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Sample records for grape extracts suppress

  1. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial hyperglycemia is an early defect of type 2 diabetes and one of primary anti-diabetic targets. Treatment of postprandial hyperglycemia can be achieved by inhibiting intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for oligosaccharide digestion and further glucose absorption. Grape pomace is winemaking byproduct rich in bioactive food compounds such as phenolic antioxidants. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of two specific grape pomace extracts by determining their antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities in vitro and in vivo. Methods The extracts of red wine grape pomace (Cabernet Franc and white wine grape pomace (Chardonnay were prepared in 80% ethanol. An extract of red apple pomace was included as a comparison. The radical scavenging activities and phenolic profiles of the pomace extracts were determined through the measurement of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content and flavonoids. The inhibitory effects of the pomace extracts on yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidases were determined. Male 6-week old C57BLKS/6NCr mice were treated with streptozocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic mice were then treated with vehicle or the grape pomace extract to determine whether the oral intake of the extract can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia through the inhibition of intestinal α-glucosidases. Results The red grape pomace extract contained significantly higher amounts of flavonoids and phenolic compounds and exerted stronger oxygen radical absorbance capacity than the red apple pomace extract. Both the grape pomace extracts but not the apple pomace extract exerted significant inhibition on intestinal α-glucosidases and the inhibition appears to be specific. In the animal study, the oral intake of the grape pomace extract (400 mg/kg body weight significantly suppressed the postprandial hyperglycemia by 35% in streptozocin

  2. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Grape Seed Extract Share: On This Page Background How ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about grape seed extract—common names, usefulness and safety, and ...

  3. 21 CFR 73.169 - Grape color extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape color extract. 73.169 Section 73.169 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.169 Grape color extract. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape color extract is an aqueous solution of anthocyanin grape pigments made from...

  4. 21 CFR 73.170 - Grape skin extract (enocianina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grape skin extract (enocianina). 73.170 Section 73... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.170 Grape skin extract (enocianina). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive grape skin extract (enocianina) is a purplish-red liquid prepared by the...

  5. Antibacterial action of an aqueous grape seed polyphenolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract for use as a natural antibacterial agent was evaluated. Pure catechin (CS) and a previously LC-MS characterized grape seed phenolic extract (PE) were evaluated as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli and Brevibacterium linens on solid and in liquid culture media ...

  6. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

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    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  7. Grape marc extract acts as elicitor of plant defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupil, Pascale; Benouaret, Razik; Charrier, Olivia; Ter Halle, Alexandra; Richard, Claire; Eyheraguibel, Boris; Thiery, Denis; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2012-07-01

    Plant protection based on novel alternative strategies is a major concern in agriculture to sustain pest management. The marc extract of red grape cultivars reveals plant defence inducer properties. Treatment with grape marc extract efficiently induced hypersensitive reaction-like lesions with cell death evidenced by Evans Blue staining of tobacco leaves. Examination of the infiltration zone and the surrounding areas under UV light revealed the accumulation of autofluorescent compounds. Both leaf infiltration and a foliar spray of the red grape extract on tobacco leaves induced defence gene expression. The PR1 and PR2 target genes were upregulated locally and systemically in tobacco plants following grape marc extract treatment. The grape extract elicited an array of plant defence responses making this natural compound a potential phytosanitary product with a challenging issue and a rather attractive option for sustainable agriculture and environmentally friendly practices.

  8. The effect of grape-skin extract on oxidative status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, J. F.; Dragsted, L. O.; Daneshvar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption, particularly wine, reduce the risk of CHD. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of grape-skin extract on markers of oxidative status. The study was designed as a randomised crossover. A diet with a low content...... of flavonoids was served with strict control of intake in two consecutive 1-week intervention periods to fifteen subjects (nine women, six men) divided randomly into two groups. During one of the weeks the subjects from either group consumed 200 ml grape-skin extract in water (1 mg extract/ml) at each of three....... Intake of the experimental diet significantly reduced plasma vitamin C and plasma AAS in both groups. This effect was most pronounced in the particular week with no grape-skin extract addition. We speculate that grape-skin extract may have a sparing effect on vitamin C. The effects of the experimental...

  9. Effect of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ozturk, Ismet; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin; Yetim, Hasan

    2011-09-01

    Grape pomace extracts were obtained from 5 different grape varieties grown in Turkey. The extracts were concentrated to obtain crude extracts; and incorporated into beef patties at 0% (Control), 1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% concentrations to test their antimicrobial effects in different storage periods (first, 12, 24, and 48 h). The numbers of microorganism were generally decreased by the extract concentration during the storage period. All the microorganisms tested were inhibited by the extract concentration of 10% in all the storage periods. Furthermore, the foodborne pathogens including Enterobacteriaceae and coliform bacteria, and the spoilage microorganisms including yeasts and moulds and lipolytic bacteria were also inhibited by 5% of Emir, Gamay, and Kalecik Karasi varieties in beef patties. Considering the results, the extracts of grape pomaces might be a good choice in the microbial shelf life extension of the food products as well as inhibiting the food pathogens as the case of beef patties. Grape pomace consists of seeds, skins, and stems, and an important by-product that is well known to be the rich source of phenolic compounds, both flavonoids and non-flavonoids. These substances have considerable beneficial effects on human health. The use of natural antimicrobial compounds, like plant extracts of herbs and spices for the preservation of foods has been very popular issue because of their antimicrobial activity. Therefore, grape pomace should be added into some food formulations to benefit from their protective effects. In this respect, this study reports the effect of addition of grape pomace extracts obtained from different grape varieties on microbial quality of beef patty. The results obtained in this study may be useful for food industry, which has recently tended to use natural antimicrobial sources in place of synthetic preservatives to prevent microbial spoilage. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effect of commercial grape extracts on the cheese-making properties of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; Britten, Michel

    2015-03-01

    Grape extracts can be added to milk to produce cheese with a high concentration of polyphenols. Four commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, and grape skin (2 extracts) were characterized and added to milk at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% (wt/vol). The effect of grape extracts on the kinetics of milk clotting, milk gel texture, and syneresis were determined, and model cheeses were produced. Whole grape and grape seed extracts contained a similar concentration of polyphenolic compounds and about twice the amount found in grape skin extracts. Radical scavenging activity was directly proportional to the phenolic compounds content. When added to milk, grape extracts increased rennet-induced clotting time and decreased the clotting rate. Although differences were observed between the extracts, the concentration added to milk was the main factor influencing clotting properties. With increasing concentrations of grape extracts, milk gels showed increased brittleness and reduced firmness. In addition, syneresis of milk gels decreased with increasing concentrations of grape extracts, which resulted in cheeses with a higher moisture content. The presence of grape extracts in milk slightly increased protein recovery in cheese but had no effect on fat recovery. With whole grape or grape seed extracts added to milk at 0.1% (wt/vol), the recovery coefficient for polyphenols was about 0.63, and decreased with increasing extract concentration in milk. Better polyphenol recovery was observed for grape seed extracts (0.87), with no concentration effect. Commercial extracts from whole grape, grape seed, or grape skin can be added to milk in the 0.1 to 0.3% (wt/vol) concentration range to produce cheese with potential health benefits, without a negative effect on cheese yield. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of Analysis of Polyhenols from Grapes, Wines, and Extracts

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    Pierre-Louis Teissedre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine phenolics are structurally diverse, from simple molecules to oligomers and polymers usually designated as tannins. They have an important impact on the organoleptic properties of wines, that’s why their analysis and quantification are of primordial importance. The extraction of phenolics from grapes and from wines is the first step involved in the analysis. Then, several analytical methods have been developed for the determination of total content of phenolic, while chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses are continuously improved in order to achieve adequate separation of phenolic molecules, their subsequent identification and quantification. This review provides a summary of evolution of analysis of polyphenols from grapes, wines and extracts.

  12. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  13. Effects of grape (vitis labrusca b.) peel and seed extracts on phenolics, antioxidants and anthocyanins in grape juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, K.; Juhaimi, F.; Choi, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape peel and seed are good sources of important bioactive components such as phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidants. Recovery of these components and their proper utilization is important for the development of functional foods. We have utilized the extracts of grape peel and seed obtained by ultrasonic-assisted (UAE) and supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) for the enrichment of Campbell Early grape juice (CEJ). CEJ samples were analyzed for different functional compounds and it was observed that the addition of these extracts in CEJ significantly improved total phenolic compounds, antioxidants, anti radical activities and total anthocyanin contents. HPLC analysis of CEJ samples containing these extracts showed that the phenolic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) and catechins contents were also significantly improved with the addition of grape peel and seed extracts. Generally SFE extracts proved to be of superior quality for the functional enrichment in CEJ. The sensory evaluation revealed that the CEJ samples containing the extracts had good overall acceptability. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the influence of white grape seed extracts as copigment sources on the anthocyanin extraction from grape skins previously classified by near infrared hyperspectral tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Jara-Palacios, María José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Heredia, Francisco José

    2017-04-15

    Hyperspectral imaging has been used to classify red grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) according to their predicted extractable total anthocyanin content (i.e. extractable total anthocyanin content determined by a hyperspectral method). Low, medium and high levels of predicted extractable total anthocyanin content were established. Then, grape skins were split into three parts and each part was macerated into a different model wine solution for a three-day period. Wine model solutions were made up with different concentration of copigments coming from white grape seeds. Aqueous supernatants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and extractable anthocyanin contents were obtained. Principal component analyses and analyses of variance were carried out with the aim of studying trends related to the extractable anthocyanin contents. Significant differences were found among grapes with different levels of predicted extractable anthocyanin contents. Moreover, no significant differences were found on the extractable anthocyanin contents using different copigment concentrations in grape skin macerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Madani, S Hadi; Pendleton, Phillip; Smith, Paul A; Kennedy, James A

    2014-02-05

    The acetone-extractable (70% v/v) skin tannin content of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon grapes was found to increase during late-stage ripening. Conversely, skin tannin content determined following ethanol extraction (10, 20, and 50% v/v) did not consistently reflect this trend. The results indicated that a fraction of tannin became less extractable in aqueous ethanol during ripening. Skin cell walls were observed to become more porous during ripening, which may facilitate the sequestering of tannin as an adsorbed fraction within cell walls. For ethanol extracts, tannin molecular mass increased with advancing ripeness, even when extractable tannin content was constant, but this effect was negligible in acetone extracts. Reconstitution experiments with isolated skin tannin and cell wall material indicated that the selectivity of tannin adsorption by cell walls changed as tannin concentration increased. Tannin concentration, tannin molecular mass, and cell wall porosity are discussed as factors that may influence skin tannin extractability.

  16. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

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    Carmen Garcia-Jares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26% of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible.

  17. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  18. Physical, microbiological and rheological properties of probiotic yogurt supplemented with grape extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Junior, Nelson Nunes Tenório; Gomes, Raquel Guttierres; Dos Santos Pozza, Magali Soares; Britten, Michel; Matumoto-Pintro, Paula Toshimi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, yogurt was supplemented with 1.5 and 3.0 g L -1 of grape extract, inoculated culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus , Lactobacillus bulgaricus , Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bb12 bifidum , fermented and stored at 4 °C. Acid production, microbial growth, gel strength, syneresis, rheological and sensory properties were studied. An increase in grape extract concentration extended fermentation time. Bacterial strains were found in at least 109 CFU100 g -1 of yogurt showing the possibility of probiotic yogurt production with grape extract. Gel strength decreased with increasing concentration of grape extract while syneresis increased. The addition of grape extract changed the dilatant behavior to a pseudoplastic behavior, decreased yield stress, whereas k values increased. Sensory attributes (color, flavor, taste, texture and appearance) didn't differ significantly.

  19. Recent advance on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

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    Zhu FM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fengmei Zhu, Bin Du, Jun Li College of Food Science and Technology, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China Abstract: The grape pomace (including seeds and stems poses potential disposal and pollution problems along with loss of valuable biomass and nutrients. The utilization of grape seeds processing as a source of functional ingredients is a promising field. Grape seed extract provides a concentrated source of polyphenols. Grape seed extract is known as an effective antioxidant that protects the body from premature aging and disease. A number of phytochemicals including resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, etc, have demonstrated significant benefits in cancer chemoprevention. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the antitumor and antioxidant activity of grape seeds polyphenols. Keywords: grape seed, antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, polyphenol, proanthocyanidin

  20. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  1. Characterization of grape seed and pomace oil extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema Çetin, Emine

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the nutrient and antioxidant contents of grape seed and pomace oil extracts from the main Turkish wine grape cultivars, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede and Emir. Dried and powdered seed and pomace materials were extracted with hexane. The results showed that the oil concentration of seeds ranged from 12.35 to 16.00% while in pomace the oil concentration varied from 5.47 to 8.66%. Grape seed and pomace oils were rich in oleic and linoleic acids and the degree of unsaturation in the oils was over 85%. α- tocopherol was the most abundant tocopherol in the oil extracts. Although γ and δ-tocopherols were found with low concentrations, β-tocopherol was not detected in the oil extracts. Oil extracts from pomace in all cultivars gave the highest tocopherol contents compared to the seeds. The contents of total phenolics were higher in pomace oil extracts than seed oil extracts. The highest total phenolic content (392.74 mg/kg was found in the oil extract from Narince pomace compared to the other oil extracts. The refractive indexes of pomace oil extracts ranged from 1.445 to 1.468 while the refractive indexes of the seed oil extracts ranged from 1.460 and 1.466. In conclusion, wine byproducts including the seeds and pomace can be utilized both to get natural antioxidants and to obtain edible vegetable oil.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los contenidos de nutrientes y antioxidantes de extractos de aceite de orujo y pepita de uva de los principales cultivares de uva de Turquía, Kalecik karas1, Narince, Hasandede y Emir. El material procedente del orujo y las semillas, seco y pulverizado, se extrajo con hexano. Los resultados mostraron que la concentración de aceite de las semillas osciló entre 12,35 y 16,00 % mientras que en el aceite de orujo la concentración varió entre 5,47 y 8,66%. Los aceites de orujo y pepita de uva eran ricos en ácido oleico y linoleico y su grado de instauraci

  2. Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Richter, Marc François; Silva, Andréia Loviane da; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-07-18

    The goal of this paper is to optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of vitamin E from grape seed oil from residues of the wine industry. For this purpose an experimental planning to optimize the extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil by means of PLE with hexane as solvent was applied and the results are compared with conventional methods (Soxhlet and mechanical press extraction). Vitamin E was separated and analyzed using HPLC with UV detection. This study demonstrates the ability of the PLE in extracting grape seed oil rich in vitamin E.

  3. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated red grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    This investigation aims to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted red grape seeds at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy). The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted red grape seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) immediately after irradiation and the antioxidant activity were studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted red grape seeds. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a β-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined in the extracts of defatted red grape seeds. The results indicated that extracts of defatted red grape seeds possess marked antioxidant activities, especially control samples compared with irradiated samples. The analysis by GC /MS led to identification of 41, 31, 33 and 28 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples at doses 1,3 and 5 kGy, respectively. It appears that grape seeds extract could be very effective in inhibiting lipid oxidation of sunflower oil. Thus, according to the results of this study, the extract of defatted red grape seeds may be used as a new potential source of natural antioxidant for food

  4. Effect of pressurized hot water extraction on antioxidants from grape pomace before and after enological fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Bulnes, Pedro; Zúñiga, María Carolina; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Mateos-Martín, María Luisa; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2013-07-17

    Grape pomace was extracted with pressurized hot water at laboratory scale before and after fermentation to explore the effects of fermentation and extraction temperature (50-200 °C) and time (5 and 30 min) on total extracted antioxidant levels and activity and to determine the content and recovery efficiency of main grape polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins. Fermented pomace yielded more total antioxidants (TAs), antioxidant activity, and tannins, than unfermented pomace but fewer anthocyanins. Elevating the extraction temperature increased TA extraction and antioxidant activity. Maximum anthocyanin extraction yields were achieved at 100 °C and at 150 °C for tannins and tannin-anthocyanin adducts. Using higher temperatures and longer extraction times resulted in a sharp decrease of polyphenol extraction yield. Relevant proanthocyanidin amounts were extracted only at 50 and 100 °C. Finally, TA recovery and activity were not directly related to the main polyphenol content when performing pressurized hot water grape pomace extraction.

  5. Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.

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    Keishi Narita

    Full Text Available Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml. By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey, failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection.

  6. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

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    Jochen Weiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w% was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%. Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%, whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%. The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan.

  7. Use of near infrared hyperspectral tools for the screening of extractable polyphenols in red grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes were recorded at harvest time using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with red grape skin extractable polyphenols (total phenolic, anthocyanins and flavanols) by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pretreatments. The obtained results (coefficient of determination (RSQ) and standard error of prediction (SEP), respectively) for the developed models were: 0.82 and 0.92 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable total phenolic content, 0.79 and 0.63 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable anthocyanin content, 0.82 and 0.45 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable flavanol content. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of the extractable polyphenolic compounds in intact grapes. Moreover, the heterogeneity of extractable polyphenols within the ripeness stage has been also evaluated using the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction with conventional extraction methods of oil and polyphenols from grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Porto, Carla; Porretto, Erica; Decorti, Deborha

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (US) carried out at 20 KHz, 150 W for 30 min gave grape seed oil yield (14% w/w) similar to Soxhlet extraction (S) for 6 h. No significant differences for the major fatty acids was observed in oils extracted by S and US at 150 W. Instead, K232 and K268 of US- oils resulted lower than S-oil. From grape seeds differently defatted (S and US), polyphenols and their fractions were extracted by maceration for 12 h and by ultrasound-assisted extraction for 15 min. Sonication time was optimized after kinetics study on polyphenols extraction. Grape seed extracts obtained from seeds defatted by ultrasound (US) and then extracted by maceration resulted the highest in polyphenol concentration (105.20mg GAE/g flour) and antioxidant activity (109 Eq αToc/g flour). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

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    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  10. Influence of freezing skin grapes to extract phenolic compounds during red wine maceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegria M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality depends on phenolic and aromatic compounds that are mainly located in skins and seeds of grapes and can be better extracted if suitable extraction technologies are applied. An increase in extractability has impact in the mouth feel, color and age ability of the wines. Using liquid or solid CO2 is a way to promote the breakdown of the cells membranes and enhance extraction of these compounds and protecting grapes and wine from oxidation. The main goal was to test the impact of solid CO2 addition to destemmed grapes with a new CO2 dispenser equipment in order to freeze the berry skins and improve the phenolic extraction in an economic and sustainable way in cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir. The experiment designed for both cultivars was a treatment with CO2 addition and a control without CO2 addition each one with three replicates. Destemmed grapes submitted to carbonic snow reached temperature of the skins between − 1 and − 4 °C during four minutes under equipment treatment. The consumption of carbon dioxide was estimated around 0.3(kg ⋅kg−1CO2 per berries. Wines of Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir from fresh grapes and frozen grapes were made and were being compared in phenolic composition and sensory attributes.

  11. Grape extract protects against γ-radiation-induced membrane damage strains of human erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subir Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The membrane integrity of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) is compromised by the deleterious actions of γ-radiation in humans. Grapes are the richest source of antioxidants due to presence of potentially bioactive phytochemicals. The objective of the present study was to assess the radioprotective actions of grape extracts against the γ-radiation-induced membrane permeability of human erythrocytes. The scavenging activities in seeds of grape in DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, were higher than skin or pulp of different cultivars. Grape extracts also showed appreciable extent of total antioxidant capacity and effective antihemolytic action. Grape extracts significantly ameliorated the γ-radiation-induced increase of the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, an index of lipid peroxidation) in the RBC membrane ghosts. Stored blood showed higher levels of K + ion as compared to the normal blood which was elevated by γ-radiation. Membrane ATPase was inhibited by the exposure to γ-radiation.Treatment of RBCs with the grape extracts prior to the exposure of γ-radiation significantly mitigated these changes in the erythrocyte membranes caused by the lower dose of radiation (4 Gy). (author)

  12. Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Chen, Lei-An; Stahlecker, Avery C; Cousins, Peter; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-11-02

    In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r 2 = 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.

  13. Grape seed extract for control of human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ∼7 log(10) PFU/ml or ∼5 log(10) PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (∼7 log(10) PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log(10) PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log(10) PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log(10) PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log(10) PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

  14. Grape seed extract ameliorates bleomycin-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Jiang, Jun-Xia; Liu, Ya-Nan; Ge, Ling-Tian; Guan, Yan; Zhao, Wei; Jia, Yong-Liang; Dong, Xin-Wei; Sun, Yun; Xie, Qiang-Min

    2017-05-05

    Pulmonary fibrosis is common in a variety of inflammatory lung diseases, such as interstitial pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and silicosis. There is currently no effective clinical drug treatment. It has been reported that grape seed extracts (GSE) has extensive pharmacological effects with minimal toxicity. Although it has been found that GSE can improve the lung collagen deposition and fibrosis pathology induced by bleomycin in rat, its effects on pulmonary function, inflammation, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases and epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain to be researched. In the present study, we studied whether GSE provided protection against bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis. ICR strain mice were treated with BLM in order to establish pulmonary fibrosis models. GSE was given daily via intragastric administration for three weeks starting at one day after intratracheal instillation. GSE at 50 or 100mg/kg significantly reduced BLM-induced inflammatory cells infiltration, proinflammatory factor protein expression, and hydroxyproline in lung tissues, and improved pulmonary function in mice. Additionally, treatment with GSE also significantly impaired BLM-induced increases in lung fibrotic marker expression (collagen type I alpha 1 and fibronectin 1) and decreases in an anti-fibrotic marker (E-cadherin). Further investigation indicated that the possible molecular targets of GSE are matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) and TGF-β1, given that treatment with GSE significantly prevented BLM-induced increases in MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Together, these results suggest that supplementation with GSE may improve the quality of life of lung fibrosis patients by inhibiting MMP-9 and TGF-β1 expression in the lungs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  16. Extraction of grape seed oil using compressed carbon dioxide and propane: extraction yields and characterization of free glycerol compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Dariva, Cláudio; Jacques, Rosângela Assis; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2008-04-23

    The main objective of this work was to compare the extraction of grape seed oil with compressed carbon dioxide and propane on the extraction yields and chemical characteristics of free glycerol compounds. The experiments were performed in a laboratory scale unit in the temperature range of 30 to 60 degrees C and pressures from 60 to 254 bar. The results showed that propane is a more suitable solvent for grape seed oil extraction than carbon dioxide, as higher extractions yields and a very fast kinetic of extraction were achieved with this solvent. In relation to compressed carbon dioxide extractions, both temperature and density presented a very pronounced and positive effect on the extraction yield. The oils extracted were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively with regard to the free glycerol compounds, mainly fatty acids, ethyl, and methyl esters. The results showed that these compounds are present in low concentration in vegetable oil (oil than samples extracted with carbon dioxide.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml).

  18. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  19. Regulation of proliferation and gene expression in cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells by resveratrol and standardized grape extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhirong; Chen Yan; Labinskyy, Nazar; Hsieh Tzechen; Ungvari, Zoltan; Wu, Joseph M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that low to moderate consumption of red wine is inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease; the protection is in part attributed to grape-derived polyphenols, notably trans-resveratrol, present in red wine. It is not clear whether the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol can be reproduced by standardized grape extracts (SGE). In the present studies, we determined, using cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC), growth and specific gene responses to resveratrol and SGE provided by the California Table Grape Commission. Suppression of HASMC proliferation by resveratrol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumor suppressor gene p53 and heat shock protein HSP27. Using resveratrol affinity chromatography and biochemical fractionation procedures, we showed by immunoblot analysis that treatment of HASMC with resveratrol increased the expression of quinone reductase I and II, and also altered their subcellular distribution. Growth of HASMC was significantly inhibited by 70% ethanolic SGE; however, gene expression patterns in various cellular compartments elicited in response to SGE were substantially different from those observed in resveratrol-treated cells. Further, SGE also differed from resveratrol in not being able to induce relaxation of rat carotid arterial rings. These results indicate that distinct mechanisms are involved in the regulation of HASMC growth and gene expression by SGE and resveratrol

  20. Could grape seed extract modulate nephritic damage induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methomex (Metho) is classified as a carbamate insecticide. The present study was designed to examine the influence of grape seed oil (GSO) on the histopathological changes in methomex-induced kidney damage in male rats. Rats were divided into 6 groups, the first of which was considered as the control. The 2nd group ...

  1. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and optimization of a semicontinuous hot-cold extraction of polyphenols from grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Jeana K; Srinivas, Keerthi; Howard, Luke R; King, Jerry W

    2012-06-06

    Grape pomace contains appreciable amounts of polyphenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and procyanidins which can be recovered for use as food supplements. The extraction of these polyphenols from the pomace is usually accomplished at slightly elevated temperatures, frequently employing hydroethanolic solvents. Due to governmental regulations and the cost involved in using ethanol as a solvent, as well as the loss in polyphenolics due to thermal degradation, improved extraction techniques are required. In this study, a semicontinuous extraction apparatus employing only water was developed to maximize the recovery of anthocyanins and procyanidins from red grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Water is preheated prior to its entry to the extraction cell containing the grape pomace sample, where it is allowed to then flow continuously through the unheated extraction vessel prior to its collection at ambient conditions. Extraction variables that impacted the polyphenolic recovery included pomace moisture content (crude or dried), sample mass, water flow rate, and extraction temperature. A response surface method was used to analyze the results from the extraction, and the optimal conditions were found to be 140 °C and 9 mL/min water flow rate. These conditions can produce an extract containing 130 mg/100 g DW of anthocyanins and 2077 mg/100 g DW of procyanidins. Higher yields of polyphenolics were observed using crude (wet) rather than dried pomace, hence avoiding the need to dry the pomace prior to extraction. The described semicontinuous extraction method using only water as the extraction solvent under subcritical conditions allowed the efficient extraction of polyphenols from red grape pomace without the attendant loss of polyphenolic content due to having to heat the extraction vessel prior to commencement of extraction.

  3. Optimized techniques for the extraction of grape allergens appropriate for in vivo and in vitro testing and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilopoulou, Emilia V.; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Akkerdaas, Jaap; Rigby, Neil; Moren, F. Javier; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Saxoni-Papageorgiou, Photini; Milis, Clare; van Ree, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Standardized allergen extracts are needed for diagnosis and therapy purposes. For grapes, standardization is hampered by low protein and high tannin and pectin concentrations. The aim of the current study was to develop an optimized method for the extraction of grape proteins and possibly extend

  4. In vitro extraction and fermentation of polyphenols from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) by human intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Wei; Huang, Jun; Ding, Yu; Pan, Zhouqiang; Zhao, Ya; Zhang, Renkang; Hu, Bing; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-04-01

    The effects of several parameters on the extraction yield of total polyphenols from grape seeds by pressurized liquid extraction were investigated. The highest recovery of total polyphenols occurred at 80 °C within 5 min, and a single extraction allowed a recovery of more than 97% of total polyphenols. Following the purification with macroporous resin, the effects of grape polyphenols (>94.8%) on human intestinal microbiota were monitored over 36 h incubation by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured by HPLC. The result showed that the grape polyphenols promoted the changes in the relevant microbial populations and shifted the profiles of SCFAs. Fermentation of grape polyphenols resulted in a significant increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus group and inhibition in the growth of the Clostridium histolyticum group and the Bacteroides-Prevotella group, with no significant effect on the population of total bacteria. The findings suggest that grape polyphenols have potential prebiotic effects on modulating the gut microbiota composition and generating SCFAs that contribute to the improvements of host health.

  5. Multi-experimental characterization of grape skin extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, L.; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Zemanová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2008), S43-S48 ISSN 1212-1800. [National Conference on Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : EPR * grape skin * PFE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  6. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba M. Abdou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  7. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Saxena, S.; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. DNA damage was evaluated in acellular system using pBR322 plasmid relaxation. Grape extract was able to effectively scavenge free radicals in vitro. It could significantly prevent radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract and type of the cultivars. (author)

  8. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effect of Grape Seed and Green Tea Extracts on Durability of Tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Golvardzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study tried to investigate the antioxidant and anti-bacterial effects of green tea and grape seed extract (with a volume of 2% on durability of Tilapia packed inpolyethylene bags, which were kept in cool temperature of 4 ± 1 °C. Methods: Prepared fish were divided into 3 batches: 2 batches were treated by dipping for 30 min in ethanolic of green tea extract (2% v/v and grape seed (2% v/v, respectively, while the third batch was dipped in distilled water as a control sample. The control and treated fish samples were analyzed for microbiological such as total volatile count and psychrotrophic count, and chemical such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA, and free fatty acid (FFA values. The sensory characteristic was over a period of 20 days. Results: The results indicated that the two extracts' treatments delayed significantly (P < 0.05. Lipid oxidation and process of spoilage in comparison with the psychrotrophic bacteria and total viable count control also remained lower than the proposed acceptable limit (7 log CFU/g. According to sensory, chemical, and microbiological analyses results, the treatment of grape seed extract had high quality and enhanced the beneficial effects on sensory characteristics in comparison with other treatments. Conclusions: the present study showed that the grape seed extract and green tea were very effective in extending the shelf life of Tilapia during refrigerated storage.

  9. Extraction of bioactive polyphenols from grape marc by a matrix solid-phase dispersion method

    OpenAIRE

    Lores, Marta; Iglesias Estévez, María; Álvarez Casas, Marta; Llompart Vizoso, María; García Jares, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion process to extract polyphenols from grape marc, a winemaking byproduct, has been optimized by Response Surface Methodology. The dependent variables evaluated were the total polyphenols content, flavanols, hydrocynnamates, and flavonoids. The performance of the extraction method in terms of linearity and precision has also been assessed. The optimized MSPD method provides good results to extract polyphenols from white winemaking byproducts, much less studied tha...

  10. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-04-08

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  11. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  12. Grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract as suppressors of bone destruction in inflammatory autoimmune arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sil Park

    Full Text Available Chronic autoimmune inflammation, which is commonly observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, disrupts the delicate balance between bone resorption and formation causing thedestruction of the bone and joints. We undertook this study to verify the effects of natural grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE, an antioxidant, on chronic inflammation and bone destruction. GSPE administration ameliorated the arthritic symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, which are representative of cartilage and bone destruction. GSPE treatment reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and osteoclast activity and increased differentiation of mature osteoblasts. Receptor activator of NFκB ligand expression in fibroblasts from RA patients was abrogated with GSPE treatment. GSPE blocked human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived osteoclastogenesis and acted as an antioxidant. GSPE improved the arthritic manifestations of CIA mice by simultaneously suppressing osteoclast differentiation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that GSPE may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated bone destruction.

  13. The effects of oral grape seed extract on Cisplatin-induced cytogenotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, Sabry M.; Helal, Gouda K.; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F.; Mansour, Ahmed M.; El-Sayed, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible chemoprotective activity of orally administered grape seed extract (GSE) against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity towards mouse somatic and germinal cells in vivo. Pretreatment of mice with GSE (100mg/kg/day) for 7 days and simultaneously with a single dose of cisplatin (2.2 or 5.5 mg/kg, i.p.) for another day, significantly reduced the frequency of bone marrow micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by factors of 1.9 and 1.28, respectively. Furthermore, GSF caused a reduction in bone marrow suppression induced by cisplatin treatment, particularly before the lower dose. In mail germline, orally administration of GSE (100mg/kg/day) for 7 consecutive days before and 7 consecutives days after treatment with a single dose of cisplatin (2.2 or 5.5 mg/kg, i.p.), significantly elevated the levels of sperm motility reduced by cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, GSE significantly decreased the elevated levels sperm head abnormality induced with cisplatin by factors of 1.6 and 1.2, respectively. Our results indicate that GSE plays a role in attenuating the genotoxicity induced by cisplatin and many provide the development of secondary malignancy and abnormal reproductive outcomes risk. (author)

  14. Anticarcinogenic activity of polyphenolic extracts from grape stems against breast, colon, renal and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpazidou, Despina; Geromichalos, George D; Stagos, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Anna; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Tzanakakis, George N; Hayes, A Wallace; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2014-10-15

    A major part of the wineries' wastes is composed of grape stems which are discarded mainly in open fields and cause environmental problems due mainly to their high polyphenolic content. The grape stem extracts' use as a source of high added value polyphenols presents great interest because this combines a profitable venture with environmental protection close to wine-producing zones. In the present study, at first, the Total Polyphenolic Content (TPC) and the polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts from four different Greek Vitis vinifera varieties were determined by HPLC methods. Afterwards, the grape stem extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit growth of colon (HT29), breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-23), renal (786-0 and Caki-1) and thyroid (K1) cancer cells. The cancer cells were exposed to the extracts for 72 h and the effects on cell growth were evaluated using the SRB assay. The results indicated that all extracts inhibited cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of 121-230 μg/ml (MCF-7), 121-184 μg/ml (MDA-MD-23), 175-309 μg/ml (HT29), 159-314 μg/ml (K1), 180-225 μg/ml (786-0) and 134->400 μg/ml (Caki-1). This is the first study presenting the inhibitory activity of grape stem extracts against growth of colon, breast, renal and thyroid cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOUTZOURELAS, NIKOLAOS; STAGOS, DIMITRIOS; SPANIDIS, YPATIOS; LIOSI, MARIA; APOSTOLOU, ANNA; PRIFTIS, ALEXANDROS; HAROUTOUNIAN, SERKO; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  16. Comparison of extraction protocols to determine differences in wine-extractable tannin and anthocyanin in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, Keren A; Kassara, Stella; Cynkar, Wieslawa U; Robinson, Ella M C; Scrimgeour, Neil; Smith, Paul A

    2014-05-21

    Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapes were sourced from different regions within Australia, and microvinified with a skin contact period of 6 days. Grape samples were extracted using two protocols: a 15% v/v ethanol, 10 g/L tartaric acid extract of gently crushed berries (wine-like, WL) and a 50% v/v ethanol, pH 2 extract of grape berry homogenate. It was found that in WL extracts, grape tannin and anthocyanin concentrations were strongly related to wine tannin, anthocyanin and color density achieved during the skin contact period. No relationship was observed for grape tannin concentration analyzed in homogenate extracts and wine tannin, but a strong, positive relationship was found for anthocyanin concentration. When the data obtained from homogenate extraction was treated separately by grape variety, a stronger relationship between grape and wine tannin concentration was observed. Tannin compositional analysis in wines indicated that higher tannin concentrations were due to the extraction of tannin of higher molecular mass during fermentation, most likely from grape skins.

  17. Which is the best grape seed additive for frankfurters: extract, oil or flour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2014-03-15

    Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. An innovative grape juice enriched in polyphenols by microwave-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Bittar, Sheiraz; Périno-Issartier, Sandrine; Dangles, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2013-12-01

    The grape juice by-product obtained from grape traditional press was extracted by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG); a green extraction technique preliminarily optimized at 1 W/g. The MHG extract (MHGE) was analyzed by HPLC for identification and quantification of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds. Then, MHGE was added to the natural juice (NJ) to produce an innovative grape juice (IJ). These three juices were evaluated for their total polyphenol content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) in addition to their sensorial characteristics. MHGE showed the highest values of TPC (21.41±0.04 mg GAE/g DW), TAC (4.49±0.01 μg MVGE/g DW). Moreover, IJ (grape juice enriched with MHGE) was richer in TPC (6.70±0.0 1mg GAE/g DW) and TAC (3.96±0.01 μg MVGE/g DW) than NJ (2.90±0.02 mg GAE/g DW and 3.63±0.06 μg MVGE/g DW, respectively). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumption of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape-Wine Extract Lowers Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Draijer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two grape extracts on BP and vascular function was assessed in 60 untreated, mildly hypertensive subjects after four weeks intervention. Both extracts (grape-red wine and grape alone had high concentrations of anthocyanins and flavonols, but the grape alone was relatively poor in catechins and procyanidins. Parameters measured included ambulatory and office BP, flow-mediated vasodilation, arterial distensibility, platelet function and plasma lipoproteins. Results showed that 24-hour ambulatory systolic/diastolic BPs were significantly lower in the grape-wine extract intervention (135.9 ± 1.3/84.7 ± 0.8 mmHg; mean ± SEM compared to placebo (138.9 ± 1.3/86.6 ± 1.2 mmHg, predominantly during daytime. Plasma concentrations of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 decreased by 10%, but other measures of vascular function were not affected. Grape juice extract alone had no effect on BP or any measures of vascular function. Polyphenol-rich food products, and may be specifically catechins and procyanidins, may thus help sustain a healthy BP and contribute to the healthy Mediterranean lifestyle.

  20. A mixed grape and blueberry extract is safe for dogs to consume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Leray, Véronique; Lepoudere, Anne; Blanchard, Géraldine; Bensalem, Julien; Gaudout, David; Ouguerram, Khadija; Nguyen, Patrick

    2016-08-03

    Grape and blueberry extracts are known to protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, beneficial effects achieved by mixing grape and blueberry extracts have yet to be evaluated in dogs, or their bioavailability assessed. Of concern to us were cases of acute renal failure in dogs, after their ingestion of grapes or raisins. The European Pet Food Industry Federation (2013) considers only the grape or raisin itself to be potentially dangerous; grape-seed extracts per-se, are not considered to be a threat. Our aim was therefore to evaluate the renal and hepatic safety, and measure plasma derivatives of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB; from the Neurophenols Consortium) in dogs. Polyphenol expression was analyzed by UHPLC-MS/MS over 8 hours, for dogs given PEGB at 4 mg/kg. Safety was evaluated using four groups of 6 dogs. These groups received capsules containing no PEGB (control), or PEGB at 4, 20, or 40 mg/kg BW/d, for 24 weeks. Blood and urine samples were taken the week prior to study commencement, then at the end of the 24-wk study period. Routine markers of renal and liver damage, including creatinine (Creat), blood urea nitrogen, albumin, minerals, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured. Biomarkers for early renal damage were also evaluated in plasma (cystatin C (CysC), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)), and urine (CysC, clusterin (Clu), and NGAL). Ratios of urinary biomarkers to Creat were calculated, and compared with acceptable maximal values obtained for healthy dogs, as reported in the literature. While several PEGB-specific polyphenols and metabolites were detected in dog plasma, at the end of the PEGB consumption period, our biomarker analyses presented no evidence of either renal or liver damage (Creat, BUN, ionogram, albumin and ALT, ALP). Similarly, no indication of early renal damage could be detected. Plasma CysC, urinary CysC/Creat, Clu/Creat, and NGAL

  1. Grape seed and skin extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced renal lipotoxicity and prevents copper depletion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Ben Hassine, Fethy; El May, Michèle Veronique; El May, Ahmed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem that contributes to morbidity and mortality from diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and cancers. The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the link between obesity-induced oxidative stress, renal steatosis, and kidney dysfunction, as well as the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract. Rats were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and were either treated or not treated with grape seed and skin extract. Fat-induced oxidative stress was evaluated in the kidney with a special emphasis on transition metals. High-fat diet induced triglyceride deposition and disturbances in kidney function parameters, which are linked to an oxidative stress status and depletion of copper from the kidney. Grape seed and skin extract abrogated almost all fat-induced kidney disturbances. Grape seed and skin extract exerted potential protection against fat-induced kidney lipotoxicity and should find potential application in other kidney-related diseases.

  2. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  3. Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

    2007-11-01

    Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation with a mixed blueberry and grape extract on working memory in aged beagle dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fragua, V.; Lepoudère, A.; Leray, V.; Baron, C.; Araujo, J. A.; Nguyen, P.; Milgram, N. W.

    2017-01-01

    Cellular oxidative damage is thought to be one of the key mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. Several nutritional interventions to limit cognitive decline are reported in the literature. To our knowledge, the association of grape and blueberry extracts has never been tested in aged dogs. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB) on oxidative status and cognitive performances in aged dogs. A total of thirty...

  5. Optimization of the extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brad, K.; Liu, W.

    2013-01-01

    The extraction of flavonoids from grape leaves was optimized to maximize flavonoids yield in this study. A central composite design of response surface methodology involving extracting time, power, liquid-solid ratio, and concentration was used, and second-order model for Y was employed to generate the response surfaces. The optimum condition for flavonoids yield was determined as follows: extracting time 24.95 min, power 72.05, ethanol concentration 63.35%, liquid-solid ratio 10.04. Under the optimum condition, the flavonoids yield was 76.84 %. (author)

  6. Remineralization of Artificial Caries in Primary Teeth by Grape Seed Extract: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkarimi, Mahkameh; Eskandarion, Solmauz; Bargrizan, Majid; Delazar, Abbas; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37ºC and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized ...

  7. Characterization of an Antioxidant-Enriched Beverage from Grape Musts and Extracts of Winery and Grapevine By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabita Aguilar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of antioxidants from complex winery and grapevine by-products into Vitis vinifera must offers new opportunities for wine grapes by the development of a new, enriched fruit juice. However, this demands the search for new valorization methods to get hold of additional antioxidant compounds. The objective of this study was to find a novel functionality for grape pomace, grapevine leaves, and canes by its reuse as a functional matrix for the extraction of antioxidants into grape must. After thermomaceration, 22 polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Grape pomace was a good source of anthocyanins (malvidin-3-glucoside, while flavonols (quercetin-3-hexoside and phenolic acids (caftaric acid were the main phenolic compounds in leaf extracts. Catechin dimer was the only polyphenol compound present in all of the matrices. Enriched grape juice comprised by 40:20:40 (v/v/v of pomace, leaf, and cane extracts, yielded an oxygen radical absorbance capacity of pirogallol red and fluorescein ratio of 0.70, indicating that the reactivity of antioxidants present in enriched grape juice was at least as efficient as other polyphenol-rich beverages. Thus, pomace, leaves and canes supply additional polyphenols to grape must that results into a beverage with promissory antioxidant activity and potential health benefits.

  8. Aroma Potential in Early- and Late-Maturity Pinot noir Grapes Evaluated by Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Qian, Michael C

    2016-01-20

    Aroma potentials in early and late maturity Pinot noir grapes were investigated in two consecutive vintages. The grape samples were hydrolyzed under acidic conditions, and the released odorants were studied by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Forty-nine main odor-active compounds were detected in the AEDA. The odorants released with high flavor dilution values were 1-hexanal, β-damascenone, guaiacol, and vanillin, together with C6-aldehydes and -alcohols, 4-vinylguaiacol, 4-vinylphenol, and 1-octen-3-one. The concentrations of aroma-active compounds were further quantitated. Compared with early harvest grapes, late harvest grapes released more β-damascenone, vanillin, 4-vinylguaiacol, and 4-vinylphenol in both years according to both AEDA and quantitation results, suggesting they were important aroma compounds that contribute to the characteristic of matured Pinot noir grapes.

  9. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (pextract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (pextract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  10. Thermal Stability Study of the Grape Seeds Extracts in the Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pop

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of parameters the extraction process of grape seeds extracts on the bioactive compounds. The aqueous extracts were screened for total polyphenol content and total flavonoid content wich were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al (NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH method while  their polyphenolic composition by means of HPLC-DAD- MS/ ESI(+ analysis. Total phenols content and flavonoid content varied between 37.835 and 31.830 mg GAE/g, 23.420 and 17.645 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Neagră seeds; between 24.265 and 27.065 mg GAE/g, 17.970 and 15.205 mg QE/g respectively in Fetească Regală seeds. All extracts showed remarkable DPPH radical-scavenging activity ranging from 94.110 to 95.515%. The study revealed 14 phenolic compounds belonging to the following groups: flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acid and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Quantitative differences among the varieties and the level of temperature applied of  the extraction process were observed. The results suggested that the heat treatment of grape seeds liberated phenolic compounds having a significant effect in increasing the amounts of active when a 90°C extraction temperature was used.

  11. Pesticide extraction from table grapes and plums using ionic liquid based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelo-Pérez, Lidia M; Hernández-Borges, Javier; Herrera-Herrera, Antonio V; Rodríguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2009-12-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been used as extraction solvents in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the determination of eight multi-class pesticides (i.e. thiophanate-methyl, carbofuran, carbaryl, tebuconazole, iprodione, oxyfluorfen, hexythiazox, and fenazaquin) in table grapes and plums. The developed method involves the combination of DLLME and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Samples were first homogenized and extracted with acetonitrile. After evaporation and reconstitution of the extract in water containing sodium chloride, a quick DLLME procedure that used the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)MIM][PF(6)]) and methanol was developed. The RTIL dissolved in a very small volume of acetonitrile was directed injected in the chromatographic system. The comparison between the calibration curves obtained from standards and from spiked sample extracts (matrix-matched calibration) showed the existence of a strong matrix effect for most of the analyzed pesticides. A recovery study was also developed with five consecutive extractions of the two types of fruits spiked at three concentration levels. Mean recovery values were in the range of 72-100% for table grapes and 66-105% for plum samples (except for thiophanate-methyl and carbofuran, which were 64-75% and 58-66%, respectively). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.651-5.44 microg/kg for table grapes and 0.902-6.33 microg/kg for plums, representing LODs below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union in these fruits. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing 12 commercial fruit samples (six of each type).

  12. Exploring the Anticancer Activity of Grape Seed Extract on Skin Cancer Cell Lines A431

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mohansrinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, grape seeds were extracted using ethyl acetate and petroleum ether by solvent-solvent extraction method. The phytochemical tests were performed to identify different phytochemical compounds present in the grape seed extract (GSE. Antibacterial activity of the GSE was determined using agar diffusion method against Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis was done to identify the presence of bioactive compounds and their functional groups. The GC-MS results revealed a total of four compounds, known to have potent activity against cancer cells, viz, squalene, the most potent compound found in ethyl acetate extract and diethyl phthalate, ethyl-9- cis -11- trans octadecadienoate and (R-(--14,-methyl-8-Hexadecyn-1-ol in petroleum ether extract. Cytotoxic activity of the GSE was observed against skin cancer cell lines A4321 using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2-5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay. The IC50 value of the GSE against A431 skin cancer cell line was 480 µg/mL. This is first such report against A4321 cell lines. The study gives the overall perception about importance of GSE in medicine and nutraceuticals purposes.

  13. Characterisation of Mediterranean Grape Pomace Seed and Skin Extracts: Polyphenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI] were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70] for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively. These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW. Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes.

  14. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (red blood cell)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar; Gautam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated and compared in vitro antioxidant activity and DNA damage protective property of the grape extracts of four different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (p<0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly among extracts of any cultivar. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  15. Antimicrobial properties of black grape (Vitis vinifera L.) peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker

    2015-01-01

    Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts.

  16. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial Intervention by Photoirradiation of Grape Pomace Extracts via Hydroxyl Radical Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Niwano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The annual production of grape worldwide amounts to almost 70 million tons, and around 80% is used for winemaking. The two major wastes from winemaking process, pomace and lees account for 20 and 7% of the grapes, respectively. They have been expected as a valuable resource to be recycled because they are rich in polyphenols. Polyphenols possess prooxidatve activity as well as antioxidative one just like a two sides of a coin. A typical example of the prooxidative activity is antibacterial activity of catechins. The activity is exerted through oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl moiety coulpled with reduction of dissolved oxygen leading to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 generation. In addition, once the oxidation of phenolic hydroxyl moiety is augmented by photoirradiation, highly reactive hydroxyl radical (·OH is generated. Accordingly, there have been several reports showing that photoirardiation of polyphenols exerts bactericidal activity via ·OH generation. This review focuses mainly on antimicrobial intervention by photoirradiation of grape pomace extract in relation to ·OH generation analyzed by an electron spin resonance-spin trapping method.

  18. Polymer-associated liposomes for the oral delivery of grape pomace extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Maria; Marongiu, Francesca; Castangia, Ines; Manca, Maria Letizia; Caddeo, Carla; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; D'hallewin, Guy; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2016-10-01

    The pomaces from red grapes were used as a source of phenolic antioxidants, which are known to have health-promoting effects. Environmentally-friendly extraction strategies were investigated to improve the rate and recovery of an extract with high phenolic content and antioxidant activity, which were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, ABTS(+), CUPRAC and FRAP assays. The extract was incorporated in liposomes, which were stabilized by the addition of a natural polysaccharide, sodium alginate or arabic gum, widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries as thickeners and stabilizers. Results showed that the polymer-associated liposomes were approximately 300nm in size, spherical in shape, and with high entrapment efficiency. The polymers prevented vesicle degradation in the gastric environment, and played a key role in improving liposomes' performances, especially arabic gum. The polymer-associated liposomes were biocompatible and protected Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress. The achieved results suggest a potential application of the polymer-associated liposomes loaded with the grape pomace extract in the nutraceutical field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Copper and Nickel Determination in Grape Extract Cultured around Marvast City,Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most critical problems in the field of water and food pollution is the heavy metal pollution. Agricultural products are exposed to this type of contamination through wastewater; industrial activity and population pollutions are also in its area. Since the plant in the affected areas can directly enter heavy metals into the food chain, so, it is important to check their level of contamination. The purpose of this study was to monitor distribution of copper and nickel in the grape cultured in the farms around Marvast in Yazd province. Methods: All chemicals were of analytical grade. In order to determine the level of copper and nickel in grape extracts produced from the most important areas in grape production, 7 samples of grape were taken from these geographic regions. After grinding and homogenizing of samples, the concentration of nickel and copper, heavy metals were measured by atomic absorption spectrometer. The obtained results were analyzed through SPSS software based on statistical methods. Results: The mean value of copper and nickel were 26.4 ± 3.1 and 12.3 ± 1.5 μg/kg, respectively. According to the obtained results and their comparison with standards, different amounts of copper and nickel were observed in all samples, however, the highest amount of these metals was observed in one sample. Conclusions: Concentrations of heavy metals in samples from different regions were lower than the maximum allowable concentration of copper and nickel. Although, the amount of these metals in one sample, known as pollution indicator, suggested that this area can be exposed to both.

  1. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values.

  2. Effect of Simultaneous Use of Ritalin with Grape Seed Extract on Passive Avoidance Learning in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Karimizadeh Moneh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ritalin is one of the drugs used in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This study aimed to investigate the comparative effect of Ritalin with grape seed extract on passive avoidance learning in adult male rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult male Wistar rats divided randomly into 5 groups of 8 rats including control, sham and three experimental groups. The control group received no treatment. The sham group received 1 ml of distilled water per day. At the same time the experimental groups received 100 mg/kg grape seed extract, 1 mg/kg Ritalin or 100 mg/kg grape seed extract together with 1 mg/kg of Ritalin by gavage for 28 days. For measuring the amount of avoidance learning, Shuttle box was used. Data analyzed by ANOVA and consistent Tukey's tests using SPSS-18 software and p>0.05 considered as significant. Results: The results showed that Ritalin decreases the passive avoidance learning, while the grape seed extract alone or together with Ritalin increases passive avoidance learning. Conclusion:  The outcome of this research shows that taking Ritalin leads to decreasing passive avoidance learning. However, the simultaneous taking Ritalin with grape seed extract inhibits the Ritalin effect and increasing the learning.

  3. Inhibitory effects of polyphenols from grape pomace extract on collagenase and elastase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenauer, Judith; Mäckle, Sonja; Sußmann, Daniela; Schweiggert-Weisz, Ute; Carle, Reinhold

    2015-03-01

    Breakdown and disorganization of extracellular matrix proteins like collagen, fibronectin and elastin are main characteristics of skin aging due to the enhanced activation of proteolytic enzymes such as collagenases and elastases. Inhibition of their enzymatic activities by natural plant compounds might be a promising approach to prevent extrinsic skin aging. Especially polyphenols are supposed to interact with those enzymes due to their molecular nature. In our investigation, extracts of pomace from Riesling grapes were analyzed for their inhibitory properties on collagenase as well as elastase. Crude grape pomace extract showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity against both enzymes with IC50-values of 20.3μg/ml and 14.7μg/ml for collagenase and elastase activity, respectively. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions containing phenolic compounds differing in chemical structure and polarity. Except for the stilbene containing fraction, all other fractions showed inhibitory effects on both enzyme activities. The most pronounced impact was found for the hydrophilic low molecular weight polyphenols containing the free phenolic acids. In particular, gallic acid showed considerable inhibition values. EGCG was used as a positive control and showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase activity (IC50=0.9mM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Black grape extract supplementation attenuates blood oxidative stress in response to acute exercise

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    A Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich active compound in grapes is claimed to be one of the most important natural products. Hence, the objective of our research was to study parameters of the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in athletes supplied with Panace-Vid 2000® preparation consisting of black wine grape extract (Vitis vinifera. The study was carried out on 22 male rowers. The subjects from the supplemented group (n=10 were given one gelatin capsule containing Panace-Vid 2000® three times a day, for six weeks, while the control group (n=12 was given placebo. Before and after the supplementation period, the athletes performed a physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power. Each 3-min exercise session was followed by thirty seconds of rest. Blood was sampled from the rowers before the exercise test, one minute after its completion, and after a 24-h recovery period. The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase was determined and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was measured in the hemolysate of red blood cells. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was determined in the blood plasma. The concentration of lactic acid was measured in the whole blood. An analysis of the results revealed that the supply of grape extract, in the form of Panace-Vid 2000® preparation, contributed to a significant increase in plasma antioxidative capacity and to an insignificant increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced concentration of lipid peroxidation product levels.

  5. Green extraction of antioxidants from different varieties of red grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pareja, María José; Casas, Lourdes; Fernández-Ponce, María Teresa; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J

    2015-05-26

    The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  6. Green Extraction of Antioxidants from Different Varieties of Red Grape Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Otero-Pareja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The extraction yield, phenolic content, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of extracts from different varieties of red grapes, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Petit Verdot, Syrah, Tempranillo and Tintilla, using pressurized green solvents have been analyzed. Two techniques were studied and compared: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with CO2 + 20% ethanol and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE with either ethanol, water or an ethanol/water mixture as the extraction solvents. The Petit Verdot variety allowed the highest global and phenolic yield, and antioxidant activity. The best conditios for PLE obtained from the experimental design and kinetic study were 50% ethanol/water as the pressurized solvent at 90 bar, 120 °C, a flow rate of 5 g/min and, an extraction time of 90 min. A statistical analysis of variance has been performed and it was found that temperature is the only variable that has a statistical influence on the extraction yield. The antioxidant activity levels of the extracts are very promising and they are similar to those obtained with the antioxidant tocopherol.

  7. Remineralization of Artificial Caries in Primary Teeth by Grape Seed Extract: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahkameh Mirkarimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37ºC and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized fragments of each tooth were randomly divided into two case (immersed in GSE solution in phosphate buffer for 8 days and control (immersed in distilled water groups. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and a micro-hardness tester. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Results. The mean ± SD micro-hardness values for the case and control groups were 358.6±83.42 and 296.51± 69.41, respectively. Grape seed extract significantly increased the micro-hardness of the lesions (P=0.03. The morphology of GSE treated enamel was clearly different from that in the control group, and there were deposits of scaffolding insoluble complexes on the enamel surface. Conclusion. GSE enhanced the remineralization process of artificial enamel lesions of primary teeth, and thus, might be considered an effective natural agent in non-invasive dentistry.

  8. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  9. Optimization of supercritical fluid consecutive extractions of fatty acids and polyphenols from Vitis vinifera grape wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Ormazabal, Markel; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Navarro, Patricia; Etxebarria, Nestor; Usobiaga, Aresatz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Autumn Royal and Ribier Grape Juice Extracts Reduced Viability and Metastatic Potential of Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Manuel; Bastias, Lorena; Montenegro, Iván; Werner, Enrique; Madrid, Alejandro; Godoy, Patricio

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants are known to be beneficial to health. This paper evaluates the potential chemopreventive and anticancer properties of phenolic compounds present in grape juice extracts (GJE) from Autumn Royal and Ribier varieties. The effects of these GJE on viability (SRB day assay) and metastatic potential (migration and invasion parameters) of colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-480 were evaluated. The effects of GJE on two matrix metalloproteinase gene expressions (MMP2 and MMP9) were also evaluated via qRT-PCR. In the former, GJE reduced cell viability in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. GJE treatment also reduced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression diminished depending on extract and on cell type. Conclusions. These results provide novel information concerning anticancer properties of selected GJE by revealing selective cytotoxicity and the ability to reduce invasiveness of colon cancer cells. PMID:29552079

  11. Evaluation of the pressing process during oil extraction from grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physical properties and oil extraction from grape seeds from three white (Welschriesling, Green Veltliner, Hibernal and two red (Zweigelt and Saint Laurent must varieties of grapevine by cold screw pressing as the appropriate extraction process. Pressing was carried out by a screw press UNO FM 3F by Farmet Company, Czech Republic. The pressing device consists of a matrix, 220 mm screw, head, heating mantle, nozzle holder, and a nozzle of 10 mm in diameter. The minimal and maximal screw rotation speeds were chosen within the press characteristics in order to achieve a correct expression and to avoid press overload. For successful pressing of the seeds and their storage, their initial moisture content was lowered from 40 to 45% to about 5 to 8% in a chamber dryer. The temperature in the chamber dryer did not exceeded 40 °C. Seeds of all varieties were pressed at the same speeds of 20, 40, 60, and 80 rpm. The characteristics of the grape seeds are as follows: The density ranges from 602.7 to 606.3 kg.m-3, thousand seeds weigh is between 21.9 - 26.6 g, humidity between 5.6 - 7.1% of dry matter and seed oil content, determined by extraction and depending on the variety, ranges from 15.3 to 17.5% in dry basis. The results have confirmed that when the screw rotation speed is changed from 20 to 80 rpm, the press capacity increases on average from 0.84 kg.h-1 to 1.75 kg.h-1, but simultaneously the oil yield reduces from 9.85 to 6.75%. This means that one kilogram of seed may produce 67.5 to 98.5 g of oil. The quantity of the pressed oil ranges from 67.5 to 98.5 g.kg-1 and thus depends on the variety. The measured results can be used in commercial practice for optimizing the pressing process for pressing of oil from grape seeds.

  12. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

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    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  13. The fatty acid and tocopherol constituents of the seed oil extracted from 21 grape varieties (Vitis spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Ali; Unver, Ahmet; Kara, Zeki

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acids and tocopherols in appropriate quantities are invaluable attributes that are desirable in seeds of agricultural products. Studies have generally focused on the evaluation of the oil and tocopherol components of oil crops. Recently, investigations revealed that the grape seed has robust potential in the production of healthy fatty acids as well as tocopherols. This study was thus conducted to determine the oil and tocopherol components of grape seeds, obtained from various grape cultivars of different species, including two rootstock varieties. The grape seed oil concentration of the studied varieties ranged from 7.3 to 22.4%. The determined fatty acid profiles of the genotypes conformed to the pattern described in the literature for grapes. Linoleic acid is the major component comprising 53.6-69.6% of the total, followed by oleic (16.2-31.2%), palmitic (6.9-12.9%) and stearic (1.44-4.69%). The oils of all the seeds analysed showed a preponderance of α-tocopherol (ranging from 260.5 to 153.1 mg kg⁻¹ oil extract). β-Tocopherol, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol were also detected with the general means of 0.98, 22.2 and 0.92 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. Linoleic acid showed a significantly negative correlation with all the fatty acids analysed. The strongest negative correlation existed between linoleic and oleic acids (r = -0.834, P grape seed show great variation among the genotypes. Markedly higher proportions of linoleic acid with considerable amounts of tocopherols found in the oil samples suggest that grape seed is a good source for culinary, pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Protective role of grape seed extract against the effect of electromagnetic radiation on retinal rhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naglaa Mohamed Samir Mohamed El hansi

    2013-01-01

    In recent time, people exposure to blue light has increased. Much of the world of commercial display and industry is lit with cool white fluorescent tubes which emit a strong spike of light in the blue and ultraviolet ranges. Indeed many homes and offices are lit with cool white fluorescent tubes. No doubts, more people are spending more time in front of Video Display Terminals which produce blue light. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blue light and the combined effect of blue light and gamma radiation on retinal rhodopsin. Also, the possible protective role of grape seed extract (GSE) to retinal rhodopsin was tested. New zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. The rabbits were classified into five groups I, II, III, IV and V according to the following: Group I: used as control group. Group II: subdivided into four subgroups subgroups were exposed to blue light of intensity 3.9 lux and decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks respectively. Group III: subdivided into four subgroups. All rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. Rabbits were decapitated after 48 hours, one week, two weeks and 3 weeks of exposure to blue light respectively. Group IV: subdivided into two subgroups. The two subgroups were exposed to blue light of 3.9 lux for one week and two weeks, then irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays and decapitated. Group V: subdivided into two subgroups. The rabbits were supplemented with 10 mg/Kg body weight Grape seed extract (GSE) two weeks before exposure to 3.9 lux blue light for one week and two weeks respectively. After these periods, the rabbits were irradiated with 5 Gy gamma rays then decapitated. GSE supplementation was continued till decapitation. At the end of each period, the electroretinogram (ERG) was recorded. After the decapitation, the rhodopsin was extracted and the

  15. Methanol Extract of Polyopes lancifolius Suppresses Tumor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The expression and activity of MMP-9 were significantly increased in response to TNF-α, but MEPL suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and activity. MEPL also inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression at the transcriptional level by blocking the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore ...

  16. Influence of grape density and harvest date on changes in phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and instrumental texture properties during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Luca; Segade, Susana Río; Torchio, Fabrizio; Giacosa, Simone; Cagnasso, Enzo; Marengo, Fabio; Gerbi, Vincenzo

    2011-08-24

    Changes in the phenolic composition, phenol extractability indices, and mechanical properties occur in grape berries during the ripening process, but the heterogeneity of the grapes harvested at different ripening stages affects the reliability of the results obtained. In this work, these changes were studied in Nebbiolo grapes harvested during five consecutive weeks and then separated according to three density classes. The changes observed in chemical and mechanical parameters through the ripening process are more related to berry density than harvest date. Therefore, the winemaker has to select the flotation density according to the objective quality properties of the wine to be elaborated. On the other hand, the stiffer grapes were associated with a higher accumulation of proanthocyanidins. The harder grapes provided the higher concentration and extractability of flavanols reactive to vanillin, whereas the thicker ones facilitated the extraction of proanthocyanidins.

  17. Effect of grape seed extract against biodegradation of composite resin-dentin shear bond strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generosa, D. M.; Suprastiwi, E.; Asrianti, D.

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on resin-dentin shear bond strength. A group of 48 dentin samples were divided into 6 groups. The six groups, each with eight specimens, included group 1 (control), group 2 (control + NaOCl 10%), group 3 (2.9% GSE application before etching), group 4 (2.9% GSE application before etching + NaOCl 10%), group 5 (2.9% GSE application after etching), and group 6 (2.9% GSE application after etching + NaOCl 10%). Shear bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was done with the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U test. The highest median value was in group 3, and the lowest value was in group 5. GSE can improve the shear bond strength (p = 0.002 and 0.001), but it has no effect on reducing biodegradation (p = 0.141).

  18. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  19. Grape seed and skin extract prevents high-fat diet-induced brain lipotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charradi, Kamel; Elkahoui, Salem; Karkouch, Ines; Limam, Ferid; Hassine, Fethy Ben; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of dementia and the physiologic mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the brain are poorly understood. The present investigation analyzed the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on brain steatosis and oxidative stress and the intracellular mediators involved in signal transduction, as well as the protection offered by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced ectopic deposition of cholesterol and phospholipid but not triglyceride. Moreover brain lipotoxicity is linked to an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities, depletion of manganese and a concomitant increase in ionizable calcium and acetylcholinesterase activity. Importantly GSSE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD treatment. Altogether our data indicated that HFD could find some potential application in the treatment of manganism and that GSSE should be used as a safe anti-lipotoxic agent in the prevention and treatment of fat-induced brain injury.

  20. Mechanical assessment of effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract on tibial bone diaphysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahara, N; Tofani, I; Maki, K; Kojima, K; Kojima, Y; Kimura, M

    2005-06-01

    We studied the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) given as a ratio of 3 mg in 100 g in a standard diet, on the tibial bone diaphysis in low-calcium fed rats. Measurements of bone density, mineral content, geometry, and bone strength using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Further, the whole tibia bones were tested for mechanical resistance using a material-testing machine, and mineral elements were also determined. Forty male Wistar rats, 5 weeks old, were divided into control (Co), low-calcium diet (LC), low-calcium diet . standard diet (LCS), and low-calcium diet . standard diet with supplementary GSPE (LCSG) groups. We found no significant differences in body weight among the 4 groups, whereas all of the bone parameters in LC were significantly lower than those in Co (pcalcium has a beneficial effect on bone formation and bone strength for the treatment of bone debility caused by a low level of calcium.

  1. Addition of grape pomace extract to probiotic fermented goat milk: the effect on phenolic content, probiotic viability and sensory acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Karina Mo; de Oliveira, Isabel C; Lopes, Marcos Ac; Cruz, Ana Paula Gil; Buriti, Flávia Ca; Cabral, Lourdes M

    2017-03-01

    Grape pomace is a source of phenolic compounds, which are associated with health benefits in humans. Additionally, fermented dairy foods with probiotics can be good vehicles to deliver these bioactive compounds. The effects of the addition of grape pomace extract (GPE) on the total phenolic (TP) content, physico-chemical characteristics and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in fermented goat milks prepared with grape juice were investigated. The TP concentration increased significantly in fermented milks with the addition of GPE. A protective effect of GPE on the viability of L. acidophilus was observed. However, after 14 days of storage, the populations of L. acidophilus were significantly lower when compared with those of L. rhamnosus, and only the last probiotic maintained its viability above 7 log CFU mL -1 throughout the period investigated. The sensory scores of flavor, color and overall acceptability of the fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus HN001 were significantly increased when GPE was added. The use of GPE might increase the functionality of probiotic fermented goat milk processed with L. rhamnosus HN001 and grape juice because grape polyphenols are known for their antioxidant properties and positive effect on the modulation of gut microbiota. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Characterization of Non-Anthocyanic Flavonoids in Some Hybrid Red Grape Extracts Potentially Interesting for Industrial Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko De Rosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that hybrid grapes often have qualitatively and quantitatively higher polyphenolic contents than the common V. vinifera grape varieties. In general, these compounds are studied for grape chemotaxonomy and for nutraceutical purposes due to their relevant antioxidant activity. Non-anthocyanic flavonoid composition of five red hybrid grape varieties produced by crossing of V. vinifera, V. aestivalis, V. cinerea, V. berlandieri, V. labrusca, V. lincecumii, and V. rupestris were studied by liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Thirty-one compounds were identified, including methylnaringenin, a tetrahydroxy-dimethoxyflavanone-hexoside, two flavonols (quercetin and a pentahydroxyflavone isomer, 20 glycoside flavonols (four quercetin, two myricetin, two kaempferol, three isorhamnetin, one laricitrin, two syringetin, one kaempferide and two dihydroflavonol derivatives; myricetin-glucoside-glucuronide; myricetin-diglucoside; syringetin-dihexoside, three flavan-3-ols (−-epicatechin, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin gallate and four proantocyanidins (procyanidin B1, procyanidin B2, procyanidin B3 or B4/B5, procyanidin T2 or T3/T4/C1. Seibel 19881, Seyve Villard 12-347 and Seyve Villard 29-399 were particularly rich in polyphenols. These findings emphasize that these grapes are especially interesting for the production of antioxidant extracts for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical uses.

  3. Preparation and characterization of green graphene using grape seed extract for bioapplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaragalla, Srinivasarao [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Rajendran, Rajakumari; Jose, Jiya [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); AlMaadeed, Mariam A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar, E-mail: nkkalarikkal@mgu.ac.in [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabupolymer@yahoo.com [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686560, Kerala (India)

    2016-08-01

    The development of functionalized graphene materials concerning health and environmental aspects via green approaches is currently the most recent topic in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using grape seed extract (GSE). Structural properties of the prepared RGO were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV–Visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. These all characterization techniques clearly revealed that the RGO has been successfully prepared. Moreover, the average thickness (4.2 nm) of RGO layers was also confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Optical properties such as band gap and photoluminescence of the synthesized RGO were evaluated. The band gap of RGO was found to be 3.84 eV and it showed emission in the visible region. Efficient antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed with 4 μg ml{sup −1} & 5 μg ml{sup −1} of RGO and also the cell wall damage of these strains has been proved by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro study of RGO (500 μg) disclosed the effective anti-proliferative activity (88%) against HCT-116 cell lines. - Highlights: • Grape seed extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • Detailed structural analysis of RGO was done. • Excellent antimicrobial activity with 4 and 5 μg ml{sup −1} was reported. • Anti-inflammatory activity of RGO was reported. • Excellent anti-cancer activity was reported with just 500 μg of RGO.

  4. Grape and grape seed extract capacities at protecting LDL against oxidation generated by Cu2+, AAPH or SIN-1 and at decreasing superoxide THP-1 cell production. A comparison to other extracts or compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Manijeh; Carbonneau, Marie-Annette; Urban, Nelly; Descomps, Bernard; Leger, Claude L

    2003-05-01

    A large body of evidence supports the key role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity of natural polyphenols (PP) from Vitis vinifera and Olea europea at protecting LDL against oxidation brought about by Cu2+, oxygen-centered radical-generating AAPH, or peroxynitrite-generating SIN-1 in vitro systems, or at impairing superoxide production in promonocyte cells (THP-1) conveniently differentiated into adherent macrophages. PP were either from the whole grape (fraction A) containing mainly procyanidins, (epi)-catechin and anthocyanins, or from grape seed extracts (fractions B and C) consisting of tannins and procyanidin oligomers with a higher content in B than in C, or from a grape skin extract (fraction D) consisting mainly of anthocyanins, or from a hydrosoluble olive mill wastewater PP extract (fraction E) containing hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein. Chlorogenic acid (F) and catechin (G) were taken as archetypes of PP preventing oxidation partly as copper scavenger and as radical scavenger only, respectively. All grape fractions were efficient towards Cu2+ system (equally or more efficient than F), whereas they were rather poorly efficient towards AAPH and SIN-1 (less efficient than G but as efficient as F). Among the PP fractions, B was the most effective at protecting LDL in the SIN-1 system and at impairing THP-1 superoxide production. Taken together, these data suggest that the PP fraction from grape seed rich in procyanidins achieves the best compromise between the direct and indirect (i.e. cell-mediated) types of action in protecting LDL against oxidation, strengthening the need for improving the knowledge of its bioavailability in humans.

  5. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; de Alencar, Severino Matias

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent......-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols...... on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α...

  6. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Grape variety effect on proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of skin and seed tannin extracts from bordeaux wine grapes (Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot) for two consecutive vintages (2006 and 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Schmauch, Gregory; Saucier, Cédric; Fabre, Sandy; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2009-01-28

    Grape variety [Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Merlot (M)] effect on the proanthocyanidin composition and sensory perception of wine grapes from Bordeaux vineyards for two successive vintages (2006 and 2007) is reported. The flavan-3-ol monomers [(+)-catechin = C, (-)-epicatechin = EC, (-)-epicatechin-O-gallatte = ECG] and the proanthocyanidin oligomers [dimers B1, B2, B3, and B4 and trimer Cat-Cat-Epi (T)] in grape seed and skin tannin extracts were identified and quantified at harvest. Proanthocyanidin subunit compositions, percentage of galloylation (%G), and percentage of prodelphinidins (%P) as well as mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the proanthocyanidin fraction were determined. Sensory analysis concerning the astringency and bitterness intensity of the proanthocyanidins of skin and seed tannin extracts was also performed. The results showed that proanthocyanidin composition can be greatly affected by grape variety. For both vintages between CS and M, significant differences were found on mDP (p < 0.05) in seed tannin extracts, whereas in skin tannin extracts, significant differences were observed for %G and %P (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis showed that grape variety influenced neither astringency nor bitterness intensity perception for both skin and seed tannin extracts for the two successive vintages studied. A positive correlation was found between astringency intensity, mDP, and B3 content in skin tannin extracts.

  8. Original Research: Polyphenols extracted from grape powder induce lipogenesis and glucose uptake during differentiation of murine preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Sheida; DiMarco, Nancy M

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the effects of grapes and grape powder extracted polyphenols on lipogenesis and glucose uptake in adipocytes may clarify the risk/benefit of recommending them to individuals with obesity and insulin resistance. We investigated the effect of grape powder extracted polyphenols (GPEP) on intracellular fat accumulation and glucose uptake during differentiation of 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Total polyphenols were extracted and measured based on gallic acid equivalents (GAE). There were 2167 mg of GAE polyphenols in 100 g of grape powder. 3T3-F442A cells were incubated with GPEP, extracted from 125-500 µg GP/mL of media, until day 8 of differentiation when the cells were collected for different assays. AdipoRed™ assay and Oil Red O staining showed that GPEP induced, in a dose-dependent manner, an increase in intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content of adipocytes. Concomitantly, grape powder extracted polyphenols increased, in a dose-dependent manner, glucose uptake by 3T3-F442A cells, and there was a strong positive correlation between glucose uptake and the amount of TAG accumulation (r = 0.826, n = 24, P ≤ 0.001). No changes in cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue staining, suggesting that these effects were independent of cytotoxicity. Western-blot showed that GPEP upregulated protein level of glucose transport protein 4 (GLUT4), p-PKB/Akt, and p-AMPK in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. LY294002 (10 µmol/L), a phosphatidyl-inositol 3 kinase inhibitor (PI3K), reversed the effects of grape powder extracted polyphenols on cellular lipid content and glucose uptake. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that GPEP increased mRNA expression of GLUT4, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, adiponectin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, while it decreased mRNA expression of leptin and Insig-1. Our results indicate that GPEP may induce adipocyte differentiation via upregulation of GLUT4, PI3K and

  9. Improvement effect of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract mixture against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byoung Ok; Shin, Jae Young; Che, Denis Nchang; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Hyun Seo; Choi, Ji Won; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol [Hyangmiwon Corporation, Gimje (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic protective effects of mixtures of corn silk, perilla leaf and grape stem extract (CPG mixture) against UVB-induced skin damage and compound 48/80-induced pruritus in mice. The results showed that treatment with CPG mixture exhibited much stronger suppressive effect on erythema and melanin index as well as melanin formation than treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) in UVB-irradiated mice. Moreover, the treatment with CPG mixture showed ameliorative effect on immune cell infiltration and collagen fiber destruction in UV-irradiated mice. The treatment with CPG mixture inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in UVB-irradiated mice. Furthermore, the treatment with CPG mixture inhibited compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and histological changes in mice. Taken together, these results indicated that CPG mixture has potentials as functional and therapeutic materials against skin damage and itch-related skin diseases.

  10. Effect of dietary grape seed extract and Cistus ladanifer L. in combination with vegetable oil supplementation on lamb meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2012-12-01

    Thirty-six Merino Branco lambs were assigned to six dietary treatments: control diet (C) consisting of 90% dehydrated lucerne and 10% wheat bran; C with 6% of oil blend (CO); C with 2.5% of grape seed extract (GS); GS with 6% of oil blend (GSO); C with 25% of Cistus ladanifer (CL), and CL with 6% of oil blend (CLO). Meat lipid and colour stability was then evaluated during 7 days of storage. The effect of inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets on meat sensory properties was also evaluated. Meat antioxidant potential, determined after oxidation induction by a ferrous/hydrogen peroxide system, decreased with oil supplementation (Pgrape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets protected the meat against lipid oxidation (P=0.036). Meat colour was not affected by diets. Inclusion of grape seed extract and C. ladanifer in diets did not change the sensory properties of meat. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Obtaining from grape pomace an enzymatic extract with anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, B; Candiracci, M; Santa-María, C; Revilla, E; Gordillo, B; Parrado, J; Castaño, A

    2015-03-01

    Grape pomace, a winemaking industry by-product, is a rich source of bioactive dietary compounds. Using proteases we have developed an enzymatic process for obtaining a water-soluble extract (GP-EE) that contains biomolecules such as peptides, carbohydrates, lipids and polyphenols in soluble form. Of especial interest is its high polyphenol content (12%), of which 77% are flavonoids and 33% are phenolic acids. The present study evaluates in vitro the potential anti-inflammatory effect of GP-EE by monitoring the expression of inflammatory molecules on N13 microglia cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GP-EE decreases the mRNA levels of the inflammatory molecules studied. The molecules under study were as follows: inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), the ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1(Iba-1) and the Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4), as well as the iNOS protein level in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our findings suggest that, as a result of its ability to regulate excessive microglial activation, GP-EE possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, acting as a chemopreventive agent, it may be of therapeutic interest in neurodegenerative diseases involving neuroinflammation. We can, therefore, propose GP-EE as a useful natural extract and one that would be beneficial to apply in the field of functional foods.

  12. Enhancing oxidative stability of sunflower oil during convective and microwave heating using grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV), p-anisidine value (p-AV), conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT), inhibition of oil oxidation (IO) and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP) was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%), p-AV (29%; 40%), CD (45%; 30%), CT (41%; 36%), TOTOX (35%; 37%). GSE to a level of 600-800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  13. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  14. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera) IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella Yolanda Lie; Meliantha Tandiono; Lucy Pricillia; Astrid Nandikasari Lukito; Cakra Parindra Gasmara

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20...

  15. Aloe vera extract as a promising treatment for the quality maintenance of minimally-processed table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rosaria Antonella Alberio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an edible film obtained from a commercial Aloe vera extract, on the quality maintenance of minimally processed grapes belonging to three different cultivars (Sugar One, Victoria and Black Magic was evaluated by enzymatic (PPO, PME, β-GAL, physicochemical (pH, acidity, °Brix, and sensorial methods. All the analyzed parameters were measured in extracts obtained from minimally processed grapes packaged in ordinary atmosphere and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Samples dipped into Aloe vera showed significant differences (p≤0.05 compared to untreated ones. The determination of such parameters and the evaluation of consumer acceptability were helpful to determine the effectiveness of the post-harvest treatment with Aloe vera for a storage period of 15 days.

  16. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Some epidemiological studies found a lower risk of cardiovascular disease among wine drinkers than among drinkers of other types of ethanol. This difference might be due to an effect of nonalcohol compounds in wine on important cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study......: 300 ml/day, 38.3 g alcohol/day, female subjects: 200 ml/ day, 25.5 g alcohol/day), 2: water+red grape extract tablets ( wine-equivalent dose), 3: water+red grape extract tablets ( half dose), or 4: water+placebo tablets for a period of 4 weeks. No other sources of alcohol or anthocyanin were allowed......-triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, FVIIc, or blood pressure. Drinking wine was associated with relative body weight increments closely corresponding to the energy contributed by the alcohol component. Conclusion: Moderate red wine consumption for 4 weeks is associated with desirable changes in HDL-C and fibrinogen...

  17. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  18. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Cedó; Anna Castell-Auví; Victor Pallarès; Mayte Blay; Anna Ardévol; Montserrat Pinent

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model ...

  19. Analysis of acidic endogenous phytohormones in grapes by using online solid-phase extraction coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jian-Na; Meng, Qing-Yan; Liu, Wen-Jie; Lu, Ya-Ling; Ren, Xiao-Lin

    2014-10-01

    Phytohormones play important roles in regulating numerous plant physiological and developmental processes, even during the postharvest storage period. In order to determine the functions and changes of gibberellins acid (GA3), indoleacetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), indolebutyric acid (IBA) and jasmonic acid (JA) in grape berries during storage, an ultrasensitive method based on direct injection online solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Grape berries were extracted with cold methanol. After centrifugation, the supernatants were concentrated with a vacuum centrifugal concentrator and injected into an online solid-phase extraction column. After the cleanup procedure, the analytes were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that the linearity of the proposed method was 10-210 µg kg(-1) for ABA, 20-200 µg kg(-1) for IBA, 15-320 µg kg(-1) for IAA, 20-320 µg kg(-1) for GA3 and 3.0-90.0 µg kg(-1) for JA. The limits of detection of the method were 0.71, 2.79, 0.94, 0.39 and 0.57 µg kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of endogenous phytohormones in grape berries during the postharvest storage period. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sensory and consumer perception of the addition of grape seed extracts in cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidov-Pardo, G; Moreno, M; Arozarena, I; Marín-Arroyo, M R; Bleibaum, R N; Bruhn, C M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to understand sensory and instrumental similarities and differences among an array of cookies made with bulk and microencapsulated grape seed extract (GSE) and then to determine how these differences impact consumer acceptance. Total of 4 types of cookies (control, enriched with bulk GSE, and enriched with 2 different microencapsulated GSE) were evaluated by instrumental analyses, a sensory trained panel using the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA®) methodology, and a consumer acceptance test that included a usage and attitude survey. The addition of GSE resulted in darker brown cookies; microencapsulation partially masked the color that the GSE conferred to the cookies. The cookies with the microencapsulated GSE showed a significant higher antioxidant activity, microencapsulation may have reduced the GSE heat degradation. The QDA(®) trained panelists found the enriched cookies to be more astringent and with aromas and flavors similar to whole grains flours. Consumers rated the control cookie and 1 GSE encapsulated cookie at parity; they were equally well liked (P > 0.05). When provided with information, nearly 60% of consumers stated that they were willing to purchase cookies enriched with antioxidants. This high positive percentage may increase if consumers received more education on the health benefits of antioxidant consumption. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Efficacy of grape seed and skin extract against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safouen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2015-11-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline used in chemotherapy, although it causes toxicity and oxidative stress. Grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) is a mixture of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. To evaluate the hepato-toxicity of Dox on healthy rats as well as the protective effect of GSSE, rats were treated with GSSE (500mg/kg bw) during 8 days. At the 4th day of treatment, they received a single dose of Dox (20 mg/kg bw). After the treatment (9th day), livers were collected and processed for oxidative stress status. Dox increased MDA (+ 900%), decreased catalase (-60%) and increased peroxidase (+90%) and superoxide dismutase (+100%) activities. In this latter case Dox mainly increased the iron isoform. Furthermore Dox altered intracellular mediators as catalytic free iron (-75%), H₂O₂(-75%) and calcium (+30%). Dox also affected liver function by elevating plasma triacylglycerol and transaminases and liver morphology by altering its typical architecture. Importantly all Dox-induced liver disturbances were alleviated upon GSSE treatment. Dox induced liver toxicity and an oxidative stress mainly characterized by increased lipoperoxidation but not protein carbonylation. GSSE efficiently protected the liver from Dox-induced toxicity and appeared as a safe adjuvant that could be incorporated into chemotherapy protocols.

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidins extract promotes bone formation in rat's mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Maki, Kenshi; Tofani, Iwan; Kimura, Kyoko; Kimura, Mitsutaka

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effect of dietary supplementation with grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) 3 mg added in 100 g high-calcium diet with a calcium content of 1697 mg 100 g(-1) on mandibular condyle bone debility, which was induced by a low-calcium diet. Forty Wistar male rats, 5 week old, were randomly divided into control (Co), low-calcium diet (LC), low-calcium/high-calcium diet (LCH), and low-calcium/high-calcium with supplementary GSPE diet (LCHG) groups for 6 wk. Bone formation of the mandibular condyle was measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Significant differences were not seen among the four groups for body weight, measured weekly. The LCHG group scored significantly higher in cortical bone density, total bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone cross-sectional area, cortical bone mineral content, total bone density, total bone mineral content, and in the stress-strain index to the reference axis x when compared with the LCH group. We concluded that a high-calcium diet combined with GSPE supplementation is more effective in reversing mandibular condyle bone debility in rats than is a low-calcium diet, standard diet, or high-calcium diet alone.

  3. Inhibitory effect of liposomal solutions of grape seed extract on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Daniela; Gibis, Monika; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-01-08

    The effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE) encapsulated in liposomes to inhibit the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) during frying of beef patties was assessed. All liposomal systems were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 22 500 psi. A total of six samples (rapeseed oil (control), GSE at 0.1% and 0.2%, and GSE-containing liposomes with 1%, 2%, and 5% soy lecithin) were investigated. MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found after the marinade application and frying. PhIP concentrations decreased upon marination with GSE (0.1%) and GSE-containing liposomes (1% and 5%) (p oil control (p < 0.01) while no effect on β-carboline formation was observed. Results are in contrast to previous studies that had shown that liposomal encapsulation may enhance effectiveness of polyphenols to inhibit radical reactions. A mechanistic model was proposed to explain the observed differences.

  4. Orthogonal test design for optimisation of extraction of trans-resveratrol from Pinot Noir-grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Yield of trans-resveratrol from Pinot Noir-grape pomace obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) through an orthogonal experiment (16 (4(4))) was investigated to get the best extraction conditions. In this method, the highest yield was obtained when the extraction solvent used ethanol; the ratio of raw material to solvent, the extraction time, the extraction temperature and microwave irradiation power were 1:20 (g  mL(-1)), 30 min, 55°C and 1.0 kW, respectively. The average yield of trans-resveratrol was 90.87%, and the recovery was in the range of 85.49-89.04% with relative standard deviation lower than 1.39%. Then, the extract of MAE was separated by NKA-9 macroporous resin and re-crystallisation. Finally, the purity of trans-resveratrol was 97.47%.

  5. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-01

    Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims

  6. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed): an experimental study in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemantula, Satyanarayana; Nammi, Srinivas; Kolanukonda, Rajabhanu; Koppula, Sushruta; Boini, Krishna M

    2005-01-19

    The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape) have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic), antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of grape fruits and

  7. Adaptogenic and nootropic activities of aqueous extract of Vitis vinifera (grape seed: an experimental study in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppula Sushruta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aerial parts of Vitis vinifera (common grape or European grape have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, the seed extract of V. vinifera was evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced rats. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic activity in rats and in-vitro antioxidant potential to correlate its antistress activity. Methods For the evaluation of antistress activity, groups of rats (n = 6 were subjected to forced swim stress one hour after daily treatment of V. vinifera extract. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were selected as non-invasive biomarkers to assess the antistress activity. The 24 h urinary excretion of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The nootropic activity of the extract as determined from acquisition, retention and retrieval in rats was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined based on the ability of V. vinifera to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. Results Daily administration of V. vinifera at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight one hour prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose dependent manner. However, no change in the urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid was observed in normal animals at all the doses studied. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention and recovery in rats was observed to be dose dependent. The extract also produced significant inhibition of hydroxyl radicals in comparison to ascorbic acid in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic, antioxidant and nootropic activities of V. vinifera seed extract and

  8. Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Thomas H J; Girard, Benoit; Kopp, Thomas; Drover, John C G

    2005-03-09

    Grape seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is currently produced as a specialty oil byproduct of wine manufacture. Seed oils from eight varieties of grapes crushed for wine production in British Columbia were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCE) and petroleum ether (PE). Oil yields by SCE ranged from 5.85 +/- 0.33 to 13.6 +/- 0.46% (w/w), whereas PE yields ranged from 6.64 +/- 0.16 to 11.17 +/- 0.05% (+/- is standard deviation). The oils contained alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol being most important quantitatively. In both SCE- and PE-extracted oils, phytosterols were a prominent feature of the unsaponifiable fraction, with beta-sitosterol quantitatively most important with both extractants. Total phytosterol extraction was higher with SCE than with PE in seven of eight variety extractions. Fatty acid composition of oils from all varieties tested, and from both extraction methods, indicated linoleic acid as the major component ranging from 67.56 to 73.23% of the fatty acids present, in agreement with literature reports.

  9. Cells-qPCR as a direct quantitative PCR method to avoid microbial DNA extractions in grape musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, Verónica; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2017-11-16

    A novel quantitative PCR assay called Cells-qPCR has been developed for the rapid detection and quantification of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) directly from grape must and wine that does not require DNA extraction. The assay was tested on Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Oenococcus oeni, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans in culture media, and in white and red grape musts and wines. Standard curves were constructed from DNA and cells for the six target species in all the matrices. Good efficiencies were obtained for both when comparing DNA and cells standard curves. No reaction inhibition was observed between matrices for each species. Cells quantification was linear over a range of cell concentrations (7, 5 or 4 orders of magnitude) and detected as few as one cell per reaction in all the matrices. The developed Cells-qPCR assay is a robust, reliable, fast and specific method to detect and quantify different yeasts, LAB and AAB species in grape must and wine that avoids DNA extraction and overcomes the presence of inhibitors like polyphenols and ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Kinetics of Grape Seed Phenolic Compounds Extraction: Experiment and Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bucic´-Kojic´, A.; Sovová, Helena; Planinic´, M.; Tomas, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 136, 3-4 (2013), s. 1136-1140 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : kinetics modelling * temperature * grape seed Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.259, year: 2013

  11. Mast cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines roles in assessment of grape seeds extract anti-inflammatory activity in rat model of carrageenan-induced paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Ahmed Mohamed Abd-Allah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-produced oxidative disorders were involved at the pathophysiology of many inflammatory processes via the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antioxidant defense system suppression. Although herbal antioxidants as mono-therapy relief many inflammatory diseases including, autoimmunity rheumatoid arthritis, but as combination therapy with other proven anti-inflammatory drugs in order to decreasing their toxic impacts has not yet been studied clearly, especially against chemical substances that’s induced local inflammation with characteristic edema. Materials and Methods: Grape seeds extract (GSE at a concentration of 40 mg/kg B. wt alone or in combination with indomethacin (Indo. at a dose of 5 mg/Kg B. wt orally given for 10 days prior (gps VI, VII, VIII or as a single dose after edema induction (gps IX, X, XI in rat's left hind paw by sub-planter single injection of 0.1 carrageenan: saline solution (1% (gp. V to assess the prophylactic and therapeutic anti-inflammatory activities of both through  the estimation of selective inflammatory mediators and oxidative damage-related biomarkers as well as tissue mast cell scoring. Furthermore, both substances were given alone (gps II, III, IV for their  blood, liver and kidney safety evaluation comparing with negative control rats (gp. I which kept without medication. Results: A marked reduction on the inflammatory mediators, edema volume and oxidative byproducts in edema bearing rats' prophylactic and treated with grape seeds extract and indomethacin was observed. Indomethacin found to induce some toxicological impacts which minimized when administered together with GSE. Conclusion: GSE is a safe antioxidant agent with anti-inflammatory property.

  12. Fractionation of hydro-ethanolic extracts from grape pomace through membrane processing: the effect of membrane and extracting media on process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taqui, Syed Usman

    2014-01-01

    The EM3E Master is an Education Programme supported by the European Commission, the European Membrane Society (EMS), the European Membrane House (EMH), and a large international network of industrial companies, research centers and universities Grape pomace are generated as waste in juice and winemaking industry in huge quantities. Studies have shown that nutrient extracts from these particular plant matrices garner myriad of benefits in health and nutraceuticals sector. Moreover,...

  13. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to enhance process yield and minimize free radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böger, Bruna R; Salviato, Aroldo; Valezi, Daniel F; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Georgetti, Sandra R; Kurozawa, Louise E

    2018-03-30

    Grape seeds are a relatively abundant source of oil and bioactive compounds. In order to use this by-product, the current work aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to obtain greater process yield and minimize free radicals formation in the oil. The optimal condition was 15°C and amplitude of ultrasonic wave of 42 μm, leading to a process yield of 82.9% and content of free radicals of 14.7×10 17 kg -1 and 3.4×10 18 kg -1 for samples stored for 7 and 30 days, respectively. No significant differences in fatty acid composition and acidity and iodine values were observed between samples. The oil obtained by ultrasound had greater phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity by ferric reduction than the control sample (without ultrasound application). However, higher content of free radicals and peroxide value was observed. Sonication improved extraction yield when compared to the process without ultrasound application. Moreover, UAE favored phenolic compounds extraction. Since the proposed condition extraction enhanced process yield with the minimum formation of free radicals, UAE is a promising oil extraction technology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

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    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  15. Effects of grape seed extract on periodontal disease: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feyza Otan ÖZDEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural compounds capable of modulating the host response have received considerable attention, and herbal products are suggested as adjunctive agents in periodontal disease treatment. Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE on periodontitis. Material and Methods Ligature induced periodontitis was created in 40 rats and they were assigned to four equal groups. One group was fed laboratory diet (group A while three groups received GSE additionally. Silk ligatures were placed around the cervical area of the mandibular first molars for four weeks to induce periodontitis. The GSE groups were reallocated regarding GSE consumption as: for two weeks before ligation (group B; totally eight weeks, from ligation to two weeks after removal of the ligature (group C; totally six weeks, and for two weeks from ligature removal (group D; totally two weeks. Sections were assessed histologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammatory cell number (ICN, connective tissue attachment level (CAL, osteoclast density (OD, IL-10 and TGF-β stainings in gingival epithelium (GE, connective tissue (GC, and periodontal ligament (PL were used as the study parameters. Results Lower ICN, higher CAL, and lower OD were observed in the GSE groups (p<0.05. IL-10 was more intensive in the GSE groups and in the GEs (p<0.05. Group B showed the highest IL-10 for PL (p<0.05. TGF-ß was higher in the GEs of all groups (p<0.017. Conclusions The results suggest anti-inflammatory activities of GSE, but further investigations are needed for clarification of these activities.

  16. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Azime, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  17. Acute administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract modulates energetic metabolism in skeletal muscle and BAT mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, D; Díaz, S; Quesada, H; Fernández-Iglesias, A; Mulero, M; Arola-Arnal, A; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C; Arola, L

    2011-04-27

    Proanthocyanidin consumption might reduce the risk of developing several pathologies, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and cardiovascular diseases. The beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins are attributed to their antioxidant properties, although they also can modulate gene expression at the transcriptional level. Little is known about the effect of proanthocyanidins on mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. In this context, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of an acute administration of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on mitochondrial function and energy metabolism. To examine this effect, male Wistar rats fasted for fourteen hours, and then they were orally administered lard oil containing GSPE or were administered lard oil only. Liver, muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were used to study enzymatic activity and gene expression of proteins related to energetic metabolism. Moreover, the gastrocnemius muscle and BAT mitochondria were used to perform high-resolution respirometry. The results showed that, after 5 h, the GSPE administration significantly lowers plasma triglycerides, free fatty acids, glycerol and urea concentrations. In skeletal muscle, GSPE lowers FATP1 mRNA levels and increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption, using pyruvate as the substrate, suggesting a promotion of glycosidic metabolism. Furthermore, GSPE increased the genetic expression of key genes in energy metabolism such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α), and modulated the enzyme activity of proteins, which are involved in the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain (ETC) in BAT. In conclusion, GSPE affects mainly the skeletal muscle and BAT mitochondria, increasing their oxidative capacity rapidly after acute supplementation.

  18. Intracellular antioxidant activity of grape skin polyphenolic extracts in rat superficial colonocytes: in situ detection by confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Elena eGiordano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Colon is exposed to a number of prooxidant conditions and several colon diseases are associated with increased levels of reactive species. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, but to date no information is available about their absorption and potential intracellular antioxidant activity on colon epithelial cells. The work was addressed to study the intracellular antioxidant activity of red grape polyphenolic extracts on rat colon epithelium experimentally exposed to prooxidant conditions.The experimental model chosen was represented by freshly isolated colon explants, which closely resemble the functional and morphological characteristics of the epithelium in vivo. The study was carried out by in situ confocal microscopy observation on CM-H2DCFDA charged explants exposed to H2O2 (5, 10 and 15 min. The qualitative and quantitative polyphenolic composition of the extracts as well as their in vitro oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC was determined. The incubation of the explants with the polyphenolic extracts for 1h produced a significant decrease of the H2O2 induced fluorescence. This effect was more pronounced following 15 min H2O2 exposure with respect to 5 min and it was also more evident for extracts obtained from mature grapes, which showed an increased ORAC value and qualitative peculiarities in the polyphenolic composition. The results demonstrated the ability of red grape polyphenols to cross the plasma membrane and exert a direct intracellular antioxidant activity in surface colonocytes, inducing a protection against pro-oxidant conditions. The changes in the polyphenol composition due to ripening process was reflected in a more effective antioxidant protection.

  19. Monitoring of compositional changes during berry ripening in grape seed extracts of cv. Sangiovese (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombai, Giuseppe; Pasini, Federica; Verardo, Vito; Sevindik, Onur; Di Foggia, Michele; Tessarin, Paola; Bregoli, Anna Maria; Caboni, Maria F; Rombolà, Adamo D

    2017-07-01

    Seed oil and flours have been attracting the interest of researchers and industry, since they contain various bioactive components. We monitored the effects of ripening on lipids, monomeric flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and tocols concentration in seed extracts from organically cultivated cv. Sangiovese vines. Linoleic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The tocols detected were α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocotrienol. The proanthocyanidins degree of polymerisation ranged from dimers to dodecamers; moreover, monomeric flavan-3-ols and polymeric proanthocyanidins were detected. Total flavan-3-ols (monomers, oligomers and polymers) concentration in grape seeds decreased during ripening. Fatty acids reached the highest level in post-veraison. The concentration of these compounds varied considerably during ripening. Capric acid has been found for the first time in grape seeds. α-Tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol decreased during ripening, while α-tocotrienol increased. The HPLC analysis with fluorimetric detection, conducted for the first time on cv. Sangiovese, revealed that the concentration of flavan-3-ols monomers, oligomeric proanthocyanidins and polymers greatly changed during ripening. These results suggest that the timing of bunch harvest plays a crucial role in the valorisation of grape seed flour. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF WHOLE JUICE EXTRACTED FROM GRAPES IRRADIATED WITH ULTRAVIOLET C

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    TAÍSA CERATTI TREPTOW

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Grape juice has been widely studied due to the presence of phenolic compounds and its beneficial effects on human health. Ultraviolet irradiation C (UV-C can increase the content of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins and contribute to sensory acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of ultraviolet irradiation C (UV-C on ‘Trebbiano’, ‘Niagara Branca’, ‘Isabel’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ grapes, as well as effect of the storage period. Juices were elaborated and evaluated for physicochemical analyses, and for the sensorial analysis in irradiated samples. In ‘Niagara Branca’ and ‘Trebbiano’ cultivars, storage and irradiation promoted few physicochemical alterations, and sensorially, irradiation reduced the intensity of flavor and color attributes. In juices from ‘Isabel’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ cultivars, the storage period led to the concentration of sugars and irradiation influenced physicochemical parameters and increased the intensity of aroma attribute at dose of 2 kJ m-2. Thus, UV-C irradiation contributes little for the improvement of white grape juices; however, it favors some sensory attributes in red grape juice, requiring further studies to elucidate the influence of UV-C irradiation on the phenolic and volatile composition of grape juice.

  1. Formulation and evaluation on human skin of a water-in-oil emulsion containing Muscat hamburg black grape seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, M S; Menaa, A; Menaa, B; Khan, B A; Menaa, F

    2015-04-01

    Vitis vinifera 'muscat hamburg' (Vitaceae) is a blue-black grape variety commonly found in Pakistan. It has been consumed and used in traditional medicine for centuries. Compared to other grapes, M. hamburg records one of the greatest amount of polyphenols and displays potent antioxidant activities, which make it a great candidate for its exploitation in the development of stable cream emulsions destined to improve the skin appearance. Evaluate the effects of stable water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion containing 2% M. hamburg grape seed extract ('formulation') on human cheek skin in comparison with the placebo ('base'). An occlusive patch test, containing either the formulation or the base, was topically tested for 8 weeks during a winter period in young adult and healthy Pakistani male volunteers. The subjects were instructed to use twice a day the base and the formulation on their right and left cheek skin, respectively. Non-invasive measurements on these skin areas were carried out every week to assess any effects produced on melanin, elasticity and sebum. Skin compatibility assay (Burchard test) was used to report any potential skin reactivity. ANOVA, paired sample t-test and LSD test were applied to determine the statistical data significance. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found between the placebo and the formulation in terms of their respective skin effects elicited on melanin, elasticity and sebum content. Nevertheless, placebo and formulation exerted similar effects on skin erythema and moisture contents. Importantly, no skin hypersensitivity cases were reported during the whole course of the study. The developed grape-based cream could be efficiently and safely applied to improve a number of skin conditions (e.g. hyper-pigmentation, premature ageing, acne). © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Encapsulation of grape seed extract in polylactide microcapsules for sustained bioactivity and time-dependent release in dental material applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yourdkhani, Mostafa; Leme-Kraus, Ariene Arcas; Aydin, Berdan; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; White, Scott R

    2017-06-01

    To sustain the bioactivity of proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts via encapsulation within biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Polylactide microcapsules containing grape seed extract (GSE) were manufactured using a combination of double emulsion and solvent evaporation techniques. Microcapsule morphology, size distribution, and cross-section were examined via scanning electron microscopy. UV-vis measurements were carried out to evaluate the core loading and encapsulation efficiency of microcapsules. The bioactivity of extracts was evaluated after extraction from capsules via solvent partitioning one week or one year post-encapsulation process. Fifteen human molars were cut into 7mm×1.7mm×0.5mm thick mid-coronal dentin beams, demineralized, and treated with either encapsulated GSE, pristine GSE, or left untreated. The elastic modulus of dentin specimens was measured based on three-point bending experiments as an indirect assessment of the bioactivity of grape seed extracts. The effects of the encapsulation process and storage time on the bioactivity of extracts were analyzed. Polynuclear microcapsules with average diameter of 1.38μm and core loading of up to 38wt% were successfully manufactured. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean fold increase of elastic modulus values among the samples treated with encapsulated or pristine GSE (p=0.333), or the storage time (one week versus one year storage at room temperature, p=0.967). Polynuclear microcapsules containing proanthocyanidins-rich plant-derived extracts were prepared. The bioactivity of extracts was preserved after microencapsulation. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance, part II: Grafting of polyphenols extracted from grape skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ferraris, Sara; Prenesti, Enrico; Verné, Enrica

    2013-12-01

    Polyphenols, as one of the most important family of phytochemicals protective substances from grape fruit, possess various biological activities and health-promoting benefits, for example: inhibition of some degenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancers, reduction of plasma oxidative stress and slowing aging. The combination of polyphenols and biomaterials may have good potential to reach good bioavailability and controlled release, as well as to give biological signaling properties to the biomaterial surfaces. In this research, conventional solvent extraction was developed for obtaining polyphenols from dry grape skins. The Folin&Ciocalteu method was used to determine the amount of total polyphenols in the extracts. Surface functionalization of two bioactive glasses (SCNA and CEL2) was performed by grafting the extracted polyphenols on their surfaces. The effectiveness of the functionalization was tested by UV spectroscopy, which analyzes the amount of polyphenols in the uptake solution (before and after functionalization) and on solid samples, and XPS, which analyzes the presence of phenols on the material surface.

  4. The Antioxidant Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract In Vitro Do Not Correspond In Vivo Using Exercise as an Oxidant Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veskoukis, Aristidis S.; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.; Stagos, Dimitrios; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Halabalaki, Maria; Chronis, Konstantinos; Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Fruits, such as grapes, are essential food of the Mediterranean diet. Grape extracts have potent antioxidant and chemopreventive properties in vitro. Numerous studies have examined the effects of plant extract administration on redox status at rest in animals and humans but their results are controversial. However, there are no studies comparing the in vitro and in vivo effects of plant extracts on oxidative stress using exercise as an oxidant stimulus. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract of the Vitis vinifera species possesses in vitro antioxidant properties and to examine whether these properties apply in an in vivo model at rest and during exercise. Our findings indicate that the tested extract exhibits potent in vitro antioxidant properties because it scavenges the DPPH• and ABTS•+ radicals and inhibits DNA damage induced by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Administration of the extract in rats generally induced oxidative stress at rest and after exercise whereas exercise performance was not affected. Our findings suggest that the grape pomace extract does not behave with the same way in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22693650

  5. The Antioxidant Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Grape Pomace Extract In Vitro Do Not Correspond In Vivo Using Exercise as an Oxidant Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristidis S. Veskoukis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits, such as grapes, are essential food of the Mediterranean diet. Grape extracts have potent antioxidant and chemopreventive properties in vitro. Numerous studies have examined the effects of plant extract administration on redox status at rest in animals and humans but their results are controversial. However, there are no studies comparing the in vitro and in vivo effects of plant extracts on oxidative stress using exercise as an oxidant stimulus. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether a polyphenol-rich grape pomace extract of the Vitis vinifera species possesses in vitro antioxidant properties and to examine whether these properties apply in an in vivo model at rest and during exercise. Our findings indicate that the tested extract exhibits potent in vitro antioxidant properties because it scavenges the DPPH• and ABTS•+ radicals and inhibits DNA damage induced by peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. Administration of the extract in rats generally induced oxidative stress at rest and after exercise whereas exercise performance was not affected. Our findings suggest that the grape pomace extract does not behave with the same way in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Edible coating composed of chitosan and Salvia fruticosa Mill. extract for the control of grey mould of table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanetis, Loukas; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Charalambous, Zinovia; Goulas, Vlasios

    2017-01-01

    Consumer concerns regarding high-quality produce, free of pesticide residues, direct research towards disease management strategies that minimise or even exclude the use of synthetic chemistries in crop production. The efficacy of a chitosan-based edible coating combined with the acetonic extract of Salvia fruticosa Mill. (ASF) was assessed against the grey mould of table grapes. HPLC-SPE-NMR and q-NMR analyses defined major constituents of ASF to be the flavonoids hispidulin, salvigenin and cirsimaritin and the diterpenes carnosic acid, carnosol and the 12-methoxycarnosic acid. The extract was found to be efficacious in reducing spore germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro at 10 and 25 °C. However, the combination of the ASF with chitosan 1% (w/v; CHIT) significantly improved fungal inhibition. Similarly, in fruit inoculation trials at 10 °C, the efficacy of the combined application of the ASF at 500 mg L -1 with CHIT against grey mould was statistically equal to the synthetic fungicide thiabendazole, ranging from 98.4% to 92.7% at 12 and 21 days post-inoculation, respectively. Furthermore, chitosan coating alone and in combination with ASF decreased the rate of fruit weight loss during cold storage, while preserved soluble solids content and titratable acidity. Chitosan-based coatings did not affect quality attributes and the bioactive compounds in table grapes. The combined application of the ASF in the form of an edible coating with chitosan could effectively control B. cinerea without deteriorating quality and physico-chemical properties of grapes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J; Das, D K; Ray, S D; Kuszynski, C A; Joshi, S S; Pruess, H G

    2000-08-07

    Free radicals have been implicated in over a hundred disease conditions in humans, including arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, atherosclerosis, advancing age, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many organs, Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal dysfunctions, tumor promotion and carcinogenesis, and AIDS. Antioxidants are potent scavengers of free radicals and serve as inhibitors of neoplastic processes. A large number of synthetic and natural antioxidants have been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects on human health and disease prevention. However, the structure-activity relationship, bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of the antioxidants differ extensively. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins, naturally occurring antioxidants widely available in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, flowers and bark, have been reported to possess a broad spectrum of biological, pharmacological and therapeutic activities against free radicals and oxidative stress. We have assessed the concentration- or dose-dependent free radical scavenging ability of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) both in vitro and in vivo models, and compared the free radical scavenging ability of GSPE with vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. These experiments demonstrated that GSPE is highly bioavailable and provides significantly greater protection against free radicals and free radical-induced lipid peroxidation and DNA damage than vitamins C, E and beta-carotene. GSPE was also shown to demonstrate cytotoxicity towards human breast, lung and gastric adenocarcinoma cells, while enhancing the growth and viability of normal human gastric mucosal cells. The comparative protective effects of GSPE, vitamins C and E were examined on tobacco-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in human oral keratinocytes. Oxidative tissue damage was determined by lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, while apoptotic cell death was assessed by flow cytometry. GSPE provided significantly

  8. Use of coextraction and suppression of extraction in extraction-chromatographic separation of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karandashev, V.K.; Kuznetsov, R.A.; Grazhulene, S.S.; Usmanova, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    TBP, solutions of hydrobromic acid, indium and polytetrafluoroethylene powder, carrier for TBP, were used to study the effects of coextraction and extraction suppression on extraction-chromatographic behaviour of microamounts of elements in the presence of macroamounts of other elements. Possibility of using these effects under extraction-chromatographic element separation were considered. A new method for extraction-chromatographic separation of scandium microamounts from the mixture of large amount of elements (Y, Cd, Ce, Eu, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Np and other) was suggested. 15 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Antioxidant/Prooxidant and Antibacterial/Probacterial Effects of a Grape Seed Extract in Complex with Lipoxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Sanda Chedea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the antioxidant/prooxidant, antibacterial/probacterial action of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins from grape seeds, pure catechin (CS, and an aqueous grape seed extract (PE, were applied in the absence and presence of pure lipoxygenase (LS or in extract (LE to leucocyte culture, Escherichia coli B41 and Brevibacterium linens, and observed whether there was any effect on lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, or growth rate. Short time periods of coincubation of cells with the polyphenols, followed by the exposure to LS and LE, revealed a high level of lipid peroxidation and a prooxidative effect. Longer coincubation and addition of LS and LE resulted in the reversal of the prooxidant action either to antioxidant activity for CS + LS and PE + LS or to the control level for CS + LE and PE + LE. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced when cells were exposed to polyphenols over a longer period. Longer exposure of E. coli to CS or PE followed by addition of LS for 3 h resulted in bactericidal activity. Significant stimulatory effect on microbial growth was observed for PE + LS and PE + LE treatments in B. linens, illustrating the potential probacterial activity in B. linens cultures. Lipoxygenase-polyphenols complex formation was found to be responsible for the observed effects.

  10. Cytogenetic effects of grape extracts (Vitis vinifera) and polyphenols on mitomycin C-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanou, Chrysa; Margariti, Maria; Stathopoulos, Constantinos; Mamuris, Zissis; Kazantzoglou, Georgios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2007-06-27

    In the present study, the effects of extracts and polyphenol-rich fractions as well as monomer polyphenols identified in them, from both red and white grapes, on mitomycin C (MMC) induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. The grape extracts and two of the three polyphenol-rich fractions promoted MMC-induced SCEs at concentrations from 75 to 300 microg/mL. However, none of the extracts or fractions alone induced SCEs. Thus, these results suggest caution especially with regard to the use of grape extracts as dietary supplements. On the other hand, the fact that these extracts were not genotoxic alone may indicate a selective activity against genetically damaged cells. This is the first study regarding the clastogenic effects of grape extracts in human cells. Moreover, from the tested polyphenols, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and rutin hydrate enhanced MMC-induced clastogenicity, whereas ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and trans-resveratrol had no effect at concentrations between 5 and 100 microM. The differences in the chemical structures of the tested polyphenols may account for their differential effects on MMC clastogenicity.

  11. Effect of Grape Seeds Oil Extracted from Radiation Processed Seeds on Lipid Metabolism and on Antioxidant Activity in Rats Fed Diets Containing Cholesterol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Neily, H.F.G.; El-Shennawy, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seeds were separated from fresh grape pomace and dried at room temperature then packed in polyethylene bags and subjected to gamma rays at dose level of 10 kGy. The grape seeds oil was extracted from non and irradiated seeds. The oil quality, fatty acid composition and total phenolic compounds of oil extracted from non or irradiated seeds have been studied. The results indicated that there were significant increases in the acid value, saponification value and peroxide value of oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy by 46.2%, 2.5% and 95.2%, respectively, and the total phenolic compounds and total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP) were reduced by 22.13% and 10%, respectively, as compared to those of oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. No degradation of the fatty acids; palmitic, linoleic, linolenic and arachidic acids, were observed for oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy. However, significant decrease in oleic acid by 11.35% and increase in stearic acid by 26.22% were recorded corresponding to those for oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds. The effect of grape seeds oils extracted from non or irradiated seeds on lipid metabolism and antioxidant activity was investigated using 60 male Albino rats divided into six groups: (1) Control group: animals fed casein diet. (2) Ch group: animals received casein diet contains 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. (3) RGSO group: animals received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet). (4) RGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from non-irradiated seeds (100 g oil per kg diet) + 100 g cholesterol per kg diet. (5) IGSO group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet). (6) IGSO + Ch group: rats received diet contains grape seeds oil extracted from irradiated seeds at 10 kGy (100 g oil per kg diet) + 10 g cholesterol per kg diet. Animals received

  12. Optimization of a method for the extraction and quantification of carotenoids and chlorophylls during ripening in grape berries (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamffer, Zindi; Bindon, Keren A; Oberholster, Anita

    2010-06-09

    An extraction method to identify and quantify the carotenoid and chlorophyll profile of lyophilized tissue from unripe (green) to ripe (red) Merlot grape berries was developed. The RP-HPLC method baseline separated all of the carotenoids and chlorophylls and their derivatives. Problems encountered during sample storage and extraction are discussed as well as possible alternative methods. This study confirmed that carotenoids and chlorophylls decreased on a per berry (microg/berry) and concentration (microg/g) basis from veraison to harvest over two growing seasons. The carotenoid 5,8-epoxy-beta-carotene was quantified for the first time in grapes and represents a significant amount of the total carotenoids present at harvest. All the carotenoids and chlorophylls except beta-carotene appeared to be sensitive to seasonal variation in climatic conditions. Lutein and beta-carotene were found to be the most abundant carotenoids present in Merlot grape berries together with chlorophyll a for both seasons studied.

  13. Determination of anthocyanins in red grape skin by pressurized fluid extraction and HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, L.; Karásek, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2008), S39-S42 ISSN 1212-1800. [National Conference on Quality of Moravian and Czech Wines and their Future. Lednice, 11.09.2008-12.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : PFE * grape skin Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  14. Chemoprevention by grape seed extract and genistein in carcinogen-induced mammary cancer in rats is diet dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helen; Hall, Patti; Smith, Michelle; Kirk, Marion; Prasain, Jeevan K; Barnes, Stephen; Grubbs, Clinton

    2004-12-01

    Many popular dietary supplements are enriched in polyphenols such as the soy isoflavones, tea catechins, and resveratrol (from grape skins), each of which has been shown to have chemopreventive activity in cellular models of cancer. The proanthocyanidins, which are oligomers of the catechins, are enriched in grape seeds and form the basis of the dietary supplement grape seed extract (GSE). Evidence suggests that the proanthocyanidins may be metabolized to the monomeric catechins. This study was carried out to determine whether GSE added to rodent diets protected against carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats and whether this was affected by the composition of the whole diet. Female rats were begun on 5%, 1.25%, or 0% (control) GSE-supplemented diets at age 35 d. At age 50 d they were administered 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in sesame oil at 80 mg/kg body weight. They were weighed and monitored weekly for tumor development until 120 d after DMBA administration. Administration of GSE in AIN-76A diet did not show any protective activity of GSE against DMBA-induced breast cancer. However, administration of GSE in a laboratory dry food diet (Teklad 4% rodent diet) resulted in a 50% reduction in tumor multiplicity. In similar experiments, genistein administered in AIN-76A diet also failed to show chemopreventive activity against the carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea; however, when administered at the same dose in the Teklad 4% rodent diet, genistein exhibited significant chemopreventive activity (44-61%). These results demonstrate that GSE is chemopreventive in an animal model of breast cancer; moreover, the diet dependency of the chemopreventive activity for both GSE and genistein suggests that whether or not a compound is chemopreventive may depend on the diet in which the agent is administered.

  15. Hepatoprotectivitve effect of Iranian grape seed and Jaft (a part of oak fruit extracts against CCL4 induced-liver toxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specialists are more interest to grape seed oil for antioxidant activity. Flavonoid compounds, particularly proanthocyanidin are mainly responsible for antioxidant potential in grape seed oil. In addition, recently the interest in using natural remedies to treat diseases increases the use of herbal drugs.The protective effect of grape seed and Jaft extract (a part of oak fruit was studied on liver toxicity which induced by carbon tetra chloride (CCl4 in rats. Methods: This study carried out on 28 male wistar rats. Mixture of hydroalchoholic grape seed and Jaft extracts was gavaged (200mg/kg in two groups of extract control and experiment groups, daily for 7 days. At the same time, in two groups of CCl4(toxic and treatment, CCl4 in olive oil solution was injected (1ml/kg i.p since third day, daily, for 5 days. In control groups, olive oil injected (0.5ml/kg i.p daily, for 5 days. Results: There was significant (P≤0.05 increase in the hepatic enzyme levels such as Aspartate Transaaminase (AST, Alanine Transaminase (ALT, Alkaline Phosphates (ALP and Bilirubin in toxic group compare to control group. Treat with extract can reduce elevation of liver enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin, that caused by CCl4 toxin. The administered of extract only, did not meaningfully alter the enzyme levels when compared to the control groups. Conclusion: According to damage induced by CCl4 and protective potential of extract, we can recommend that mixture of grape seed and Jaft extract has hepatoprotective effect due to antioxidant components.

  16. Antioxidant activity of grape skin aqueous extracts from pressurized hot water extraction combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťavíková, Lenka; Polovka, M.; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2011), s. 2233-2240 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : antioxidant activity of grape skin polyphenols * PHWE * EPR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2011

  17. GRAPE EXTRACT IMPROVES ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN ELITE MALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lafay

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive physical exercise overproduces reactive oxygen species. Even if elite sportsmen increase their antioxidant status by regular physical training, during the competition period, this improvement is not sufficient to limit free radical production which could be detrimental to the body. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, and crossover study on 20 elite sportsmen (handball = 10, basketball = 5, sprint = 4, and volleyball = 1 during the competition period was to determine if the consumption of a grape extract (GE; Vitis vinifera L. was able to improve the parameters related to (i anti-oxidative status and oxidative stress and (ii physical performance. Specific biomarkers of antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, skeletal cell muscle damage, and other general biomarkers were determined in plasma and urine before (D0 and after one month (D30 of placebo or GE supplementation (400mg·d-1. Effort tests were conducted using the Optojump® system, which allows determining the total physical performance (EnRJ45, explosive power (RJ110, and fatigue (RJL5. The plasma ORAC value was not modified in the placebo group; however, GE increased the ORAC value compared to the placebo at D30 (14 966+/-335 vs 14 242+/-339 µmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05. The plasma FRAP value was significantly reduced in the placebo group, but not in the GE group. Therefore, GE limited the reduction of FRAP compared to the placebo at D30 (1 053.7+/-31.5 vs 993.7+/-26.7 µmol Teq·L-1; p < 0.05. Urinary isoprostane values were increased in the placebo group, but were not modified in the GE group. Consequently, GE limited the production of isoprostanes compared to the placebo at D30 (1.24+/-0.12 vs 1.26+/-0.13 ng·mg-1 creatinine; p < 0.05. GE administration, compared to the placebo at D30, reduced the plasmatic creatine phosphokinase concentration (CPK, 695.7+/-177.0 vs 480.0+/-81.1 IU·L-1, p = 0.1 and increased hemoglobin levels (Hb, 14.5+/-0.2 vs 14

  18. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  19. BRAIN NEURON REGENERATION IN POST-STROKE REHABILITATION TREATMENT USING GRAPE PEEL AND SEED EXTRACT (Vitis vinifera IN INDUCING ERK1 / 2 PATHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella Yolanda Lie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Ischemic stroke can cause hypoxia in brain tissue and damage the neuron. The defense ability and plasticity is activated by ERK1/2 pathway. Grape peel and seed extract (Vitis vinifera can induce release neurotrophic factor that contribute in ERK1/2 pathway mechanism. This research aiming to prove that grape peel and seed extract can regenerate neuron in anatomical and functional view. Method. This research use true experimental design with sample in this research is 20 male 8-10 weeks old wistar strain rats which are induced stroke by internal and external carotid artery occlusion method. There are five groups in this research, negative control, positive control, grape peel and seed extract 50mg/KgBW, 100mg/KgBW, and 200mg/KgBW. After reassurement that rat suffer from stroke with MMP9, cylinder test and ladder rung walking test, rats are given grape peel and seed extract in variable dose to know how extract’s effect in neuron repairment. Results. The repairment is monitored from four parameters, namely cylinder test score, ladder rung walking test score, extensive infarct volume, and number of damaged neuron. Conclusion. The result is 50mg/KgBW is effective in repairing neuron. It is seen from the result of improvement in four parameters explained above.

  20. Antioxidant activity of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seed in whey protein isolate stabilized algae oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2004-08-11

    Algae oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with 0.2% whey protein isolate (WPI) at pH 3.0 and 7.0 were chosen to evaluate antioxidant activity of a proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seed. In this emulsion system, (+)-catechin and ascorbic acid (620 microM) were found to be prooxidative at pH 3.0 and ineffective at pH 7.0. Grape seed extract was not able to effectively inhibit both lipid hydroperoxides and propanal formation when added to the emulsion at 124 microM. However, increasing the concentration of the grape seed extract to 620 microM resulted in inhibition of both lipid hydroperoxide and propanal formation at pH 3.0 and 7.0. None of the antioxidants tested had any effect on the physical stability of the WPI-stabilized emulsion. The superior antioxidant activity of the grape seed extract is likely due to the presence of oligomeric procyanidins which are better antioxidants compared to their monomeric counterparts.

  1. Red Wine and Pomegranate Extracts Suppress Cured Meat Promotion of Colonic Mucin-Depleted Foci in Carcinogen-Induced Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Nadia M; Naud, Nathalie; Nassy, Gilles; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2017-01-01

    Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.

  2. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation with a mixed blueberry and grape extract on working memory in aged beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Lepoudère, A; Leray, V; Baron, C; Araujo, J A; Nguyen, P; Milgram, N W

    2017-01-01

    Cellular oxidative damage is thought to be one of the key mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. Several nutritional interventions to limit cognitive decline are reported in the literature. To our knowledge, the association of grape and blueberry extracts has never been tested in aged dogs. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB) on oxidative status and cognitive performances in aged dogs. A total of thirty-five beagle dogs (aged 8·0-14·5 years) were fed a basal diet with PEGB at either 0 parts per million (ppm) ( n 11; control), 240 ppm ( n 12; PEGB1) or 480 ppm ( n 12; PEGB2) for 75 d. To investigate the effects of PEGB supplementation on cognition and oxidative status, a delayed non-matching to position (DNMP) test and RT-PCR on genes involved in oxidative stress were evaluated. The dogs fed PEGB1 showed a higher superoxide dismutase mRNA expression compared with dogs fed PEGB2 ( P  = 0·042) and with the control group ( P  = 0·014). Moreover, the dogs fed PEGB2 showed higher nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression compared with the dogs fed PEGB1 ( P  = 0·027). Concerning the DNMP test, the proportion of dogs showing cognitive improvements relative to their baseline level was significantly higher in dogs fed the PEGB, regardless of the dosage, than in dogs receiving no supplementation ( P  = 0·030). The results obtained in the DNMP test suggested a potential benefit of the PEGB on working memory. However, this hypothesis should be further investigated to confirm this cognitive effect.

  4. Oriented Growth of α-MnO2 Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sanchez-Botero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO2 nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica ‘Cortland’ apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO2 nanorods: (1 reduction of KMnO4 in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2 a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO2 nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO2 nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  5. Oriented Growth of α-MnO₂ Nanorods Using Natural Extracts from Grape Stems and Apple Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Botero, Lina; Herrera, Adriana P; Hinestroza, Juan P

    2017-05-22

    We report on the synthesis of alpha manganese dioxide (α-MnO₂) nanorods using natural extracts from Vitis vinifera grape stems and Malus domestica 'Cortland' apple peels. We used a two-step method to produce highly crystalline α-MnO₂ nanorods: (1) reduction of KMnO₄ in the presence of natural extracts to initiate the nucleation process; and (2) a thermal treatment to enable further solid-state growth of the nuclei. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images provided direct evidence of the morphology of the nanorods and these images were used to propose nucleation and growth mechanisms. We found that the α-MnO₂ nanorods synthesized using natural extracts exhibit structural and magnetic properties similar to those of nanoparticles synthesized via traditional chemical routes. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) shows that the particle growth of the α-MnO₂ nanorods appears to be controlled by the presence of natural capping agents during the thermal treatment. We also evaluated the catalytic activity of the nanorods in the degradation of aqueous solutions of indigo carmine dye, highlighting the potential use of these materials to clean dye-polluted water.

  6. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: Zuliang.chen@newcastle.edu.au; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  7. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC–MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. - Graphical abstract: TEM image for the Fe/Pd NPs synthesized by grape leaf aqueous extract. - Highlights: • The one-step green synthesis of Fe/Pd nanoparticles has been systematically characterized. • TEM showed that the Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20 nm. • Active biomolecules in the grape extract were identified.

  8. Comparison of a pectinolytic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus and a commercial enzyme preparation in the production of Ives (Vitis labrusca) grape juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemolini-Barreto, Luciani Tatsch; Antônio, Regina Vasconcellos; Echeverrigaray, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    This study analyses the effect of the crude enzymatic extract produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus (EEB) in the maceration and clarification of juice produced from Ives (Vitis labrusca) grapes compared to the commercial enzyme preparation Pectinex(®)Ultra Color (PEC). Treatments were conducted with a total pectinolytic activity of 1 U/mL of fruit juice, at 40 °C, for 60 min. After the enzymatic treatment, the juices were evaluated with respect to yield, viscosity, and degree of clarification, as well as the effect of the enzymes on polyphenol concentration, anthocyanins, and juice color. The results showed that both EEB and PEC increase yield, reduce viscosity and contribute to the clarification of grape juice. After enzyme treatment with the EEB preparation, the extraction yield increased 28.02 % and decreased 50.70 % in viscosity during the maceration of the pulp. During the juice production process clarification increased 11.91 %. With PEC, higher values for these parameters: 42.36, 63.20, and 26.81 % respectively, were achieved. The addition of EEB resulted in grape juice with better color intensity and extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. Considering all comparison criteria, the enzymatic extract of K. marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 can potentially be used in the production of juice.

  9. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedó, Lídia; Castell-Auví, Anna; Pallarès, Victor; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model is a robust model mimicking a prediabetic state, as these rats display insulin resistance, increased insulin synthesis and secretion, and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. In addition, GSPE treatment (25 mg/kg of GSPE for 21 days) in male rats improves insulin resistance and counteracts the cafeteria-induced effects on insulin synthesis. However, the administration of the extract enhances the cafeteria-induced increase in Bax protein levels, suggesting increased apoptosis. This result contradicts previous results from cafeteria-fed female rats, in which GSPE seemed to counteract the increased apoptosis induced by the cafeteria diet.

  10. Grape Seed Procyanidin Extract Improves Insulin Production but Enhances Bax Protein Expression in Cafeteria-Treated Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Cedó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, the administration of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE in female Wistar rats improved insulin resistance, reduced insulin production, and modulated apoptosis biomarkers in the pancreas. Considering that pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters in females are different from these parameters in males, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of GSPE on male Wistar cafeteria-induced obese rats. The results have confirmed that the cafeteria model is a robust model mimicking a prediabetic state, as these rats display insulin resistance, increased insulin synthesis and secretion, and increased apoptosis in the pancreas. In addition, GSPE treatment (25 mg/kg of GSPE for 21 days in male rats improves insulin resistance and counteracts the cafeteria-induced effects on insulin synthesis. However, the administration of the extract enhances the cafeteria-induced increase in Bax protein levels, suggesting increased apoptosis. This result contradicts previous results from cafeteria-fed female rats, in which GSPE seemed to counteract the increased apoptosis induced by the cafeteria diet.

  11. Consumption of a polyphenol-rich grape-wine extract lowers ambulatory blood pressure in mildly hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draijer, Richard; de Graaf, Young; Slettenaar, Marieke; de Groot, Eric; Wright, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols in grape and wine have been suggested to contribute to the cardiovascular health benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle. The reported effects of grape products on blood pressure (BP) remain, however, equivocal. In a double-blind placebo controlled crossover study, the effect of two

  12. Enhanced NMR-based profiling of polyphenols in commercially available grape juices using solid-phase extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savage, A.K.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Tucker, G.; Daykin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Grapes and related products, such as juices, and in particular, their polyphenols, have previously been associated with many health benefits, such as protection against cardiovascular disease. Within grapes, a large range of structurally diverse polyphenols can be present, and their characterisation

  13. Free the tannins: the role of grape pathogenesis-related proteins in limiting condensed tannin extraction during winemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape-derived condensed tannins (CT) are important to the mouthfeel of red wines, but CT concentrations in red wines produced from wild Vitis species or their hybrids are often lower than corresponding wines produced from European wine grapes (V. vinifera), potentially decreasing their utility. Thes...

  14. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ruchao, E-mail: zhouruchao520@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Si Shaoxiong, E-mail: sishaoxiong@126.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Zhang Qiyi, E-mail: qyzhang@scu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China)

    2012-02-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 Degree-Sign C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  15. Water-dispersible hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solution containing grape seed extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruchao; Si Shaoxiong; Zhang Qiyi

    2012-01-01

    A novel and effective method for the preparation of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) particles was reported. nHAp was prepared in the presence of grape seed polyphenol (GSP) solution with different concentrations. Chemical precipitation method was adopted to produce pure nHAp and modified nHAp (nHAp-GSP) at 60 °C for 2 h. The chemical nature of the products was detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the crystal structure and morphology of particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the spherical nHAp particles with a diameter of 20-50 nm could be synthesized at 60 °C. The zeta potential values of pure nHAp and nHAp-GSP are -0.36 mV and -26.1 mV respectively. According to the sedimentary time, the colloidal stability of nHAp-GSP in water could be improved dramatically with the increase of GSP content and the particles tended to exist as dispersive nanoparticles without aggregation. All the results indicated that GSP exhibited strong binding to nHAp and enhanced the colloidal stability of nHAp particles.

  16. Association of Activation of Induced COX-2, iNOS and Cytokines with NF-kappa B Depression by Taiwan Wild Grape Ethanolic Extract in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Wen; Chen, Yi-Han; Lin, Yu-Chin; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2017-08-31

    Taiwan wild grape (Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana; VTT) is an important traditional herbal medicine used to treat muscle injuries and acute and chronic pain of the ligaments. Information on its bioactivity and the underlying mechanisms, which have not been elucidated thus far, is needed to demonstrate its value for pharmacological and clinical use. This study presents evidence to clarify the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of an ethanolic extract of VTT stem (VTTEtOH) and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in such biactivities. In the mice, VTTEtOH significantly reduced the acetic acid-induced writhing response (P < 0.01), formalin-induced licking time (P < 0.01), and edema paw volume at 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan injection. VTTEtOH obviously decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-6 (P < 0.001), nuclear factor-kappa B (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (P < 0.001) and Nitric oxide (P < 0.001) in edema-paw tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects might involve significant inhibition of the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 through suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and reduction of the levels of various inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide. Our findings provided pharmacological and histopathological evidences that VTTEtOH alleviates inflammatory pain-related diseases.

  17. Grape skin extract-derived polyphenols modify programming-induced renal endowment in prenatal protein-restricted male mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Ribeiro; Pires, Karla Maria Pereira; Nalbones-Barbosa, Mariane Nogueira; Dos Santos Valença, Samuel; Resende, Ângela Castro; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2016-06-01

    Protein-restricted diet during pregnancy is related to oxidative stress and, as a consequence, damage to nephrogenesis. We investigated the effects of vinifera grape skin extract (ACH09)-derived polyphenols on preserving renal morphology of maternal protein-restricted 1-day-old offspring. Female C57/Bl-6 mice were fed two different isocaloric diets: control diet (19.3 % protein) and low-protein diet (6 % protein) with access to water or to the extract dissolved in drinking water (19.3 % protein plus ACH09 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and 6 % protein plus ACH09 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) throughout gestation. Renal morphology-glomerular number N[glom]; renal maturity-vascular glomeruli and avascular glomeruli ratio (v-N[glom]/a-N[glom]); medullar and cortical volumes, as well as mean glomerular volume, were analyzed in male offspring. Hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase (CAT) activities were evaluated, and renal lipid peroxidation levels were measured. Maternal protein restriction affected birth weight and naso-anal length in low-protein offspring compared to control and ACH09 restored both parameters. Protein restriction increased lipid peroxidation in kidney and liver and reduced CAT activity in low-protein group compared to control. Supplementation with ACH09 reduced the kidney oxidative damage and restored the antioxidant activity of CAT. ACH09 prevented glomerular loss and renal immaturity in the offspring. The treatment of low-protein-fed dams during pregnancy with ACH09 provides protection from early-life deleterious renal morphological changes. The protective effect of ACH09 may involve antioxidant action and vasodilator effect of the extract.

  18. Ameliorative Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Cadmium-Induced Meiosis Inhibition During Oogenesis in Chicken Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fuyin; Xiao, Min; Li, Jian; Cook, Devin W; Zeng, Weidong; Zhang, Caiqiao; Mi, Yuling

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on the female reproductive system. Here the ameliorative effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on Cd-induced meiosis inhibition during oogenesis was explored. As compared with controls, chicken embryos exposed to Cd (3 µg/egg) displayed a changed oocyte morphology, decreased number of meiotic germ cells, and decreased expression of the meiotic marker protein γH2AX. Real time RT-PCR also revealed a significant down-regulation in the mRNA expressions of various meiosis-specific markers (Stra8, Spo11, Scp3, and Dmc1) together with those of Raldh2, a retinoic acid (RA) synthetase, and of the receptors (RARα and RARβ). In addition, exposure to Cd increased the production of H2 O2 and malondialdehyde in the ovaries and caused a corresponding reduction in glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Simultaneous supplementation of GSPE (150 µg/egg) markedly alleviated the aforementioned Cd-induced embryotoxic effects by upregulating meiosis-related proteins and gene expressions and restoring the antioxidative level. Collectively, the findings provided novel insights into the underlying mechanism of Cd-induced meiosis inhibition and indicated that GSPE might potentially ameliorate related reproductive disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H 2 O 2 . HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Suppression of experimental "allergic" encephalomyelitis in guinea pigs by encephalitogenic proteins extracted from homologous brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAW, C M; FAHLBERG, W J; KIES, M W; ALVORD, E C

    1960-02-01

    The intradermal injection of aqueous solutions of certain homologous neural proteins will suppress the encephalomyelitis which is induced in guinea pigs by the previous injection of whole homologous brain with Freund's adjuvants. These neural proteins extracted by dilute acid from defatted guinea pig brain are themselves highly encephalitogenic when injected with adjuvants, but the specificity of this suppression for encephalitogenic as compared to non-encephalitogenic extracts remains to be proven. Suppression is probably not due to a non-specific stress reaction, as indicated by the absence of suppression by intradermal injections of alcohol and by statistically insignificant and inconstant effects of similar injections of tuberculin.

  1. ESR detection of free radicals in polyphenolic extracts from wine grapes, olives and green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.; Hutton, D.R.; Romani, A.; Mulinacci, N.; Vincieri, F.F.; Hunter, C.R.; Hewitt, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Polyphenols are widespread in vegetables and fruits and they play an important role in human diet and health: these compounds act mainly as antioxidants and radical scavengers. In this work we have detected free radicals in the following natural polyphenols: Endotelon, an anthocyanic grapeskin extract; malvidin 3,5-O-diglucosides (malvin); oleuropein, an olive polyphenol; a commercial green tea extract, and pure epigallocatechingallate EGCG. The investigation was performed using a Varian E-12 ESR Spectrometer (∼9.1 GHz) at room temperature. All except the green tea extract gave single unstructured lines of ∼ 10 gauss linewidth. The tea extract signal showed 3 lines, one ∼ 20 gauss wide, one ∼ 10 gauss wide, and one ∼ 2-3 gauss wide. Saturation behaviour of these lines at room and liquid N 2 temperature showed them to be from different radicals About 50% of the extract is represented by epigallocatechingallate (EGCG). Using the pure sample EGCG it was possible to assign the appropriate radical, which corresponded with the broadest and strongest 'single' signal (∼20g wide). The presence of the free radicals in the solid extracts shows that the appropriate molecules can act as radical scavengers by forming stable radicals

  2. Antioxidant activity of extract from gamma irradiated grape (Psidium guajava L.) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M. H.; Ali, H.G.M.; Nasr, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective this study was to study the antioxidant activity efficiency of extracts from irradiated defatted guava (Psidium guajava L.) seeds at dose levels of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds samples were extracted with acetone: water: acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5). Immediately after irradiation, the antioxidant activity was studied. Gas chromatographic-Mass spectrum was applied to identify and quantify the constituents (%) of extracts and the amino acids composition was determined in all samples under investigation of defatted guava seeds powder. The measurements of the antioxidant activity, using a γ-carotene-linoleate model system and radical scavenging capacity effect on 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, was determined in the extracts of non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. Meanwhile, noodles (homemade strips macaroni) were prepared from blends of 72% wheat flour containing 0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5% levels of non-irradiated defatted guava seeds powder. The results showed that samples of extracts from non-irradiated and irradiated defatted guava seeds had contained a considerable total polyphenolic compounds and marked scavenging activity on DPHH radical. On the other hand , the gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) separation technique led to identification of 26 components the of extract non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Also, the data revealed that guava seeds powder samples under investigation passes the most important essential amino acids and for human health such as trace elements iron, zinc and manganese. Noodles prepared from 2.5% level of guava seeds powder-wheat flour blend had high acceptable quality. Thus, guava seeds, a waste from guava industry can be utilized improved nutritional properties of noodles or used its extracts as natural antioxidant in food industry field

  3. Synergistic interactions between phenolic compounds identified in grape pomace extract with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Sanhueza

    Full Text Available Synergy could be an effective strategy to potentiate and recover antibiotics nowadays useless in clinical treatments against multi-resistant bacteria. In this study, synergic interactions between antibiotics and grape pomace extract that contains high concentration of phenolic compounds were evaluated by the checkerboard method in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. To define which component of the extract is responsible for the synergic effect, phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC and their relative abundance was determined. Combinations of extract with pure compounds identified there in were also evaluated. Results showed that the grape pomace extract combined with representatives of different classes of antibiotics as β-lactam, quinolone, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline and amphenicol act in synergy in all S. aureus and E. coli strains tested with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.155. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was reduced 4 to 75 times. The most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the extract were quercetin, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid and luteolin with relative abundance of 26.3, 24.4, 16.7 and 11.4%, respectively. All combinations of the extract with the components also showed synergy with FICI values varying from 0.031 to 0.5 and MIC reductions of 4 to 125 times with both bacteria strains. The relative abundance of phenolic compounds has no correlation with the obtained synergic effect, suggesting that the mechanism by which the synergic effect occurs is by a multi-objective action. It was also shown that combinations of grape pomace extract with antibiotics are not toxic for the HeLa cell line at concentrations in which the synergistic effect was observed (47 μg/mL of extract and 0.6-375 μg/mL antibiotics. Therefore, these combinations are good candidates for testing in animal models in order to enhance the effect of antibiotics of different classes and thus restore the

  4. Effects of red grape skin and seed extract supplementation on atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Mortensen, Alicja; Schrøder, Malene

    2007-01-01

    skin and seed extract (GSE) on the development of atherosclerosis. WHHL rabbits received either semisynthetic diet (casein based) or semisynthetic diet added GSE over a period of 15 wk. Plasma lipids and aortic cholesterol accumulation were measured. Feeding semisynthetic diet was associated...... response to semisynthetic diet and, furthermore, retarded the development of aortic atherosclerosis in males as demonstrated by significantly lower cholesterol content in the abdominal part....

  5. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  6. Aqueous Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Suppresses LPS-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potential transcriptional factor for regulating the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α. As expected, AEOD suppressed the LPS-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα and sustained the expression of p65 in the cytosol. Furthermore, AEOD substantially inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB.

  7. The effect of red grape seed extract on serum paraoxonase activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Argani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Red grape seed extract (RGSE contains oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes as a class of flavonoids. These compounds are potent antioxidants and exert many health-promoting effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of RGSE on serum levels of triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (apo-AI levels and paraoxonase (PON activity in patients with mild to moderate hyperlipidemia (MMH. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at Shahid-Modarres Hospital (Tehran, Iran and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Seventy MMH patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment (200 mg/day of RGSE or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: Significant elevation in serum levels of apo-AI (P = 0.001, HDL-C (P = 0.001 and PON activity (P = 0.001 and marked decreases in concentrations of TC (P = 0.015, TG (P = 0.011 and LDL-C (P = 0.014 were found in the cases. PON activity was significantly correlated with apo-AI (r = 0.270; P < 0.01 and HDL-C (r = 0.45; P < 0.001. Significant differences between the RGSE and control groups (before and after treatment for TC (P = 0.001, TG (P = 0.001, PON (P = 0.03, apo-AI (P = 0.001 and LDL-C (P = 0.002 were seen. CONCLUSION: It is possible that RGSE increases PON activity mostly through increasing HDL-C and apo-AI levels in MMH patients. It may thus have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in these patients.

  8. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Salmabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE on triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12 including control (intact, Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection, control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. To induce the syndrome, a single subcutaneous injection of 2 mg estradiol valerate was applied. In experimental groups, PCOS rats were treated with different doses of 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW GSE by intraperitoneal injection for 10 consecutive days. After harvesting blood serum, TG was measured by Glycerol-3-phosphate Oxidase-Peoxidase (GPO- PAP, TC by Cholesterol Oxidase-Peroxidase (CHOD-PAP, and HDL-C by sedimentation method, LDL-C by Friedwald calculation and IL-6 by ELISA method. The serum values of each parameter were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at P≤0.05. Results In all experimental groups significant decrease of visceral fat was obvious as compared with control PCOS group. LDL-C, TC and IL-6 levels in experimental groups, particularly at dose of 50 mg/kg of GSE, were significantly decreased as compared with PCOS group. However, HDL-C levels were not significantly changed. Conclusion : According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that GSE with its effects on serum TC, LDL-C and IL-6 could reduce the effects of dyslipidemia and inflammation in PCOS rats and improve systemic symptoms of PCOS.

  9. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Lipid Profile and Expression of Interleukin-6 in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Wistar Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmabadi, Zohreh; Mohseni Kouchesfahani, Homa; Parivar, Kazem; Karimzadeh, Latifeh

    2017-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common but complex endocrine disorder and is the major cause of anovulation and consequent subfertility. In this study the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdensity lipoprotein-cholestrol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholestrol (LDL-C) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in PCOS Wistar rats were assessed. In this experimental study, 84 adult female Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=12) including control (intact), Sham (estradiol valerate solvent injection), control PCOS and 4 experimental PCOS groups. To induce the syndrome, a single subcutaneous injection of 2 mg estradiol valerate was applied. In experimental groups, PCOS rats were treated with different doses of 50, 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) GSE by intraperitoneal injection for 10 consecutive days. After harvesting blood serum, TG was measured by Glycerol-3-phosphate Oxidase-Peoxidase (GPOPAP), TC by Cholesterol Oxidase-Peroxidase (CHOD-PAP), and HDL-C by sedimentation method, LDL-C by Friedwald calculation and IL-6 by ELISA method. The serum values of each parameter were analyzed using one-way ANOVA at P≤0.05. In all experimental groups significant decrease of visceral fat was obvious as compared with control PCOS group. LDL-C, TC and IL-6 levels in experimental groups, particularly at dose of 50 mg/kg of GSE, were significantly decreased as compared with PCOS group. However, HDL-C levels were not significantly changed. According to the findings of this study, it can be concluded that GSE with its effects on serum TC, LDL-C and IL-6 could reduce the effects of dyslipidemia and inflammation in PCOS rats and improve systemic symptoms of PCOS. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in preventing cyclosporine A-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Sukru; Ozkan, Gulsum; Yucesan, Fulya Balaban; Ersöz, Şafak; Orem, Asim; Alkanat, Mehmet; Yuluğ, Esin; Kaynar, Kubra; Al, Sait

    2012-05-01

    Although the pathogenesis of cyclosporine (CsA) nephropathy is not completely understood, it is attributed to oxidative damage and apoptosis. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a molecule with anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Our aim was to demonstrate the effects of GSPE in preventing CsA nephropathy. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control, GSPE, CsA and CsA+GSPE groups were given 1 mL olive oil, 100 mg/kg GSPE, 25 mg/kg CsA and 100 mg/kg GSPE+25 mg/kg CsA, respectively. On day 21, blood samples were taken for blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine and CsA levels, and renal tissue was used for total oxidant system (TOS), total anti-oxidant system (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malondialdehyde (MDA) measurements. In addition to renal histopathology, apoptosis staining was performed on renal tissue. The BUN, creatinine, TOS, OSI, MDA, histopathological score, and apoptotic index exhibited increases in the CsA group. In the CsA+GSPE group, however, BUN, creatinine, OSI, MDA, renal histopathological score and apoptotic index (AI) decreased and TAS levels increased. In addition, there was no difference between the CsA and CsA+GSPE groups with regard to CsA levels. We demonstrated that GSPE prevents CsA nephropathy and that this effect is achieved by anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. We also achieved a significant recovery in kidney functions without affecting CsA plasma levels. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  11. Offline combination of pressurized fluid extraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for antioxidant activity of grape skin extracts assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polovka, M.; Šťavíková, Lenka; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 51 (2010), s. 7990-8000 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized fluid extraction * electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  12. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included.

  13. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, En-Qin; Deng, Gui-Fang; Guo, Ya-Jun; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    The dietary consumption of grape and its products is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Most recent interest has focused on the bioactive phenolic compounds in grape. Anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and resveratrol are the most important grape polyphenols because they possess many biological activities, such as antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammation, antiaging and antimicrobial properties. This review summarizes current knowledge on the bioactivities of grape phenolics. The extraction, isolation and identification methods of polyphenols from grape as well as their bioavailability and potential toxicity also are included. PMID:20386657

  14. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L. from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. F. de Sales

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  15. Anthocyanin-Rich Grape Pomace Extract (Vitis vinifera L.) from Wine Industry Affects Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Glucose Metabolism in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sales, Nathalia F F; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Carneiro, Talita I A; Minuzzo, Daniela A; Oliveira, Felipe L; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Torres, Alexandre G; El-Bacha, Tatiana

    2018-03-08

    Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis. Grape pomace extract was rich in polyphenols, mainly anthocyanins, and presented high antioxidant capacity. Short-term metabolic effects, irrespective of any cytotoxicity, involved increased mitochondrial respiration and antioxidant capacity and decreased glycolytic metabolism. Long-term incubation was cytotoxic and cells died by necrosis and GPE was not toxic to non-cancer human fibroblasts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to characterize pomace extract from white wine production from Brazilian winemaking regarding its effects on energy metabolism, suggesting its potential use for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical purposes.

  16. The effect of grape seed and grape marc meal extract on milk performance and the expression of genes of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the liver of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, D K; Koch, C; Romberg, F-J; Winkler, A; Dusel, G; Herzog, E; Most, E; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    During the periparturient phase, cows are typically in an inflammation-like condition, and it has been suggested that inflammation associated with the development of stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the liver contributes to the development of fatty liver syndrome and ketosis. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that feeding grape seed and grape marc meal extract (GSGME) as a plant extract rich in flavonoids attenuates inflammation and ER stress in the liver of dairy cows. Two groups of cows received either a total mixed ration as a control diet or the same total mixed ration supplemented with 1% of GSGME over the period from wk 3 prepartum to wk 9 postpartum. Dry matter intake during wk 3 to 9 postpartum was not different between the 2 groups. However, the cows fed the diet supplemented with GSGME had an increased milk yield and an increased daily milk protein yield. Cows supplemented with GSGME moreover had a significantly reduced mRNA abundancy of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21, a stress hormone induced by various stress conditions, in the liver in wk 1 and 3 postpartum. In contrast, mRNA abundances of a total of 3 genes involved in inflammation and 14 genes involved in ER stress response, as well as concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesterol, in liver samples of wk 1 and 3 postpartum did not differ between the 2 groups. Overall, this study shows that supplementation of GSGME did not influence inflammation or ER stress in the liver but increased milk yield, an effect that could be due to effects on ruminal metabolism. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El- Azeem, M.G.; El-Nashar, D.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  18. Grape Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.

    1997-01-01

    Details an investigation concerned with the composition of a grape to illustrate how food and nutrition topics can drive inquiry-oriented science learning. Students design experiments that surround the development of a fictitious new beverage. (DDR)

  19. Aqueous Extract of Oldenlandia diffusa Suppresses LPS-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    plant used worldwide. Aqueous extract of O. diffusa (AEOD) has especially been used in ... this plant species - are as effective as antibiotics, and anti-cancer, liver protection and transaminase-degrading agents ..... chalcone analog from Alpinia conchigera. J. Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 316: 271–278. 8. Islam MS, Akhtar M, ...

  20. Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) Fruit Pulp Extract Suppresses Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Olea europaea Linn (Oleaceae) fruit pulp extract (OPF) in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipid accumulation in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Methods: HepG2 cells were pretreated with various concentration of OPF (0, 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/ml) ...

  1. Impact of Short-Term Intake of Red Wine and Grape Polyphenol Extract on the Human Metabolome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Fuhrmann, J.C.; Dorsten, van F.A.; Rein, D.; Peters, S.; Velzen, van E.J.J.; Hollebrands, B.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Garczarek, U.

    2012-01-01

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from

  2. SUPPRESSION ABILITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT DERIVED FROM MARINE BIOTA AGAINST FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP. VANILLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Suada

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate suppression ability of marine biota extracts against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vanillae of vanilla stem rot. Samples were collected at intertidal zones and in the depth of 1-7 m from seven beaches in Bali. Screening of active compounds of biota extracts were conducted using inhibition zone of well diffusion method on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. The extract was tested in-vitro in PDA medium using completely randomized design with three replicates. The methanolic extract of Aglaophenia sp. was able to suppress the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. vanillae effectively, with minimum inhibition concentration (MIC of 0.05 %. The extract inhibited colony growth diameter and total mycelial dry weight.

  3. Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV- 1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADHAVAN P NAIR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids and related polyphenols, in addition to their cardioprotective, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-allergic activities, also possess promising anti-HIV effects. Recent studies documented that the ß-chemokine receptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5, and the alpha-chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2 and CXCR4 serve as entry coreceptors for HIV-1. Although flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds elicit anti-HIV effects such as inhibition of HIV-1 expression and virus replication, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clearly elucidated. We hypothesize that flavonoids exert their anti-HIV effects, possibly by interfering at the HIV co-receptor level. We investigated the effect of flavonoid constituents of a proprietary grape seed extract (GSE on the expression of HIV-1 coentry receptors by immunocompetent mononuclear leukocytes. Our results showed that GSE significantly downregulated the expression of the HIV-1 entry co-receptors, CCR2b , CCR3 and CCR5 in normal PBMC in a dose dependent manner. Further , GSE treated cultures showed significantly lower number of CCR3 positive cells as quantitated by flow cytometry analysis which supports RT-PCR gene expression data.Investigations of the mechanisms underlying the anti-HIV-1 effects of grape seed extracts may help to identify promising natural products useful in the prevention and /or amelioration of HIV-1 infection

  4. Effect of grape seed extract, Cistus ladanifer L., and vegetable oil supplementation on fatty acid composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular fat of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerónimo, Eliana; Alves, Susana P; Dentinho, Maria T P; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Vasta, Valentina; Santos-Silva, José; Bessa, Rui J B

    2010-10-13

    Thirty-six lambs were used in a 6 week experiment to evaluate the effect of vegetable oil blend supplementation (0 vs 60 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and two dietary condensed tannin sources, grape seed extract (0 vs 25 g/kg of DM) and Cistus ladanifer L. (0 vs 250 g/kg of DM), on fatty acid (FA) composition of abomasal digesta and intramuscular polar and neutral lipids. Grape seed extract did not affect the FA profile of abomasal digesta or muscle lipid fractions. C. ladanifer had a minor effect in lambs fed diets with no oil but greatly changed the abomasal and muscle FA profiles in oil-supplemented lambs. It decreased 18:0 and increased 18:1 trans-11 in abomasal digesta and increased 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 (P = 0.062) in muscle neutral lipids, resulting in an important enrichment of meat 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 when compared to other oil-supplemented diets (19.2 vs 41.7 mg/100 g of muscle).

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seed oil and subsequent separation of free fatty acids by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueli; Ito, Yoichiro

    2003-12-22

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of grape seed oil was performed to study the effect of various parameters such as pressure, temperature and the particle size of the sample on the yield and composition of oil using an analytical-scale SFE system. Then the extraction was scaled up by 125 times using a preparative SFE system under the optimized conditions of high pressure (30-40 MPa) and low temperature (35-40 degrees C) with medium particle size (20-40 mesh). The maximum yield of the oil can reach 6.2% with pure supercritical CO2 and 4.0% more oil can be obtained by adding 10% of ethanol as modifier. The unsaturated fatty acids (UFSs) make up about 70% in the oil on the basis of free fatty acids. The grape seed oil was then subjected to separation and purification for free fatty acids after saponification by high-speed counter-current chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). The separation of 1.0 g of oil can yield about 430 mg pure linoleic acid at 99% purity. The fatty acids were analyzed by HPLC-ELSD.

  6. Dietary grape seed polyphenols repress neuron and glia activation in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durham Paul L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and pain associated with temporomandibular joint disorder, a chronic disease that affects 15% of the adult population, involves activation of trigeminal ganglion nerves and development of peripheral and central sensitization. Natural products represent an underutilized resource in the pursuit of safe and effective ways to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to investigate effects of grape seed extract on neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis in response to persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation. Sprague Dawley rats were pretreated with 200 mg/kg/d MegaNatural-BP grape seed extract for 14 days prior to bilateral injections of complete Freund's adjuvant into the temporomandibular joint capsule. Results In response to grape seed extract, basal expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 was elevated in neurons and glia in trigeminal ganglia and trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and expression of the glutamate aspartate transporter was increased in spinal glia. Rats on a normal diet injected with adjuvant exhibited greater basal levels of phosphorylated-p38 in trigeminal ganglia neurons and spinal neurons and microglia. Similarly, immunoreactive levels of OX-42 in microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes were greatly increased in response to adjuvant. However, adjuvant-stimulated levels of phosphorylated-p38, OX-42, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly repressed in extract treated animals. Furthermore, grape seed extract suppressed basal expression of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide in spinal neurons. Conclusions Results from our study provide evidence that grape seed extract may be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for temporomandibular joint disorders by suppressing development of peripheral and central sensitization.

  7. Solid phase microextraction as a reliable alternative to conventional extraction techniques to evaluate the pattern of hydrolytically released components in Vitis vinifera L. grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Caldeira, Michael; Câmara, José S

    2012-06-15

    In present research, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS), was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the commonly used liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique for the establishment of the pattern of hydrolytically released components of 7 Vitis vinifera L. grape varieties, commonly used to produce the world-famous Madeira wine. Since there is no data available on their glycosidic fractions, at a first step, two hydrolyse procedures, acid and enzymatic, were carried out using Boal grapes as matrix. Several parameters susceptible of influencing the hydrolytic process were studied. The best results, expressed as GC peak area, number of identified components and reproducibility, were obtained using ProZym M with b-glucosidase activity at 35°C for 42h. For the extraction of hydrolytically released components, HS-SPME technique was evaluated as a reliable and improved alternative to the conventional extraction technique, LLE (ethyl acetate). HS-SPME using DVB/CAR/PDMS as coating fiber displayed an extraction capacity two fold higher than LLE (ethyl acetate). The hydrolyzed fraction was mainly characterized by the occurrence of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, followed by acids, esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, and volatile phenols. Concerning to terpenoids its contribution to the total hydrolyzed fraction is highest for Malvasia Cândida (23%) and Malvasia Roxa (13%), and their presence according previous studies, even at low concentration, is important from a sensorial point of view (can impart floral notes to the wines), due to their low odor threshold (μg/L). According to the obtained data by principal component analysis (PCA), the sensorial properties of Madeira wines produced by Malvasia Cândida and Malvasia Roxa could be improved by hydrolysis procedure, since their hydrolyzed fraction is mainly characterized by terpenoids (e.g. linalool, geraniol) which are responsible

  8. Plasma bioavailability and regional brain distribution of polyphenols from apple/grape seed and bilberry extracts in a young swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Ying; Kritchevsky, Janice; Hargett, Katherine; Feller, Kathryn; Klobusnik, Ryan; Song, Brian J; Cooper, Bruce; Jouni, Zeina; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Janle, Elsa M

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and regional brain distribution of polyphenols from apple-grape seed extract (AGSE) mixture and bilberry extract were studied after 3 weeks of dosing in weanling pigs. Weanling piglets were treated for 3 weeks with extracts of (AGSE) or bilberry extracts, using a physiological (27.5 mg/kg) or supplement (82.5 mg/kg) dose. A 24-h pharmacokinetic study was conducted and brain tissue was harvested. Major flavan-3-ol and flavonol metabolites including catechin-O-β-glucuronide, epicatechin-O-β-glucuronide, 3'O-methyl-catechin-O-β-glucuronide, 3'O-methyl-epicatechin-O-β-glucuronide, quercetin-O-β-glucuronide, and O-methyl-quercetin-O-β-glucuronide were analyzed in plasma, urine, and regional brain extracts from AGSE groups. Anthocyanidin-O-galactosides and O-glucosides of delphinidin (Del), cyanidin (Cyn), petunidin (Pet), peonidin (Peo), and malvidin (Mal) were analyzed in plasma, urine, and brain extracts from bilberry groups. Significant plasma dose-dependence was observed in flavan-3-ol metabolites of the AGSE group and in Mal, Del and Cyn galactosides and Pet, Peo, and Cyn glucosides of the bilberry groups. In the brain, a significant dose dependence was found in the cerebellum and frontal cortex in all major flavan-3-ol metabolites. All anthocyanidin glycosides, except for delphinidin, showed a dose-dependent increase in the cerebellum. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Tomczak, Anna; Erler, Joachim; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the anti-platelet action of extracts from three different plants: bark of Yucca schidigera, seeds of grape and berries of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry). Anti-platelet action of tested extracts was compared with action of well characterized antioxidative and anti-platelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The effects of extracts on platelet adhesion to collagen, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and on the production of O2-* in resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong platelet agonist-thrombin were studied. The in vitro experiments have shown that all three tested extracts (5-50 microg/ml) rich in polyphenols reduce platelet adhesion, aggregation and generation of O2-* in blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that all three plant extracts were found to be more reactive in reduction of platelet processes than the solution of pure resveratrol. The tested extracts due to their anti-platelet effects may play an important role as components of human diet in prevention of cardiovascular or inflammatory diseases, where blood platelets are involved.

  10. Preliminary study of the influence of CO2 extraction conditions on the ester, aldehyde, ketone and hydrocarbon content of grape bagasses from jam production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the chemical characteristics of the essential oil obtained from CO2 extraction of grape bagasses in the production of jam. The experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale unit, where the effect of temperature (290 and 303 K and pressure (15 and 25 Mpa was investigated in terms of liquid yield and chemical composition of the extracts. The CO2 mass flow rate was kept within a range of 2.5 to 3.0 g/min. The instrumental analysis was performed by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS. The extraction conditions investigated in this work had no significant influence on the mass of essencial oil extracted. The main compounds identified in the extracts by the GC-MS spectra library (match quality higher tan 90% were octadecane, dihydroxy ergostene-dione and phenylethyl n-decanoate when the temperature was increased from 290 to 303 K. Heptanal, ethyl ester of decosonoic acid and hexatriacontane were the individual compounds with the greatest increase in the chromatographic peak area when the pressure was increased from 15 to 25 Mpa. The most important class of compounds were hydrocarbons at 303 K and 15 MPa and were ketones and aldehydes at 25 Mpa and 290 K.

  11. Eurycoma longifolia extract-artemisinin combination: parasitemia suppression of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Sow, A; Noor Rain, A; Mohd Ilham, A; Zakiah, I

    2007-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as 'Tongkat Ali' is a popular local medicinal plant that possess a lot of medicinal properties as claimed traditionally, especially in the treatment of malaria. The claims have been proven scientifically on isolated compounds from the plant. The present study is to investigate the anti malaria properties of Eurycoma longifolia standardized extract (root) (TA164) alone and in combination with artemisinin in vivo. Combination treatment of the standardized extract (TA164) with artemisinin suppressed P. yoelii infection in the experimental mice. The 4 day suppressive test showed that TA164 suppressed the parasitemia of P. yoelii-infected mice as dose dependent manner (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW) by oral and subcutaneous treatment. By oral administration, combination of TA164 at 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg BW each with artemisinin respectively showed a significant increase in the parasitemia suppression to 63, 67 and 80 percent as compared to artemisinin single treatment (31%). Using subcutaneous administration, at 10 mg/kg BW of TA164 in combination with 1.7 mg/kg BW of artemisinin gave a suppression of 80% of infection. This study showed that combination treatment of TA164 with artemisinin gives a promising potential anti malaria candidate using both oral and subcutaneous route, the later being the most potent.

  12. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  13. Beneficial effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and a niacin-bound chromium in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, J A; Mandarano, M A; Shuta, D L; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2002-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries in which fatty plaques develop on the inner arterial wall, which eventually obstructs blood flow. Identified risk factors for atherosclerosis include genetics, diet, lifestyle, smoking, circulating lipid and cholesterol levels, and molecular and circulating signals of chronic vascular inflammation. The link between flavonoids and atherosclerosis is based partly on the evidence that some flavonoids possess antioxidant properties and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation in vitro. Hypercholesterolemia, a significant cardiovascular risk factor is prevalent in the American population. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts are known to exhibit a broad spectrum of chemopreventive and cardioprotective properties against oxidative stress. A recent study has shown that a combination of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) and a niacin-bound chromium (NBC) can decrease total cholesterol, LDL and oxidized LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic human subjects. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of GSPE supplementation in hamsters, singly and in combination with NBC, since these animals have a similar lipid profile to hypercholesterolemic humans when fed a hypercholesterolemic diet of 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (HCD). After 10 weeks of feeding HCD, these animals developed foam cells, which is a biomarker of early stages of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis (% of aorta covered with foam cells) was reduced by approximately 50% and 63% following supplementation of these animals with 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of GSPE, respectively, in conjunction with a HCD, while approximately 32% reduction was observed following supplementation of GSPE plus NBC. A range of 7-9 animals was used in each study group. GSPE alone and in combination with NBC exerted a pronounced effect on the cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as oxidative lipid damage as demonstrated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid

  14. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised phase II trial of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with radiation-induced breast induration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, Sonja; Martin, Susan; Pearson, Ann; Bagchi, Debasis; Earl, Judith; Gothard, Lone; Hall, Emma; Porter, Lucy; Yarnold, John

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tissue hardness (induration), pain and tenderness are common late adverse effects of curative radiotherapy for early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in patients with tissue induration after high-dose radiotherapy for early breast cancer in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised phase II trial. Patients and methods: Sixty-six eligible research volunteers with moderate or marked breast induration at a mean 10.8 years since radiotherapy for early breast cancer were randomised to active drug (n=44) or placebo (n=22). All patients were given grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) 100 mg three times a day orally, or corresponding placebo capsules, for 6 months. The primary endpoint was percentage change in surface area (cm 2 ) of palpable breast induration measured at the skin surface 12 months after randomisation. Secondary endpoints included change in photographic breast appearance and patient self-assessment of breast hardness, pain and tenderness. Results: At 12 months post-randomisation, ≥50% reduction in surface area (cm 2 ) of breast induration was recorded in13/44 (29.5%) GSPE and 6/22 (27%) placebo group patients (NS). At 12 months post-randomisation, there was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in terms of external assessments of tissue hardness, breast appearance or patient self-assessments of breast hardness, pain or tenderness. Conclusions: The study failed to show efficacy of orally-adminstered GSPE in patients with breast induration following radiotherapy for breast cancer

  15. Implementation of response surface methodology to assess the antiradical behaviour in mixtures of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol with grape (Vitis vinifera) stem extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvela, Evangelia; Makris, Dimitris P; Karathanos, Vaios T

    2012-05-01

    The efficiency of grape stem extracts to express antiradical activity was assessed using two different approaches and DPPH as the radical probe. In addition, the mixture effects when the extracts were combined with ascorbic acid (AA) and α-tocopherol (α-Tcp) were also evaluated. The approaches included a simple linear regression analysis between the response (antiradical activity) and concentration, but also a response surface methodology, which permitted the monitoring of the response upon simultaneous variation of both the concentration of the total polyphenols of the extracts and either of the antioxidants (AA and α-Tcp). The deployment of linear regression poses important constraints with regard to concentration ranges, whereas response surface methodology might be a valuable statistical tool for similar assessments and credible modelling of binary mixtures of antioxidants. In all combinations tested it was found that an antagonism was manifested, presumably as a result of AA and α-Tcp regeneration by the extract polyphenols, at the expense of the latter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility study of online supercritical fluid extraction-liquid chromatography-UV absorbance-mass spectrometry for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry T

    2005-03-01

    Online coupling of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with liquid chromatography (LC)-UV absorbance-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) is evaluated for the determination of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds. The solid-phase intermediate trap is optimized in order to enhance the collection efficiency for the extracted polar components. Pure supercritical CO2 is used first to remove the oil in the seeds. Then methanol-modified CO2 is used to remove the polar components (e.g., phenolic compounds). Catechin and epicatechin (90%) are extracted out of the de-oiled after 240 min with 40% methanol as a modifier. Both singly-linked (B-type) and doubly-linked (A-type) procyanidins are identified by LC-ESI-MS, as well as their galloylated derivatives. The hyphenated system combines the extraction, separation, and detection in series. The experimental design minimizes the chance of analyte oxidation, degradation, and contamination. The traditional off-line SFE-LC method is also studied for comparison with the online method. Both advantages and disadvantages are observed for the online mode.

  17. Antimycotics suppress the Malassezia extract-induced production of CXC chemokine ligand 10 in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, Carren S; Kanda, Naoko; Makimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia, a lipophilic yeast, exacerbates atopic dermatitis. Malassezia products can penetrate the disintegrated stratum corneum and encounter subcorneal keratinocytes in the skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Type 1 helper T (Th1) cells infiltrate chronic lesions with atopic dermatitis, and antimycotic agents improve its symptoms. We aimed to identify Malassezia-induced chemokines in keratinocytes and examine whether antimycotics suppressed this induction. Normal human keratinocytes were incubated with a Malassezia restricta extract and antimycotics. Chemokine expression was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 activity was examined by luciferase assays. The tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT1 was analyzed by western blotting. The M. restricta extract increased the mRNA and protein expression of Th1-attracting CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation in keratinocytes, which was suppressed by a Janus kinase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine suppressed M. restricta extract-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein expression and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation. These effects were similarly induced by 15-deoxy-Δ-(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ), a prostaglandin D2 metabolite. Antimycotics increased the release of 15d-PGJ2 from keratinocytes. The antimycotic-induced suppression of CXCL10 production and STAT1 activity was counteracted by a lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine may suppress the M. restricta-induced production of CXCL10 by inhibiting STAT1 through an increase in 15d-PGJ2 production in keratinocytes. These antimycotics may block the Th1-mediated inflammation triggered by Malassezia in the chronic phase of atopic dermatitis. © 2014

  18. Reduced herbicide doses in combination with allelopathic plant extracts suppress weeds in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afridi, R.A.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Allelopathy is gaining popularity worldwide probably for decreasing the cost of production and environment friendly weed suppressing approach. Repeated field studies conducted during 2011-12 and 2012-13 at Agricutural Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan where allelopathic water extracts of Oryza sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Phragmites australis and Datura alba along with reduced doses of phenoxaprop-p-ethyl and bromoxinil+MCPA were tested for controlling weeds in wheat. It was observed that weed density was encouragly suppressed whereas spike length (cm), number of spikelets spike-1 and 1000 grain weight (g) of the wheat were improved when the allelopathic plant water extracts were used in combination with lower doses of herbicides. Thus, allelochemicals provide weed suppressing option in wheat. However, more studies are required to fully explore the possibility of weed management and isolation of the chemicals involved in weed suppression for environment friendly weed management in wheat. Such studies may decrease the cost of crop production and total use of herbicides. (author)

  19. The influence of temperature and time on the stability of the antioxidant activity and colour parameters of grape marc ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CRISTEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to replace synthetic food colorants, preservatives and antioxidants in beverages with natural ones is leading researchers to explore the polyphenols of winery wastes. It is of great interest to see if these compounds could replace synthetic dyes in drinks. However, it is still necessary to study the stability of extracts containing grape phenolics during various technological treatments. This paper presents the study of the stability of the 50% ethanolic extract of marc resulting from the winemaking process. The extract was subjected to the following temperatures: -2oC for 12 hours; 4oC for 12 hours; 40oC for 15 minutes, 60oC for 15 minutes, 80oC for 15 minutes and 100oC for 2 minutes; after that the antioxidant activity and the colour parameters (CIELab were measured. Three sets of extracts were kept for 2 weeks at -2oC, 4oC, and 25-30oC and afterwards the parameters mentioned above were measured once again. Furthermore, the total content of polyphenols and the content of tannins were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were expressed in mg gallic acid equivalents per litre and mg tannic acid equivalents per litre, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined using the method based on the interaction with the ABTS radical, the results being expressed in % inhibition. The results have shown that the colour (CIELab parameters and the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of marc are relatively stable during thermal processes. High temperatures as well as prolonged storage at room temperature increased the values of antioxidant activity, chroma, and redness. However, they also produced the most significant effect of the overall colour of the extract, leading to the degradation of blue pigments and a shift towards orange hues.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2012-09-15

    The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (pgrape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Temperature dependence of refractive index and of electrical impedance of grape seed (Vitis vinifera, Vitis labrusca oils extracted by Soxhlet and mechanical pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, D. S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report, the temperature dependence of the refractive index and electric impedance of vegetable oil grape seeds extracted from Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet and Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo are investigated by means of experimental techniques. The seeds were collected from wineries located in two cities in the south of Brazil. In both extraction methods, the seeds were dried at 40.0 °C and at 80.0 °C, respectively, before the oil extraction. From optical microscopy and refractometry results, one can see that the grape seed oil extracted by mechanical pressing shows a linear dependence between the refractive index and temperature and has no birefringent residues. From the fitting of the EIS (Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy data, an equivalent electric circuit composed of a parallel RC in series with a resistor is proposed. The circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental data and provides the electrical permittivity of the vegetable oils investigated.Se investiga mediante técnicas experimentales la dependencia del índice de refracción y la impedancia eléctrica de aceites vegetales extraídos de semillas de uva Vitis vinifera (v. Cabernet y Vitis labrusca (v. Bordo. Las semillas fueron recolectadas de bodegas situadas en dos ciudades al sur de Brasil. Antes de la extracción del aceite, mediante dos métodos de extracción, las semillas fueron secadas a 40,0 °C y 80,0 °C. De los resultados de refractometria y microscopía óptica, se comprueba que el aceite de semilla de uva extraída por prensado mecánico obedece a una relación lineal del índice de refracción con la temperatura y no presentan resíduos birrefringentes. Con los datos de impedancia eléctrica, se propone un circuito eléctrico equivalente formado por una resistencia y un condensador en paralelo, a su vez ligado a otra resistencia en serie. El modelo de circuito tiene una alta correlación con los datos experimentales y permite obtener la constante diel

  2. Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins extracted from juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius) and "Italia" grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and the effect of heating on the antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, D V; Fraga, S; Antelo, F

    2017-10-01

    The effect of temperature on the degradation of anthocyanins in juçara and "Italia" grape extracts was determined between 50 and 90°C. For both species, thermal degradation followed a first-order kinetic model. The decimal reduction time decreased with increasing temperature, and dependence on the thermodegradable factor was lower at higher temperatures. The anthocyanins from juçara degraded more slowly than those extracted from "Italia" grapes. The activation enthalpy and free energy of inactivation indicated an endothermic reaction, not spontaneous degradation, whereas the activation entropy suggested that the transition state has less structural freedom than that of the reactants. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was reduced when subjected to 90°C heat treatment, however, significant quantities of this bioactive compound still remained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive Characterization of Extractable and Nonextractable Phenolic Compounds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight of a Grape/Pomegranate Pomace Dietary Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara

    2018-01-24

    Grape and pomegranate are rich sources of phenolic compounds, and their derived products could be used as ingredients for the development of functional foods and dietary supplements. However, the profile of nonextractable or macromolecular phenolic compounds in these samples has not been evaluated. Here, we show a comprehensive characterization of extractable and nonextractable phenolic compounds of a grape/pomegranate pomace dietary supplement using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF techniques. The main extractable phenolic compounds were several anthocyanins (principally malvidin 3-O-glucoside) as well as gallotannins and gallagyl derivatives; some phenolic compounds were reported in grape or pomegranate for the first time. Additionally, there was a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds, including vanillic acid, and dihydroxybenzoic acid. Unidentified polymeric structures were detected by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. This study shows that mixed grape and pomegranate pomaces are a source of different classes of phenolic compounds including a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds.

  4. Effects of dietary grape seed extract on growth performance, amino acid digestibility and plasma lipids and mineral content in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Viveros, A; Centeno, C; Romero, C; Arija, I; Brenes, A

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols are chemically and biologically active compounds. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) have been widely used as a human food supplement for health promotion and disease prevention. However, there is little information regarding its application in animal feeds. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of inclusion of GSE at 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 5.0 g/kg in a wheat soya bean control diet on growth performance, protein and amino acid (AA) digestibility and plasma lipid and mineral concentrations in broiler chickens at 21 days of age. Performance was not affected by dietary treatment except in the case of birds fed the diet with the highest GSE concentration, which showed a worsening of weight gain and feed conversion. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of protein was significantly reduced in the birds fed the highest concentration of GSE, which also had a reduction on the AID of arginine, histidine, phenylalanine, cystine, glutamic acid and proline compared with those fed control diet. The inclusion of graded concentration of GSE in the chicken diets caused a significant linear decrease in the concentrations of plasma copper, iron and zinc. Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins (high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were not affected by dietary GSE. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that incorporation of GSE in chicken diets up to 2.5 g/kg had no adverse effect on growth performance or protein and AA digestibility. Feed conversion was reduced and growth rate was retarded, when chickens were fed 5 g/kg of GSE. This study also indicated that grape polyphenols reduce the free plasma minerals.

  5. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  6. The mechanism for degrading Orange II based on adsorption and reduction by ion-based nanoparticles synthesized by grape leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Chen, Zuliang, E-mail: zuliang.chen@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of Environments, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Biomolecules taken from plant extracts have often been used in the single-step synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles (Fe NPs) due to their low cost, environmental safety and sustainable properties. However, the composition of Fe NPs and the degradation mechanism of organic contaminants by them are limited because these are linked to the reactivity of Fe NPs. In this study, Fe NPs synthesized by grape leaf extract served to remove Orange II. Batch experiments showed that more than 92% of Orange II was removed by Fe NPs at high temperature based on adsorption and reduction and confirmed by kinetic studies. To understand the role of Fe NPs in the removal process of azo dye, surface analysis via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed, showing that the Fe NPs were composed of biomolecules, hydrous iron oxides and Fe{sup 0}, thus providing evidence for the adsorption of Orange II onto hydrous iron oxides and its reduction by Fe{sup 0}. Degraded products such as 2-naphthol were identified using LC–MS analysis. A degradation mechanism based on asymmetrical azo bond cleavage for the removal of Orange II was proposed.

  7. Supercritical extraction from vinification residues: fatty acids, α-tocopherol, and phenolic compounds in the oil seeds from different varieties of grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, F; Bertussi, R A; Agostini, G; Atti Dos Santos, A C; Rossato, M; Vanderlinde, R

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon) and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel), harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40%) in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%), 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  8. The mechanism for degrading Orange II based on adsorption and reduction by ion-based nanoparticles synthesized by grape leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-10-15

    Biomolecules taken from plant extracts have often been used in the single-step synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles (Fe NPs) due to their low cost, environmental safety and sustainable properties. However, the composition of Fe NPs and the degradation mechanism of organic contaminants by them are limited because these are linked to the reactivity of Fe NPs. In this study, Fe NPs synthesized by grape leaf extract served to remove Orange II. Batch experiments showed that more than 92% of Orange II was removed by Fe NPs at high temperature based on adsorption and reduction and confirmed by kinetic studies. To understand the role of Fe NPs in the removal process of azo dye, surface analysis via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed, showing that the Fe NPs were composed of biomolecules, hydrous iron oxides and Fe(0), thus providing evidence for the adsorption of Orange II onto hydrous iron oxides and its reduction by Fe(0). Degraded products such as 2-naphthol were identified using LC-MS analysis. A degradation mechanism based on asymmetrical azo bond cleavage for the removal of Orange II was proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Defining Conditions for Optimal Inhibition of Food Intake in Rats by a Grape-Seed Derived Proanthocyanidin Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Martí, Àngela; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2016-10-20

    Food intake depends on homeostatic and non-homeostatic factors. In order to use grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) as food intake limiting agents, it is important to define the key characteristics of their bioactivity within this complex function. We treated rats with acute and chronic treatments of GSPE at different doses to identify the importance of eating patterns and GSPE dose and the mechanistic aspects of GSPE. GSPE-induced food intake inhibition must be reproduced under non-stressful conditions and with a stable and synchronized feeding pattern. A minimum dose of around 350 mg GSPE/kg body weight (BW) is needed. GSPE components act by activating the Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor because their effect is blocked by Exendin 9-39. GSPE in turn acts on the hypothalamic center of food intake control probably because of increased GLP-1 production in the intestine. To conclude, GSPE inhibits food intake through GLP-1 signaling, but it needs to be dosed under optimal conditions to exert this effect.

  10. Potential Anticancer Properties of Grape Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kequan Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of foods rich in antioxidant properties is suggested to be cancer protective. Foods rich in antioxidant properties include grape (Vitis vinifera, one of the world’s largest fruit crops and most commonly consumed fruits in the world. The composition and cancer-protective effects of major phenolic antioxidants in grape skin and seed extracts are discussed in this review. Grape skin and seed extracts exert strong free radical scavenging and chelating activities and inhibit lipid oxidation in various food and cell models in vitro. The use of grape antioxidants are promising against a broad range of cancer cells by targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and its downstream pathways, inhibiting over-expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptors, or modifying estrogen receptor pathways, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Interestingly, some of these activities were also demonstrated in animal models. However, in vivo studies have demonstrated inconsistent antioxidant efficacy. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence from human clinical trials has demonstrated that consumption of grape, wine and grape juice exerts many health-promoting and possible anti-cancer effects. Thus, grape skin and seed extracts have great potential in cancer prevention and further investigation into this exciting field is warranted.

  11. Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts from propolis and its main botanical origin on dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong K; Fukuda, Itsuko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Nishiumi, Shin; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Daugsch, Andreas; Sato, Helia H; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2005-12-28

    Suppressive effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from propolis group 12 and its main botanical origin (leaf bud of Baccharis dracunculifolia) on transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the initial action of dioxin toxicity, were investigated. It was found that suppressive effects of propolis on AhR transformation were relatively higher than those of resins of its botanical origin in cell-free system and in Hepa-1c1c7 cells. When the composition of chemical ingredients was measured, propolis contained slightly higher amounts of flavonoid aglycones as compared with its botanical origin with the same characteristics. Moreover, antiradical activity, one of the typical biological activities of flavonoids, in propolis was also slightly higher than that in its botanical origin. These results indicate that not only propolis but also its botanical origin contains high amounts of flavonoid aglycones and that both of them are useful dietary sources for flavonoids with a potency to prevent dioxin toxicity.

  12. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, Soohyun; PARK, Young Woo; LEE, Euiri; PARK, Sang Wan; PARK, Sungwon; NOH, Hyunwoo; KIM, Jong Whi; SEONG, Je Kyung; SEO, Kangmoon

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  13. Extract of Cordyceps militaris inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth of human malignant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruma, I Made Winarsa; Putranto, Endy Widya; Kondo, Eisaku; Watanabe, Risayo; Saito, Ken; Inoue, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Susumu; Kaihata, Masaji; Murata, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo

    2014-07-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor development and metastasis. Among several angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGF) is important for tumor-derived angiogenesis and commonly overexpressed in solid tumors. Thus, many antitumor strategies targeting VEGF have been developed to inhibit cancer angiogenesis, offering insights into the successful treatment of solid cancers. However, there are a number of issues such as harmful effects on normal vascularity in clinical trials. Taking this into consideration, we employed Cordyceps militaris as an antitumor approach due to its biological safety in vivo. The herbal medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris has been reported to show potential anticancer properties including anti-angiogenic capacity; however, its concrete properties have yet to be fully demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the biological role of Cordyceps militaris extract in tumor cells, especially in regulating angiogenesis and tumor growth of a human malignant melanoma cell line. We demonstrated that Cordyceps militaris extract remarkably suppressed tumor growth via induction of apoptotic cell death in culture that links to the abrogation of VEGF production in melanoma cells. This was followed by mitigation of Akt1 and GSK-3β activation, while p38α phosphorylation levels were increased. Extract treatment in mouse model xenografted with human melanoma cells resulted in a dramatic antitumor effect with down-regulation of VEGF expression. The results suggest that suppression of tumor growth by Cordyceps militaris extract is, at least, mediated by its anti-angiogenicity and apoptosis induction capacities. Cordyceps militaris extract may be a potent antitumor herbal drug for solid tumors.

  14. Euglena extract suppresses adipocyte-differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Sugimoto

    Full Text Available Euglena gracilis Z (Euglena is a unicellular, photosynthesizing, microscopic green alga. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, to verify the potential role of Euglena consumption on human health and obesity, we evaluated the effect of Euglena on human adipose-derived stem cells. We prepared a Euglena extract and evaluated its effect on cell growth and lipid accumulation, and found that cell growth was promoted by the addition of the Euglena extract. Interestingly, intracellular lipid accumulation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blotting analysis indicated that the Euglena extract suppressed adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the master regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and one of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPα. Further Oil Red O staining experiments indicated that the Euglena extract inhibited the early stage of adipocyte-differentiation. Consistent with these results, we observed that down-regulation of gene expression was involved in the early stage of adipogenesis represented by the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c, two of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, and the cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB. Taken together, these data suggest that Euglena extract is a promising candidate for the development of a new therapeutic treatment for obesity.

  15. Euglena extract suppresses adipocyte-differentiation in human adipose-derived stem cells.

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    Sugimoto, Ryota; Ishibashi-Ohgo, Naoko; Atsuji, Kohei; Miwa, Yuko; Iwata, Osamu; Nakashima, Ayaka; Suzuki, Kengo

    2018-01-01

    Euglena gracilis Z (Euglena) is a unicellular, photosynthesizing, microscopic green alga. It contains several nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, to verify the potential role of Euglena consumption on human health and obesity, we evaluated the effect of Euglena on human adipose-derived stem cells. We prepared a Euglena extract and evaluated its effect on cell growth and lipid accumulation, and found that cell growth was promoted by the addition of the Euglena extract. Interestingly, intracellular lipid accumulation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis and western blotting analysis indicated that the Euglena extract suppressed adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting the gene expression of the master regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and one of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPα). Further Oil Red O staining experiments indicated that the Euglena extract inhibited the early stage of adipocyte-differentiation. Consistent with these results, we observed that down-regulation of gene expression was involved in the early stage of adipogenesis represented by the sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 c (SREBP1c), two of three CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ), and the cAMP regulatory element-binding protein (CREB). Taken together, these data suggest that Euglena extract is a promising candidate for the development of a new therapeutic treatment for obesity.

  16. Melatonin attenuated brain death tissue extract-induced cardiac damage by suppressing DAMP signaling.

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    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Lin, Ling-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Shao, Pei-Lin; Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lin, Kun-Chen; Yuen, Chun-Man; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2018-01-09

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract. These increases were attenuated by melatonin but re-induced with luzindole (all P DAMP inflammatory axis.

  17. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat

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    Mojtaba Raeisi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2% and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE, (0.5% and 1% were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thio-barbituric acid (TBA, TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg-1, respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05 effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  18. Grape seed and skin extract mitigates heart and liver oxidative damage induced by a high-fat diet in the rat: gender dependency.

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    Charradi, Kamel; Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Elkahoui, Salem; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is a public health problem contributing to morbidity and mortality from metabolic syndrome. It has long been recognized that there is a gender dependency in several obesity-related health risks. Using a high fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity in Wistar rats, we studied the gender dependency of fat-induced oxidative stress in the heart and liver, with a special emphasis on the distribution of transition metals, as well as the protective effects of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced obesity in both male and female rats, characterized by increased body weight as well as relative liver mass in both genders, and increased relative heart mass in the males only. HFD also provoked the accumulation of triglycerides and total cholesterol into the male hearts, and into the livers of both genders. HFD induced oxidative stress in the male hearts and also in the livers of both genders. Furthermore, HFD affected cardiac levels of copper in the males, and hepatic levels of copper and zinc in both genders, whereas HFD affected free iron in the male hearts and female livers, specifically. In conclusion, HFD treatment altered transition metal homeostasis more drastically in the male heart than in the female liver, and GSSE efficiently protected these organs against fat-induced disturbances, regardless of gender.

  19. Preparative isolation of monomer catechins and oligomer procyanidin fractions from grape seed extracts by high-speed counter-current chromatography

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    Shuting Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, monomer (+-catechin; (--epicatechin and (--epicatechin-3-o-gallate, three oligomeric procyanidin fractions (OPCs and one polymeric procyanidin fractions (PPCs were successfully separated and isolated from grape seed extracts using semi-preparative TBE-300 B high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC. For their separation in monomer (+-catechin; (--epicatechin and (--epicatechin 3-O-gallate, hexane/ethyl acetate/water (1:10: 10, v/v/v was selected as solvent system. For separation of OPCs and PPCs, solvent system ethyl acetate/water (1:1, v/v was selected. Compositional data and mean polymerization degrees of OPCs were determined by phloroglucinolysis method. The purity of each fraction obtained; monomer (+-catechin (C, (--epicatechin (EC and (--epicatechin-3-o-gallate (ECG, verified by UPLC, was 98%, 82% and 71%, respectively. The mean polymerization degrees of the three OPCs fractions were respectively 2.842, 3.521, 4.475. As compared with traditional separation methods for catechins and OPCs, HSCCC has shown to be a powerful and efficient technique for large-scale isolation of these compounds.

  20. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

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    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  1. Effect of grape seed extract on postprandial oxidative status and metabolic responses in men and women with the metabolic syndrome - randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

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    Indika Edirisinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was undertaken to determine whether a grape seed extract (GSE that is rich in mono-, oligo- and poly- meric polyphenols would modify postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS.Background: MetS is known to be associated with impaired glucose tolerance and poor glycemic control. Consumption of a meal high in readily available carbohydrates and fat causes postprandial increases in glycemia and lipidemia and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Materials/methods: After an overnight fast, twelve subjects with MetS (5 men and 7 women consumed a breakfast meal high in fat and carbohydrate in a cross-over design. A GSE (300 mg or placebo capsule was administrated 1 hr before the meal (-1 hr. Changes in plasma insulin, glucose, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers were measured hourly for 6 hr. Results: Plasma hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC measured as the positive incremental area under the curve (-1 to 5 hr was significantly increased when the meal was preceded by GSE compared with placebo (P0.05. No changes in inflammatory markers were evident. Conclusion: These data suggest that GSE enhances postprandial plasma antioxidant status and reduces the glycemic response to a meal, high in fat and carbohydrate in subjects with the MetS.

  2. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose edible coating containing Zataria multiflora essential oil and grape seed extract on chemical attributes of rainbow trout meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Mojtaba; Tajik, Hossein; Aliakbarlu, Javad; Valipour, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Meat products, especially fish meat, are very susceptible to lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage. In this study, first, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO) components was done and then two concentrations of ZEO, (1% and 2%) and two concentrations of grape seed extract (GSE), (0.5% and 1%) were used in carboxymethyl cellulose coating alone and in combination, and their antioxidant effects on rainbow trout meat were evaluated in a 20-day period using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) test. Their effects on total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and pH were evaluated as well. The main components of ZEO are thymol and carvacrol. These components significantly decreased production of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), TVBN and pH level of fish meat. The initial pH, TVBN and TBA content was 6.62, 12.67 mg N per 100 g and 0.19 mg kg(-1), respectively. In most treatments significant (p < 0.05) effects on aforementioned factors was seen during storage at 4 ˚C. The results indicated that use of ZEO and GSE as a natural antioxidant agents was effective in reducing undesirable chemical reactions in storage of fish meat.

  3. Effectiveness of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil and grape seed extract impregnated chitosan film on ready-to-eat mortadella-type sausages during refrigerated storage.

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    Moradi, Mehran; Tajik, Hossein; Razavi Rohani, Seyed Mehdi; Oromiehie, Abdul Rasoul

    2011-12-01

    The effectiveness of chitosan films containing Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil (ZEO) (5 and 10 g kg(-1) ) and grape seed extract (GSE) (10 g kg(-1) ) on lipid oxidation and microbial (lactic acid bacteria, aerobic mesophiles and inoculated Listeria monocytogenes) characteristics of mortadella sausage at 4 °C for 21 days was evaluated. The release of total phenolics (TPs) into sausage was also assessed. All films exhibited antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes on agar culture media. Chitosan films containing ZEO were the most effective on the growth of bacteria. The growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly inhibited by ZEO-GSE containing films especially during storage of the sausages for 6 days. Aerobic mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria were the most sensitive and resistant groups to films by 0.1-1.1 and 0.1-0.7 log cycles reduction, respectively. Sausages wrapped by 10 g kg(-1) GSE + 10 g kg(-1) ZEO films had the lowest degrees of lipid oxidation, which was 23% lower than the control. The TPs of ZEO films decreased to zero after 6 days, whereas TPs of GSE films followed a slight decrease during the storage. Antimicrobial/antioxidant chitosan film could be developed by incorporating GSE and ZEO for extending the shelf life of mortadella sausage. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by grape seed extract and fish oil is mediated by lowering oxidative stress and DNA damage.

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    Hassan, Hanaa A; Edrees, Gamal M; El-Gamel, Ezz M; El-Sayed, Elsamra A

    2014-05-01

    Cisplatin (CP) is a chemotherapeutic drug used in treatment of malignancies. However, its clinical utility is limited by nephrotoxicity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) (100 mg/kg/day) or fish oil (FO) (5 ml/kg/day) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in terms of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage. CP nephrotoxiciy is manifested by increased levels of serum creatinine, urea and uric acid, accompanied by their decrease in urine. Na, K and Ca levels were altered in both serum and urine. In addition, cisplatin caused a decrease in renal GSH, SH-group, SOD, GST, and Na-K-ATPase levels. However the levels of MDA, H2O2 and NO were increased. Also, we assessed the renal genotoxic potential of cisplatin as manifested by an increase in the tail length of DNA, tail intensity (DNA %) and tail moment. On the other hand, administration of GSPE or FO pre-cisplatin treatment ameliorated the current changes in most of the above tested parameters, particularly oxidative stress, endogenous antioxidant defense system and DNA damage indicating their curative effect. Thus, it can be concluded that the consumption of GSPE or FO might be useful for preventing nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin treatment.

  5. Combination of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract and docosahexaenoic acid-rich oil increases the hepatic detoxification by GST mediated GSH conjugation in a lipidic postprandial state.

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    Fernández-Iglesias, Anabel; Quesada, Helena; Díaz, Sabina; Pajuelo, David; Bladé, Cinta; Arola, Lluís; Salvadó, M Josepa; Mulero, Miquel

    2014-12-15

    The ingestion of dietary lipids leads to oxidative stress. This postprandial oxidative stress may potentiate the adverse effects of postprandial hyperlipidaemia. Proanthocyanidins have been shown to alleviate oxidative stress and hypertriglyceridaemia associated with the postprandial state. Additionally, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) also have beneficial effects on lipoprotein metabolism and oxidative stress. The present study was designed to investigate the possible additive effects in liver of an acute dose of grape seed proanthocyanidins extract (GSPE) and oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA-OR) on lipidic postprandial oxidative stress in Wistar rats. GSPE+DHA-OR modifies the hepatic antioxidant enzymatic activities (GST and GPx), clearly showing that this combination increases the detoxification of postprandial xenobiotics via the GST action mediated hepatic GSH conjugation. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the combination of GSPE and DHA-OR ameliorate the transient imbalance between the lipid hydroperoxide level and antioxidant status related to a lipidic postprandial state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The properties of chitosan and gelatin films incorporated with ethanolic red grape seed extract and Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil as biodegradable materials for active food packaging.

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    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to improve different characteristics including antibacterial, antioxidant, physical and mechanical properties of chitosan (Ch) and gelatin (Ge) films by incorporating Ziziphora clinopodioides essential oil (ZEO; 0 and 1% v/w) and ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE; 0 and 1% v/w). The main compounds of the ZEO were carvacrol (65.22%) and thymol (19.51%). According to our findings, addition of aforementioned materials could improve total phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities, thickness and also water vapor barrier property. ZEO and GSE reduces swelling index, tensile strength, puncture force and puncture deformation of Ch and Ge films. Pure Ch and Ge films had slightly yellow and white appearances, respectively, while films incorporated with GSE in combination with ZEO had grey appearances. This study indicated the some benefits of addition of ZEO and GSE into Ch and Ge films and their potentials for application as biodegradable active packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise Training and Grape Seed Extract Co-Administration Improves Lipid Profile, Weight Loss, Bradycardia, and Hypotension of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammad Badavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:: Exercise Training (ET and Grape Seed Extract (GSE as an antioxidant have many positive effects on controlling diabetes mellitus and its complications. Objectives:: This study aimed to determine the effects of GSE alone or combined with ET on body weight, plasma lipid profile, blood pressure, and heart rate in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods:: In this study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, GSE treated sedentary diabetic, and GSE treated trained diabetic. ET was conducted on the treadmill daily for 8 weeks. One way ANOVA followed by LSD test was used for statistical analysis. Results:: Reduction of body weight, high density lipoproteins, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure and increment of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoproteins were observed after STZ injection. Co-administration of GSE and ET had more positive effects on lipid profile compared to each method alone. In addition, GSE and ET modified heart rate partially, while their combination was more effective in improvement of heart rat in conscious rats. On the other hand, administration of ET or GSE alone did not affect systolic blood pressure and body weight, while their combination restored systolic blood pressure completely and improved body weight partially. Conclusions:: The study findings indicated that ET combined with GSE had more beneficial effects compared to each one alone on the complications of STZ induced diabetes. This may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic complications.

  8. Polyphenol metabolomics of twenty Italian red grape varieties

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    Bavaresco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Suspect screening analysis”method to study grape metabolomics, was performed. This method is a middle-way “targeted” and “untargeted”approach aiming at identifying the largest number of metabolites in grape samples. A new database of putative grape and wine metabolites (GrapeMetabolomics, which currently contains around 1,100 compounds, was constructed by CREA at Conegliano. By performing high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of the grape extract in both positive and negative ionization mode, averaging 320-450 putative compounds are identified. Most of them are grape polyphenols, such as anthocyanins, flavonols and stilbene derivatives. By performing PCA and Cluster Analysis the composition in anthocyanins and flavonols of 20 Italian red grape varieties, was studied.

  9. Recent applications of grape polyphenols in foods, beverages and supplements.

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    Gollücke, Andréa P B

    2010-06-01

    Grape polyphenols are associated with the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress. The present review discusses the most abundant polyphenols in red grapes as well as the recent food and beverage products developed with these natural antioxidant substances. Grape phenolic concentration and composition depend on agro-geographic factors and processing conditions. In humans, grape polyphenols demonstrated effects such as maintenance of endothelial function, increase in antioxidant capacity and protection against LDL oxidation. Recent patents regarding grape polyphenols show a tendency to return to natural products with a minimum use of severe extraction processes and organic solvents. The new products tend to use grape juice and wine as raw materials and maximize their polyphenolic contents. Grape derived polyphenolic foods, beverages and supplements suit effectively the current demand for antioxidant substances of nutritional interest.

  10. Efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semillas de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en ratas Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

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    Ambar Oyarzábal Yera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El policosanol, mezcla de alcoholes alifáticos primarios superiores obtenida de la cera de caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum, L. y el extracto de semillas de uva (Vitis vinífera, L, producen efectos antioxidantes demostrados experimental y clínicamente. El objetivo del trabajo consistió en comparar los efectos del policosanol, el extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada sobre marcadores oxidativos en plasma e hígado de ratas. Las ratas se distribuyeron en 4 grupos: un control y 3 tratados con policosanol, extracto de semilla de uva y su terapia combinada, respectivamente, todos a dosis de 25 mg/kg, durante 4 semanas. Las monoterapias redujeron significativamente las concentraciones plasmáticas de malondialdehído y de grupos carbonilos asociados a proteínas con respecto al control, lo que mostró similar eficacia. La terapia combinada redujo (p The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obteined from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L. and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinífera, L. produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of proetin-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001 the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01 the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous

  11. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

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    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  12. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

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    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  13. Methanol extract of Hopea odorata suppresses inflammatory responses via the direct inhibition of multiple kinases.

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    Yang, Yanyan; Yu, Tao; Lee, Yong Gyu; Yang, Woo Seok; Oh, Jueun; Jeong, Deok; Lee, Sukchan; Kim, Tae Woong; Park, Yung Chul; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Jae Youl

    2013-01-30

    Hopea odorata Roxb. (Dipterocarpaceae) is a representative Thai ethnopharmacological herbal plant used in the treatment of various inflammation-related diseases. In spite of its traditional use, systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory action have not been performed. The inhibitory activities of a Hopea odorata methanol extract (Ho-ME) on the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages were investigated. The effects of Ho-ME on the gastritis symptoms induced by HCl/EtOH and on ear oedemas induced by arachidonic acid were also examined. Furthermore, to identify the immunopharmacological targets of this extract, nuclear fractionation, a reporter gene assay, immunoprecipitation, immunoblot analysis, and a kinase assay were employed. Ho-ME strongly inhibited the release of NO, PGE(2), and TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ho-ME also clearly suppressed the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as interferon (IFN)-β, interleukin (IL)-12, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). By analysing the inhibited target molecules, Syk and Src were found to be suppressed in the inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. In addition, the observed downregulation of activator protein (AP)-1 and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) was due to the direct inhibition of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)1 and IRAK4, which was also linked to the suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. In agreement with the in vitro observations, this extract also ameliorated the inflammatory symptoms in EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis and arachidonic acid-induced ear oedemas in mice. Ho-ME has potential as a functional herbal remedy targeting Syk- and Src-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Future pre-clinical studies will be needed to investigate this possibility. Copyright © 2012

  14. Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit extract induces chromosomal instability and suppresses necrosis in human colon cancer cells.

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    Guo, Xihan; Ni, Juan; Liu, Xuemin; Xue, Jinglun; Wang, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) is an edible fruit indigenous to Southeast Asia. It has been considered as a potent functional food due to its numerous pharmacological applications, such as anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and protection for multiple organs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a water extract of PE fruit on genomic damage and cell death in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line COLO320 using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Cells were exposed to RPMI-1640 medium containing 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μg/mL PE for 24, 48, 72, or 96 hours. The results showed that PE induced a significant decrease in necrosis (p PE exposure, and the frequency of CIN was negatively correlated with NDI (r = - 0.640, p PE also significantly increased apoptosis (p PE suppresses necrosis and delays mitotic progression, which results in massive CIN followed by apoptosis in COLO320 cells.

  15. Antiosteoclastic Activity of Milk Thistle Extract after Ovariectomy to Suppress Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Lye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Min-Kyung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Han, Seoung-Jun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Bone integrity abnormality and imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts are known to result in metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Silymarin-rich milk thistle extract (MTE) and its component silibinin enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts but reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity of osteoclasts. The osteoprotective effects of MTE were comparable to those of estrogenic isoflavone. Low-dose combination of MTE and isoflavone had a pharmacological synergy that may be useful for osteogenic activity. This study attempted to reveal the suppressive effects of MTE on bone loss. C57BL/6 female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) as a model for postmenopausal osteopenia and orally administered 10 mg/kg MTE or silibinin for 8 weeks. The sham-operated mice served as estrogen controls. The treatment of ovariectomized mice with nontoxic MTE and silibinin improved femoral bone mineral density and serum receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio, an index of osteoclastogenic stimulus. In addition, the administration of MTE or silibinin inhibited femoral bone loss induced by ovariectomy and suppressed femoral TRAP activity and cathepsin K induction responsible for osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Collectively, oral dosage of MTE containing silibinin in the preclinical setting is effective in preventing estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. PMID:23781510

  16. Rhodiola crenulata extract suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Lai, Feng-Yi; Shi, Li-Shian; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yen, I-Chuan; Chang, Tsu-Chung

    2015-04-15

    Rhodiola, a popular herb, has been used for treating high altitude sicknesses, depression, fatigue, and diabetes. However, the detailed mechanisms by which Rhodiola crenulata functions in the liver need further clarification. The current study was designed to examine the effects of Rhodiola crenulata root extract (RCE) on hepatic glucose production. Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were treated with RCE for 6 h. Glucose production, the expression level of p-AMPK, and the expression of key gluconeogenic genes were measured. The effects of RCE were also studied in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The efficacy and underlying mechanism of RCE in the liver were examined. RCE significantly suppressed glucose production and gluconeogenic gene expression in HepG2 cells while activating the AMPK signaling pathway. Interestingly, RCE-suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis was eliminated by an AMPK-specific inhibitor, but not by the PI3K/AKT-specific inhibitor. In addition, oral administration of RCE significantly increased phosphorylated AMPK levels and inhibited gluconeogenic gene expression in the rat liver. Furthermore, RCE treatment also decreased plasma glucose concentration in rats. We present in vitro and in vivo evidence that RCE might exert the glucose-lowering effect partly by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis through activating the AMPK signaling pathway. These findings provide evidence that Rhodiola crenulata may be helpful for the management of type II diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of grape seed extract on hepatic function and antioxidant status of Mouse bearing Ehrlich Ascites carcinoma and exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Hanafy, N.

    2006-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE), rich in bioactive phytochemicals commonly known as procyanidins, is one of the most commonly consumed dietary supplements in USA and Europe due to its several health benefits. The present study was performed to investigate the anti- tumor effect of GSE on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (EAC)-induced oxidative stress, hepatic dysfunction and histopathological changes in the liver of albino mouse. GSE was orally administered to mice for 5 consecutive days at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight before and after tumor inoculation. On the 5th day of tumor inoculation, animals were exposed to 1 Gy whole body gamma radiation. The anti-tumor effect of GSE was evident in terms of a significant reduction in tumor viable cells count and increased non-viable cells count of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Biochemical investigations showed that EAC cells led to hepatic disturbances in liver function profile. Oral administration of GSE, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, improved liver functions through a significant recovery of the elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the EAC-bearing mice groups. The results of the present study revealed that, pretreatment of mice with GSE induced a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation and significant improvement in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase as well as glutathione peroxidase activities in liver compared with those EAC damaged mice. Histopathological studies showed that EAC cells caused fatty degeneration, enlargement of liver cells nuclei and presence of necrosis. Pretreatment of animals with GSE exhibited protection justified by the results of the biochemical studies. It could be concluded that GSE administrated to mice, with or without subsequent gamma irradiation, exhibited anti-tumor effect reflected by improving liver function profile, modulating lipid peroxidation

  18. Effect of antioxidant and optimal antimicrobial mixtures of carvacrol, grape seed extract and chitosan on different spoilage microorganisms and their application as coatings on different food matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera F. Rubilar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of natural agents with antimicrobial (AM and antioxidant (AOX properties. Optimization of the AM capacity for mixtures containing carvacrol, grape seed extract (GSE and chitosan, against gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria innocua and Enterococcus faecalis and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 106 cfu mL-1 was studied. To observe the synergistic or antagonistic effect and find optimal combinations between the three agents, a simplex centroid mixture design was run for each microorganism, combining carvacrol (0-300 ppm, X1, GSE (0-2000 ppm, X2 and chitosan (0-2% w/v, X3. Results of the response surface analysis showed several synergistic effects for all microorganisms. Combinations of 60 ppm-400 ppm-1.2% w/v (carvacrol-GSE-chitosan; optimal AM combination 1, OAMC-1; 9.6 ppm-684 ppm-1.25% w/v (OAMC-2; 90 ppm-160 ppm-1.24% w/v (OAMC-3 were found to be the optimal mixtures for all microorganisms. Radical scavenging activity (RSA of the same agents was then compared with a standard AOX (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT at different concentrations (25, 50 and 100 ppm; as well as the optimal AM concentrations by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. RSA increased in the following order: chitosan< carvacrol< BHT< GSE and for the OAMC: OAMC-2< OAMC-1< OAMC-3. The best RSA (OAMC-3 was applied as a coating in two different food matrices (strawberries and salmon. For strawberries, P. aeruginosa was more sensitive to the action of OAMC-3 than S. cerevisiae. For salmon, S. aureus was more resistant to the action of OAMC-3 than E. faecalis and L. innocua.

  19. Grape skin extract protects against programmed changes in the adult rat offspring caused by maternal high-fat diet during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Angela C; Emiliano, Andréa F; Cordeiro, Viviane S C; de Bem, Graziele F; de Cavalho, Lenize C R M; de Oliveira, Paola Raquel B; Neto, Miguel L; Costa, Cristiane A; Boaventura, Gilson T; de Moura, Roberto S

    2013-12-01

    Maternal overnutrition during suckling period is associated with increased risk of metabolic disorders in the offspring. We aimed to assess the effect of Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) on cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in adult male offspring of rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet during lactation. Four groups of female rats were fed: control diet (7% fat), ACH09 (7% fat plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) ACH09 orally), HF (24% fat), and HF+ACH09 (24% fat plus 200 mg kg(-1) d(-1) ACH09 orally) during lactation. After weaning, all male offspring were fed a control diet and sacrificed at 90 or 180 days old. Systolic blood pressure was increased in adult offspring of HF-fed dams and ACH09 prevented the hypertension. Increased adiposity, plasma triglyceride, glucose levels and insulin resistance were observed in offspring from both ages, and those changes were reversed by ACH09. Expression of insulin cascade proteins IRS-1, AKT and GLUT4 in the soleus muscle was reduced in the HF group of both ages and increased by ACH09. The plasma oxidative damage assessed by malondialdehyde levels was increased, and nitrite levels decreased in the HF group of both ages, which were reversed by ACH09. In addition, ACH09 restored the decreased plasma and mesenteric arteries antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the HF group. In conclusion, the treatment of HF-fed dams during lactation with ACH09 provides protection from later-life hypertension, body weight gain, insulin resistance and oxidative stress. The protective effect ACH09 may involve NO synthesis, antioxidant action and activation of insulin-signaling pathways. © 2013.

  20. Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Inhibits Mucin Synthesis and Viral Replication by Suppression of AP-1 and NF-κB via p38 MAPKs/JNK Signaling Pathways in Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Infected A549 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young Il; Im, Chang-Nim; Kim, Sung Wan; Kim, Su Jin; Min, Seoyeon; Joo, Yong Hoon; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Namhyun

    2017-06-07

    Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins instigate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated. After pretreatment of the cells with or without exposure to RSV with 5-10 μg GSP/mL, the expression of various mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC8) was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blotting, as well as confocal microscopy. We found that GSP significantly decreased RSV-induced mucin synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, GSP suppressed the RSV-induced signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38, together with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activating protein-1 family members (c-Jun and c-Fos). Concomitantly, GSP inhibited the replication of RSV within A549 cells. Taken together, all our results suggest that GSP could be a potent therapeutic agent to suppress excessive mucus production and viral replication in RSV-induced airway inflammatory disorders.

  1. Grape extract and α-Tocopherol effect in cardiovascular disease model of Apo E -/- Mice Efeito do extrato de uva e α-Tocoferol em camundongos Apo E -/-, modelo de doença cardiovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the effect of consumption of grape extract isolated or combined with α-tocopherol supplementation on atherosclerosis model with Apo E -/- mice. METHODS: After six weeks of atherogenic diet, Apo E -/- mice were divided into the following groups: Control, Grape, Tocopherol and Grape plus Tocopherol. The treatment progressed for 11 weeks when animals were submitted to euthanasia. RESULTS: All the treatments presented hypocholesterolemic effect with reduction of serum and liver cholesterol levels. This effect was parallel to an increase in the fecal excretion of cholesterol. There was also a higher fecal excretion of saturated fatty acids in groups receiving grape extract or α-tocopherol. All the groups treated presented a tendency to show higher levels of vitamin E. The fatty acid profile showed a tendency for monounsaturated fatty acid preservation after grape extract and α-tocopherol consumption. Morphological analysis revealed a lower degree of evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque of the animals that were fed α-tocopherol combined with grape extract, even when no difference was found in the size of the largest lesion. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect between the polyphenols and α-tocopherol was observed, resulting in diminished evolution of atherosclerosis and a greater beneficial effect on atherosclerosis than the isolated consumption of antioxidants.OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito do consumo de extrato de uva isolada ou combinada com a suplementação de α-tocoferol em modelo de aterosclerose, utilizando camundongos Apo E -/-. MÉTODOS: Os camundongos Apo E -/- foram tratados com dieta aterogênica por seis semanas e foram divididos em quatro grupos: Controle, Uva, Tocoferol e Uva e Tocoferol. Após 11 semanas de tratamento os animais foram submetidos à eutanasia. RESULTADOS: Todos os tratamentos apresentaram efeito hipocolesterolêmico, com redução de colesterol plasmático e hepático. Este efeito foi acompanhado

  2. Honeysuckle aqueous extract and induced let-7a suppress dengue virus type 2 replication and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying-Ray; Yeh, Siao-Fen; Ruan, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Hao; Hsu, Sheng-Da; Huang, Hsien-Da; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Gan, Dai-Di

    2017-02-23

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.), a traditional Chinese herb, has widely been used to treat pathogen infection. However, the underlying-mechanism remains elusive. To reveal the host microRNA (miRNA) profile with the anti-viral activity after honeysuckle treatment. Here we reveal the differentially expressed miRNAs by Solexa ® deep sequencing from the blood of human and mice after the aqueous extract treatment. Among these overexpressed innate miRNAs both in human and mice, let-7a is able to target the NS1 region (nt 3313-3330) of dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1, 2 and 4 predicated by the target predication software. We confirmed that let-7a could target DENV2 at the predicated NS1 sequence and suppress DENV2 replication demonstrated by luciferase-reporter activity, RT-PCR, real-time PCR, Western blotting and plaque assay. ICR-suckling mice consumed honeysuckle aqueous extract either before or after intracranial injection with DENV2 showed decreased levels of NS1 RNA and protein expression accompanied with alleviated disease symptoms, decreased virus load, and prolonged survival time. Similar results were observed when DENV2-infected mice were intracranially injected with let-7a. We reveal that honeysuckle attenuates DENV replication and related pathogenesis in vivo through induction of let-7a expression. This study opens a new direction for prevention and treatment of DENV infection through induction of the innate miRNA let-7a by honeysuckle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of oil obtained from grape seeds collected during berry development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuela; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Alvarruiz, Andrés; Fernández, Enrique; Pardo, Jose E

    2009-04-08

    The surpluses of the wine industry that originate from wine production in the European countries must be reduced. Green harvesting, consisting in collecting the grapes when they are still green, could contribute to the reduction of the yield of vineyards. The green grapes are not suitable for wine production, but they can be used for seed oil extraction. Grape seed oil is a linoleic acid rich oil that has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vegetable edible oils. In this work, grape samples were collected at different stages during berry development for seed oil extraction. The grapes collected at a very early stage showed a very low oil extraction yield compared with that of the samples collected at later stages. The oil from the grapes collected at an early stage had considerably higher sterols content and had a significantly different fatty acid composition compared with those of the oil extracted from grapes collected at later stages. However, the oil samples from grapes collected before veraison did not show significant differences with samples collected after veraison as regards oil extraction yield, fatty acids composition, and total sterol content and composition. Our data suggest that grapes collected from green harvesting near veraison could be suitable for seed oil extraction, with characteristics similar to those of the oil extracted from the seeds of mature grapes.

  4. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  5. Melatonin in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiang-Fei; Shi, Tian-Ci; Song, Shuo; Zhang, Zhen-Wen; Fang, Yu-Lin

    2017-09-15

    A decade has passed since melatonin was first reported in grapes in 2006. During this time, melatonin has not only been found in the berries of most wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, but also in most grape-related foodstuffs, e.g. wine, grape juice and grape vinegar. In this review, we discuss the melatonin content in grapes and grape-related foodstuffs (especially wine) from previous studies, the physiological function of melatonin in grapes, and the factors contributing to the production of melatonin in grapes and wines. In addition, we identify future research needed to clarify the mechanisms of grape melatonin biosynthesis and regulation, and establish more accurate analysis methods for melatonin in grapes and wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility and application of liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of phenolic acids from grape polyphenols degraded by human faecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, C; Moreno-Arribas, M V; Rodríguez-Bencomo, J J; Cueva, C; Martín Álvarez, P J; Bartolomé, B; Pozo-Bayón, M A

    2012-07-15

    In this study the feasibility of a LLE-GC-EI-MS method for the analysis of 43 phenolic acids belonging to different chemical structure families which have been described in the literature as microbial-derived metabolites after consumption of dietary polyphenols was proved. In addition, the method was applied for the characterisation of phenolic metabolites resulting from the incubation, in anaerobic conditions, of a commercial grape seed extract (GSE) and their corresponding flavan-3-ol monomeric (GSE-M) and oligomeric (GSE-O) fractions with human faeces from healthy volunteers (n=3). The method showed average values of repeatability and reproducibility of 5.0% and 6.3%, respectively, adequate and low detection (1.8-30.8 μg L(-1)) and quantification limits (6.0-102.8 μg L(-1)) and good recovery values (95%, as average value). A total of 27 phenolic acids were identified in the faecal solutions after incubation with the grape seed extracts. In general, faecal samples incubated with GSE and GSE-M (monomeric fraction) yield a higher formation of phenolic acids compared to the samples incubated with the oligomer fraction (GSE-O). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The suppressive effect of apricot kernel extract on 5alpha-Androst-16-en-3-one generated by microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoshiba, S; Takenaka, H; Okumura, T; Someya, K; Ohdera, M

    2006-02-01

    Body odours are generated from dead skin cells and secreted materials, such as sweat and sebum, through the metabolism of microorganisms living on the skin. Volatile steroids, key compounds in body odours, are also generated through the metabolism of microorganisms. These volatile steroids strengthen the intensity of the overall body malodour and are sensed differently by males and females. Females are more sensitive than males to volatile steroids, especially 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone). To regulate body odours that are especially unpleasant for women, we devised an androstenone-generation model using the metabolism of Corynebacterium xerosis, which is one of the bacteria living on the axillary skin. Using this model, we studied the suppressive effect of plant extracts on the generation of androstenone. We found that apricot kernel extract (AKE) had the most positive effect among the plant extracts to which we applied the model. However, although AKE did suppress androstenone generation, it did not show any bactericidal effect. Using the cell-free system, AKE also suppressed the generation of androstenone. In conclusion, we found that AKE suppressed the generation of androstenone, which is especially unpleasant for women, and the mechanism was not bactericidal but metabolic inhibition. The results of these studies provide new understanding of the regulation of androstenone, which, in turn, should lead to the development of novel deodorant systems.

  8. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  9. Withania somnifera root extract prolongs analgesia and suppresses hyperalgesia in mice treated with morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrù, Alessandro; Marchese, Giorgio; Casu, Gianluca; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Kasture, Sanjay; Cottiglia, Filippo; Acquas, Elio; Mascia, Maria Paola; Anzani, Nicola; Ruiu, Stefania

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that Withania somnifera Dunal (WS), a safe medicinal plant, prevents the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. In the present study, we investigated whether WS extract (WSE) (100 mg/kg, i.p.) may also modulate the analgesic effect induced by acute morphine administration (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the tail-flick and in the hot plate tests, and if it may prevent the development of 2.5 mg/kg morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test. Further, to characterize the receptor(s) involved in these effects, we studied, by receptor-binding assay, the affinity of WSE for opioid (μ, δ, k), cannabinoid (CB1, CB2), glutamatergic (NMDA), GABAergic (GABAA, GABAB), serotoninergic (5HT2A) and adrenergic (α2) receptors. The results demonstrated that (i) WSE alone failed to alter basal nociceptive threshold in both tests, (ii) WSE pre-treatment significantly protracted the antinociceptive effect induced by 5 and 10 mg/kg of morphine only in tail-flick test, (iii) WSE pre-treatment prevented morphine-induced hyperalgesia in the low intensity tail-flick test, and (iv) WSE exhibited a high affinity for the GABAA and moderate affinity for GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. WSE prolongs morphine-induced analgesia and suppresses the development of morphine-induced rebound hyperalgesia probably through involvement of GABAA, GABAB, NMDA and δ opioid receptors. This study suggests the therapeutic potential of WSE as a valuable adjuvant agent in opioid-sparing therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-Campylobacter activity of resveratrol and an extract from waste Pinot noir grape skins and seeds, and resistance of Camp. jejuni planktonic and biofilm cells, mediated via the CmeABC efflux pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klančnik, A; Šikić Pogačar, M; Trošt, K; Tušek Žnidarič, M; Mozetič Vodopivec, B; Smole Možina, S

    2017-01-01

    To define anti-Campylobacter jejuni activity of an extract from waste skins and seeds of Pinot noir grapes (GSS), resveratrol and possible resistance mechanisms, and the influence of these on Camp. jejuni morphology. Using gene-specific knock-out Camp. jejuni mutants and an efflux pump inhibitor, we showed CmeABC as the most active efflux pump for extrusion across the outer membrane of GSS extract and resveratrol. Using polystyrene surface and pig small intestine epithelial (PSI) and human foetal small intestine (H4) cell lines, GSS extract shows an efficient inhibition of adhesion of Camp. jejuni to these abiotic and biotic surfaces. Low doses of GSS extract can inhibit Camp. jejuni adhesion to polystyrene surfaces and to PSI and H4 cells, and can thus modulate Camp. jejuni invasion and intracellular survival. An understanding of the activities of GSS extract and resveratrol as bacterial growth inhibitors and the specific mechanisms of cell accumulation is crucial for our understanding of Camp. jejuni resistance. GSS extract inhibition of Camp. jejuni adhesion to abiotic and biotic surfaces provides a further step towards the application of new innovative strategies to control Campylobacter contamination and infection via the food chain. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. [Suppressive Effects of Extract of Cedar Wood on Heat-induced Expression of Cellular Heat Shock Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Junji; Matsubara, Eri; Narita, Eijiro; Koyama, Shin; Shimizu, Yoko; Kawai, Shuichi

    2018-01-01

     In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43°C was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.

  12. Propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand suppress cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khacha-Ananda, Supakit; Tragoolpua, Khajornsak; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Tragoolpua, Yingmanee

    2016-12-01

    The continual increase in mortality rates and number of cancer cases is a matter of serious concern in developing countries. The incorporation of natural products into classical cancer treatment approaches is a promising direction. The mechanisms of A549 and HeLa cancer cell death induction by ethanolic extracts of propolis samples from Phayao, Chiang Mai, and Nan provinces in northern Thailand were investigated in this study. The propolis extract from Chiang Mai showed the highest antioxidant activity and the greatest total phenolic content. The propolis extract from Nan also exhibited the highest total flavonoid content. The proliferation of A549 and HeLa cells grown in the presence of the propolis extracts was suppressed in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of both cancer cells with the propolis extracts showed DNA fragmentation and significantly increased the number of the apoptotic cells. On A549 cells, the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of caspase enzymes were activated by the propolis extracts from Phayao and Chiang Mai. In the case of the propolis extract from Nan, the mechanisms involved apoptosis on the A549 cells were caspase-independent pathway. The extrinsic pathway of the caspase enzyme was triggered by all of the propolis extracts on HeLa cells. Finally, oral administration of the propolis granule produced from the propolis extract from Nan resulted in extended survival of tumour-bearing mice. Therefore, propolis extracts from the northern region of Thailand demonstrated pharmacological properties, both antioxidant and anticancer activities. From these findings, it is evident that propolis extracts can be considered as a naturally obtained agent extremely useful in cancer treatment.

  13. The suppressive effects of Vochysia divergens aqueous leaf extract and its 5-methoxyflavone on murine macrophages and lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Maria Fernanda Paresqui; Ventura, Thatiana Lopes Biá; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; da Cruz, Elaine Dos Anjos; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Bilia, Anna Rita; Rossi-Bergmann, Bartira; Costa, Sônia Soares

    2018-04-04

    Leaf infusion from the tree Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae), known as "cambará", is used in Brazilian popular medicine against respiratory infections and asthma. To evaluate the health-beneficial effects related to the ethnomedicinal uses of V. divergens (Vd), a biomonitored fractionation of an aqueous leaf extract was carried out. Leaves were extracted by decoction with distilled water, and the extract fractionated by a combination of separation techniques including precipitation, organic partition and chromatography. Chromatographic analyses of active samples were carried out using HPLC-DAD-MS and flavonoid 1 was isolated from n-BuOH fraction through classic chromatography techniques. Inhibitory effects of Vd extract, fractions and flavonoid 1 on NO and TNF-α production by macrophages were assessed by Griess method and L929 cell bioassay and cell viability by LDH release assay. Additionally, the suppressive ability on proliferation of BALB/c lymphocytes was estimated by [ 3 H] thymidine incorporation. Antioxidant activity of samples was verified by SNP and DPPH assay and inhibition ability of iNOS protein expression through Western blotting. The LC-MS analysis of Vd extract led to the identification of 5-methoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (2), rutin (4) and the tannin galloyl-HHDP-glucopyranoside (3), besides the main flavonoid 3',5-dimethoxyluteolin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), which was biologically evaluated in comparison with luteolin aglycone. Vd extract, n-BuOH fraction and flavonoid 1 inhibit NO and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The reduction on NO levels was mediated mainly by suppression of iNOS expression. In addition, both Vd extract (IC 50 13.6µg/mL) and flavonoid 1 (IC 50 19.8µg/mL; 41.6µM) strongly inhibited stimulated lymphocyte proliferation when compared to immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (IC 50 43.8µg/mL; 36.4µM). Vd extract also showed a scavenging activity toward DPPH and NO free radicals. This is the

  14. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  15. Thermal degradation of grape marc polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sólyom, Katalin; Solá, Ruth; Cocero, María José; Mato, Rafael B

    2014-09-15

    Bioactive compounds of wine making by-products are of interest in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Extraction of antioxidants under mild conditions is time-consuming, giving ground to the development of intensification processes where the operation at high temperature may deteriorate extract quality. This study examined thermal degradation of grape marc and its filtered extract (80, 100 and 150°C). The decrease in anthocyanin content was modelled under non-isothermal conditions by first order kinetics, using the Arrhenius equation. Simulated degradation under isothermal heating showed that the grape marc is more sensitive by one order of magnitude to heat than the filtered extract. This tendency was also confirmed by analyses of the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It is suggested that an optimal combination of temperature, treatment time and also raw material environment could be found in process intensification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Seol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa) is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated...

  17. Extração, secagem por atomização e microencapsulamento de antocianinas do bagaço da uva "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca Extraction, spray drying and microencapsulating of 'Isabel' grape (Vitis labrusca bagasse anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se obter neste trabalho um corante natural (antocianina, na forma de pó a partir do bagaço de uva da cultivar "Isabel" (Vitis labrusca, onde foram realizados estudos de extração e encapsulamento. Empregou-se o método de extração por imersão mediante técnica de planejamento experimental, onde as variáveis avaliadas foram pH da solução de extração (1-2, volume de etanol (100-250 mL, tempo de extração (3-7 h e temperatura de extração (15-35ºC. A concentração máxima de antocianinas totais obtidas foi de 300 mg/100 g de bagaço de uva (umidade 5% nos níveis inferiores de pH (1,0 e tempo (3 horas e superiores de temperatura (35ºC e volume de etanol (250 mL. Os extratos foram secos por atomização. A melhor condição para o encapsulamento e a secagem foi quando utilizaram-se proporções iguais de maltodextrina e goma arábica.This work had the aim of obtaining a natural pigment (anthocyanin at powder form from 'Isabel' grape bagasse (Vitis labrusca, studying the extraction and encapsulating steps one applied the method of extraction by immersion by experimental design technique, when the factors investigated were pH of the extraction solution (1-2, volume of ethanol (100-250 mL, extraction time (3-7 h and extraction temperature (15-35 °C. The maximum concentration of total anthocyanin was 300 mg/100g of grape bagasse (5% moisture at the lower levels of pH (1.0 and time (3 h, and at upper levels of temperature (35ºC and amount of ethanol (250 mL. The extracts were dried by a spray process. The best condition for encapsulating and drying was obtained when equal amounts of maltodextrin and Arabic gum were used.

  18. Identification of phenolic metabolites in human urine after the intake of a functional food made from grape extract by a high resolution LTQ-Orbitrap-MS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasot, Gemma; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Mercader-Martí, Mercè; Estruch, Ramon; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2017-10-01

    Grape pomace (GP) is known to be a rich source of polyphenols with biological activity which may be used as functional ingredients for the development of new health-promoting products. Numerous studies have reported that bioactive compounds may act through multiple mechanisms. In order to verify the oral absorption and metabolism of grape polyphenols, we performed a prospective, randomised and cross-over acute study in 12 volunteers with two interventions: 500mL of a functional beverage enriched with 200mL of GP and 500mL of a control beverage without GP. In this work, liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray ionization hybrid linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) technique has been used to accurately identify phenolics in GP and human urine. In GP, 41 phenolic compounds were identified mainly procyanidins, phenolic acids and flavonols, and in human urine over 70 metabolites of phenolic compounds including microbiota metabolites, glucuronides and sulfate derivatives were detected. Overall, high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) enhances the identification of a large variety of polyphenols and their metabolites with great mass accuracies for all molecular ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein-precipitable tannin in wines from Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis ssp.): differences in concentration, extractability, and cell wall binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sacks, Gavin L

    2014-07-30

    Although they possess significant viticultural advantages, interspecific hybrid grapes (Vitis spp.) are reported to produce wine with lower tannin concentrations than European wine varieties (Vitis vinifera). However, extensive quantitative data on this phenomenon as well as mechanistic explanations for these differences are lacking. A survey of primarily commercial wines from the Finger Lakes American Viticultural Area (New York) using a protein precipitation method determined that hybrid-based wines had >4-fold lower tannin concentrations than vinifera wines. To elucidate factors responsible for differences in wine tannin, 24 wines were produced from both red hybrid and vinifera cultivars under identical conditions. Lower wine tannin in French-American hybrid- than vinifera-based wines could be partially explained by lower grape tannin. However, experiments in which cell wall material was incubated with tannin indicated that cell wall binding may be of equal or greater importance in explaining lower wine tannin concentrations in hybrid-based wines. Subsequent characterization of cell wall material revealed that protein in flesh cell walls and, to a lesser extent, pectin in skin cell walls were correlated with cell wall binding.

  20. Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity of Walnut Hull Extract via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Caspase Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkini, Azadeh; Tahmasbi, Masoumeh

    2017-06-01

    Walnut hull (wal hull) is an agricultural by-product that is widely used in traditional medicine for alleviating pain and treating skin diseases, however, recently it has gained much attention in modern pharmacology due to its antioxidant properties. The current study was aimed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of Persian wal hull extract and evaluate its biological effects on platelet function. Experimental data showed that acetone extract of wal hulls has a high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The analytical study of crude extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry demonstrated different types of high- and low-molecular-weight compounds that are basically and biologically important. Moreover, an in vitro study revealed that wal hull extract at a concentration of 50 μg/mL inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and protein secretion by 50%, without any cytotoxic effects on platelets. The examined extract suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and also caspase activation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Identically, N-acetylcysteine inhibited the increase of reactive oxygen species level induced by thrombin in platelets, and supported a link between cellular redox status and caspase activation in activated platelets. Presumably, the antiplatelet activity of wal hull extract is related to its polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. Therefore, wal hulls can be considered as a candidate for thrombotic disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antiplatelet Aggregation Activity of Walnut Hull Extract via Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and Caspase Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Meshkini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut hull (wal hull is an agricultural by-product that is widely used in traditional medicine for alleviating pain and treating skin diseases, however, recently it has gained much attention in modern pharmacology due to its antioxidant properties. The current study was aimed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of Persian wal hull extract and evaluate its biological effects on platelet function. Experimental data showed that acetone extract of wal hulls has a high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. The analytical study of crude extract by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry demonstrated different types of high- and low-molecular-weight compounds that are basically and biologically important. Moreover, an in vitro study revealed that wal hull extract at a concentration of 50 μg/mL inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and protein secretion by 50%, without any cytotoxic effects on platelets. The examined extract suppressed reactive oxygen species generation and also caspase activation in thrombin-stimulated platelets. Identically, N-acetylcysteine inhibited the increase of reactive oxygen species level induced by thrombin in platelets, and supported a link between cellular redox status and caspase activation in activated platelets. Presumably, the antiplatelet activity of wal hull extract is related to its polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. Therefore, wal hulls can be considered as a candidate for thrombotic disorders.

  2. DA-9601 suppresses 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene and dust mite extract-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Im, Sin-Hyeog; Jun, Chang-Duk; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    DA-9601 (Stillen™) is a novel anti-peptic formulation prepared from the ethanol extracts of Artemisia asiatica possessing anti-oxidative, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities. However, their effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) has not been studied yet. In this study, we report that topical application of DA-9601 suppressed house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice model. We established atopic dermatitis model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DFE/DNCB to the ears. Repeated alternative treatment of DFE/DNCB caused AD-like lesions. DA-9601 reduced AD-like skin lesions based on ear thickness and histopathological analysis, and serum IgE levels. DA-9601 inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine in AD model. In addition, DA-9601 suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α in the ears. Taken together, our results showed that topical application of DA-9601 exerts beneficial effects in animal model of AD, suggesting that DA-9601 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aqueous and Methanolic Extracts of Caulerpa mexicana Suppress Cell Migration and Ear Edema Induced by Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Mariana Angelica Oliveira; Dantas, Gracielle Rodrigues; Lira, Daysianne Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria; de Miranda, George Emmanuel Cavalcanti; de Oliveira Santos, Barbara Viviana; Souto, Janeusa Trindade

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of the inflammatory response is essential to maintaining homeostasis. Several studies have investigated new drugs that may contribute to avoiding or minimizing excessive inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of green algae Caulerpa mexicana on models inflammation. In mice, the inflammatory peritonitis model is induced by zymosan. Previous treatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. mexicana was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity, in a time-dependent but not in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of mice with C. mexicana extracts also decreased the xylene-induced ear edema, exerting strong inhibitory leukocyte migration elicited by zymosan into the air pouch. We concluded that administration of the extracts resulted in a reduction of cell migration to different sites as well as a decrease in edema formation induced by chemical irritants. This study demonstrates for the first time the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous and methanolic extracts from the green marine algae Caulerpa mexicana. PMID:21892348

  4. Fatty acid profile and in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of red grape (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Oküzgözü and Boğazkere) Marc extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Bilge; Ozaydin, Zuhal; Böke, Nazli; Karabay, Ulkü; Pekmez, Murat; Arda, Nazhi; Kirmizigüla, Süheyla

    2009-03-01

    The marcs of two red grape (V. vinifera L.) varieties (Boğazkere and Oküzgözü), grown in eastern Anatolia (Elazig), were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The hexane extracts of both varieties were found to contain linoleic, palmitic, stearic and oleic acids by GC-MS analyses. The major fatty acid (linoleic acid) was detected relatively as 57.13% in Oküzgözü and 59.07% in Bogazkere in methylated hexane extracts. In addition, myristic and palmitoleic acids were observed in Boğazkere as minor components. The free radical (DPPH) scavenging activity of Oküzgözü was higher than that of Bogazkere. The IC50 values were calculated as 403.0 +/- 7.8 microg/mL for Oküzgozü and 552.0 +/- 23.6 microg/mL for Bogazkere. The extracts were found to be effective on the four gram (+) and four gram (-) test bacteria, but not as good as standard antibiotic, gentamycine by MIC method.

  5. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  6. Suppression of phytopathogenic fungi by hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Samkeun; Cha, Byeong Jin

    2007-12-01

    The hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf exhibited antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

  7. Annona muricata aqueous extract suppresses T47D breast cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Fidianingsih

    2015-12-01

    The proliferative inhibition of soursop leaves against T47D breast cancer cells is higher than that of soursop fruits and seeds. Annona muricata fruit, seed, and leaf aqueous extracts were less toxic than tamoxifen

  8. Improvement of extraction system geometry with suppression of possible Penning discharge ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Tuske, O.

    2014-02-01

    During the past two years, a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source has been developed especially dedicated to intense light ion injector project like IPHI (Injecteur Proton Haute Intensité), IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), to reduce beam emittance at RFQ entrance by shortening the length of the LEBT. This new ALISES concept (Advanced Light Ion Source Extraction System) is based on the use of an additional LEBT short length solenoid very close to the extraction aperture. The fringe field of this new solenoid produces the needed magnetic field to create the ECR resonance in the plasma chamber. Such geometry allows first putting the solenoid at ground potential, while saving space in front of the extraction to move the first LEBT solenoid closer and focus earlier the intense extracted beam. During the commissioning of the source in 2011-2012, ALISES has produced about 20 mA extracted from a 6 mm diameter plasma extraction hole at 23 kV. But the magnetic configuration combined to the new extraction system geometry led to important Penning discharge conditions in the accelerator column. Lots of them have been eliminated by inserting glass pieces between electrodes to modify equipotential lines with unfavorable ExB vacuum zones where particles were produced and trapped. To study Penning discharge location, several 3D calculations have been performed with OPERA-3D/TOSCA code to simulate the possible production and trapping of electrons in the extraction system. The results obtained on different sources already built have shown very good agreement with sparks location observed experimentally on electrodes. The simulations results as well as experimental measurements are presented and solutions to prevent possible Penning discharge in future source geometries are established.

  9. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yoon, Taesook; Jang, Seol; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa) is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated the atopic dermatitis symptoms, including increased dermatitis severity score, ear thickness, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin lesions, serum levels of IgE, TNF-α, and histamine, and expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in ear tissue. In addition, F. suspensa extract inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of FSE revealed the presence of four chemical constituents (forsythiaside, phillyrin, pinoresinol, and phylligenin). These compounds inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. These results suggest that the F. suspensa might be a useful candidate for treating allergic skin inflammatory disorders.

  10. Forsythia suspensa Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Young Sung

    Full Text Available Forsythia suspensa (F. suspensa is a traditional medicine for treatment of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of an ethanol extract from F. suspensa fruits on atopic dermatitis both in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the inhibitory effects of F. suspensa extract on the development of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model exposed to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract. Topical application of F. suspensa extract to the mice attenuated the atopic dermatitis symptoms, including increased dermatitis severity score, ear thickness, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin lesions, serum levels of IgE, TNF-α, and histamine, and expression of chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules in ear tissue. In addition, F. suspensa extract inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of FSE revealed the presence of four chemical constituents (forsythiaside, phillyrin, pinoresinol, and phylligenin. These compounds inhibited the production of chemokines in TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocytes. These results suggest that the F. suspensa might be a useful candidate for treating allergic skin inflammatory disorders.

  11. Ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Sithranga Boopathy; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Yon-Suk; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2017-03-01

    The eye is a sensitive organ with complex optical system involves in the perception of light. Although it has several protective mechanisms by itself, various physiological and metabolic disorders are detrimental to the proper functioning of the visual system. Grape juice has long been used worldwide for its potent medicinal values including ocular promotion. Bioactivities of grape products are highly attributed to the presence of health promoting phytochemicals in them. Some phytochemicals present in the grape juice have been involved in the maintenance of intra-ocular pressure, regulation of glucose metabolisms and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the system. Particularly, the grape derived phytochemicals involve in minimizing various eye defects such as macular degradation, uvea, cataract formation, red eye, diabetic retinopathy and so on. However, only limited number of studies has been conducted so far focusing the ocular promoting activity of grape polyphenols. In this review, we discuss the role of grape polyphenols in ocular promotion relating their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-aging, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Suppression of dust mite extract and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by the water extract of Lindera obtusiloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Hui-Hun; Singh, Thoudam S K; Choi, Jin Kyeong; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Suh, Won Mo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2011-09-01

    The Lindera obtusiloba has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation and dermatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of topical application of Lindera obtusiloba water extract (LOWE) on the house dust mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). We established AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DFE/DNCB to the ears. After a topical application of LOWE on the skin lesions, the epidermal thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine were measured. In addition, the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-31, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the ears was assayed. LOWE reduced AD symptoms based on ear thickness, histopathological analysis, and serum IgE levels. LOWE inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine in AD model. Moreover, LOWE suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-31, and TNF-α in the ears. Our results showed that topical application of LOWE exerts beneficial effects in AD symptoms, suggesting that LOWE might be a candidate for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  14. Annona muricata aqueous extract suppresses T47D breast cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Fidianingsih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer is a dreadful disease caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Annona muricata L, also known as soursop, is useful as an anticancer herbal medication since its leaves, seeds and fruits contain active compounds called annonaceous acetogenins. The objective of this study was to scientifically justify the traditional application of soursop for anticancer treatment in the community, by comparing the antiproliferative effect of Annona muricata L leaf, seed and fruit aqueous extracts on T47D breast cancer cells. Methods This study used an experimental post test trial with control group design. Infusions of soursop leaves, seeds, and fruits collected from Kaliurang, Sleman district, Yogyakarta were used for cytotoxicity tests on T47D cells, in comparison with tamoxifen as standard cancer therapy. Proliferative inhibition was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay. The parameter of proliferative inhibition was IC50 which is defined as 50% proliferative inhibition ability of soursop and tamoxifen. Significant differences between groups were determined at p<0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results The leaves, fruits, and seeds Annona muricata and tamoxifen were proven to be able to inhibit T47D cell proliferation. The IC50 of Annona muricata leaf, seed, fruit aqueous extracts and tamoxifen were 31,384.21 µg/ml; 1.528,800 µg/ml; 329,194.81 µg/ml and 114.52 µg/ml, respectively (p=0.016. The IC50 of Annona muricata aqueous extract was significantly different from that of tamoxifen. Conclusions The proliferative inhibition of soursop leaves against T47D breast cancer cells is higher than that of soursop fruits and seeds. Annona muricata fruit, seed, and leaf aqueous extracts were less toxic than tamoxifen.

  15. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of pomaces from four grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cerda-Carrasco, Aarón; López-Solís, Remigio; Nuñez-Kalasic, Hugo; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Obreque-Slier, Elías

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites in plants usually conferring them with unique taste, flavour and health-promoting properties. In fruits of Vitis vinifera L., phenolic composition is highly dependent on grape variety. Differential extraction of these compounds from grapes during winemaking is critically associated with wine quality. By-products of winemaking, such as grape pomace, can contain significant amounts of polyphenols. However, information concerning the varietal effect on wine grape pomace is scarce. In this study, pomaces from Sauvignon Blanc (SB), Chardonnay (CH), Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and Carménère (CA) grape varieties were characterized spectroscopically and by HPLC-DAD analysis. White grape pomaces (SB and CH) presented higher antioxidant capacities and higher contents of total phenols and total proanthocyanidins compared with red grape pomaces (CS and CA), whereas the latter showed much higher anthocyanin levels and colour intensities. Concentrations of monomeric proanthocyanidins and low-molecular-weight phenols in the four grape pomace varieties were significantly different. Grape pomaces from four varieties showed high but diverse contents of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities. Thus grape pomaces represent an important potential source of polyphenols, which could be useful for nutritional and/or pharmacological purposes. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Grape pomace application in environmental studies: from waste to natural food preservative and source of biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Andonovic, Zorana; Ivanova, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    The geographic location of Republic of Macedonia is exceptional for breeding vine and specific grape varieties. But, the wine industry waste in general is a problem in Macedonia, since it does not have any usage. In the European Union, there is approximately 14.5 million tons of wine industry waste produced from wineries (http://www.academicwino.com/2012/11/grape-seed-extract-leather-production.html). In fact, the wine industry waste (grape pomace) contains primarily crushed grape skins and s...

  17. Bixa orellana leaf extract suppresses histamine-induced endothelial hyperpermeability via the PLC-NO-cGMP signaling cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yoke Keong; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Somchit, Muhd Nazrul; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2015-10-14

    Histamine is established as a potent inflammatory mediator and it is known to increased endothelial permeability by promoting gap formation between endothelial cells. Previous studies have shown that aqueous extract of Bixa orellana leaves (AEBO) exhibits antihistamine activity in vivo, yet the mechanism of its action on endothelial barrier function remains unclear. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the protective effect of AEBO against histamine-induced hyperpermeability in vitro. The endothelial protective effect of AEBO was assess using an in vitro vascular permeability assay kit. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in the current study. HUVEC were pre-treated with AEBO for 12 h before histamine induction. Vascular permeability was evaluated by the amount of FITC-dextran leakage into the lower chamber. In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of AEBO, phospholipase C (PLC) activity, intracellular calcium level, nitric oxide (NO) concentration, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production and protein kinase C (PKC) activity were determined following histamine challenge. Histamine-induced increased HUVEC permeability was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with AEBO in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Upregulation of PLC activity caused by histamine in HUVEC was suppressed by pretreatment with AEBO. Pretreatment with AEBO also blocked the production of intracellular calcium induced by histamine in HUVEC. In addition, AEBO suppressed the NO-cGMP signaling cascade when HUVEC were challenged with histamine. Moreover, PKC activity was significantly abolished by pretreatment with AEBO in HUVEC under histamine condition. In conclusion, the present data suggest that AEBO could suppress histamine-induced increased endothelial permeability and the activity may be closely related with the inhibition of the PLC-NO-cGMP signaling pathway and PKC activity.

  18. Experimental Study of Three-body Cabibbo-suppressed D0 Decays and Extraction of Cp Violation Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kalanand; /Nehru U.

    2008-02-22

    The authors present measurements of the relative branching ratios, Dalitz plot structures and CP-asymmetry values in the three-body singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}K{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy ring at SLAC. The author applies the results of the D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} analysis to extracting CP-violation parameters related to the CKM angle {gamma} (or {phi}{sub 3}) using the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}} K{sup -}.

  19. Entada phaseoloides extract suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Hao, Xincai; Wang, Qibin; Chen, Li; Jin, Si; Bian, Fang

    2016-12-04

    The seed of Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr. (Entada phaseoloides) has been long used as a folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus by Chinese ethnic minorities. Recent reports have demonstrated that total saponins from Entada phaseoloides (TSEP) could reduce fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetic rats. However, the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of TSEP on type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Primary mouse hepatocytes and HepG2 cells were used to investigate the effects of TSEP on gluconeogenesis. After treatment with TSEP, glucose production, genes expression levels of Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase) and Phosphoenoylpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) were detected. The efficacy and underlying mechanism of TSEP on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway were determinated. TSEP significantly inhibited glucose production and the gluconeogenic gene expression. Treatment with TSEP elevated the phosphorylation of AMPK, which in turn promoted the phosphorylation of acetyl coenzyme A (ACC) and Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), respectively. Furthermore, TSEP reduced lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity in hepatocytes. These findings provide evidence that TSEP exerts an antidiabetic effect by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis via the AMPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (PUrtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Beneficial Effect of Anthocyanidin-Rich Vitis vinifera L. Grape Skin Extract on Metabolic Changes Induced by High-Fat Diet in Mice Involves Antiinflammatory and Antioxidant Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Gisele França; Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; Resende, Angela Castro; de Moura, Roberto Soares

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that a polyphenol-rich extract from Vitis vinifera L. grape skin (GSE) may exert beneficial effects on obesity and related metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). C57/BL6 mice were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control, and GSE groups) or an HFD (60% fat, high fat (HF), and HF + GSE) with or without GSE (200 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. GSE prevented weight gain; dyslipidemia; insulin resistance; the alterations in plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin; and the deregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression in adipose tissue. These beneficial effects of GSE may be related to a positive modulation of insulin signaling proteins (IR, pIRS, PI3K, pAKT), pAMPK/AMPK ratio, and GLUT4 expression in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, GSE prevented the oxidative damage, evidenced by the restoration of antioxidant activity and decrease of malondialdehyde and carbonyl levels in muscle and adipose tissue. Finally, GSE showed an anti-inflammatory action, evidenced by the reduced plasma and adipose tissue inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6). Our results suggest that GSE prevented the obesity and related metabolic disorders in HF-fed mice by regulating insulin sensitivity and GLUT4 expression as well as by preventing the oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of suppression of arabinoxylan synthetic genes in wheat endosperm on chain length of arabinoxylan and extract viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jackie; Lovegrove, Alison; Wilkinson, Mark David; Saulnier, Luc; Shewry, Peter Robert; Mitchell, Rowan Andrew Craig

    2016-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is the dominant component within wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endosperm cell walls, accounting for 70% of the polysaccharide. The viscosity of aqueous extracts from wheat grain is a key trait influencing the processing for various end uses, and this is largely determined by the properties of endosperm AX. We have previously shown dramatic effects on endosperm AX in transgenic wheat by down-regulating either TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 genes (orthologues to IRX9 and IRX10 in Arabidopsis, respectively) implicated in AX chain extension and the TaXAT1 gene responsible for monosubstitution by 3-linked arabinose. Here, we use these transgenic lines to investigate the relationship between amounts of AX in soluble and insoluble fractions, the chain-length distribution of these measured by intrinsic viscosity and the overall effect on extract viscosity. In transgenic lines expressing either the TaGT43_2 or TaGT47_2 RNAi transgenes, the intrinsic viscosities of water-extractable (WE-AX) and of a water-insoluble alkaline-extracted fraction (AE-AX) were decreased by between 10% and 50% compared to control lines. In TaXAT1 RNAi lines, there was a 15% decrease in intrinsic viscosity of WE-AX but no consistent effect on that of AE-AX. All transgenic lines showed decreases in extract viscosity with larger effects in TaGT43_2 and TaGT47_2 RNAi lines (by up to sixfold) than in TaXAT1 RNAi lines (by twofold). These effects were explained by the decreases in amount and chain length of WE-AX, with decreases in amount having the greater influence. Extract viscosity from wheat grain can therefore be greatly decreased by suppression of single gene targets. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Suppression of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis by extract of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingli; Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Lin; Zhao, Haishan; Yao, Weifan; Jin, Wanbao; Wei, Minjie

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guerin extract (BCGE) has been proven to be clinically effective for anaphylactic disease, infectious diseases and cancer. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intramuscular application of BCGE on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD). We established an AD model in BALB/c mice by repeated local exposure of DNCB to the ear and dorsal skin. Following intramuscular application of BCGE, the ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and histamine level were measured. In addition, levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the ears were assayed. BCGE reduced AD symptoms based on ear thickness, dermatitis score, histopathological analysis and serum IgE levels. In addition, BCGE inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear and elevation of serum histamine, increased IFN-γ level and suppressed IL-4, IL-13 and TNF-α levels in the ears. Furthermore, BCGE attenuated the NF-κBp65 expression in the nuclear extract of the ear tissue. Taken together, our results demonstrated that intramuscular application of BCGE exerts beneficial effects on the symptoms of AD suggesting that BCGE may be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  4. Suppression of gastric cancer by extract from the tuber of amorphophallus konjac via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Yuan, Lin-Qing; Li, Lin-Jie; Lv, Yao; Chen, Pei-Feng; Pan, Lei

    2017-08-01

    The tuber of amorphophallus konjac (TuAK) is an antitumor herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of TuAK against gastric cancer and the underlying mechanisms associated with two programmed cell death pathways, apoptosis and autophagy. TuAK was extracted by organic solvents including ethanol and ligarine. The extract of TuAK, shortened as TuAKe, significantly inhibited the growth of cultured gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and AGS, with IC50 of 35-45 µg/ml. TuAKe could increase cell apoptosis and induce cell cycle arrest. For the apoptosis-associated proteins, expressions of survivin and Bcl-2 were decreased by treatment of TuAKe, and the expression of Bax and caspase-9 was increased. Furthermore, TuAKe could promote autophagy, and the antitumor efficacy of TuAKe was significantly hampered by targeted suppression of autophagy, suggesting that autophagy contributed to TuAKe-induced cell death. Furthermore, patients with gastric cancer who received TuAK-based medicinal decoction achieved improved scores in assessment of life quality compared with those without TuAK treatment. This study demonstrated the antitumor activity of TuAKe against gastric cancer, and is the first report to show that the underlying mechanism is associated with induction of autophagy. Our data provided support of the clinical use of amorphophallus konjac-based medication in combination with classical chemotherapy to achieve optimized outcome for gastric cancer.

  5. Structural characterization of lignin from grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozil, Sónia O; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Silva, Artur M S; Lopes, Luísa P C

    2014-06-18

    The chemical structure of lignin from grape stalks, an abundant waste of winemaking, has been studied. The dioxane lignin was isolated from extractive- and protein-free grape stalks (Vitis vinifera L.) by modified acidolytic procedure and submitted to a structural analysis by wet chemistry (nitrobenzene and permanganate oxidation (PO)) and spectroscopic techniques. The results obtained suggest that grape stalk lignin is an HGS type with molar proportions of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) units of 3:71:26. Structural analysis by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and PO indicates the predominance of β-O-4' structures (39% mol) in grape stalk lignin together with moderate amounts of β-5', β-β, β-1', 5-5', and 4-O-5' structures. NMR studies also revealed that grape lignin should be structurally associated with tannins. The condensation degree of grape stalks lignin is higher than that of conventional wood lignins and lignins from other agricultural residues.

  6. Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Eun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Excessive exposure to solar UV (sUV is associated with numerous human skin disorders, such as carcinogenesis, skin photoaging and skin inflammation. Silkworm Thorn (Cudraniatricuspidata, SW is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and widely present throughout Korea, China, and Japan. Most parts of the tree (including the fruit, leaf, stem, root, and bark is consumable as a functional food or tea. In this study, we found that SW extract (SWE inhibited the elevated expression of sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 levels in both HaCaT and JB6 cells. Levels of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, two crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were elevated by sUV treatment. Treatment with SWE abolished this activation. SWE also inhibited sUV-induced histone H3 phosphorylation. However, sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase remained unchanged in the presence of SWE. SWE inhibited RSK2 activity, and pull-down assays using SWE-Sepharose beads revealed that SWE binds directly with RSK2 in an ATP-competitive manner. These results suggest a potential for SWE to be developed as a cosmeceutical material and functional food constituent for the promotion of skin health.

  7. Silkworm Thorn Stem Extract Targets RSK2 and Suppresses Solar UV-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exposure to solar UV (sUV) is associated with numerous human skin disorders, such as carcinogenesis, skin photoaging and skin inflammation. Silkworm Thorn (Cudraniatricuspidata, SW) is a plant belonging to the Moraceae family and widely present throughout Korea, China, and Japan. Most parts of the tree (including the fruit, leaf, stem, root, and bark) is consumable as a functional food or tea. In this study, we found that SW extract (SWE) inhibited the elevated expression of sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 levels in both HaCaT and JB6 cells. Levels of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1, two crucial transcription factors involved in COX-2 expression, were elevated by sUV treatment. Treatment with SWE abolished this activation. SWE also inhibited sUV-induced histone H3 phosphorylation. However, sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase remained unchanged in the presence of SWE. SWE inhibited RSK2 activity, and pull-down assays using SWE-Sepharose beads revealed that SWE binds directly with RSK2 in an ATP-competitive manner. These results suggest a potential for SWE to be developed as a cosmeceutical material and functional food constituent for the promotion of skin health. PMID:26506342

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs via suppression of Nrf2 by procyanidins from Cinnamomi Cortex extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Matsumoto, Takashi; Itoi, Ayano; Kawana, Ayako; Nishiyama, Takahito; Ogura, Kenichiro [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Hiratsuka, Akira, E-mail: hiratuka@toyaku.ac.jp [Department of Drug Metabolism and Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} We found a novel inhibitor of Nrf2 known as a chemoresistance factor. {yields} Overexpressed Nrf2 in lung cancer cells was suppressed by Cinnamomi Cortex extract. {yields} Cytotoxic action of anticancer drugs in cells treated with the extract was enhanced. {yields} Procyanidin tetramers and pentamers were active components in suppressing Nrf2. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important cytoprotective transcription factor because Nrf2-regulated enzymes play a key role in antioxidant and detoxification processes. Recent studies have reported that lung cancer cells overexpressing Nrf2 exhibit increased resistance to chemotherapy. Suppression of overexpressed Nrf2 is needed for a new therapeutic approach against lung cancers. In the present study, we found that Cinnamomi Cortex extract (CCE) has an ability to suppress Nrf2-regulated enzyme activity and Nrf2 expression in human lung cancer A549 cells with high Nrf2 activity. Moreover, we demonstrated that CCE significantly enhances sensitivity of A549 cells to the cytotoxic action of doxorubicin and etoposide as well as increasing the intracellular accumulation of both drugs. These results suggest that CCE might be an effective concomitant agent to reduce anticancer drug resistance derived from Nrf2 overexpression. Bioactivity-guided fractionation revealed that procyanidin tetramers and pentamers contained in CCE were active components in suppressing Nrf2.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Suppresses House Dust Mite Extract-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Il; Hong, Sung Hee; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Lee, Sang Eun

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects humans and animals via congenital or postnatal routes, and it is found worldwide. Modulation of the immune system by parasite infection is proposed to suppress allergic inflammation. Growing evidences have shown that interleukin (IL)-10-producing regulatory B cells (B(regs)) and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (T(regs)) induced by parasite infection play a critical role in allergic or autoimmune diseases because these cells regulate negatively cellular immune responses and inflammation. Currently, the role of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells in host immune response during T. gondii infection is unknown. In this study, we investigate whether T. gondii infection can suppress the development of unrelated atopic dermatitis (AD)-like lesions. AD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease accompanied by severe itching; for this, we used NC/Nga mice, a well-known experimental model of systemic AD. Repeated exposure to Dermatophagoides farinae crude extract (DfE), known as a major environmental allergen, evokes AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice under specific pathogen-free conditions. NC/Nga mice were intraperitoneally infected with 10 cysts of T. gondii. T. gondii infection significantly ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. The subpopulation of B(regs) and T(regs) in the AD mice was expanded in the course of T. gondii infection. In addition, T. gondii infection inhibited Th2 and enhanced Th1 immune response in the DfE-treated AD mice. We have experimentally demonstrated for the first time that T. gondii infection ameliorated AD-like skin lesions in a mouse model of AD. Our study could in part explain the mechanisms of how parasite infection prevents the development of allergic disorder. Therefore, these immunemechanisms induced by T. gondii infection may be beneficial for the host in terms of reduced risk of allergic immune reactions.

  10. Suppressive effect of mangosteen rind extract on the spontaneous development of atopic dermatitis in NC/Tnd mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akane; Nishikawa, Sho; Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Amagai, Yosuke; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and relapsing skin disorder characterized by pruritic and dry skin lesions with allergic inflammation. Recent studies have revealed anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of xanthones in mangosteen through regulation of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Activation of NF-κB signals is responsible for allergic inflammation in AD. To develop a new preventive therapy for AD, we examined the effects of the natural medicine, mangosteen rind extract (ME), on AD in a murine model. ME (250 mg/kg per day) was administrated to NC/Tnd mice, a model for human AD, for 6 weeks to evaluate its preventive effects on AD. We also confirmed the effects of ME on various immune cell functions. Oral administration of ME prevented the increase of clinical skin severity scores, plasma total immunoglobulin E levels, scratching behavior, transepidermal water loss and epidermal hyperplasia in NC/Tnd mice; moreover, no adverse effects were noted. We demonstrated that ME suppressed thymic stromal lymphopoietin and interferon-γ mRNA expression both in vitro and in vivo. Not only immunoglobulin E production from splenic B cells but also immunoglobulin E-mediated degranulation of bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells was significantly reduced by the addition of ME to the culture. In addition, mRNA expression levels of nerve growth factor were decreased in ME-administrated NC/Tnd mice compared with those of controls. Keratinocyte proliferation was well-controlled by ME application. Oral administration of ME exhibited its suppressive potential on the early development of AD by controlling inflammation, itch and epidermal barrier function. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Gamma-irradiated black ginseng extract inhibits mast cell degranulation and suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Song, Ha-Yeon; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Kim, Hye-Min; Nam, You Ree; Lee, Gyeong Hee; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek

    2018-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural modification and an increase of the biological properties of biomaterials. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-allergenic effect of γ-irradiated black ginseng extract (BGE) using in vitro and in vivo experiments. IgEantigen complex-induced degranulation was measured in RBL-2H3 mast cells. In addition, an anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) test was carried out by spreading γ-irradiated BGE on the dorsal skin of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced BALB/c mice. The content of arginylfructose (AF) of gamma-irradiated BGE was higher than that of BGE. In RBL-2H3 mast cells, γ-irradiated BGE treatments significantly reduced the IgE-antigen complex-induced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, intracellular ROS, and Ca2+ influx. A western blot analysis showed that γ-irradiated BGE had an inhibitory activity on the FcεRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. In the DNCB-induced AD model, γ-irradiated BGE significantly alleviated the ADlike skin symptoms and clinical signs. The suppression of AD by γ-irradiated BGE was accompanied by a decrease in the serum level of IgE and IL-4, as well as the number of leukocyte. Gamma-irradiated BGE also suppressed IL-4 and increased IFN-γ in splenocytes. Our data suggests that γ-irradiated BGE may be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pu-erh Tea Extract Ameliorates Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis in Rats and Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Tea drinking is associated with positive effects on bone health and may protect against osteoporosis, especially in elderly women. Pu-erh tea has many beneficial effects on human health; however, whether Pu-erh tea has anti-osteoporotic potential remains unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of Pu-erh tea extract (PTE on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro.Methods: Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: the sham, model, and Xian-Ling-Gu-Bao capsule (XLGB groups, and the low-, medium-, and high-dose PTE groups. Ovariectomized (OVX rats were used as an animal model of osteoporosis. The animals were intragastrically administered distilled water, XLGB, or different concentrations of PTE for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical indicators, relative organ coefficients, femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were examined and analyzed. Additionally, the in vitro effects of PTE on osteoclastic activities were investigated using the RAW 264.7 cell line as an osteoclast differentiation model. The effects of PTE on osteoclast differentiation and the expression of osteoclast-specific genes and proteins were determined.Results: PTE reduced OVX-induced body weight gain after 6 weeks of treatment, and the high-dose exerted a significant effect. High-dose PTE significantly ameliorated OVX-induced estradiol (E2 deficiency. PTE treatment maintained calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and improved other blood biochemical parameters to various degrees. In addition, PTE treatment improved organ coefficients of the femur, uterus, and vagina and improved femoral BMD and bone biomechanical properties. PTE treatment strikingly ameliorated bone microarchitecture. Moreover, in the in vitro studies, osteoclast differentiation using the differentiation cell model was significantly inhibited by PTE without cytotoxic effects. Additionally

  13. Application of pectinases for recovery of grape seeds phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štambuk, Petra; Tomašković, Dora; Tomaz, Ivana; Maslov, Luna; Stupić, Domagoj; Karoglan Kontić, Jasminka

    2016-12-01

    Grape marc seeds contain large amounts of different polyphenolic compounds so they can be used for the recovery of these classes of compounds. A new green extraction method for the recovery of phenols from the grape seeds was developed. To provide a high quality extract sourced from natural product by using enzymes as alternative solvents and spending less energy, it is impeccable to call this method "green". Furthermore, this method was optimized by finding out which conditions provide the best possible results and achieving the maximum recovery of polyphenols from grape seeds. The optimization of the enzyme-assisted extraction of phenols was conducted using the commercially available oenological enzyme preparations with respect to the enzyme dosage, temperature, extraction time, pH value and enzyme preparation by applying the response surface methodology. Optimal conditions were determined using the enzyme preparation Lallzyme EX-V, at the extraction temperature of 48 °C, extraction time of 2 h and 43 min, pH 3.5 and enzyme dosage of 20.00 mg g -1 . The new optimized extraction method is less expensive, simple, fast, precise and selective for the recovery of simple phenols (monomeric and dimeric form) and since it is based on the environmentally friendly extraction solvent it may provide a valuable alternative to the conventional extraction methods. The obtained extracts can be used for the application in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industry.

  14. Effects of soil characteristics on grape juice nutrient concentrations and other grape quality parameters in Shiraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Ramos, Maria; Romero, Maria Paz

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the response of grapes to soil properties in the variety Shiraz (SH) cultivated in the Costers de Segre Designation of Origin (NE, Spain). The research was carried out in two areas with differences in vigor, which was examined using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Soil properties such as organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn and Mn) were analysed in the two areas. Soil analyses were limited to the upper 40 cm. Soil N-NO3 was measured in 2M KCl extracts. Assimilable phosphorus was analysed by extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 at pH 8.5 using the Olsen method. The available K, Ca and Mg were evaluated in hemaaxinecobalt trichloride extracts and the available fraction of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in DTPA- trietanolamine extracts, by spectroscopy atomic emission/absorption. Berry grapes were collected at maturity. Nutrients in grape juice (K, Ca, Mg Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe) were determined after a microwave hydrogen peroxide digestion in a closed vessel microwave digestion system and measured by spectroscopy. Other grape properties that determine grape quality such as pH, berry weight and sugar content were analysed using the methods proposed by the OIV. Differences in soil properties were observed between plots, which determined the differences in vigour. The vines with lower vigour were grown in the soils with higher pH, electrical conductivity and silt content, which had in addition higher Ca, Mg and K available levels as well as higher levels of Fe and Mn than the soil in which vines had higher vigour. However, the available fraction of Cu and Zn was smaller. Similar differences in nutrient concentration in the berry were observed for all nutrients except for Cu. Grape juice pH and total soluble solids (°Brix) were higher in the most vigorous vines. However, the differences in berry weight and total acidity at ripening were not significant. Keywords: acidity; berry weight; nutrients; p

  15. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was

  16. Effects of Polyphenols from Grape Seeds on Renal Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  17. Effects of polyphenols from grape seeds on renal lithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Felix; Prieto, Rafel M; Fernandez-Cabot, Rafel A; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Tur, Fernando; Torres, Jose Juan

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a complex disease that results from a combination of factors related to both urine composition and kidney morphoanatomy. Development of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculi is linked to initial subepithelial calcification of renal papilla. Progressive tissue calcification depends on preexisting injury and involves reactive oxygen species. Many plant extracts that protect against oxidative stress manifest antilithiasic activity. Our study focused on determining the effects of polyphenols on a lithiasis rat model. Rats were pretreated with polyphenols and grape seed extracts, followed by posterior induction of hyperoxalosis via treatment with ethylene glycol plus NH4Cl. The concentrations of calcium and other elements in kidney were determined, along with histological examination of kidney and 24 h urine analysis. Significant differences were observed in the renal calcium content between the control plus ethylene glycol-treated group and the epicatechin plus ethylene glycol-treated, red grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated, and white grape seed extract plus ethylene glycol-treated groups, with reductions of about 50%. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols extracted from red and white grape seeds may be critical in the prevention of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary calculus formation, particularly if calculi are induced by lesions caused by cytotoxic compounds with oxidative capacity.

  18. Towards integral utilization of grape pomace from winemaking process: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Carolina; Costa, Gislaine N S; Cabezudo, Ignacio; da Silva-James, Nina K; Teles, Aline S C; Cruz, Ana P G; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Tonon, Renata V; Cabral, Lourdes M C; Freitas, Suely P

    2017-10-01

    Grape is the main fruit crop in several countries. Although many grape-based food products can be found in the market, studies have shown that around 75% of the world grape production is destined for the wine industry. Grape pomace is an abundant by-product from the wine industry, which consists of the remaining skin, seeds and stalks and represents around 25% of total grape weight used in the winemaking process. In countries such as Italy, France and Spain, where wine production is more relevant, the annual grape pomace generation can reach nearly 1200 tonnes per year. In order to reach a sustainable winemaking process there is a need of a waste reduction policy. Several studies explore this subject using grape pomace as a source of healthy and technological compounds that could be applied in animal feed, pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry to improve stability and nutritional characteristics, and in cosmetic industry, where grape seeds oil is widely used. This review aims to approach the recent winemaking scenario and the benefits achieved when a waste management policy is implemented, as well as to compare available extractive technologies and a wide alternative of uses for grape pomace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suppressive effect of ethanol extract from mango (Mangifera indica L.) peel on IgE production in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Momoko; Sasaki, Tomoko; Nishi, Kosuke; Tamamoto, Takeshi; Sugahara, Takuya

    2018-01-03

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is involved in the onset of allergic reaction, and the suppression of IgE production leads to alleviation of allergic symptoms. We found that mango peel ethanol extract (MPE) significantly suppresses IgE production by human myeloma cell line U266 cells, suggesting that MPE has an anti-allergic effect by inhibiting the production of IgE. Although mangiferin is contained in mango, which suppresses IgE production by U266 cells, it was not contained in MPE. We investigated the suppressive effect of MPE in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis model mice. The elevation of serum IgE level was significantly suppressed by oral administration of MPE. Intake of MPE also suppressed the expression level of IL-4 in the DNFB-challenged ears, suggesting that MPE suppresses the IL-4-mediated maturation into IgE-producing cells. Our findings indicate that MPE has a potential to alleviate the increase in serum IgE level that is feature of type I allergy.

  20. Enhanced antioxidant activity of polyolefin films integrated with grape tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejar, Kenneth J; Ray, Sudip; Kilmartin, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    A natural antioxidant derived from an agro-waste of the wine industry, grape tannin, was incorporated by melt blending into three different polyolefins (high-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene and polypropylene) to introduce antioxidant functionality. Significant antioxidant activity was observed at 1% tannin inclusion in all polymer blends. The antioxidant activity was observed to increase steadily with a greater concentration of grape tannins, the highest increases being seen with polypropylene. The mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer films following antioxidant incorporation were minimally altered with up to 3% grape tannins. All of the polyolefin-grape tannin films successfully passed the leachability test following USP661 standard protocol. Superior antioxidant activity was established in polyolefin thin films by utilization of a bulk grape extract obtained from winery waste. Significant increases in antioxidant activity were seen with 1% extract inclusion. This not only demonstrates the potential for food packaging applications of the polyolefin blends, but also valorizes the agro-waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Influence of radiation processing of grapes on wine quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sumit; Padole, Rupali; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Grapes (Var. Shiraz and Cabernet) were subjected to radiation processing (up to 2 kGy) and wines were prepared and matured (4 months, 15 °C). The wines were analyzed for chromatic characteristics, total anthocyanin (TA), phenolic (TP) and total antioxidant (TAC) content. Aroma of wines was analyzed by GC/MS and sensory analysis was carried out using descriptive analysis. TA, TP and TAC were 77, 31 and 37 percent higher for irradiated (1500 Gy) Cabernet wines, while irradiated Shiraz wines demonstrated 47, 18 and 19 percent higher TA, TP and TAC, respectively. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that radiation processing of grapes resulted in increased extraction of phenolic constituents in wine with no qualitative changes. No major radiation induced changes were observed in aroma constituents of wine. Sensory analysis revealed that 1500 Gy irradiated samples had higher fruity and berry notes. Thus, radiation processing of grapes resulted in wines with improved organoleptic and antioxidant properties. - Highlights: • Grapes were subjected to radiation processing before wine making. • Wines from irradiated grapes had higher antioxidant and phenolics compared to control. • HPLC analysis confirmed improved extraction of phenolics due to radiation processing. • Aroma profile and sensory quality of control and irradiated wines were similar

  2. Topical application of an ethanol extract prepared from Illicium verum suppresses atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Yang, Won-Kyung; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Dong-Seon; Nho, Kyoung Jin; Kim, Young Sang; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-10-31

    Illicium verum is a traditional herbal medicine with anti-inflammatory properties used in Asia. However, its usefulness in the treatment of allergic diseases remains unclear. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects of I. verum extract (IVE) in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. We investigated the effects of IVE on compound 48/80-induced histamine release, and phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated cytokines secretion in MC/9 mast cells. Atopic dermatitis was induced in NC/Nga mice by exposure to extract of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae). After a topical application of IVE on ear and skin lesions, we evaluated the severity of skin symptoms, ear thickness, inflammatory cell infiltration, and serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-6, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. In addition, we determined the expression of IL-4, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in ear tissues. IVE inhibited secretion of histamine, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-α from mast cells in a dose-dependent manner. Topical application of IVE significantly reduced dermatitis scores, ear thickness, and serum levels of IgE, histamine, IL-6, and ICAM-1. Histopathological analysis demonstrated decreased epidermal thickening and dermal infiltration by inflammatory cells. In the ear lesions, IVE treatment reduced expression of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, TARC, RANTES, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, but not IFN-γ. These results indicate that IVE inhibits atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by suppressing the expression of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These results suggest that IVE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for atopic dermatitis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Complex from Unripe Grapes: The Case of Sangiovese (v. Vitis vinifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Fia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is well known for its production of a large amount of wastes and by-products. Among them, unripe grapes from thinning operations are an undervalued by-product. Grapes are an interesting source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids, non-flavonoids and stilbenes. A potential strategy to exploit unripe grapes was investigated in this study. Juice from unripe grapes, v. Sangiovese, was obtained by an innovative technique of solid-liquid extraction without the use of solvents. The juice was dried by a spray-drying technique with the addition of arabic gum as support to obtain powder; juice and powder were characterized for antioxidant activity, phenolic concentration and profile. Phenolic acids, flavonols, flava-3-ols, procyanidins and resveratrol were detected in the juice and powder. The powder was used as anti-browning additive in white wine to test the potential re-use of the unripe grapes in the wine industry. The results indicated that the antioxidant complex from unripe grapes contributed to increasing the anti-browning capacity of white wine. Other applications, such as food and nutraceutical products development, can be considered for the antioxidant complex extracted from unripe grapes. In conclusion, the method proposed in this study may contribute to the exploitation of unripe grapes as a by-product of the winemaking process.

  4. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C; Kitts, D D

    2005-08-01

    Flavonoids and coumaric acid derivatives were identified from dandelion flower (Taraxacum officinale). Characteristics of chain-breaking antioxidants, such as extended lag phase and reduced propagation rate, were observed in oxidation of linoleic acid emulsion with the addition of dandelion flower extract (DFE). DFE suppressed both superoxide and hydroxyl radical, while the latter was further distinguished by both site-specific and non-specific hydroxyl radical inhibition. DPPH-radical-scavenging activity and a synergistic effect with alpha-tocopherol were attributed to the reducing activity derived from phenolic content of DFE. A significant (p < 0.05) and concentration-dependent, reduced nitric oxide production from acterial-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells was observed with the addition of DFE. Moreover, peroxyl-radical-induced intracellular oxidation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited significantly (p < 0.05) by the addition of DFE over a range of concentrations. These results showed that the DFE possessed marked antioxidant activity in both biological and chemical models. Furthermore, the efficacy of DFE in inhibiting both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were attributed to its phenolic content.

  5. Suppressive effects of a water extract of Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) on collagen-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Seung-Duk; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kil, Sang-Yong; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2005-02-10

    Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) has long been known to have anti-inflammatory and protective effects on damaged tissue, inflammation and bone resorption. Therefore, this study was undertaken to address (1) whether the water extract of the bark of Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) can modulate the expression of inducible inflammatory cytokines in mice; (2) in order to assess the therapeutic effects of UD in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. DBA/1 mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen. After a second collagen immunization, mice were treated with UD orally at 100mg/kg once a day for 3 weeks. Paws were evaluated macroscopically for redness, swelling and deformities. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the ankle were examined. The severity of arthritis within the knee joints was evaluated by histological assessment of cartilage destruction and pannus formation. Administration of UD significantly suppressed the progression of CIA and inhibited the production of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in the paws. The erosion of cartilage was dramatically reduced in mouse knees after treatment with UD. In the serum of UD-treated mice, the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, anti-inflammatory cytokines, were increased. From the results, it was concluded that administration of UD has therapeutic effects on CIA including protection of cartilage and RA for a potential therapy.

  6. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L. cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Sofiman, Othman Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay. Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg/kg. Onions (A. cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark. Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals’ scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards. Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA, but worse than BHT. The extract alone, as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division, and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05). However, cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed. The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A. cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract. The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent. PMID:22042656

  7. Starting from grape cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, A

    1992-06-01

    Rapid population growth can only be stopped by lowering the fertility rate. The UNFPA recommends improving the employment opportunities for women as the single best way of achieving this reduction. An example of this phenomenon is the grape cultivation in the Nordeste (Northeastern) region of Brazil. This area is the poorest part of Brazil and has the highest proportion of indigent people. These people have been deforesting the Amazon in search of a better life. What they have done is sterilize the land and turned a tropical rain forest into a desert. In an effort to reverse this trend, grape cultivation has been introduced in an area called Petrolina. The area is very dry with less than 500 mm of precipitation annually. They do have access to a 5000 square kilometer artificial lake (the largest in the world) and the 3rd largest river in Brazil (the Sao Francisco). In an effort to avoid using agricultural medicines, the vines are fertilized with organic matter created on the farm and little or no pesticides are used since pests do not live in such an arid region. It has taken 20 years of trial and error, but the quality of the grapes is now very high and is competitive on the world market. Because of climate and location, harvesting is done year round which increases the productivity of the land. The farm managers have found that married women make the best workers and have the highest level of productivity. Age at 1st marriage averages 24-25, compared with 15-16 for unemployed women in the same area. The fertility rate averages 50% of that for unemployed women in the same area. Agricultural development offers the best opportunity for the women of developing countries. It can pay a high wage, reduce fertility, and replant desert areas.

  8. Evaluation of Fertility Disrupting Potentials of Abrus precatorius Seed Extracts in Male Rats for Arresting Spermatogenesis and Suppressed Fertility In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranika Talukder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the contraceptive potentials of different chemical extracts of Abrus precatorius seeds in male albino rats. The active ingredients of crushed seeds were extracted with 60% aqueous acetone and then partitioned consecutively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Water suspended chemical fractions at different doses were administered orally to the male rats for 40 days. Effects of different treatments on various male reproductive endpoints and contraceptive efficacy were evaluated. Oral administration of both organic (methanol soluble at 50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous soluble of A. precatorius seed extracts caused infertility in study subjects at varying degrees. At necropsy, average weights of testes, epididymis, ventral prostate gland and seminal vesicles were decreased significantly. Histology of testes revealed marked atrophy of the seminiferous tubules characterized by disruption of the germinal epithelium and atrophy of the Leydig cells. Epididymis also showed histological alterations. Hormonal assay revealed a significant decrease in serum level of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH that possibly resulted in suppressed spermatogenesis of male rats. These effects lead to the reduction of pregnancy rate of untreated fertile female rats while mated with the methanol extract (50 and 75 mg/kg BW and aqueous extract-treated male rats. The results show that A. precatorius seed extract causes suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility, thereby suggesting the potential of this plant in the regulation of male fertility.

  9. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Different Grape (V. vinifera, V. labrusca, and V. hybrid) Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Kim, S. H.; Ko, Eun Young; Park, Se Won

    2013-01-01

    The polyphenolic contents and the antioxidant activity of the skins and pulps of different grape cultivars were estimated using HPLC and DPPH antioxidant assay, respectively. The phenolics and flavonoids identified were quercetin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, and (−)-epicatechin. The total phenolic contents were found to be the highest in the grape skin of Flouxa (>400 mg/100 g), followed by Campbell Early and Tamnara (>300 mg/100 g), and then by Red Globe and Ruby Seedless (>250 mg/100 g), and the total phenolic content was the lowest in Italia and Delaware (grape extracts varied from 12.5% (Ruby Seedless) to 60.2% (Hongiseul) for skins, whereas the antioxidant activities of the grape extracts varied from 35.4% (Campbell Early) to 84.5% (Hongiseul) for pulps. The grape pulps have stronger antioxidant activities than those of the grape skins. Our results suggest that the phenolic and flavonoid contents in extracts of grape skins and pulps showed statistically significant correlations with the free radical scavenging activity. PMID:24027762

  10. Concord grape pomace polyphenols complexed to soy protein isolate are stable and hypoglycemic in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E; Kuhn, Peter; Krueger, Christian G; Moskal, Kristin; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-11-27

    Polyphenols extracted from Concord grape pomace were stabilized by complexation to soy protein isolate (SPI) to produce grape polyphenol-SPI complex (GP-SPI) containing 5% or 10% grape polyphenols. LC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis showed that a broad range of phytochemicals were present in the grape pomace extract. Anthocyanins and total polyphenols in the GP-SPI complex were stable after a 16-week incubation at 37 °C but were reduced by up 60% in dried grape pomace extract. Compared to vehicle (236 ± 34 mg/dL), a single dose of 300 mg/kg GP-SPI (184 ± 32 mg/dL) or 500 mg/kg GP-SPI (177 ± 28 mg/dL) having 5% grape polyphenols significantly lowered blood glucose in obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice 6 h after administration. GP-SPI allows the capture of grape pomace polyphenols in a protein-rich food matrix and may be useful as a functional food ingredient for the management of blood glucose levels.

  11. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei-Golmisheh

    2015-07-01

    Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P

  12. Composição centesimal do fruto, extrato concentrado e da farinha da uva-do-japão Chemical composition of fruit, concentrated extract and flour from "Japanese grape"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Bampi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Hovenia dulcis, mais conhecida como uva-do-japão, pertence à família Rhamnaceae, é natural da China, Japão e Coréia, sendo largamente difundida no sul do Brasil. Rica em açúcares e bem aceita para consumo humano, pode ser consumida in natura ou processada. Não há na literatura relatos de seu aproveitamento em produtos alimentícios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a composição centesimal do fruto, do extrato concentrado e da farinha. Foram obtidos teores em torno de 54,08, 52,44 e 19,08g 100g-1 para umidade; 2,16, 4,09 e 4,48g 100g-1 para cinzas; 3,74, 2,77 e 5,73g 100g-1 para proteína bruta; 1,42, 0,37 e 1,82g 100g-1 para extrato etéreo; 12,56, 3,33 e 25,62g 100g-1 para fibra alimentar; 19,46, 37,34 e 42,53g 100g-1 para açúcares totais, além do valor calórico de 105,56, 165,14 e 216,09kcal 100g-1, respectivamente, em fruto, extrato concentrado e farinha. A quantificação por cromatografia líquida confirmou o conteúdo dos açúcares redutores (frutose, 6,15g 100g-1 e glicose, 6,57g 100g-1 superior ao teor de açúcares não redutores no fruto (sacarose, 3,56g 100g-1. A farinha é rica em açúcares e possui elevado teor de fibra alimentar, podendo ser utilizada como um ingrediente alternativo em produtos de panificação. Em termos sensoriais, o extrato concentrado obteve um índice de aceitabilidade de 82% entre os julgadores, apresentando bom potencial para elaboração de geleias.Hovenia dulcis, whose popular name is Japanese grape, belongs to the family Rhamnaceae, native of China, Japan and Korea, is widely distributed in southern Brazil. Rich in sugar and with good acceptance for human consumption it can be consumed fresh or processed. There are no literature reports of its use in food products. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the Japanese grape fruit, concentrated extract and flour. The contents for moisture (54.08, 52.44 e 19.08g 100g-1, ash (2.16, 4.09 e 4.48g

  13. Optimisation of techniques for quantification of Botrytis cinerea in grape berries and receptacles by quantitative polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to Botrytis cinerea infection of grape berries have identified limitations to current techniques. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two grinding methods, two grape or...

  14. Antitumor and antimetastatic activities of grape skin polyphenols in a murine model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Chen, Q Y; Wu, L J; Yao, X M; Sun, X J

    2012-10-01

    Treatment modalities are not effective once breast cancer metastasis has occurred. Dietary botanicals may have a better protective effect. We therefore investigated the effects of grape skin polyphenols on a highly metastatic mouse mammary carcinoma cell line. In vitro treatment of 4T1 cells, with grape skin polyphenols resulted in inhibition of the migration and viability in a dose-dependent manner. The migration of 4T1 cells was significantly inhibited by grape skin polyphenols, even at a very low concentration (5 μg/ml), and was totally inhibited when the concentration was 20 μg/ml. However, 20 μg/ml of grape skin polyphenols inhibited cell viability by only 11.4%. The inhibition of migration is independent of decreased cell viability or apoptosis induction. Further analysis indicated that the inhibition of migration by grape skin polyphenols is involved in blocking the PI3k/Akt and MAPK pathways. The effects of dietary grape skin polyphenols were then examined using an in vivo model in which 4T1 cells were implanted subcutaneously in Balb/c mice. The metastasis of tumor cells to the lungs was inhibited significantly by dietary grape skin extracts (0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml in drinking water) and the survival of the mice enhanced. These data suggest that grape skin polyphenols possess chemotherapeutic efficacy against breast cancer with metastases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  16. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Materials and Methods: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (PHawthorn’s extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Conclusion: Data suggested that hawthorn’s extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat. PMID:26361538

  17. Recent Applications of Mass Spectrometry in the Study of Grape and Wine Polyphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Flamini, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols are the principal compounds associated with health benefic effects of wine consumption and in general are characterized by antioxidant activities. Mass spectrometry is shown to play a very important role in the research of polyphenols in grape and wine and for the quality control of products. The soft ionization of LC/MS makes these techniques suitable to study the structures of polyphenols and anthocyanins in grape extracts and to characterize polyphenolic derivatives formed in w...

  18. The butanol fraction of guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) leaf extract suppresses MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity through the suppression of the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Inhwan; Park, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Sung-Moo; Kim, Chulwon; Park, Jeong Ha; Nam, Dongwoo; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kyoo Seok; Mosaddik, Ashik; Sethi, Gautam; Cho, Somi K; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2012-01-01

    The leaf extract of guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes in East Asia and other countries. Recently, the leaf extract has been employed in the therapy of cancer, bacterial infections, and inflammation in experimental models. However, the exact mechanisms of how guava leaf extract inhibits tumor metastasis and invasion are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated in detail the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the potential antimetastatic and antiinvasive effects of the butanol fraction of guava leaf extract (GBF). Interestingly, we observed for the first time that GBF suppressed both matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 expression and activity in part through the downregulation of the ERK1/2 activation in lung cancer cells. Also, importantly, the major components of the GBF were identified as d-glucuronic acid, quercetin 3-glucuronide, loganin, and xanthyletin by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Collectively, our data indicate that the guava leaf could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells and therefore suggest that it could be advantageously used to control the metastatic process.

  19. Determination of fungicide pyrimethanil in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; López-Alonso, Miguel; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa

    2013-06-01

    This study determined the evolution of pyrimethanil, a fungicide commonly used to control Botrytis cinerea, throughout the winemaking process in grapes, must, fermenting must and wine. Tempranillo grapevines were treated with pyrimethanil according to both good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Critical Agricultural Practices (CAP). Fermentation was carried out in an experimental winery. Grape analysis was based on an ethyl acetate extraction method. Samples from fermentation were analysed by solid phase extraction. The determination was carried out by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and additionally confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Pyrimethanil residues were at least ten times greater in grapes treated 7 days before harvest than in those treated respecting the safety period (21 days). The amount of pyrimethanil in grapes treated under GAP was below the maximum residue limit (5 mg kg(-1)). The level of pyrimethanil decreased during fermentation in both treatments. In the fermentation of grapes treated according to CAP, the pyrimethanil concentration was reduced by over 50% on the first day and then remained constant until the end of the fermentation process. For grapes treated in compliance with GAP, the amount of pyrimethanil decreased to a level below the limit of detection in the bottled wine. The described methods for grapes, must, fermenting must and wine gave good recoveries, linearity, precision and accuracy. They were also highly sensitive in avoiding matrix effects. Pyrimethanil residues found in treated grapes were higher in skin than in pulp. The amount of pyrimethanil decreased during fermentation by degradation and/or adsorption. For grapes treated according to GAP, residues disappeared in the final bottled wine. The decrease observed in the final bottled wine may be caused by diverse oenological practices and technologies such us malolactic fermentation, racking and settling. © 2012 Society of

  20. Immuno-suppressive effects of aqueous extract of soapnut Sapindus emarginatus on the larvae and pupae of vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Mullainadhan, Periasamy; Arumugam, Munusamy

    2013-06-01

    We recently reported the presence of potent anti-mosquito activity in aqueous kernel extract of the soapnut, Sapindus emarginatus, and demonstrated its impact on marker enzymes in larvae and pupae of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti. As a sequel to these findings, the present study elucidates immunotoxicity of this extract with respect to hemocyte-mediated cellular immune responses in fourth instar larvae and pupae as well as cuticular melanization reaction in the larvae of A. aegypti. The exposure of these two developmental stages of the mosquito to the soapnut extract at a lethal threshold concentration neither affected hemocyte viability tested up to 3h in vitro nor did it influence the hemocyte count. By contrast, exposure of the mosquito larvae and pupae to this extract significantly reduced the ability of their hemocytes to bind yeast cells, an important early event in the process of non-self recognition by immune cells. Consequently, the phagocytic activity of these hemocytes against yeast cells was also found to be adversely affected upon exposure of larvae and pupae to the extract. Besides, a perceptible initial delay in melanization reaction at the injured site of the cuticle in the extract-exposed larvae was observed. All these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the immuno-suppressive potential of a botanical biocide in the vector mosquito. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of odor-active compounds in grapes and wines from vitis vinifera and non-foxy American grape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qun; Gates, Matthew J; Lavin, Edward H; Acree, Terry E; Sacks, Gavin L

    2011-10-12

    Native American grape (Vitis) species have many desirable properties for winegrape breeding, but hybrids of these non-vinifera wild grapes with Vitis vinifera often have undesirable aromas. Other than the foxy-smelling compounds in Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia , the aromas inherent to American Vitis species are not well characterized. In this paper, the key odorants in wine produced from the American grape species Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea were characterized in comparison to wine produced from European winegrapes (V. vinifera). Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). On the basis of flavor dilution values, most grape-derived compounds with fruity and floral aromas were at similar potency, but non-vinifera wines had higher concentrations of odorants with vegetative and earthy aromas: eugenol, cis-3-hexenol, 1,8-cineole, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IPMP). Elevated concentrations of these compounds in non-vinifera wines were confirmed by quantitative GC-MS. Concentrations of IBMP and IPMP were well above sensory threshold in both non-vinifera wines. In a follow-up study, IBMP and IPMP were surveyed in 31 accessions of V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. cinerea. Some accessions had concentrations of >350 pg/g IBMP or >30 pg/g IPMP, well above concentrations reported in previous studies of harvest-ripe vinifera grapes. Methyl anthranilate and 2-aminoacetophenone, key odorants responsible for the foxiness of V. labrusca grapes, were undetectable in both the V. riparia and V. cinerea wines (<10 μg/L).

  2. Polyphenol, antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of six different white and red wine grape processing leftovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt, Kajetan; Klančnik, Anja; Mozetič Vodopivec, Branka; Sternad Lemut, Melita; Jug Novšak, Katja; Raspor, Peter; Smole Možina, Sonja

    2016-11-01

    During winemaking, grape polyphenols are only partly extracted, and consequently unexploited. The main aim was to characterize the phenolic content of freeze-dried grape skin and seed (FDSS) extracts obtained from Slovenian and international grape varieties and to evaluate their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities. FDSS of six Vitis vinifera L. grapevine cultivars from Vipava Valley region (Slovenia) underwent extraction and sonification under different conditions. Flavonols were the predominant content of extracts from white 'Zelen' and 'Sauvignon Blanc' grape varieties, with strong antimicrobial activities against Gram-negative bacteria. 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol extraction produced a high phenolic content in the final extract, which was further associated with strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against all tested bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces with minimal and maximal surface roughness was significantly inhibited (up to 60%) across a wide FDSS concentration range, with lower concentrations also effective with two types of stainless steel surfaces. FDSS extracts from winery by-products show interesting phenolic profiles that include flavonols, catechins, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids, with yields influenced by grapevine cultivar and extraction conditions. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-adhesive activities of 50% aqueous ethanol 'Pinot Noir' FDSS extract reveals potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries for these bioactive residues. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Microbial terroir for wine grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; van der Lelie, D.; Zarraonaindia, I.

    2013-12-05

    The viticulture industry has been selectively growing vine cultivars with different traits (grape size, shape, color, flavor, yield of fruit, and so forth) for millennia, and small variations in soil composition, water management, climate, and the aspect of vineyards have long been associated with shifts in these traits. As such, many different clonal varieties of vines exist, even within given grape varieties, such as merlot, pinot noir, and chardonnay. The commensal microbial flora that coexists with the plant may be one of the key factors that influence these traits. To date, the role of microbes has been largely ignored, outside of microbial pathogens, mainly because the technologies did not exist to allow us to look in any real depth or breadth at the community structure of the multitudes of bacterial and fungal species associated with each plant. In PNAS, Bokulich et al. (1) used next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer ribosomal sequence to determine the relative abundances of bacteria and fungi, respectively, from grape must (freshly pressed grape juice, containing the skins and seeds) from plants in eight vineyards representing four of the major wine growing regions in California. The authors show that the microbiomes (bacterial and fungal taxonomic structure) associated with this early fermentation stage show defined biogeography, illustrating that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities, with some influences from the grape variety and the year of production.

  4. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-07-01

    The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the hypercholesterolemia-increased serum level of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. Hawthorn's extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Data suggested that hawthorn's extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat.

  5. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  6. Sustainable wineries through waste valorisation: A review of grape marc utilisation for value-added products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlack, Richard A; Potumarthi, Ravichandra; Jeffery, David W

    2018-02-01

    Grapes are one of the most cultivated fruits worldwide, with one third of total production used in winemaking. Both red and white winemaking processes result in substantial quantities of solid organic waste, such as grape marc (pomace) and stalks, which requires suitable disposal. Grape marc accounts for approximately 10-30% of the mass of grapes crushed and contains unfermented sugars, alcohol, polyphenols, tannins, pigments, and other valuable products. Being a natural plant product rich in lignocellulosic compounds, grape marc is also a promising feedstock for renewable energy production. However, despite grape marc having such potential, advanced technologies to exploit this have not been widely adopted in wineries and allied industries. This review covers opportunities beyond traditional composting and animal feed, and examines value-added uses via the extraction of useful components from grape marc, as well as thermochemical and biological treatments for energy recovery, fuel or beverage alcohol production, and specialty novel products and applications such as biosurfactants and environmental remediation. New advances in relevant technology for each of these processes are discussed, and future directions proposed at both individual producer and regional facility scales, including advanced processing techniques for integrated ethanol production followed by bioenergy generation from the spent marc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba N. Rajha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 (642 samples. Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2 and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93. Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures(up to 25◦Caccompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value, induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production.

  8. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The terroir characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons.

  9. Fermentation-Guided Natural Products Isolation of a Grape Berry Triacylglyceride that Enhances Ethyl Ester Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L. Blackford

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A full understanding of the origin, formation and degradation of volatile compounds that contribute to wine aroma is required before wine style can be effectively managed. Fractionation of grapes represents a convenient and robust method to simplify the grape matrix to enhance our understanding of the grape contribution to volatile compound production during yeast fermentation. In this study, acetone extracts of both Riesling and Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries were fractionated and model wines produced by spiking aliquots of these grape fractions into model grape juice must and fermented. Non-targeted SPME-GCMS analyses of the wines showed that several medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters were more abundant in wines made by fermenting model musts spiked with certain fractions. Further fractionation of the non-polar fractions and fermentation of model must after addition of these fractions led to the identification of a mixture of polyunsaturated triacylglycerides that, when added to fermenting model must, increase the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters in wines. Dosage-response fermentation studies with commercially-available trilinolein revealed that the concentration of medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters can be increased by the addition of this triacylglyceride to model musts. This work suggests that grape triacylglycerides can enhance the production of fermentation-derived ethyl esters and show that this fractionation method is effective in segregating precursors or factors involved in altering the concentration of fermentation volatiles.

  10. Quantification of selected aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wines from different grape maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-01

    Effect of grape maturity on aroma-active compounds in Pinot noir wine was investigated using stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (SBSE-GC-MS). High correlation coefficient (> 0.95) and low standard deviation (noir wines with three different grape maturities each were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that both grape maturity and growing year significantly affected the aroma composition of the final wine. Analysis of wine samples from the same vintage indicated that grape maturity could affect aroma compounds in different ways, based on their biochemical formation in the wines. For most short-chain fatty acid esters, there were no obvious trends with grape maturity, however, the concentrations of ethyl 2-methylpropanoate and ethyl 3-methylbutanoate consistently decreased with grape maturity. The decreasing trend was also observed for other esters including ethyl cinnamate, ethyl dihydroxycinnamate, and ethyl anthranilate, with the exception of ethyl vanillate, while C13 norisoprenoids, monoterpenes, and guaiacols had increasing trends with grape maturation.

  11. Bone Response to Dietary Co-Enrichment with Powdered Whole Grape and Probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is a primary modifiable determinant of chronic noncommunicable disease, including osteoporosis. An etiology of osteoporosis is the stimulation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Dietary polyphenols and probiotics demonstrate protective effects on bone that are associated with reduced ROS formation and suppressed osteoclast activity. This study tested the effect of dietary enrichment with powdered whole grape and probiotics (composed of equal parts Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, and L. bulgaricus on bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of age-related osteoporosis. Groups (n = 7 each of 10-month-old male mice were fed one of six diets for 6 months: 10% grape powder with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder; 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 10% grape powder + 1% probiotic with sugar corrected to 20%; 20% grape powder + 1% probiotic; 20% sugar control. Femur, tibia and 4th lumbar vertebrae from 10-month-old mice served as comparator baseline samples. Bone microarchitecture was measured by micro-computed tomography and compared across diet groups using analysis of variance. Aging exerted a significant effect on tibia metaphysis trabecular bone, with baseline 10-month-old mice having significantly higher bone volume/total volume (BV/TV and trabecular number measurements and lower trabecular spacing measurements than all 16-month-old groups (p < 0.001. Neither grape nor probiotic enrichment significantly improved bone microarchitecture during aging compared to control diet. The combination of 20% grape + 1% probiotic exerted detrimental effects on tibia metaphysis BV/TV compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, and trabecular number and trabecular spacing compared to 10% grape + 1% probiotic, 1% probiotic and control groups (p < 0.05. Femur metaphysis trabecular bone displayed less pronounced aging effects than tibia bone, but also showed detrimental effects of the

  12. Contamination of grape seed oil with mineral oil paraffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Fiselier, Katell; Biedermann, Maurus; Ballini, Roberto; Coni, Ettore; Grob, Konrad

    2008-12-10

    The contamination of 11 commercial grape seed oils with paraffins of mineral oil origin was analyzed by online-coupled HPLC-HPLC-GC-FID and ranged from 43 to 247 mg kg(-1). The analysis of the marc and seeds indicated that the contamination is primarily from the peels. Since superficial extraction of the seeds with hexane removed most of the mineral paraffins, the contamination of the seeds is largely on the surface, perhaps transferred from the peels during storage of the marc. Mechanical purification of the seeds combined with washing with hexane reduced the contamination of the oil by a factor of about 10. The refining process removed 30% of the mineral paraffins, primarily the more volatile components. Oil obtained from the seeds of fresh grapes, including grapes not having undergone any phytochemical treatment, contained clearly less mineral paraffins (up to 14 mg kg(-1)), and the peels were less contaminated, suggesting an environmental background contamination. To this an additional contamination might be added by a treatment of the grapes used for wine making.

  13. Extraction of high quality of RNA and construction of a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library from chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Wen, Xiaopeng; Tao, Nengguo; Hu, Zhiyong; Yue, Hailin; Deng, Xiuxin

    2006-04-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a rare fruit crop of promising economical importance in fruit and ornamental exploitation in China. Isolation of high quality RNA from chestnut rose is difficult due to its high levels of polyphenols, polysaccharides and other compounds, but a modified CTAB extraction procedure without phenol gave satisfactory results. High concentrations of PVP (2%, w/v), CTAB (2%, w/v) and beta-mercaptoethanol (4%, v/v) were used in the extraction buffer to improve RNA quality. The average yield was about 200 microg RNA g(-1) fresh leaves. The isolated RNA was of sufficient quality for construction of suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) library, which allowed the isolation of several pathogen-induced defense genes.

  14. The inhibitory effect of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on ultraviolet B-induced pigmentation via the suppression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Akira; Kobayashi, Akemi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2001-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been reported to be expressed in human epidermis at both the gene and protein levels. ET-1 plays a pivotal role in ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced pigmentation due to its accentuated secretion after UVB irradiation and its function as a mitogen and as a melanogen for human melanocytes. We have recently found that endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-1α plays a constitutive role in the secretion of ET-1 by human keratinocytes and that an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibits ECE activity in human endothelial cells, which predominantly express ECE-1α. In this report, to clarify the potential use of this botanical extract as a whitening agent, we examined whether this extract inhibits UVB-induced pigmentation in vivo. When this extract was applied to human keratinocytes after UVB irradiation, secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced, and this was accompanied by a concomitant increase in the secretion of inactive precursor Big endothelin-1. When hairless mice were exposed to UVB light and were treated with the extract, it suppressed the induction of ET-1 in the UVB-irradiated epidermis. In the course of UVB-induced pigmentation of brownish guinea pig skin, this extract significantly diminished pigmentation in UVB-exposed areas. These findings indicate that ECE-1α in keratinocytes plays a pivotal role in the induction of pigmentation following UVB irradiation and that an extract of S. officinalis, which inhibits ET-1 production in human keratinocytes, is a good ingredient for a whitening agent. (author)

  15. Neuroprotective effects of anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich extracts in cellular models of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathearn, Katherine E.; Yousef, Gad G.; Grace, Mary H.; Roy, Susan L.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Wu, Qing-Li; Simon, James E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Rochet, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathological evidence indicates that dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD) involves impairment of mitochondrial complex I, oxidative stress, microglial activation, and the formation of Lewy bodies. Epidemiological findings suggest that the consumption of berries rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins may reduce PD risk. In this study, we investigated whether extracts rich in anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, or other polyphenols suppress the neurotoxic effects of rotenone in a primary cell culture model of PD. Dopaminergic cell death elicited by rotenone was suppressed by extracts prepared from blueberries, grape seed, hibiscus, blackcurrant, and Chinese mulberry. Extracts rich in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins exhibited greater neuroprotective activity than extracts rich in other polyphenols, and a number of individual anthocyanins interfered with rotenone neurotoxicity. The blueberry and grape seed extracts rescued rotenone-induced defects in mitochondrial respiration in a dopaminergic cell line, and a purple basal extract attenuated nitrite release from microglial cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. These findings suggest that anthocyanin- and proanthocyanidin-rich botanical extracts may alleviate neurodegeneration in PD via enhancement of mitochondrial function. PMID:24502982

  16. Evaluation of grape pomace from red wine by-product as feed for sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rivas, Cristina; Gallardo, Beatriz; Mantecón, Ángel R; Del Álamo-Sanza, María; Manso, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    This work aimed to study the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of seeds and pulp from grape pomace. In sacco degradability, ruminal fermentation of grape pomace fractions and plasma lipid peroxidation were also studied in sheep fed with or without grape pomace. Seed and pulp fractions of grape pomace had different values for cell walls (523 vs 243 g kg -1 dry matter (DM)), crude protein (CP, 104 vs 138 g kg -1 DM), ether extract (EE, 99.0 vs 31.7 g kg -1 DM), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, 69.6 vs 53.3%) and extractable polyphenols (55.0 vs 32.1 g kg -1 DM). The in vitro true digestibility, DM in sacco degradability and CP degradability of seeds and pulp were also different (0.51 vs 0.82, 0.30 vs 0.45 and 0.66 vs 0.39 respectively). The ammonia-N concentration and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in ruminal liquid were significantly lower and plasma lipid peroxidation was also numerically lower in sheep that consumed grape pomace. The nutritive value of grape pomace varies depending on the proportion of seeds and pulp. The interest of this by-product in sheep feeding could be related to its polyphenol and PUFA content, which could improve meat and milk quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Determination of the polyphenol contents in Macedonian grapes and wines by standardized spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA IVANOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines and grapes contain a large array of phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the polyphenolic contents of six commercial red and white Macedonian wines and four grape varieties. Spectrophotometric methods were applied for the determination of the total phenolics, the total flavonoids, the total anthocyanins and the total catechins. The efficiency of acetone/water (80/20 and methanol/water (80/20 solutions for the extraction of polyphenols from grape pulp, seeds and skins were compared. The best extraction efficiency was achieved using acetone/water. The obtained results showed that Macedonian grapes are rich in polyphenols, whereby the highest concentration of total phenolics was found for Vranec grapes. The analyzed wines contained high contents of polyphenol; the highest contents were found for Disan wine produced from the Vranec variety of grapes (1515 mg/L total phenolics, 1103 mg/L total flavonoids, 237 mg/L total anthocyanins and 845 mg/L total catechins. Principal component analysis was employed to check possible groupings of the studied red and white wine samples. A clear separation of white wines from red ones was observed.

  18. Use of grape polyphenols for promoting human health: a review of patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollücke, Andréa P B; Ribeiro, Daniel A

    2012-04-01

    We presently discuss the use of grape polyphenols for promoting human health and disclose recent patents on the subject. The biological effects of grape polyphenols in human and experimental models demonstrate antioxidant properties closely associated with the maintenance of endothelial function, increase in antioxidant capacity, protection against LDL oxidation and neuroprotective effects. Recent patents regarding grape polyphenols show a tendency to return to natural products with a minimum use of severe extraction processes and organic solvents. Moreover, the recent patents regarding human health show more pharmaceutical use of grape juice and other polyphenol-rich products. The application of such products in clinical trials as a substitute or co-adjuvant with drugs may be useful in future research.

  19. Profiling the Hydrolysis of Isolated Grape Berry Skin Cell Walls by Purified Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-09-23

    The unraveling of crushed grapes by maceration enzymes during winemaking is difficult to study because of the complex and rather undefined nature of both the substrate and the enzyme preparations. In this study we simplified both the substrate, by using isolated grape skin cell walls, and the enzyme preparations, by using purified enzymes in buffered conditions, to carefully follow the impact of the individual and combined enzymes on the grape skin cell walls. By using cell wall profiling techniques we could monitor the compositional changes in the grape cell wall polymers due to enzyme activity. Extensive enzymatic hydrolysis, achieved with a preparation of pectinases or pectinases combined with cellulase or hemicellulase enzymes, completely removed or drastically reduced levels of pectin polymers, whereas less extensive hydrolysis only opened up the cell wall structure and allowed extraction of polymers from within the cell wall layers. Synergistic enzyme activity was detectable as well as indications of specific cell wall polymer associations.

  20. Using gamma irradiation for the recovery of anthocyanins from grape pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, N.; Yu, H.-L.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    This research investigated the effect of gamma irradiation from 0 to 9 kGy, packaging in air or under vacuum, or in combination with other treatments for enhancing anthocyanin extraction from grape pomace. Results indicate that the irradiation at 6 kGy and packaging in the presence of a low concentration of sodium metabisulfite yielded the highest value of anthocyanin extraction. (author)

  1. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy); Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto [PerfectWine s.r.l., Via della Pieve 70, 37029 S. Floriano (Italy); Biasioli, Franco [Department of Food Quality and Nutrition, Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach (FEM), Via E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige (Italy); Scampicchio, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.scampicchio@unibz.it [Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Faculty of Science and Technology, piazza Università 1, 39100 Bolzano (Italy)

    2016-04-20

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  2. Microcalorimetric monitoring of grape withering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Ksenia; Romano, Andrea; Lonardi, Francesco; Ferrarini, Roberto; Biasioli, Franco; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Microcalorimetry was applied to monitor grape withering. • Heat flow was used to estimate rate of respiration. • Calorimetry was coupled with analysis of volatile compounds. • Data analysis showed three steps of withering. - Abstract: This work aimed at monitoring the metabolic activity of grapes during withering by microcalorimetry. Samples of Corvina grapes, a cultivar used in the production of Amarone wine, were dehydrated for about 120 days at an industrial scale plants (fruttaia). Single berries, sampled in the course of the withering process, were closed in ampoules and maintained at constant temperature. As biochemical events (i.e. berry respiration, microbial growth, etc.) are always accompanied by the production of heat (q), the heat-flow (dq/dt) emitted by berries enclosed in the ampoules was used to monitor their metabolic activity during withering, i.e. respiration. For each sampling time, the heat rate production of the berries at 298 K was monitored till a steady state signal was achieved (within 60 h). Such heat flow value was used as marker during the entire withering process (120 days). Its trend allowed to characterize the changes in the metabolic activity of the grape berries along the withering process. To understand the origin of such changes, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The use of microcalorimetry associated with the analysis of specific VOCs fragments offered a valuable information to describe the withering process.

  3. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tančinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine, and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates. In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae, were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1, isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

  4. Ginger Extract Suppresses Inflammatory Response and Maintains Barrier Function in Human Colonic Epithelial Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Inflammatory Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunyoung; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2017-05-01

    The beneficial effects of ginger in the management of gastrointestinal disturbances have been reported. In this study, the anti-inflammatory potential of ginger extract was assessed in a cellular model of gut inflammation. In addition, the effects of ginger extract and its major active compounds on intestinal barrier function were evaluated. The response of Caco-2 cells following exposure to a mixture of inflammatory mediators [interleukin [IL]-1β, 25 ng/mL; lipopolysaccharides [LPS], 10 ng/mL; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, 50 ng/mL; and interferon [INF]-γ, 50 ng/mL] were assessed by measuring the levels of secreted IL-6 and IL-8. In addition, the mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were measured. Moreover, the degree of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibition was examined, and the intestinal barrier function was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran transfer. It was observed that ginger extract and its constituents improved inflammatory responses by decreasing the levels of nitrite, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 via NF-κB inhibition. The ginger extract also increased the TEER and decreased the transfer of FITC-dextran from the apical side of the epithelium to the basolateral side. Taken together, these results show that ginger extract may be developed as a functional food for the maintenance of gastrointestinal health. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Enzymatic modifications of grape skin phenolics A new look at wine maceration ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Arnous, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are decisive for the colour and sensory properties of wines. Especially in the making of red wines, the optimal retrieval of phenolics from the grape skins is crucial for obtaining wines having optimal colour, flavour, and mouth feel properties. Exogenous enzymes are widely used...... during the wine grape maceration to obtain high juice yield and initial extraction of flavour components, and in the case of red wines for obtaining better initial extraction of colour. Until now, this maceration has mainly been considered as an extraction step. Recent data have shown that significant...... changes of the phenolics may occur via enzyme catalyzed reactions already during the maceration. These recent findings provide a new base for understanding and promoting phenolic conversions during wine making, and may lead to new enzymatic maceration strategies and novel grape pomace valorisation...

  6. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma Del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of Ochratoxin A contamination in grapes, processed grape products and animal-derived products using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongmei; Wu, Xiaohu; Xu, Jun; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Zheng, Yongquan; Ji, Mingshan

    2018-02-01

    We developed a sensitive and rapid analytical method to determine the level of Ochratoxin A contamination in grapes, processed grape products and in foods of animal origin (a total of 11 different food matrices). A pretreatment that followed a "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe" protocol was optimized to extract Ochratoxin A from the matrices, and the extracted Ochratoxin A was then detected with the use of a highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Good linearities of Ochratoxin A were obtained in the range of 0.1-500 µg L -1 (correlation coefficient (R 2 ) > 0.9994 in each case). Mean recovery from the 11 matrices ranged from 70.3 to 114.7%, with a relative standard deviation ≤19.2%. The method is easy to use and yields reliable results for routine determination of Ochratoxin A in food products of grape and animal origin. In store-purchased foods and foods obtained from the field and wholesale suppliers, the Ochratoxin A concentration ranged from undetectable to 10.14 µg kg -1 , with the more contaminated samples being mainly those of processed grape products. Our results indicate that the necessity for regulation of and supervision during the processing of grape products.

  8. Sequential fractionation of grape seeds into oils, polyphenols, and procyanidins via a single system employing CO2-based fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, Mehdi; Taylor, Larry Thomas

    2004-05-05

    Pure supercritical CO(2) was used to remove >95% of the oil from the grape seeds. Subcritical CO(2) modified with methanol was used for the extraction of monomeric polyphenols, whereas pure methanol was used for the extraction of polyphenolic dimers/trimers and procyanidins from grape seed. At optimum conditions, 40% methanol-modified CO(2) removed >79% of catechin and epicatechin from the grape seed. This extract was light yellow in color, and no higher molecular weight procyanidins were detected. Extraction of the same sample after removal of the oils and polyphenols, but now under enhanced solvent extraction conditions using methanol as a solvent, provided a dark red solution shown via electrospray ionization HPLC-MS to contain a relatively high concentration of procyanidins. The uniqueness of the study is attested to by the use of CO(2)-based fluids and the employment of a single instrumental extraction system.

  9. Locally accumulated extractable compounds in mycorrhizal parts of maize roots suppress the growth of hyphae of glomus intraradices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gryndler, Milan; Hršelová, Hana; Malcová, Radka; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Halada, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, - (2003), s. 125-138 ISSN 0015-5551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : fractions * patassium * root extract Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.057, year: 2003

  10. Antioxidant dietary fibre recovery from Brazilian Pinot noir grape pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Carolina; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Freitas, Suely P; Iacomini, Marcello; Mellinger-Silva, Caroline; Cabral, Lourdes M C

    2016-06-15

    Brazilian grape pomace was extracted in hot water, and a factorial experiment was used to evaluate polysaccharide recovery. The dependent variables were the temperature, particle size and solute:solvent ratio. Polysaccharide yields varied from 3% to 10%, and the highest sugar content was observed when extraction was carried out at 100 °C from finely sized particles (⩽249 μm) in a 1:12 solute:solvent ratio. The monosaccharide composition of extracts obtained from flours were, on average, Rha:Ara:Xyl:Man:Gal:Glc:GalA in a 3:32:2:13:11:20:19 M ratio, with varying Glc:GalA ratios. (13)C NMR and HSQC spectra confirmed the presence of pectic- and glucose-based polysaccharides in the extracts. Phenolic compounds were found after pomace extraction, and catechin, gallic acid and epicatechin were the principal compounds identified. The extracts also had ABTS radical scavenging capacity (from 8.00 to 46.60 mMol Trolox/100 g pomace). These findings indicate that these grape pomace flours are rich in antioxidant dietary fibre and have a potential use as food ingredients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. N-butanol extracts of Morinda citrifolia suppress advanced glycation end products (AGE)-induced inflammatory reactions in endothelial cells through its anti-oxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Isami, Fumiyuki; Abe, Yumi; Sakaguchi, Tatsuya; Higashimoto, Yuichiro; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi

    2017-03-04

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), senescent macroprotein derivatives formed during a normal aging process and acceleratedly under diabetic conditions, play a role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. AGEs cause endothelial cell (EC) damage, an initial trigger for atherosclerosis through the interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We have previously shown that n-butanol extracts of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant belonging to the family Rubiaceae, block the binding of AGEs to RAGE in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of n-butanol extracts of noni on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammatory reactions on AGE-exposed human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with 100 μg/ml AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) or non-glycated BSA in the presence or absence of 670 ng/ml n-butanol extracts of noni for 4 h. Then ROS generation and inflammatory and gene expression in HUVECs were evaluated by dihydroethidium staining and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses, respectively. THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs was measured after 2-day incubation of AGE-BSA or BSA in the presence or absence of 670 ng/ml n-butanol extracts of noni. N-butanol extracts of noni at 670 ng/ml significantly inhibited the AGE-induced ROS generation and RAGE, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expressions in HUVECs. AGEs significantly increased monocytic THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVECs, which was also prevented by 670 ng/ml n-butanol extracts of noni. The present study demonstrated for the first time that N-butanol extracts of noni could suppress the AGE-induced inflammatory reactions in HUVECs through its anti-oxidative properties via blocking of the interaction of AGEs with RAGE. Inhibition of the AGE-RAGE axis by n-butanol extracts of noni may be a novel nutraceutical strategy for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  12. The Influence of Terroir on Phenolic Composition of Red Grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Artem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A rich content of phenolic compounds (anthocyans and tannins is a fundamental technological condition for the obtaining of quality red wines - appreciated by increasing numbers of consumers, aware of the benefic health effects brought about by these biologically active compounds. The biosynthesis of phenols and their accumulation in the grape berries during ripening is influenced by a multitude of factors. In this study we focused on terroir and on the biological potential of the authorized red varieties for wines with controlled denomination of origin in four centres of three well-established viticultural regions: the Hills of Dobrogea, the Hills of Moldova, the Hills of Muntenia and Oltenia. The polyphenolic potential of the grapes was evaluated for the crop of 2015 by the standard Glories method, thus obtaining results for the total polyphenolic potential (ApH1, the extractable anthocyans potential (ApH3,2, the percentage of anthocyans extractability (%AE, the maturity of the seeds (MS and total polyphenols (PT. By classifying the freshly harvested grapes on the basis of their phenolic potential using the statistical method of Principal Component Analysis, the studied varieties are clearly differentiated based on the viticultural terroi

  13. Characterization of esterase activity in the Bianchetta trevigiana grape variety under reducing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomolino G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Giovanna Lomolino, Anna LanteDepartment of Agronomy Food Natural Resources Animals and Environment, Agripolis, Università di Padova Viale dell'Università, Padova, ItalyBackground and methods: While extensive research has been carried out on the enzymes responsible for ester synthesis and hydrolysis by wine strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, grape esterase activity is limited. In this study, the autochthonous grape variety, Bianchetta trevigiana, widespread in the Prosecco wine production area of Treviso, Conegliano, and Asolo, Italy, was characterized according to its esterase activity. Because grape skin is very rich in compounds which impart qualitative characteristics to wine, the study of esterase was carried out on this part of the fruit.Results: During enzyme extraction from grape skin, the presence of the reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, allowed a better protein yield but reduced esterase activity. Further addition of increasing doses of reducing agents to grape skin protein extract, such as of K2S2O5 (used in winemaking and DTT, reduced or inhibited esterase activity. Even though the zymographic profiles of the extracts obtained with and without β-mercaptoethanol were qualitatively equal, the intensity of enzymatic bands, measured by densitometry, was different.Conclusion: The presence of reducing agents affected the activity of grape skin esterase, and given that this enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis and synthesis of esters, which are important compounds responsible for the flavor of wine, addition of reducing agents could affect the aromatic profile of wine.Keywords: esterase, grape, reducing agent, wine

  14. Suppression of thermal and chemical nociception in rats by methanol extract and its sub-fraction from lantana camara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simjee, S.U.; Perveen, H.; Zehra, S.Q.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional use of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) is reported to include anti-nociceptive, antimicrobial, and immunosuppressant activity. To our knowledge no systematic study has been carried out on the anti-nociceptive activity of L. camara. The present study was designed to delineate the analgesic activity of L. camara extract and its fractions to elucidate the traditional belief in the painkilling effects. Experimental models employed were thermal and chemical-induced nociception assays. After initial screening of the methanol extract and its fractions prepared from the aerial parts of the plant, the dose of 50,100 and 200 mg/kg were selected and route of administration was i.p. The test samples were tested against a reference drug indomethacine (i.p. 5 mg/kg). The observations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 120 seconds following the administration of the samples or reference drug. Experiments on naloxone antagonism were conducted to determine involvement of opioid receptors. Compared to concurrent controls, a significant anti-nociceptive activity was observed in methanol extract LC (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.002) and its sub-fractions LCEA-AQ (ED50 50 mg/kg, P < 0.004), LCEA (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.004) and LCEA-PEI (ED50 100 mg/kg, P < 0.005). No apparent acute toxicity was observed in any test groups. The anti-nociceptive activity was not precipitated by naloxone antagonism indicating that these fractions do not act through opioid receptors. The methanol extract and active fractions of Lantana camara possess anti-nociceptive activity. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the mechanism of its action. (author)

  15. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101) Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor- ? B Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Wang, Kuan-Chin; Lu, Dai-Hua; Liou, Houng-Chi; Ma, Yun; Chang, Shao-Han; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effect...

  16. Repeated exposures to roadside particulate matter extracts suppresses pulmonary defense mechanisms, resulting in lipid and protein oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Michal; Porat, Ziv; Rudich, Assaf; Schauer, James J; Rudich, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution in cities and urban canyons can be harmful to the exposed population. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to health effects are not yet elucidated. It is postulated that exposure to repeated, small, environmentally relevant concentrations can affect lung homeostasis. This study examines the impact of repeated exposures to urban PM on mouse lungs with focus on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters. Aqueous extracts from collected urban PM were administered to mice by 5 repeated intra-tracheal instillations (IT). Multiple exposures, led to an increase in cytokine levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and in the blood serum, indicating a systemic reaction. Lung mRNA levels of antioxidant/phase II detoxifying enzymes decreased by exposure to the PM extract, but not when metals were removed by chelation. Finally, disruption of lung tissue oxidant-inflammatory/defense balance was evidenced by increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation. Unlike response to a single IT exposure to the same dose and source of extract, multiple exposures result in lung oxidative damage and a systemic inflammatory reaction. These could be attributed to compromised capacity to activate the protective Nrf2 tissue defense system. It is suggested that water-soluble metals present in urban PM, potentially from break and tire wear, may constitute major drivers of the pulmonary and systemic responses to multiple exposure to urban PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring trans-Resveratrol in Grape Berry Skins During Ripening and in Corresponding Wines by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta I. Geana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans-resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is naturally present in the skin of grapes and therefore is expected to occur in grape products. Recently, there has been a renewal of interest in wine as medical treatment for various disorders. In this study, berry skins of five red grape varieties were analysed at weekly intervals for trans-resveratrol production, during 2012 and 2013 harvest. The obtained wines were also evaluated. Quantification of trans resveratrol in grape skin extracts and wines was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography. Favourable viticultural climate during harvest in 2012 resulted in a higher content of trans-resveratrol. The highest trans-resveratrol content was in Pinot Noir and Feteasca Neagra grape varieties, both in berry skins and wines, while the lowest amounts were identified in Cabernet Sauvignon variety. We can conclude that there was a significant correlation between the content of trans-resveratrol in grape skins and that in the respective wine.

  18. Vermicomposting grape marc yields high quality organic biofertiliser and bioactive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Jorge; Martínez-Cordeiro, Hugo; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2014-12-01

    Grape is the largest fruit crop in the world, and most (80%) of the harvested fruit is used to make wine. The main by-product of the wine industry is called grape marc, which consists of the stalks, skin, pulp and seeds that remain after pressing the grapes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether grape marc could be processed by vermicomposting on an industrial scale to yield both a high-quality organic, polyphenol-free fertiliser and grape seeds (as a source of bioactive polyphenols). Vermicomposting reduced the biomass of grape marc substantially (by 58%), mainly as a result of the loss of volatile solids. After 2 weeks, the process yielded a nutrient-rich, microbiologically active and stabilised peat-like material that was easily separated from the seeds by sieving. Although the polyphenol content of the seeds was considerably reduced, this disadvantage was outweighed by the ease of separation of the seeds. Separation of the seeds also eliminated the polyphenol-associated phytotoxicity from the vermicompost. The seeds still contained useful amounts of polyphenols, which could be directly extracted for use in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The procedure described is effective, simple and economical, and could easily be scaled up for industrial application. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Suppressive effect of an aqueous extract of Diospyros kaki calyx on dust mite extract/2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ju-Hee; Jin, Meiling; Choi, Young-Ae; Jeong, Na-Hee; Park, Jeong-Sook; Shin, Tae-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of individuals worldwide. Therefore, the discovery of drugs for treating AD is an attractive subject and important to human health. Diospyros kaki and Diospyros kaki (D. kaki) folium exert beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. However, the effect of D. kaki calyx on AD remains elusive. The present study evaluated the effects of an aqueous extract of D. kaki calyx (AEDKC) on AD-like skin lesions using mouse and keratinocyte models. We used a mouse AD model by the repeated skin exposure of house dust mite extract [Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)] and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to the ears. In addition, to determine the underlying mechanism of its operation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-activated keratinocytes (HaCaT) were used. Oral administration of AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions, as demonstrated by the reduced ear thickness, serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), DFE-specific IgE, IgG2a, histamine level and inflammatory cell infiltration. AEDKC inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine via downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 in HaCaT cells. On examination of the AD-related factors in vivo and in vitro, it was confirmed that AEDKC decreased AD-like skin lesions. Taken together, the results suggest that AEDKC is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of AD.

  20. Dietary freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea) extract suppresses accumulation of hepatic lipids and increases in serum cholesterol and aminotransferase activities induced by dietary chloretone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chijimatsu, Takeshi; Umeki, Miki; Kobayashi, Satoru; Kataoka, Yutaro; Yamada, Koji; Oda, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ameliorative effect of freshwater clam extract (FCE) on fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone. Furthermore, we examined the effects of major FCE components (fat and protein fractions) to determine the active components in FCE. Chloretone increased serum aminotransferase activities and led to hepatic lipid accumulation. Serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic lipid content were lower in rats fed total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE. Expression of fatty acid synthase and fatty acid desaturase genes was upregulated by chloretone. Total FCE and fat/protein fractions of FCE suppressed the increase in gene expression involved in fatty acid synthesis. Serum cholesterol levels increased twofold upon chloretone exposure. Total FCE or fat/protein fractions of FCE showed hypocholesterolemic effects in rats with hypercholesterolemia induced by chloretone. These suggest that FCE contains at least two active components against fatty liver, hypercholesterolemia, and liver injury in rats exposed to chloretone.

  1. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  2. Hepatic anti-inflammatory effect of hexane extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne: Possible suppression of toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, SungRyul; Chang, Kwang Jin; Sohn, Eunsoo; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan; Pyo, Suhkneung

    2017-08-01

    The hepatic anti-inflammatory potential of hexane extracts of Dioscorea batatas Decne edible part (EDH-1e) and bark (EDH-2b) were investigated in Western-type diet-fed apolipoprotein E null [ApoE (-/-)] mice and HepG2 cells. EDH-1e and EDH-2b suppressed the increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and reduced infiltration of monocytes into liver tissue. The protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were also downregulated by EDH-1e and EDH-2b treatment as were the levels of activator protein 1 (AP-1), c-fos, and c-jun in the livers from Western-type diet-fed ApoE (-/-) mice and in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HepG2 cells. Taken together, EDH-1e and EDH-2b attenuated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis via suppression of the TLR4-AP1-mediated signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song-Tay; Lu, Min-Hua; Chien, Lan-Hsiang; Wu, Ting-Feng; Huang, Li-Chien; Liao, Gwo-Ing

    2013-12-21

    Pomegranate possesses many medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor. It has been extensively used as a folk medicine by many cultures. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to have the inhibitory efficacy against prostate cancer and lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It can be exploited in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study we examined the anti-cancer efficacy of pomegranate fruit grown in Taiwan against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and its mechanism of action. Edible portion of Taiwanese pomegranate was extracted using ethanol and the anti-cancer effectiveness of ethanol extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry and western immunoblotting were exploited to uncover the molecular pathways underlying anti-UBUC activity of Taiwanese pomegranate ethanol extract. This study demonstrated that Taiwanese pomegranate fruit ethanol extract (PEE) could effectively restrict the proliferation of UBUC T24 and J82 cells. Cell cycle analyses indicated that the S phase arrest induced by PEE treatment might be caused by an increase in cyclin A protein level and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The results of western immunoblotting demonstrated that PEE treatment could not only evoke the activation of pro-caspase-3, -8,-9 but also increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in T24 cells. The above observations implicated that PEE administration might trigger the apoptosis in T24 cells through death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. Besides we found that PEE exposure to T24 cells could provoke intensive activation of procaspase-12 and enhance the expressions of CHOP and Bip, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, suggesting that ER stress might be the cardinal apoptotic mechanism of PEE-induced inhibition of bladder cancer cell. The analytical results of this study help to provide insight into the molecular mechanism

  4. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  5. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  6. Suppression of proliferation and oxidative stress by extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in the ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tze-Chen; Wu, Joseph M

    2011-12-01

    Lingzhi (LZ) is a medical mushroom also known as Ganoderma lucidum, which has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for more than 4,000 years and moreover, due to its presumed health benefits and apparent absence of side-effects it has also been widely consumed as a dietary supplement by cancer patients and by individuals diagnosed with various chronic diseases. The reported benefits of Ganoderma lucidum may be largely ascribed to its biologically active constituent polysaccharides and triterpenes known as ganoderic acids having structural similarity to steroid hormones. Laboratory studies have shown that Ganoderma lucidum enhances immune functions and also inhibits growth of various cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism by which Ganoderma lucidum exerts its chemopreventive activities remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Ganoderma lucidum elicits its anti-tumor effects by suppressing cell growth and inducing antioxidative/detoxification activity in human ovarian OVCAR-3 cells. The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits cell growth and disruption of cell cycle progression via down regulation of cyclin D1. Chemopreventive activities elicited by Ganoderma lucidum were demonstrated by the induction of antioxidant SOD and catalase as well as the phase II detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) via the Nrf2 mediated signaling pathway known to provide chemoprotection against carcinogenicity. These findings indicate that Ganoderma lucidum possesses chemopreventive potential contributing to its overall health effects and further suggest that Ganoderma lucidum may have clinical applications as an adjunct supplementary agent in chemotherapy.

  7. ENDOGENAL COLONIZATION OF GRAPES BERRIES

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    Dana Tančinová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to detect the microscopic filamentous fungi from wine surface of sterilized grapes berries of Slovak origin. We analyzed 21 samples of grapes, harvested in the year 2012 of various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. The cultivation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. A total number of 2541 fungal isolates pertaining to 18 genera including Mycelia sterilia were recovered. Isolates of genus Alternaria were found in all of tested samples with the highest relative density 56.4%. The second highest isolation frequency we detected for genus Fusarium (90.48% positive samples, but with low relative density (31 isolates and 2.99% RD. Another genera with higher isolation frequency were Cladosporium (Fr 85.71%, RD 14.6%, Mycelia sterilia (Fr 85.71%, RD 4.25%, Penicillium (Fr 80.95%, RD 13.42%, Botrytis (Fr 71.43%, RD 2.95% Rhizopus (Fr 66.66%, RD 1.34%, Aspergillus (Fr 57.14%, RD 0.87%, Epicoccum (Fr 47.62%, RD 1.22%, Trichoderma (Fr 42.86%, RD 1.26%. Isolation frequency of another eight genera (Arthrinium, Dichotomophtora, Geotrichum, Harzia, Chaetomium, Mucor, Nigrospora and Phoma was less than 10% and relative density less than 0.5%. Chosen isolates of potential producers of mycotoxin (species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium were tested for the ability to produce relevant mycotoxins in in vitro conditions using TLC method. None isolate of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested did not produce ochratoxin A – mycotoxin monitored in wine and another products from grapes berries. Isolates of potentially toxigenic species recovered from the samples were found to produce another mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, citrinin, diacetoxyscirpenol, deoxynivalenol, HT-2 patulin, penitrem A and T-2 toxin

  8. Fetal ECG Extraction from Abdominal Signals: A Review on Suppression of Fundamental Power Line Interference Component and Its Harmonics

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    Dragoş-Daniel Ţarălungă

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interference of power line (PLI (fundamental frequency and its harmonics is usually present in biopotential measurements. Despite all countermeasures, the PLI still corrupts physiological signals, for example, electromyograms (EMG, electroencephalograms (EEG, and electrocardiograms (ECG. When analyzing the fetal ECG (fECG recorded on the maternal abdomen, the PLI represents a particular strong noise component, being sometimes 10 times greater than the fECG signal, and thus impairing the extraction of any useful information regarding the fetal health state. Many signal processing methods for cancelling the PLI from biopotentials are available in the literature. In this review study, six different principles are analyzed and discussed, and their performance is evaluated on simulated data (three different scenarios, based on five quantitative performance indices.

  9. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

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    Jolana Karovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and dietary fibre in nourishment. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of commercial fibres, obtained from different Grape sources concerning their chemical properties such as moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre. The chemical composition of Grape fibre is known to vary depending on the Grape cultivar, growth climates, and processing conditions. The obliged characteristics of the fibre product are: total dietary fibre content above 50%, moisture lower than 9%, low content of lipids, a low energy value and neutral flavour and taste. Grape pomace represents a rich source of various high-value products such as ethanol, tartrates and malates, citric acid, Grape seed oil, hydrocolloids and dietary fibre. Used commercial Grape fibres have as a main characteristic, the high content of total dietary fibre. Amount of total dietary fibre depends on the variety of Grapes. Total dietary fibre content (TDF in our samples of Grape fibre varied from 56.8% to 83.6%. There were also determined low contents of moisture (below 9%. In the samples of Grape fibre were determined higher amount of protein (8.6 - 10.8%, mineral (1.3 - 3.8% and fat (2.8 - 8.6%. This fact opens the possibility of using both initial by-products as ingredients in the food industry, due to the effects associated with the high total dietary fibre content.

  10. Suppression of Powdery Mildew Using the Water Extract of Xylogone ganodermophthora and Aqueous Potassium Phosphonate Solution on Watermelon under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylogone ganodermophthora (Xg is an ascomycetous fungus that causes yellow rot on cultivated Ganoderma lucidum. Previously, we reported in vitro antifungal activities of a Xg culture extract against several watermelon pathogens. In 2014, we conducted greenhouse experiments to evaluate the control efficacy of a water extract of cultured Xg on watermelon powdery mildew (WPM. The test material (stock solution, ca. 4,000 µg/ml was prepared by an autoclaved Xg culture in water at a ratio of 800 g of culture per 6 liter of water, and then filtering it through filter paper. Six foliar applications of the solutions (diluted 100- and 1,000-fold significantly suppressed the formation of conidiophores and conidia. The inhibitory effect of aqueous potassium phosphonate solution on the disease and its phytotoxicity was tested. Phytotoxicity on watermelon plants was observed at concentrations of 1,000 and 2,000 µg/ml as irregular brownish spots. The control efficacies against WPM were 91.9% at 2,000 µg/ml, 64.9% at 1,000 µg/ml, and 62.2% at 500 µg/ml.

  11. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  13. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101 Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor-κB Activation

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    Tzu-Hung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((−-epicatechin or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of IκB kinase (IKK and IκBα. In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF-κB activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  14. Ethanol Extracts of Fresh Davallia formosana (WL1101) Inhibit Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing RANKL-Induced Nuclear Factor- κ B Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hung; Yang, Rong-Sen; Wang, Kuan-Chin; Lu, Dai-Hua; Liou, Houng-Chi; Ma, Yun; Chang, Shao-Han; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The rhizome of Davallia formosana is commonly used to treat bone disease including bone fracture, arthritis, and osteoporosis in Chinese herbal medicine. Here, we report the effects of WL1101, the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. In addition, excess activated bone-resorbing osteoclasts play crucial roles in inflammation-induced bone loss diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study, we examined the effects of WL1101 on receptor activator of nuclear factor- κ B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Treatment with WL1101 significantly inhibited RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Two isolated active compounds, ((-)-epicatechin) or WL14 (4-hydroxy-3-aminobenzoic acid) could also inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. WL1101 suppressed the RANKL-induced nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) activation and nuclear translocation, which is the key process during osteoclastogenesis, by inhibiting the activation of I κ B kinase (IKK) and I κ B α . In animal model, oral administration of WL1101 (50 or 200 mg/kg/day) effectively decreased the excess bone resorption and significantly antagonized the trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of fresh rhizomes of Davallia formosana inhibit osteoclast differentiation via the inhibition of NF- κ B activation and effectively ameliorate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. WL1101 may thus have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases associated with excessive osteoclastic activity.

  15. Grape juice, berries, and walnuts affect brain aging and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Willis, Lauren M

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that individuals consuming a diet containing high amounts of fruits and vegetables exhibit fewer age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Research from our laboratory has suggested that dietary supplementation with fruit or vegetable extracts high in antioxidants (e.g. blueberries, strawberries, walnuts, and Concord grape juice) can decrease the enhanced vulnerability to oxidative stress that occurs in aging and these reductions are expressed as improvements in behavior. Additional mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of fruits and vegetables include enhancement of neuronal communication via increases in neuronal signaling and decreases in stress signals induced by oxidative/inflammatory stressors (e.g. nuclear factor kappaB). Moreover, collaborative findings indicate that blueberry or Concord grape juice supplementation in humans with mild cognitive impairment increased verbal memory performance, thus translating our animal findings to humans. Taken together, these results suggest that a greater intake of high-antioxidant foods such as berries, Concord grapes, and walnuts may increase "health span" and enhance cognitive and motor function in aging.

  16. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Woan Sean; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB) in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL). Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator's production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26609199

  17. Moringa oleifera Flower Extract Suppresses the Activation of Inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woan Sean Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of Study. Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera possess highest concentration of antioxidant bioactive compounds and is anticipated to be used as an alternative medicine for inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower on proinflammatory mediators and cytokines produced in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Materials and Methods. Cell cytotoxicity was conducted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was quantified through Griess reaction while proinflammatory cytokines and other key inflammatory markers were assessed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting. Results. Hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower significantly suppressed the secretion and expression of NO, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, inducible NO synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. However, it significantly increased the production of IL-10 and IκB-α (inhibitor of κB in a concentration dependent manner (100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL. Conclusion. These results suggest that 80% hydroethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower has anti-inflammatory action related to its inhibition of NO, PGE2, proinflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory mediator’s production in LPS-stimulated macrophages through preventing degradation of IκB-α in NF-κB signaling pathway.

  18. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  19. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation.

  20. Light exclusion influence on grape anthocyanin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study contrasted the anthocyanins of investigational grape clusters that developed without light incidence (light-excluded), to those of control clusters that were shaded naturally beneath the vine canopy (control-shaded). Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque w...

  1. Grape anthocyanin altered by absolute sunlight exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research was conducted to clarify anthocyanin accumulation within ‘Merlot’ grapes in response to microclimate, specifically to light incidence, temperature, and humidity. Treatment grape clusters were light-excluded during ripening by opaque white polypropylene enclosures, during which light in...

  2. The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, A; Malfeito-Ferreira, M; Loureiro, V

    2012-02-15

    Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp

  3. Orange peel extract, containing high levels of polymethoxyflavonoid, suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in HaCaT cells through PPAR-γ activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Norihiro; Fujii, Takahiro; Masaki, Hitoshi; Okubo, Takeshi; Shimada, Kunio; Hashizume, Ron

    2014-10-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV) induces an inflammatory response in the skin by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and prostaglandin (PG) E2 production. Citrus peel has been used as a natural medicine. It contains polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs) as a major ingredient, which have anti-inflammatory activity. We obtained orange peel extract containing high levels of PMFs. The extract suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, it was found that this extract acted as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist. The suppression of UVB-induced COX-2 expression by this extract was inhibited by GW 9662 and T0070907, which are both PPAR-γ antagonists. It is therefore suggested that orange peel extract, containing high levels of PMFs, suppresses UVB-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production through PPAR-γ. Hence, these extracts could provide useful protection against or alleviation of UV damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Green tea extract suppresses adiposity and affects the expression of lipid metabolism genes in diet-induced obese zebrafish

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    Hasumura Takahiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral fat accumulation is one of the most important predictors of mortality in obese populations. Administration of green tea extract (GTE can reduce body fat and reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases in mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of GTE on adiposity in diet-induced obese (DIO zebrafish. Methods Zebrafish at 3.5 to 4.5 months post-fertilization were allocated to four groups: non-DIO, DIO, DIO + 0.0025%GTE, and DIO + 0.0050%GTE. The non-DIO group was fed freshly hatched Artemia once daily (5 mg cysts/fish daily for 40 days. Zebrafish in the three DIO groups were fed freshly hatched Artemia three times daily (60 mg cysts/fish daily. Zebrafish in the DIO + 0.0025%GTE and DIO + 0.0050%GTE groups were exposed to GTE after the start of feeding three times daily for 40 days. Results Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis showed that GTE exposure significantly decreased the volume of visceral but not subcutaneous fat tissue in DIO zebrafish. GTE exposure increased hepatic expression of the lipid catabolism genes ACOX1 (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, palmitoyl, ACADM (acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, c-4 to c-12 straight chain, and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. GTE exposure also significantly decreased the visceral fat expression of SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3b which inhibits leptin signaling. Conclusions The present results are consistent with those seen in mammals treated with GTE, supporting the validity of studying the effects of GTE in DIO zebrafish. Our results suggest that GTE exerts beneficial effects on adiposity, possibly by altering the expression of lipid catabolism genes and SOCS3.

  5. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

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    Dong Ki Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin (PG E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-(COX-2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK, and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day than in DSS-treated mice ( versus DSS. This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs.

  6. Comparative analysis of techniques for detection of quiescent Botrytis cinerea in grapes by quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...

  7. GLUCOSE-FRUCTOSE INDEX IN THE GRAPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gnilomedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results summarize literature and experimental data on the content of glucose and fructose of different varieties in grapes belonging to different botanical species of Vitis. The ratio of glucose and fructose indicator can be used for fermentation control and prevention of under fermentation in the production of dry wines, as well as an identification parameter to assess the authenticity of grape juice and concentratedmust. The object of the study were grapes of red and white winemaking European and autochthonous varieties, belonging to Vitis, as well as varieties of new selection (Aligote, Albilio, Verdelho, Sersial, Rkatsiteli, White Muscat, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Bastardo of Magarach, Kephesiya, Ekim kara, Golubok. Sugar content in grape samples was inthe range of 180-260 g/l. Total hexoses were determined by HPLC method according to a modified methodology developed by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry of Wine of "FSBSI "Magarach ". It was established that the value range of the glucose-fructose index in the grapes cultivated in different viniviticultural regions of the world makes 0.74-1.19. It has been revealed that the glucose-fructose index decreases with the ripening of berries. Low index values are characteristic for the grape that ripens at high temperatures and was cultivated in regions with hot climate. High index valuesare characteristic of table grapes and winemaking grape varieties of the species Vitis labrusca, Vitis amurensis and interspecific hybrids. Within the botanical species we canidentify varieties that tend to accumulate higher volumes of either glucose or fructose. These patterns are equally characteristic of white and red grape varieties. The analytical analyzes of the Crimean winemaking grape varieties resulted in the establishment of the glucose-fructose index for the first time, varying within the range of 0.9-1.06.

  8. 27 CFR 4.23 - Varietal (grape type) labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Varietal (grape type... Varietal (grape type) labeling. (a) General. The names of one or more grape varieties may be used as the type designation of a grape wine only if the wine is also labeled with an appellation of origin as...

  9. Suppressive Effects of Clerodendrum volubile P Beauv. [Labiatae] Methanolic Extract and Its Fractions on Type 2 Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko L. Erukainure

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is the most prominent of all diabetes types, contributing to global morbidity and mortality. Availability and cost of treatment with little or no side effect especially in developing countries, remains a huge burden. This has led to the search of affordable alternative therapies especially from medicinal plants. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of the methanolic extract, dichloromethane (DCM, butanol (BuOH and aqueous fractions of Clerodendrum volubile leaves were investigated in type 2 diabetic rats for their effect on glucose homeostasis, serum insulin level and hepatic biomarkers, lipid profile, pancreatic redox balance and Ca2+ levels, and β-cell distribution and function. The DCM was further fractionated to isolate the active compounds, biochanin and 5,7,4′-trimethoxykaempferol. They were investigated for their toxicity and ADMET properties, α-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities in silico. There were significant (p < 0.05 decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, LDL-C, vLDL-C, triglyceride, AST and ALT levels in all treated groups, with DCM fraction showing the best activity. All treated rats showed significantly (p < 0.05 improved anti-oxidative activities. Treatment with the DCM fraction led to significant (p < 0.05 increased serum insulin and pancreatic Ca2+ levels, as well as improved β-cell distribution and function. DCM fraction also showed improved glucose tolerance. DCM fraction dose-dependently inhibited ACE activity. The toxicity class of the isolated compounds was predicted to be 5. They were also predicted to be potent inhibitors of cytochrome P (CYPs 1A2, 2D6 and 3A4. They docked well with α-glucosidase and ACE. These results indicate the therapeutic potential of the plant against type 2 diabetes, with the DCM fraction being the most potent which may be attributed to the isolated flavones. It further suggests antihypertensive potentials of the DCM fraction

  10. A grape-enriched diet increases bone calcium retention and cortical bone properties in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Emily E; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-02-01

    Grapes and their associated phytochemicals have been investigated for beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, cancer prevention, and other chronic diseases, but the effect of grape consumption on bone health has not been fully determined. We previously found short-term benefits of grape products on reducing bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term benefits of a grape-enriched diet on bone in ovariectomized rats. Rats were ovariectomized at 3 mo of age and were administered a single dose of (45)Ca to prelabel bones at 4 mo of age. After a 1-mo equilibration period, baseline urinary (45)Ca excretion was determined. Rats (n = 22/group) were then randomly assigned to a modified AIN93M diet containing 25% freeze-dried grape powder or to a control diet for 8 wk. Urinary (45)Ca excretion was monitored throughout the study to determine changes in bone (45)Ca retention. Calcium balance was assessed after 1 and 8 wk of consuming the experimental diets, and a calcium kinetic study was performed at 8 wk. After 8 wk, femurs were collected for micro-computed tomographic imaging, 3-point bending, and reference point indentation. Rats fed the grape-enriched diet had 44% greater net bone calcium retention than did rats fed the control diet. There were no differences in calcium balance due to diet at either week 1 or week 8, but there was a significant increase in net calcium absorption (10.6%) and retention (5.7%) from week 1 to week 8 in the grape-enriched diet group only. Grape-enriched diet-fed rats had 3% greater cortical thickness and 11% greater breaking strength. There were no differences in femur bone mineral density, trabecular microarchitecture, or reference point indentation variables due to diet. This study of ovariectomized rats indicates that the consumption of grape products may improve calcium utilization and suppress bone turnover, resulting in improvements in bone quality. © 2015 American Society for

  11. 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in grape berries and its dependence on genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Doyle, Carolyn L; Matthews, Mark A; Williams, Larry E; Ebeler, Susan E

    2010-12-01

    2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) contributes a bell pepper aroma to many grape cultivars and has a reported aroma threshold of ∼2 ng L(-1) in water. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) develop a procedure using headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (HS-SPME-GC-MS-SIM) for analysis of MIBP in grape berries, and (2) determine the location of MIBP biosynthesis in grapevines by approach grafting clusters of Vitis vinifera L. cvs Cabernet Sauvignon and Muscat blanc onto each other. The soluble solids and pH of the grape juice/homogenate matrix from different grape berry developmental stages influenced the method precision; therefore, quantification via the method of standard addition was used. Using our developed method, the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of MIBP were 0.1 ng L(-1) and 2 ng L(-1), respectively, measured in a model juice and non-MIBP containing Chardonnay juice. Spiked recoveries averaged between 91% and 112% in Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot noir homogenates and the overall relative standard deviation was less than 10%. The method was used to analyze MIBP in 29 grape cultivars and in fruit from clusters grafted to Cabernet Sauvignon or Muscat vines. Quantifiable levels were found only in Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Sauvignon blanc and Semillon, providing information on the genetic connection for the occurrence of MIBP in grapes. No MIBP was detected in the berries of Muscat blanc clusters grafted onto Cabernet Sauvignon vines when sampled at fruit maturity. MIBP was detected in all berries of Cabernet Sauvignon regardless the graft configuration. The data indicate that MIBP or its precursors originate in the berry and its formation depends upon grape genotype. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  13. Ganoderiol A-enriched extract suppresses migration and adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells by inhibiting FAK-SRC-paxillin cascade pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Sheng Wu

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion, migration and invasion are critical steps for carcinogenesis and cancer metastasis. Ganoderma lucidum, also called Lingzhi in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine, which exhibits anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation and anti-metastasis properties. Herein, GAEE, G. lucidum extract mainly contains ganoderiol A (GA, dihydrogenated GA and GA isomer, was shown to inhibit the abilities of adhesion and migration, while have a slight influence on that of invasion in highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells at non-toxic doses. Further investigation revealed that GAEE decreased the active forms of focal adhesion kinase (FAK and disrupted the interaction between FAK and SRC, which lead to deactivating of paxillin. Moreover, GAEE treatment downregulated the expressions of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, and decreased the interaction between neural Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (N-WASP and Cdc42, which impair cell migration and actin assembly. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that G.lucidum triterpenoids could suppress cell migration and adhesion through FAK-SRC-paxillin signaling pathway. Our study also suggests that GAEE may be a potential agent for treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Suppressive effects of extracts from the aerial part of Coriandrum sativum L. on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Trang-Tiau; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen; Wu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Pei-Yin; Liu, Kai-Li

    2010-08-30

    Coriandrum sativum is used not only as a spice to aid flavour and taste values in food, but also as a folk medicine in many countries. Since little is known about the anti-inflammatory ability of the aerial parts (stem and leaf) of C. sativum, the present study investigated the effect of aerial parts of C. sativum on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We further explored the molecular mechanism underlying these pharmacological properties of C. sativum. Ethanolic extracts from both stem and leaf of C. sativum (CSEE) significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and pro-interleukin-1beta expression. Moreover, LPS-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and nuclear p65 protein expression as well as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear protein-DNA binding affinity and reporter gene activity were dramatically inhibited by aerial parts of CSEE. Exogenous addition of CSEE stem and leaf significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Our data demonstrated that aerial parts of CSEE have a strong anti-inflammatory property which inhibits pro-inflammatory mediator expression by suppressing NF-kappaB activation and MAPK signal transduction pathway in LPS-induced macrophages. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Summative interaction between astaxanthin, Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and vitamin C in suppression of respiratory inflammation: a comparison with ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, David D; Varga, Balazs; Bak, Istvan; Juhasz, Bela; Mahmoud, Fadia F; Kalantari, Heybatullah; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Lekli, Istvan; Czompa, Attila; Tosaki, Arpad

    2011-01-01

    In this study, combinations of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb761) plus the carotenoid antioxidant astaxanthin (ASX) and vitamin C were evaluated for a summative dose effect in the inhibition of asthma-associated inflammation in asthmatic guinea-pigs. Ovalbumin-sensitized Hartley guinea-pigs challenged with ovalbumin aerosol to induce asthma, were administered EGb761, ASX, vitamin C or ibuprofen. Following killing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was evaluated for inflammatory cell infiltrates and lung tissue cyclic nucleotide content. Each parameter measured was significantly altered to a greater degree by drug combinations, than by each component acting independently. An optimal combination was identified that included astaxanthin (10 mg/kg), vitamin C (200 mg/kg) and EGb761 (10 mg/kg), resulting in counts of eosinophils and neutrophils each 1.6-fold lower; macrophages 1.8-fold lower, cAMP 1.4-fold higher; and cGMP 2.04-fold higher than levels in untreated, asthmatic animals (p ASX and vitamin C are shown here to interact summatively to suppress inflammation with efficacy equal to or better than ibuprofen, a widely used non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). Such combinations of non-toxic phytochemicals constitute powerful tools for the prevention of onset of acute and chronic inflammatory disease if consumed regularly by healthy individuals; and may also augment the effectiveness of therapy for those with established illness. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Piper retrofractum Vahl. Extract, as a PPARδ and AMPK Activator, Suppresses UVB-Induced Photoaging through Mitochondrial Biogenesis and MMPs Inhibition in Human Dermal Fibroblasts and Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungon Yun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoaging occurs by UVB-irradiation and involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, leading to extracellular matrix damage. Piper retrofractum Vahl. is used as a traditional medicine for antiflatulence, expectorant, sedative, and anti-irritant; however, its antiphotoaging effect has not yet been studied. The current study investigated the antiphotoaging effect of standardized Piper retrofractum extract (PRE on UVB-damaged human dermal fibroblasts and hairless mouse skin. PRE treatment activated the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ and the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, consequently upregulating mitochondrial synthesis and reducing ROS production. Additionally, PRE inhibited MMPs expression via suppressing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and activator protein-1 (AP-1. PRE downregulated UVB-induced inflammatory reactions by inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activity. PRE also enhanced transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β and the Smad signaling pathway, thereby promoting procollagen gene transcription. Furthermore, oral administration of PRE (300 mg/kg/day similarly regulated the signaling pathways and increased antioxidant enzyme expression, thus attenuating physiological deformations, such as wrinkle formation and erythema response. Collectively, these results suggest that PRE acts as a potent antiphotoaging agent via PPARδ and AMPK activation.

  17. Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract protects against oxidative stress and cardiovascular remodeling via suppression of p47phox and iNOS in nitric oxide deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprom, Pattanapong; Boonla, Orachorn; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2017-07-01

    N ω -Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling are associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Garcinia mangostana Linn., has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated whether G. mangostana pericarp extract (GME) could prevent l-NAME-induced hemodynamic alterations, cardiovascular remodeling, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 40mg/kg/day of l-NAME in drinking water to induce hypertension, and were simultaneously treated with GME at a dose of 200mg/kg/day. Rats that received l-NAME for five weeks had high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and thickening of aortic wall. Vascular superoxide production, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly increased in l-NAME-hypertensive rats (poxide metabolites were observed in l-NAME hypertension. GME prevented the development of hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling induced by l-NAME with reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. These data suggest that GME had a protective effect against l-NAME-induced hypertension and cardiovascular remodeling via suppressing p47 phox NADPH oxidase subunit and iNOS protein expression resulting in enhancing NO bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named "Zi-Yu" in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  19. Supplementation of American ginseng berry extract mitigated cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity by suppressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Na; Liu, Zhi; Wang, Zi; Ren, Shen; Tang, Shan; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xiao, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Chen; Li, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in 30% of all cisplatin treated patients seriously limits its clinical implication as a widely used anticancer agent, and may even cause patients to alter or give up cisplatin therapy. The purpose of this study is to test a protective effect of American ginseng berry extract (AGBE) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. In this study, the histopathological changes and elevated levels of serum creatinine (CRE) and urea nitrogen (BUN) caused by cisplatin were significantly diminished by AGBE treatment. Oxidative stress caused by cisplatin, evidenced by increases in kidney tissues malondialdehyde (MDA) content, cytochrome P450 E1 (CYP2E1), renal 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) levels and decreases of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents, was significantly ameliorated by AGBE pretreatment. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were inhibited by AGBE treatment, suggesting a suppression of inflammatory response. Additionally, AGBE clearly inhibited cisplatin-induced activations of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Supplementation of cisplatin-intoxicated mice with AGBE also significantly reduced apoptotic protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These findings highlight nephroprotective effect of AGBE against cisplatin-evoked nephrotoxicity through ROS-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Rosae Multiflorae Fructus Hot Water Extract Inhibits a Murine Allergic Asthma Via the Suppression of Th2 Cytokine Production and Histamine Release from Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang Ho; Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chai, Ok Hee

    2016-09-01

    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions are involved in many allergic diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF) is known to have potent antioxidative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities and to have no obvious acute toxicity. However, its specific effect on asthma is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether or not RMF hot water extracts (RMFW) could inhibit ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and evaluated compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation to elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by RMFW. Oral administration of RMFW decreased the number of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the lungs of mice challenged by OVA and downregulated histological changes such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. In addition, RMFW significantly reduced T helper 2 cytokines, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6 levels in the BAL fluid of mice challenged by OVA. Moreover, RMFW suppressed compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and inhibited histamine release from mast cells induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that RMFW may act as an antiallergic agent by inhibitingTh2 cytokine production from Th2 cells and histamine release from mast cells, and could be used as a therapy for patients with Th2-mediated or mast cell-mediated allergic diseases.

  1. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  2. GRAPE-5: A Special-Purpose Computer for N-body Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Atsushi; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Taiji, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a special-purpose computer for gravitational many-body simulations, GRAPE-5. GRAPE-5 is the successor of GRAPE-3. Both consist of eight custom pipeline chips (G5 chip and GRAPE chip). The difference between GRAPE-5 and GRAPE-3 are: (1) The G5 chip contains two pipelines operating at 80 MHz, while the GRAPE chip had one at 20 MHz. Thus, the calculation speed of the G5 chip and that of GRAPE-5 board are 8 times faster than that of GRAPE chip and GRAPE-3 board. (2) The GRAPE-5 ...

  3. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Técsi, László; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2015-12-01

    Glycolysis from sugars is necessary at all stages of development of grape pericarp, and this raises the question as to why gluconeogenesis from malate occurs. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is required for gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. In this study we determined the abundance of PEPCK protein and activity in different parts of grape pericarp during its development. Both PEPCK protein and activity were present throughout development, however, in both the skin and the flesh their abundance increased greatly at the start of ripening. This coincided with the onset of the decrease in the malate content of the berry. The location of PEPCK in the pericarp at different stages of development was determined using both immunohistochemistry and dissection. We provide a possible explanation for the occurrence of gluconeogenesis in grape pericarp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  5. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  6. Bioaerosol formation during grape stemming and crushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Marc; Krebs, Walter; Brandl, Helmut

    2006-06-15

    Indoor formation of airborne particles during pre-fermentation grape processing was assessed by particle counting using laser particle sizers. Particle numbers of four different aerodynamic size classes (0.3 to 0.5 microm, 0.5 to 1 microm, 1 to 5 microm, and >5 microm) were determined during unloading of harvest containers and subsequent grape stemming and crushing. Regarding these size classes, composition before grape handling was determined as 87.9%, 10.4%, 1.7%, and 0.1%, respectively, whereas the composition changed during grape handling to 50.4%, 15.2%, 33.0%, and 1.5%, respectively. Airborne bacteria and fungi originating from grape processing were collected by impactor and liquid impinger samplers. Grape handling resulted in a sixfold increase in total (biological and non-biological) airborne particles. The generation of bacterial and fungal aerosols was associated mostly with particles of aerodynamic diameters>5 microm (mainly 7 to 11 microm) as determined by flow cytometry. This fraction was increased 150fold in relation to background levels before grape crushing. Maximum concentrations of culturable bacteria reached 485,000 colony forming units (cfu/m3), whereas 146,000 cfu of fungi and yeasts were detected per cubic meter of air. Culturable Gram-negative bacteria occurred only in small numbers (180 cfu/m3). In relation to the total number of airborne particles emitted, culturable microorganisms comprised 0.1% to 0.2%. As soon as grape crushing was stopped, particle concentrations decreased rapidly either due to passive settling or due to air currents in the occupational indoor environment reaching background levels.

  7. The Chemical Composition of Grape Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Jolana Karovičová; Zlatica Kohajdová; Lucia Minarovičová; Veronika Kuchtová

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibres from cereals are much more used than dietary fibres from fruits; however, dietary fibres from fruits have better quality. In recent years, for economic and environmental reasons, there has been a growing pressure to recover and exploit food wastes. Grape fibre is used to fortify baked goods, because the fibre can lower blood sugar, cut cholesterol and may even prevent colon cancer. Grape pomace is a functional ingredient in bakery goods to increase total phenolic content and di...

  8. Volatile contents of grape marcs in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. Luz; Malcata, F. Xavier; Revel, G. de

    1996-01-01

    The present study reports on the composition of volatiles of most grape marcs (bagaceiras) commercially available in Portugal. These spirits, which are a valuable by-product of the winemaking industry, are obtained via steam-distillation of grape pomace after storage under anaerobic conditions for a given period of time. An impetus for this research is the increasingly strict European legal standards pertaining to the levels of health hazard volatile compounds (e.g., methanol) and the lack of...

  9. Grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications such as nerve and eye problems, improving wound healing, preventing tooth decay, preventing cancer, an eye disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), poor night vision, liver ...

  10. Preparation of Ready to Serve Grape Juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mya Mya Than, Daw; Molly Ahad, Daw; Khin Khin Lay, Daw

    1997-10-01

    Studies were carried out at the Food Technology Research Department of Myanma Scientific and Technological Research Department to prepare ready to serve grape juice from ripe fruits of the red varieties of grapes. The sugar content of grapes varied from (10) to (14) % depending on the season. To get a maximum content of (16) % sugar in the juice, (2) to (6) % sugar was added. The yields of the seasonal grape juice varied from (62.5) to (72.2) % by weight. The tannin content was (0.36) % by volume in the fresh juice. It was decreased to (0.03) % by volume after the cold storage at (10)C for (10 to 15) days. The pH of the original fruit juice was (3.2). The best juice was obtain when the pH of the juice was(4.0). To obtain the higher yield of the juice, desirable bright colour and rapid clarification, (0.01) %. Pectinex enzyme was added. In this investigation grape juice was preserved with (0.1) % sodium benzoate. Storage studies, which also included microbiological aspects indicated that the pasteurized grape juice bottle can be stored at room temperature for minimum (6) months without any deterioration in quality

  11. Illicium verum extract suppresses IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 expression via blockade of JAK/STAT pathway in HaCaT human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2013-10-07

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) signaling in keratinocytes plays an important role in mediating inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis and contact dermatitis. Illicium verum Hook. f. has been used in traditional medicine for treating skin inflammation, rheumatism, asthma, and bronchitis in Asia. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and regulatory mechanisms of Illicium verum extract (IVE) in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. In this study, we examined the effect of IVE on IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 expression in HaCaT cells. The levels of IFN-γ receptor α (IFN-γRα), phosphorylated Janus kinase 2 (pJak2), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (pSTAT1), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) were analyzed by western blot. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on the HaCaT cells was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and cell-surface enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of IVE and its constituents on the adherence of T lymphocytes to IFN-γ-treated HaCaT cells were also investigated. IVE significantly inhibited IFN-γ-induced mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1. IVE inhibited IFN-γ-induced IFN-γRα, pJak2 and pSTAT1 expression in HaCaT cells. The expression of SOCS1 was up-regulated by treatment of IVE. In addition, IVE and its constituents (p-anisaldehyde and trans-anethole) effectively suppressed IFN-γ-induced adherence of Jurkat T cells to HaCaT cells and ICAM-1 expression on the cell surface. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of IVE may contribute to therapeutic efficacy in IFN-γ-dependent inflammatory skin diseases by modulating the IFN-γ signal pathway. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stauntonia hexaphylla (Lardizabalaceae) leaf methanol extract inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity via proteasome-mediated degradation of c-Fos protein and suppression of NFATc1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2015-08-14

    Natural plants, including common vegetables and fruits, have been recognized as essential sources for drug discovery and the development of new, safe, and economical medicaments. Stauntonia hexaphylla (Lardizabalaceae) is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, and China, and is a popular herbal supplement in Korean and Chinese folk medicine owing to its analgesic, sedative, and diuretic properties. However, the exact pharmacological effects of S. hexaphylla extract, particularly its effect on osteoclastogenesis, are not known. Osteoclast differentiation and function were identified with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and bone resorption assay, and the underling mechanisms were determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis. S. hexaphylla was found to inhibit early-stage receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) without cytotoxicity and bone-resorbing activity in mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. This S. hexaphylla-mediated blockade of osteoclastogenesis involved abrogation of the NF-κB, ERK, and c-Src-Btk-PLCγ2 calcium signal pathways. Interestingly, we found that S. hexaphylla down-regulated RANKL-associated c-Fos protein induction by suppressing its translation. Furthermore, ectopic overexpression of c-Fos and NFATc1 rescued the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by S. hexaphylla. Furthermore, S. hexaphylla inhibited the c-Fos- and NFATc1-regulated expression of genes required for osteoclastogenesis, such as TRAP, OSCAR, β3-integrin, ATP6v0d2, and CtsK. These findings suggest that S. hexaphylla might be useful for the development of new anti-osteoporosis agents.

  13. An aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through suppression of renal fibrosis and inflammation in diabetic db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An Sook; Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, So Min; Yoon, Jung Joo; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. In the present study, we investigated the renoprotective effect of the aqueous extract of Portulaca oleracea (AP) on diabetic nephropathy accelerated by renal fibrosis and inflammation in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. The mice were treated with AP (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks to examine the long-term effects on diabetic nephropathy and renal dysfunction. We found that AP treatment markedly lowered blood glucose to 412 ± 11.4 mg/dl and plasma creatinine level to 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/dl compared to db/db mice (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). This study also showed that treatment with AP significantly decreased water intake and urine volume in diabetic db/db mice (p < 0.05). In immunohistological study, the renal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), advanced glycation end products (AGE), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 markedly increased in the renal cortex of untreated db/db mice (p < 0.01). In contrast, AP treatment significantly reduced these expressions to 50 ± 2.1%, 48 ± 2.8%, 61 ± 1.1%, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, NF-κB p65 activation in renal tissues markedly increased in untreated db/db mice, which was significantly suppressed by AP treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest that AP attenuates diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of renal fibrosis and inflammation in db/db mice.

  14. Defatted milled grape seed protects adriamycin-treated hepatocytes against oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Belles, Victoria; Torres, Mari Carmen; Muñiz, Pilar; Beltran, Sagrario; Martinez-Alvarez, Jesús Roman; Codoñer-Franch, Pilar

    2006-08-01

    Defatted milled grape seed (DMGS) is a wine by-product obtained from the oil extraction of the grape seed that contains different types of phenolic compounds. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect of DMGS on toxicity induced by adriamycin (ADR) in isolated rat hepatocytes. The study was carried out by examining the results of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release to estimate cytotoxicity; the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS) and carbonyl group levels were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress and ATP and GSH levels as estimation of intracellular effect. The results showed that DMGS extract protects the cellular membrane from oxidative damage and consequently prevents protein and lipid oxidation. The levels of ATP and GSH changes for the ADR toxicity were restored to control value in the presence of DMGS extract. The experimental results suggest that this wine by-product may be used to decrease oxidative stress.

  15. Impact of winery wastewater irrigation on soil, grape nutrition, and grape and wine quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winery wastewater (WW) reuse has the potential to provide more sustainable vineyard irrigation. This study investigated the effects of WW irrigation on grape and wine chemical composition and sensory attributes in vineyards in Napa and Sonoma Counties. The life cycle of the grape/wine production was...

  16. Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction and suppresses the inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases, nuclear factor‑κB and B‑cell lymphoma 2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Zhang, Ya; Wen, Min; Zhang, Ju; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Yuan; Deng, Jiagang

    2017-09-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a plant known from the Mesozoic and has been regarded as one of the first to be used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The plant extract has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. The Ginkgo biloba leaf contains flavones and diterpenes. In addition, Ginkgo biloba performs certain pharmacologic actions, including antioxidant and anti‑aging activities. The aim of the present study was to examine whether Ginkgo biloba extract prevents acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited infarct size, increased serum histamine levels and weakened creatine kinase (CK)‑MB activity in AMI mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly inhibited serum interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑1β levels, and caspase‑3/9 activity. In addition, it suppressed matrix metallopeptidase‑9, transforming growth factor‑β, p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB protein expression, and promoted B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) protein expression in AMI mice. The results of in vivo assays demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract prevents AMI and suppresses inflammation‑ and apoptosis‑regulating p38 MAPK, NF‑κB and Bcl‑2 signaling pathways.

  17. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and up-regulating antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jin; Han, Eun Su; Park, Dong Ki; Lee, Chan; Lee, Ki Won

    2010-12-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of an organic extract of Phellinus linteus grown on slightly germinated brown rice (PBR) was previously demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible anti-inflammatory activity of the PBR extract by analyzing its effect on the expression of macrophage-derived cytokines, chemokines, and mediator genes that participate in immune and inflammatory responses and diseases. The extract profoundly inhibited the induction of cytokines and chemokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-6, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells. It also greatly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. PBR extract inhibited NO production with a twofold lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration value than P. linteus extract. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of action, we examined the effect of the PBR extract on the LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in RAW264.7 cells. PBR extract greatly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation and slightly inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It also significantly increased intracellular glutathione peroxidase activity and heme oxygenase-1 protein expression. Thus, the PBR extract has anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by virtue of its ability to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines via inhibition of MAPK activation and up-regulation of antioxidant activities.

  18. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  19. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  20. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina, Willow Bark (Salix alba, and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shakibaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina, willow bark (Salix alba, and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG, β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  1. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles. PMID:22474508

  2. Botanical Extracts from Rosehip (Rosa canina), Willow Bark (Salix alba), and Nettle Leaf (Urtica dioica) Suppress IL-1β-Induced NF-κB Activation in Canine Articular Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Allaway, David; Nebrich, Simone; Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory mode of action of botanical extracts from rosehip (Rosa canina), willow bark (Salix alba), and nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) in an in vitro model of primary canine articular chondrocytes. Methods. The biological effects of the botanical extracts were studied in chondrocytes treated with IL-1β for up to 72 h. Expression of collagen type II, cartilage-specific proteoglycan (CSPG), β1-integrin, SOX-9, COX-2, and MMP-9 and MMP-13 was examined by western blotting. Results. The botanical extracts suppressed IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation by inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and p65 nuclear translocation. These events correlated with downregulation of NF-κB targets including COX-2 and MMPs. The extracts also reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of collagen type II, CSPG, β1-integrin, and cartilage-specific transcription factor SOX-9 protein expression. In high-density cultures botanical extracts stimulated new cartilage formation even in the presence of IL-1β. Conclusions. Botanical extracts exerted anti-inflammatory and anabolic effects on chondrocytes. The observed reduction of IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation suggests that further studies are warranted to demonstrate the effectiveness of plant extracts in the treatment of OA and other conditions in which NF-κB plays pathophysiological roles.

  3. Influence of gamma rays irradiation to chlorphyriphos insecticides residues in grapes (vitis vinifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Simulation methods to determination of chlorphyriphos insecticides residue in grapes cause effect gamma rays, was done. Fruits of grapes soaked with chlorpyriphos insecticide solution high level concentrated (100 ppm; 200 ppm; and 300 ppm) for 3 (three minutes). The treatment of the sample was direct of extraction after soaks; extract after storage for one week after soak, and extract after soak after storage for one week after irradiation at 0.5 kGy; 1.0 kGy; and 1.5 kGy dose. Extraction methods using ethyl acetate solvent, and using sodium sulphate as to dryed water level in grapes, and then extractan was injected to chromatography gas use electron capture detector. The result indicated that occur of descent of chlorpyrifos residues from eachs soaked consequence at storage for one week was amount 7,55; 8,42; and 18,88% respectively, while of consequence irradiation of gamma ray at 0,5 kGy doses, will be descent of chlorpyrifos residues in amount 13,90; 19,16; and 52,79% respectively, and at 1,0 kGy doses irradiation will be descent in amount 34,45; 36,15 and 49,79%, respectively. (author)

  4. The GRAPE aerosol retrieval algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol component of the Oxford-Rutherford Aerosol and Cloud (ORAC combined cloud and aerosol retrieval scheme is described and the theoretical performance of the algorithm is analysed. ORAC is an optimal estimation retrieval scheme for deriving cloud and aerosol properties from measurements made by imaging satellite radiometers and, when applied to cloud free radiances, provides estimates of aerosol optical depth at a wavelength of 550 nm, aerosol effective radius and surface reflectance at 550 nm. The aerosol retrieval component of ORAC has several incarnations – this paper addresses the version which operates in conjunction with the cloud retrieval component of ORAC (described by Watts et al., 1998, as applied in producing the Global Retrieval of ATSR Cloud Parameters and Evaluation (GRAPE data-set.

    The algorithm is described in detail and its performance examined. This includes a discussion of errors resulting from the formulation of the forward model, sensitivity of the retrieval to the measurements and a priori constraints, and errors resulting from assumptions made about the atmospheric/surface state.

  5. 7 CFR 944.503 - Table Grape Import Regulation 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table Grape Import Regulation 4. 944.503 Section 944...; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.503 Table Grape Import Regulation 4. (a)(1) Pursuant to section 8e of the Act... Vinifera species table grapes, except Emperor, Calmeria, Almeria, and Ribier varieties, is prohibited...

  6. 7 CFR 457.149 - Table grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table grape crop insurance provisions. 457.149 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.149 Table grape crop insurance provisions. The Table Grape Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  7. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the approval...

  8. 7 CFR 457.138 - Grape crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grape crop insurance provisions. 457.138 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.138 Grape crop insurance provisions. The grape crop insurance provisions for the 2010 and succeeding crop years are as follows: United...

  9. Immune Profile of Obese People and In Vitro Effects of Red Grape Polyphenols on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Sergio; Donvito, Ilaria; Campanella, Angelo; Silvestris, Franco; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro ability of polyphenols, extracted from red grape, to modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses has been evaluated in 20 obese (Ob) people. With regard to cytokine release in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 were higher in the Ob than in healthy (H) subjects. Vice versa, IL-21 concentrations were detected only in H people but they were undetectable in the Ob counterpart. In general terms, levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α were higher in Ob people when compared to H controls. On the other hand, polyphenols did not modify IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 levels. However, an increase in IL-2 was observed in H individuals, whereas its levels were decreased in the Ob counterpart. Polyphenols significantly increased IL-10 release from H donors, whereas a trend to increase was observed in Ob people. In addition, polyphenols were able to significantly increase levels of H IL-21, while this was not the case in Ob people. Since IL-21 is an inducer of Th17 cells, it is likely that polyphenols may suppress the sources of this cytokine via production of IL-10. Accordingly, polyphenols decreased IL-1β and IL-6 release in comparison to H controls. PMID:28243360

  10. Immune Profile of Obese People and In Vitro Effects of Red Grape Polyphenols on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio; Spagnoletta, Anna; Magrone, Manrico; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Fontana, Sergio; Laforgia, Flavia; Donvito, Ilaria; Campanella, Angelo; Silvestris, Franco; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The in vitro ability of polyphenols, extracted from red grape, to modulate peripheral blood mononuclear cell responses has been evaluated in 20 obese (Ob) people. With regard to cytokine release in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon- γ (IFN- γ ), IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17 were higher in the Ob than in healthy (H) subjects. Vice versa , IL-21 concentrations were detected only in H people but they were undetectable in the Ob counterpart. In general terms, levels of IL-1 β , IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- α were higher in Ob people when compared to H controls. On the other hand, polyphenols did not modify IFN- γ , IL-4, and IL-17 levels. However, an increase in IL-2 was observed in H individuals, whereas its levels were decreased in the Ob counterpart. Polyphenols significantly increased IL-10 release from H donors, whereas a trend to increase was observed in Ob people. In addition, polyphenols were able to significantly increase levels of H IL-21, while this was not the case in Ob people. Since IL-21 is an inducer of Th17 cells, it is likely that polyphenols may suppress the sources of this cytokine via production of IL-10. Accordingly, polyphenols decreased IL-1 β and IL-6 release in comparison to H controls.

  11. Separation and HPLC-MS identification of phenolic antioxidants from agricultural residues: Almond hulls and grape pomace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubilar, M.; Pinelo, Manuel; Shene, C.

    2007-01-01

    /water fraction (FOW). Extracts and fractions were analyzed for antioxidant power and their phenolic components tentatively identified by HPLC-MS. Chromatographic peaks of almond hull extracts showed the occurrence of hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acid derivatives, with minor presence of flavan-3-ols (ECG, EGCG...... was assessed by DPPH and TBARS assays. Almond hulls showed inhibition percentages lower than 50% in both assays, while the inhibition percentage ranged from 80% to 90% in pomace extracts. Red grape pomace extract was the most efficient antioxidant, with an EC50 value of 0.91 g/L for TBARS and 0.20 g/L for DPPH......Almond hulls and grape pomace are residues abundantly generated by agricultural industries, which could be processed to obtain bioactive products. To this purpose, crude ethanol extracts from both agricultural byproducts were attained and subsequently fractionated in order to obtain an organic...

  12. Grapes and Cardiovascular Disease1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohadwala, Mustali M.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of wine, grape products, and other foods containing polyphenols is associated with decreased risk for cardiovascular disease. The benefits of wine consumption appear to be greater than other alcoholic beverages. Experimental studies indicate that grape polyphenols could reduce atherosclerosis by a number of mechanisms, including inhibition of oxidation of LDL and other favorable effects on cellular redox state, improvement of endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, inhibition of platelet aggregation, reducing inflammation, and activating novel proteins that prevent cell senescence, e.g. Sirtuin 1. Translational studies in humans support these beneficial effects. More clinical studies are needed to confirm these effects and formulate dietary guidelines. The available data, however, strongly support the recommendation that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, including grapes, can decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. PMID:19625699

  13. Phenotypic profiles of Armenian grape cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroutiounian Rouben

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and sustainable use of grapevine biodiversity in Armenia is particularly important due to the large number of traditional local varieties. Being partially different from European grapevine gene pool, the material of Armenian local cultivars significantly contributes to the understanding of the genetic variation and is valuable source for target selection. During last years many Armenian grapevine cultivars have been already described and their genotypes determined, but some local varieties and wild accessions remain unidentified and their phenotypic characteristics overlooked. The comprehensive analysis of phenotypes is essential for research, including genetic association studies, cultivar evaluation and selection. The goal of our research was the phenotyping on the base of reproductive, carpological and analytical characteristics of 80 Armenian aboriginal and new grape cultivars. Description of phenotypic profiles is important step towards identification and conservation of genetic resources of Armenian grapes. In future, these data can be applied for breeding of improved grape varieties targeted to fresh consumption and wine production.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antioxidant and prooxidant activity of phenolic compounds obtained from grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotoras, Milena; Vivanco, Herman; Melo, Ricardo; Aguirre, María; Silva, Evelyn; Mendoza, Leonora

    2014-12-16

    The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v), ethanol 70% (v/v), or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah), the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  15. In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Obtained from Grape (Vitis vinifera Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Cotoras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and/or prooxidant ability of extracts obtained from wine waste were analyzed using in vitro and in vivo assays. Cyclic voltammetry was used as the in vitro assay to determine the antioxidant and/or prooxidant properties and, the in vivo effect on mycelial growth of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was evaluated. In addition, the prooxidant activity was evaluated by intracellular oxidation of compound 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA in B. cinerea. The extracts used in this study were obtained from grape pomace of Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah varieties from the Misiones de Rengo Vineyard by simple extraction, using methanol/HCl 1% (v/v, ethanol 70% (v/v, or Soxhlet extraction. According to the results obtained, gallic acid was the most represented phenolic compound independent of grape variety and extraction method. In addition, vanillic acid; protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, quercetin and kaempferol were found in the extracts. From this study it was possible concluded that, depending of the method of extraction of the grape residues and the grape variety (Cabernet Sauvignon, Carménère and Syrah, the extracts showed antioxidant and/or prooxidant activity. However, no correlation can be established between the anodic oxidation potentials of the extracts and their effect on the fungus B. cinerea.

  16. Preparative separation of grape skin polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lanxin; Cui, Yan; Zhang, Shuting; Li, Lingxi; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Peiyu; Sun, Baoshan

    2016-12-01

    To develop an efficient method for large preparation of various individual polyphenols from white grape skins (Fernão Pires; Vitis vinifera) by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and preparative-HPLC, an optimized preparative HSCCC condition with two-phase solvent system composed of Hex-EtOAc-H2O (1:50:50, v/v) was used to separate grape skin polyphenols into various fractions. Both the tail-head and head-tail elution modes were used with a flow rate of 3.0ml/min and a rotary speed of 950rpm. Afterwards, a preparative-HPLC separation was applied to isolate individual polyphenols in each of the fractions from HSCCC. Total of 7 fractions (Fraction A to G) were obtained from grape skin extract by HSCCC. After preparative-HPLC isolation, fifteen individual compounds were obtained, most of which presented high yields and purity (all over 90%). The HSCCC method followed with preparative-HPLC appeared to be convenient and economical, constituting an efficient strategy for the isolation of grape skin polyphenols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape-seed oils of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Colin; Hough, Patrick; Godward, John; Brereton, Paul; Lees, Michelle; Guiet, Sebastien; Winkelmann, Wilfried

    2006-08-23

    This paper describes the composition of 30 grape-seed oils obtained from France, Italy, and Spain during 2002-2003. Oils were extracted from the seeds using small-scale industrial solvent extraction equipment and analyzed in their unrefined state using standard methods for fatty acids, fatty acids in the triacylglycerol 2-position, tocopherols and tocotrienols, triglycerides, sterols, steradienes, and iodine value. Values for the composition of the sterols, triglycerides, fatty acids, iodine value, and tocopherol composition were generally in good agreement with the results of previous similar surveys. Steradienes (stigmastadiene, campestadiene, stigmastatriene, and campestatriene) were detected in the oil and were probably formed from sterols during the extraction process.

  18. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  19. A multidisciplinary study of archaeological grape seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, Tom; Geuna, Filippo

    2010-01-01

    We report here the first integrated investigation of both ancient DNA and proteins in archaeobotanical samples: medieval grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seeds, preserved by anoxic waterlogging, from an early medieval (seventh-eighth century A.D.) Byzantine rural settlement in the Salento area (Lecce...... potential to improve biomolecular analysis on ancient grape seeds from archaeological contexts. Although the investigation of five microsatellite loci cannot assign the ancient samples to any geographic region or modern cultivar, the results allow speculation that the material from York was not grown...

  20. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SOME PERSPECTIVE TABLE GRAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Burlakov M. M.; Rodionova L. Y.; Troshin L. P.; Chausov V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains results of the study of biochemistry of some perspective table grape varieties: Aniuta, Vodograi, Nizina and Jubilee Novocherkasska, yield in 2013 from the Central zone of Krasnodar region. At the time of redy yield the combination of sweetness and acidity of fruits were favorable. The ratio of fructose to glucose was 1.69; 1.36; 2.00; 1.13, respectively, in grapes Aniuta, Vodograi, Nisina, Jubilee Novocherkasska. According to the percentage of fructose in fruit juice var...

  1. Assessment of sensitization to grape and wine allergens as possible causes of adverse reactions to wine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeckels, Nadine; Bellinghausen, Iris; Fronk, Petra; Heydenreich, Bärbel; Saloga, Joachim; Decker, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    In a recently performed survey with 4000 randomly selected persons, 68 (7.2 %) of 948 respondents reported intolerance and/or allergy-like symptoms to wine. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a real sensitization to wine proteins could be confirmed by diagnostic and/or immunological settings. For this purpose, 19 subjects with self-reported intolerance to wine of the invited subjects and 10 controls without a history of intolerance participated in an allergological examination (skin prick test, ImmunoCAP for determination of specific IgE antibodies, CAST for testing basophil activation, ImmunoBlot for testing specificity of IgE-antibodies). For the allergological work-up red and white grapes, selected wines, and the purified lipid transfer protein (LTP), a known grape allergen, were used. 7 subjects showed evidence of IgE sensitization to wine or grape extracts, including one control. One participant with symptoms of intolerance showed a positive skin prick test to red grape, a positive ImmunoCAP to grape, a positive cellular antigen stimulation test (CAST) and inhibition of Western blot by removal of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD). The presented study focused on the grape protein-related IgE-mediated cause of intolerance to wine (true allergy) and not on other wine components or fining agents (other forms of intolerance). A sensitization to grape and wine proteins was observed in our cohort. In one case, this reactivity could be explained by cross-reactivity to CCD. The results of this pilot study need to be validated in greater cohorts.

  2. Physical methods of resveratrol induction in grapes and grape products - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triska, J.; Houska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trans-resveratrol ((E)-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a substance that is produced by a large number of plants as a phytoalexin. Resveratrol has been credited as being potentially responsible for the ''French paradox'' - the observation that the French have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats. This review deals with the methods serving for the increase of the resveratrol content in wine products - wine and grape juices. The methods reviewed are UV irradiation of grapes and ozonisation of grapes. The discussed methods describe the ways of increasing resveratrol contents in grapes and wine using ''natural'' methods. Resveratrol is increased endogenously and therefore, it need not be declared as the added substance on the product labels

  3. Red grape skin and seeds polyphenols: Evidence of their protective effects on endothelial progenitor cells and improvement of their intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Francesca; Zambito, Ylenia; Di Colo, Giacomo; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Fausto, Catia; Balbarini, Alberto; Di Stefano, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of grape skin and seeds to protect endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia (HG) compared to red wine (RW) and prepare innovative pharmaceutical systems for the oral administration of red grape extract allowing the overcoming of its poor intestinal absorption. Human EPC were characterized by expression of cell surface markers. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of total polyphenols from grape components or RW in the presence or absence of HG. Cell viability, migration, adhesion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assayed. Intestinal permeation of polyphenols was studied in the absence or presence of a quaternary ammonium-chitosan conjugate (N⁺(60)-Ch). Grape components and RW increased EPC viability, adhesion and migration, and prevented the HG effect (P grape seed extract and RW (P polyphenol permeability across the excised rat intestine. Red grape components are a source of antioxidant compounds that ameliorate EPC viability and function, while preventing endothelial dysfunction. The use of polycationic chitosan derivatives can promote the absorption of polyphenols across intestinal epithelium, thus increasing their bioavailability and potential therapeutic value in atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative in vitro fermentations of cranberry and grape seed polyphenols with colonic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Barroso, Elvira; van de Wiele, Tom; Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Martínez-Cuesta, M Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-09-15

    In this study, we have assessed the phenolic metabolism of a cranberry extract by microbiota obtained from the ascending colon and descending colon compartments of a dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (SHIME). For comparison, parallel fermentations with a grape seed extract were carried out. Extracts were used directly without previous intestinal digestion. Among the 60 phenolic compounds targeted, our results confirmed the formation of phenylacetic, phenylpropionic and benzoic acids as well as phenols such as catechol and its derivatives from the action of colonic microbiota on cranberry polyphenols. Benzoic acid (38.4μg/ml), 4-hydroxy-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid (26.2μg/ml) and phenylacetic acid (19.5μg/ml) reached the highest concentrations. Under the same conditions, microbial degradation of grape seed polyphenols took place to a lesser extent compared to cranberry polyphenols, which was consistent with the more pronounced antimicrobial effect observed for the grape seed polyphenols, particularly against Bacteroides, Prevotella and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tannin Composition of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Merlot Grapes from the Bordeaux Area for Different Vintages (2006 to 2009 and Comparison to Tannin Profile of Five 2009 Vintage Mediterranean Grapes Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleopatra Chira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The proanthocyandin composition of skins and seeds of Bordeaux Merlot (M and Cabernet Sauvignon (CS grapes was evaluated by HPLC-UV-fluorescence for four consecutive vintages (2006 to 2009. The results indicated a strong vintage effect on the tannin profile of each variety. However, and in spite of the vintage effect, some tannin characteristics such as mDP, %G and %P allow discrimination of both Bordeaux varieties. The same analyses were carried out for the 2009 vintage of five Mediterranean grape varieties (Syrah, Grenache, Mourvedre, Carignan and Counoise. The results demonstrated differences among these five varieties. Syrah appeared to exhibit the highest concentrations of flavanol monomers and dimmers, especially in skins. The comparison study between Bordeaux and Mediterranean grape varieties for the same vintage (2009 revealed that mDP and %G for seed extracts were parameters specific to each vineyard area.

  6. Gut Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols from Black Tea and Red Wine/Grape Juice Is Source-Specific and Colon-Region Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsten, van F.A.; Peters, S.; Gross, G.; Gomez-Roldan, V.; Klinkenberg, M.; Vos, de Ric; Vaughan, E.E.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Possemiers, S.; Wiele, van der T.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    The colonic microbial degradation of a polyphenol-rich black tea extract (BTE) and red wine/grape juice extract (RWGE) was compared in a five-stage in vitro gastrointestinal model (TWINSHIME). Microbial metabolism of BTE and RWGE polyphenols in the TWINSHIME was studied subsequently in single- and

  7. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Irede; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Meireles, M. Angela A.; Oliveira, J. Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil/carbon dioxide and (grape oil/carbon dioxide + ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over the temperature range of (313.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 20.6 MPa. The experiments were carried out using (ethanol + CO 2 ) overall mass fractions ranging from 0.50 to 0.99, keeping a fixed ethanol to carbon dioxide molar ratio at 1:3. Results indicate the existence of complex phase behaviour for all temperatures investigated with the occurrence of vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid phase transitions observed.

  9. Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Irede [Department of Food Engineering, School of Food Engineering, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Batista, Eduardo A.C.; Meireles, M. Angela A. [Department of Food Engineering, School of Food Engineering, Rua Monteiro Lobato, 80, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-862 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil/carbon dioxide and (grape oil/carbon dioxide + ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over the temperature range of (313.15 to 343.15) K and pressures up to 20.6 MPa. The experiments were carried out using (ethanol + CO{sub 2}) overall mass fractions ranging from 0.50 to 0.99, keeping a fixed ethanol to carbon dioxide molar ratio at 1:3. Results indicate the existence of complex phase behaviour for all temperatures investigated with the occurrence of vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid phase transitions observed.

  10. High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity in soil, grapes, leaves, grape juice and wine of grapevine from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Wu, Yun; Yan, Yin-Zhuo; Zou, Wan; Xue, Jie; Ma, Wen-Rui; Wang, Wei; Tian, Ge; Wang, Li-Ye

    2018-01-01

    In this study Illumina MiSeq was performed to investigate microbial diversity in soil, leaves, grape, grape juice and wine. A total of 1,043,102 fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) reads and 2,422,188 high qu