested in two successive vintages (2012 and 2013). Moreover, the ripening of grapes could be monitored from veraison to maturity due to the changes in their phenolic and sugar content. Using Partial Least Squares (PLS-1) analysis, excellent correlations have been found between the responses provided by the array of biosensors and classical parameters directly related to phenols (total polyphenol index, TPI) and sugar concentration (degree Brix) measured by chemical methods with correlation coefficients close to 1 and errors close to 0. It is also worthy to notice the good correlations found with parameters associated with the pH and acidity that can be explained by taking into account the influence of the pH in the oxidation potentials of the phenols and in the enzymatic activity. This bioelectronic tongue can assess simultaneously the sugar and the phenolic content of grapes and could be used to monitor the maturity of the fruit and could be adapted easily to field analysis. - Graphical abstract: A bioelectronic tongue based on

  20. A comparative study of pH modulation and trace elements of various fruit juices on enamel erosion: An in vitro study

    S.V.S.G Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruit juices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruit juices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruit juices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic.

  1. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  2. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  3. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Aleksieva, K.I.; Dimov, K.G.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2014-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation. - Highlights: • The EPR analysis of juices, nectars and syrups proves that the sample has been irradiated. • Two sample preparation procedures were used. • The stability of the radiation induced EPR signals was studied over 2 months. • Application of European standards can be extended for irradiated juices and syrups

  4. Recovery of volatile fruit juice aroma compounds by membrane technology

    Bagger-Jørgensen, Rico; Meyer, Anne S.; Pinelo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3/h) on the recovery of berry fruit juice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane...... distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds by vacuum membrane distillation (VMD). The flux of SGMD increased with an increase in temperature, feed flow rate or sweeping gas flow rate. Increased temperature and feed flow rate also increased the concentration factors...... the degradation of anthocyanins and polyphenolic compounds in the juice. Industrial relevanceHigh temperature evaporation is the most widely used industrial technique for aroma recovery and concentration of juices, but membrane distillation (MD) may provide for gentler aroma stripping and lower energy consumption...

  5. Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.

    Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1998-10-01

    Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively.

  6. Effects of orange juice formulation on prebiotic functionality using an in vitro colonic model system.

    Adele Costabile

    Full Text Available A three-stage continuous fermentative colonic model system was used to monitor in vitro the effect of different orange juice formulations on prebiotic activity. Three different juices with and without Bimuno, a GOS mixture containing galactooligosaccharides (B-GOS were assessed in terms of their ability to induce a bifidogenic microbiota. The recipe development was based on incorporating 2.75g B-GOS into a 250 ml serving of juice (65°Brix of concentrate juice. Alongside the production of B-GOS juice, a control juice--orange juice without any additional Bimuno and a positive control juice, containing all the components of Bimuno (glucose, galactose and lactose in the same relative proportions with the exception of B-GOS were developed. Ion Exchange Chromotography analysis was used to test the maintenance of bimuno components after the production process. Data showed that sterilisation had no significant effect on concentration of B-GOS and simple sugars. The three juice formulations were digested under conditions resembling the gastric and small intestinal environments. Main bacterial groups of the faecal microbiota were evaluated throughout the colonic model study using 16S rRNA-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Potential effects of supplementation of the juices on microbial metabolism were studied measuring short chain fatty acids (SCFAs using gas chromatography. Furthermore, B-GOS juices showed positive modulations of the microbiota composition and metabolic activity. In particular, numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher when B-GOS juice was fermented compared to controls. Furthermore, fermentation of B-GOS juice resulted in an increase in Roseburia subcluster and concomitantly increased butyrate production, which is of potential benefit to the host. In conclusion, this study has shown B-GOS within orange juice can have a beneficial effect on the fecal microbiota.

  7. Applications of stable Isotope ratios determinations in fruit juice authentication

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Voica, Cezara; Puscas, Romulus

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Adulteration of a product consists in making it impure by fraudulent addition of a foreign or inferior substance. The result is either an alteration of the product and of its quality or a falsification. The falsification is a voluntary act with the intention of abuse. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. Vacuum concentration with aroma does not affect the chemical composition of fruit juices and therefore the determination of deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 content in waters is the most confident procedure for differentiating between a natural single strength juice and a juice rediluted from a concentrate. This technique is based on the fact that when absorbed by a plant, the rainwater or the irrigation water is fractionated by evapotranspiration, and enriched in the heavy isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) with respect to the light isotope (hydrogen and oxygen-16, respectively). It is known that climatic conditions affect the isotope content of rain waters and therefore that of fruit juices waters: the warmer climate, the higher the deuterium and oxygen-18 contents in water. Rainwater and tap water have nearly the same isotopic content and the water of fruit juices derived from concentrate by dilution with tap water has an isotopic content close to that of tap water. This makes it easy to distinguish diluted concentrates from the isotopically more enriched water of authentic single strength juice. In this study, single strength juice, in Romanian fruits, were investigated by mean of stable isotope measurements (oxygen, hydrogen and carbon) in order to offer a discussion basis for the authenticity of some fruit juices currently available on Romanian market. (authors)

  8. Composição centesimal do fruto, extrato concentrado e da farinha da uva-do-japão Chemical composition of fruit, concentrated extract and flour from "Japanese grape"

    Marlene Bampi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hovenia dulcis, mais conhecida como uva-do-japão, pertence à família Rhamnaceae, é natural da China, Japão e Coréia, sendo largamente difundida no sul do Brasil. Rica em açúcares e bem aceita para consumo humano, pode ser consumida in natura ou processada. Não há na literatura relatos de seu aproveitamento em produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal do fruto, do extrato concentrado e da farinha. Foram obtidos teores em torno de 54,08, 52,44 e 19,08g 100g-1 para umidade; 2,16, 4,09 e 4,48g 100g-1 para cinzas; 3,74, 2,77 e 5,73g 100g-1 para proteína bruta; 1,42, 0,37 e 1,82g 100g-1 para extrato etéreo; 12,56, 3,33 e 25,62g 100g-1 para fibra alimentar; 19,46, 37,34 e 42,53g 100g-1 para açúcares totais, além do valor calórico de 105,56, 165,14 e 216,09kcal 100g-1, respectivamente, em fruto, extrato concentrado e farinha. A quantificação por cromatografia líquida confirmou o conteúdo dos açúcares redutores (frutose, 6,15g 100g-1 e glicose, 6,57g 100g-1 superior ao teor de açúcares não redutores no fruto (sacarose, 3,56g 100g-1. A farinha é rica em açúcares e possui elevado teor de fibra alimentar, podendo ser utilizada como um ingrediente alternativo em produtos de panificação. Em termos sensoriais, o extrato concentrado obteve um índice de aceitabilidade de 82% entre os julgadores, apresentando bom potencial para elaboração de geleias.Hovenia dulcis, whose popular name is Japanese grape, belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, native of China, Japan and Korea, is widely distributed in southern Brazil. Rich in sugar and with good acceptance for human consumption it can be consumed fresh or processed. There are no literature reports of its use in food products. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the Japanese grape fruit, concentrated extract and flour. The contents for moisture (54.08, 52.44 e 19.08g 100g-1, ash (2.16, 4.09 e 4.48g

  9. Rapid and specific spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC methods for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits juices and in human plasma

    Arayne, M.S.; Bibi, Z.; Sultana, N.

    2009-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) is one of the most important water soluble vitamin in the human diet, present naturally in a wide range of foods, especially fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive and specific method for the determination of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) from a variety of sources like fresh fruits or from human plasma using spectrophotometric technique or by RP-HPLC. Initially, estimation of vitamin C was carried out spectrophotometrically as UV spectroscopy is a trusted technique to monitor small quantities of drugs and vitamins. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 mi cro g/mL/sup -I/. In the second procedure, we attempted to separate and quantitate ascorbic acid from fruit juices as well as from human plasma by RP-HPLC with UV detection. This has been possible because of the diversity of columns and conditions of analysis available. Chromatographic separation was successfully achieved on a pre-packed Kromasil 100, C/sub 18/ (5 macro m 25 x 0.46) column using acetonitrile water (60:40; v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/sup -min/ and effluent monitored at 265 nm. The assay was also linear over the concentration range of 0.05-100 micro g/mL/sub -1/, with recovery ranging from 99.0-100.0 % and intra and inter day CV <3 % when applied to the analysis of ascorbic acid from fruit juice available in Pakistan at the time of study Grape fruit, malta, mosami, sweetlemon, fruiter, lemon, lime, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya juice were found to be very rich in as ascorbic acid, while chikoo, pear, apricot, peach, carrot and some other fruits were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. (author)

  10. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  13. UV-blocking potential of oils and juices.

    Gause, S; Chauhan, A

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreens are commonly used to protect the body from damage caused by UV light. Some components of organic sunscreens have been shown to pass through the skin during wear which could raise toxicity concerns for these compounds. This study explores the potential for oils and fruit and vegetable juices to be substitutes for these compounds. The absorptivity of various oils (canola oil, citronella oil, coconut oil, olive oil, soya bean oil, vitamin E, as well as aloe vera) and fruit and vegetable juices (acerola, beet, grape, orange carrot, purple carrot and raspberry) was measured in vitro. The mean absorptivity was compared with FDA-approved UV absorbers to gauge the potential of the natural products. The most promising candidates were incorporated into formulations, and the UV transmittance of a 20-μm-thick film of the formulation was measured. The formulations were also imaged by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorptivity of oils was at least two orders of magnitude lower compared to the commercial UV blockers. The fruit juice powders were more effective at UV blocking but still showed an order of magnitude lower absorptivity compared to commercial UV blockers. The UV blocking from most natural oils is insufficient to obtain a significant UV protection. Formulations containing 50wt% purple carrot showed good UV-blocking capabilities and represent a promising ingredient for sunscreen and cosmetic applications. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Are Fruit Juice Categories Separable?

    Knight, Erika P.; House, Lisa; Lee, Jonq-Ying; Spreen, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Supermarket shelves are saturated with numerous varieties and brands of juice beverages. This high level of assortment has dramatically changed beverage consumption patterns and trends throughout the United States. In fact, during 2004-2005, energy and sport drinks experienced significant increases in sales, 65.9% and 20.6 %, respectively. During the same period of time, refrigerated juice sales increased a mere 2.2%, shelved non-fruit drinks decreased 0.9%, bottled juices and cocktails both ...

  15. Partial dehydration of 'Niagara Rosada' GRAPES ( Vitis labrusca L ...

    The partial dehydration of grapes after harvest and aimed wine-making, has been shown to be a process that brings increased concentration of sugar and phenolic compounds in the must, which results in the quality of the wines produced. However, the works developed so far studied the process for temperatures up to a ...

  16. Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant ...

    Effects of grape pomace and vitamin E on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, gut morphology and histopathological responses in broiler chickens. ... The secondary titer against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was increased significantly in the birds fed 10% GP and the secondary IgG concentration of birds ...

  17. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four Vitis vinifera grapes.

    Zhenchang Liang

    Full Text Available Grapes are rich in phytochemicals with many proven health benefits. Phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of twenty-four selected Vitis vinifera grape cultivars were investigated in this study. Large ranges of variation were found in these cultivars for the contents of total phenolics (95.3 to 686.5 mg/100 g and flavonoids (94.7 to 1055 mg/100 g and antioxidant activities (oxygen radical absorbance capacity 378.7 to 3386.0 mg of Trolox equivalents/100 g and peroxylradical scavenging capacity14.2 to 557 mg of vitamin C equivalents/100 g, cellular antioxidant activities (3.9 to 139.9 µmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g without PBS wash and 1.4 to 95.8 µmol of quercetin equivalents /100 g with PBS wash and antiproliferative activities (25 to 82% at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL extracts.The total antioxidant activities were significantly correlated with the total phenolics and flavonoids. However, no significant correlations were found between antiproliferative activities and total phenolics or total flavonoids content. Wine grapes and color grapes showed much higher levels of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities than table grapes and green/yellow grapes. Several germplasm accessions with much high contents of phenolics and flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity were identified. These germplasm can be valuable sources of genes for breeding grape cultivars with better nutritional qualities of wine and table grapes in the future.

  18. MUCILAGINOUS PLANTS IN THE CLARIFICATION OF SUGAR CANE JUICE

    Walter Francisco Quezada Moreno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to incorporate mucilaginous solutions in the juice clarification process as an alternative for improving the final products that are produced in the agribusiness panela in Ecuador. The study was conducted with 14 mucilaginous plants properties, five plant species: Mallow wild (Malva peruviana L., Yausabara (Pavonia sepium A. St-Hil Yausa (Abutilon famous Planch, black Cadillo (Triumfetta Lappula L and False Joaquín (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, it was obtained excellent results as clarifying agents. Three factors were assayed experimentally such as solution concentration, amount of solution added to the juice and incorporation temperature on two levels, judged by turbidity variable as a response. The results indicated that the factors tested affect significantly the juice clarification (clear and bright and the best results were achieved with turbidity (Yausabara and Yausa Malva silvestre, Falso Joaquín y Cadillo negro and with the combinations obtaining juices.

  19. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  20. Development of immunoaffinity columns for pyraclostrobin extraction from fruit juices and analysis by liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A; Mercader, Josep V; Agulló, Consuelo; Abad-Somovilla, Antonio; Abad-Fuentes, Antonio

    2011-07-29

    Pyraclostrobin belongs to a new generation of fungicides widely used to preserve high valuable crops. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies with different affinities to this modern strobilurin have been evaluated for their usefulness in the production of immunoaffinity columns suitable for the solid-phase extraction, concentration, and clean-up of residues from food commodities. Different immunosorbents were produced and characterized in terms of antibody immobilization efficiency, immunosorbent binding capacity, optimum elution conditions, and reusability. Covalent coupling of the antibodies to Sepharose-CNBr gel took place with high yield (over 90%), whereas the immunosorbent efficacy to retain the analyte (from 28 to 68%) was shown to depend on the amount and type of antibody immobilized on the support. As a matter of fact, columns prepared with the monoclonal antibody PYs5#14 were able to selectively bound up to 53 μg of pyraclostrobin per gram of beads. Acetonitrile solutions were preferred over methanolic ones for analyte elution, and some immunosorbents could be reused at least 4-6 times provided that the amount of pyraclostrobin and the volume of sample did not overload the column. Effectiveness of the selected immunoaffinity column was evidenced by the development of an extraction procedure for pyraclostrobin residues from fruit juices and further determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A concentration factor of 50 times was achieved with the developed immunoaffinity column, which eventually resulted in a limit of quantification of 0.01 mg L(-1). Finally, quantitative recoveries were obtained on apple juice and red grape must samples spiked with pyraclostrobin from 0.01 to 1 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  2. Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of the beta-adrenergic-blocking agent celiprolol.

    Lilja, Jari J; Juntti-Patinen, Laura; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-03-01

    Grapefruit juice was recently found to decrease plasma concentrations of the beta-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent celiprolol. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of celiprolol in healthy subjects. In a randomized crossover study with 2 phases and a washout of 2 weeks, 10 healthy volunteers ingested either 200 mL normal-strength orange juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On the morning of day 3, 1 hour after ingestion of 200 mL orange juice or water, each subject ingested 100 mg celiprolol with either 200 mL orange juice or water. In addition, 200 mL orange juice or water was ingested at 4, 10, 22, and 27 hours after celiprolol intake. The concentrations of celiprolol in plasma and its excretion into urine were measured up to 33 hours after its dosing. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures and heart rate were recorded up to 10 hours. Orange juice reduced the mean peak plasma concentration of celiprolol by 89% (P orange juice. Orange juice reduced the urinary excretion of celiprolol by 77% (P Orange juice substantially reduces the bioavailability of celiprolol, but the mechanism of this interaction remains to be resolved. For example, modulation of intestinal pH and of function of transporters implicated in the absorption of celiprolol may be involved. Because of the great extent of the orange juice-celiprolol interaction and a wide use of orange juice, this interaction is likely to have clinical importance in some patients, although hemodynamic consequences were not seen in young healthy subjects.

  3. Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation.

    Pearson, D A; Tan, C H; German, J B; Davis, P A; Gershwin, M E

    1999-01-01

    Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. HPLC analysis identified and quantified several classes of phenolic compounds: cinnamates, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Phloridzin and hydroxy methyl furfural were also identified. The profile of phenolic compounds varied among the juices. The range of concentrations as a percentage of total phenolic concentration was: hydroxy methyl furfural, 4-30%; phloridzin, 22-36%; cinnamates, 25-36%; anthocyanins, n.d.; flavan-3-ols, 8-27%; flavonols, 2-10%. The phenolic profile of the Red Delicious apple extracts differed from those of the juices. The range of concentrations of phenolic classes in fresh apple extracts was: hydroxy methyl furfural, n.d.; phloridzin, 11-17%; cinnamates, 3-27%; anthocyanins, n.d.-42%; flavan-3-ols, 31-54%; flavonols, 1-10%. The ability of compounds in apple juices and extracts from fresh apple to protect LDL was assessed using an in vitro copper catalyzed human LDL oxidation system. The extent of LDL oxidation was determined as hexanal production using static headspace gas chromatography. The apple juices and extracts, tested at 5 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE), all inhibited LDL oxidation. The inhibition by the juices ranged from 9 to 34%, and inhibition by RF, RW and RP was 21, 34 and 38%, respectively. Regression analyses revealed no significant correlation between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic concentration or any specific class of phenolics. Although the specific components in the apple juices and extracts that contributed to antioxidant activity have yet to be identified, this study

  4. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions.

    Liu, Di; Gao, Yuan; Li, Xiao-Xi; Li, Zheng; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2015-09-17

    This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A) and 99% (film B) invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that (E)-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E)-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  5. Attenuated UV Radiation Alters Volatile Profile in Cabernet Sauvignon Grapes under Field Conditions

    Di Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effect of attenuated UV radiation around grape clusters on the volatile profile of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. under field conditions. Grape bunches were wrapped with two types of polyester films that cut off 89% (film A and 99% (film B invisible sunlight of less than 380 nm wavelength, respectively. Solar UV radiation reaching the grape berry surface was largely attenuated, and an increase in the concentrations of amino acid-derived benzenoid volatiles and fatty acid-derived esters was observed in the ripening grapes. Meanwhile, the attenuated UV radiation significantly reduced the concentrations of fatty acid-derived aldehydes and alcohols and isoprenoid-derived norisoprenoids. No significant impact was observed for terpenes. In most case, these positive or negative effects were stage-dependent. Reducing UV radiation from the onset of veraison to grape harvest, compared to the other stages, caused a larger alteration in the grape volatile profile. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA revealed that (E-2-hexenal, 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 2-butoxyethyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, styrene, α-phenylethanol, and (Z-3-hexen-1-ol acetate were affected most significantly by the attenuated UV radiation.

  6. Grape skins (Vitis vinifera L.) catalyze the in vitro enzymatic hydroxylation of p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of grape skins to catalyze in vitro conversion of p-coumaric acid to the more potent antioxidant caffeic acid was studied. Addition of different concentrations of p-coumaric to red grape skins (Cabernet Sauvignon) resulted in formation of caffeic acid. This caffeic acid formation (Y...

  7. Optimized techniques for the extraction of grape allergens appropriate for in vivo and in vitro testing and diagnosis

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia V.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Rigby, Neil; Moren, F. Javier; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Milis, Clare; van Ree, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Standardized allergen extracts are needed for diagnosis and therapy purposes. For grapes, standardization is hampered by low protein and high tannin and pectin concentrations. The aim of the current study was to develop an optimized method for the extraction of grape proteins and possibly extend

  8. Effect of probiotics on patulin removal from synbiotic apple juice.

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara; Attar, Hosein; Alavi, Sayed Abolhasan

    2017-06-01

    Studies have reported the occurrence of the mycotoxin patulin in apple products. The aim of this study was to produce synbiotic apple juice and investigate the detoxification of patulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotic strains. The impact of seven process variables on efficiency of toxin removal was investigated using Plackett-Burman design and presence of the surface-layer proteins as binding site of probiotics to patulin was confirmed during 6 weeks of cold storage. Results showed that the removal of patulin by probiotic bacteria from apple juice depends significantly (P apple juice. In the best conditions, 91.23% of initial patulin concentration was removed from juice during 6 weeks refrigerated storage. No significant difference was observed in organoleptic properties of the synbiotic apple juice and raw sample. In the best condition reported in this study, contaminated synbiotic apple juice by patulin will be safe for consumers after the first day of probiotic inoculation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Optimization of enzymatic clarification of green asparagus juice using response surface methodology.

    Chen, Xuehong; Xu, Feng; Qin, Weidong; Ma, Lihua; Zheng, Yonghua

    2012-06-01

    Enzymatic clarification conditions for green asparagus juice were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The asparagus juice was treated with pectinase at different temperatures (35 °C-45 °C), pH values (4.00-5.00), and enzyme concentrations (0.6-1.8 v/v%). The effects of enzymatic treatment on juice clarity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity were investigated by employing a 3-factor central composite design coupled with RSM. According to response surface analysis, the optimal enzymatic treatment condition was pectinase concentration of 1.45%, incubation temperature of 40.56 °C and pH of 4.43. The clarity, juice yield, and soluble solid contents in asparagus juice were significantly increased by enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity was maintained at the level close to that of raw asparagus juice. These results indicated that enzymatic treatment could be a useful technique for producing green asparagus juice with high clarity and high-antioxidant activity. Treatment with 1.45% pectinase at 40.56 ° C, pH 4.43, significantly increased the clarity and yield of asparagus juice. In addition, enzymatic treatment maintained antioxidant activity. Thus, enzymatic treatment has the potential for industrial asparagus juice clarification. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Determination of mycotoxin profiles characteristic of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes

    Vargas Trinidad Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world grape production has increased, reaching 751 million quintals (Mql in 2013. Many Alternaria species have been studied for their ability to produce secondary metabolites in foods, some of which have toxic properties with tenu- azonic acid (TA, alternariol (AOH, alternariol methyl ether (AME being the most important ones. The aim was to determine the characteristic mycotoxin production profiles of Alternaria strains isolated from Malbec grapes in the Patagonian region of Argentina. Fifty Alternaria isolates (5 A. alternata, 5 A. arborescens and 40 A. tenuissima were analyzed for the produc- tion of mycotoxins (TA, AOH and AME in autoclaved rice media by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. All isolates were found to be producers of mycotoxins; the 100% was producer of TA (0.016–21.031 mg/kg, 98% produced AOH (0.003–0.057 mg/kg and 36% produced AME (0.001–0.133 mg/kg. Thirty-three isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. In this study, it was demonstrated a high toxigenic potential of Alternaria isolates. Although Alternaria growth on grapes has been amply demonstrated, there are few studies about the incidence their more characteristic mycotoxin sand their toxicogenic capac- ity determination in grapes, wines and derivatives. In addition, mycotoxins studied in this work are not regulated in oenology. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to assess the health risk due to the presence of Alternaria toxins in grapes, wine, grape juice and raisins.

  11. Genetic diversity and pectinolytic activity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere.

    Filho, M Cilião; Bertéli, M B D; Valle, J S; Paccola-Meirelles, L D; Linde, G A; Barcellos, F G; Colauto, N B

    2017-06-20

    The genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere is susceptible to environmental variations that determine the predominant carposphere microbiota. Understanding the diversity of yeasts that inhabit grape carposphere in different environments and their pectinolytic activity is a way to understand the biotechnological potential that surrounds us and help improve winemaking. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the pectinolytic activity and characterize the genetic diversity of isolated epiphytic yeasts from grape carposphere. Grapes of the Bordeaux cultivar were collected from different regions of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul States, in Brazil, and the yeasts were isolated from these grape carpospheres. Monosporic isolates were morphologically and genetically characterized on potato dextrose agar medium and by PCR-RFLP and rep-PCR (BOX-PCR) in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The index of pectinolytic activity of isolates was also evaluated estimating the ratio between the halo diameter of enzymatic degradation and the diameter of the colony when the isolates were grown in cultivation medium containing 10 g/L pectin, 5 g/L yeast extract, 15 g/L agar, 0.12% (w/v) Congo red, and pH 6.2. We observed that the grape carposphere is an environment with a great genetic diversity of epiphytic yeasts of the following genera: Cryptococcus (31.25%), Pichia (25.0%), Candida (25.0%), Dekkera (12.5%), and Saccharomyces (6.25%). The PCR-RFLP technique allowed analyzing existing polymorphism among individuals of a population based on a more restrict and evolutionarily preserved region, mostly utilized to differentiate isolates at the genus level. Approximately 33% of yeast isolates presented pectinolytic activity with potential biotechnological for wine and fruit juice production. This great genetic variability found indicated that it is a potential reservoir of genes to be applied in viniculture improvement programs.

  12. Foliar applications of iron promote flavonoids accumulation in grape berry of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot grown in the iron deficiency soil.

    Shi, Pengbao; Song, Changzheng; Chen, Haiju; Duan, Bingbing; Zhang, Zhenwen; Meng, Jiangfei

    2018-07-01

    Flavonoids are important compounds for grape and wine quality. Foliar fertilization with iron compounds has been reported to have a substantial impact on grape composition in the grapevines growing in calcareous soil. However, much less is known about its real impact on flavonoid composition. In the present study, Ferric ethylenediamine di (O-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) was foliar applied to Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grapevines growing in calcareous soil over two consecutive vintages in order to study its effect on grape flavonoid composition. Fe-EDDHA foliar supply tended to increase grape sugar, anthocyanin and flavonol content, decrease acid content and enhance the juice pH when compared to the control. Principal component analysis showed that the vintage also had influence on grape quality. The results suggested that Fe-EDDHA foliar application had an enhancement effect on grape secondary metabolism, and the effect increased the nutritional value of the consequent grapes and wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and....135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from mature oranges of the... name of the food is “orange juice”. The name “orange juice” may be preceded on the label by the...

  14. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. A study on some efficient parameters in batch fermentation of ...

    Siahe sardasht grape is famous variety of grape in Iran that is used for red grape juice concentrate. The pomace of this grape (as byproduct of fruit juice concentrate industry) is a favorable medium for growth of all type of yeasts. The ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevesiae SC1 extracted from fermented siahe ...

  16. Effects of commonly consumed fruit juices and carbohydrates on redox status and anticancer biomarkers in female rats

    Breinholt, Vibeke M.; Nielsen, Salka E.; Knuthsen, Pia

    2003-01-01

    /kg of diet. However, no effects were observed on hepatic glutathione S-transferase or quinone reductase activities, plasma redox status, or the activity of red blood cell antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that commonly consumed fruit juices can alter lipid and protein......Administration of apple juice, black currant juice, ora 1:1 combination of the two juices significantly decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde in plasma of female rats, whereas the protein oxidation biomarker 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde, was significantly increased...... following administration of orange juice, black currant juice, or the 1: 1 combination of apple and black currant juice. A significant increase in 2-amino-adipic semialdehyde was also observed in control rats given sucrose, fructose, and glucose in the drinking water at concentrations approximating...

  17. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  18. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  19. Internationalization of Boost Juice to Malaysia

    Jane L. Menzies; Stuart C. Orr

    2014-01-01

    This case describes the process that the Australian juice retail chain, Boost Juice, has used to internationalize to Malaysia. The main objective of this case is to demonstrate good practice in regard to internationalization. The case provides the background of the juice bar industry in Malaysia and determines that it is an attractive market for new start-up juice bars. An analysis of Boost Juice's capability determined that the company utilized the skills of its staff, product innovations, b...

  20. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  1. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  2. Decoding the Nonvolatile Sensometabolome of Orange Juice ( Citrus sinensis).

    Glabasnia, Anneke; Dunkel, Andreas; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-03-14

    Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness. Intriguingly, the taste percept of orange juice seems to be created by a rather complex interplay of limonin, limonoid glucosides, PMFs, organic acids, and sugars. For the first time, sub-threshold concentrations of PMFs were shown to enhance the perceived bitterness of limonoids. Moreover, the influence of sugars on the perceived bitterness of limonoids and PMFs in orange juice relevant concentration ranges was quantitatively elucidated.

  3. Elaboration and evaluation of maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz by steam drag

    Ximena Araneda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was develop and evaluate maqui juice (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol. Stuntz, to be potentially considered as a functional beverage of natural origin, without chemical additives and minimally processed, using the technique of steam drag of type artisanal. Fruit harvested manually was used in the Region of The Araucanía (Chile. Two juice concentrates with sugar and without sugar were produced. Analyzes such as were conducted: content of soluble solids, pH, acidity, moisture content, dry matter (DM, total ash, total sugars (AT, crude protein (PC, total polyphenols (PFT and total carbohydrates (CHT, the polyphenol content highlighting for unsweetened juice with 993.2 mg 100 mL-1 EAG and juice with sugar 829.208 mg 100 mL-1 EAG. Therefore, the technique allows to extract juice with minimal processing machin, presenting this high concentration of polyphenols.

  4. Development of Probiotic Fruit Juices Using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 Fortified with Short Chain and Long Chain Inulin Fiber

    Jessica White

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically, probiotics are consumed in dairy based products such as yogurt. However, given the rise in various diet types, non-dairy alternatives have been developed, such as inoculating fruit juices with probiotics. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 is a probiotic strain exerting a number of human health benefits such as the prevention of urinary tract infections. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the viability of L. rhamnosus GR-1 in apple cider, orange, and grape juice when fortified with either 4% short chain or 4% long chain inulin fiber over 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. The secondary objective was to determine consumer acceptability of apple cider and orange juice samples using the hedonic scale. All of the fruit juice samples achieved a mean viable count of at least 107 CFU/mL during 72 h of fermentation and 30 days of refrigerated storage. According to the sensory evaluation, which evaluated samples according to appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability, apple cider juice with long chain inulin fiber proved to have the highest score for all characteristics except appearance. Therefore, this study indicated a potential for probiotic fruit juices as a valid alternative to dairy based probiotic products.

  5. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  6. Effect of postharvest dehydration on the composition of pinot noir grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) and wine.

    Moreno, Jorge J; Cerpa-Calderón, Fiorella; Cohen, Seth D; Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael; Kennedy, James A

    2008-08-15

    This study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of how phenolics and aroma compounds change in wine grapes during postharvest dehydration. Pinot noir grapes grown in the Willamette Valley of Oregon were harvested at 22.0 and 24.0°Brix. Grapes harvested at 22.0°Brix were divided into three equal lots with one lot immediately used for wine production, and the remaining two lots placed inside an air tunnel with an air speed of 1.0-1.8ms(-1), 38% relative humidity and a temperature of 22°C. The soluble solids content and weight loss were measured daily and wines were made from grapes when they reached 24.8 and 26.7°Brix. The soluble solids of grapes increased about 1°Brix per day; therefore, on the third and fourth day the berries reached the desired concentration; weight loss was 14 and 16%, respectively. Results from berry phenolic analysis indicated that per berry anthocyanin amount remained unchanged during dehydration. The composition of proanthocyanidins isolated from berries changed during dehydration. Volatile compounds in wines made from dehydrated grapes contained more terpenes and norisoprenoids (β-ionone, β-damascenone) when compared to wine made from the original fruit. Wines made from increasingly dehydrated grapes tended to resemble the composition and flavour profile of wines made from grapes left on the vine (i.e. with extended ripening). The results of this study suggest that postharvest flavour changes consistent with changes during fruit ripening can occur in grapes when harvested early and allowed to dehydrate under controlled conditions prior to fermentation. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic compositions of grapes and wines from cultivar cAbernet Sauvignon produced in Chile and their relationship to commercial value.

    Cáceres, Alejandro; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Galvez, Andrés; Obreque-Slier, Elías; López-Solís, Remigio; Canals, Joan Miquel

    2012-09-05

    The phenolic composition of wine depends on, among other factors, the grapes used to make it. In this sense, knowledge of the chemical composition of grapes and its association with the resulting wines is an important tool to determine if there is a relationship between the phenolic composition of grapes and the price that these wines obtain in the market. For this purpose, grape skins and seeds from the cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon from the central region of Chile, in 2009 and 2010 vintages from two ripening points, were subjected to chemical and phenolic analyses, as were the wines made from these grapes. Grapes and the corresponding wines from three retail price wine categories, U.S. $6-8, U.S. $28-30, and U.S. $150-160, were evaluated. No differences were found across the price categories in the chemical analysis of grapes. Berry skins and wines from the higher price categories presented a higher concentration only of total tannins, and the differences in their concentrations were only among the different fractions of proanthocyanidins in the skins, seeds, and wines; there were no differences in their proportions. A seasonal effect influenced the concentrations of certain compounds in grapes and led to a decrease in the concentration of total phenols, total tannins, and total anthocyanins between sampling dates as harvesting moved toward the common commercial grape harvest in Chilean viticulture.

  8. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    sensory analyses that the best mixture was that formulated with sugarcane juice and 4% of lemon juice as well as 10% of pineapple juice. Sugarcane juice centesimal composition was not altered by fruit juice concentration addition. However, sugarcane juice added with 10% pineapple juice incremented manganese and reducing sugars when compared with pure sugarcane juice and added with 4% lemon juice. The market test proffered mixture was shown to be that containing sugarcane juice and natural lemon juice for evaluation the shelf life. Sugarcane juice added with 4% of lemon juice submitted to gamma radiation, heat treatment combined with gamma radiation and heat treatment remaining satisfactory microbiological, sensory and physical chemical characteristics until 28, 35 and 42 days respectively, after processing. These results indicated that the heat treatment was effective for sugarcane juice preservation. (author)

  9. Chitosan and Laminarin as Alternatives to Copper for Plasmopara viticola Control: Effect on Grape Amino Acid.

    Garde-Cerdán, T; Mancini, V; Carrasco-Quiroz, M; Servili, A; Gutiérrez-Gamboa, G; Foglia, R; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Romanazzi, G

    2017-08-30

    Copper fungicide use is limited by the European regulation; therefore, new strategies have been developed to prevent grapevine downy mildew (GDM). However, there is poor information about their effects on grape amino acid composition. This field trial aimed to evaluate the effect on grape amino acid composition of chitosan and of a mixture of laminarin and Saccharomyces extracts (LamE), applied in different strategies with copper hydroxide. The results showed that all the treatments applied to grapevines decreased the concentration of several amino acids. Moreover, treatments that have mostly decreased these compounds are those with copper hydroxide, especially when applied individually. LamE applied individually or alternately with copper hydroxide had the least negative effect on grape amino acid content. These results provide further information about the negative effects of copper on grape quality, which can be reduced when it is used in strategy with LamE or chitosan in GDM control.

  10. Influence of shriveling on berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards.

    Fang, Yulin; Meng, Jiangfei; Zhang, Ang; Liu, Jinchuan; Xu, Tengfei; Yu, Weilong; Chen, Shuxia; Li, Hua; Zhang, Zhenwen; Wang, Hua

    2011-03-15

    Berry shrivel (BS), a berry development disorder, appears soon after veraison. It occurs worldwide and affects the quality of grape berries and wine. However, it had not been reported in China until recently. This study aimed to investigate the changes in berry composition and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Xiangning Valley, Shanxi Province, China, during BS. Shrinkage contributed to an increase in the concentration of basic grape ingredients such as sugar and acid. An appropriate degree of shrinkage was apparently helpful in improving the phenolic content and increasing the antioxidant activity, but the berries that continued to shrivel showed a low antioxidant activity. Further, the results indicated distinct differences between the berries harvested from the southern side of the canopy and those harvested from the northern side, presumably due to variations in sunlight exposure. Moderate BS was beneficial since it increased berry quality and antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Shanxi vineyards. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2008-01-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks: Ru140, R99 and 3309C and one local variety ''Helwani'' which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety H elwani , was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. There was a positive effect of IAA on the resistance of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of ''Helwani'' to phylloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). (author)

  12. Salivary pH changes in children after industrialized fruit juice consumption

    Juliana Yassue Barbosa da SILVA; João Armando BRANCHER; João Gilberto DUDA; Estela Maris LOSSO

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The children presented dental erosion and caries in early infancy that were associated to a rich diet in sugars, including the frequent ingestion of industrialized fruit juice (conditioned in boxes).The drink ingestion with pH lower than 5.5 can cause teeth erosion mainly if it is associated with frequent and prolonged teeth contact.The natural protection of teeth is the saliva through its buffering capacity.Objective: Measure the children salivary pH before and after the grape ...

  13. Simple Rain-Shelter Cultivation Prolongs Accumulation Period of Anthocyanins in Wine Grape Berries

    Xiao-Xi Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple rain-shelter cultivation is normally applied during the grape growth season in continental monsoon climates aiming to reduce the occurrence of diseases caused by excessive rainfall. However, whether or not this cultivation practice affects the composition and concentration of phenolic compounds in wine grapes remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rain-shelter cultivation on the accumulation of anthocyanins in wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon grown in eastern China. The results showed that rain-shelter cultivation, compared with the open-field, extended the period of rapid accumulation of sugar, increased the soluble solid content in the grape berries, and delayed the senescence of the green leaves at harvest. The concentrations of most anthocyanins were significantly enhanced in the rain-shelter cultivated grapes, and their content increases were closely correlated with the accumulation of sugar. However, the compositions of anthocyanins in the berries were not altered. Correspondingly, the expressions of VvF3'H, VvF3'5'H, and VvUFGT were greatly up-regulated and this rising trend appeared to continue until berry maturation. These results suggested that rain-shelter cultivation might help to improve the quality of wine grape berries by prolonging the life of functional leaves and hence increasing the assimilation products.

  14. Intestinal mucus and juice glycoproteins have a liquid crystalline structure

    Denisova, E.A.; Lazarev, P.I.; Vazina, A.A.; Zheleznaya, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns have been obtained from the following components of canine gastrointestinal tract: (1) native small intestine mucus layer; (2) the precipitate of the flocks formed in the duodenal juice with decreasing pH; (3) concentrated solutions of glycoproteins isolated from the duodenal juice. The X-ray patterns consist of a large number of sharp reflections of spacings between about 100 and 4 A. Some reflections are common for all components studied. All the patterns are interpreted as arising from the glycoprotein molecules ordered into a liquid crystalline structure. (author)

  15. Acetone and acetaldehyde determination in tomato juice by isotopic dilution

    Piva, M.-T.; Crouzet, J.

    1977-01-01

    Acetone and acetaldehyde content of tomato juice were determined by isotope dilution techniques. The juice is added to 14 C labelled compounds, carried along by nitrogen at low pressure. The mixture of 2.4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained from volatile compounds is separated by thin layer chromatography on silica gel and then on alumina. A determination of radioactivity and concentration of acetone and acetaldehyde 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazones obtained after separation and elution allow to calculate the content of these two compounds in the initial product with the same sample. This technique could be used for determination of methanol and ethanol after transformation in 3,5 dinitrobenzoates [fr

  16. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical "sugar-like" spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  17. Effect of grapefruit juice or cimetidine coadministration on albendazole bioavailability

    Nagy, J.; Schipper, H. G.; Koopmans, R. P.; Butter, J. J.; van Boxtel, C. J.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The assumed metabolic breakdown of albendazole by mucosal CYP3A4 enzymes was studied by coadministering albendazole (10 mg/kg) with grapefruit juice. Concentrations of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), the active metabolite of albendazole, were compared with those after albendazole was administered

  18. Alcoholic fermentation induces melatonin synthesis in orange juice.

    Fernández-Pachón, M S; Medina, S; Herrero-Martín, G; Cerrillo, I; Berná, G; Escudero-López, B; Ferreres, F; Martín, F; García-Parrilla, M C; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a molecule implicated in multiple biological functions. Its level decreases with age, and the intake of foods rich in melatonin has been considered an exogenous source of this important agent. Orange is a natural source of melatonin. Melatonin synthesis occurs during alcoholic fermentation of grapes, malt and pomegranate. The amino acid tryptophan is the precursor of all 5-methoxytryptamines. Indeed, melatonin appears in a shorter time in wines when tryptophan is added before fermentation. The aim of the study was to measure melatonin content during alcoholic fermentation of orange juice and to evaluate the role of the precursor tryptophan. Identification and quantification of melatonin during the alcoholic fermentation of orange juice was carried out by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. Melatonin significantly increased throughout fermentation from day 0 (3.15 ng/mL) until day 15 (21.80 ng/mL) reaching larger amounts with respect to other foods. Melatonin isomer was also analysed, but its content remained stable ranging from 11.59 to 14.18 ng/mL. The enhancement of melatonin occurred mainly in the soluble fraction. Tryptophan levels significantly dropped from 13.80 mg/L (day 0) up to 3.19 mg/L (day 15) during fermentation. Melatonin was inversely and significantly correlated with tryptophan (r = 0.907). Therefore, the enhancement in melatonin could be due to both the occurrence of tryptophan and the new synthesis by yeast. In summary, the enhancement of melatonin in novel fermented orange beverage would improve the health benefits of orange juice by increasing this bioactive compound. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  20. Effects of whole-wheat flour and bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies

    Ariadne Roberto KARNOPP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace, which is derived from the skin and seeds, is the residue from the production of grape juice and wine. It corresponds to up to 20% of the total volume and it contains a high level of dietary fibers and bioactive compounds. In the Brazilian market, there is no product containing grape pomace as a replacement for conventional wheat flour. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole-wheat flour and organic Bordeaux grape pomace (Vitis labrusca L. on the sensory, physicochemical and functional properties of cookies using response surface methodology (RSM. The regression models indicated that the addition of whole-wheat and organic grape pomace decreased (p 65% of explained data variability, except for brittleness. The sensory evaluation results revealed that no significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed for the cookie samples, implying that the addition of grape pomace and whole-wheat flour did not negatively affect the preference of cookies.

  1. Effect of Chitosan on some Microbial and chemical quality of orange juice

    M Jeiranikhameneh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles towards orange juice trade is its limited shelf-life. Microbial spoilage is among the reasons for declining the quality of orange juice during storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chitosan as a natural preservative to increase the shelf-life of orange juice. For this, different concentrations of chitosan including 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6 and 2 g/L were used. During the storage periodmicrobial (total bacterial count and chemical(Brix and pH characteristics were assessed.Resultsshowed that higher concentrations of chitosan significantly (p

  2. Um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para análise de um sistema de produção e distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja A model based on linear programming and goal programming to analyze a frozen concentrated orange juice production and distribution system

    José Renato Munhoz

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se um modelo baseado em programação linear e programação de metas para apoiar decisões no processo de mistura e na distribuição de suco concentrado congelado de laranja. Explora-se a importância das decisões do processo de mistura para a análise da logística de distribuição do suco de laranja, além das decisões de transporte e armazenagem. O modelo utiliza conceitos conhecidos da literatura de problemas de mistura e planejamento da produção com múltiplos produtos, estágios e períodos, e foi resolvido por meio da linguagem de modelagem GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System. Um estudo de caso foi realizado numa empresa de suco de laranja localizada no interior do estado de São Paulo, e os resultados preliminares obtidos são promissores.This work proposes a model based on linear programming and goal programming to support decisions in the blending process and distribution of frozen concentrated orange juice. This study explores the importance of blending decisions for the logistic analysis of the orange juice distribution, besides transportation and storage decisions. The model utilizes well-known concepts from the literature of blending problems and multistage, multiproduct and multiperiod production planning problems, and it was solved using the GAMS (General Algebraic Modeling System programming language. A case study was developed in an orange juice industry located in São Paulo State, and the preliminary results are promising.

  3. Processed fruit juice ready to drink: screening acute toxicity at the cellular level

    Erick Leal da Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute toxicity at the cellular level of processed juice ready for consumption Orange and Grape flavors, produced by five companies with significant influence on the food market of South American countries, especially in Brazil. This evaluation was performed in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L., at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours, directly with marketed liquid preparations. Based on the results, it was found that fruit juices, of all companies considered, promoted significant antiproliferative effect to root meristems at the exposure time of 24 hours and resulted in at both exposure times, statistically significant number of mitotic spindle changes and chromosomal breaks. Therefore, under the study conditions, all juice samples analyzed were cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic to root meristem cells. These results indicate that such beverages have relevant potential to cause cellular disorders and, thus, need to be evaluated more fully in more complex test systems, as those in rodents, and then establish specific toxicity at the cellular level of these juices and ensure the well-being of those who consume them.

  4. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    Ramirez-Lopez, L M; McGlynn, W; Goad, C L; Mireles Dewitt, C A

    2014-04-15

    Phenolic acids, flavanols, flavonols and stilbenes (PAFFS) were isolated from whole grapes, juice, or pomace and purified using enzymatic hydrolysis. Only anthocyanin mono-glucosides and a few of the oligomers from Cynthiana grape (Vitis aestivalis) were analysed. Flavonoid-anthocyanin mono-glucosides (FA) were isolated using methanol/0.1% hydrochloric acid extraction. In addition, crude extractions of phenolic compounds from Cynthiana grape using 50% methanol, 70% methanol, 50% acetone, 0.01% pectinase, or petroleum ether were also evaluated. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to identify phenolic compounds. A method was developed for simultaneous separation, identification and quantification of both PAFFS and FA. Quantification was performed by the internal standard method using a five points regression graph of the UV-visible absorption data collected at the wavelength of maximum absorbance for each analyte. From whole grape samples nine phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The individual phenolic compounds content varied from 3 to 875 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For juice, twelve phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. The content varied from 0.07 to 910 mg kg⁻¹ dry weight. For pomace, a total of fifteen phenolic compounds were tentatively identified and quantified. The content varied from 2 mg kg⁻¹ to 198 mg kg⁻¹ dry matter. Results from HPLC analysis of the samples showed that gallic acid and (+)-catechin hydrate were the major phenolic compounds in both whole grapes and pomace. Cyanidin and petunidin 3-O-glucoside were the major anthocyanin glucosides in the juice. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  6. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How Much Cranberry Juice Is in Cranberry-Apple Juice? A General Chemistry Spectrophotometric Experiment

    Edionwe, Etinosa; Villarreal, John R.; Smith, K. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that spectrophotometrically determines the percent of cranberry juice in cranberry-apple juice is described. The experiment involves recording an absorption spectrum of cranberry juice to determine the wavelength of maximum absorption, generating a calibration curve, and measuring the absorbance of cranberry-apple juice.…

  8. The Orange Juice Distribution Channel: Some Characteristics ...

    The fruit juice market is growing for several years, and will be continuing to expand, ... Several changes are taking place in the fruit juice distribution channels ... using the strategic SWOT (strong and weak points, opportunities and threats) ...

  9. Effect of Inulin on the Viability of L. plantarum during Storage and In Vitro Digestion and on Composition Parameters of Vegetable Fermented Juices.

    Valero-Cases, Estefanía; Frutos, María José

    2017-06-01

    The prebiotic effect of different concentrations of inulin (0, 1 and 2%) on the growth and survival of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) CECT 220 in blended carrot and orange juices was investigated after 24 h of fermentation, during 30 days of storage at 4 °C and through the phases of gastrointestinal digestion after different storage periods. Microbiological and chemical determinations were also carried out in all juices. The lactic fermentation increased the shelf life of the fermented juices with inulin. The hygienic-sanitary quality in fermented juices was better than the control juices. During storage, the inulin improved the viability of LP and the monosaccharide concentration remained higher with respect to the juice without inulin (40% lower). At 30 days, the fermented juices with 2% inulin after in vitro digestion presented the highest survival of L. plantarum.

  10. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  11. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  12. Urea and ammonia excretion into gastric juice in regularly dialyzed patients and patients after renal transplantation. I. Dialyzed patients.

    Skála, I; Marecková, O; Růzicková, J; Bláha, J; Straková, M; Reneltová, I; Jirka, J; Kocandrle, V; Zvolánková, K

    1978-01-01

    In regularly dialyzed patients in basal gastric juice and after stimulation with pentagastrin the volume of titrable acidity, urea and ammonia were assessed. It was revealed that in relation to the plasma urea concentration in basal juice the mean urea and ammonia concentration is roughly half and in stimulation juice roughly one third. The urea concentration in gastric juice is negatively correlated to the ammonia concentration. Urea excretion into the stomach depends on the plasma urea level and on the secretory gastric activity. The decisive factor of gastric secretion is probably parietal cell secretion. From the results ensues that gastric juice of dialyzed patients contains a quantitatively significant amount of urea and ammonia. Ammonia due to its neutralizing action distorts the examination of gastric acidity assessed by titration. The findings call for a revision of hitherto known data concerning gastric secretion of uraemic patients.

  13. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  14. Use of Banana (Musa acuminata Colla AAA) Peel Extract as an Antioxidant Source in Orange Juices.

    Ortiz, Lucía; Dorta, Eva; Gloria Lobo, M; González-Mendoza, L Antonio; Díaz, Carlos; González, Mónica

    2017-03-01

    Using banana peel extract as an antioxidant in freshly squeezed orange juices and juices from concentrate was evaluated. Free radical scavenging capacity increased by adding banana peel extracts to both types of orange juice. In addition, remarkable increases in antioxidant capacity using 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical were observed when equal or greater than 5 mg of banana peel extract per ml of freshly squeezed juice was added. No clear effects were observed in the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Adding 5 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice did not substantially modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of either type of juice. However, undesirable changes in the sensory characteristics (in-mouth sensations and colour) were detected when equal or greater than 10 mg banana peel extract per ml of orange juice was added. These results confirm that banana peel is a promising natural additive that increases the capacity to scavenge free radicals of orange juice with acceptable sensory and physicochemical characteristics for the consumer.

  15. Variability of the polyphenolic composition of cider apple (Malus domestica) fruits and juices.

    Guyot, Sylvain; Marnet, Nathalie; Sanoner, Philippe; Drilleau, Jean-François

    2003-10-08

    Five French cider apple varieties were compared on the basis of their detailed polyphenol profile in the cortex and in the juices. Among the factors studied, variety was the most important variability factor in fruits, whereas polyphenol profiles showed an overall stability from one year to another, and a limited decrease of polyphenol concentration was observed during the starch regression period of fruit maturation. In juices, procyanidins remained the preponderant polyphenol class with concentrations up to 2.4 g/L even in centrifuged juices. Compared to the fruits, the average degree of polymerization of procyanidins was significantly reduced in the juice. Centrifugation of the crude juice had only minor effects on the polyphenol composition. For one variety, highly polymerized procyanidins with average degrees of polymerization of 25 were shown to be soluble in the centrifuged juice at a concentration of close to 1.2 g/L. Oxygenation of the juices during processing resulted in a significant decrease of all classes of native polyphenols. Catechins and procyanidins were particularly affected by oxidation, whereas caffeoylquinic acid was partly preserved. The transfer of polyphenols after pressing was maximal for dihydrochalcones and minimal for procyanidins with extraction yield values close to 80 and 30%, respectively.

  16. Crossflow microfiltration of sugarcane juice: effects of processing conditions and juice quality

    Katia Rezzadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice with passion fruit pulp was clarified using microfiltration under different T (temperature, P (pressure, and V (tangential velocity. The effects of these processing parameters were evaluated applying a rotational central composite experimental design (RCCD and response surface methodology (RSM. The tests were performed at a filtration pilot plant using a polyamide hollow-fiber membrane with an average pore diameter of 0.4 µm and filtration area of 0.723 m². In addition, the resistances to the permeate flux during the microfiltration were investigated according to the series resistance. The final permeate flux ranged from 7.05 to 17.84 L·h- 1·m- 2. There was a rapid decline in flux (50% in the initial stages of microfiltration. T and V were the major variables responsible for the flux increase. The concentration polarization showed the greatest influence on the flux decline, and highest values for the flux decline rate (λ were found when low pressures were used. In the clarified juice there was a reduction in the contents of total solids, proteins, vitamin C, and acidity, while the soluble solids, pH, and ash contents did not change. Finally, membrane process could produce high quality filtered sugarcane juice with substantial flux and increased luminosity improving organoleptical properties.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  18. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  19. JUICE space mission to Jupiter

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. Planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of the giant gaseous planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto would complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of the Solar System and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars. Moreover, Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites - three of which are believed to harbour internal oceans - are central to understanding the habitability of icy worlds. JUICE spacecraft will carry the most powerful remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ paylo...

  20. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  2. Improved energy efficiency in juice production through waste heat recycling

    Anderson, J.-O.; Elfgren, E.; Westerlund, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a juice production was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of drying cycle improvements at the energy usage were explored. • The total heat use for drying could thereby be decreased with 52%. • The results point out a significant decrease of heat consumption with low investment costs. - Abstract: Berry juice concentrate is produced by pressing berries and heating up the juice. The by-products are berry skins and seeds in a press cake. Traditionally, these by-products have been composted, but due to their valuable nutrients, it could be profitable to sell them instead. The skins and seeds need to be separated and dried to a moisture content of less than 10 %wt (on dry basis) in order to avoid fermentation. A berry juice plant in the north of Sweden has been studied in order to increase the energy and resource efficiency, with special focus on the drying system. This was done by means of process integration with mass and energy balance, theory from thermodynamics and psychrometry along with measurements of the juice plant. Our study indicates that the drying system could be operated at full capacity without any external heat supply using waste heat supplied from the juice plant. This would be achieved by increasing the efficiency of the dryer by recirculation of the drying air and by heat supply from the flue gases of the industrial boiler. The recirculation would decrease the need of heat in the dryer with about 52%. The total heat use for the plant could thereby be decreased from 1262 kW to 1145 kW. The improvements could be done without compromising the production quality

  3. Distribution of major sugars, acids, and total phenols in juice of five grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars at different stages of berry development

    Sabir, A.; Kafkas, E.; Tangolar, S.

    2010-07-01

    The juices of five grapevine cultivars cultivated in a typical Mediterranean climate were analyzed for sugars, organic acids, and phenols at four distinct stages of berry development. When the unripe berries were almost in full size, the glucose and fructose contents, based on HPLC detection, ranged from 13.3 to 30.7 g L{sup -}1 and from 8.3 to 23.7 g L{sup -}1 for Muscat of Alexandria and Muscat of Hamburg, respectively. At this stage, tartaric acid concentration was between 10.3 (Italia) and 12.3 g L{sup -}1 (Muscat of Alexandria), while the level of total phenols was low. Up to veraison, there were slight reductions in organic acids, while sugar content increased slightly. However, dramatic changes in all genotypes were apparent after veraison. Slight reductions were determined in the glucose and fructose levels of Italia prior to final analysis, possibly indicating this cultivars sensitivity to late harvest. In the final analysis, glucose and fructose content varied from 86.4 (Italia) to 107.0 g L-1 (Muscat of Hamburg), and from 73.1 (Italia) to 94.1 g L{sup -}1 (Alphonse Lavallee), respectively. Tartaric acid content of ripe berries was between 3.8 (Alphonse Lavallee) and 5.2 g L{sup -}1 (Isabella) with a mean value of 4.6 g L{sup -}1, and phenol content of mature berries ranged from 2253 to 2847 mg L{sup -}1. This study provides valuable information for further understanding the sugar, acid and total phenol changes that occur in some grape cultivars during berry maturation. Therefore, these results will be useful for future research on the biochemistry of the grape berry. (Author) 22 refs.

  4. Pesticide residues in grapes, wine, and their processing products.

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A

    2000-04-01

    In this review the results obtained in the 1990s from research on the behavior of pesticide residues on grapes, from treatment to harvest, and their fate in drying, wine-making, and alcoholic beverage processing are reported. The fungicide residues on grapes (cyproconazole, hexaconazole, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, penconazole, tetraconazole, and triadimenol), the application rates of which were of a few tens of grams per hectare, were very low after treatment and were not detectable at harvest. Pyrimethanil residues were constant up to harvest, whereas fluazinam, cyprodinil, mepanipyrim, azoxystrobin, and fludioxonil showed different disappearance rates (t(1/2) = 4.3, 12, 12.8, 15.2, and 24 days, respectively). The decay rate of the organophosphorus insecticides was very fast with t(1/2) ranging between 0.97 and 3.84 days. The drying process determined a fruit concentration of 4 times. Despite this, the residue levels of benalaxyl, phosalone, metalaxyl, and procymidone on sun-dried grapes equalled those on the fresh grape, whereas they were higher for iprodione (1.6 times) and lower for vinclozolin and dimethoate (one-third and one-fifth, respectively). In the oven-drying process, benalaxyl, metalaxyl, and vinclozolin showed the same residue value in the fresh and dried fruit, whereas iprodione and procymidone resides were lower in raisins than in the fresh fruit. The wine-making process begins with the pressing of grapes. From this moment onward, because the pesticide on the grape surface comes into contact with the must, it is in a biphasic system, made up of a liquid phase (the must) and a solid phase (cake and lees), and will be apportioned between the two phases. The new fungicides have shown no effect on alcoholic or malolactic fermentation. In some cases the presence of pesticides has also stimulated the yeasts, especially Kloeckera apiculata, to produce more alcohol. After fermentation, pesticide residues in wine were always smaller than those on the

  5. Effect of the microfiltration process on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation protection capacity of blackberry juice

    Gabriela Azofeifa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals are highly concentrated in berries, especially polyphenols as anthocyanins and ellagitannins. These compounds have been associated with antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation protection, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, obesity prevention and others. Blackberries are commonly grown and consumed as juice in Latin-American countries. However, blackberry juice is easily fermented and different industrial techniques are being applied to enable the juice to be stored for longer periods. One important issue required for these techniques is to preserve the health-promoting capacities of blackberries. This study compared the antioxidant activity and the lipid peroxidation protector effect between a fresh blackberry juice (FJ and a microfiltrated blackberry juice (MJ. Chemical analysis of both juices show less polyphenols concentration in the MJ. Despite this difference, values for biological activities, such as protection of lipid peroxidation, was not significantly different between FJ and MJ. These results suggest that the compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity are maintained even after microfiltration and the free radical scavenging capacity of these compounds could protect the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Microfiltration could be used as an industrial technique to produce blackberry juice that maintains biological activities of polyphenols.

  6. Induction of resveratrol biosynthesis in skins of three grape cultivars by ultraviolet irradiation

    Takayanagi, Tsutomu; Okuda, Tohru; Mine, Yohei; Yokotsuka, Koki

    2004-01-01

    Resveratrol production and expression of the genes related to resveratrol biosynthesis were investigated in the skins of three Vitis vinifera cultivars Chardonnay, Koshu and an American hybrid grape, Muscat Bailey A (Bailey x Muscat Hamburg). Resveratrol concentration in the skins of all the grapes increased significantly when exposed to ultraviolet (UV-C, 254 nm) irradiation. The UV-induced resveratrol concentration in the grape skins was lower after veraison (onset of ripening) than before it. The maximum concentration of the UV-induced resveratrol in 'Muscat Bailey A' was higher than those in the other two cultivars. The relative mRNA expression levels of stilebene synthase (STS), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) genes in grape skins 8 hr after UV irradiation were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results revealed that STS- and PAL-mRNA expressions were significantly increased by UV irradiation. STS-mRNA expressions in 'Muscat Bailey A' were higher than those in 'Chardonnay' throughout berry development. The UV-induced CHS-mRNA expression in the grape skins decreased before veraison and subsequently increased. (author)

  7. Solid state fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide production by Lactobacillus confusus with coconut water and sugar cane juice as renewable wastes.

    Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Techapun, Charin; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production by Lactobacillus confusus in liquid and solid state fermentation was carried out using coconut water and sugarcane juice as renewable wastes. High concentrations of EPS of 62 (sugarcane juice) and 18 g/l of coconut water were produced in solid state fermentation when nitrogen sources were reduced 5-fold from the original medium.

  8. Ethephon use and application timing of abscisic acid for improving color of 'Rubi' table grape

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of ethephon and of abscisic acid (ABA application timing on the color of 'Rubi' Table grape. Eight treatments were evaluated: control, without application; ethephon 500 mg L‑1 applied seven days after veraison (7 DAV; and two concentrations of ABA (200 and 400 mg L‑1 arranged with three application timings at 7 DAV, at 15 days before harvest (DBH, and at 7 DAV + 15 DBH. ABA does not modify physical‑chemical characteristics of the cluster and improves the color of grapes, especially when applied twice (7 DAV + 15 DBH at the concentration of 400 mg L‑1.

  9. Potential of Piezoelectric MEMS Resonators for Grape Must Fermentation Monitoring

    Georg Pfusterschmied

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study grape must fermentation is monitored using a self-actuating/self-sensing piezoelectric micro-electromechanical system (MEMS resonator. The sensor element is excited in an advanced roof tile-shaped vibration mode, which ensures high Q-factors in liquids (i.e., Q ~100 in isopropanol, precise resonance frequency analysis, and a fast measurement procedure. Two sets of artificial model solutions are prepared, representing an ordinary and a stuck/sluggish wine fermentation process. The precision and reusability of the sensor are shown using repetitive measurements (10 times, resulting in standard deviations of the measured resonance frequencies of ~0.1%, Q-factor of ~11%, and an electrical conductance peak height of ~12%, respectively. With the applied evaluation procedure, moderate standard deviations of ~1.1% with respect to density values are achieved. Based on these results, the presented sensor concept is capable to distinguish between ordinary and stuck wine fermentation, where the evolution of the wine density associated with the decrease in sugar and the increase in ethanol concentrations during fermentation processes causes a steady increase in the resonance frequency for an ordinary fermentation. Finally, the first test measurements in real grape must are presented, showing a similar trend in the resonance frequency compared to the results of an artificial solutions, thus proving that the presented sensor concept is a reliable and reusable platform for grape must fermentation monitoring.

  10. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice.

    Loots, Du Toit; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Jerling, Johann

    2006-02-22

    The polyphenolic and ascorbate (ASC) components as well as the antioxidant capacity of Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra) juice were analyzed and compared to three other fruit juices. The Kei-apple juice had significantly the highest total polyphenolic concentrations (1013 mg gallic acid equivalent/L), and solid phase (C(18)) fractionation identified the majority of these polyphenols to be phenolic acids. The Kei-apple juice also had significantly the highest ASC concentrations (658 mg/L), which showed exceptional heat stability with very little conversion to dehydroascorbate (DHA). Antioxidant capacities of both the unfractionated fruit juices and their solid phase-extracted fractions, as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power analyses, correlated well to the polyphenol concentrations. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed caffeic acid as the most abundant polyphenol present (128.7 mg/L) in the Kei-apple juice; it contributed to 63% of the total antioxidant capacity (of all of the individual compounds identified). Other notable polyphenols identified in higher concentrations included p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid. Our results therefore support the putative high antioxidant value linked to this fruit and better define this potential in terms of the major antioxidants that exist in the Kei-apple.

  11. Rapid Quantitation of Furanocoumarins and Flavonoids in Grapefruit Juice using Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Vandermolen, Karen M; Cech, Nadja B; Paine, Mary F; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-01-01

    Grapefruit juice can increase or decrease the systemic exposure of myriad oral medications, leading to untoward effects or reduced efficacy. Furanocoumarins in grapefruit juice have been established as inhibitors of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux, while flavonoids have been implicated as inhibitors of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated absorptive uptake in the intestine. The potential for drug interactions with a food product necessitates an understanding of the expected concentrations of a suite of structurally diverse and potentially bioactive compounds. Develop methods for the rapid quantitation of two furanocoumarins (bergamottin and 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin) and four flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, narirutin and hesperidin) in five grapefruit juice products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Grapefruit juice products were extracted with ethyl acetate; the concentrated extract was analysed by UPLC using acetonitrile:water gradients and a C18 -column. Analytes were detected using a photodiode array detector, set at 250 nm (furanocoumarins) and 310 nm (flavonoids). Intraday and interday precision and accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Rapid (0.999. Considerable between-juice variation in the concentrations of these compounds was observed, and the quantities measured were in agreement with the concentrations published in HPLC studies. These analytical methods provide an expedient means to quantitate key furanocoumarins and flavonoids in grapefruit juice and other foods used in dietary substance-drug interaction studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on grapes color during storage period

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Araujo, Michel M.; Silva, Priscila V.; Silveira, Ana P.M.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    In general food contains some components that are very sensible to irradiation processing and if radiation dose is higher, can cause some harmful transformation in taste, odor and flavor in these foods, present in very lower concentrations, regulating their appearance and nutritious value. The ionizing radiation application in order to preserve and disinfect food is used for the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms, extending the shelf life and reducing the loss of crops during storage of the product. The genus Vitis is the main representative of the Vitaceae family due to the nutritional importance of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.), widely consumed 'in natura'. The V. vinifera produces a fruit of great nutritional value to humans. The quality and acceptance of products are associated with sensory parameters such as color, which is the primary criterion for acceptance by the consumer. Anthocyanins are generally unstable when exposed to sources of ionizing radiation. The flavonoids are largely distributed in nature and are responsible for most of blue, purple and all shades of red colors. In vines, these compounds are responsible for the color of the grape skin and are also found in the flesh of some varieties of grapes. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of gamma radiation on color of grapes at different days of storage. The irradiation will be in 60 Co source at doses of 0 and 4.5 kGy. The samples will be stored at room and refrigerated temperature for 21 days. The evaluation of color will be analyzed through 'L', 'a' and 'b' parameters. (author)

  13. Resveratrols in grape berry skins and leaves in vitis germplasm.

    Wang, Lijun; Xu, Man; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Junfang; Xi, Huifen; Wu, Benhong; Loescher, Wayne; Duan, Wei; Fan, Peige; Li, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Resveratrol is an important stilbene that benefits human health. However, it is only distributed in a few species including grape and is very expensive. At present, grape has been an important source resveratrol. However, the details are scarce on resveratrol distribution in different Vitis species or cultivars. The composition and content of resveratrols were investigated by HPLC for assessing genotypic variation in berry skins and leaves of 75 grape cultivars, belonging to 3 species and 7 interspecific hybrids. Trans-resveratrol, cis-piceid and trans-piceid were detected in berry skins and leaves, but cis-resveratrol was not. Resveratrol content largely varied with genetic background as well as usage. In most cultivars, total resveratrol including the above three compounds was higher in berry skins than leaves. In berry skins of most cultivars and leaves of almost all cultivars, cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol; trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were minor components. Some specific cultivars were found with extremely high levels of trans-resveratrol, cis- piceid, trans-piceid or total resveratrols in berry skins or leaves. In skins and leaves, rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols, and the cultivated European type cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low totals. There were no significant correlations of the amounts of total resveratrols or any individual resveratrol between berry skins and leaves. All 75 cultivars can be divided into four groups based on the composition of resveratrols and their concentration by principal component analysis. Resveratrol content of grape berries and leaves varied largely with their genetic background and usage. Rootstock cultivars had a higher content of total resveratrols than the other germplasm. Total resveratrols were lower in leaves than berry skins in most cultivars. Cis-piceid was the most abundant resveratrol in most cultivars, and trans-res and trans-pd were

  14. An Immunoassay for Quantification of Contamination by Raw Meat Juice on Food Contact Surfaces.

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Raw chicken products often are contaminated with Salmonella and Campylobacter , which can be transmitted from packages to contact surfaces. Raw meat juices from these packages also provide potential media for cross-contamination. There are limited quantitative data on the levels of consumer exposure to raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of chicken products. An exposure assessment is needed to quantify the levels of transmission and to assess the risk. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and validated for quantitative detection of raw meat juice on hands and various food contact surfaces. Analytical procedures were designed to maximize the recovery of raw meat juice from various surfaces: hands, plastic, wood, stainless steel, laminated countertops, glass, and ceramics. The ELISA was based on the detection of a soluble muscle protein, troponin I (TnI), in the raw meat juice. The assay can detect levels as low as 1.25 ng of TnI, which is equivalent to less than 1 μl of the raw meat juice. The concentrations of TnI in the raw meat juices from 10 retail chicken packages, as determined by ELISA, were between 0.46 and 3.56 ng/μl, with an average of 1.69 ng/μl. The analytical procedures, which include swabbing, extraction, and concentration, enable the detection of TnI from various surfaces. The recoveries of raw meat juice from surfaces of hands were 92%, and recoveries from other tested surfaces were from 55% on plastic cutting boards to 75% on laminated countertops. The ELISA developed has been used for monitoring the transfer of raw meat juice during shopping for and handling of raw chicken products in our studies. The assay also can be applied to other raw meat products, such as pork and beef.

  15. Development and optimisation by means of sensory analysis of new beverages based on different fruit juices and sherry wine vinegar.

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez Dodero, M Carmen; Durán Guerrero, Enrique; Castro Mejías, Remedios; Natera Marín, Ramón; García Barroso, Carmelo

    2013-03-15

    Despite the long history of sherry wine vinegar, new alternatives of consumption are being developed, with the aim of diversifying its market. Several new acetic-based fruit juices have been developed by optimising the amount of sherry wine vinegar added to different fruit juices: apple, peach, orange and pineapple. Once the concentrations of wine vinegar were optimised by an expert panel, the aforementioned new acetic fruit juices were tasted by 86 consumers. Three different aspects were taken into account: habits of consumption of vinegar and fruit juices, gender and age. Based on the sensory analysis, 50 g kg(-1) of wine vinegar was the optimal and preferred amount of wine vinegar added to the apple, orange and peach juices, whereas 10 g kg(-1) was the favourite for the pineapple fruit. Based on the olfactory and gustatory impression, and 'purchase intent', the acetic beverages made from peach and pineapple juices were the most appreciated, followed by apple juice, while those obtained from orange juice were the least preferred by consumers. New opportunities for diversification of the oenological market could be possible as a result of the development of this type of new product which can be easily developed by any vinegar or fruit juice maker company. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Enzymatic added extraction and clarification of fruit juices-A review.

    Sharma, Harsh P; Patel, Hiral; Sugandha

    2017-04-13

    Enzymatic treatment for juice extraction is most commonly used now a days. The enzymatic process is claimed to offer a number of advantages over mechanical-thermal comminution of several fruit pulps. Enzymes are an integral component of modern fruit juice manufacturing and are highly suitable for optimizing processes. Their main purposes are: increase extraction of juice from raw material, increase processing efficiency (pressing, solid settling or removal), and generate a final product that is clear and visually attractive. Juice extraction can be done by using various mechanical processes, which may be achieved through diffusion extraction, decanter centrifuge, screw type juice extractor, fruit pulper and by different types of presses. Enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction significantly improves juice recovery compared to any other extraction process. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the cell walls increases the extraction yield, reducing sugars, soluble dry matter content and galacturonic acid content and titrable acidity of the products. Enzymatic degradation of the biomaterial depends upon the type of enzyme, incubation time, incubation temperature, enzyme concentration, agitation, pH and use of different enzyme combinations. We can conclude from the technical literature that use of the enzymes i.e. cellulases, pectinases, amylases and combination of these enzymes can give better juice yield with superior quality of the fruit juice. Pectinase enzyme can give maximum juice yield i.e. 92.4% at 360 minutes incubation time, 37°C incubation temperature and 5 mg/100 g of enzyme concentration. Whereas the combination of two enzymes i.e. pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) at 120 minutes of incubation time, 50°C of incubation temperature and 0.05 mg/100 gm of enzymatic concentration can give the maximum yield of 96.8% for plum fruits. This paper discusses the use of enzymes in fruit juice production focusing on the juice recovery

  17. Elicitor and nitrogen applications to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines: effect on grape amino acid composition.

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    Elicitors and nitrogen foliar applications to vineyards could regulate grape nitrogen composition, which has an important effect on grape and wine quality. Thus the aim of this research was to study the effect of foliar elicitor treatments, methyl jasmonate (MeJ) and yeast extract (YE), and foliar nitrogen applications, urea (Ur) and phenylalanine (Phe), to Garnacha, Graciano and Tempranillo vines on grape amino acid composition. The results showed that elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to Garnacha and Tempranillo grapevines decreased the must amino acid concentration. However, Phe application to these two grapevines increased the must Phe content. The treatments applied to Graciano grapevines barely effected the grape amino acid content. According to the percentage of variance attributable, the variety had a higher impact on the must amino acid composition than the treatments and their interaction, except in certain amino acids such as Phe. The influence of elicitor and nitrogen foliar applications to grapevines on grape amino acid concentration was strongly conditioned by the variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  19. A New Solid Phase Extraction for the Determination of Anthocyanins in Grapes

    Marta Ferreiro-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for the concentration and cleaning of red grape extracts prior to the determination of anthocyanins by UPLC-DAD has been developed. This method is of special interest in the determination of phenolic maturity as it allows the analysis of the anthocyanins present in grapes. Several different SPE cartridges were assessed, including both C-18- and vinylbenzene-based cartridges. C-18-based cartridges presented a very low retention for the glucosylated anthocyanidins while vinylbenzene-based cartridges showed excellent retention for these compounds. The optimized method involves the initial conditioning of the cartridge using 10 mL of methanol and 10 mL of water, followed by loading of up to 100 mL of red grape extract. Ten mL of water was used in the washing step and anthocyanins were subsequently eluted using 1.5 mL of acidified methanol at pH 2. This method simplifies the determination of individual anthocyanins as, on the one hand, it cleans the sample of interference and, on the other hand, it increases the concentration to up to 25:1.5. The developed method has been validated with a range of different grapes and it has also been tested as a means of determining the different anthocyanins in grapes with different levels of maturity.

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is added...

  1. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice.

    Inyang, U E; Abah, U J

    1997-01-01

    Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg/100 ml. Steaming of the cashew apple prior to juice extraction resulted in a decreased (230 mg/100 ml) content of ascorbic acid. It also led to slight decreases in soluble solids and titratable acidity. A comparison of the chemical composition of the two juices showed that the orange juice contained more sugars, titratable acidity and soluble solids but less ascorbic acid than cashew apple juice. Consequently, the soluble solids, titratable acidity, reducing and total sugars of the blends increased with increase in the proportions of orange juice while the content of ascorbic acid was decreasing. In spite of the decrease in ascorbic acid content of the blends, results showed that blended juice would no doubt be a very good source of ascorbic acid. Result of the organoleptic evaluation revealed that a 60% cashew apple and 40% orange juice gave a good quality juice in terms of flavor, after taste and overall acceptability.

  2. Studies on Juice Quality Obtained from Pomegranate and Various Vegetables Additions

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the interest in antioxidants, mainly present in fruits and vegetables, has prompted research in the field of commercial beverages. Taking into account new requirements to improve the quality of feeding behaviour by getting juices without added sugar, the consumer health benefits and high organoleptics properties, it was decided to study the correlation quality of raw pomegranates with other vegetables such as celery, carrot and sharon fruit in order to obtain pomegranate juice with vegetable additions. The vegetable raw materials were chosen in order to improve the quality and organoleptic properties of the pomegranate juice with vegetable additions by optimizing the “in-house” method, to obtaining a stable formulation. The main objectives of the study were characterization of raw and addition materials, studied by psycho-chemical analysis, evaluating of the antioxidant capacity of 4 types of pomegranate juice with additions in different proportions,  establish the best type of mixture juice. Consumer preference was established in sensory analysis  based on hedonic test with 9 point scale, the type of juice with additions with the following concentrations: pomegranate 50%, Sharon 10%, celery 30%, carrot 10%. Positive correlations were performed between antioxidant capacity and type of juice preferred by consumers.

  3. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures.

    Pardo, Juan Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Espinosa, Lady

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrating the fruit juice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P. peruviana fruit juice in a rabbit eye inflammatory model were investigated. A novel rabbit eye inflammation model was developed for studying the juice's anti-inflammatory activity (based on an adaptation of the Draize test). Cytostatic activity was evaluated by measuring and comparing growth rates of cultured fibroblasts exposed and not exposed to various fruit juice concentrations. P. peruviana fruit juice exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone, a known anti-inflammatory drug. An interesting dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblasts was also established. The data found suggest that the P. peruviana fruit juice anti-pterygium effect described in traditional medicine may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. The present study contributes to the pharmacologic knowledge regarding a remedy commonly used in Colombian traditional medicine.

  4. Treatment of tuna cooking juices by nano filtration

    Walha, K. a.; Ben Amar, R.; Bourseau, P.; Jaouen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Canned tuna is among the largest commercial canned fishery product in Tunisia. This industry rejects many aqueous effluents (washing, thawing, rinsing and cooking waters). Cooking juice represents 50 pour cent of the total effluent volume. It has a high organic load and a very high salt content. For consequence, discarding directly the effluent in the environment is not possible and need further treatment. However, the juice seems to contain interesting flavour compounds. In this work, a membrane process system consisting in nano filtration was used to reduce the pollution load and to concentrate flavour compounds of tuna cooking juice. The NF membrane tested in this work concentrate the organic matter since the retentions are high, starting at 74 pour cent for total circulation and increasing up to 85 pour cent for volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5. The membrane undergoes severe fouling, it can be effectively cleaned through a complete basic-acid washing cycle. The effect of three chemical reagents was studied for the regeneration of the fouled membrane. In the future, we will focus on the concentrates obtained by NF: sensory analysis with a panel of trained tasters and analysis of aromatic molecules should allow to value the quality of the flavouring concentrates.

  5. Study of the maturation of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. grown in Dois Vizinhos, Paraná

    Gener Augusto Penso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The edaphoclimatic conditions in Southwest Parana differ from those in traditional wine-growing regions and have a major influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the grapes. Studies of grape maturation under these conditions may enable us to time the supply of raw materials for the elaboration of differentiated wines. This study aimed to quantify the ripening components of the grape cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Tempranillo, and Sangiovese grapes grown in Dois Vizinhos, PR, during the harvest seasons of 2008/2009 and 2011/2012. The grapevines were performed according to the espalier system and grafted on rootstock R110 (‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Merlot’ and Paulsen 1103 (‘Tempranillo’ and ‘Sangiovese’. The ripening of the grapes was monitored every ten days from the beginning of ripening (verasion until harvest. The following variables were evaluated: mass and diameter of berries, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, titratable acidity (TTA, total sugars, estimated alcohol content, anthocyanins, and flavanols. Sangiovese berries showed the greatest weight and diameter in the two years. The TSS was higher in the second year of evaluation for Cabernet Sauvignon and Tempranillo grapes. The pH decreased from the first year to the second for all cultivars. There were no significant differences in ATT among the cultivars. A higher content of flavanols was observed during the first growing season of study than during the second. Tempranillo grapes showed the highest concentration of anthocyanins during both growing seasons. Not all cultivars had enough acidity to permit wine stability and guard time. None of the cultivars required the chaptalization of must, presenting good potential of alcohol production.

  6. Composition and content analysis of sugars and organic acids for 45 grape cultivars from northeast region of china

    Zaozhu, G.N.; Jia, Z.; Zhihu, R.; Zuhui, Z.; Quan, G.; Hongyan, G.; Xiuwu, G.

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of sugars and acids of grape cultivars from northeast region of China was carried out for quality evaluation and variety improvement of grape. Analysis of major sugars and organic acids for 45 grape berries was carried out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that glucose and fructose were the major sugars, beside that, some grape cultivars also contained sucrose. The quantity of glucose and fructose was almost equal in most of grape berries. A significant positive correlation existed between them, glucose content ranged from 53.24 mg/ml to 124.18mg/ml and fructose content ranged from 48.39 mg/ml to118.84 mg/ml. Tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid were organic acids and tartaric acid was the main constituent in most grape berries and its concentration was higher than the other organic acids. However, in some grape cultivars, malic acid and citric acid were two highest organic acids while oxalic acid content was the lowest and even in some cultivars it could not be detected. Tartaric acid ranged from 1.28mg/ml to 6.82 mg/ml, malic acid ranged from 0.09mg/ml to 3.95 mg/ml, citric acid ranged from 0.08mg/ml to 4.43 mg/ml, oxalic acid ranged from mg/ml to 0.370 mg/ml. Thirty-four grape cultivars out of 45 cultivars accounted more than 50% tartic acid of the total organic acid contents. However, in cultivars Bixiang Wuhe and Shennong Jinhuanghou citric acid was the main organic acid. Malic acid and citric acid were significantly positively related with total acid. In 43 grape cultivars, the soluble sugars were glucose and fructose. Besides glucose and fructose, sucrose was also observed in cultivars of LN33 and Cayuga white. (author)

  7. Effects of storage and packaging materials on some physicochemical properties and sensory and microbiological parameters of pineapple juice (ananas comosus)

    Shakpo, I.O.; Arawande, J.O.

    2010-01-01

    Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters of concentrated pineapple juice stored in cans and glass bottles were studied over a period of ten weeks. There was slight increase in pH from 4.2 to 4.7 and to 4.8 and decrease in titratable acidity from 8.1 to 5.1 and to 4.6 mg/100 mL, whereas total solids (%) decreased from 76.23 to 65.47% and to 60.38% in canned and bottled pineapple concentrates, respectively. Over 90% loss of Vitamin C was observed, with the bottled samples retaining more Vitamin C than the canned samples. The microbial counts ranged from 2.0 X 103 to 2.4 X 104 cfu/mL whereas fungi and mesophilic bacteria, were not detected to 6 X 103 cfu/mL. Freshly prepared single strength juices of pineapple were better in terms of taste and colour, while the bottled reconstituted juice concentrate competed favourably with the fresh one in colour. The canned samples lost their colours within 10 weeks of storage. The glass bottled samples had a characteristic desirable aroma. Thus concentrated juice in glass bottles stored at room temperature enhanced the keeping quality of the juice and compared more favourably with the fresh juice than the canned concentrated juice. (author)

  8. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  9. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  11. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  12. Grape

    ... of the heart and blood vessels, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis), high blood pressure, ... symptoms, including pain and swelling. Treating varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Constipation. Cough. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Chronic ...

  13. Beneficiary role of grapes residue, an organic waste of agro-based industry causing environmental pollution - a new concept of crop production in hydroponics

    Butt, S.J.; Varis, S.

    2005-01-01

    The world is facing a serious threat of environmental pollution as a result of which our soils, air and water are becoming highly contaminated with the passage of time. Many epidemics have engulfed a number of countries in various diseases causing the loss of hundreds of thousands of human lives. The wastes of agro-based industries are mostly organic in nature, and if not properly handled, usually become nuisance and also the source of food for pathogens and other harmful microorganisms thus the surrounding becomes polluted. It has been reported that grapes residue (also called grapes marc or pressed grapes) was a serious environmental problem Tekirdag city of Turkey. This waste material was thrown out of the factory (Tekil Fabrikasi) after the extraction of grape juices used for different products. With dual objective, a plan was made to remove the waste material from polluted area subsequently managed to use it a source of soilless growing medium for the production horticultural crops through hydroponics system in the unheated greenhouse. The use of grapes residue for crop production is rare and hardly documented in the literature thus the idea is innovative in its nature that may lead to open the vista of new avenues. A trial of bag culture was conducted to evaluate the possibilities of use of grapes marc as a pure growing substrate for the production of lettuce and tomato crops. Quite encouraging results of a number of parameters of both the crops appeared against the soil-mixture (control). The studied characteristics were relating to vegetative, reproductive, yield physical and chemical performances and sensory traits. It is predicted that grapes marc possesses a great potential of organic rooting medium for growth and development of commercial crops, provided the climatic, nutritional and management activities scheduled in view of the kind and nature of crop cultivar to be grown under unheated glass house conditions. (author)

  14. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  15. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  16. Det globale marked for juice

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2015-01-01

    inden for æblejuice er Kina vigtig og står for 35 pct. af verdens samlede eksport. Den internationale handel med juice er meget omfattende, og mange lande er store både importører og eksportører. Den danske import af æblejuice kommer især fra Tyskland og Østrig, som dog også har en stor import fra Kina...

  17. Evaluation of Cashew Apple Juice for the Production of Fuel Ethanol

    Pinheiro, Álvaro Daniel Teles; Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; Macedo, Gorete R.; Gonçalves, Luciana R. B.

    A commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for the production of ethanol by fermentation of cashew apple juice. Growth kinetics and ethanol productivity were calculated for batch fermentation with different initial sugar (glucose + fructose) concentrations. Maximal ethanol, cell, and glycerol concentrations were obtained when 103.1 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration was used. Cell yield (Yx/s) was calculated as 0.24 (g microorganism)/(g glucose + fructose) using cashew apple juice medium with 41.3 g L-1 of initial sugar concentration. Glucose was exhausted first, followed by fructose. Furthermore, the initial concentration of sugars did not influence ethanol selectivity. These results indicate that cashew apple juice is a suitable substrate for yeast growth and ethanol production.

  18. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... traditional juices consumed in Côte d'Ivoire. Amoin Georgette ... Baobab fruit juice and Roselle calices juices exhibited the highest ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their ..... by liquid carbon dioxide.

  19. Life table of grape phylloxera on some irradiated in vitro cultured rootstocks

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Ayyoubi, Z.; Idris, I.

    2007-08-01

    The life table of local strain of grape phylloxera on the most commonly used rootstocks; Ru140, R99 and 3309 C and one local variety Helwani, which were in vitro cultured and treated with low doses of gamma irradiation was determined. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of IAA on reproduction and development of phylloxera, which infested the roots of our local grape variety Helwani, was evaluated. Our results showed that the life table of grape phylloxera was different between irradiated and unirradiated in vitro plants. The survival, fecundity and developmental time were reduced by applying irradiation. Thus, low doses of gamma irradiation increased grape resistance to phylloxera. The was a positive effect of of IAA on the resistance of Helwani to phylloxera when it was infested at old age (80-d-old). However, the susceptible of Helwani to phlloxera was increased when it was infested at young age (40-d-old). The present study provides good information on the possibility of using irradiation and hormone to increase the resistance of grape to phylloxera.(author)

  20. First evidence of epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine.

    Ma, Wen; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Jourdes, Michäel; Li, Hua; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2018-09-01

    Flavan-3-ols are units incorporating condensed tannin, which are widely present in grape and wine. They play a considerable role in wine sensory perception such as astringency, bitterness and mouth-feel. In grape and wine, the flavan-3-ols reported to date are (epi)catechin, (epi)gallocatechin, (epi)gallocatechin gallate and (epi)catechin glycoside. This study now shows the presence of a new flavan-3-ol epicatechin vanillate in grape seed and red wine. A putative unknown flavan-3-ol derived from grape seed was targeted by LC-HRMS/MS. Fractionation and purification by centrifugal partition chromatography and Prep HPLC allowed us to obtain the pure new flavan-3-ol. NMR and HRMS data revealed this compound to be epicatechin-3-O-vanillate. Quantification analysis results showed that epicatechin vanillate present in grape seed and red wine in the μg/g dry seed and the μg/L concentration range, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study

    Subagyono, Dirgarini J.N.; Marshall, Marc; Jackson, W. Roy; Chaffee, Alan L.

    2015-01-01

    Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H 2 O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N 2 , at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc. - Highlights: • Liquefaction of algae gave more oil than that of Pinus radiata and grape marc. • Reactions under CO/H 2 O produced higher yields of oil than N 2 . • Water to biomass ratio had little effect on the yields. • Bio-oil from algae contained substantial amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons. • Pinus radiata oil was low in N but high in O

  2. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. 134Cs foliar contamination of vine: translocation to grapes and transfer to wine

    Carini, F.; Anguissola Scotti, I.; Montruccoli, M.; Silva, S.

    1996-01-01

    Grape vines growing in pots placed in open field were contaminated by sprinkling an aqueous solution of carrier free 134 Cs. Activity was determined in acini and must at the ripening stage. Interception and Translocation Factors (TLF) were quantified. They strictly depend on the state of growth of the crop. Wine was produced by a laboratory process and analysed as to radiocesium. Transfer parameters, F r and P e , were calculated to predict radiocesium concentration in wine: it is 0.6 times the activity found in grapes. The leaf fruit translocation seems to be the dominant process in the contamination of acini when compared to direct deposition. (author)

  4. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  5. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  6. Secondary Aroma Compounds in Fresh Grape Marc Distillates as a Result of Variety and Corresponding Production Technology

    Borislav Miličević

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the composition of secondary aroma compounds of fresh grape marc distillates as a result of variety and production technology, 30 samples (6 varieties×5 samples were analysed. White grape marc samples from Malvazija istarska, Chardonnay and Muscat Blanc were obtained as by-products in standard white wine production, while red grape marc samples from Teran and Cabernet Sauvignon were obtained after standard red wine production procedures. Marc from red grape variety Muškat ruža porečki was obtained during the production of rosé wines. All fermented marc samples were distilled using a traditional copper alembic. The obtained distillates were subjected to GC/MS and GC/FID analyses. Malvazija istarska distillates exhibited exceptionally high methanol content. Distillates from white grape varieties were found to be characterized by higher C6 alcohol and 1-propanol concentrations, while red grape distillates contained higher amounts of the majority of alcohols, acids, and esters. In Muškat ruža distillates intermediate concentrations of many important aroma compounds were found. It was concluded that differences in the production technology parameters, depending on the variety, resulted in differences in secondary aroma profiles, most evident between distillates from white and red varieties. These findings were confirmed applying stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA, which resulted in 100 % correct classification of distillates according to the variety and corresponding production technology.

  7. Berry Shriveling Significantly Alters Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) Grape and Wine Chemical Composition.

    Šuklje, Katja; Zhang, Xinyi; Antalick, Guillaume; Clark, Andrew C; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2016-02-03

    Berry shriveling is an often reported occurrence in the Shiraz (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivar. This study investigated the effect of berry shriveling occurring in a high yielding (18.6 ± 1.6 kg/vine) Shiraz vineyard in relation to a temporal investigation of grape and wine composition using three harvest dates. Berry shriveling resulted in delayed total soluble solids and amino acid accumulation into the berry, however differences between treatments diminished or became smaller by the third harvest date. Similarly, ethyl esters of fatty acids and higher alcohol acetates were lower in wines from shriveled berries from the first two harvests; anthocyanins were reduced in wines from shriveled berries at all harvest dates, whereas terpenes were unaltered. Wines made from shriveled berries had higher γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone concentrations. This study provides novel information on the chemical alterations of grapes and wines made from grapes affected by shriveling.

  8. Nutraceutic Characteristics of the Extracts and Juice of Chayote (Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. Fruits

    María de la Luz Riviello-Flores

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz] are a non-traditional vegetable widely consumed in Latin America, with the state of Veracruz, México being the world’s main producer, but little is known about the nutraceutical potential. This study aimed to determine the chemical compositions and antioxidant activities from the juice fruits from two commercial varieties of chayote cultivated in Mexico, as well as a proposal for the elaboration of chayote juices with stevia leaves and pineapple juice. The physicochemical properties of juice from virens levis (VL and nigrum spinosum (NS varieties were determined using standard methods. The juice of the two varieties differ significantly regarding the concentrations of total soluble solids and total sugars, but not vitamin C. The total concentration of phenolics in NS extracts was slightly higher than in VL (1005 and 856 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively, but the total flavonoid contents were similar (27 and 26 mg 100 g−1 dry-weight, respectively. Cucurbitacin D was predominant in both varieties. The radical scavenging capacities of VL and NS extracts varied slightly (IC50 = 0.45 to 0.65 mg mL−1, while the antioxidant activities were similar (~80%. The NS variety is particularly promising regarding nutraceutical application. The chayote juice combined with stevia and pineapple maintained the original nutraceutical characteristics of the fruit, but enhanced the organoleptic characteristics like density and sugar/acidity balance.

  9. Effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields processing and conventional heat treatment on orange-carrot juice carotenoids.

    Torregrosa, Francisco; Cortés, Clara; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2005-11-30

    Liquid chromatography (LC) was the method of choice for quantification of carotenoids (including geometrical isomers) to evaluate the effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF), a nonthermal preservation method, with different parameters (electric field intensities and treatment times), on an orange-carrot juice mixture (80:20, v/v). In parallel, a conventional heat treatment (98 degrees C, 21 s) was applied to the juice. HIPEF processing generally caused a significant increase in the concentrations of the carotenoids identified as treatment time increased. HIPEF treatment at 25 and 30 kV/cm provided a vitamin A concentration higher than that found in the pasteurized juice.

  10. An in Vitro Assessment of Interaction Between Grape Phylloxera and Indole Acetic Acid Treated Grape Plants Daktulosphaira Vitifolia (FITCH)

    Makee, H.; Charbaji, T.; Idris, I.; Taher, N.

    2011-01-01

    the Life table of local strain of grape phylloxera was determined to evaluate the relationship between indole acetic acid (IAA) and phylloxera on our local variety Helwani. The study was carried out by applying in vitro dual culture system. The results showed that there was a great variation in mean developmental time, female longevity, number of laid eggs and egg distribution between all IAA concentrations and plant ages. Based on the tested biological parameters of phylloxera, (Helwani) would be unsuitable host for such destructive insect as it became older and when 2mg/1 of IAA was applied to in vitro culture media. (author)

  11. DNA catabolites in triathletes: effects of supplementation with an aronia-citrus juice (polyphenols-rich juice).

    García-Flores, Libia Alejandra; Medina, Sonia; Cejuela-Anta, Roberto; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Abellán, Ángel; Genieser, Hans-Gottfried; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-04-01

    In this study we analyzed whether our aronia-citrus juice (ACJ, the composition is based on a mixture of 95% citrus juice with 5% of Aronia melanocarpa juice), rich in polyphenols, and physical exercise had an effect on seven catabolites of DNA identified in plasma and on a urine isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α). Sixteen elite triathletes on a controlled diet for triathlon training (45 days) were used in this clinical trial. Our results show a decrease in the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration due to chronic physical exercise. The ACJ intake and physical exercise maintained the guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate plasmatic concentrations and decreased the concentration of 8-hydroxyguanine as well as urinary values of 8-iso-PGF2α. Finally, we observed a significant increase in the 8-nitroguanosine levels in triathletes after ACJ intake, compared to the placebo stage. It is concluded that the combination of the intake of ACJ, rich in polyphenolic compounds, with adequate training was able to influence the plasmatic and urinary values of oxidative stress biomarkers. This suggests a positive effect on the oxidative damage and potential associations with DNA repair mechanisms.

  12. Determination of patulin in fruit juices using HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD techniques.

    Moukas, Athanasios; Panagiotopoulou, Vasiliki; Markaki, Panagiota

    2008-08-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) are described for the determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice. The limits of detection (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD method were found to be (DL=0.23μgkg(-1) QL=1.2μgkg(-1)) and (DL=5.8μgkg(-1) and QL=13.8μgkg(-1)), respectively. The recovery factors for HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD were found to be 99.5% (RSD%=0.73) and 41% (RSD%=10.03), respectively. The HPLC-DAD method was used to determine the occurrence of PAT in 90 samples of fruit juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 100% of the samples examined. The mean values of PAT in concentrated fruit juices and in the commercial fruit juices collected from the Greek market were found to be 10.54μg PAT kg(-1) and 5.57μg PAT kg(-1) juice, respectively. The most contaminated samples were four concentrated juices ranging from 18.10μg PAT kg(-1) to 36.8μg PAT kg(-1) juice. The daily exposure to patulin for the consumers of all ages in Greece, is ranging from 0.008μg PAT kg(-1) bw to 0.1μg PAT kg(-1) bw if the daily intake of fruit juices is from 0.1 to 0.5kg. With the exception to the most contaminated sample, the daily exposure due to the samples examined, is below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for PAT (0.4μg PAT kg(-1) bw). Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous processing of Aloe Vera juice in Reverse Osmosis integrated plant

    Nasim, H.; Younas, M.; Feroz, N.; Swati, I.K.

    2012-01-01

    Membrane technology is being applied in the food and beverages industry particularly in fruit juice concentration all over the world. The major advantages are lesser use of energy, better taste of products, and recovery of pure aroma/flavor and ease of operation. The current study is focused on the experimental investigation of clarification and concentration of Aloe juice through membrane separation technique. The experimental procedure consists of Aloe gel followed by pulping, a clarification by filtration and the concentration by reverse osmosis (RO). Experimental rig was integrated with spiral wound TFM-50 membrane, pre-treatment filters, pumps, rota meter and pressure sensors. The effect of feed pressure and temperature was studied on the dynamic behavior of RO integrated plant for water removal and permeate flux. It was found that Aloe juice was concentrated at optimum pressure and temperature of 40 bar and 40 degree C, respectively. (author)

  14. ROOTSTOCK-SCION INTERACTION: 2. EFFECT ON THE COMPOSITION OF CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPE MUST

    ALBERTO MIELE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interaction between rootstock, scion and the environment may induce different responses to the grapevine physiology and, consequently, to the grape composition. The vineyards of Serra Gaúcha, Brazil, are established in different soil types, each with different morphological and physicochemical attributes. Moreover, the grapevines are grafted onto a diversity of rootstocks. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of 15 rootstocks in the composition of the Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grape must. The following rootstocks were used: Rupestris du Lot, 101-14 Mgt., 3309 C, 420A Mgt., 5BB K, 161-49 C, SO4, Solferino, 1103 P, 99 R, 110 R, Gravesac, Fercal, Dogridge and Isabel, featuring some genetic diversity altogether. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with 15 treatments, three replicates, 10 vines per plot. The grapes were harvested at maturity for four years, and then crushed for winemaking. Next, the grape musts were centrifuged to separate the solid phase from the liquid phase, which was used for analyses related to sugar, acidity and minerals. The data were submitted to correlation analysis and Principal Component Analysis. The main results from the average of four years show that, in general, the grape musts of the CS/101-14 Mgt., CS/161-49 C, CS/3309 C, CS/Rupestris du Lot and CS/Gravesac combinations had high values of density, total soluble solids, pH and °Brix/titratable acidity ratio, and low titratable acidity, which was high with CS/99 R, CS/110 R, CS/Dogridge and CS/1103 P. Potassium had higher concentrations in the grape musts of CS/SO4 and CS/5BB K. Titratable acidity did not correlate with density and total soluble solids, but positively correlated with yield. Density, total soluble solids, and the concentration of potassium were positively correlated with pH.

  15. Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.

    Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drinking of chokeberry juice from the ecological farm Dzieciolowo and distensibility of brachial artery in men with mild hypercholesterolemia.

    Poreba, Rafal; Skoczynska, Anna; Gac, Pawel; Poreba, Malgorzata; Jedrychowska, Iwona; Affelska-Jercha, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna; Oszmianski, Jan; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of drinking chokeberry juice on the endothelial function in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. It was shown that chronic treatment with flavonoids improves vascular function and reduces cardiovascular remodelling by increasing NO release from endothelial cells. A group of 35 men diagnosed with mild hypercholesterolemia (mean age: 53.9 +-5.8 years), with no earlier pharmacological treatment, were enrolled to the study. In all men, assessment of endothelial function, and serum lipids level were carried out at four time points: at the beginning of the studies, after 6 weeks of regular drinking of chokeberry juice, after 6 weeks without drinking the juice, then after repeated 6 weeks of drinking chokeberry juice. During the study, significant decreases in serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels were observed. A statistically significant increase in serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration and in the flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were observed. At the beginning, FMD > or = 7 % was present in 13 of 35 subjects (37.1 %). After 6 weeks of regular chokeberry juice drinking, FMD > or = 7 % was present in 29 of 35 subjects (82.9 %). However, after 6 weeks abstaining from drinking the juice and repeated exposure to 6 weeks drinking of chokeberry juice, FMD > or = 7 % was p