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Sample records for granulosa cell functions

  1. Functional study and regional mapping of 44 hormono-regulated genes isolated from a porcine granulosa cell library

    Hatey François

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract cDNA clones from a pig granulosa cell cDNA library were isolated by differential hybridisation for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH regulation in granulosa cells in a previous study. The clones that did not match any known sequence were studied for their expression in granulosa cells (treated or not by FSH and in fresh isolated ovarian follicles mainly by comparative RT-PCR analysis. These results give functional data on genes that may be implicated in follicular growing. These ESTs have been localised on the porcine genome, using a somatic cell hybrid panel, providing new type I markers on the porcine map and information on the comparative map between humans and pigs.

  2. Direct antigonadal activity of cannabinoids: suppression of rat granulosa cell functions.

    Adashi, E Y; Jones, P B; Hsueh, A J

    1983-02-01

    The direct effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and related cannabinoids on ovarian granulosa cells were studied in vitro. Granulosa cells from immature, hypophysectomized, estrogen-treated rats were cultured for 2 days in an androstenedione-supplemented medium in the presence or absence of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (10 ng/ml) with or without cannabinoids. FSH treatment increased progesterone and estrogen biosynthesis, whereas concomitant treatment with THC led to a dose-dependent inhibition of the FSH-stimulated accumulation of progesterone and estrogen with ED50 values of 3.5 +/- 0.3 X 10(-7) and 1.8 +/- 0.2 X 10(-6) M, respectively. Treatment with related but nonpsychoactive cannabinoids (cannabidiol, cannabinol, cannabigerol, or cannabichromene) was equally effective. The THC-induced inhibition of progesterone production was reversible and was associated with an inhibition of pregnenolone biosynthesis and a decrease of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. In addition, treatment with THC brought about a dose-dependent inhibition of the FSH-induced increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The inhibitory effects of THC were not associated with changes in cell number, protein content, or cell viability. Thus, THC exerts direct inhibitory effects on FSH-dependent functions related to steroidogenesis and the acquisition of LH receptors, all of which are essential to follicular maturation. Because plasma concentrations of THC similar to those used in this study have been reported in human beings, repeated exposure of female users to THC may lead to ovarian dysfunction, due in part, to the direct antigonadal activity to THC.

  3. Dysregulated genes and their functional pathways in luteinized granulosa cells from PCOS patients after cabergoline treatment.

    Ferrero, H; Díaz-Gimeno, P; Sebastián-León, P; Faus, A; Gómez, R; Pellicer, A

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder frequently associated with a substantial risk factor for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Dopamine receptor 2 (D2) agonists, like cabergoline (Cb2), have been used to reduce the OHSS risk. However, lutein granulosa cells (LGCs) from PCOS patients treated with Cb2 still show a deregulated dopaminergic tone (decreased D2 expression and low dopamine production) and increased vascularization compared to non-PCOS LGCs. Therefore, to understand the PCOS ovarian physiology, it is important to explore the mechanisms that underlie syndrome based on the therapeutic effects of Cb2. Here, LGCs from non-PCOS and PCOS patients were cultured with hCG in the absence/presence of Cb2 ( n  = 12). Subsequently, a transcriptomic-paired design that compared untreated vs treated LGCs within each patient was performed. After transcriptomic analysis, functions and genes were prioritized by systems biology approaches and validated by RT-qPCR. We identified that similar functions were altered in both PCOS and non-PCOS LGCs treated with Cb2; however, PCOS-treated LGCs exhibited more significant changes than non-PCOS. Among the prioritized functions, dopaminergic synapse, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, apoptosis and ovarian steroidogenesis were highlighted. Finally, network modeling showed CASP9 , VEGFA , AKT1 , CREB , AIF , MAOA , MAPK14 and BMAL1 as key genes implicated in these pathways in Cb2 response, which might be potential biomarkers for further studies in PCOS. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor overexpressed in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome ovaries is functionally active.

    Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu; Gordon, Uma D; López Bernal, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with anovulatory infertility. Luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotrophin receptor (LHCGR), which is critical for ovulation, has been suggested to be expressed prematurely in the ovarian follicles of women with PCOS. This study aimed to analyse the expression and activity of LHCGR in ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS patients and the involvement of ARF6 small GTPase in LHCGR internalization. Granulosa cells (GC) isolated from follicular fluid collected during oocyte retrieval from normal women (n = 19) and women with PCOS (n = 17) were used to study differences in LHCGR protein expression and activity between normal and PCOS patients. LHCGR expression is up-regulated in GC from PCOS women. LHCGR in PCOS GC is functionally active, as shown by increased cAMP production upon human gonadotrophin (HCG)-stimulation. Moreover, ARF6 is highly expressed in GC from PCOS patients and HCG-stimulation increases the concentrations of active ARF6. The inhibition of ARF6 activation attenuates HCG-induced LHCGR internalization in both normal and PCOS GC, indicating that there are no alterations in LHCGR internalisation in GC from PCOS. In conclusion, the expression and activation of LHCGR and ARF6 are up-regulated in GC from PCOS women but the mechanism of agonist-induced LHCGR internalization is unaltered. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of interleukin-8 on estradiol and progesterone production by bovine granulosa cells from large follicles and progesterone production by luteinizing granulosa cells in culture.

    Shimizu, Takashi; Kaji, Ayami; Murayama, Chiaki; Magata, Fumie; Shirasuna, Koumei; Wakamiya, Kaori; Okuda, Kiyoshi; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and is associated with the ovulate process. We examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by bovine granulosa cells before and after ovulation. The concentration of IL-8 in the follicular fluid of estrogen-active dominant (EAD) and pre-ovulatory follicles (POF) was higher than that of small follicles (SF). CXCR1 mRNA expression was higher in the granulosa cells of EAD and POF than that of SF. In contrast, CXCR2 mRNA expression was lower in granulosa cells of EAD and POF than in SF. IL-8 inhibited estradiol (E2) production in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. IL-8 also suppressed CYP19A1 mRNA expression in FSH-treated granulosa cells. IL-8 stimulated progesterone (P4) production in luteinizing hormone (LH)-treated granulosa cells at 48 h of culture. Although IL-8 did not alter the expression of genes associated with P4 production, it induced StAR protein expression in LH-treated granulosa cells. The expression of CXCR1 mRNA in corpus luteum (CL) did not change during the luteal phase. In contrast, the expression of CXCR2 mRNA in middle CL was significantly higher than in early and regression CL during the luteal phase. In luteinizing granulosa cells, an in vitro model of granulosa cell luteinization, CXCR2 mRNA expression was downregulated, whereas CXCR1 mRNA expression was unchanged. IL-8 also stimulated P4 production in luteinizing granulosa cells. These data provide evidence that IL-8 functions not only as a chemokine, but also act as a regulator of steroid synthesis in granulosa cells to promote luteinization after ovulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of fibronectin synthesis by rat granulosa cells in culture

    Skinner, M.K.; Dorrington, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The secreted and cellular [ 35 S]methionine-radiolabeled proteins of cultured rat granulosa cells were separated by electrophoresis on sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gradient slab gels. From 24 to 72 h of culture FSH increased the intensity of labeling of most of the secreted proteins. A 220,000-dalton protein, however, increased in intensity only in control cultures and became the major secreted protein after 72 h, comprising 20% of the total radiolabeled proteins. This protein was identified as fibronectin by immunoprecipitation. There was no increase in the secreted or cellular fibronectin in FSH- or testosterone- and insulin-treated cultures. These studies indicate that a component of extracellular matrix is a major secretory product of unstimulated immature granulosa cells. As hormones induce the differentiated functions of granulosa cells in culture, the secretion of fibronectin is inhibited

  7. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  8. 4-Aminopyridine Decreases Progesterone Production by Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Mitchell Brianna M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ion channels occur as large families of related genes with cell-specific expression patterns. Granulosa cells have been shown to express voltage-gated potassium channels from more than one family. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, an antagonist of KCNA but not KCNQ channels. Methods Granulosa cells were isolated from pig follicles and cultured with 4-AP, alone or in combination with FSH, 8-CPT-cAMP, estradiol 17β, and DIDS. Complimentary experiments determined the effects of 4-AP on the spontaneously established pig granulosa cell line PGC-2. Granulosa cell or PGC-2 function was assessed by radio-immunoassay of media progesterone accumulation. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Drug-induced changes in cell membrane potential and intracellular potassium concentration were documented by spectrophotometric determination of DiBAC4(3 and PBFI fluorescence, respectively. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR was assessed by immunoblotting. Flow cytometry was also used to examine granulosa cell viability and size. Results 4-AP (2 mM decreased progesterone accumulation in the media of serum-supplemented and serum-free granulosa cultures, but inhibited cell proliferation only under serum-free conditions. 4-AP decreased the expression of StAR, the production of cAMP and the synthesis of estradiol by PGC-2. Addition of either 8-CPT-cAMP or estradiol 17β to serum-supplemented primary cultures reduced the inhibitory effects of 4-AP. 4-AP treatment was also associated with increased cell size, increased intracellular potassium concentration, and hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. The drug-induced hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential was prevented either by decreasing extracellular chloride or by adding DIDS to the media. DIDS also prevented 4-AP inhibition of progesterone production

  9. Precocious pseudopuberty due to juvenile granulosa cell tumor

    Saeed, G.A.; Farooq, N.

    2003-01-01

    A case of precocious puberty occurring in a young girl is presented. Vaginal bleeding and secondary sexual characteristics had occurred at 7 years of age associated with an abdominal mass. These findings were due to a functional juvenile granulosa cell tumor in the right ovary. Right adenectomy was performed. Histopathology was confirmatory. (author)

  10. Dopamine receptor repertoire of human granulosa cells

    Kunz Lars

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of dopamine (DA were described in human ovary and recently evidence for DA receptors in granulosa and luteal cells has been provided, as well. However, neither the full repertoire of ovarian receptors for DA, nor their specific role, is established. Human granulosa cells (GCs derived from women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF are an adequate model for endocrine cells of the follicle and the corpus luteum and were therefore employed in an attempt to decipher their DA receptor repertoire and functionality. Methods Cells were obtained from patients undergoing IVF and examined using cDNA-array, RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. In addition, calcium measurements (with FLUO-4 were employed. Expression of two DA receptors was also examined by in-situ hybridization in rat ovary. Effects of DA on cell viability and cell volume were studied by using an ATP assay and an electronic cell counter system. Results We found members of the two DA receptor families (D1- and D2 -like associated with different signaling pathways in human GCs, namely D1 (as expected and D5 (both are Gs coupled and linked to cAMP increase and D2, D4 (Gi/Gq coupled and linked to IP3/DAG. D3 was not found. The presence of the trophic hormone hCG (10 IU/ml in the culture medium for several days did not alter mRNA (semiquantitative RT-PCR or protein levels (immunocytochemistry/Western blotting of D1,2,4,5 DA receptors. Expression of prototype receptors for the two families, D1 and D2, was furthermore shown in rat granulosa and luteal cells by in situ hybridization. Among the DA receptors found in human GCs, D2 expression was marked both at mRNA and protein levels and it was therefore further studied. Results of additional RT-PCR and Western blots showed two splice variants (D2L, D2S. Irrespective of these variants, D2 proved to be functional, as DA raised intracellular calcium levels. This calcium mobilizing effect of DA was observed

  11. The Cultivation of Human Granulosa Cells

    Lenka Brůčková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The major functions of granulosa cells (GCs include the production of steroids, as well as a myriad of growth factors to interact with the oocyte during its development within the ovarian follicle. Also FSH stimulates GCs to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells to estradiol by aromatase. However, after ovulation the GCs produce progesterone that may maintain a potential pregnancy. Experiments with human GCs are mainly focused on the purification of GCs from ovarian follicular fluid followed by FACS analysis or short-term cultivation. The aim of our study was to cultivate GCs for a long period, to characterize their morphology and phenotype. Moreover, we have cultivated GCs under gonadotropin stimulation in order to simulate different pathological mechanisms during folliculogenesis (e.g. ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. GCs were harvested from women undergoing in vitro fertilization. Complex oocyte-cumulus oophorus was dissociated by hyaluronidase. The best condition for transport of GCs was optimized as short transport in follicular fluid at 37 °C. GCs expansion medium consisted of DMEM/F12, 2 % FCS, ascorbic acid, dexamethasone, L-glutamine, gentamycine, penicillin, streptomycin and growth factors (EGF, bFGF. GCs transported in follicular fluid and cultivated in 2 % FCS containing DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with follicular fluid presented increased adhesion, proliferation, viability and decreased doubling time. Cell viability was 92 % and mean cell doubling time was 52 hrs. We have optimized transport and cultivation protocols for long-term cultivation of GCs.

  12. Prohibitin( PHB) roles in granulosa cell physiology.

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian granulosa cells (GC) play an important role in the growth and development of the follicle in the process known as folliculogenesis. In the present review, we focus on recent developments in prohibitin (PHB) research in relation to GC physiological functions. PHB is a member of a highly conserved eukaryotic protein family containing the repressor of estrogen activity (REA)/stomatin/PHB/flotillin/HflK/C (SPFH) domain (also known as the PHB domain) found in diverse species from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. PHB is ubiquitously expressed in a circulating free form or is present in multiple cellular compartments including mitochondria, nucleus and plasma membrane. In mitochondria, PHB is anchored to the mitochondrial inner membrane and forms complexes with the ATPases associated with proteases having diverse cellular activities. PHB continuously shuttles between the mitochondria, cytosol and nucleus. In the nucleus, PHB interacts with various transcription factors and modulates transcriptional activity directly or through interactions with chromatin remodeling proteins. Many functions have been attributed to the mitochondrial and nuclear PHB complexes such as cellular differentiation, anti-proliferation, morphogenesis and maintenance of the functional integrity of the mitochondria. However, to date, the regulation of PHB expression patterns and GC physiological functions are not completely understood.

  13. OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

    Bo Kang

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1, which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05. The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05. The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05, whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05. The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05. Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

  14. Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour: Anaplastic Variant with Omental Deposits

    Rao, Anuradha C.K.; Monappa, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumour (JGCT) of ovary represents a small fraction of all primary ovarian malignancies. It is a subtype of granulosa cell tumour that is almost always found during the first three decades of life. Histologically, it differs from the typical adult type of granulosa cell tumour. It accounts for 5-15% of all granulosa cell tumours, majority being unilateral. Herein, we describe an unusual histopathological variant of JGCT with numerous large cystic spaces, anaplasia and focal syncytiotrophoblast like giant cells. PMID:27042471

  15. Genotoxicity of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Granulosa Cells

    Marina Pöttler

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles that are aimed at targeting cancer cells, but sparing healthy tissue provide an attractive platform of implementation for hyperthermia or as carriers of chemotherapeutics. According to the literature, diverse effects of nanoparticles relating to mammalian reproductive tissue are described. To address the impact of nanoparticles on cyto- and genotoxicity concerning the reproductive system, we examined the effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs on granulosa cells, which are very important for ovarian function and female fertility. Human granulosa cells (HLG-5 were treated with SPIONs, either coated with lauric acid (SEONLA only, or additionally with a protein corona of bovine serum albumin (BSA; SEONLA-BSA, or with dextran (SEONDEX. Both micronuclei testing and the detection of γH2A.X revealed no genotoxic effects of SEONLA-BSA, SEONDEX or SEONLA. Thus, it was demonstrated that different coatings of SPIONs improve biocompatibility, especially in terms of genotoxicity towards cells of the reproductive system.

  16. Ovarian granulosa cell tumors : histopathology, immunopathology and prognosis

    S. Chadha-Ajwani (Savi)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractGranulosa cell tumors (GCT) of the ovary account for 2% of all ovarian tumors. As the name indicates, they are composed of granulosa cells but may also contain an admixture of theca cells. They are potentially malignant but, except for extraovarian spread, which is generally agreed

  17. Granulosa cell tumor of ovary: US findings

    Jin, Yong Hyun; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lee, Chang Dea; Cho, Young Kwon; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Myung Gyu; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Hye Kyung

    1999-01-01

    To describe ultrasonographic findings of ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) and to determine their possible value in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Sonographic appearances of ten cases of pathologically proven GC Ts were retrospectively reviewed regarding their location, size, outer margin, the echo pattern of the tumor, endometrial thickness, presence of ascites, and metastasis to adjacent tissue or distant sites. 3.0-3.5 MHz trans-abdominal US or 5.0-6.5 MHz transvaginal US were used. The sonographic features could be classified as follows: unilocular cystic mass without nodule or septation (type 1), multilocular cystic mass (type 2), and solid mass (type 3). Pathologically nine cases were adult type granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and one was a juvenile type. All cases were unilateral. GCT arising from left ovary were seven, right, three. The largest diameter of the tumors ranged from 6.8 to 24 cm (mean: 11.9 cm). All had well-defined margins. Ascites was seen in four cases. Among ten cases of GCT, six were mainly solid (type 3). One case manifested as a unilocular cystic mass without mural nodule or septation. Three were multilocular cystic masses and no mural nodule was found in all three cases. Metastases to peritoneum and lymph nodes was seen in one case. The ultrasonographic findings of GCT are various but combined with clinical and laboratory findings they could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors.

  18. Granulosa cell tumor of ovary: US findings

    Jin, Yong Hyun; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lee, Chang Dea; Cho, Young Kwon [Kun Kuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Yong Hyun [Korea University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Gyu [Korea University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Kang Nam Cha General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwa; Lee, Hye Kyung [Dan Kuk University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    To describe ultrasonographic findings of ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) and to determine their possible value in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Sonographic appearances of ten cases of pathologically proven GC Ts were retrospectively reviewed regarding their location, size, outer margin, the echo pattern of the tumor, endometrial thickness, presence of ascites, and metastasis to adjacent tissue or distant sites. 3.0-3.5 MHz trans-abdominal US or 5.0-6.5 MHz transvaginal US were used. The sonographic features could be classified as follows: unilocular cystic mass without nodule or septation (type 1), multilocular cystic mass (type 2), and solid mass (type 3). Pathologically nine cases were adult type granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and one was a juvenile type. All cases were unilateral. GCT arising from left ovary were seven, right, three. The largest diameter of the tumors ranged from 6.8 to 24 cm (mean: 11.9 cm). All had well-defined margins. Ascites was seen in four cases. Among ten cases of GCT, six were mainly solid (type 3). One case manifested as a unilocular cystic mass without mural nodule or septation. Three were multilocular cystic masses and no mural nodule was found in all three cases. Metastases to peritoneum and lymph nodes was seen in one case. The ultrasonographic findings of GCT are various but combined with clinical and laboratory findings they could be helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors.

  19. Cellular and exosome mediated molecular defense mechanism in bovine granulosa cells exposed to oxidative stress.

    Mohammed Saeed-Zidane

    Full Text Available Various environmental insults including diseases, heat and oxidative stress could lead to abnormal growth, functions and apoptosis in granulosa cells during ovarian follicle growth and oocyte maturation. Despite the fact that cells exposed to oxidative stress are responding transcriptionally, the potential release of transcripts associated with oxidative stress response into extracellular space through exosomes is not yet determined. Therefore, here we aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in bovine granulosa cells in vitro on the cellular and exosome mediated defense mechanisms. Bovine granulosa cells were aspirated from ovarian follicles and cultured in DMEM/F-12 Ham culture medium supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum. In the first experiment sub-confluent cells were treated with 5 μM H2O2 for 40 min to induce oxidative stress. Thereafter, cells were subjected to ROS and mitochondrial staining, cell proliferation and cell cycle assays. Furthermore, gene and protein expression analysis were performed in H2O2-challenged versus control group 24 hr post-treatment using qRT-PCR and immune blotting or immunocytochemistry assay, respectively. Moreover, exosomes were isolated from spent media using ultracentrifugation procedure, and subsequently used for RNA isolation and qRT-PCR. In the second experiment, exosomes released by granulosa cells under oxidative stress (StressExo or those released by granulosa cells without oxidative stress (NormalExo were co-incubated with bovine granulosa cells in vitro to proof the potential horizontal transfer of defense molecules from exosomes to granulosa cells and investigate any phenotype changes. Exposure of bovine granulosa cells to H2O2 induced the accumulation of ROS, reduced mitochondrial activity, increased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant genes (both mRNA and protein, altered the cell cycle transitions and induced cellular apoptosis. Granulosa cells

  20. Mural granulosa cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence

    Jiang Jin-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. Paracrine interactions between somatic and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocyte maturation. Studies have suggested that the health and function of the granulosa and cumulus cells may be reflective of the health status of the enclosed oocyte. The objective of the present study is to assess, using an in vivo immature rat model, gene expression profile in granulosa cells, which may be linked to the developmental competence of the oocyte. We hypothesized that expression of specific genes in granulosa cells may be correlated with the developmental competence of the oocyte. Methods Immature rats were injected with eCG and 24 h thereafter with anti-eCG antibody to induce follicular atresia or with pre-immune serum to stimulate follicle development. A high percentage (30-50%, normal developmental competence, NDC of oocytes from eCG/pre-immune serum group developed to term after embryo transfer compared to those from eCG/anti-eCG (0%, poor developmental competence, PDC. Gene expression profiles of mural granulosa cells from the above oocyte-collected follicles were assessed by Affymetrix rat whole genome array. Results The result showed that twelve genes were up-regulated, while one gene was down-regulated more than 1.5 folds in the NDC group compared with those in the PDC group. Gene ontology classification showed that the up-regulated genes included lysyl oxidase (Lox and nerve growth factor receptor associated protein 1 (Ngfrap1, which are important in the regulation of protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity, and in apoptosis induction, respectively. The down-regulated genes included glycoprotein-4-beta galactosyltransferase 2 (Ggbt2, which is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis. Conclusions The data in the present study demonstrate a close association between specific gene expression in mural granulosa cells and

  1. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  2. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming, E-mail: zengshenming@gmail.com

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  3. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  4. Paracrine effects of oocyte secreted factors and stem cell factor on porcine granulosa and theca cells in vitro

    Webb Bob

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oocyte control of granulosa and theca cell function may be mediated by several growth factors via a local feedback loop(s between these cell types. This study examined both the role of oocyte-secreted factors on granulosa and thecal cells, cultured independently and in co-culture, and the effect of stem cell factor (SCF; a granulosa cell derived peptide that appears to have multiple roles in follicle development. Granulosa and theca cells were isolated from 2–6 mm healthy follicles of mature porcine ovaries and cultured under serum-free conditions, supplemented with: 100 ng/ml LR3 IGF-1, 10 ng/ml insulin, 100 ng/ml testosterone, 0–10 ng/ml SCF, 1 ng/ml FSH (granulosa, 0.01 ng/ml LH (theca or 1 ng/ml FSH and 0.01 ng/ml LH (co-culture and with/without oocyte conditioned medium (OCM or 5 oocytes. Cells were cultured in 96 well plates for 144 h, after which viable cell numbers were determined. Medium was replaced every 48 h and spent medium analysed for steroids. Oocyte secreted factors were shown to stimulate both granulosa cell proliferation (P

  5. Radiologic findings of ovarian granulosa cell tumor

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To determine, through an analysis of radiologic findings, whether the findings of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are specific. The radiologic findings (ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) of 16 pathologically proven ovarian GCTs in 15 patients were retrospectively analysed for the site of origin, staging, largest diameter, margin, solid and/or cystic components, degree of enhancement, and associated endometrial hyperplasia, ascites, and local and/or distant metastasis. Unilateral ovarian GCTs were found in 14 patients, and bilateral tumors in one. Of a total of 16 tumors, 13 were of the adult type, and three were juvenile; their largest diameter ranged from 1 to 26(mean, 15.6)cm. Eleven tumors were well-defined, two were cystic, and one small tumor was solid. Of 13 mixed tumors, three had hemorrhagic portions, and five had multilocular cystic portions. Metastases to the uterus, tubes, rectum, lymph nodes, or liver were found in six patients, and associated endometrial hyperplasia in two. Radiologically, ovarian GCTs showed well-defined or encapsulated soft tissue masses with some hemorrhagic, multilocular or focal cystic components, as well as associated endometrial thickening and local or distant metastasis. These and clinical findings may be useful in the diagnosis of ovarian GCTs.

  6. SIRT1 induces resistance to apoptosis in human granulosa cells by activating the ERK pathway and inhibiting NF-κB signaling with anti-inflammatory functions.

    Han, Ying; Luo, Haining; Wang, Hui; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Yunshan

    2017-10-01

    SIRT1, a member of the sirtuin family, has recently emerged as a vital molecule in controlling ovarian function. The aims of the present study were to investigate SIRT1 expression and analyze SIRT1-mediated apoptosis in human granulosa cells (GCs). Human ovarian tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry for localization of SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 knockdown in a human ovarian GC tumor line (COV434) was achieved by small interfering RNA, and the relationship between apoptosis and SIRT1 was assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. We further detected SIRT1 expression in human luteinized GCs. Associations among SIRT1 knockdown, SIRT1 stimulation (resveratrol) and expression of ERK1/2 and apoptotic regulatory proteins were analyzed in cell lines and luteinized GCs. Resveratrol downregulated the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB/p65, but this inhibitory effect was attenuated by suppressing SIRT1 activity. The NF-κB/p65 inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate achieved similar anti-apoptosis effects. These results suggest that SIRT1 might play an anti-apoptotic role in apoptosis processes in GCs, possibly by sensing and regulating the ERK1/2 pathway, which has important clinical implications. Thus, our study provides a mechanistic link, whereby activation of SIRT1 function might help to sustain human reproduction by maintaining GCs as well as oocytes, offering a novel approach for developing a new class of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents.

  7. ANP promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells by NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex and improves ovary functions of PCOS rats.

    Zheng, Qin; Li, Yulin; Zhang, Dandan; Cui, Xinyuan; Dai, Kuixing; Yang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Tan, Jichun; Yan, Qiu

    2017-10-26

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complicated reproductive endocrine disease characterized by polycystic ovaries, hyperandrogenism and anovulation. It is one of the main causes of infertility. RU486 is an antagonist of progesterone receptor, and most commonly used as a contraceptive. However, whether RU486 is correlated with PCOS remains unclear. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a small peptide with natriuretic and diuretic functions, and its availability to be used in PCOS treatment is unknown. Here, we showed that the serum ANP level was lower in PCOS patients than that in healthy women, and it was also decreased in the serum and ovarian tissues of RU486-induced PCOS rats compared with the control rats. We also found that RU486 inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of human KGN ovarian granulosa cells by downregulating progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1). Meantime, ANP promoted the proliferation and inhibited the apoptosis of KGN cells through upregulating ANP receptor A (NPRA). The promotive effects of ANP on ovarian functions were mediated through the formation of an NPRA/PGRMC1/EGFR complex, which further activated MAPK/ERK signaling and transcription factor AP1. Moreover, ANP treatment reversed the PCOS symptoms, and improved the fertility of RU486-induced PCOS rats. Collectively, these findings highlight that RU486 is associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS, and ANP treatment may be a promising therapeutic option for PCOS.

  8. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  9. Granulosa cell tumor of scrotal tunics: a case report

    Ji, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyoung Sik [Pochon CHA University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of adult granulosa cell tumor arising in the scrotal tunics. The patient was a 34-year-old man who presented with right scrotal swelling, first noticed four months previously. Under the initial clinical impression of epididymoorchitis, antibiotic treatment was instituted but there was no response. The paratesticular nodules revealed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging mimicked intratesticular lesion, and radical orchiectomy was performed. Although several cases of adult testicular granulosa cell tumor, have been reported, the occurrence of this entity in the paratesticular area has not, as far as we are aware, been previously described.

  10. Fractalkine is expressed in the human ovary and increases progesterone biosynthesis in human luteinised granulosa cells

    Yan Jie

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence from rodent ovaries has demonstrated expression of fractalkine and the existence of fractalkine receptor, and showed that there is a significant increase in steroidogenesis in response to fractalkine, yet the role of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary is still unknown. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of fractalkine and CX3CR1 in the human ovary and to investigate their roles in sexual hormone biosynthesis by human luteinising granulosa cells. This is the first detailed report of fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression and function in the human ovary. Methods Fractalkine and CX3CR1 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemistry using ovarian tissue from pathological specimens from five individuals. Granulosa cells were obtained from patients during IVF treatment. They were cultured and treated with increasing doses of hCG with or without fractalkine. Media were collected to detect estradiol and progesterone by chemiluminescence. StAR, 3-βHSD and CYP11A expression were determined in granulosa cells treated with or without fractalkine by real-time RT-PCR. Results Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were expressed in the human ovary and in luteinising granulosa cells. However, fractalkine expression was stronger in luteinising granulosa cells. Treatment with fractalkine augmented hCG stimulation of progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner with concomitant increases in transcript levels for key steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, 3-βHSD and CYP11A but had no effect on estradiol biosynthesis(P Conclusions Fractalkine and CX3CR1 were found to express in human ovary and luteinising granulosa cells. Fractalkine can increase the biosynthesis of progesterone in a dose-dependent manner by enhancing transcript levels of key steroidogenic enzymes.

  11. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  12. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  13. Hormone therapy in ovarian granulosa cell tumors: a systematic review

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R. C. W.; Limpens, Jacqueline; van der Velden, Jacobus; Buist, Marrije R.

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review assessed the effectiveness of hormone therapy (HT) in patients with a granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary. Medline (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), prospective trial registers and PubMed (as supplied by publisher-subset)

  14. Flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors

    D. Chadha; C.J. Cornelisse; A. Schabert (A.)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The nuclear DNA content of 50 ovarian tumors initially diagnosed as granulosa cell tumors was measured by flow cytometry using paraffin-embedded archival material. The follow-up period of the patients ranged from 4 months to 19 years. Thirty-eight tumors were diploid or

  15. INHIBIN AS A MARKER FOR GRANULOSA-CELL TUMOR

    LAPPOHN, RE; BURGER, HG; BOUMA, J; BANGAH, M; KRANS, M

    1992-01-01

    In order to determine whether serum-immunoreactive inhibin could constitute a biochemical marker for the presence and progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors and their metastases, we measured immunoreactive inhibin concentrations in series of serum samples obtained from 8 patients with

  16. Hepatic Metastases of Granulosa Cell Tumour of the Ovary

    José I. Rodríguez García

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastatic granulosa cell tumour of the ovary is reported. Investigations revealed a secondary tumour in segment VI and VII of the liver. Right hepatic resection was performed. Microscopic findings revealed a tumour with histological features identical to that removed eleven years before.

  17. FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation in human granulosa cell tumors

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Qiu, Xin; Fang, Lanlan; Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Activin A stimulates cell proliferation in KGN human granulosa cell tumor-derived cell line. •Cyclin D2 mediates activin A-induced KGN cell proliferation. •FOXL2 induces follistatin expression in KGN cells. •FOXL2-induced follistatin attenuates activin A-stimulated KGN cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Human granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are rare, and their etiology remains largely unknown. Recently, the FOXL2 402C > G (C134W) mutation was found to be specifically expressed in human adult-type GCTs; however, its function in the development of human GCTs is not fully understood. Activins are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, which has been shown to stimulate normal granulosa cell proliferation; however, little is known regarding the function of activins in human GCTs. In this study, we examined the effect of activin A on cell proliferation in the human GCT-derived cell line KGN. We show that activin A treatment stimulates KGN cell proliferation. Treatment with the activin type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. In addition, our results show that cyclin D2 is induced by treatment with activin A and is involved in activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. Moreover, the activation of Smad signaling is required for activin A-induced cyclin D2 expression. Finally, we show that the overexpression of the wild-type FOXL2 but not the C134W mutant FOXL2 induced follistatin production. Treatment with exogenous follistatin blocks activin A-stimulated cell proliferation, and the overexpression of wild-type FOXL2 attenuates activin A-stimulated cell proliferation. These results suggest that FOXL2 may act as a tumor suppressor in human adult-type GCTs by inducing follistatin expression, which subsequently inhibits activin-stimulated cell proliferation.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of genome-wide DNA methylation across human polycystic ovary syndrome ovary granulosa cell.

    Xu, Jiawei; Bao, Xiao; Peng, Zhaofeng; Wang, Linlin; Du, Linqing; Niu, Wenbin; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-05-10

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 7% of the reproductive-age women. A growing body of evidence indicated that epigenetic mechanisms contributed to the development of PCOS. The role of DNA modification in human PCOS ovary granulosa cell is still unknown in PCOS progression. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation were detected between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Genome-wide DNA methylation was profiled to investigate the putative function of DNA methylaiton. Selected genes expressions were analyzed between PCOS' and controls' granulosa cell. Our results showed that the granulosa cell global DNA methylation of PCOS patients was significant higher than the controls'. The global DNA hydroxymethylation showed low level and no statistical difference between PCOS and control. 6936 differentially methylated CpG sites were identified between control and PCOS-obesity. 12245 differential methylated CpG sites were detected between control and PCOS-nonobesity group. 5202 methylated CpG sites were significantly differential between PCOS-obesity and PCOS-nonobesity group. Our results showed that DNA methylation not hydroxymethylation altered genome-wide in PCOS granulosa cell. The different methylation genes were enriched in development protein, transcription factor activity, alternative splicing, sequence-specific DNA binding and embryonic morphogenesis. YWHAQ, NCF2, DHRS9 and SCNA were up-regulation in PCOS-obesity patients with no significance different between control and PCOS-nonobesity patients, which may be activated by lower DNA methylaiton. Global and genome-wide DNA methylation alteration may contribute to different genes expression and PCOS clinical pathology.

  19. Radiologic findings of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary

    Sohn, Jung Eun; Kim, Kie Hwan; Yoo, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Chun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Chin, Soo Il [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Fourteen cases(fifteen tumors) of pathologically confirmed ovarian granulosa cell tumor were retrospectively analyzed on the basis of CT(n=10), MR imaging(n=4), and ultrasound(n=7) findings. The patients' mean age was 44.3(range, 5-71)years. The mean diameter of the tumors was 12.1(range, 5-26.5)cm. Thirteen cases were unilateral, and one was bilateral. Eleven tumors(ten cases) were mainly solid and eight of these had focal cystic components. Multilocular cysts accounted for three cases, and in two of these, mural nodules were present. One case was a unilocular cyst with no mural nodule. Ten cases were well demarcated. All the solid tumors were enhanced on postcontrast CT and MR imaging. Endometrial thickening was seen in five cases, ascites in six, and peritoneal implants or omental fat infiltration in five. One was associated with lymph node metastasis. All the postmenopausal patients had solid tumors, whereas 66.7%(4 of 6 cases) of young adults and children had cystic tumors. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary were solid or cystic;the former were more common. There were no characteristic findings which permitted definitive differentiation from other ovarian tumors.

  20. Differentiation of Mouse Ovarian Stem Cells Toward Oocyte-Like Structure by Coculture with Granulosa Cells.

    Parvari, Soraya; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Rajabi, Zahra; Gerayeli Malek, Valliollah; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence has confirmed existence and function of ovarian stem cells (OSCs). In this study, a novel approach on differentiation of OSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) has been addressed. Recently, different methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of OSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate OSCs. Cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured and formed colonies were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. For differentiation induction, colonies transferred on inactive granulosa cells. Results showed that cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the pluripotency characteristics of cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for OCT4, DAZL, MVH, and SSEA1 in colonies as well. Results of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence confirmed that some OLCs were generated within the germ stem cell (GSCs) colonies. The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economic than other techniques. Our results demonstrate that granulosa cells were effective in inducing the differentiation of OSCs into OLCs through direct cell-to-cell contacts.

  1. Evidence for alternative pathways of granulosa cell death in healthy and slightly atretic bovine antral follicles.

    Van Wezel, I L; Dharmarajan, A M; Lavranos, T C; Rodgers, R J

    1999-06-01

    Granulosa cell death is an early feature of atresia; however, there are many apparent contradictions in the literature concerning the mode of granulosa cell death. We have therefore examined this process in bovine healthy and atretic antral follicles, using a variety of established techniques. Light and electron microscopic observations indicated the presence of pyknotic or shrunken nuclei in both the membrana granulosa and the antrum. In the membrana granulosa, these nuclei were frequently crescent shaped and uniformly electron dense and were approximately the same size as healthy nuclei, all of which are typical of early apoptosis. However, these nuclei were within the membranes of a healthy granulosa cell, suggesting that phagocytosis by a neighboring granulosa cell is an unusually early event in the apoptotic pathway of granulosa cells. In the membrana granulosa, pyknotic nuclei stained intensely with hematoxylin but weakly with the DNA-intercalating stain propidium iodide. A percentage of these pyknotic nuclei stained by TUNEL (terminal deoxy-UTP nick end-labeling). However, in the antrum, the pyknotic nuclei and larger globules of DNA stained intensely with both hematoxylin and propidium iodide, but were not TUNEL positive. The comet assay of cell death produced a streak tail of randomly nicked DNA, rather than the plume of low mol wt apoptotic DNA. Globules collected from fresh follicular fluid stained intensely with propidium iodide and were shown by PAGE to contain DNA, the majority of which was high mol wt. In conclusion, granulosa cells within the membrana granulosa die by apoptosis, with phagocytosis by a neighboring cell preceding any potential budding of the nucleus or cell itself. Granulosa cells near the antrum are sloughed off into the antrum, and their death has features more consistent with that of other cell types that undergo death as a result of terminal differentiation.

  2. First case of juvenile granulosa cell tumor in an adult with Ollier disease.

    Rietveld, L.; Nieboer, T.E.; Kluivers, K.B.; Schreuder, H.W.B.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Ollier's disease (OD) is a rare disorder associated with the presence of multiple enchondromas. Granulosa cell tumors are rare sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors. This is the first report of a patient in her fourth decade with a combination of OD and juvenile granulosa cell tumor.A 36-year-old woman

  3. GGPP-Mediated Protein Geranylgeranylation in Oocyte Is Essential for the Establishment of Oocyte-Granulosa Cell Communication and Primary-Secondary Follicle Transition in Mouse Ovary.

    Chen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Folliculogenesis is a progressive and highly regulated process, which is essential to provide ova for later reproductive life, requires the bidirectional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells. This physical connection-mediated communication conveys not only the signals from the oocyte to granulosa cells that regulate their proliferation but also metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte for biosynthesis. However, the underlying mechanism of establishing this communication is largely unknown. Here, we report that oocyte geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, a metabolic intermediate involved in protein geranylgeranylation, is required to establish the oocyte-granulosa cell communication. GGPP and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (Ggpps levels in oocytes increased during early follicular development. The selective depletion of GGPP in mouse oocytes impaired the proliferation of granulosa cells, primary-secondary follicle transition and female fertility. Mechanistically, GGPP depletion inhibited Rho GTPase geranylgeranylation and its GTPase activity, which was responsible for the accumulation of cell junction proteins in the oocyte cytoplasm and the failure to maintain physical connection between oocyte and granulosa cells. GGPP ablation also blocked Rab27a geranylgeranylation, which might account for the impaired secretion of oocyte materials such as Gdf9. Moreover, GGPP administration restored the defects in oocyte-granulosa cell contact, granulosa cell proliferation and primary-secondary follicle transition in Ggpps depletion mice. Our study provides the evidence that GGPP-mediated protein geranylgeranylation contributes to the establishment of oocyte-granulosa cell communication and then regulates the primary-secondary follicle transition, a key phase of folliculogenesis essential for female reproductive function.

  4. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Shimizu, Takashi; Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Miyazaki, Koyomi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. →Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. → Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. →Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. → The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  5. Circadian Clock genes Per2 and clock regulate steroid production, cell proliferation, and luteinizing hormone receptor transcription in ovarian granulosa cells

    Shimizu, Takashi, E-mail: shimizut@obihiro.ac.jp [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Hirai, Yuko; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio [Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan); Miyazaki, Hitoshi [Gene Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Miyazaki, Koyomi [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression. {yields}Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom. {yields} Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. {yields}Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. {yields} The expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. -- Abstract: Circadian Clock genes are associated with the estrous cycle in female animals. Treatment with Per2 and Clock siRNAs decreased the number of granulosa cells and LHr expression in follicle-stimulating hormone FSH-treated granulosa cells. Per2 siRNA treatment did not stimulate the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom, whereas Clock siRNA treatment inhibited the production of estradiol and expression of P450arom mRNA. Per2 and Clock siRNA treatment increased and unchanged, respectively, progesterone production in FSH-treated granulosa cells. Similarly, expression of StAR mRNA was increased by Per2 siRNA and unchanged by Clock siRNA. Our data provide a new insight that Per2 and Clock have different action on ovarian granulosa cell functions.

  6. In vitro culture of oocytes and granulosa cells collected from normal, obese, emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes.

    Tripathi, S K; Farman, M; Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Gupta, Psp; Kumar, V Girish

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the oocyte morphology, its fertilizing capacity and granulosa cell functions in ewes (obese, normal, metabolic stressed and emaciated). Ewes (Ovis aries) of approximately 3 years of age (Bellary breed) from a local village were screened, chosen and categorized into a) normal b) obese but not metabolically stressed, c) Emaciated but not metabolically stressed d) Metabolically stressed based on body condition scoring and blood markers. Oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from ovaries of the ewes of all categories after slaughter and were classified into good (oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm), fair (oocytes one or two layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm) and poor (denuded oocytes or with dark ooplasm). The good and fair quality oocytes were in vitro matured and cultured with fresh semen present and the fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development were observed. The granulosa cells were cultured for evaluation of metabolic activity by use of the MTT assay, and cell viability, cell number as well as estrogen and progesterone production were assessed. It was observed that the good and fair quality oocytes had greater metabolic activity when collected from normal and obese ewes compared with those from emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes. No significant difference was observed in oocyte quality and maturation amongst the oocytes collected from normal and obese ewes. The cleavage and blastocyst production rates were different for the various body condition classifications and when ranked were: normal>obese>metabolically stressed>emaciated. Lesser metabolic activity was observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of emaciated ewes. However, no changes were observed in viability and cell number of granulosa cells obtained from ewes with the different body condition categories. Estrogen and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells were

  7. ANTIOXIDANT STATUS AND EXPRESSION OF HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN OF COBALT-TREATED PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS

    Marcela Capcarová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant status (TAS and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 of porcine ovarian granulosa cells cultured in vitro after cobalt (Co administrations. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated with cobalt sulphate administrations as follows: group E1 (0.09 mg.ml-1, group E2 (0.13 mg.ml-1, group E3 (0.17 mg.ml-1, group E4 (0.33 mg.ml-1, group E5 (0.5 mg.ml-1 and the control group without any additions for 18 h. Co administration developed stress reaction and promoted accumulation of Hsp70 what resulted in increasing activity of SOD. TAS of granulosa cells increased with higher doses of Co whereas low doses had no effect on this parameter. Trace elements can adversely affect animal female reproductive system and its functions, through either direct or indirect effects on oxidative stress induction.

  8. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    Buck, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

  9. Induction of Ski Protein Expression upon Luteinization in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Hyun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ski protein is implicated in proliferation/differentiation in a variety of cells. We had previously reported that Ski protein is present in granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in preovulatory follicles, suggesting that Ski has a role in apoptosis of granulosa cells. The alternative fate of granulosa cells other than apoptosis is to differentiate to luteal cells; however, it is unknown whether Ski is expressed and has a role in granulosa cells undergoing luteinization. Thus, the aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in the rat ovary during luteinizationto predict the possible role of Ski. In order to examine the expression pattern of Ski protein along with the progress of luteinization, follicular growth was induced by administration of equine chorionic gonadtropin to immature female rats, and luteinization was induced by human chorionic gonadtropin treatment to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH surge. While no Ski-positive granulosa cells were present in preovulatory follicle, Ski protein expression was induced in response to LH surge, and was maintained after the formation of the corpus luteum (CL. Though Ski protein is absent in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicle, its mRNA (c-Ski was expressed and the level was unchanged even after LH surge. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Ski protein expression is induced in granulosa cells upon luteinization, and suggests that its expression is regulated post-transcriptionally.

  10. Pathogenesis and treatment of adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Haltia, Ulla-Maija; Tapper, Johanna; McConechy, Melissa K; Huntsman, David G; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2017-08-01

    Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a clinically and molecularly unique subtype of ovarian cancer. These tumors originate from the sex cord stromal cells of the ovary and represent 3-5% of all ovarian cancers. The majority of adult-type granulosa cell tumors are diagnosed at an early stage with an indolent prognosis. Surgery is the cornerstone for the treatment of both primary and relapsed tumor, while chemotherapy is applied only for advanced or non-resectable cases. Tumor stage is the only factor consistently associated with prognosis. However, every third of the patients relapse, typically in 4-7 years from diagnosis, leading to death in 50% of these patients. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin B are currently the most accurate circulating biomarkers. Adult-type granulosa cell tumors are molecularly characterized by a pathognomonic somatic missense point mutation 402C->G (C134W) in the transcription factor FOXL2. The FOXL2 402C->G mutation leads to increased proliferation and survival of granulosa cells, and promotes hormonal changes. Histological diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumor is challenging, therefore testing for the FOXL2 mutation is crucial for differential diagnosis. Large international collaborations utilizing molecularly defined cohorts are essential to improve and validate new treatment strategies for patients with high-risk or relapsed adult-type granulosa cell tumor. Key Messages: Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a unique ovarian cancer with an indolent, albeit unpredictable disease course. Adult-type granulosa cell tumors harbor a pathognomonic somatic missense mutation in transcription factor FOXL2. The key challenges in the treatment of patients with adult-type granulosa cell tumor lie in the identification and management of patients with high-risk or relapsed disease.

  11. The effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on hormone production and apoptosis in human granulosa cells

    Gao Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Although many nanomaterials are being used in academia, industry and daily life, there is little understanding about the effects of nanoparticles on the reproductive health of vertebral animals, including human beings. An experimental study was therefore performed here to explore the effect of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on both steroid hormone production and apoptosis in human ovarian granulosa cells. Methods Calcium phosphate nanoparticles uptaking was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The cell cycle was assessed with propidium iodide-stained cells (distribution of cells in G0/G1, S, and G2/M phases by flow cytometry. The pattern of cell death (necrosis and apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI staining. The expression of mRNAs encoding P450scc, P450arom and StAR were determined by RT-PCR. Progesterone and estradiol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results TEM results confirmed that calcium phosphate nanoparticles could enter into granulosa cells, and distributed in the membranate compartments, including lysosome and mitochondria and intracellular vesicles. The increased percentage of cells in S phase when cultured with nanoparticles indicated that there was an arrest at the checkpoint from phase S-to-G2/M (from 6.28 +/- 1.55% to 11.18 +/- 1.73%, p Conclusion Calcium phosphate nanoparticles interfered with cell cycle of cultured human ovarian granulosa cells thus increasing cell apoptosis. This pilot study suggested that effects of nanoparticles on ovarian function should be extensively investigated.

  12. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα regulates granulosa cell tumor (GCT cell proliferation and migration through activation of multiple pathways.

    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.

  13. Removal of glycosaminoglycans from bovine granulosa cells contributes to increased binding of hydrogen-3 heparin

    Ax, R.L.; Stodd, C.M.; Boehm, S.K.; Bellin, M.E.

    1986-02-01

    Granulosa cells from small or large bovine follicles were pretreated with enzymes that hydrolyze various glycosaminoglycans, and binding of (/sup 3/H)-heparin to the granulosa was measured. Binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin increased significantly after enzymatic pretreatments with chondroitinase ABC and fungal hyaluronidase, and similar results were obtained with granulosa from small and large follicles. No changes in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin were detected after hydrolyses with chondroitinase AC and heparinase in either follicle size. Heparitinase, which hydrolyzes heparan sulfate, led to a significant 50% increase in binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin to granulosa from large follicles but was without effect in small follicles. These results suggest that the lower binding of (/sup 3/H) heparin, which has been reported with follicular enlargement, may be due to heparan sulfate occupying or obstructing binding sites for heparin on granulosa from large follicles.

  14. TLR4 activates NF-κB in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A.R.; Dau, Caroline; Johnson, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. → Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NFκB signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. → NFκB activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to IκB degradation and activation of NF-κB. NF-κB activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-κB p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-κB signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNFα plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-κB signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-κB does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  15. Testicular juvenile granulosa cell tumor in a newborn: case report and review of the literature.

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Alaish, Samuel M; Sun, Chen-Chih

    2007-07-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis of neonates and infants is an uncommon lesion frequently associated with abnormal sex chromosome and ambiguous genitalia. This report describes a juvenile granulosa cell tumor arising in the testis of a neonate. Chromosome analysis of the tumor showed a normal male karyotype 46 XY. Histopathology and immunohistochemical studies revealed the occurrence of 2 well-differentiated epithelial-like and smooth muscle-like components in the neoplasm. The morphologic clues leading to the correct diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor and the possible histogenesis are briefly discussed.

  16. EFFECT OF dbcAMP ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF PORCINE GRANULOSA CELLS in vitro

    Richard Alexa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide cAMP and its target protein kinase A (PKA dependent intracellular mechanisms can play an important role in regulation of ovarian cell function and in mediating gonadotropin action on these cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP (0; 0.1; 1 and 10 µg/ml or FSH (0; 0,01; 1 IU/ml on proliferation and apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells in vitro. Indices of cell apoptosis (expression of apoptotic peptide bax and proliferation (expression of proliferation-associated peptide PCNA within ovarian granulosa cells were analysed by immunocytochemistry. It was observed that accumulation of PCNA was increased by dbcAMP and FSH at all doses added. The occurrence of bax was also stimulated by dbcAMP after exposition (at 0,1 and 1 µg/ml, but not at dose 10 µg/ml and by FSH (at all doses added. The stimulatory effect of both dbcAMP and FSH on both ovarian cell apoptosis and proliferation suggest, that these substances may promote ovarian follicular cell turnover. The similarity of dbcAMP and FSH effect may indicate that FSH can affect ovarian functions via cAMP-dependent intracellular mechanisms. The present data may provide new tools to regulate human and animal reproductive processes via cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  17. Fetuin and fetuin messenger RNA in granulosa cells of the rat ovary

    Høyer, Poul Erik; Terkelsen, O B; Grete Byskov, A

    2001-01-01

    during maturation of the oocyte. We demonstrated fetuin mRNA in the rat ovary by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and localized it by in situ hybridization. Fetuin mRNA was present in all granulosa cells of growing and large follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the fetuin...... protein was only present in some of the small, growing follicles. In large, healthy follicles, fetuin protein was confined to cumulus cells and granulosa cells bordering the antrum. Fetuin was present in atretic follicles, but the staining pattern differed from that of healthy follicles. The follicular...... antrum contained a substantial amount of fetuin, but whether granulosa cells secreted it or it originated in the ovarian blood supply could not be confirmed. We concluded that at least a portion of the fetuin is produced by granulosa cells of growing and large follicles, suggesting that fetuin may...

  18. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA EXTRACT - EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG ON PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELL

    Attila Kádasi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential effect of green tea substance on basic ovarian functions. For this purpose, we examined the action of green tea bioactive molecule, epigallocatechin gallate (given at doses 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/mL, on cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Accumulation of PCNA (marker of proliferation, BAX (marker of apoptosis and the release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone were analysed by immunocytochemistry and RIA respectively. It was observed that epigallocatechin gallate addition decreased the percentage of proliferative (PCNA-positive cells at all used doses (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL. The percentage of apoptotic (BAX-positive cells was increased at the highest used dose (100 μg/mL, but not a lower doses. Epigallocatechin gallate stimulated progesterone release (at 10 μg/mL but not at 1 and 100 μg/mL and diminished testosterone release (at 1 μg/mL but not at 10 and 100 μg/mL by porcine granulosa cells. Our results suggest a direct effect of epigallocatechin gallate on proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis in porcine ovaries. Taken together, these data suggest that green tea molecule epigallocatechin gallate can negatively affect reproductive (ovarian functions – suppress ovarian cell proliferation, promote their apoptosis and alter release of steroid hormones.

  19. TGF-β1 resulting in differential microRNA expression in bovine granulosa cells.

    Xu, Yefen; Niu, Jiaqiang; Xi, Guangying; Niu, Xuezhi; Wang, Yuheng; Guo, Ming; Yangzong, Qiangba; Yao, Yilong; Sizhu, Suo Lang; Tian, Jianhui

    2018-07-15

    To explore the expression profile of the cellular miRNAs in bovine ovarian granulosa cells responding to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), the effect of TGF-β1 on cell proliferation was firstly investigated by CCK-8 method and the results showed that there was a significant inhibitory effect on bovine granulosa cell proliferation treated with 5/10 ng/mL human recombinant TGF-β1 for 24 h compared to the control (P cells stimulated with or without 10 ng/mL human recombinant TGF-β1. A total of 13,257,248 and 138,726,391 clean reads per library were obtained from TGF-β1 and control groups, respectively. There were 498 and 499 bovine-specific exist miRNAs (exist miRNAs), 627 and 570 conserved known miRNAs (known miRNAs), and 593 and 585 predicted novel miRNAs in TGF-β1 and control groups, respectively. A total of 78 miRNAs with significant differential expression, including 39 up-regulated miRNAs and 39 down-regulated miRNAs were identified in the TGF-β1 group compared with the control. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses of bta-miR-106a and bta-miR-1434-5p showed that their up-expressions were interrupted by SB431542, an inhibitor that blocks TGFβ1/Smad signaling, which supported the sequencing data. GO analysis showed involvement of the predicted genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs in a broad spectrum of cell biological processes, cell components, and molecular functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA targets further indicated that these differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in various signaling pathways, such as Wnt, MAPK, and TGF-β signaling, which might be involved in follicular development. These results provide valuable information on the composition, expression, and function of miRNAs in bovine granulosa cells responding to TGF-β1, and will aid in understanding the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β1 in granulosa cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

    Guerrero-Netro, Hilda M; Chorfi, Younès; Price, Christopher A

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins can reduce fertility and development in livestock, notably in pigs and poultry, although the effect of most mycotoxins on reproductive function in cattle has not been established. One major mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), not only targets immune cells and activates the ribotoxic stress response (RSR) involving MAPK activation, but also inhibits oocyte maturation in pigs. In this study, we determined the effect of DON on bovine granulosa cell function using a serum-free culture system. Addition of DON inhibited estradiol and progesterone secretion, and reduced levels of mRNA encoding estrogenic (CYP19A1) but not progestogenic (CYP11A1 and STAR) proteins. Cell apoptosis was increased by DON, which also increased FASLG mRNA levels. The mechanism of action of DON was assessed by western blotting and PCR experiments. Addition of DON rapidly and transiently increased phosphorylation of MAPK3/1, and resulted in a more prolonged phosphorylation of MAPK14 (p38) and MAPK8 (JNK). Activation of these pathways by DON resulted in time- and dose-dependent increases in abundance of mRNA encoding the transcription factors FOS, FOSL1, EGR1, and EGR3. We conclude that DON is deleterious to granulosa cell function and acts through a RSR pathway. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Granulosa cell tumor of ovary: A clinicopathological study of four cases with brief review of literature

    B R Vani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT is a rare ovarian malignancy having good prognosis in comparison with other epithelial tumors. The study aims to collect data of all granulosa cell tumors diagnosed in ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore over the last 3 years and to describe the patient profile, ultrasonographic and various histopathological features.Materials and Methods: A total of 4 granulosa cell tumors were diagnosed in ESIC Medical College & PGIMSR, Rajajinagar, Bangalore during the period from June 2010 to June 2013. The patient′s age, clinical manifestations, radiological and histopathological findings were evaluated.Results: All 4 patients were diagnosed as adult granulosa cell tumor, three of four cases were in premenopausal age group and one case was in perimenopausal age. The clinical manifestations were menorrhagia and abdominal pain. Ultrasonographically, 2 cases of granulosa cell tumors were both solid and cystic and one case each was either solid or cystic. Histologically, variety of patterns like diffuse, trabecular, cords, spindle and clear cells were noted. Both Call-Exner bodies and nuclear grooves were observed in all cases. All four cases showed simple hyperplasia without atypia endometrial findings. Follow up on all patients revealed no evidence of recurrence.Conclusion: Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a rare ovarian entity. The important prognostic factor is staging of the tumor. Staging and histopathology helps in prediction of survival. Also diligent endometrial pathology has to be sorted to rule out endometrial carcinoma.

  2. Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin does not increase progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells.

    Crochet, John R; Shah, Anish A; Schomberg, David W; Price, Thomas M

    2012-09-01

    Trophoblast-derived human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) promotes corpus luteum progesterone (P4) production, and wide ranges of serum P4 levels are noted in various pregnancy outcomes, despite similar hCG concentrations. There are five unique biologically active hCG variants in human pregnancy urine, and previous studies of P4 production in response to hCG have used only preparations containing all isoforms. Understanding exactly which hCG variant is primarily responsible for stimulating corpus luteum steroidogenesis may have great clinical and diagnostic implications, including in the setting of ectopic pregnancy. Our objective was to delineate the role of the standard and hyperglycosylated (H)-hCG isoforms in stimulating P4 production by luteinized granulosa cells. Cell culture, ELISA, and fluorometric-based protein assays were done at Duke University Medical Center. Patients were anonymous oocyte donors. Cultured luteinized granulosa cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ng/ml total hCG, which contains all isoforms, purified standard hCG (37.1 kDa), and purified H-hCG (42.8 kDa). P4 produced per total cellular protein (nanograms per microgram) was measured via ELISA and fluorometric protein determination kits. Both total hCG (P = 0.0003) and purified standard hCG (P production. Purified H-hCG did not change the P4 produced per total cellular protein response (P value not significant). Standard hCG stimulated P4 production by cultured granulosa cells and likely supports corpus luteum function via interactions with the LH/hCG receptor. In contrast, H-hCG did not increase P4 production, which indicates a nonsteroidogenic role for this protein during early gestation.

  3. Markers of stem cells in human ovarian granulosa cells: is there a clinical significance in ART?

    Varras Michail

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of gene expression of Oct-4 and DAZL, which are typical markers for stem cells, in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in women with normal FSH levels undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any clinical significance of such expression in ART. Methods Twenty one women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded separately and granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse-transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis for Oct-4 and DAZL gene expression with G6PD gene as internal standard. Results G6PD and Oct-4 mRNA was detected in the granulosa cells in 47.6% (10/21. The median of Oct-4 mRNA/G6PD mRNA was 1.75 with intra-quarteral range from 0.10 to 98.21. The OCT-4 mRNA expression was statistically significantly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved; when the Oct-4 mRNA expression was higher, then more than six oocytes were retrieved (p=0.037, Wilcoxon rank-sum. No detection of DAZL mRNA was found in granulosa cells. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between the levels of Oct-4 expression and FSH basal levels or estradiol peak levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction. No association was found between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells and ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation. Also, no influence on pregnancy was observed between the presence or absence of Oct-4 mRNA expression in granulosa cells or to its expression levels accordingly. Conclusions Expression of OCT-4 mRNA, which is a typical stem cell marker and absence of expression of DAZL mRNA, which is a typical germ cell marker, suggest that a subpopulation of luteinized granulosa cells in healthy ovarian follicles (47

  4. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  5. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-01-01

    Background Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. Findings In...

  6. Effects of progesterone and its metabolites on human granulosa cells.

    Pietrowski, D; Gong, Y; Mairhofer, M; Gessele, R; Sator, M

    2014-02-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is under control of gonadotrophic hormones and produces progesterone, which is necessary for endometrial receptivity. Recent studies have shown that progesterone and its metabolites are involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Here weanalyzed the role of progesterone and its meta-bolites on luteinized granulosa cells (LGC) by FACS analysis and quantitative Real-Time PCR. We detected the mRNA of the progesterone metabolizing genes SRD5A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C2 in LGC. The stimulation of LGC with progesterone or progesterone metabolites did not show any effect on the mRNA expression of these genes. However, a downregulation of Fas expression was found to be accomplished by progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin. Our findings do not support the concept of an effect of progesterone metabolites on LGCs. However, it suggests an antiapoptotic effect of hCG and progesterone during corpus luteum development by downregulation of Fas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Dual effect of insulin resistance and cadmium on human granulosa cells - In vitro study

    Belani, Muskaan, E-mail: muskaanbelani@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, Gujarat, India. (India); Shah, Preeti, E-mail: preeti.shah@novaivifertility.com [Nova IVI Fertility, Behind Xavier' s Ladies Hostel, 108, Swastik Society Rd., Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 390009, Gujarat, India. (India); Banker, Manish, E-mail: manish.banker@novaivifertility.com [Nova IVI Fertility, Behind Xavier' s Ladies Hostel, 108, Swastik Society Rd., Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 390009, Gujarat, India. (India); Gupta, Sarita, E-mail: saritagupta9@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002, Gujarat, India. (India)

    2016-12-15

    Combined exposure of cadmium (Cd) and insulin resistance (IR) might be responsible for subfertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Cd in vitro in IR human granulosa cells. Isolated human granulosa cells from control and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follicular fluid samples were confirmed for IR by decrease in protein expression of insulin receptor-β. Control and IR human granulosa cells were then incubated with or without 32 μM Cd. The combined effect of IR with 32 μM Cd in granulosa cells demonstrated significant decrease in expression of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD, FSH-R and LH-R. Decrease was also observed in progesterone and estradiol concentrations as compared to control. Additionally, increase in protein expression of cleaved PARP-F2, active caspase-3 and a positive staining for Annexin V and PI indicated apoptosis as the mode of increased cell death ultimately leading to decreased steroidogenesis, as observed through the combined exposure. Taken together the results suggest decrease in steroidogenesis ultimately leading to abnormal development of the follicle thus compromising fertility at the level of preconception. - Highlights: • Protein expression of INSR-β in granulosa cells to differentiate PCOS-IR and NIR • Cd and IR together decrease steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells in vitro. • Cd and IR increase human granulosa cell death by increase in apoptosis. • Environment and life style are set to hamper pregnancies at preconception level.

  8. Dual effect of insulin resistance and cadmium on human granulosa cells - In vitro study

    Belani, Muskaan; Shah, Preeti; Banker, Manish; Gupta, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Combined exposure of cadmium (Cd) and insulin resistance (IR) might be responsible for subfertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Cd in vitro in IR human granulosa cells. Isolated human granulosa cells from control and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follicular fluid samples were confirmed for IR by decrease in protein expression of insulin receptor-β. Control and IR human granulosa cells were then incubated with or without 32 μM Cd. The combined effect of IR with 32 μM Cd in granulosa cells demonstrated significant decrease in expression of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP19A1, 17β-HSD, 3β-HSD, FSH-R and LH-R. Decrease was also observed in progesterone and estradiol concentrations as compared to control. Additionally, increase in protein expression of cleaved PARP-F2, active caspase-3 and a positive staining for Annexin V and PI indicated apoptosis as the mode of increased cell death ultimately leading to decreased steroidogenesis, as observed through the combined exposure. Taken together the results suggest decrease in steroidogenesis ultimately leading to abnormal development of the follicle thus compromising fertility at the level of preconception. - Highlights: • Protein expression of INSR-β in granulosa cells to differentiate PCOS-IR and NIR • Cd and IR together decrease steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells in vitro. • Cd and IR increase human granulosa cell death by increase in apoptosis. • Environment and life style are set to hamper pregnancies at preconception level.

  9. THE EFFECT OF CURCUMIN ON SECRETORY ACTIVITY, PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF THE PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS

    Attila Kádasi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of natural plant (Curcuma longa molecule curcumin on secretory activity, proliferation and apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells. The secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, accumulation of PCNA (marker of proliferation and bax (marker of apoptosis in granulosa cells of swine ovaries after curcumin treatment at the doses 0, 1, 10, 100 μg.mL-1 was determined by RIA and immunocytochemistry. It was observed that, addition of curcumin stimulated progesterone (at doses 1 and 10 μg.mL-1, but not 100 μg.mL-1 and testosterone at (100 μg.mL-1 but not 1 and 10 μg.mL-1 release. The number of cells contained PCNA was down-regulated by curcumin administration (at dose of 10 μg.mL-1, but not of 1 and 100 μg.mL-1. Bax expression was stimulated by curcumin at all doses added. Our results suggest a direct effect of curcumin on ovarian functions: steroidogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis. This could suggest antireproductive properties of curcumin in swine ovaries.

  10. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone

  11. Morphology and steroidogenesis of cultured granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of women treated with ionizing radiation

    Skrzypczak, J.

    1997-01-01

    The object of the study was the morphology and steroidogenesis of cultured granulosa cells obtained from 6 women aged 28-39 years who, because of Ib cervix carcinoma, were treated with ionizing radiation and later underwent surgery. It was observed that the granulosa cells were viable, had strong proliferative ability, and formed a monolayer on day 2 of culture. Contrary to our expectations, these cells produced larger amounts of steroids in culture than the control cells harvested from normal ovaries in late follicular phase. It was also found that the cells treated with ionizing radiation responded to exogenous gonadotropins with higher production of progesterone and estradiol than the controls. It is concluded that the increase in metabolic activity by granulosa cells from ovaries which had been indirectly affected by ionizing radiation is manifested by the stimulating influence of radiation on steroidogenesis. (author)

  12. Overexpression of miR-21 in stem cells improves ovarian structure and function in rats with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by targeting PDCD4 and PTEN to inhibit granulosa cell apoptosis.

    Fu, Xiafei; He, Yuanli; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Dongxian; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Xinran; Wang, Qing

    2017-08-14

    Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe complication affecting tumor patients at a childbearing age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can partially restore the ovarian structure and function damaged by chemotherapy. miR-21 is a microRNA that can regulate cell apoptosis. This study discusses the repair effect and mechanism of MSCs overexpressing miR-21 on chemotherapy-induced POF. Rat MSCs and granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated in vitro. MSCs were transfected with miR-21 lentiviral vector (LV-miR-21) to obtain MSCs stably expressing miR-21 (miR-21-MSCs). The microenvironment of an ovary receiving chemotherapy was mimicked by adding phosphamide mustard (PM) into the cellular culture medium. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 were detected in MSCs. Apoptosis was induced by adding PM into the culture medium for GCs, which were cocultured with miR-21-MSCs. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were detected. The chemotherapy-induced POF model was built into rats by intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide injection. miR-21-MSCs were transplanted into the bilateral ovary. The rats were sacrificed at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the last injection. The ovarian weights, follicle count, estrous cycle, and sex hormone levels (estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were detected. Apoptosis of GCs was determined by TUNEL assay. The miR-21 and mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were determined. The apoptosis decreased in MSCs transfected with miR-21. The mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 was downregulated. GCs cocultured with miR-21-MSCs showed a decreased apoptosis, an upregulation of miR-21, and a downregulation of PTEN and PDCD4. Following the injection of miR-21-MSCs, the ovarian weight and follicle counts increased; E 2 levels increased while FSH levels decreased, with less severe apoptosis of GCs. The miR-21 expression

  13. Local effect of bisphenol A on the estradiol synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells from PCOS.

    Wang, Yuan; Zhu, Qinling; Dang, Xuan; He, Yaqiong; Li, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Close relationship between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and bisphenol A (BPA) has drawn much attention in recent years, while the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In our study, we aim to detect BPA concentration in the follicular fluid and investigate its effect on estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells from PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Follicular fluid and granulosa cells were collected from women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. BPA concentration in the follicular fluid from PCOS patients (440.50 ± 63.70 pg/ml) was significantly higher than that from non-PCOS patients (338.00 ± 57.88 pg/ml). Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis in cultured granulosa cells was examined after treatment with BPA from 0.01 to 1 μM for 24 h. Expression of aromatase and estradiol synthesis was downregulated by BPA in a dose-dependent manner in PCOS, but no effect was observed in granulosa cells from non-PCOS patients. These findings provide evidence that increased BPA concentration in the follicular fluid of PCOS patients may play an important role in its pathogenesis by attenuating the expression of aromatase in granulosa cells.

  14. TLR4 activates NF-{kappa}B in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells

    Woods, Dori C., E-mail: dwoods2@partners.org [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); White, Yvonne A.R. [Vincent Center for Reproductive Biology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Dau, Caroline [University of California, San Francisco, School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Johnson, A.L. [Center for Reproductive Biology and Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} TLR4 is expressed in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} Acting through TLR4, LPS and HSP60 induce a NF{kappa}B signaling cascade in human ovarian granulosa tumor cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B activation or inhibition did not alter chemosensitivity to TRAIL or cisplatin. -- Abstract: Previous studies have demonstrated expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the surface epithelium of normal ovaries (OSE) and in epithelial ovarian tumors. Most notably, OSE-derived cancers express TLR4, which activates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling cascade as a mediator of inflammatory response. Currently, there is considerable interest in elucidating the role of TLR-mediated signaling in cancers. Nevertheless, the expression of TLRs in granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary, and the extent to which GCT expression of TLRs may influence cell-signaling pathways and/or modulate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, has yet to be determined. In the present study, human GCT lines (COV434 and KGN) were utilized to evaluate expression of functional TLR4. TLR4 is expressed in GCT cell lines and ligation of TLR4 with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to I{kappa}B degradation and activation of NF-{kappa}B. NF-{kappa}B activation was confirmed by nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65 following treatment with LPS and the naturally occurring ligand, HSP60. Notably, immunoneutralization of TLR4 blocked nuclear localization, and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling attenuated LPS-induced TNF{alpha} plus increased doubling time in both cell lines. Contradictory to reports using human OSE cell lines, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B signaling failed to sensitize GCT lines to TRAIL or cisplatin. In summary, findings herein are the first to demonstrate a functional TLR-signaling pathway specifically in GCTs, and indicate that in contrast to OSE-derived cancers, inhibition of NF-{kappa}B does not sensitize GCTs to TRAIL or cisplatin.

  15. Differential regulation of ANG2 and VEGF-A in human granulosa lutein cells by choriogonadotropin.

    Pietrowski, D; Keck, C

    2004-04-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum after rupture of the follicle is a highly regulated process characterised by a rapid vascularization of the follicle surrounding granulosa cells. Vascularization is regulated by a large number of growth factors and cytokines whereas members of the angiopoietin family and VEGF-A are reported to play a principal role. The gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone and choriogonadotropin are reported to be essential for corpus luteum formation. In this study we investigated by RT PCR if the growth factors PGF, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D, ANG1, ANG2, ANG3 and ANG4 are expressed in granulosa cells. We show the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-B, PDGF-A, ANG1 and ANG2 in granulosa cells. Using RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR we demonstrate that angiopoietin 2 is downregulated in human granulosa cells in vitro after choriogonadotropin treatment whereas the expression of angiopoietin 1 is not significantly altered. The expression of VEGF on the RNA- and on the protein level was determined. It was shown that in granulosa cells VEGF is upregulated after choriogonadotropin treatment on the RNA level and that increasing concentrations of choriogonadotropin from 0 to 10 U/ml leads to an increasing amount of VEGF in the cell culture supernatants. The amount of VEGF in the supernatants reaches a plateau at 0.5 U/ml and is increased only slightly and not significantly after treatment of the cells with 10 U/ml choriogonadotropin compared to 0.5 U/ml. In total these findings suggests that in granulosa cells the mRNA of various growth factors is detectable by RT-PCR and that VEGF-A and ANG2 is regulated by the gonadotropic hormone choriogonadotropin. These findings may add impact on the hypothesis of choriogonadotropin as a novel angiogenic factor.

  16. TGF-β1 downregulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production through Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

    Fang, Lanlan; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Leung, Peter C K; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2014-11-01

    Regulation of progesterone production in granulosa cells is important for normal reproductive functions. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is recognized as the key regulatory protein involved in the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. TGF-β1 protein is detected in human follicular fluid, and TGF-β1 and its receptors are expressed in human granulosa cells. However, the functional role of TGF-β1 in the regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells remains unknown. Our objective was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells. SVOG cells are human granulosa cells that were obtained from women undergoing in vitro fertilization and immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. SVOG cells were used to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production at an academic research center. Levels of mRNA and protein were examined by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. The accumulation levels of progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TGF-β1 treatment downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effects of TGF-β1 on StAR expression and progesterone production were abolished by the inhibition of TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with TGF-β1 activated the Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The inhibition of the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the TGF-β1-induced downregulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. TGF-β1 downregulated StAR expression and decreased progesterone production by activating the Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa cells.

  17. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M; Freude, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte......) involved in these mechanisms. We found a range of evidence that good IVP outcome is positively correlated with early follicular atresia. Furthermore we showed that high genetic index bulls can be used in breeding without reducing the IVP performances. These findings can contribute to the development......, TNFAIP6 and TXNDC11 were negatively associated while Mx1 and STC1 were positively associated with all IVP scores. Functional analysis highlighted a wide range of biological mechanisms including apoptosis, cell development and proliferation and four key upstream regulators (COX2, IL1, PRL, TRIM24...

  18. Transcriptome comparisons identify new cell markers for theca interna and granulosa cells from small and large antral ovarian follicles.

    Nicholas Hatzirodos

    Full Text Available In studies using isolated ovarian granulosa and thecal cells it is important to assess the degree of cross contamination. Marker genes commonly used for granulosa cells include FSHR, CYP19A1 and AMH while CYP17A1 and INSL3 are used for thecal cells. To increase the number of marker genes available we compared expression microarray data from isolated theca interna with that from granulosa cells of bovine small (n = 10 for both theca and granulosa cells; 3-5 mm and large (n = 4 for both theca and granulosa cells, > 9 mm antral follicles. Validation was conducted by qRT-PCR analyses. Known markers such as CYP19A1, FSHR and NR5A2 and another 11 genes (LOC404103, MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, CSN2, GPX3, SLC35G1, CA8, CLGN, FAM78A, SLC16A3 were common to the lists of the 50 most up regulated genes in granulosa cells from both follicle sizes. The expression in theca interna was more consistent than in granulosa cells between the two follicle sizes. Many genes up regulated in theca interna were common to both sizes of follicles (MGP, DCN, ASPN, ALDH1A1, COL1A2, FN1, COL3A1, OGN, APOD, COL5A2, IGF2, NID1, LHFP, ACTA2, DUSP12, ACTG2, SPARCL1, FILIP1L, EGFLAM, ADAMDEC1, HPGD, COL12A1, FBLN5, RAMP2, COL15A1, PLK2, COL6A3, LOXL1, RARRES1, FLI1, LAMA2. Many of these were stromal extracellular matrix genes. MGARP, GLDC, CHST8, GPX3 were identified as new potential markers for granulosa cells, while FBLN5, OGN, RAMP2 were significantly elevated in the theca interna.

  19. Homeobox A7 increases cell proliferation by up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in human granulosa cells

    Yanase Toshihiko

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox (HOX genes encode transcription factors, which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. The deregulation of HOX genes is frequently associated with human reproductive system disorders. However, knowledge regarding the role of HOX genes in human granulosa cells is limited. Methods To determine the role of HOXA7 in the regulation and associated mechanisms of cell proliferation in human granulosa cells, HOXA7 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expressions were examined in primary granulosa cells (hGCs, an immortalized human granulosa cell line, SVOG, and a granulosa tumor cell line, KGN, by real-time PCR and Western blotting. To manipulate the expression of HOXA7, the HOXA7 specific siRNA was used to knockdown HOXA7 in KGN. Conversely, HOXA7 was overexpressed in SVOG by transfection with the pcDNA3.1-HOAX7 vector. Cell proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. Results Our results show that HOXA7 and EGFR were overexpressed in KGN cells compared to hGCs and SVOG cells. Knockdown of HOXA7 in KGN cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and EGFR expression. Overexpression of HOXA7 in SVOG cells significantly promoted cell growth and EGFR expression. Moreover, the EGF-induced KGN proliferation was abrogated, and the activation of downstream signaling was diminished when HOXA7 was knocked down. Overexpression of HOXA7 in SVOG cells had an opposite effect. Conclusions Our present study reveals a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating granulosa cell proliferation via the regulation of EGFR. This finding contributes to the knowledge of the pro-proliferation effect of HOXA7 in granulosa cell growth and differentiation.

  20. Spontaneous transformation of human granulosa cell tumours into an aggressive phenotype: a metastasis model cell line

    Imai, Misa; Muraki, Miho; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Saito, Hidekazu; Seiki, Motoharu; Takahashi, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) are frequently seen in menopausal women and are relatively indolent. Although the physiological properties of normal granulosa cells have been studied extensively, little is known about the molecular mechanism of GCT progression. Here, we characterise the unique behavioural properties of a granulosa tumour cell line, KGN cells, for the molecular analysis of GCT progression. Population doubling was carried out to examine the proliferation capacity of KGN cells. Moreover, the invasive capacity of these cells was determined using the in vitro invasion assay. The expression level of tumour markers in KGN cells at different passages was then determined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the growth and metastasis of KGN cells injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into nude mice was observed 3 months after injection. During in vitro culture, the advanced passage KGN cells grew 2-fold faster than the early passage cells, as determined by the population doubling assay. Moreover, we found that the advanced passage cells were 2-fold more invasive than the early passage cells. The expression pattern of tumour markers, such as p53, osteopontin, BAX and BAG-1, supported the notion that with passage, KGN cells became more aggressive. Strikingly, KGN cells at both early and advanced passages metastasized to the bowel when injected s.c. into nude mice. In addition, more tumour nodules were formed when the advanced passage cells were implanted. KGN cells cultured in vitro acquire an aggressive phenotype, which was confirmed by the analysis of cellular activities and the expression of biomarkers. Interestingly, KGN cells injected s.c. are metastatic with nodule formation occurring mostly in the bowel. Thus, this cell line is a good model for analysing GCT progression and the mechanism of metastasis in vivo

  1. Effect of Lipopolysaccharide on Progesterone Production during Luteinization of Granulosa and Theca cells In Vitro.

    Shimizu, Takashi; Echizenya, Riku; Miyamoto, Akio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on progesterone production during luteinization of granulosa and theca cells isolated from bovine large follicles. Granulosa and theca cells isolated from large follicles of bovine ovaries were exposed to LPS under appropriate hormone conditions in vitro. Progesterone (P4) production in theca cells, but not granulosa cells, was decreased by long-term exposure of LPS. Long-term exposure of LPS suppressed the gene expression of luteinizing hormone receptor in theca cells. Although long-term exposure of LPS did not affect the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) genes, it did inhibit the protein expression of StAR and 3β-HSD in theca cells. These findings suggest that theca cells, rather than granulosa cells, are susceptible to LPS during luteinization and that LPS inhibits P4 production by decreasing protein levels of StAR during luteinization of theca cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Expression of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their ligands in human Granulosa lutein cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Xu, Y; Zagoura, D; Keck, C; Pietrowski, D

    2006-11-01

    Corpus luteum development is regulated by gonadotropins and accompanied by extremely rapid vascularization of the avascular granulosa cell compartiment by endothelial cells (EC). The proliferation of Granulosa cells (GC) and EC is a complex interplay and takes place in a spatially and temporarily coordinated manner. The erythropoietin-producing hepatoma amplified sequence (Eph) receptors and their ligands-the ephrins- are a recently detected family of membrane located protein tyrosine kinases which play a crucial role in the growth and development of nerve and blood vessel network. We report about the mRNA expression pattern of Ephs and their ligands in human GC, in human EC, and in carcinoma cell lines OvCar-3 and Hela. The mRNA of EphA4, EphA7, ephrinA4, ephrinB1 and ephrinB2 was detected in GC and EC, while EphA2 was expressed only in GC. The expression of various Ephs and ephrins did not change in GC after stimulation with human chorion gonadotropin. Our study analyzes for the first time the expression of the complete human Eph/ephriny-system in GC and in EC. The remarkable similarity between these two cell types supports the theory of a functional relationship of EC and GC. In addition, it was shown that hCG is not a major determinant of Eph/ephrin regulation in GC.

  3. Canine ovarian neoplasms: a clinicopathologic study of 71 cases, including histology of 12 granulosa cell tumors.

    Patnaik, A K; Greenlee, P G

    1987-11-01

    In a retrospective study of 71 primary ovarian tumors in the dog, epithelial tumors (46%) were more common than sex cord stromal (34%) and germ cell tumors (20%). There were more adenocarcinomas (64%) than adenomas. Sex cord stromal tumors were equally divided into Sertoli-Leydig (12/24) and granulosa cell tumors (12/24). There were equal numbers (7/14) of dysgerminomas and teratomas among the germ cell tumors. Most teratomas (6/7) were malignant. Most granulosa cell tumors were solid; two were mostly cystic. Patterns included sheets of round and ovoid to spindle-shaped cells separated by thin, fibrovascular stroma; neoplastic cells formed rosettes or Call-Exner bodies. In some areas, neoplastic cells were in cords or columns and formed cyst-like structures. Four granulosa cell tumors were macrofollicular, having cysts lined with granulosa cells. Median ages of dogs with different ovarian neoplasms were similar; all were more than 10 years old, except the dogs with teratoma (mean age, 4 years). Most neoplasms were unilateral (84%), except the Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, many of which were bilateral (36%). Size of ovarian neoplasms varied (2 cm3 to 15,000 cm3). Twenty-nine percent of neoplasms metastasized; adenocarcinomas (48%) and malignant teratomas (50%) had the highest rates, and distant metastasis was more common in malignant teratoma. Endometrial hyperplasia was in 67% of the dogs; it was most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors (95%). Uterine malignancy was not seen in dogs with granulosa cell tumors, although hyperplasia endometrium was in all dogs with this tumor. Cysts in the contralateral ovaries were most common in dogs with sex cord stromal tumors.

  4. CHEMERIN (RARRES2) decreases in vitro granulosa cell steroidogenesis and blocks oocyte meiotic progression in bovine species.

    Reverchon, Maxime; Bertoldo, Michael J; Ramé, Christelle; Froment, Pascal; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-05-01

    CHEMERIN, or RARRES2, is a new adipokine that is involved in the regulation of adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. Recent data suggest that it also plays a role in reproductive function in rats and humans. Here we studied the expression of CHEMERIN and its three receptors (CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2) in the bovine ovary and investigated the in vitro effects of this hormone on granulosa cell steroidogenesis and oocyte maturation. By RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry, we found CHEMERIN, CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2 in various ovarian cells, including granulosa and theca cells, corpus luteum, and oocytes. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, INSULIN, IGF1, and two insulin sensitizers-metformin and rosiglitazone-increased rarres2 mRNA expression whereas they decreased cmklr1, gpr1, and cclr2 mRNA expression. Furthermore, TNF alpha and ADIPONECTIN significantly increased rarres2 and cmklr1 expression, respectively. In cultured bovine granulosa cells, human recombinant CHEMERIN (hRec, 200 ng/ml) reduced production of both progesterone and estradiol, cholesterol content, STAR abundance, CYP19A1 and HMGCR proteins, and the phosphorylation levels of MAPK3/MAPK1 in the presence or absence of FSH (10(-8) M) and IGF1 (10(-8) M). All of these effects were abolished by using an anti-CMKLR1 antibody. In bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes, the addition of hRec (200 ng/ml) in the maturation medium arrested most oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, and this was associated with a decrease in MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both oocytes and cumulus cells. Thus, in cultured bovine granulosa cells, hRec decreases steroidogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, and MAPK3/1 phosphorylation, probably through CMKLR1. Moreover, in cumulus-oocyte complexes, it blocked meiotic progression at the germinal vesicle stage and inhibited MAPK3/1 phosphorylation in both the oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Transcriptome profiling of sheep granulosa cells and oocytes during early follicular development obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection

    Bonnet Agnes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful achievement of early folliculogenesis is crucial for female reproductive function. The process is finely regulated by cell-cell interactions and by the coordinated expression of genes in both the oocyte and in granulosa cells. Despite many studies, little is known about the cell-specific gene expression driving early folliculogenesis. The very small size of these follicles and the mixture of types of follicles within the developing ovary make the experimental study of isolated follicular components very difficult. The recently developed laser capture microdissection (LCM technique coupled with microarray experiments is a promising way to address the molecular profile of pure cell populations. However, one main challenge was to preserve the RNA quality during the isolation of single cells or groups of cells and also to obtain sufficient amounts of RNA. Using a new LCM method, we describe here the separate expression profiles of oocytes and follicular cells during the first stages of sheep folliculogenesis. Results We developed a new tissue fixation protocol ensuring efficient single cell capture and RNA integrity during the microdissection procedure. Enrichment in specific cell types was controlled by qRT-PCR analysis of known genes: six oocyte-specific genes (SOHLH2, MAEL, MATER, VASA, GDF9, BMP15 and three granulosa cell-specific genes (KL, GATA4, AMH. A global gene expression profile for each follicular compartment during early developmental stages was identified here for the first time, using a bovine Affymetrix chip. Most notably, the granulosa cell dataset is unique to date. The comparison of oocyte vs. follicular cell transcriptomes revealed 1050 transcripts specific to the granulosa cell and 759 specific to the oocyte. Functional analyses allowed the characterization of the three main cellular events involved in early folliculogenesis and confirmed the relevance and potential of LCM-derived RNA. Conclusions

  6. Analysis of porcine granulosa cell death signaling pathways induced by vinclozolin.

    Knet, Malgorzata; Wartalski, Kamil; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that disturbing androgen-signaling pathways in porcine ovarian follicles may cause granulosa cell (GC) death. For this reason, we investigated which apoptotic pathway is initiated after GC exposure to an environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin (Vnz), in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and fluorometric assays were used to quantify caspase-3 and -9 expression and activity. To elucidate the specific mechanism of Vnz action and toxicity, GCs were assessed for viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic activity using the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. To further determine the mechanism of GC death induced by Vnz, we used the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In response to Vnz stimulus, we found an increased level of caspase-3 protein expression (P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in caspase-3 proteolytic activity (P ≤ 0.001), confirming that Vnz is a potent proapoptotic factor. The strong immunoreaction of caspase-9 after Vnz treatment (P ≤ 0.001) suggests that intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated during GC death. On the other hand, caspase-8, being a part of the extrinsic receptor pathway, was also activated (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, it is possible that Vnz induces porcine granulosal apoptosis also through a parallel pathway. Activation of these two pathways was confirmed by the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In conclusion, it is possible that the intrinsic signaling pathway may not act as an initial trigger for GC apoptosis but might contribute to the amplification and propagation of apoptotic cell death in the granulosa layer after treatment with this antiandrogen. Moreover, Vnz disturbs the physiological process of programmed cell death. Consequently, this could explain why atretic follicles are rapidly removed and suggests that normal function of the ovarian follicle may be destroyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Androgen and FSH synergistically stimulate lipoprotein degradation and utilization by ovary granulosa cells

    Schreiber, J.R.; Nakamura, K.; Schmit, V.; Weinstein, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Androgen can directly modulate the induction of steroidogenic enzymes by FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) in ovary granulosa cells. In studies of its mechanism of action, the authors examined the androgen effect on granulosa cell interaction with lipoproteins, the physiologic source of cholesterol. After granulosa cells were cultured for 48 hours with and without androgen and/or FSH, the cells were incubated for 24 hours with 125 I-lipoproteins [human high density lipoprotein (HDL), rat HDL, or human low density lipoprotein (LDL)]. The media were then analyzed for lipoprotein protein coat degradation products (mainly 125 I-monoiodotyrosine) and progestin [mainly 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone (20 alpha-DHP)]. In the absence of FSH and androgen, 2 X 10(5) granulosa cells degraded basal levels of all three lipoproteins, but produced no measurable 20 alpha-DHP. The addition of 10(-7) M androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect on lipoprotein protein degradation or 20 alpha-DHP production. FSH alone stimulated lipoprotein protein degradation by 50 to 300% while the addition of androgen synergistically augmented the FSH-stimulated 20 alpha-DHP production as well as protein coat degradation of all three lipoproteins. DHT and T were both effective, indicating that androgens themselves, and not estrogen products, were responsible for the effect on lipoprotein protein degradation and 20 alpha-DHP production

  8. Incomplete ovariosalpingectomy and subsequent malignant granulosa cell tumor in a female green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Cruz Cardona, Janice A; Conley, Kenneth J; Wellehan, James F X; Farina, Lisa L; Origgi, Francesco C; Wamsley, Heather L

    2011-07-15

    A 9-year-old spayed female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was evaluated because of a distended coelom and weight loss. History included a single episode of egg binding and subsequent bilateral ovariosalpingectomy. Physical examination revealed a mass within the coelomic cavity. Ultrasonography revealed a large, irregular mass with hypoechoic regions and coelomic effusion. Clinicopathologic derangements included heterophilia, monocytosis, lymphopenia, basophilia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, and hypercalcemia. Results of cytologic evaluation of the mass were suggestive of malignant epithelial neoplasia, but neoplastic cells were not found in the effusion. An ovarian tumor was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, and results of cytologic evaluation of the mass. Surgical exploration revealed a large left ovary, a normal-appearing contralateral ovary, and a mass in the fat body, all of which were removed and submitted for histologic examination. The histologic diagnosis was granulosa cell tumor with metastasis to the fat body. The patient died 11 months after evaluation, and disseminated granulosa cell tumor was confirmed at necropsy; histologic examination at that time also identified systemic mastocytosis. Granulosa cell tumors are uncommon in reptiles, and this was the first granulosa cell tumor described antemortem cytologically, histologically, and ultrastructurally in an iguana. Findings in this iguana underscored concerns associated with incomplete oophorectomy of iguanas; cytologic and histopathologic findings were similar to those observed in other domestic animals. Oophorectomy should be considered as an alternative to standard ovariosalpingectomy to avoid potential complications in pet reptiles, and use of microsurgical instruments and vascular clips is advised.

  9. Progesterone production requires activation of caspase-3 in preovulatory granulosa cells in a serum starvation model.

    An, Li-Sha; Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Hu, Ying; Shi, Zi-Yun; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Qin, Li; Wu, Gui-Qing; Han, Wei; Wang, Ya-Qin; Ma, Xu

    2012-11-01

    Granulosa cells proliferate, differentiate, and undergo apoptosis throughout follicular development. Previous studies have demonstrated that stimulation of progesterone production is accompanied by caspase-3 activation. Moreover, we previously reported that arsenic enhanced caspase-3 activity coupled with progesterone production. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can significantly inhibit progesterone production induced by arsenic or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Here, we report that serum starvation induces caspase-3 activation coupled with augmentation of progesterone production. Serum starvation also increased the levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, both of which may contribute to progesterone synthesis in preovulatory granulosa cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity resulted in a decrease in progesterone production. Deactivation of caspase-3 activity by caspase-3 specific inhibitor also resulted in decreases in P450scc and StAR expression, which may partly contribute to the observed decrease in progesterone production. Our study demonstrates for the first time that progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells is required for caspase-3 activation in a serum starvation model. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity can result in decreased expression of the steroidogenic proteins P450scc and StAR. Our work provides further details on the relationship between caspase-3 activation and steroidogenesis and indicates that caspase-3 plays a critical role in progesterone production by granulosa cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. LH-receptor gene expression in human granulosa and cumulus cells from antral and preovulatory follicles

    Jeppesen, Janni Vikkelsø; Kristensen, Stine Gry; Nielsen, Maria Eilsø

    2012-01-01

    Context:Human granulosa cells (GC) acquire LH receptor (LHR) expression during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Currently, the precise follicular stage is unknown, and specific roles of LH in the follicular development are not fully understood.Objective:Our objective was to measure LH...

  11. Luteinized granulosa cell tumor in a seven year old female rottweiler ...

    During laparotomy, the kidneys and ovaries were enlarged with metastatic foci to the liver and spleen. Based on the above findings, a confirmatory diagnosis of lutenized granulosa cell tumour was made. Due to evidence of metastasis in several organs, the dog was euthanized with owners consent with intravenous ...

  12. Effectiveness of chemotherapy in measurable granulosa cell tumors: a retrospective study and review of literature

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; Buist, Marrije R.; Westermann, Anneke M.; Sonke, Gabe S.; Kenter, Gemma G.; van der Velden, Jacobus

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irresectable granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) often receive chemotherapy. The effectiveness of this approach, however, is uncertain. The aim of our study was to assess the response rate to chemotherapy for residual and recurrent inoperable GCT. All consecutive chemotherapy-naive patients

  13. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M; Freude, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte...

  14. IGF-1 attenuates LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) granulosa cells.

    Onnureddy, K; Ravinder; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2015-03-01

    Interaction between immune and endocrine system is a diverse process influencing cellular function and homeostasis in animals. Negative energy balance (NEB) during postpartum period in dairy animals usually suppresses these systems resulting in reproductive tract infection and infertility. These negative effects could be due to competition among endocrine and immune signaling pathways for common signaling molecules. The present work studied the effect of IGF-1 (50 ng/ml) on LPS (1 μg/ml) mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) and aromatase (CYP19A1) genes' expressions as well as proliferation of buffalo granulosa cells. The crosstalk between LPS and IGF-1 was also demonstrated through studying the activities of downstream signaling molecules (ERK1/2, Akt, NF-κB) by western blot and immunostaining. Gene expression analysis showed that IGF-1 significantly reduced the LPS induced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. LPS alone inhibited the CYP19A1 expression. However, co-treatment with IGF-1 reversed the inhibitory effect of LPS on CYP19A1 expression. LPS alone did not affect granulosa cell proliferation, but co-treatment with IGF-1, and IGF-1 alone enhanced the proliferation. Western blot results demonstrated that LPS caused the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB and increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt maximum at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. Nonetheless, co-treatment with IGF-1 delayed LPS induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (peak at 120 min), while promoting early Akt phosphorylation (peak at 5 min) with no effect on NF-κB translocation. Overall, IGF-1 delayed and reversed the effects of LPS, suggesting that high IGF-1 levels may combat infection during critical periods like NEB in postpartum dairy animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bovine cumulus-granulosa cells contain biologically active retinoid receptors that can respond to retinoic acid

    Malayer Jerry

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoids, a class of compounds that include retinol and its metabolite, retinoic acid, are absolutely essential for ovarian steroid production, oocyte maturation, and early embryogenesis. Previous studies have detected high concentrations of retinol in bovine large follicles. Further, administration of retinol in vivo and supplementation of retinoic acid during in vitro maturation results in enhanced embryonic development. In the present study, we hypothesized that retinoids administered either in vivo previously or in vitro can exert receptor-mediated effects in cumulus-granulosa cells. Total RNA extracted from in vitro cultured cumulus-granulosa cells was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and mRNA expression for retinol binding protein (RBP, retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha, retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta, retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARgamma, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha, retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (RALDH-2, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma. Transcripts were detected for RBP, RARalpha, RARgamma, RXRalpha, RXRbeta, RALDH-2, and PPARgamma. Expression of RARbeta was not detected in cumulus-granulosa cells. Using western blotting, immunoreactive RARalpha, and RXRbeta protein was also detected in bovine cumulus-granulosa cells. The biological activity of these endogenous retinoid receptors was tested using a transient reporter assay using the pAAV-MCS-betaRARE-Luc vector. Addition of 0.5 and 1 micro molar all-trans retinoic acid significantly (P trans retinol stimulated a mild increase in reporter activity, however, the increase was not statistically significant. Based on these results we conclude that cumulus cells contain endogenously active retinoid receptors and may also be competent to synthesize retinoic acid using the precursor, retinol. These results also indirectly provide evidence that retinoids

  16. Lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is involved in unexplained infertility.

    Yamamoto, Hikaru; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Saito, Natsuho; Hayashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells is the cause of unexplained infertility. Thirty-one patients aged infertility and 18 with male partner infertility as a control group) whose serum anti-Müllerian hormone level was >0.5 ng/μL were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent oocyte retrieval under a short protocol from June 2012 to October 2013. Real-time PCR was carried out using mRNA extracted from granulosa cells retrieved from mature follicles. We compared FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells between the unexplained infertility group and the male infertility group. The relation between FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA expression ratios in granulosa cells and assisted reproduction technology clinical outcome was also examined. FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio was significantly lower in the unexplained infertility group than in the male infertility group. Moreover, FOXO3 mRNA expression ratio showed a positive correlation with both the number of retrieved oocytes and serum anti-Müllerian hormone level. A positive correlation was also identified between FOXO1 mRNA expression and total dose of hMG. As well, the number of retrieved oocytes in the unexplained infertility group was statistically lower than that in the male infertility group. A lower FOXO3 mRNA expression in granulosa cells leads to poor oocyte development in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Evidence for ovarian granulosa stem cells: telomerase activity and localization of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component in bovine ovarian follicles.

    Lavranos, T C; Mathis, J M; Latham, S E; Kalionis, B; Shay, J W; Rodgers, R J

    1999-08-01

    We have previously postulated that granulosa cells of developing follicles arise from a population of stem cells. Stem cells and cancer cells can divide indefinitely partly because they express telomerase. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that repairs the ends of telomeres that otherwise shorten progressively upon each successive cell division. In this study we carried out cell cycle analyses and examined telomerase expression to examine our hypothesis. Preantral (60-100 microm) and small (1 mm) follicles, as well as granulosa cells from medium-sized (3 mm) and large (6-8 mm) follicles, were isolated. Cell cycle analyses and expression of Ki-67, a cell cycle-related protein, were undertaken on follicles of each size (n = 3) by flow cytometry; 12% to 16% of granulosa cells in all follicles were in the S phase, and less than 2% were in the G(2)/M phase. Telomerase activity (n = 3) was highest in the small preantral follicles, declining at the 1-mm stage and even further at the 3-mm stage. In situ hybridization histochemistry was carried out on bovine ovaries, and telomerase RNA was detected in the granulosa cells of growing follicles but not primordial follicles. Two major patterns of staining were observed in the membrana granulosa of antral follicles: staining in the middle and antral layers, and staining in the middle and basal layers. No staining was detected in oocytes. Our results strongly support our hypothesis that granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells.

  18. Detection of calmodulin binding protein at 170 KDA in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

    Selinfreund, R.; Lin, P.H.; Marrone, B.; Wharton, W.

    1987-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) has been shown to bind to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (170 kDa) and is phosphorylated in a EGF dependent manner in the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. In the present study, they report 125 I-CAM binding to a 170 kDa protein detected in cell membrane vesicles of Balb/3T3, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells. Purified plasma membranes from these cells were resolved via electrophoresis (without heat denaturation) and electroblotted onto nictrocellulose paper. Upon hybridizing against 125 I-CAM, a distinct autoradiographic band occurred at 170 kDa for all the cells lines under study. The binding of CAM is specific and can be displaced with the addition of excess unlabeled CAM. The result suggest that 125 I-CAM may bind to the 170 kDa EGF receptor in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis and Meta-Analysis of Human Granulosa and Cumulus Cells.

    Tanja Burnik Papler

    Full Text Available Specific gene expression in oocytes and its surrounding cumulus (CC and granulosa (GC cells is needed for successful folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. The aim of the present study was to compare genome-wide gene expression and biological functions of human GC and CC. Individual GC and CC were derived from 37 women undergoing IVF procedures. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a meta-analysis. Results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. There were 6029 differentially expressed genes (q < 10-4; of which 650 genes had a log2 FC ≥ 2. After the meta-analysis there were 3156 genes differentially expressed. Among these there were genes that have previously not been reported in human somatic follicular cells, like prokineticin 2 (PROK2, higher expressed in GC, and pregnancy up-regulated nonubiquitous CaM kinase (PNCK, higher expressed in CC. Pathways like inflammatory response and angiogenesis were enriched in GC, whereas in CC, cell differentiation and multicellular organismal development were among enriched pathways. In conclusion, transcriptomes of GC and CC as well as biological functions, are distinctive for each cell subpopulation. By describing novel genes like PROK2 and PNCK, expressed in GC and CC, we upgraded the existing data on human follicular biology.

  20. Effect of anabolics on bovine granulosa-luteal cell primary cultures.

    Bartolomeo Biolatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumours are observed with increased frequency among calves slaughtered in Northern Italy. The use of illegal anabolics in breeding was taken into account as a cause of this pathology. An in vitro approach was used to detect the possible alterations of cell proliferation induced by anabolics on primary cultures of bovine granulosa-luteal cells. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of substances illegally used in cattle (17beta-estradiol, clenbuterol and boldione. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of MTT test, to exclude toxic effects induced by anabolics and to determine the highest concentration to be tested. Morphological changes were evaluated by means of routine cytology, while PCNA expression was quantified in order to estimate cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effects were revealed at the highest concentrations. The only stimulating effect on cell proliferation was detected in boldione treated cultures: after 48 h treated cells, compared to controls, showed a doubled expression of PCNA. In clenbuterol and 17beta-estradiol treated cells PCNA expression was similar to controls or even decreased. As the data suggest an alteration in cell proliferation, boldione could have a role in the early stage of pathogenesis of granulosa cell tumour in cattle.

  1. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) effects on proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine granulosa cells.

    Maillard, Virginie; Desmarchais, Alice; Durcin, Maeva; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Elis, Sebastien

    2018-04-26

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) belonging to a family of biologically active fatty acids (FA), which are known to have numerous health benefits. N-3 PUFAs affect reproduction in cattle, and notably directly affect follicular cells. In terms of reproduction in cattle, n-3 PUFA-enriched diets lead to increased follicle size or numbers. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of DHA (1, 10, 20 and 50 μM) on proliferation and steroidogenesis (parametric and/or non parametric (permutational) ANOVA) of bovine granulosa cells in vitro and mechanisms of action through protein expression (Kruskal-Wallis) and signaling pathways (non parametric ANOVA) and to investigate whether DHA could exert part of its action through the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFAR4). DHA (10 and 50 μM) increased granulosa cell proliferation and DHA 10 μM led to a corresponding increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression level. DHA also increased progesterone secretion at 1, 20 and 50 μM, and estradiol secretion at 1, 10 and 20 μM. Consistent increases in protein levels were also reported for the steroidogenic enzymes, cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1 (CYP11A1) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 (HSD3B1), and of the cholesterol transporter steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which are necessary for production of progesterone or androstenedione. FFAR4 was expressed in all cellular types of bovine ovarian follicles, and in granulosa cells it was localized close to the cellular membrane. TUG-891 treatment (1 and 50 μM), a FFAR4 agonist, increased granulosa cell proliferation and MAPK14 phosphorylation in a similar way to that observed with DHA treatment. However, TUG-891 treatment (1, 10 and 50 μM) showed no effect on progesterone or estradiol secretion. These data show that DHA stimulated proliferation and steroidogenesis of bovine

  3. Adult type granulosa cell tumor in adult testis: report of a case and review of the literature

    Zhanyong Bing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors can be classified into juvenile and adult types and more commonly occur in ovaries. Adult testicular granulosa cell tumors are extremely rare and only 29 cases of adult type have previously been reported. We report here a 28-year-old Caucasian man with a left testicular adult type granulosa cell tumor. The tumor measured 2.6 x 2.6 x 2.5 cm and was mitotically active (10/10 HPF. Immunohistochemical stains showed the tumor diffusely positive for inhibin and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratins, synaptophysin, HMB-45, OCT-4, placental-like alkaline phosphatase and lymphoid markers . The reported granulosa cell tumors in adult testis were briefly reviewed.

  4. Effect of punicalagin on proliferation of porcine ovarian granulosa cells in vitro

    Dagmara Packová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagin is a major component responsible for pomegranate's (Punica granatum antioxidant properties. Punicalagin is the predominant ellagitannin of Punica granatum and present in two isomeric forms: punicalagin α and β. Punicalagin is metabolised to ellagic acid (antioxidant and microorganisms present in colon can metabolize ellagic acid to urolithins. The aim of in vitro study was to examine the effect of punicalagin on mitochondrial activity and markers of proliferation in porcine ovarian granulosa cells. The cells were cultivated during 24h without (control group and with various doses (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg*ml-1 of pomegranate compound – punicalagin. MTT assay and immunocytochemistry were used in this study. Stimulatory influence of punicalagin on the mitochondrial activity of ovarian granulosa cells at concentrations 1 μg*ml-1 was found. Punicalagin (at 1 μg*ml-1 had a significant (P < 0.05 impact on the presence of proliferative markers cyclin B1 (increase and PCNA - proliferating cell nuclear antigen (decrease in porcine ovarian granulosa cells. These results suggest dose-dependent effect of punicalagin on cell proliferation. Further verification of possible role of punicalagin in proliferation is therefore needed.

  5. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor.

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-03-27

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C > G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C > G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. In this study, the DNA sequences of four genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2, in the DNA mismatch repair system were determined via direct sequencing to elucidate the exact mechanism for the development of this granulosa cell tumor. The results showed that two missense germline mutations, T485K and N775L, inactivate the PMS2 gene. The results of this case study indicated that although FOXL2 402C > G mutation determines the development of granulosa cell tumor, PMS2 mutation may be the initial driver of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemistry-based tumor testing for mismatch repair gene expression may be necessary for granulosa cell tumors to determine their malignant potential or if they are part of Lynch syndrome.

  6. A Low-Testosterone State Associated with Endometrioma Leads to the Apoptosis of Granulosa Cells

    Ono, Yoshihiro J.; Tanabe, Akiko; Nakamura, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hikaru; Hayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Tomohito; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2014-01-01

    Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), the mechanism(s) underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis. PMID:25536335

  7. A low-testosterone state associated with endometrioma leads to the apoptosis of granulosa cells.

    Yoshihiro J Ono

    Full Text Available Although endometriosis is suspected to be a cause of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI, the mechanism(s underlying this process have not been elucidated. Recently, androgens were shown to promote oocyte maturation and to play a role in folliculogenesis. In addition, several reports have documented low testosterone levels in the follicular fluid obtained from endometriosis patients. We therefore examined whether the low levels of serum testosterone are associated with the apoptosis of granulosa cells in follicles obtained from endometriosis patients. Serum samples were collected from 46 patients with endometriosis and from 62 patients without endometriosis who received assisted reproductive therapy. Specimens of the ovaries obtained from 10 patients with endometrioma were collected using laparoscopy. The mean serum testosterone concentration in the patients with endometriosis was significantly lower than that observed in the patients without endometriosis. Furthermore, high expression of a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 member, BimEL, in the follicles was found to be associated with a low serum testosterone level. We clarified the underlying mechanisms using a basic approach employing human immortalized granulosa cells derived from a primary human granulosa cell tumor, the COV434 cell line. The in vitro examination demonstrated that testosterone inhibited apoptosis induced by sex steroids depletion via the PI3K/Akt-FoxO3a pathway in the COV434 cells. In conclusion, we elucidated the mechanism underlying the anti-apoptotic effects of testosterone on granulosa cells, and found that a low-testosterone status is a potentially important step in the development of premature ovarian insufficiency in patients with endometriosis.

  8. Knockdown of XBP1 by RNAi in Mouse Granulosa Cells Promotes Apoptosis, Inhibits Cell Cycle, and Decreases Estradiol Synthesis

    Nan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cells are crucial for follicular growth, development, and follicular atresia. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1, a basic region-leucine zipper protein, is widely involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, cellular stress response, and other signaling pathways. In this study, RNA interference, flow cytometry, western blot, real-time PCR, Cell Counting Kit (CCK8, and ELISA were used to investigate the effect of XBP1 on steroidogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle, and proliferation of mouse granulosa cells. ELISA analysis showed that XBP1 depletion significantly decreased the concentrations of estradiol (E2. Additionally, the expression of estrogen synthesis enzyme Cyp19a1 was sharply downregulated. Moreover, flow cytometry showed that knockdown of XBP1 increased the apoptosis rate and arrests the cell cycle in S-phase in granulosa cells (GCs. Further study confirmed these results. The expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteases-3 (caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and Cyclin E was upregulated, while that of Bcl-2, Cyclin A1, and Cyclin B1 was downregulated. Simultaneously, CCK8 analysis indicated that XBP1 disruption inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, XBP1 knockdown also alters the expression of Has2 and Ptgs2, two essential genes for folliculogenesis. Collectively, these data reveal a novel critical role of XBP1 in folliculogenesis by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroid synthesis of mouse granulosa cells.

  9. The effect of yucca on proliferation, apoptosis, and steroidogenesis of porcine ovarian granulosa cells

    Aneta Štochmaľová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Yucca shidigera is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. Is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat a variety of ailmentary disorders, but its action on reproductive processes and possible mechanisms of such action remains unknown. Yucca schidigera extract contains a number of steroidal saponins that, because of their biological activity, have attracted attention from the food industry for many years. Yucca extract is used as a natural feed additive with positive effect to microflora, digestion, metabolism and to improve animal muscle growth. Its extract has been used as a foodstuff and folk medicine to treat a wide variety of diseases for many years. Nevertheless, it remaines unknown, whether consumption of yucca can affect reproductive system. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yucca on basic ovarian cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with and without yucca extract (added at doses 0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.mL-1 of medium. Markers of proliferation (% of PCNA-positive cells and apoptosis (% cells containing bax were analysed by immunocytochemistry. Release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone was measured by EIA. It was observed, that addition of yucca inhibited proliferation (expression of PCNA, increased apoptosis (expression of bax, stimulated progesterone and inhibited testosterone release. The ability of yucca to reduce ovarian cell proliferation, to promote ovarian cell apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis demonstrates the direct influence of yucca on female gonads. Furthermore, our observations suggest the multiple sites of action (proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis of yucca on porcine ovarian cell functions. It is not to be excluded, that consumption of yucca can suppress female reproductive functions.

  10. hCG-dependent regulation of angiogenic factors in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Phan, B; Rakenius, A; Pietrowski, D; Bettendorf, H; Keck, C; Herr, D

    2006-07-01

    As prerequisite for development and maintenance of many diseases angiogenesis is of particular interest in medicine. Pathologic angiogenesis takes place in chronic arthritis, collagen diseases, arteriosclerosis, retinopathy associated with diabetes, and particularly in cancers. However, angiogenesis as a physiological process regularly occurs in the ovary. After ovulation the corpus luteum is formed by rapid vascularization of initially avascular granulosa lutein cell tissue. This process is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. In order to gain further insights in the regulatory mechanisms of angiogenesis in the ovary, we investigated these mechanisms in cell culture of human granulosa lutein cells. In particular, we determined the expression and production of several angiogenic factors including tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), Leptin, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), meningioma-associated complimentary DNA (Mac25), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and Midkine. In addition, we showed that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has distinct effects on their expression and production. hCG enhances the expression and production of TIMP-1, whereas it downregulates the expression of CTGF and Mac25. Furthermore it decreases the expression of Leptin. Our results provide evidence that hCG determines growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating angiogenic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Hence we describe a further approach to understand the regulation of angiogenesis in the ovary.

  11. MicroRNA-424/503 cluster members regulate bovine granulosa cell proliferation and cell cycle progression by targeting SMAD7 gene through activin signalling pathway.

    Pande, Hari Om; Tesfaye, Dawit; Hoelker, Michael; Gebremedhn, Samuel; Held, Eva; Neuhoff, Christiane; Tholen, Ernst; Schellander, Karl; Wondim, Dessie Salilew

    2018-05-01

    The granulosa cells are indispensable for follicular development and its function is orchestrated by several genes, which in turn posttranscriptionally regulated by microRNAs (miRNA). In our previous study, the miRRNA-424/503 cluster was found to be highly abundant in bovine granulosa cells (bGCs) of preovulatory dominant follicle compared to subordinate counterpart at day 19 of the bovine estrous cycle. Other study also indicated the involvement of miR-424/503 cluster in tumour cell resistance to apoptosis suggesting this miRNA cluster may involve in cell survival. However, the role of miR-424/503 cluster in granulosa cell function remains elusive Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the role of miRNA-424/503 cluster in bGCs function using microRNA gain- and loss-of-function approaches. The role of miR-424/503 cluster members in granulosa cell function was investigated by overexpressing or inhibiting its activity in vitro cultured granulosa cells using miR-424/503 mimic or inhibitor, respectively. Luciferase reporter assay showed that SMAD7 and ACVR2A are the direct targets of the miRNA-424/503 cluster members. In line with this, overexpression of miRNA-424/503 cluster members using its mimic and inhibition of its activity by its inhibitor reduced and increased, respectively the expression of SMAD7 and ACVR2A. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis indicated that overexpression of miRNA-424/503 cluster members enhanced bGCs proliferation by promoting G1- to S- phase cell cycle transition. Modulation of miRNA-424/503 cluster members tended to increase phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 in the Activin signalling pathway. Moreover, sequence specific knockdown of SMAD7, the target gene of miRNA-424/503 cluster members, using small interfering RNA also revealed similar phenotypic and molecular alterations observed when miRNA-424/503 cluster members were overexpressed. Similarly, to get more insight about the role of miRNA-424/503 cluster members in activin signalling

  12. Significantly lengthened telomere in granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS).

    Wei, Duo; Xie, Juanke; Yin, Baoli; Hao, Haoying; Song, Xiaobing; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Cuilian; Sun, Yingpu

    2017-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy among women at reproductive age. However, its etiology remains poorly understood. Recent studies indicated that telomere length was related to PCOS. However, the association between telomere length and PCOS has only been shown in leucocytes and remained controversial across different studies. To clarify the association between telomere length and PCOS, the current study interrogated telomere length not only in leucocytes, but also in follicular granulosa cells, which is essential for folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Seventy-five patients with PCOS and 81 controls with mechanical infertility undergoing their first in vitro fertilization cycle were enrolled. Their peripheral blood and granulosa cells were collected on the oocyte retrieval day. Telomere length of both leucocytes in the blood and granulosa cells was assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. No significant difference was found in the leucocyte telomere length between controls and PCOS patients (0.99 ± 0.44 vs. 1.00 ± 0.38, p = 0.93). Interestingly, when comparing telomere length in granulosa cells between controls and PCOS subjects, significantly lengthened telomere length was found in PCOS subjects (1.00 ± 0.37 vs. 1.57±0.67, p < 0.0001). After adjustments for age and body mass index, the p value remained significant (p < 0.0001). This finding reinforced the association between telomere abnormalities and PCOS. Given the importance of telomere length in cellular proliferation, our findings provided novel insights into the pathophysiology of PCOS that abnormalities in telomere length possibly disturb folliculogenesis and subsequently result in PCOS.

  13. (3) Melatonin Protects Oocytes and Granulosa Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species during the Ovulatory Process

    田村, 博史; Hiroshi, TAMURA; 山口大学大学院医学系研究科産科婦人科学; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within the follicle especially during the ovulatory process. ROS play a physiological role in the process of ovulation, e.g. follicle rapture. However, excessive amount of ROS causes oxidative stress and damages oocytes and luteinized granulosa cells. On the other hand, antioxidant defense systems including superoxide dismutase (SOD) or glutathione (GSH) are present in follicles. The balance between ROS and antioxidants within the follicle seems to b...

  14. Immunogold study on lectin binding in the porcine zona pellucida and granulosa cells

    F Parillo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An ultrastructural localization of lectin receptors on the zona pellucida (ZP of porcine antral oocytes and on the granulosa cells was performed using a panel of horseradish peroxidase- labelled lectins in conjunction with antiperoxidase antibody and protein A-gold. In some cases, lectin incubation was preceded by sialidase digestion. WGA-, Con-A-, UEA-I-, RCA-I-, PNA- and SBA-reactive sites were distributed differently in the porcine ZP. Sialidase digestion increased the positivity obtained with RCA-I and it was necessary to promote PNA and SBA reactivity. These results indicated that the ZP contained N-acetylglucosamine, a-mannose, a- fucose, b-Gal-(1-4GlcNAc, b-Gal- (1-3GalNAc, b-GalNAc and sialic acid residues. We also observed the presence of vesicles in both the ooplasm and granulosa cells, showing a similar lectin binding pattern to that of the ZP, thus suggesting that the oocyte and granulosa cells are the site of synthesis of ZP glucidic determinants.

  15. Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman

    Tufan Oge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15 cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000 cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1 c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

  16. IL-6 Promotes FSH-Induced VEGF Expression Through JAK/STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Bovine Granulosa Cells

    Meng Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of angiogenesis in ovarian follicular development, particularly during the preovulatory period. Although numerous studies have shown that interleukin-6 (IL-6 is one of the major inducing factors that regulate the expression of VEGF in non-ovarian cells, whether it involved in regulating the expression of VEGF in normal ovarian granulosa cells is still unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-6 on FSH-induced VEGF expression in bovine granulosa cells derived from large follicles. Methods: VEGF mRNA expression in granulosa cells after IL-6 with/without inhibitors treatment was analyzed by RT-qPCR. Phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and STAT3 proteins induced by IL-6 were analyzed by western blotting. The protein levels produced by granulosa cells were detected by ELISA. Results: High concentration of IL-6 (10ng/ml can significantly up-regulate FSH-induced VEGF gene and protein expression levels in granulosa cells, and also promote the VEGF upstream regulators HIF-1α and COX2 mRNA expression. VEGF expression levels were significantly decreased after specifically blocking HIF-1α and COX2 by using inhibitors. The up-regulation effect of IL-6 on FSH-induced VEGF expression in granulosa cells mainly through activating the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway, which can be impaired by JAK inhibitors. Conclusion: IL-6 can promote FSH-induced VEGF expression in granulosa cells, which is mainly achieved by increasing the expression of HIF-1α and COX2.This promoting effect is mediated by activating the JAK/STAT3 pathway. Moreover, there may be a synergistic relationship between FSH and IL-6 in the regulation of VEGF expression.

  17. Oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in porcine granulosa cells and its rescue by curcumin in vitro.

    Xunsi Qin

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS, as a signal of aberrant intracellular mechanisms, plays key roles in maintaining homeostasis for organisms. The occurrence of OS due to the disorder of normal cellular redox balance indicates the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS and/or deficiency of antioxidants. Once the balance is broken down, repression of oxidative stress is one of the most effective ways to alleviate it. Ongoing studies provide remarkable evidence that oxidative stress is involved in reproductive toxicity induced by various stimuli, such as environmental toxicants and food toxicity. Zearalenone (ZEA, as a toxic compound existing in contaminated food products, is found to induce mycotoxicosis that has a significant impact on the reproduction of domestic animals, especially pigs. However, there is no information about how ROS and oxidative stress is involved in the influence of ZEA on porcine granulosa cells, or whether the stress can be rescued by curcumin. In this study, ZEA-induced effect on porcine granulosa cells was investigated at low concentrations (15 μM, 30 μM and 60 μM. In vitro ROS levels, the mRNA level and activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were obtained. The results showed that in comparison with negative control, ZEA increased oxidative stress with higher ROS levels, reduced the expression and activity of antioxidative enzymes, increased the intensity of fluorogenic probes 2', 7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium in flow cytometry assay and fluorescence microscopy. Meanwhile, the activity of glutathione (GSH did not change obviously following 60 μM ZEA treatment. Furthermore, the underlying protective mechanisms of curcumin on the ZEA-treated porcine granulosa cells were investigated. The data revealed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly suppressed ZEA-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, porcine granulosa cells were sensitive to ZEA, which may induce

  18. PGRMC1 participates in late events of bovine granulosa cells mitosis and oocyte meiosis.

    Terzaghi, L; Tessaro, I; Raucci, F; Merico, V; Mazzini, G; Garagna, S; Zuccotti, M; Franciosi, F; Lodde, V

    2016-08-02

    Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1) is expressed in both oocyte and ovarian somatic cells, where it is found in multiple cellular sub-compartments including the mitotic spindle apparatus. PGRMC1 localization in the maturing bovine oocytes mirrors its localization in mitotic cells, suggesting a possible common action in mitosis and meiosis. To test the hypothesis that altering PGRMC1 activity leads to similar defects in mitosis and meiosis, PGRMC1 function was perturbed in cultured bovine granulosa cells (bGC) and maturing oocytes and the effect on mitotic and meiotic progression assessed. RNA interference-mediated PGRMC1 silencing in bGC significantly reduced cell proliferation, with a concomitant increase in the percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase, which is consistent with an arrested or prolonged M-phase. This observation was confirmed by time-lapse imaging that revealed defects in late karyokinesis. In agreement with a role during late mitotic events, a direct interaction between PGRMC1 and Aurora Kinase B (AURKB) was observed in the central spindle at of dividing cells. Similarly, treatment with the PGRMC1 inhibitor AG205 or PGRMC1 silencing in the oocyte impaired completion of meiosis I. Specifically the ability of the oocyte to extrude the first polar body was significantly impaired while meiotic figures aberration and chromatin scattering within the ooplasm increased. Finally, analysis of PGRMC1 and AURKB localization in AG205-treated oocytes confirmed an altered localization of both proteins when meiotic errors occur. The present findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 participates in late events of both mammalian mitosis and oocyte meiosis, consistent with PGRMC1's localization at the mid-zone and mid-body of the mitotic and meiotic spindle.

  19. Cancer of rat ovaries: Sertoli cell or granulosa-theca cell tumours

    Knowles, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of X-radiation (0-1.25 Gy) given 24 hours after neonatal injections of the carcinogen ethyl nitrosourea (ENU) (0-10 mg/kg) in female rats were studied. Twelve out of 118 rats bore single ovarian tumours. A substantial excess of ovarian tumours occurred in the rats given 4 mg/kg ENU and 1.25 GY X-rays but not in others given ENU alone, radiation alone or 10 mg/kg ENU and 1.25 Gy. The tumours were all found in old rats (657-1085 days). In all of the tumours the presence of tubular formations suggested a diagnosis of ovarian Sertoli cell tumour. In two tumours, only a few tubular structures were seen and fibrous stromal tissue predominated, suggesting a diagnosis of granulosa-theca cell tumour. All other tumours were a mixture of both elements. (U.K.)

  20. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simultaneous effects of endocrine disruptor bisphenol A and flavonoid fisetin on progesterone production by granulosa cells.

    Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Alzbeta; Scsukova, Sona

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine effects of different concentrations of the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA; 1 nM, 1 μM, 100 μM) and the flavonoid fisetin (1, 10, 25, 50 μM), individually and in combinations, on steroidogenic function of porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) represented by progesterone production. We confirmed that BPA inhibited progesterone production by GCs at the highest concentration. Fisetin reduced gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone synthesis dose-dependently, and in this manner, fisetin impaired progesterone production when added to BPA-treated GCs. The mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of the combinations included a significant down-regulation of the key steroidogenesis-related genes (STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B). Our findings suggest for the first time that fisetin might interfere with ovarian steroidogenesis, and might not have beneficial but rather aggravating effects in terms of modulating progesterone synthesis altered by high concentrations of BPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts.

    Nicholas Hatzirodos

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the 'follicular' phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3-6 mm and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data.

  3. Prohibitin (PHB) acts as a potent survival factor against ceramide induced apoptosis in rat granulosa cells.

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Branch, Alicia; Olatinwo, Moshood; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland; Thompson, Winston E

    2011-08-29

    Ceramide is a key factor in inducing germ cell apoptosis by translocating from cumulus cells into the adjacent oocyte and lipid rafts through gap junctions. Therefore studies designed to elucidate the mechanistic pathways in ceramide induced granulosa cell (GC) apoptosis and follicular atresia may potentially lead to the development of novel lipid-based therapeutic strategies that will prevent infertility and premature menopause associated with chemo and/or radiation therapy in female cancer patients. Our previous studies have shown that Prohibitin (PHB) is intimately involved in GCs differentiation, atresia, and luteolysis. In the present study, we have examined the functional effects of loss-/gain-of-function of PHB using adenoviral technology in delaying apoptosis induced by the physiological ligand ceramide in rat GCs. Under these experimental conditions, exogenous ceramide C-8 (50 μM) augmented the expression of mitochondrial PHB and subsequently cause the physical destruction of GC by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. In further studies, silencing of PHB expression by adenoviral small interfering RNA (shRNA) sensitized GCs to ceramide C8-induce apoptosis. In contrast, adenovirus (Ad) directed overexpression of PHB in GCs resulted in increased PHB content in mitochondria and delayed the onset of ceramide induced apoptosis in the infected GCs. Taken together, these results provide novel evidences that a critical level of PHB expression within the mitochondria plays a key intra-molecular role in GC fate by mediating the inhibition of apoptosis and may therefore, contribute significantly to ceramide induced follicular atresia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Localization and movement of newly synthesized cholesterol in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Lange, Y.; Schmit, V.M.; Schreiber, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The distribution and movement of cholesterol were studied in granulosa cells from the ovaries of estrogen-stimulated hypophysectomized immature rats cultured in serum-free medium. Plasma membrane cholesterol was distinguished from intracellular cholesterol with cholesterol oxidase, an enzyme that converts cell surface cholesterol to cholestenone, leaving intracellular cholesterol untouched. Using this approach we showed that 82% of unesterified cholesterol was associated with the plasma membrane in granulosa cells cultured for 48 h in serum-free medium in both the presence and absence of added androstenedione and FSH. FSH and androstenedione stimulated a marked increase in steroid hormone (progestin) production. The movement of newly synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane also was followed using cholesterol oxidase. Newly synthesized cholesterol reached the plasma membrane too rapidly to be measured in unstimulated cells (t1/2 less than 20 min); however, in cells stimulated by FSH and androstenedione, this rate was considerably slower (t1/2 approximately 2h). Therefore, cholesterol movement to the plasma membrane appears to be regulated by gonadotropins in these cells. We tested whether steroid biosynthesis used all cell cholesterol pools equally. To this end we administered [3H]acetate and [14C]acetate at different times and determined their relative specific contents in various steroids after defined intervals. The relative ages of the steroids (youngest to oldest) were: lanosterol, progestins, intracellular cholesterol, and plasma membrane cholesterol. This finding suggests that progestins use newly synthesized intracellular cholesterol in preference to preexisting intracellular or cell surface cholesterol

  5. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary : The clinical value of serum inhibin A and B levels in a large single center cohort

    Mom, C. H.; Engelen, M. J. A.; Willemse, P. H. B.; Gietema, J. A.; ten Hoor, K. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van der Zee, A. G. J.

    Objectives. In patients with a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary, the value of serum inhibin A and B concentrations for the assessment of disease status was investigated. Methods. In 30 consecutive patients with a stage I-III granulosa cell tumor, inhibin A and B concentrations were measured in pre-

  6. Knockdown of Progesterone Receptor (PGR) in Macaque Granulosa Cells Disrupts Ovulation and Progesterone Production.

    Bishop, Cecily V; Hennebold, Jon D; Kahl, Christoph A; Stouffer, Richard L

    2016-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (vectors) expressing short-hairpin RNAs complementary to macaque nuclear progesterone (P) receptor PGR mRNA (shPGR) or a nontargeting scrambled control (shScram) were used to determine the role PGR plays in ovulation/luteinization in rhesus monkeys. Nonluteinized granulosa cells collected from monkeys (n = 4) undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation protocols were exposed to either shPGR, shScram, or no virus for 24 h; human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was then added to half of the wells to induce luteinization (luteinized granulosa cells [LGCs]; n = 4-6 wells/treatment/monkey). Cells/media were collected 48, 72, and 120 h postvector for evaluation of PGR mRNA and P levels. Addition of hCG increased (P < 0.05) PGR mRNA and medium P levels in controls. However, a time-dependent decline (P < 0.05) in PGR mRNA and P occurred in shPGR vector groups. Injection of shPGR, but not shScram, vector into the preovulatory follicle 20 h before hCG administration during controlled ovulation protocols prevented follicle rupture in five of six monkeys as determined by laparoscopic evaluation, with a trapped oocyte confirmed in three of four follicles of excised ovaries. Injection of shPGR also prevented the rise in serum P levels following the hCG bolus compared to shScram (P < 0.05). Nuclear PGR immunostaining was undetectable in granulosa cells from shPGR-injected follicles, compared to intense staining in shScram controls. Thus, the nuclear PGR appears to mediate P action in the dominant follicle promoting ovulation in primates. In vitro and in vivo effects of PGR knockdown in LGCs also support the hypothesis that P enhances its own synthesis in the primate corpus luteum by promoting luteinization. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) as autocrine/paracrine regulators of granulosa cell differentiation and growth: Studies with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I

    Mondschein, J.S.; Canning, S.F.; Miller, D.Q.; Hammond, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence that granulosa cells secrete and respond to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) suggests, but does not prove, the importance of IGFs as intraovarian regulators. To further assess the role of these peptides in ovarian function, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I was employed to block the actions of IGFs in porcine follicular fluid and in granulosa cell-conditioned medium. In one series of experiments, granulosa cells from immature porcine follicles were cultured in medium containing porcine follicular fluid that had been charcoal-treated to remove steroids. As noted before, fluid from large follicles (LFF) stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect of LFF (30% v/v) could be inhibited by greater than 50% by the anti-IGF monoclonal antibody. This inhibitory action was specific for the anti-IGF antibody and could be overcome by the addition of excess exogenous IGFs. In another series of experiments, granulosa cells were made dependent on endogenously produced IGFs by culturing them in a serum-free medium without exogenous growth factors. The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), growth hormone (GH), and combinations thereof on progesterone production were inhibited by approximately 50% by the anti-IGF antibody. The effects of IGFs on indices of cell growth (judged by the criterion of being inhibited by the anti-IGF antibody) were less dramatic. A modest 18% increase in cell number was observed with FSH and E2 treatment in serum-free medium; this effect was virtually abolished by the antibody

  8. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) as autocrine/paracrine regulators of granulosa cell differentiation and growth: Studies with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I

    Mondschein, J.S.; Canning, S.F.; Miller, D.Q.; Hammond, J.M. (Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Evidence that granulosa cells secrete and respond to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) suggests, but does not prove, the importance of IGFs as intraovarian regulators. To further assess the role of these peptides in ovarian function, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody to IGF-I was employed to block the actions of IGFs in porcine follicular fluid and in granulosa cell-conditioned medium. In one series of experiments, granulosa cells from immature porcine follicles were cultured in medium containing porcine follicular fluid that had been charcoal-treated to remove steroids. As noted before, fluid from large follicles (LFF) stimulated progesterone production in a dose-dependent manner. The stimulatory effect of LFF (30% v/v) could be inhibited by greater than 50% by the anti-IGF monoclonal antibody. This inhibitory action was specific for the anti-IGF antibody and could be overcome by the addition of excess exogenous IGFs. In another series of experiments, granulosa cells were made dependent on endogenously produced IGFs by culturing them in a serum-free medium without exogenous growth factors. The effects of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), growth hormone (GH), and combinations thereof on progesterone production were inhibited by approximately 50% by the anti-IGF antibody. The effects of IGFs on indices of cell growth (judged by the criterion of being inhibited by the anti-IGF antibody) were less dramatic. A modest 18% increase in cell number was observed with FSH and E2 treatment in serum-free medium; this effect was virtually abolished by the antibody.

  9. Cell cycle evaluation of granulosa cells in the {gamma}-irradiated mouse ovarian follicles

    KIm, Jin Kyu; Lee, Chang Joo; Lee, Young Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kang Won; Yoon, Yong Dal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the biochemical and morphological effects of ionizing radiation on mouse ovarian follicles. Immature mice (ICR, 3 week-old) were irradiated with a dose of LD{sub 80(30)} at KAERI. The ovaries were collected after 6 hours, 12 hours, 1 day, and 2 days post irradiation. With the morphological basis of the histological staining with hematoxylin-eosin, immunohistochemical preparation using in situ 3'-end labeling was evaluated. Flow cytometric evaluation of DNA extracted from the whole ovary was performed. The percentage of A{sub 0} (subpopulation of cells with degraded DNA and with lower DNA fluorescence than G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cells), apoptotic, cells in the cell cycle was significantly higher in the irradiated group than in the control group. The number of in situ 3'-end labeled follicles increased at 6 hours post irradiation. All the analyses represented that the ionizing radiation-induced follicular atresia was taken place via an apoptotic degeneration. Such a degeneration underwent very fast and acutely. Therefore, it is concluded that the radiation-induced follicular degeneration is, like the spontaneous atresia, mediated by an acute apoptosis of follicular granulosa cells. Flow cytometric evaluation of cell cycles can make the role for quantifying the atretic follicles and understanding the mechanism of the radiation-induced cell death.

  10. Changes in keratin 8/18 expression in human granulosa cell lineage are associated to cell death/survival events: potential implications for the maintenance of the ovarian reserve.

    Gaytan, F; Morales, C; Roa, J; Tena-Sempere, M

    2018-04-01

    Is keratin 8/18 (K8/K18) expression linked to cell death/survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage? A close association exists between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/survival events along the human granulosa cell lineage lifespan. In addition to their structural and mechanical functions, K8/K18 play essential roles regulating cell death, survival and differentiation in several non-gonadal epithelial tissues. Transfection of the granulosa-like tumor KGN cells with siRNA to interfere KRT8 and KRT18 expression increases FAS-mediated apoptosis, while an inverse association between K8/K18 expression and cell death has been found in the bovine antral follicles and corpus luteum. Yet, only fragmentary and inconclusive information exists regarding K8/K18 expression in the human ovary. Expression of K8/K18 was assessed by immunohistochemistry at different stages of the granulosa cell lineage, from flattened granulosa cells in primordial follicles to fully luteinized granulosa-lutein cells in the corpus luteum (including corpus luteum of pregnancy). Immunohistochemical detection of K8/K18 was conducted in 40 archival ovarian samples from women aged 17-39 years. K8/K18 expression was analyzed at the different stages of follicle development and corpus luteum lifespan. The proportions of primordial follicles showing all K8/K18-positive, all K8/K18 negative, or a mixture of K8/K18 negative and positive granulosa cells were quantified in 18 ovaries, divided into three age groups: ≤ 25 years (N = 6), 26-30 (N = 6) and 31-36 (N = 6) years. A total number of 1793 primordial, 750 transitional and 140 primary follicles were scored. A close association was found between changes in K8/K18 expression and cell death/cell survival events in the human granulosa cell lineage. Large secondary and early antral follicles (most of them undergoing atresia) and regressing corpora lutea displayed low/absent K8/K18 expression. Conversely, early growing and some large antral

  11. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde Derived from Prunus mume Seed Inhibits Oxidative Stress and Enhances Estradiol Secretion in Human Ovarian Granulosa Tumor Cells

    Kono, Ryohei; Nomura, Sachiko; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Maeno, Akihiro; Kagiya, Tomoko; Tokuda, Akihiko; Inada, Ken-ichi; Matsuno, Akira; Utsunomiya, Tomoko; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cells form ovarian follicles and play important roles in the growth and maturation of oocytes. The protection of granulosa cells from cellular injury caused by oxidative stress is an effective therapy for female infertility. We here investigated an effective bioactive compound derived from Prunus mume seed extract that protects granulosa cells from hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptosis. We detected the bioactive compound, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (3,4-DHBA), via bioactivity-guided isolation and found that it inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis of granulosa cells. We also showed that 3,4-DHBA promoted estradiol secretion in granulosa cells and enhanced the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1, a promoter of key steroidogenic enzymes. These results suggest that P. mume seed extract may have clinical potential for the prevention and treatment of female infertility

  12. Adding of ascorbic acid to the culture medium influences the antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters in the hen granulosa cells.

    Capcarova, M; Kolesarova, A; Kalafova, A; Bulla, J; Sirotkin, A V

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) of the hen granulosa cells, and selected biochemical parameters, including calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, glucose, cholesterol, proteins, in the culture medium of granulosa cells after exposing them to ascorbic acid in vitro conditions. Ovarian granulosa cells of hens were incubated with various doses of ascorbic acid (E1 0.09 mg/ml, E2 0.13 mg/ml, E3 0.17 mg/ml, E4 0.33 mg/ml, E5 0.5 mg/ml). Ascorbic acid did not manifest antioxidant potential and higher doses of ascorbic acid (0.17; 0.33 and 0.5 mg/ml) decreased the activity of SOD in granulosa cells. Vitamin application resulted in a significantly (pascorbic acid might be involved in the regulation of selected biochemical and physiological processes in ovarian granulosa cells.

  13. Targeted genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of ovarian granulosa cells from women with PCOS

    Pooja Sagvekar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrinopathy of obscure pathophysiologic origins, globally affecting 6-15% women of childbearing age. Emerging evidence on repercussions of environmental insults and changing lifestyles on fecundity and reproductive health have necessitated the study of tissue-specific epigenetic alterations in PCOS development. In semblance to follicular and oocyte defects observed in PCOS ovaries, targeted bisulfite sequencing was performed to generate the methylome signatures of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs obtained from age-BMI matched women with PCOS (n=3 and healthy, regularly menstruating controls (n=3 using next generation sequencing approach. Paired end sequencing of samples was carried out on Illumina HiSeq 2500 ® platform and data were analyzed using the Bismark tool. Methylation levels of a few selected genes relevant to ovarian function were further validated in GCs obtained from 10 controls and 10 women with PCOS by pyrosequencing.  Relative transcript levels of these genes were assessed by q-RT PCR using Taqman assays. In the methylome analysis, a total of 6486 CpG sites representing 3840 genes associated with pathways such as Wnt signaling, G-protein receptor signaling, angiogenesis, chemokine and cytokine mediated inflammation and integrin signaling showed differential methylation in PCOS. Of these, a total of 2977 CpG sites representing 2063 genes were identified as hypomethylated while 3509 CpG sites in 1777 genes were found to be hypermethylated. Additionally, differential methylation was also noted in several non-coding RNAs regulating vital ovarian functions and which are reported to be dysregulated in PCOS. This data provides compelling evidence in support of epigenetic alterations as etiopathogenic factors associated with ovarian dysfunction in PCOS.

  14. Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary

    Berg Ulrike

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulosa cells (GCs represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa of big conductance (BKCa, which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression and functions of KCa channels (including BKCa beta-subunits, and 2. biophysical properties of BKCa channels. Methods GCs were obtained from in vitro-fertilization patients and cultured. Expression of mRNA was determined by standard RT-PCR and protein expression in human ovarian slices was detected by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone production was measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISAs. Single channels were recorded in the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Results We identified two KCa types in human GCs, the intermediate- (IK and the small-conductance KCa (SK. Their functionality was concluded from attenuation of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by KCa blockers (TRAM-34, apamin. Functional IK channels were also demonstrated by electrophysiological recording of single KCa channels with distinctive features. Both, IK and BKCa channels were found to be simultaneously active in individual GCs. In agreement with functional data, we identified mRNAs encoding IK, SK1, SK2 and SK3 in human GCs and proteins of IK and SK2 in corresponding human ovarian cells. Molecular characterization of the BKCa channel revealed the presence of mRNAs encoding several BKCa beta-subunits (beta2, beta3, beta4 in human GCs. The multitude of beta-subunits detected might contribute to variations in Ca2+ dependence of individual BKCa channels which we observed in electrophysiological recordings. Conclusion Functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of active IK and SK

  15. Effect of GnRHa ovulation trigger dose on follicular fluid characteristics and granulosa cell gene expression profiles

    Vuong, Thi Ngoc Lan; Ho, M T; Ha, T Q

    2017-01-01

    in oocyte donors undergoing a single stimulation cycle at IVFMD, My Duc Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from August 2014 to March 2015. A total of 165 women aged 18-35 years with body mass index 1.25 ng/mL, and antral follicle count ≥6 were randomised to three...... granulosa cells were investigated in a subset of women from each group. RESULTS: Progesterone and oestradiol levels in FF did not differ significantly by trigger doses; findings were similar for 3βHSD, LHR and INHB-A gene expression in both cumulus and mural granulosa cells. CONCLUSIONS: In women co...

  16. The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) regulates ovarian granulosa cell tumor progression via controlling AKT1 transcription

    Hua, G; He, C; Lv, X; Fan, L; Wang, C; Remmenga, S W; Rodabaugh, K J; Yang, L; Lele, S M; Yang, P; Karpf, A R; Davis, J S; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    The four and a half LIM domains 2 (FHL2) has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation, survival, adhesion, motility and signal transduction in a cell type and tissue-dependent manner. However, the function of FHL2 in ovarian physiology and pathology is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role and functional mechanism of FHL2 in the progression of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs). Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that FHL2 was overexp...

  17. Oleic acid induces specific alterations in the morphology, gene expression and steroid hormone production of cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Viergutz, Torsten; Vanselow, Jens

    2016-06-01

    After parturition, one of the major problems related to nutritional management that is faced by the majority of dairy cows is negative energy balance (NEB). During NEB, excessive lipid mobilization takes place and hence the levels of free fatty acids, among them oleic acid, increase in the blood, but also in the follicular fluid. This accumulation can be associated with serious metabolic and reproductive disorders. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of physiological concentrations of oleic acid on cell morphology, apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation and steroid production, and on the abundance of selected transcripts in cultured bovine granulosa cells. Increasing oleic acid concentrations induced intracellular lipid droplet accumulation, thus resulting in a foam cell-like morphology, but had no effects on apoptosis, necrosis or proliferation. Oleic acid also significantly reduced the transcript abundance of the gonadotropin hormone receptors, FSHR and LHCGR, steroidogenic genes STAR, CYP11A1, HSD3B1 and CYP19A1, the cell cycle regulator CCND2, but not of the proliferation marker PCNA. In addition, treatment increased the transcript levels of the fatty acid transporters CD36 and SLC27A1, and decreased the production of 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone. From these data it can be concluded that oleic acid specifically affects morphological and physiological features and gene expression levels thus altering the functionality of granulosa cells. Suggestively, these effects might be partly due to the reduced expression of FSHR and thus the reduced responsiveness to FSH stimulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxicological effects of fumonisin B1 alone and in combination with other fusariotoxins on bovine granulosa cells.

    Albonico, Marco; Schütz, Luis F; Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Spicer, Leon J

    2016-08-01

    There is now overwhelming evidence of global contamination of commodities with Fusarium mycotoxins. Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in corn in combination with deoxynivalenol (DON), α-zearalenol (α-ZEA) and β-zearalenol (β-ZEA). The aim of this study was to determine if FB1, alone and combined with DON or α-ZEA or β-ZEA, can affect cell proliferation and steroid production of bovine granulosa cells (GC). A species-specific model with bovine granulosa cells (GC) was used to study the potential endocrine disruptor effects of FB1 alone and in co-exposure. In the presence of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL), FB1 at 30 ng/mL showed a stimulatory effect on GC numbers. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1)-stimulated cell proliferation was decreased after exposure to β-ZEA alone at 5.0 μg/mL and FB1 with α-ZEA and β-ZEA at the same concentration. Regarding steroid production, FB1 at 30 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL amplified the inhibitory effect of β-ZEA (30 ng/mL) on estradiol (E2) production, while FB1 alone increased (P < 0.05) IGF1-induced E2 production. α-ZEA alone decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production, whereas β-ZEA alone and in combination with FB1 decreased (P < 0.05) E2 production. These studies indicate for the first time that the Fusarium mycotoxin FB1 along with other mycotoxins can affect GC proliferation and steroid production, which ultimately could influence reproductive function in cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations before and after treatment of an ovarian granulosa cell tumour in a cat

    Laura A Heaps

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 15-year-old female cat was presented for investigation of progressive behavioural changes, polyuria, polydipsia and periuria. An ovarian granulosa cell tumour was identified and the cat underwent therapeutic ovariohysterectomy (OHE. The cat’s clinical signs resolved, but 6 months later it was diagnosed as having an anaplastic astrocytoma and was euthanased. Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH concentration prior to OHE was increased vs a control group of entire and neutered female cats. Following OHE, serum AMH concentration decreased to <1% of the original value. Relevance and novel information Serum AMH measurement may represent a novel diagnostic and monitoring tool for functional ovarian neoplasms in cats.

  20. In Vitro toxicological effects of Fumonisin B1 and Beauvericin on bovine granulosa cells

    Marco Albonico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisin B1 (FB1 and beauvericin (BEA are fusariotoxins found to co-exist in food and feed commodities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the individual and combined effects of FB1 and BEA on bovine granulosa cell proliferation and steroid production. Granulosa cells (GC from small bovine follicles (1-5 mm were cultured for 48 hours in 10% fetal bovine serum followed by 48 hours in a serum-free medium containing 500 ng/ml of testosterone (as an estradiol precursor, 30 ng/ml of FSH and 30 ng/ml of IGF-I with and without FB1 (3 µM and BEA (3 µM. At the end of the experiment, the numbers of GC were determined using a Coulter counter (Beckman Coulter, USA and concentrations of progesterone and estradiol in the culture medium were determined by radioimmunoassay. FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, showed an inhibitory effect (P 0.05 on estradiol and progesterone production, whereas BEA (3 µM, both alone and in combination with FB1 (3 µM, was found to decrease (P < 0.001 the production of both steroids drastically. In conclusion, this in vitro study indicates that FB1 and BEA, both individually and in combination, may affect GC proliferation to different extents and shows the drastic inhibitory effects of BEA on steroid production.

  1. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao, E-mail: zcwang@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  2. Enhanced proliferation and progesterone production by porcine granulosa cells cultured with pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF).

    Piekło, R; Gregoraszczuk, E L; Lesko, J; Golais, F; Stokłosowa, S

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study possible interactions of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) with ovarian tissue. Granulosa cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured as monolayers for 6 days in a control medium without PRGF and in medium supplemented with different doses of this agent. Increased population density and change towards more fibroblastic-like shape of cells cultured with 10(9) I.U PRGF was observed when compared with control culture. The cells divided significantly faster during 6 days of culture under the influence of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) I.U./ml of PRGF at a dose dependent manner. PRGF in a dose 10(9) I.U. added to cultured cells isolated from small and medium follicles did not influence progesterone secretion . An increase of progesterone secretion under the influence of PRGF in all investigated days of cultures was observed in cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles. The marked increase in progesterone content in PRGF treated culture in doses of 0.5x10(7), 0.5x10(8), 0.5x10(9) I.U. was observed during 4 and 6 days of culture. The rise of progesterone content was not connected with increased number of secretory cells, but with a stimulation of production per cell. PRGF exerted no visible effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from small and medium follicles cultured for 6 days. The presented in vitro data provide evidence for a local action of PRGF in the follicle depending on the stage of follicular development and duration of exposure. Precise relevance of the interaction of PRGF with follicular development requires further study.

  3. Effect of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on steroid production of human granulosa cells

    Reinsberg, Jochen; Wegener-Toper, Petra; Ven, Katrin van der; Ven, Hans van der; Klingmueller, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    The phthalate ester mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) is the active metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, a high-production-volume chemical used as a plasticizer and solvent in numerous consumer products. MEHP has been demonstrated to be a reproductive toxicant in rodents decreasing estradiol and progesterone production in preovulatory granulosa cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of MEHP on steroid production of human granulosa-lutein (GL) cells. Human GL cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization were cultured in medium containing FSH, hCG and 8-Br-cAMP, respectively, together with various concentrations of MEHP (0-500 μmol L -1 ). After incubation for 48 h estradiol and progesterone were assayed in the spent culture medium. Furthermore, aromatase activity and mRNA levels of GL cells were determined. Basal as well as FSH-, hCG- and 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated estradiol production of GL cells was suppressed by MEHP in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 = 105 μmol L -1 , 138 μmol L -1 , 49 μmol L -1 and 78 μmol L -1 ). Furthermore aromatase activity and mRNA levels were reduced in GL cells cultured with MEHP. In contrast, MEHP did not alter the production of progesterone up to a concentration of 167 μmol L -1 . The present data indicate that MEHP is a specific inhibitor of estradiol production in human GL cells with a post-cAMP site of action. The inhibition of estradiol production obviously results from a reduction of aromatase activity on the transcript level. As the in vitro effective doses of MEHP are within the range of real environmental exposure levels an inhibitory effect on estrogen production in vivo seems to be possible.

  4. Vastatins have a distinct effect on sterol synthesis and progesterone secretion in human granulosa cells in vitro

    Vliet, A.K. van; Thiel, G.C.F. van; Naaktgeboren, N.; Cohen, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Lovastatin and simvastatin are strong inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis in cultured human granulosa cells, as measured within 6 days after isolation, with IC50-values of respectively 27.0 and 18.2 nM obtained after 3.5 hours of incubation with the drugs. Pravastatin is a much weaker inhibitor of

  5. Evidence for Existence of Immunoglobulins that Block Ovarian Granulosa Cell Growth in Vitro. A Putative Role in Resistant Ovary Syndrome?

    WEISSENBRUCH, MIRJAM M. van; HOEK, ANNEMIEKE; VLIET-BLEEKER, INGRID van; SCHOEMAKER, JOOP; DREXHAGE, HEMMO

    1991-01-01

    The sera of 26 patients with premature ovarian failure were examined in order to detect immunoglobulin-G (IgGs) that can block FSH-induced in vitro granulosa cell DNA synthesis via, a Feulgen cytochemical bioassay system. The IgGs of four patients with polycystic ovary-like disease, five

  6. Chorionic gonadotropin regulates the transcript level of VHL, p53, and HIF-2alpha in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Herr, D; Keck, C; Tempfer, C; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2004-12-01

    The ovarian corpus luteum plays a critical role in reproduction being the primary source of circulating progesterone. After ovulation the corpus luteum is build by avascular granulosa lutein cells through rapid vascularization regulated by gonadotropic hormones. The present study was performed to investigate whether this process might be influenced by the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-dependent expression of different tumor suppressor genes and hypoxia dependent transcription factors. RNA was isolated from cultured granulosa lutein cells, transcribed into cDNA, and the transcript level of following genes were determined: RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, APC, and hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), -2, and -3alpha. Additionally, the influence of hCG on the expression of VHL, p53, and HIf2alpha were investigated. We demonstrate that in human granulosa lutein cells the tumor suppressor genes RB-1, VHL, NF-1, NF-2, Wt-1, p53, and APC and the hypoxia dependent transcription factors HIF-1alpha, -2alpha, and -3alpha are expressed. In addition, we showed that hCG regulates the expression of p53, VHL, and HIF-2alpha. Our results indicate that hCG may determine the growth and development of the corpus luteum by mediating hypoxic and apoptotic pathways in human granulosa lutein cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Evaluation of response to hormone therapy in patients with measurable adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Buist, Marrije R.; van Driel, Willemien J.; Kenter, Gemma G.; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R. C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the objective response rate to hormone therapy (HT) for patients with a measurable adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary in a consecutive series of patients. All patients with an adult GCT who were treated with HT [steroidal progestins,

  8. Testosterone stimulates progesterone production and STAR, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and LH receptor mRNAs expression in hen (Gallus domesticus) granulosa cells.

    Rangel, P L; Rodríguez, A; Rojas, S; Sharp, P J; Gutierrez, C G

    2009-12-01

    The chicken ovary is organized into a hierarchy of yellow yolky follicles that ovulate on successive days. Active or passive immunization of laying hens against testosterone blocks ovulation without affecting follicle development. Testosterone may play a role in pre-ovulatory follicle maturation by stimulating granulosa progesterone production. We assessed whether this stimulus is dose-related and depends on the maturity of the donor follicle, and if it does so by stimulating granulosa cell STAR, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and LH receptor (LHCGR) mRNAs expression. Progesterone production by granulosa cells from F1, F3, and F4 follicles, cultured for 3 h without testosterone was greater in cells collected 11-14 h than 1-4 h after ovulation. These differences in progesterone production were less pronounced after granulosa cells had been cultured for 24 h. Culture of granulosa cells for 3 or 24 h with testosterone (1-100 ng/ml) stimulated progesterone production in cells collected from F4, F3, or F1 follicles 1-4, or 11-14 h after ovulation. Testosterone (0-4000 ng/ml) alone or in combination with LH (0-100 ng/ml) increased progesterone production by F1 granulosa cells, collected 1-4 and 11-14 h after ovulation and cultured for 3 h. Finally, testosterone (10 or 100 ng/ml) increased STAR, P450scc, and LHCGR mRNAs, when added to 3 h cultures of F1 granulosa cells. In conclusion, testosterone stimulates granulosa cell progesterone production in hen pre-ovulatory hierarchical follicles irrespective of maturational state, acting alone or additively with LH. We propose that testosterone promotes granulosa cell maturation to facilitate the pre-ovulatory release of LH.

  9. Interleukin-1 (IL-1 system gene expression in granulosa cells: kinetics during terminal preovulatory follicle maturation in the mare

    Gérard Nadine

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidences suggests that the ovary is a site of inflammatory reactions, and thus, ovarian cells could represent sources and targets of the interleukin-1 (IL-1 system. The purpose of this study was to examine the IL-1 system gene expressions in equine granulosa cells, and to study the IL-1β content in follicular fluid during the follicle maturation. For this purpose, granulosa cells and follicular fluids were collected from the largest follicle at the early dominance stage (diameter 24 ± 3 mm or during the preovulatory maturation phase, at T0 h, T6 h, T12 h, T24 h and T34 h after induction of ovulation. Cells were analysed by RT-PCR and follicular fluids were studied by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Results We demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL-1R2 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA genes are expressed in equine granulosa cells. We observed that the IL-1β and IL-1RA mRNA content changed in granulosa cells during the terminal follicular maturation whereas IL-1R2 mRNA did not vary. In follicular fluid, IL-1β content fluctuated few hours after induction of ovulation. Conclusions The expression of IL-1β gene in granulosa cells and the follicular fluid IL-1β content seem to be regulated by gonadotropins suggesting that IL-1β could be an intermediate paracrine factor involved in ovulation.

  10. Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Amidi, Fardin; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Soleimani, Masoud; Shirazi, Reza; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D3 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities in granulosa cell using a PCOS mouse model. In our study, the PCOS mouse model was developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for 20 days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells were compared between polycystic and normal ovaries using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Granulosa cells of DHEA-induced PCOS mice were then cultured with and without vitamin D3 and mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes and serum 17beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated using qRT-PCR, western blot, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Steroidogenic enzymes including Cyp11a1, StAR, Cyp19a1, and 3β-HSD were upregulated in granulosa cells of PCOS mice when compared to normal mice. Treatment with vitamin D3 decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes in cultured granulosa cells. Vitamin D3 also decreased aromatase and 3β-HSD activity that leads to decreased 17beta-estradiol and progesterone release. This study suggests that vitamin D3 could modulate the steroidogenesis pathway in granulosa cells of PCOS mice that may lead to improving follicular development and maturation. This is a step towards a possible conceivable treatment for PCOS. AMHR-II: anti-müllerian hormone receptor-II; 3β-HSD: 3

  11. Effect of triptolide on progesterone production from cultured rat granulosa cells.

    Zhang, J; Jiang, Z; Mu, X; Wen, J; Su, Y; Zhang, L

    2012-06-01

    Triptolide(CAS 38748-32-2), a major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF), is known to have multiple pharmacological activities. However, studies have also shown that triptolide is highly disrupt to the reproductive system by disrupting normal steroid hormone signaling. In the present study, we investigated the effect of triptolide (5, 10, or 20 nM for 24 h) on progesterone production by rat granulosa cells. Triptolide inhibited both basal and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)- and 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated progesterone production as revealed by RIA assay. Furthermore, the HCG-evoked increase in cellular cAMP content was also inhibited by triptolide, indicating that disruption of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway may mediate the deleterious effects of triptolide on progesterone regulation. In addition, triptolide inhibited 25-OH-cholesterol-stimulated progesterone production, suggesting that activity of the P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme was also be inhibited by triptolide. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays further revealed that triptolide decreased mRNA and protein expression of P450scc and the steroidogenic regulatory (StAR) protein in granulosa cells. In contrast, cell viability tests using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) indicated that triptolide did not cause measurable cell death at doses that suppressed steroidogenesis. The reproductive toxicity of triptolide may be caused by disruption of cAMP/PKA-mediated expression of a number of progesterone synthesis enzymes or regulatory proteins, leading to reduced progesterone synthesis and reproductive dysfunction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. C/EBPβ Promotes STAT3 Expression and Affects Cell Apoptosis and Proliferation in Porcine Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    Yuan, Xiaolong; Zhou, Xiaofeng; He, Yingting; Zhong, Yuyi; Zhang, Ailing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jiaqi

    2018-06-13

    Previous studies suggest that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) play an essential role in ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) for mammalian follicular development. Several C/EBPβ putative binding sites were previously predicted on the STAT3 promoter in mammals. However, the molecular regulation of C/EBPβ on STAT3 and their effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis remain virtually unexplored in GCs. Using porcine GCs as a model, the 5′-deletion, luciferase report assay, mutation, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Annexin-V/PI staining and EdU assays were applied to investigate the molecular mechanism for C/EBPβ regulating the expression of STAT3 and their effects on the cell proliferation and apoptosis ability. We found that over and interfering with the expression of C/EBPβ significantly increased and decreased the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of STAT3 , respectively. The dual luciferase reporter assay showed that C/EBPβ directly bound at −1397/−1387 of STAT3 to positively regulate the mRNA and protein expressions of STAT3 . Both C/EBPβ and STAT3 were observed to inhibit cell apoptosis and promote cell proliferation. Furthermore, C/EBPβ might enhance the antiapoptotic and pro-proliferative effects of STAT3 . These results would be of great insight in further exploring the molecular mechanism of C/EBPβ and STAT3 on the function of GCs and the development of ovarian follicles in mammals.

  13. Adverse eff ects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol- block-polylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA on steroid hormone secretion by porcine granulosa cells

    Scsukova Sona

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Development of nanoparticles (NPs for biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery, is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. Diverse effects of different type NPs relating to mammalian reproductive tissues have been demonstrated. Th e objective of this study was to explore the in vitro effects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol-blockpolylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA NPs on functional state and viability of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs, which play an important role in maintaining ovarian function and female fertility.

  14. Juvenile granulosa cell ovarian tumor: a case report and review of literature.

    Sivasankaran, Sujatha; Itam, Paul; Ayensu-Coker, Leslie; Sanchez, Judith; Egler, Rachel A; Anderson, Matthew L; Brandt, Mary L; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2009-10-01

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are rare ovarian tumors that frequently present with precocious puberty. Presentation in infants less than a year of age is also rare. We describe a 10-month-old infant who presented with both premature thelarche and adrenarche due to JGCT. Laboratory evaluation revealed classic elevation of estradiol and inhibin B, and less classic elevation of total and free testosterone. Oophorectomy and staging resulted in a diagnosis of Stage IA JGCT. Survival rates are >95% among patients diagnosed under 10 years of age. Tumor recurrence is rare but can occur as late as 48 months. Therefore, tumor surveillance is warranted for patients with even a Stage IA JGCT and involves monitoring serial inhibin B levels along with intermittent imaging.

  15. Metastatic Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Testis: Clinical Presentation and Management

    Anand Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs of the testis are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are present in both juvenile and adult subtypes. While most adult GCTs are benign, those that present with distant metastases manifest a grave prognosis. Treatments for aggressive GCTs are not well established. Options that have been employed in previous cases include retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination thereof. We describe the case of a 57-year-old man who presented with a painless left testicular mass and painful gynecomastia. Serum tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, and lactate dehydrogenase and computed tomography of the chest and abdomen were negative. The patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. Immunohistochemical staining was consistent with a testicular GCT. He underwent a left-template laparoscopic RPLND which revealed 2/19 positive lymph nodes. Final pathological stage was IIA. He remains free of disease 32 months after surgery.

  16. Aromatase inhibitors - a viable option for recurrent granulosa cell tumour of ovary: overview and case report

    Munem, A.A.; Bahrani, B.A.; Mehdi, I.

    2012-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumour of the ovary in adults is a rare tumour of low malignant potential affecting middle aged peri or post menopausal patients. These tumours are often diagnosed at an early stage, due to their hormonally active nature. They, however, have unique distinguishing histologic features and behaviour of frequent and late local or systemic relapses. The diagnosis can be challenging with unusual presentations. There is high association of endometrial carcinoma. Surgery is the mainstay of management in early low risk disease, while radiotherapy and systemic platinum based chemotherapy are employed in higher stage with poor prognostic indices. Survival is good in early stage disease. Recurrent, progressive, and treatment refractory disease is not infrequent and poses management challenge. Endocrine manipulation and hormone treatment are employed in few cases with equivocal results, as reported in literature. We present a case of recurrent and treatment refractory GCT in a postmenopausal patient, managed by aromatase inhibitor Anastrozole with reasonable efficacy. (author)

  17. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  18. Involvement of ERK1/2 signaling pathway in atrazine action on FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 expression in rat granulosa cells

    Fa, Svetlana; Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Kovacevic, Radmila; Andric, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.andric@dbe.uns.ac.rs

    2013-07-01

    Worldwide used herbicide atrazine is linked to reproductive dysfunction in females. In this study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of atrazine action in the ovary using a primary culture of immature granulosa cells. In granulosa cells, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) activates both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascades, with cAMP pathway being more important for luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA expression. We report that 48 h after atrazine exposure the FSH-stimulated LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA expression and estradiol synthesis were decreased, with LHR mRNA being more sensitive to atrazine than CYP19A1 mRNA. Inadequate acquisition of LHR in the FSH-stimulated and atrazine-exposed granulosa cells renders human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ineffective to stimulate amphiregulin (Areg), epiregulin (Ereg), and progesterone receptor (Pgr) mRNA expression, suggesting anti-ovulatory effect of atrazine. To dissect the signaling cascade involved in atrazine action in granulosa cells, we used U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK1/2. U0126 prevents atrazine-induced decrease in LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in the FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. ERK1/2 inactivation restores the ability of hCG to induce expression of the ovulatory genes in atrazine-exposed granulosa cells. Cell-based ELISA assay revealed that atrazine does not change the FSH-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation in granulosa cells. The results from this study reveal that atrazine does not affect but requires ERK1/2 phosphorylation to cause decrease in the FSH-induced LHR and CYP19A1 mRNA levels and estradiol production in immature granulosa cells, thus compromising ovulation and female fertility. - Highlights: • Atrazine inhibits estradiol production in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine inhibits LHR and Cyp19a1 mRNA expression in FSH-stimulated granulosa cells. • Atrazine

  19. In human granulosa cells from small antral follicles, androgen receptor mRNA and androgen levels in follicular fluid correlate with FSH receptor mRNA

    Nielsen, M. E.; Rasmussen, I. A.; Kristensen, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    significantly with the expression of AMHRII, but did not correlate with any of the hormones in the follicular fluid. These data demonstrate an intimate association between AR expression in immature granulosa cells, and the expression of FSHR in normal small human antral follicles and between the follicular......Human small antral follicles (diameter 3-9 mm) were obtained from ovaries surgically removed for fertility preservation. From the individual aspirated follicles, granulosa cells and the corresponding follicular fluid were isolated in 64 follicles, of which 55 were available for mRNA analysis (24...... and to the follicular fluid concentrations of AMH, inhibin-B, progesterone and estradiol. AR mRNA expression in granulosa cells and the follicular fluid content of androgens both showed a highly significant positive association with the expression of FSHR mRNA in granulosa cells. AR mRNA expression also correlated...

  20. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. ...

  1. Addition of granulosa cell mass to the culture medium of oocytes derived from early antral follicles increases oocyte growth, ATP content, and acetylation of H4K12.

    Sugiyama, Miyako; Sumiya, Mei; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that an increase in the number of granulosa cells surrounding developing bovine oocytes results in both high ATP levels and an increase in the acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro. Oocyte-granulosa cell complexes (OGCs) were collected from early antral follicles (EAFs, 0.4-0.7 mm in diameter), and individually cultured on 96-well plates with or without additional granulosa cell mass that had been prepared from other OGCs. After 16 days of culture, we examined: (i) the rate of antrum formation of the OGCs; (ii) the diameter, maturation, and fertilization rate of the oocytes; and (iii) the ATP content and acetylation level of H4K12 in the oocytes grown in vitro. Granulosa cell mass added to the culture medium contributed to the development of OGCs with a higher rate of antrum formation and oocyte growth. Furthermore, the addition of granulosa cells increased the ATP content and acetylation level of H4K12 in oocytes grown in vitro compared with those developed without addition of granulosa cells. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the ATP content in oocytes grown in vitro and the number of granulosa cells in the corresponding OGCs. The results suggest that granulosa cells play a role not only in the development of OGCs and the growth of oocytes, but also in the determination of ATP content and the acetylation of H4K12 in the oocytes developed in vitro.

  2. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  3. Critical Role of FoxO1 in Granulosa Cell Apoptosis Caused by Oxidative Stress and Protective Effects of Grape Seed Procyanidin B2

    Jia-Qing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are closely related to the follicular granulosa cell apoptosis. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2 has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. However, the GSPB2-mediated protective effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in granulosa cell apoptosis process remain unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that GSPB2 treatment decreased FoxO1 protein level, improved granulosa cell viability, upregulated LC3-II protein level, and reduced granulosa cell apoptosis rate. Under a condition of oxidative stress, GSPB2 reversed FoxO1 nuclear localization and increased its level in cytoplasm. In addition, FoxO1 knockdown inhibited the protective effects of GSPB2 induced. Our findings suggest that FoxO1 plays a pivotal role in regulating autophagy in granulosa cells, GSPB2 exerts a potent and beneficial role in reducing granulosa cell apoptosis and inducing autophagy process, and targeting FoxO1 could be significant in fighting against oxidative stress-reduced female reproductive system diseases.

  4. Lysosomes are involved in induction of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene expression and progesterone synthesis through low-density lipoprotein in cultured bovine granulosa cells.

    Zhang, Jin-You; Wu, Yi; Zhao, Shuan; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Zeng, Shen-Ming; Zhang, Gui-Xue

    2015-09-15

    Progesterone is an important steroid hormone in the regulation of the bovine estrous cycle. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is an indispensable component for transporting cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is one of the rate-limiting steps for progesterone synthesis. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) supplies cholesterol precursors for progesterone formation, and the lysosomal degradation pathway of LDL is essential for progesterone biosynthesis in granulosa cells after ovulation. However, it is currently unknown how LDL and lysosomes coordinate the expression of the StAR gene and progesterone production in bovine granulosa cells. Here, we investigated the role of lysosomes in LDL-treated bovine granulosa cells. Our results reported that LDL induced expression of StAR messenger RNA and protein as well as expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1) messenger RNA and progesterone production in cultured bovine granulosa cells. The number of lysosomes in the granulosa cells was also significantly increased by LDL; whereas the lysosomal inhibitor, chloroquine, strikingly abolished these LDL-induced effects. Our results indicate that LDL promotes StAR expression, synthesis of progesterone, and formation of lysosomes in bovine granulosa cells, and lysosomes participate in the process by releasing free cholesterol from hydrolyzed LDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Activin A, B and AB decrease progesterone production by down-regulating StAR in human granulosa cells.

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Shi, Feng-Tao; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-09-05

    Activins are homo- or heterodimers of inhibin β subunits that play important roles in the reproductive system. Our previous work has shown that activins A (βAβA), B (βBβB) and AB (βAβB) induce aromatase/estradiol, but suppress StAR/progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells. However, the underlying molecular determinants of these effects have not been examined. In this continuing study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) to investigate the effects of activins in regulating StAR/progesterone and the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, activins A, B and AB produced comparable down-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. In addition, all three activin isoforms induced equivalent phosphorylation of both SMAD2 and SMAD3. Importantly, the activin-induced down-regulation of StAR, increase in SMAD2/3 phosphorylation, and decrease in progesterone were abolished by the TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor SB431542. Interestingly, the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ALK4 but not ALK5 reversed the activin-induced suppression of StAR. Furthermore, the knockdown of SMAD4 or SMAD2 but not SMAD3 abolished the inhibitory effects of all three activin isoforms on StAR expression. These results provide evidence that activins A, B and AB down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via an ALK4-mediated SMAD2/SMAD4-dependent pathway. Our findings provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory effects of activins on human granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of adiponectin on bovine granulosa cell steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation and embryo development

    Coyral-Castel Stéphanie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipokine, mainly produced by adipose tissue. It regulates several reproductive processes. The protein expression of the adiponectin system (adiponectin, its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 and the APPL1 adaptor in bovine ovary and its role on ovarian cells and embryo, remain however to be determined. Methods Here, we identified the adiponectin system in bovine ovarian cells and embryo using RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we investigated in vitro the effects of recombinant human adiponectin (10 micro g/mL on proliferation of granulosa cells (GC measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, progesterone and estradiol secretions measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture medium of GC, nuclear oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Results We show that the mRNAs and proteins for the adiponectin system are present in bovine ovary (small and large follicles and corpus luteum and embryo. Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were more precisely localized in oocyte, GC and theca cells. Adiponectin increased IGF-1 10(-8 M-induced GC proliferation (P Conclusions In bovine species, adiponectin decreased insulin-induced steroidogenesis and increased IGF-1-induced proliferation of cultured GC through a potential involvement of ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, whereas it did not modify oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

  7. MRI findings of bilateral juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis in a newborn presenting as intraabdominal masses

    Yikilmaz, Ali [Erciyes Medical School, Department of Radiology, Gevher Nesibe Hospital, Kayseri (Turkey); Lee, Edward Y. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT) of the testis is a rare benign tumor that typically presents as a relatively small (<2 cm) unilateral scrotal mass in neonates or infants. Bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large intraabdominal masses in the neonate is very rare. Utilizing preoperative MRI findings, we report a rare case of bilateral JGCT of the testes presenting as large multiseptated abdominal masses originating from undescended intraabdominal testes in a neonate. (orig.)

  8. Modulation of Steroidogenic Pathway in Rat Granulosa Cells with Subclinical Cd Exposure and Insulin Resistance: An Impact on Female Fertility

    Muskaan Belani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lifestyle lead to insulin resistance (IR in females ultimately predisposing them towards infertility. In addition, cadmium (Cd, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is reported for detrimental effects on granulosa cells, thus leading to ovarian dysfunction. A combination of these factors, lifestyle and environment, seems to play a role in etiology of idiopathic infertility that accounts for 50% amongst the total infertility cases. To address this issue, we made an attempt to investigate the extent of Cd impact on insulin-resistant (IR granulosa cells. We exposed adult female Charles Foster rats to dexamethasone and confirmed IR condition by fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI. On treatment of IR rats with Cd, the preliminary studies demonstrated prolonged estrous cyclicity, decrease in serum estradiol concentrations, abnormal histology of ovary, and increased granulosa cell death. Further gene and protein expression studies of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD, and cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19A1 were performed. Protein expression studies demonstrated significant decrease in treated groups when compared with control. Study revealed that, in spite of the molecular parameters being affected at varied level, overall ovarian physiology is maximally affected in IR and Cd coexposed group, thus mimicking the condition similar to those prevailing in infertile females.

  9. STMN1 Promotes Progesterone Production Via StAR Up-regulation in Mouse Granulosa Cells.

    Dou, Yun-De; Zhao, Han; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Yu, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Liu, Tao; Gao, Xuan; Li, Lei; Lu, Gang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-06-08

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a biomarker in several types of neoplasms. It plays an important role in cell cycle progression, mitosis, signal transduction and cell migration. In ovaries, STMN1 is predominantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs). However, little is known about the role of STMN1 in ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In mouse primary GCs, the overexpression of STMN1 stimulated progesterone production, whereas knockdown of STMN1 decreased progesterone production. We also found that STMN1 positively regulates the expression of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1). Promoter and ChIP assays indicated that STMN1 increased the transcriptional activity of Star and Cyp11a1 by binding to their promoter regions. The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of STMN1 in ovary GC steroidogenesis. A better understanding of this potential interaction between STMN1 and Star in progesterone biosynthesis in GCs will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets in PCOS.

  10. Small GTPases are involved in sprout formation in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Franz, Maximilian B; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Sator, Michael; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    The corpus luteum (CL), develops from the ruptured follicle after gonadotropin stimulation. Based on intracellular reorganization of the cytoskeleton an human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) dependent sprouting and migration of luteinizing granulosa cells (LGCs) and endothelial cells is observed. Rho-GTPases are shown to be key regulators of cytoskeletal restructuring. In the present study we analyzed the role of Rho-GTPases in the sprouting activity of LGCs. We used the Rho-GTPase-inhibitors Toxin A and -B and the Cdc42-activator Bradykinin in a LGC-spheroid sprouting assay to determine the effect of these modulators in LGCs. Toxin A and Toxin B reduces sprout formation in LGC spheroids. However, the reduction is less than in hCG treated cells. The usage of Bradykinin demonstrates both, a reduction of sprouts in untreated spheroids and an increase of sprouting in previous hCG treated spheroids. The presented results let us suggest that small Rho-GTPases may regulate the sprouting activity of LGCs after stimulation by hCG and that this mechanism may play a role in CL formation.

  11. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The process of oocyte growth and development takes place during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. This is accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes, occurring from the preantral to antral stages during ovarian follicle differentiation. It is well known that the process of follicle growth is associated with morphological modifications of theca (TCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). However, the relationship between proliferation and/or differentiation of porcine GCs during long-term in vitro culture requires further investigation. Moreover, the expression of cytokeratins and vimentin in porcine GCs, in relation to real-time cell proliferation, has yet to be explored. Utilizing confocal microscopy, we analyzed cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression, as well as their protein distribution, within GCs isolated from slaughtered ovarian follicles. The cells were cultured for 168 h with protein expression and cell proliferation index analyzed at 24-h intervals. We found the highest expression of CK18, panCK, and Vim occurred at 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC) as compared with other experimental time intervals. All of the investigated proteins displayed cytoplasmic distribution. Analysis of real-time cell proliferation revealed an increased cell index after the first 24 h of IVC. Additionally, during each period between 24-168 h of IVC, a significant difference in the proliferation profile, expressed as the cell index, was also observed. We concluded that higher expression of vimentin at 120 h of in vitro proliferation might explain the culmination of the stromalization process associated with growth and domination of stromal cells in GC culture. Cytokeratin expression within GC cytoplasm confirms the presence of epithelial cells as well as epithelial-related GC development during IVC. Moreover, expression of both cytokeratins and vimentin during short-term culture suggests that the process of GC proliferation

  12. Testosterone-Dependent Interaction between Androgen Receptor and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Induces Liver Receptor Homolog 1 Expression in Rat Granulosa Cells

    Wu, Yanguang; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Zhou, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Androgens play a major role in the regulation of normal ovarian function; however, they are also involved in the development of ovarian pathologies. These contrasting effects may involve a differential response of granulosa cells to the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To determine the molecular pathways that mediate the distinct effects of T and DHT, we studied the expression of the liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) gene, which is differentially regulated by these steroids. We found that although both T and DHT stimulate androgen receptor (AR) binding to the LRH-1 promoter, DHT prevents T-mediated stimulation of LRH-1 expression. T stimulated the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its interaction with the AR. T also promoted the recruitment of the AR/AHR complex to the LRH-1 promoter. These effects were not mimicked by DHT. We also observed that the activation of extracellular regulated kinases by T is required for AR and AHR interaction. In summary, T, but not DHT, stimulates AHR expression and the interaction between AHR and AR, leading to the stimulation of LRH-1 expression. These findings could explain the distinct response of granulosa cells to T and DHT and provide a molecular mechanism by which DHT negatively affects ovarian function. PMID:23689136

  13. Congenital juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis: Case report and literature review

    Carolina Talini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT is a very rarely diagnosed benign tumor, accounting for 1.2% of all prepubertal testicular tumors. A full-term healthy neonate was diagnosed with a painless left scrotal mass. During evaluation it was identified to have about two times the volume of the contralateral testis, presenting a firm consistency, not as hard as the consistency of a prenatal testicular torsion. Doppler ultrasound detected a multicystic left testicular mass, with normal blood flow, but failed in detecting normal-appearing testis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were normal. Inguinal approach was performed, section of the lesion was sent to frozen biopsy and excluded yolk sac tumor, and however the impossibility of detecting normal testis tissue indicated orchiectomy with high ligation of the spermatic cord. Histological evaluation demonstrated gray testicular parenchyma with multicystic aspect fulfilled with yellow fluid. The usual clinical presentation of JGCT is a painless scrotal mass, radiological imaging demonstrates a multicystic tumor. Tumoral markers levels are normal and the standard treatment is the inguinal orchiectomy.

  14. Three-dimensional culture of buffalo granulosa cells in hanging drop mimics the preovulatory follicle stage.

    Yadav, Monica; Agrawal, Himanshu; Pandey, Mamta; Singh, Dheer; Onteru, Suneel K

    2018-03-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) culture models mimicking the intrafollicular environment are limited. Such models have a great potential in reproductive toxicity studies. The buffalo, a monovulatory species like humans, could be a better model than polyovulatory rodents. Therefore, we targeted the development and characterization of three-dimensional (3D) culture systems for buffalo GCs. The GCs from small ovarian follicles (SF) maintained the CYP19 gene expression for 144 hr in a 2D culture system. Hence, GCs from SF were cultured directly in 3D using hanging drop and Poly-([2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate]) (polyHEMA) methods in the DMEM media containing 1 ng/ml FSH and 10 ng/ml IGF-1 for 144 hr. The expression profile of nine GC-specific transcripts; CYP19, TNFAIP6, AMH, PTI, NR4A1, FSHR, RUNX, LHR, and COX2/PTGS2; revealed that 3D-spheroids developed in hanging drop method maintained the GC phenotype of preovulatory follicles. Therefore, hanging drop method is a best method for culturing GCs to mimic the intrafollicular environment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Role of adjuvant radiotherapy in granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

    Hauspy, Jan; Beiner, Mario E; Harley, Ian; Rosen, Barry; Murphy, Joan; Chapman, William; Le, Lisa W; Fyles, Anthony; Levin, Wilfred

    2011-03-01

    To review the role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the outcome and recurrence patterns of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary. The records of all patients with GCTs referred to the Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network between 1961 and 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient, tumor, and treatment factors were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses using disease-free survival (DFS) as the endpoint. A total of 103 patients with histologically confirmed GCTs were included in the present study. The mean duration of follow-up was 100 months (range, 1-399). Of the 103 patients, 31 received adjuvant RT. A total of 39 patients developed tumor recurrence. The tumor size, incidence of intraoperative rupture, and presence of concurrent endometrial cancer were not significant risk factors for DFS. The median DFS was 251 months for patients who underwent adjuvant RT compared with 112 months for patients who did not (p=.02). On multivariate analysis, adjuvant RT remained a significant prognostic factor for DFS (p=.004). Of the 103 patients, 12 had died and 44 were lost to follow-up. Ovarian GCTs can be indolent, with patients achieving long-term survival. In our series, adjuvant RT resulted in a significantly longer DFS. Ideally, randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed to define the role of adjuvant RT for ovarian GCTs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of endothelin-1 gene and protein in human granulosa cells

    Magini, A.; Granchi, S.; Susini, T. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Previous studies in animal models indicated an autocrine/paracrine action of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the ovary. We now report evidence on the presence of ET-1 in human ovary during reproductive life. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies demonstrated a positive signal into cytoplasm of granulosa cells (GC) of follicles at different growth stages. The concentration of ET-1-like immunoreactivity (ET-1-Li) was also measured by a specific RIA in human follicular fluid (FF). FF samples were obtained from women in an in vitro fertilization program undergoing gonadotropin stimulation (group A; n = 24) or no treatment (group B; n = 7). The mean ({+-}SD) ET-1-LI FF level in group A (4.85 {+-} 2.06 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in group B (1.29 {+-} 0.43 pg/mL; P < 0.01), whereas the corresponding mean plasma levels were not significantly different and were not correlated to respective FF values. Our results indicate for the first time the presence of ET-1 and its messenger ribonucleic acid in the GC of the human ovary. The higher ET-1-LI levels found in the FF from women undergoing gonadotropin treatment suggest a modulation by gonadotropins and/or ovarian steroids of ET-1 production by GC. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. In vitro progesterone production by luteinized human mural granulosa cells is modulated by activation of AMPK and cause of infertility.

    Bowdridge, E C; Vernon, M W; Flores, J A; Clemmer, M J

    2017-09-22

    Mural granulosa cells from IVF patients were provided by the West Virginia University Center for Reproductive Medicine in Morgantown, WV. The effect of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, primary cause of infertility, age, BMI, and pregnancy outcome on production of progesterone were examined separately. Isolated mural sheets from IVF patients (n = 26) were centrifuged, supernatant discarded, and the pellet re-suspended in 500 μl of DMEM/F12. Mural granulosa cells were plated at 10,000 cells/well in triplicate per treatment group with 300 μl DMEM/F12 media at 37 °C and 5% CO2 in a humidified incubator to permit luteinization. Four days after initial plating, cells were treated with either an AMPK inhibitor, DM; an AMPK activator, AICAR; or hCG. Cells were cultured for 24 h after treatment when medium was collected and frozen at -20 °C until assayed for P4 by radioimmunoassay. The AMPK activator, AICAR, inhibited P4 production (P Progesterone production increased when cells from patients whose primary cause of infertility was a partner having male infertility were treated with hCG compared to control (P = 0.0045), but not in patients with other primary infertility factors (P > 0.05). Additionally, hCG increased P4 production in patients between the ages 30-35 (P = 0.008) and 36-39 (P = 0.04), but not in patients ages 25-29 (P = 0.73). Patients with normal BMI had increased P4 production when treated with hCG (P production from cells of patients who were overweight or obese (P > 0.05). Cells from patients who became pregnant to IVF had greater P4 production when stimulated with hCG than those who did not become pregnant when compared to controls (P > 0.05). Understanding how AMPK activation is regulated in ovarian cells could lead to alternative or novel infertility treatments. Human mural granulosa cells can serve as a valuable model for understanding how AMPK affects P4 production in steroidogenic cells

  18. BMP15 suppresses progesterone production by down-regulating StAR via ALK3 in human granulosa cells.

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-12-01

    In addition to somatic cell-derived growth factors, oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)15 play essential roles in female fertility. However, few studies have investigated their effects on human ovarian steroidogenesis, and fewer still have examined their differential effects or underlying molecular determinants. In the present study, we used immortalized human granulosa cells (SVOG) and human granulosa cell tumor cells (KGN) to compare the effects of GDF9 and BMP15 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and investigate potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, neither GDF9 nor BMP15 affects the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme or 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. However, treatment with BMP15, but not GDF9, significantly decreases steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) mRNA and protein levels as well as progesterone production. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Sma and Mad-related protein (SMAD)1/5/8 phosphorylation, are attenuated by cotreatment with 2 different BMP type I receptor inhibitors (dorsomorphin and DMH-1). Furthermore, depletion of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)3 using small interfering RNA reverses the effects of BMP15 on SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation and StAR expression. Similarly, knockdown of ALK3 abolishes BMP15-induced SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation in KGN cells. These results provide evidence that oocyte-derived BMP15 down-regulates StAR expression and decreases progesterone production in human granulosa cells, likely via ALK3-mediated SMAD1/5/8 signaling. Our findings suggest that oocyte may play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone to prevent premature luteinization during the late stage of follicle development.

  19. Lactate promotes specific differentiation in bovine granulosa cells depending on lactate uptake thus mimicking an early post-LH stage

    Anja Baufeld

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LH-induced folliculo-luteal transformation is connected with alterations of the gene expression profile in cells of the granulosa layer. It has been described that hypoxic conditions occur during luteinization, thus favoring the formation of L-lactate within the follicle. Despite being a product of anaerobic respiration, L-lactate has been shown to act as a signaling molecule affecting gene expression in neuronal cells. During the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-lactate may influence differentiation of follicular granulosa cells (GC. Methods In a bovine granulosa cell culture model effects of L- and D-lactate, of increased glucose concentrations and of the lactate transport inhibitor UK5099 were analyzed. Steroid hormone production was analyzed by RIA and the abundance of key transcripts was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results L-lactate decreased the production of estradiol and significantly affected selected genes of the folliculo-luteal transition as well as genes of the lactate metabolism. CYP19A1, FSHR, LHCGR were down-regulated, whereas RGS2, VNN2, PTX3, LDHA and lactate transporters were up-regulated. These effects could be partly or completely reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with UK5099. The non-metabolized enantiomer D-lactate had even more pronounced effects on gene expression, whereas increased glucose concentrations did not affect transcript abundance. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that L-lactate specifically alters physiological and molecular characteristics of GC. These effects critically depend on L-lactate uptake, but are not triggered by increased energy supply. Further, we could show that L-lactate has a positive feedback on the lactate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine and possibly other monovular species supporting differentiation during the folliculo-luteal transformation.

  20. The LIM domain protein FHL2 interacts with the NR5A family of nuclear receptors and CREB to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Matulis, Christina K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear receptor transcriptional activity is enhanced by interaction with coactivators. The highly related nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) subfamily members liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 bind to and activate several of the same genes, many of which are important for reproductive function. To better understand transcriptional activation by these nuclear receptors, we sought to identify interacting proteins that might function as coactivators. The LIM domain protein four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) was identified as interacting with the NR5A receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human ovary cDNA library. FHL2, and the closely related FHL1, are both expressed in the rodent ovary and in granulosa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FHL1 and FHL2 in primary mouse granulosa cells reduced expression of the NR5A target genes encoding inhibin-α and P450scc. In vitro assays confirmed the interaction between the FHL and NR5A proteins and revealed that a single LIM domain of FHL2 is sufficient for this interaction, whereas determinants in both the ligand binding domain and DNA binding domain of NR5A proteins are important. FHL2 enhances the ability of both liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene promoter in granulosa cells and thus functions as a transcriptional coactivator. FHL2 also interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein and substantially augments activation of inhibin gene expression by the combination of NR5A receptors and forskolin, suggesting that FHL2 may facilitate integration of these two signals. Collectively these results identify FHL2 as a novel coactivator of NR5A nuclear receptors in ovarian granulosa cells and suggest its involvement in regulating target genes important for mammalian reproduction.

  1. Tributyltin or triphenyltin inhibits aromatase activity in the human granulosa-like tumor cell line KGN.

    Saitoh, M; Yanase, T; Morinaga, H; Tanabe, M; Mu, Y M; Nishi, Y; Nomura, M; Okabe, T; Goto, K; Takayanagi, R; Nawata, H

    2001-11-23

    The superimposition of male sex organs (penis and vas deferens) in a female gastropod, called imposex, is widely attributed to the exposure to tributyltin (TBT) compounds, used world-wide in antifouling paints for ships. It has been hypothesized that the TBT-induced imposex is mediated by an increasing androgen level relative to the estrogen level, namely a decreased conversion of androgens to estrogens (i.e., aromatization). In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of TBT or triphenyltin (TPT) on the aromatase activity in a cultured human granulosa-like tumor cell line, KGN, which was recently established by our group. Treatment with more than 1000 ng/ml TBT compounds was very toxic to the cells and caused immediate cell death within 24 h, while 200 ng/ml was found to cause apoptosis of the cells. Treatment of the KGN cells for more than 48 h with 20 ng/ml TBT or TPT, which is a concentration level reported to cause imposex in marine species, did not affect cell proliferation but significantly suppressed the aromatase activity determined by a [(3)H]H(2)O release assay. Treatment with 20 ng/ml TBT compounds for 7 days also resulted in a reduction of the E2 production from Delta 4-androstenedione stimulated by db-cAMP. The changes in the aromatase activity by TBT compounds were associated with comparable changes in P450arom mRNA assessed by RT-PCR. The luciferase activity of the P450arom promoter II (1 kb) decreased after the addition of 20 ng/ml TBT compounds in transfected KGN cells either in a basic state or in states stimulated by db-cAMP. The Ad4BP-dependent increase in the luciferase activity of P450arom promoter II was also downregulated by such treatments. These results indicate that TBT compounds inhibited the aromatase activity and also decreased the P450arom mRNA level at the transcriptional level in KGN cells. The direct inhibitory effect of TBT compounds on the aromatase activity may therefore partly explain the induction

  2. Prohibitin regulates the FSH signaling pathway in rat granulosa cell differentiation.

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thomas, Kelwyn; Zeleznik, Anthony; Thompson, Winston E

    2016-05-01

    Published results from our laboratory identified prohibitin (PHB), a gene product expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) that progressively increases during follicle maturation. Our current in vitro studies demonstrate that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates Phb expression in rat primary GCs. The FSH-dependent expression of PHB was primarily localized within mitochondria, and positively correlates with the morphological changes in GCs organelles, and synthesis and secretions of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). In order to confirm that PHB plays a regulatory role in rat GC differentiation, endogenous PHB-knockdown studies were carried out in undifferentiated GCs using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated RNA interference methodology. Knockdown of PHB in GCs resulted in the suppression of the key steroidogenic enzymes including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), p450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and aromatase (Cyp19a1); and decreased E2 and P4 synthesis and secretions in the presence of FSH stimulation. Furthermore, these experimental studies also provided direct evidence that PHB within the mitochondrial fraction in GCs is phosphorylated at residues Y249, T258, and Y259 in response to FSH stimulation. The observed levels of phosphorylation of PHB at Y249, T258, and Y259 were significantly low in GCs in the absence of FSH stimulation. In addition, during GC differentiation FSH-induced expression of phospho-PHB (pPHB) requires the activation of MEK1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, these studies provide new evidence supporting FSH-dependent PHB/pPHB upregulation in GCs is required to sustain the differentiated state of GCs. © 2016 The authors.

  3. miR-26b promotes granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting ATM during follicular atresia in porcine ovary.

    Fei Lin

    Full Text Available More than 99% of ovarian follicles undergo atresia in mammals, but the mechanism of follicular atresia remains to be elucidated. In this study, we explored microRNA (miRNA regulation of follicular atresia in porcine ovary. A miRNA expression profile was constructed for healthy, early atretic, and progressively atretic follicles, and the differentially expressed miRNAs were selected and analyzed. We found that miR-26b, which was upregulated during follicular atresia, increased the number of DNA breaks and promoted granulosa cell apoptosis by targeting the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene directly in vitro.

  4. Competence Classification of Cumulus and Granulosa Cell Transcriptome in Embryos Matched by Morphology and Female Age.

    Rehannah Borup

    Full Text Available By focussing on differences in the mural granulosa cell (MGC and cumulus cell (CC transcriptomes from follicles resulting in competent (live birth and non-competent (no pregnancy oocytes the study aims on defining a competence classifier expression profile in the two cellular compartments.A case-control study.University based facilities for clinical services and research.MGC and CC samples from 60 women undergoing IVF treatment following the long GnRH-agonist protocol were collected. Samples from 16 oocytes where live birth was achieved and 16 age- and embryo morphology matched incompetent oocytes were included in the study.MGC and CC were isolated immediately after oocyte retrieval. From the 16 competent and non-competent follicles, mRNA was extracted and expression profile generated on the Human Gene 1.0 ST Affymetrix array. Live birth prediction analysis using machine learning algorithms (support vector machines with performance estimation by leave-one-out cross validation and independent validation on an external data set.We defined a signature of 30 genes expressed in CC predictive of live birth. This live birth prediction model had an accuracy of 81%, a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.80, a positive predictive value of 0.77, and a negative predictive value of 0.86. Receiver operating characteristic analysis found an area under the curve of 0.86, significantly greater than random chance. When applied on 3 external data sets with the end-point outcome measure of blastocyst formation, the signature resulted in 62%, 75% and 88% accuracy, respectively. The genes in the classifier are primarily connected to apoptosis and involvement in formation of extracellular matrix. We were not able to define a robust MGC classifier signature that could classify live birth with accuracy above random chance level.We have developed a cumulus cell classifier, which showed a promising performance on external data. This suggests that the gene signature at

  5. Gene expression profiling of upregulated mRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine ovulatory follicles following stimulation with hCG

    Jacques G. Lussier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovulation and luteinization of follicles are complex biological processes initiated by the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. The objective of this study was to identify genes that are differentially expressed in bovine granulosa cells (GC of ovulatory follicles. Methods Granulosa cells were collected during the first follicular wave of the bovine estrous cycle from dominant follicles (DF and from ovulatory follicles (OF obtained 24 h following injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. A granulosa cell subtracted cDNA library (OF-DF was generated using suppression subtractive hybridization and screened. Results Detection of genes known to be upregulated in bovine GC during ovulation, such as ADAMTS1, CAV1, EGR1, MMP1, PLAT, PLA2G4A, PTGES, PTGS2, RGS2, TIMP1, TNFAIP6 and VNN2 validated the physiological model and analytical techniques used. For a subset of genes that were identified for the first time, gene expression profiles were further compared by semiquantitative RT-PCR in follicles obtained at different developmental stages. Results confirmed an induction or upregulation of the respective mRNAs in GC of OF 24 h after hCG-injection compared with those of DF for the following genes: ADAMTS9, ARAF, CAPN2, CRISPLD2, FKBP5, GFPT2, KIT, KITLG, L3MBLT3, MRO, NUDT10, NUDT11, P4HA3, POSTN, PSAP, RBP1, SAT1, SDC4, TIMP2, TNC and USP53. In bovine GC, CRISPLD2 and POSTN mRNA were found as full-length transcript whereas L3MBLT3 mRNA was alternatively spliced resulting in a truncated protein missing the carboxy-terminal end amino acids, 774KNSHNEL780. Conversely, L3MBLT3 is expressed as a full-length mRNA in a bovine endometrial cell line. The 774KNSHNEL780 sequence is well conserved in all mammalian species and follows a SAM domain known to confer protein/protein interactions, which suggest a key function for these amino acids in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Conclusions We conclude that we have identified

  6. Amphiregulin mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells.

    Fang, Lanlan; Yu, Yiping; Zhang, Ruizhe; He, Jingyan; Sun, Ying-Pu

    2016-04-26

    Progesterone plays critical roles in maintaining a successful pregnancy at the early embryonic stage. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) rapidly induces amphiregulin (AREG) expression. However, it remains unknown whether AREG mediates hCG-induced progesterone production. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of AREG in hCG-induced progesterone production and the underlying molecular mechanism in human granulosa cells; primary cells were used as the experimental model. We demonstrated that the inhibition of EGFR and the knockdown of AREG abolished hCG-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production. Importantly, follicular fluid AREG levels were positively correlated with progesterone levels in the follicular fluid and serum. Treatment with AREG increased StAR expression and progesterone production, and these stimulatory effects were abolished by EGFR inhibition. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2, but not PI3K/Akt, signaling was required for the AREG-induced up-regulation of StAR expression and progesterone production. Our results demonstrate that AREG mediates hCG-induced StAR expression and progesterone production in human granulosa cells, providing novel evidence for the role of AREG in the regulation of steroidogenesis.

  7. The effect of heat stress on gene expression, synthesis of steroids, and apoptosis in bovine granulosa cells.

    Li, Lian; Wu, Jie; Luo, Man; Sun, Yu; Wang, Genlin

    2016-05-01

    Summer heat stress (HS) is a major contributing factor in low fertility in lactating dairy cows in hot environments. Heat stress inhibits ovarian follicular development leading to diminished reproductive efficiency of dairy cows during summer. Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. During follicle development, granulosa cells (GCs) replicate, secrete hormones, and support the growth of the oocyte. To obtain an overview of the effects of heat stress on GCs, digital gene expression profiling was employed to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs; false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.001, fold change ≥2) of cultured GCs during heat stress. A total of 1211 DEGs including 175 upregulated and 1036 downregulated ones were identified, of which DEGs can be classified into Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The results suggested that heat stress triggers a dramatic and complex program of altered gene expression in GCs. We hypothesized that heat stress could induce the apoptosis and dysfunction of GCs. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of steroidogenic genes (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (Star), cytochrome P-450 (CYP11A1), CYP19A1, and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1)) and apoptosis-related genes (caspase-3, BCL-2, and BAX). Radio immunoassay (RIA) was used to analyze the level of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We also assessed the apoptosis of GCs by flow cytometry. Our data suggested that heat stress induced GC apoptosis through the BAX/BCL-2 pathway and reduced the steroidogenic gene messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and E2 synthesis. These results suggest that the decreased function of GCs may cause ovarian dysfunction and offer an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism responsible for the low fertility in cattle in summer.

  8. Efficient differentiation of steroidogenic and germ-like cells from epigenetically-related iPSCs derived from ovarian granulosa cells.

    Raymond Anchan

    Full Text Available To explore restoration of ovarian function using epigenetically-related, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, we functionally evaluated the epigenetic memory of novel iPSC lines, derived from mouse and human ovarian granulosa cells (GCs using c-Myc, Klf4, Sox2 and Oct4 retroviral vectors. The stem cell identity of the mouse and human GC-derived iPSCs (mGriPSCs, hGriPSCs was verified by demonstrating embryonic stem cell (ESC antigen expression using immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR analysis, as well as formation of embryoid bodies (EBs and teratomas that are capable of differentiating into cells from all three germ layers. GriPSCs' gene expression profiles associate more closely with those of ESCs than of the originating GCs as demonstrated by genome-wide analysis of mRNA and microRNA. A comparative analysis of EBs generated from three different mouse cell lines (mGriPSCs; fibroblast-derived iPSC, mFiPSCs; G4 embryonic stem cells, G4 mESCs revealed that differentiated mGriPSC-EBs synthesize 10-fold more estradiol (E2 than either differentiated FiPSC- or mESC-EBs under identical culture conditions. By contrast, mESC-EBs primarily synthesize progesterone (P4 and FiPSC-EBs produce neither E2 nor P4. Differentiated mGriPSC-EBs also express ovarian markers (AMHR, FSHR, Cyp19a1, ER and Inha as well as markers of early gametogenesis (Mvh, Dazl, Gdf9, Boule and Zp1 more frequently than EBs of the other cell lines. These results provide evidence of preferential homotypic differentiation of mGriPSCs into ovarian cell types. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that generating iPSCs from the desired tissue type may prove advantageous due to the iPSCs' epigenetic memory.

  9. Bilateral granulosa cell tumors: a novel malignant manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome found in a patient with a rare menin in-frame deletion

    Hall MJ

    2015-02-01

    for clinical MEN1 syndrome. Functional analysis performed on the stable mutant protein showed selective disruption of the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, yet it maintained its wild-type ability to inhibit nuclear factor kappa B and to suppress JunD transcriptional activity. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report of MEN1 syndrome associated with bilateral granulosa cell malignancy. We postulate that this presentation may be due to the novel menin gene mutation recently described. Keywords: menin gene, ovarian tumors, hyperparathyroidism

  10. Identification of differential gene expression in in vitro FSH treated pig granulosa cells using suppression subtractive hybridization

    Tosser-Klopp G

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract FSH, which binds to specific receptors on granulosa cells in mammals, plays a key role in folliculogenesis. Its biological activity involves stimulation of intercellular communication and upregulation of steroidogenesis, but the entire spectrum of the genes regulated by FSH has yet to be fully characterized. In order to find new regulated transcripts, however rare, we have used a Suppression Subtractive Hybridization approach (SSH on pig granulosa cells in primary culture treated or not with FSH. Two SSH libraries were generated and 76 clones were sequenced after selection by differential screening. Sixty four different sequences were identified, including 3 novel sequences. Experiments demonstrated the presence of 25 regulated transcripts. A gene ontology analysis of these 25 genes revealed (1 catalytic; (2 transport; (3 signal transducer; (4 binding; (5 anti-oxidant and (6 structural activities. These findings may deepen our understanding of FSH's effects. Particularly, they suggest that FSH is involved in the modulation of peroxidase activity and remodelling of chromatin.

  11. Distinct responses of human granulosa lutein cells after hCG or LH stimulation in a spheroidal cell culture system.

    Becker, Julia; Walz, Andrea; Daube, Stefanie; Keck, Christoph; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2007-10-01

    The growth and development of the corpus luteum (CL) is regulated by gonadotropic hormones. It is formed by granulosa cells (GCs), theca cells, and endothelial cells, and is the primary source of circulating progesterone. During early pregnancy only human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not luteinizing hormone (LH) extends the life span of the CL, although hCG and LH interact with the same receptor and have similar actions on the CL. In this study a recently by our group established spheroidal GC culture assay served as a model of CL development on which we compared the actions of the gonadotropic hormones LH and hCG. To find out which signal pathways take part in the hormonal regulation of GC we stimulated GC-spheroids with modulators of protein kinases A and C dependent signaling cascades and determined their impact on sprout forming activity in GC. Our results indicate that PKA-dependent signaling pathways play a major role in mediating the hormonal-induced signaling cascades leading to sprouting in GC. Furthermore, this study strongly indicates that the different effects of hCG and LH in the maintenance of the CL may be reasoned in different signal transduction pathways triggered by hCG or LH. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC1 in cell division: its role in bovine granulosa cells mitosis

    Laura Terzaghi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were aimed to assess Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component-1 (PGRMC1 role in regulating bovine granulosa cells (bGC mitosis. First, we performed immunofluorescence studies on in vitro cultured bGC collected from antral follicles, which showed that PGRMC1 localizes to the spindle apparatus in mitotic cells. Then, to evaluate PGRMC1 effect on cell proliferation we silenced its expression with RNA interference technique (RNAi. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting confirmed down-regulation of PGRMC1 expression, when compared to CTRL-RNAi treated bGC (p<0.05. After 72h of culture, PGRMC1 silencing determined a lower growth rate (p<0.05 and a higher percentage of cells arrested at G2/M phase as assessed by flowcytometry (p<0.05. Accordingly, live imaging studies revealed more aberrant mitosis and a delayed M-phase in PGRMC1-RNAi treated cells compared to CTRL-RNAi group (p<0.05. These data confirmed that PGRMC1 is directly involved in bGC mitosis and ongoing preliminary studies are aimed to elucidate its putative mechanisms of action. Since PGRMC1 is a membrane protein, we hypothesize its possible involvement in vesicular trafficking and endocytosis, which is in turn an important process to assure proper cell division. To assess this hypothesis, we have preliminarily conducted immunofluorescence and in situ proximity ligation assay experiments that showed PGRMC1 co-localization and direct interaction with clathrin. This is important since clathrin is an essential protein for both endosomes formation, and cell division acting directly on the spindle apparatus. Thus our studies set the stage for analysis aimed to further characterize PGRMC1’s mechanism of action in mitotic cell.

  13. IL-1β Upregulates StAR and Progesterone Production Through the ERK1/2- and p38-Mediated CREB Signaling Pathways in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Dang, Xuan; Zhu, Qinling; He, Yaqiong; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Li, Xiaoxue; Qi, Jia; Wu, Hasiximuke; Sun, Yun

    2017-10-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) may be involved in several ovulation-associated events, such as protease synthesis, prostaglandin production, and steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. However, the exact effect of IL-1β on progesterone synthesis in granulosa cells and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. By using cultured granulosa-lutein cells collected from women undergoing in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, we found that IL-1β upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells, which was comparable with luteinizing hormone effect and could be abolished by an IL-1 receptor antagonist. Moreover, IL-1β activated the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB), and knockdown of CREB attenuated the induction of StAR expression and progesterone synthesis by IL-1β in granulosa-lutein cells. Furthermore, IL-1β activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 pathways and inhibition of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways attenuated the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of CREB, StAR expression, and progesterone synthesis in granulosa-lutein cells. In conclusion, IL-1β could upregulate StAR expression and stimulate progesterone biosynthesis through increase in CREB phosphorylation via activating the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, Per Glud; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicula...

  15. EVIDENCE FOR EXISTENCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS THAT BLOCK OVARIAN GRANULOSA-CELL GROWTH-INVITRO - A PUTATIVE ROLE IN RESISTANT OVARY SYNDROME

    VANWEISSENBRUCH, MM; HOEK, A; VAN VLIET BLEEKER, I.; SCHOEMAKER, J; DREXHAGE, H

    The sera of 26 patients with premature ovarian failure were examined in order to detect immunoglobulin-G (IgGs) that can block FSH-induced in vitro granulosa cell DNA synthesis via, a Feulgen cytochemical bioassay system. The IgGs of four patients with polycystic ovary-like disease, five

  16. In vitro production of bovine embryos: cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression patterns point to early atresia as beneficial for oocyte competence

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Razza, Eduardo; Pedersen, Hanne S.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro production (IW) of bovine embryos has become widespread technology implemented in cattle breeding and production. Here, we review novel data on cumulus/granulosa cell gene expression, as determined by RNAseq on cellular material from pooled follicular fluids at the single animal level...

  17. Development and internal validation of a prognostic model to predict recurrence free survival in patients with adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; Schuit, Ewoud; Horlings, Hugo M.; van der Velden, Jacobus; van Driel, Willemien J.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2014-01-01

    Models to predict the probability of recurrence free survival exist for various types of malignancies, but a model for recurrence free survival in individuals with an adult granulosa cell tumor (GCT) of the ovary is lacking. We aimed to develop and internally validate such a prognostic model. We

  18. Increased expression of pentraxin 3 after in vivo and in vitro stimulation with gonadotropins in porcine oocyte-cumulus complexes and granulosa cells

    Nagyová, Eva; Kalous, Jaroslav; Němcová, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2016), s. 29-35 ISSN 0739-7240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/05/0960 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : oocyte-cumulus complex * granulosa cells * pentraxin 3 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2016

  19. IL-1α Up-Regulates IL-6 Expression in Bovine Granulosa Cells via MAPKs and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    Meng Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IL-6 is one of the main cytokines in regulating ovarian follicular development and ovulation. However, the factors that regulate IL-6 expression in follicles are still unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of IL-1α on IL-6 expression in granulosa cells. Methods: IL-6 expression after IL-1α with/without inhibitors treatment was analyzed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. The phosphorylation of proteins induced by IL-1α was analyzed by western blot. The intracellular cAMP level was assayed by immunoassay kit. Results: IL-1α has a dose-dependent effect on IL-6 expression in granulosa cells. This promoting effect can be significantly attenuated by Erk, c-Jun, p38 and IκB proteins inhibitors, respectively. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of Erk, c-Jun, p38 and IκBα proteins were significantly increased after IL-1α treatment. In addition, we also found that IL-1α not only reversed the cAMP attenuated IL-6 expression, but also increased IL-1α mRNA expression in granulosa cells. Conclusion: The regulation of IL-1α on IL-6 expression is mediated by activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways. Moreover,IL-1α may regulate the ovulation-related genes expression in granulosa cells by an autocrine and/or paracrine manner.

  20. Expression of antiapoptosis gene survivin in luteinized ovarian granulosa cells of women undergoing IVF or ICSI and embryo transfer: clinical correlations

    Varras Michail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence of survivin gene expression in human granulosa cells during ovarian stimulation in Greek women with normal FSH levels, undergoing IVF or ICSI and to discover any correlation between levels of gene expression and clinical parameters, efficacy of ovulation or outcomes of assisted reproduction. Methods Twenty nine women underwent ovulation induction for IVF or ICSI and ET with standard GnRH analogue-recombinant FSH protocol. Infertility causes were male and tubal factor. Cumulus–mature oocyte complexes were denuded and the granulosa cells were analyzed for each patient separately using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis for survivin gene expression with internal standard the ABL gene. Results The ABL and survivin mRNA were detected in granulosa cells in 93.1%. The expression levels of survivin were significantly lower in normal women (male infertility factor compared to women with tubal infertility factor (p = 0.007. There was no additional statistically significant correlation between levels of survivin expression and estradiol levels or dosage of FSH for ovulation induction or number of dominant follicles aspirated or number of retrieved oocytes or embryo grade or clinical pregnancy rates respectively. Conclusions High levels of survivin mRNA expression in luteinized granulosa cells in cases with tubal infertility seem to protect ovaries from follicular apoptosis. A subpopulation of patients with low levels of survivin mRNA in granulosa cells might benefit with ICSI treatment to bypass possible natural barriers of sperm-oocyte interactions.

  1. Regulation of MMP2 and MMP9 metalloproteinases by FSH and growth factors in bovine granulosa cells

    Valerio M. Portela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are key enzymes involved in tissue remodeling. Within the ovary, they are believed to play a major role in ovulation, and have been linked to follicle atresia. To gain insight into the regulation of MMPs, we measured the effect of hormones and growth factors on MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA levels in non-luteinizing granulosa cells in serum-free culture. FSH and IGF1 both stimulated estradiol secretion and inhibited MMP2 and MMP9 mRNA abundance. In contrast, EGF and FGF2 both inhibited estradiol secretion but had no effect on MMP expression. At physiological doses, none of these hormones altered the proportion of dead cells. Although we cannot link MMP expression with apoptosis, the specific down regulation by the gonadotropic hormones FSH and IGF1 in vitro suggests that excess MMP2 and MMP9 expression is neither required nor desired for follicle development.

  2. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  3. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) is the mediator of progesterone's antiapoptotic action in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells as revealed by PGRMC1 small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment and functional analysis of PGRMC1 mutations.

    Peluso, John J; Romak, Jonathan; Liu, Xiufang

    2008-02-01

    Progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and its binding partner, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein (PAIRBP1) are thought to form a complex that functions as membrane receptor for P4. The present investigations confirm PGRMC1's role in this membrane receptor complex by demonstrating that depleting PGMRC1 with PGRMC1 small interfering RNA results in a 60% decline in [(3)H]P4 binding and the loss of P4's antiapoptotic action. Studies conducted on partially purified GFP-PGRMC1 fusion protein indicate that [(3)H]P4 specifically binds to PGRMC1 at a single site with an apparent K(d) of about 35 nm. In addition, experiments using various deletion mutations reveal that the entire PGRMC1 molecule is required for maximal [(3)H]P4 binding and P4 responsiveness. Analysis of the binding data also suggests that the P4 binding site is within a segment of PGRMC1 that is composed of the transmembrane domain and the initial segment of the C terminus. Interestingly, PAIRBP1 appears to bind to the C terminus between amino acids 70-130, which is distal to the putative P4 binding site. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence that PGRMC1 is the P4 binding protein that mediates P4's antiapoptotic action. Moreover, the deletion mutation studies indicate that each domain of PGRMC1 plays an essential role in modulating PGRMC1's capacity to both bind and respond to P4. Additional studies are required to more precisely delineate the role of each PGRMC1 domain in transducing P4's antiapoptotic action.

  4. Expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-2 within the immature rat ovary and its role in regulating mitosis and apoptosis of spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells.

    Griffin, Daniel; Liu, Xiufang; Pru, Cindy; Pru, James K; Peluso, John J

    2014-08-01

    Progesterone receptor membrane component 2 (Pgrmc2) mRNA was detected in the immature rat ovary. By 48 h after eCG, Pgrmc2 mRNA levels decreased by 40% and were maintained at 48 h post-hCG. Immunohistochemical studies detected PGRMC2 in oocytes and ovarian surface epithelial, interstitial, thecal, granulosa, and luteal cells. PGRMC2 was also present in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells, localizing to the cytoplasm of interphase cells and apparently to the mitotic spindle of cells in metaphase. Interestingly, PGRMC2 levels appeared to decrease during the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Moreover, overexpression of PGRMC2 suppressed entry into the cell cycle, possibly by binding the p58 form of cyclin dependent kinase 11b. Conversely, Pgrmc2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment increased the percentage of cells in G1 and M stage but did not increase the number of cells, which was likely due to an increase in apoptosis. Depleting PGRMC2 did not inhibit cellular (3)H-progesterone binding, but attenuated the ability of progesterone to suppress mitosis and apoptosis. Taken together these studies suggest that PGRMC2 affects granulosa cell mitosis by acting at two specific stages of the cell cycle. First, PGRMC2 regulates the progression from the G0 into the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Second, PGRMC2 appears to localize to the mitotic spindle, where it likely promotes the final stages of mitosis. Finally, siRNA knockdown studies indicate that PGRMC2 is required for progesterone to slow the rate of granulosa cell mitosis and apoptosis. These findings support a role for PGRMC2 in ovarian follicle development. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  5. Differential gene expression in human granulosa cells from recombinant FSH versus human menopausal gonadotropin ovarian stimulation protocols

    Bietz Mandi G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to test the hypothesis that granulosa cell (GC gene expression response differs between recombinant FSH and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG stimulation regimens. Methods Females Results After exclusions, 1736 genes exhibited differential expression between groups. Over 400 were categorized as signal transduction genes, ~180 as transcriptional regulators, and ~175 as enzymes/metabolic genes. Expression of selected genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. Differentially expressed genes included A kinase anchor protein 11 (AKAP11, bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR2, epidermal growth factor (EGF, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1 alpha. Conclusions Results suggest that major differences exist in the mechanism by which pure FSH alone versus FSH/LH regulate gene expression in preovulatory GC that could impact oocyte maturity and developmental competence.

  6. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) unmasks specific high affinity FSH-binding sites in cell-free membrane preparations of porcine granulosa cells

    Ford, K.A.; LaBarbera, A.R.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine whether changes in FSH receptors correlated with FSH-induced attenuation of FSH-responsive adenylyl cyclase in immature porcine granulosa cells. Cells were incubated with FSH (1-1000 ng/ml) for up to 24 h, treated with acidified medium (pH 3.5) to remove FSH bound to cells, and incubated with (125I)iodo-porcine FSH to quantify FSH-binding sites. FSH increased binding of FSH in a time-, temperature-, and FSH concentration-dependent manner. FSH (200 ng/ml) increased binding approximately 4-fold within 16 h. Analysis of equilibrium saturation binding data indicated that the increase in binding sites reflected a 2.3-fold increase in receptor number and a 5.4-fold increase in apparent affinity. The increase in binding did not appear to be due to 1) a decrease in receptor turnover, since the basal rate of turnover appeared to be very slow; 2) an increase in receptor synthesis, since agents that inhibit protein synthesis and glycosylation did not block the increase in binding; or 3) an increase in intracellular receptors, since agents that inhibit cytoskeletal components had no effect. Agents that increase intracellular cAMP did not affect FSH binding. The increase in binding appeared to result from unmasking of cryptic FSH-binding sites, since FSH increased binding in cell-free membrane preparations to the same extent as in cells. Unmasking of cryptic sites was hormone specific, and the sites bound FSH specifically. Unmasking of sites was reversible in a time- and temperature-dependent manner after removal of bound FSH. The similarity between the FSH dose-response relationships for unmasking of FSH-binding sites and attenuation of FSH-responsive cAMP production suggests that the two processes are functionally linked.

  7. Resveratrol promotes expression of SIRT1 and StAR in rat ovarian granulosa cells: an implicative role of SIRT1 in the ovary

    Morita Yoshihiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound known for its beneficial effects on energy homeostasis, and it also has multiple properties, including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Recently, silent information regulator genes (Sirtuins have been identified as targets of resveratrol. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, originally found as an NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, is a principal modulator of pathways downstream of calorie restriction, and the activation of SIRT1 ameliorates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. To date, the presence and physiological role of SIRT1 in the ovary are not known. Here we found that SIRT1 was localized in granulosa cells of the human ovary. Methods The physiological roles of resveratrol and SIRT1 in the ovary were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 protein expression of cultured cells and luteinized human granulosa cells was investigated by Western blot. Rat granulosa cells were obtained from diethylstilbestrol treated rats. The cells were treated with increasing doses of resveratrol, and subsequently harvested to determine mRNA levels and protein levels. Cell viability was tested by MTS assay. Cellular apoptosis was analyzed by caspase 3/7 activity test and Hoechst 33342 staining. Results SIRT1 protein was expressed in the human ovarian tissues and human luteinized granulosa cells. We demonstrated that resveratrol exhibited a potent concentration-dependent inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability. However, resveratrol-induced inhibition of rat granulosa cells viability is independent of apoptosis signal. Resveratrol increased mRNA levels of SIRT1, LH receptor, StAR, and P450 aromatase, while mRNA levels of FSH receptor remained unchanged. Western blot analysis was consistent with the results of quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. In addition, progesterone secretion was induced by the treatment of resveratrol

  8. Effects of an inhibitor of the γ-secretase complex on proliferation and apoptotic parameters in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN).

    Irusta, Griselda; Pazos, Maria Camila; Maidana, Camila Pazos; Abramovich, Dalhia; De Zúñiga, Ignacio; Parborell, Fernanda; Tesone, Marta

    2013-07-01

    Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) represent 3%-5% of all ovarian malignancies. Treatments have limited proven efficacy and biologically targeted treatment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the proliferation, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway in a FOXL2-mutated granulosa tumor cell line (KGN) representative of the adult form of GCTs. When Notch signaling is initiated, the receptors expose a cleavage site in the extracellular domain to the metalloproteinase TACE and, following this cleavage, Notch undergoes another cleavage mediated by the presenilin-gamma-secretase complex. To achieve our goal, DAPT, an inhibitor of the gamma-secretase complex, was used to investigate the role of the Notch system in parameters associated with cell growth and death, using a human granulosa cell tumor line (KGN) as an experimental model. We observed that JAGGED1, DLL4, NOTCH1, and NOTCH4 were highly expressed in KGN cells as compared to granulosa-lutein cells obtained from assisted reproductive techniques patients. The proliferation and viability of KGN cells, as well as progesterone and estradiol production, decreased in the presence of 20 μM DAPT. Apoptotic parameters like PARP and caspase 8 cleavages, BAX, and BCLXs increased in KGN cells cultured with DAPT, whereas others such as BCL2, BCLXl, FAS, and FAS ligand did not change. AKT phosphorylation decreased and PTEN protein increased when Notch signaling was inhibited in KGN cells. We conclude that the Notch system acts as a survival pathway in KGN cells, and might be interacting with the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  9. Onset of lipoprotein-supported steroidogenesis in differentiating granulosa cells of rats: cellular events involved in mediating FSH-enhanced uptake of low-density lipoproteins

    Foster, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Luteal cells use lipoproteins as the main source of cholesterol in steroidogenesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying hormonal control of lipoprotein uptake. Thus, the authors tested the hypothesis that FSH and androgens regulate low density lipoprotein (LDL)-supported steroidogenesis in maturing granulosa cells by affecting receptor-mediated endocytosis of LDL at a cellular level. For this, immature ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with or without hormones, compactin (de novo synthesis inhibitor), or unlabeled or labeled ( 125 I or gold particles) LDL. Nonhormone-treated cultures produced little progestin; FSH and FSH/androstenedione stimulated steroid secretion. Progestin production by hormone-, but not nonhormone-, treated cultures was decreased by compactin, suggesting that de novo synthesis provided sterol for steroidogenesis. EM quantitation of cells exposed to gold-LDL at 37 0 C revealed that, compared to nonhormone-treated cells, FSH-treated cells (1) bound and internalized more gold-LDL, (2) had a smaller percentage of gold-LDL at their surfaces, (3) displayed a faster apparent rate of LDL internalization and delivery to lysosomes, and (4) contained more gold-labeled lysosomes. Data from biochemical studies in which 125 I-LDL was used supported the morphological findings. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that FSH has important effects at the cellular level on LDL uptake, which seem to underlie the striking increase in progestin production accompanying granulosa cell differentiation

  10. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells by suppression of aromatase (CYP19).

    Lu, Dan-feng; Yang, Li-juan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Guo-lin

    2012-08-29

    Inhibition of aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, is an important strategy in the treatment of breast cancer. Several dietary flavonoids show aromatase inhibitory activity, but their tissue specificity and mechanism remain unclear. This study found that the dietary flavonoid luteolin potently inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in KGN cells derived from human ovarian granulosa cells, the major source of estrogens in premenopausal women. Luteolin decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression in KGN cells. Luteolin also promoted aromatase protein degradation and inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in aromatase-expressing HEK293A cells, but had no effect on recombinant expressed aromatase. Estrogen biosynthesis in KGN cells was inhibited with differing potencies by extracts of onion and bird chili and by four other dietary flavonoids: kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and isorhamnetin. The present study suggests that luteolin inhibits estrogen biosynthesis by decreasing aromatase expression and destabilizing aromatase protein, and it warrants further investigation as a potential treatment for estrogen-dependent cancers.

  11. A positive feedback loop between progesterone and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1-mediated PGE2 promotes production of both in mouse granulosa cells.

    Tamura, Kazuhiro; Naraba, Hiroaki; Hara, Takahiko; Nakamura, Kota; Yoshie, Mikihiro; Kogo, Hiroshi; Tachikawa, Eiichi

    2016-03-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) is primarily expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) in the preovulatory follicle. Both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and progesterone (P4) are implicated in various reproductive functions. Here, we demonstrate that mPges-1 may be a direct downstream target gene of the P4 receptor and P4-stimulated PGE2 secretion can stimulate P4 production in a newly generated mouse GC line (GtsT). Treatment of GtsT cells with a P4 receptor agonist, norgestrel, markedly increased mPGES-1 expression detected by RT-PCR analysis. PGE2 secretion measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was enhanced by P4 treatment. Luciferase assays revealed that the proximal promoter region of the mPges-1 gene was responsible for the effects of P4 treatment. Conversely, PGE2 treatment stimulated P4 secretion, which coordinated with mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Taken together, P4 may regulate mPGES-1 expression to increase PGE2 secretion and in turn P4 production. An autocrine loop between P4 and PGE2 might function to maintain the increased levels of both in GCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from [1B-3H]androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures

  13. No specific gene expression signature in human granulosa and cumulus cells for prediction of oocyte fertilisation and embryo implantation.

    Tanja Burnik Papler

    Full Text Available In human IVF procedures objective and reliable biomarkers of oocyte and embryo quality are needed in order to increase the use of single embryo transfer (SET and thus prevent multiple pregnancies. During folliculogenesis there is an intense bi-directional communication between oocyte and follicular cells. For this reason gene expression profile of follicular cells could be an important indicator and biomarker of oocyte and embryo quality. The objective of this study was to identify gene expression signature(s in human granulosa (GC and cumulus (CC cells predictive of successful embryo implantation and oocyte fertilization. Forty-one patients were included in the study and individual GC and CC samples were collected; oocytes were cultivated separately, allowing a correlation with IVF outcome and elective SET was performed. Gene expression analysis was performed using microarrays, followed by a quantitative real-time PCR validation. After statistical analysis of microarray data, there were no significantly differentially expressed genes (FDR<0,05 between non-fertilized and fertilized oocytes and non-implanted and implanted embryos in either of the cell type. Furthermore, the results of quantitative real-time PCR were in consent with microarray data as there were no significant differences in gene expression of genes selected for validation. In conclusion, we did not find biomarkers for prediction of oocyte fertilization and embryo implantation in IVF procedures in the present study.

  14. Association between expression of cumulus expansion markers and real-time proliferation of porcine follicular granulosa cells in a primary cell culture model.

    Ciesiółka, S; Budna, J; Bryja, A; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, M; Piotrowska, H; Bukowska, D; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    Folliculogenesis is a compound process that involves both ovarian follicle growth and oocyte development, which is tightly attached to the follicular wall. During this process, cells that form the follicle structure undergo substantial morphological and molecular modifications that finally lead to differentiation and specialization of ovarian follicular cells. The differentiation of ovarian cells encompasses formation of follicle, which is composed of theca (TCs), mural granulosa (GCs), and cumulus cells (CCs). It was previously hypothesized that GCs and CCs represent undifferentiated and highly specialized follicular cells, respectively, which may have similar primordial cell origins. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of cumulus expansion markers such as COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 in porcine GCs during short-term, in vitro culture. We hypothesized that these genes may display an important function in GCs in relation to cellular real-time proliferation. The expression pattern of COX2, HAS2, PTX3, and TSG6 was evaluated after using RT-qPCR in relation to confocal microscopy observations of protein expression and distribution during real-time proliferation of porcine follicular GCs. The COX2 and HAS2 mRNAs were highly expressed after 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC), whereas PTX3 and TSG6 mRNAs were increased during the first 24-48 h of IVC (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). Conversely, all of the encoded proteins were highly expressed after 144-168 h of IVC as compared to other culture periods (P less than 0.001, P less than 0.01). When analyzing the realtime proliferation of GCs in vitro, we observed a logarithmic increase of cell proliferation between 0 h and 120 h of IVC. However, after 120-168 h of IVC, the cells reached the lag phase of proliferation. Since it is well accepted that porcine GCs undergo luteinization shortly after 24-48 h of IVC, the expression pattern of investigated genes indicated that Cox2 and Has2 are independent from

  15. The effects of the environmental antiandrogen vinclozolin on the induction of granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia in pigs.

    Knet, Malgorzata; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin (Vnz) exert proapoptotic effects on porcine granulosa cells (GCs), and to examine the roles of these compounds in follicular atresia. Granulosa cells isolated from pig follicles were cultured for 24 hours, and then exposed to 0.1 μM testosterone, 0.1 μM DHT, 14 μM Vnz, or the equivalent concentrations of testosterone and Vnz or DHT and Vnz for a further 24 hours. Apoptosis and necrosis of the GCs were determined via Hoechst staining and flow cytometry analyses of annexin V-stained cells. Whole porcine follicles were also exposed to the same compounds and combinations of compounds for 24 hours. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for morphologic assessments, and a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotyn-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to determine the number of apoptotic cells. The progesterone and estradiol concentrations secreted into the culture media by isolated GCs and follicles were also measured. Exposure to the androgens resulted in an increased number of apoptotic GCs both in vitro and in the organotypic model. Vinclozolin exposure increased and decreased the number of necrotic and apoptotic GCs, respectively. Furthermore, compared with control follicles, those exposed to testosterone, DHT, or Vnz displayed enhanced atresia, and coadministration of Vnz attenuated the promotive effect of these androgens on atresia. Estradiol secretion was stimulated by the combination of testosterone and Vnz, whereas exposure to Vnz alone reduced it. Progesterone production declined after the combined addition of androgens and the antiandrogen. In summary, Vnz caused massive necrosis of GCs in vitro and induced apoptosis of GCs in whole follicles. The androgens testosterone and DHT enhanced these effects. The results presented here suggest that selective destruction of porcine

  16. Expression pattern of G protein‑coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of patients with PCOS.

    Zang, Lili; Zhang, Quan; Zhou, Yi; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Linlin; Jiang, Zhou; Peng, Zhen; Zou, Shuhua

    2016-06-01

    Estradiol mediates its actions by binding to classical nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor β (ER-β), and the non-classical G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1(GPER). Several gene knockdown models have shown the importance of the receptors for growth of the oocyte and for ovulation. The aim of our study was to identify the pattern of GPER expression in human cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) from ovarian follicles at different stages of oocyte maturation, and the differences of GPER expression between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and non-PCOS women. Thirty-eight cases of PCOS patients and a control group of thirty-two infertile women without PCOS were used in this study. GPER's location in CGCs was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot were used to identify the quantify GPER expression. Here we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in CGCs of both PCOS patients and non-PCOS women, and the expression of GPER was decreased significantly during oocyte maturation. But the expression levels of GPER in CGCs of PCOS patients and non-PCOS women were not significantly different. The data indicate that GPER may play a role during human oocyte maturation through its action in cumulus granulosa cells. AMHRIIs: anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptors; BMI: body mass index; CGCs: cumulus granulosa cells; COH: controlled ovarian hyperstimulation; E2: estradiol; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; ER-α: estrogen receptor; ER-β: estrogen receptor β; FF: follicular fluid; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone; GCs: granulosa cells; GPER: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1; GV: germinal vesicle; GVBD: germinal vesicle breakdown; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRS: immunoreactive score; IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; MI: metaphase I; MII: metaphase II; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; OCCCs: oocyte corona cumulus complexes; PCOS: polycystic ovarian syndrome; q

  17. Ovotoxic effects of galactose involve attenuation of follicle-stimulating hormone bioactivity and up-regulation of granulosa cell p53 expression.

    Sayani Banerjee

    Full Text Available Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI; however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol

  18. Modulation of gene expression in small follicle porcine granulosa cells by human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH)

    Calvo, F.O.; Ryan, R.J.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1986-03-01

    Small follicle (1-3 mm) porcine granulosa cells (SFPGF) were isolated by puncture, aspiration and cultured under standard conditions in DMEM, HEPES, BSA, MIX. At the start of culture, cells were stimulated with 100ng hFSH/ml. At various times afterwards total cellular RNA was prepared using guanidine-hydrochloride solubilization, phenol extraction and precipitation from 3M NaOAc, pH 6.0. RNA was 5'-end labelled with /sup 32/P in a kinase reaction and hybridized to an excess of clone-specific DNA immobilized on nitrocellulose filters using stringent hybridization and wash conditions. After autoradiography the RNA hybridized to the DNA blot filter were quantitated by microdensitometry. Hybridization to parent plasmid was negative. RNA derived from control cultures showed patterns of hybridization similar to those obtained from freshly obtained cells. Results of these experiments demonstrate hFSh induction of RNA specific for transferrin receptor, ..cap alpha..-interferon, H-ras, and K-ras. Increased RNA levels were apparent within 10 min of treatment and had declined by 180 min. Expression of actin, p53 and for RNAs declined by 10 min of hFSH addition but was enhanced by 160 min. Levels of ..beta..-interferon, myc, mos, abl and yb RNAs were not detectable under these conditions. These results demonstrate specific gene modulation in SFPGC cultured with hFSH.

  19. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter

    Surleen Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2 plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]. The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2] that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer. Keywords: IRS-2, TFBS, FSH, SP1, ChIP

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of FSHR, BMRR1B, LHR and apoptosis in granulosa cells and ovulation rate in merino sheep.

    Regan, Sheena L P; McFarlane, James R; O'Shea, Tim; Andronicos, Nicholas; Arfuso, Frank; Dharmarajan, Arun; Almahbobi, Ghanim

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the direct cause of the mutation-induced, increased ovulation rate in Booroola Merino (BB) sheep. Granulosa cells were removed from antral follicles before ovulation and post-ovulation from BB (n=5) and WT (n=12) Merino ewes. Direct immunofluorescence measurement of mature cell surface receptors using flow cytometry demonstrated a significant up-regulation of FSH receptor (FSHR), transforming growth factor beta type 1, bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR1B), and LH receptor (LHR) in BB sheep. The increased density of FSHR and LHR provide novel evidence of a mechanism for increasing the number of follicles that are recruited during dominant follicle selection. The compounding increase in receptors with increasing follicle size maintained the multiple follicles and reduced the apoptosis, which contributed to a high ovulation rate in BB sheep. In addition, we report a mutation-independent mechanism of down-regulation to reduce receptor density of the leading dominant follicle in sheep. The suppression of receptor density coincides with the cessation of mitogenic growth and steroidogenic differentiation as part of the luteinization of the follicle. The BB mutation-induced attenuation of BMPR1B signaling led to an increased density of the FSHR and LHR and a concurrent reduction in apoptosis to increase the ovulation rate. The role of BMPs in receptor modulation is implicated in the development of multiple ovulations. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  2. Transient expression of progesterone receptor and cathepsin-l in human granulosa cells during the periovulatory period.

    García, Víctor; Kohen, Paulina; Maldonado, Carola; Sierralta, Walter; Muñoz, Alex; Villarroel, Claudio; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    To study in vivo the progesterone receptor (PR) expression levels in human granulosa cells (GCs) during the periovulatory period and the affect of the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway on PR expression and cathepsin-L expression-activation. Experimental study. University research unit. Twenty-five women of reproductive age. Follicular fluid and GCs obtained from spontaneous cycles before and during the normal luteinizing hormone surge, and samples obtained 36 hours after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. To determine PR, cathepsin-L messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis via real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein of PR, cathepsin-L, and PKA in human GCs. The Western blot analysis revealed that bands of PR (isoform A) were the most abundant and that mRNA (PR-A and PR-B) have a temporal pattern of expression throughout the periovulatory period. The protein levels of PR and cathepsin-L were up-regulated by hCG. The abundance of PR was diminished in the presence of PKA inhibitor, and cathepsin-L with PR receptor antagonist. The transient expression of PR in human GCs of the preovulatory follicle suggests that PR and its ligand play a role in the activation of cathepsin-L, which is presumably involved in the degradation of the follicular extracellular matrix during human ovulation. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. PKA- and PKC-dependent regulation of angiopoietin 2 mRNA in human granulosa lutein cells.

    Witt, P S; Pietrowski, D; Keck, C

    2004-02-01

    New blood vessels develop from preexisting vessels in response to growth factors or hypoxic conditions. Recent studies have shown that angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT-2) plays an important role in the modulation of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis in humans and mice. The signaling pathways that lead to the regulation of ANGPT-2 are largely unclear. Here, we report that protein kinase C and protein kinase A activators (ADMB, 8-Cl-cAMP) increased the mRNA levels of ANGPT-2 in human Granulosa cells, whereas PKC and PKA Inhibitors (Rp-cAMP, GO 6983) decreased markedly the level of ANGPT-2 mRNA. Due to varying specificity of the modulators for certain protein kinases subunits, we conclude that the conventional PKCs, but not PKC alpha and beta1, the atypical PKCs and the PKA I, are involved in the regulation of ANGPT-2. These findings may help to explain the role of both PKA and PKC dependent signaling cascades in the regulation of ANGPT-2 mRNA.

  4. Wilms' Tumor 1 Overexpression in Granulosa Cells Is Associated with Polycystic Ovaries in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Patients.

    Wang, Qun; Huang, Tao; Shu, Xin; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liang, Yu; Muhammad, Tahir; Gao, Fei; Zhao, Han; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) encoding a transcription factor involved in the differentiation of granulosa cells (GCs) regulates androgen receptor in the development of male genitalia. However, the expression pattern and possible role of WT1 in ovaries of PCOS patients are still unknown. GCs from 95 PCOS patients (PCOS group) and 62 healthy controls (control group) were isolated. The expression of WT1 in GCs was quantified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The correlation between WT1 expression and clinical characteristics was evaluated in PCOS patients. WT1 expression was increased in PCOS patients compared with the normal controls. The expression of WT1 was moderately correlated with testosterone (r = 0.334, p = 0.001) and luteinizing hormone (r = 0.357, p = 0.001) levels and the antral follicle counts (r = 0.337, p = 0.001). Our study provided novel insights into the relationship between hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries of PCOS and WT1. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Roles of methyltrienolone (R1881) in AKTs and AR expression patterns of cultured granulosa-lutein cells.

    Nekoonam, Saeid; Naji, Mohammad; Mortezaee, Keywan; Amidi, Fardin

    2018-05-11

    AR-mediated androgen signaling plays a key role in female reproductive system. Granulosa-lutein cells (GCs) are the main sites for expression of androgen receptor (AR). There is also a close relation between AKT signaling and AR. Here, we assayed the role for a synthetic AR ligand methyltrienolone (R1881) in expressions of AKTs and AR. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) was performed in 20 normal women. Mural GCs were isolated by filtration method, cultured, and passaged. Then, the cells were starved for 48 h with 10% charcoal stripped FBS. The cells were then treated with R1881, bicalutamide (AR blocker), LY294002 (PI3K/AKT pathway blocker), and combination of them for 48 h. Finally, GCs were evaluated for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AR, and also Western blot assessment of total AKT and phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) [Ser473 and Thr308]. Addition of R1881 to the GCs culture showed high expressions of AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 (P ≤ 0.05 vs LY294002 group and bicalutamide group). Expressions of AKT1 and AKT2 were decreased in the GCs under exposure to bicalutamide or LY294002 (P ≤ 0.05 vs R1881). AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 showed decreased rates of expressions in the LY294002 + bicalutamide group (P ≤ 0.05 vs R1881). AR, total AKT and p-AKT showed no significant differences between groups. Our findings indicate that 46 h exposure with R1881 could affect AKTs expressions in the GCs of pre-ovulatory phase, but it cannot promote AR expression and AKTs activation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA inhibits steroidogenesis in bovine theca and granulosa cells in vitro.

    Claire Glister

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is used widely to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Women undergoing VPA treatment reportedly have an increased incidence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS-like symptoms including hyperandrogenism and oligo- or amenorrhoea. To investigate potential direct effects of VPA on ovarian steroidogenesis we used primary bovine theca (TC and granulosa (GC cells maintained under conditions that preserve their 'follicular' phenotype. Effects of VPA (7.8-500 µg/ml on TC were tested with/without LH. Effects of VPA on GC were tested with/without FSH or IGF analogue. VPA reduced (P99% decrease; P<0.0001 with lesser effects on LHR, STAR, CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 mRNA (<90% decrease; P<0.05. VPA only reduced TC progesterone secretion induced by the highest (luteinizing LH dose tested; TC number was unaffected by VPA. At higher concentrations (125-500 µg/ml VPA inhibited basal, FSH- and IGF-stimulated estradiol secretion (P<0.0001 by GC without affecting progesterone secretion or cell number. VPA reversed FSH-induced upregulation of CYP19A1 and HSD17B1 mRNA abundance (P<0.001. The potent histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A and scriptaid also suppressed TC androstenedione secretion and granulosal cell oestrogen secretion suggesting that the action of VPA reflects its HDAC inhibitory properties. In conclusion, these findings refute the hypothesis that VPA has a direct stimulatory action on TC androgen output. On the contrary, VPA inhibits both LH-dependent androgen production and FSH/IGF-dependent estradiol production in this in vitro bovine model, likely by inhibition of HDAC.

  7. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions

    Piccinato Carla A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Methods Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. Results GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose–response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (−7 M resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone productio n was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (−8 M, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Conclusions The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  8. Norepinephrine stimulates progesterone production in highly estrogenic bovine granulosa cells cultured under serum-free, chemically defined conditions.

    Piccinato, Carla A; Montrezor, Luis H; Collares, Cristhianna A V; Vireque, Alessandra A; Rosa e Silva, Alzira A M

    2012-11-22

    Since noradrenergic innervation was described in the ovarian follicle, the actions of the intraovarian catecholaminergic system have been the focus of a variety of studies. We aimed to determine the gonadotropin-independent effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) in the steroid hormone profile of a serum-free granulosa cell (GC) culture system in the context of follicular development and dominance. Primary bovine GCs were cultivated in a serum-free, chemically defined culture system supplemented with 0.1% polyvinyl alcohol. The culture features were assessed by hormone measurements and ultrastructural characteristics of GCs. GCs produced increasing amounts of estradiol and pregnenolone for 144h and maintained ultrastructural features of healthy steroidogenic cells. Progesterone production was also detected, although it significantly increased only after 96h of culture. There was a highly significant positive correlation between estradiol and pregnenolone production in high E2-producing cultures. The effects of NE were further evaluated in a dose-response study. The highest tested concentration of NE (10 (-7) M) resulted in a significant increase in progesterone production, but not in estradiol or pregnenolone production. The specificity of NE effects on progesterone production was further investigated by incubating GCs with propranolol (10 (-8) M), a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist. The present culture system represents a robust model to study the impact of intrafollicular factors, such as catecholamines, in ovarian steroidogenesis and follicular development. The results of noradrenergic effects in the steroidogenesis of GC have implications on physiological follicular fate and on certain pathological ovarian conditions such as cyst formation and anovulation.

  9. Arsenic induced progesterone production in a caspase-3-dependent manner and changed redox status in preovulatory granulosa cells.

    Yuan, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Cai-Ling; Yao, Nan; An, Li-Sha; Yang, Bai-Qing; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination is a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of arsenic on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). We found that the treatment of preovulatory GCs with arsenite stimulated progesterone production. A significant increase in serum level of progesterone was observed in female Sprague-Dawley rats following arsenite treatment at a dose of 10 mg/L/rat/day for 7 days. Further experiments demonstrated that arsenite treatment did not change the level of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) or phosphorylated ERK1/2 in preovulatory GCs; however, progesterone production was significantly decreased when cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. This implied that the effect of arsenite on progesterone production may require cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2 signaling but not depend on them. Furthermore, we found that arsenite decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) but increased the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in parallel to the changes in progesterone production. Progesterone antagonist blocked the arsenic-stimulated increase of GSH levels. Arsenite treatment induced caspase-3 activation, although no apoptosis was observed. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly decreased progesterone production stimulated by arsenite or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). GSH depletion with buthionine sulfoximine led to cell apoptosis in response to arsenite treatment. Collectively, this study demonstrated for the first time that arsenite stimulates progesterone production through cleaved/active caspase-3-dependent pathway, and the increase of GSH level promoted by progesterone production may protect GCs against apoptosis and maintain the steroidogenesis of GCs in response to arsenite treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Danfeng Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway.

  11. LINE1 CpG-DNA Hypomethylation in Granulosa Cells and Blood Leukocytes Is Associated With PCOS and Related Traits.

    Sagvekar, Pooja; Mangoli, Vijay; Desai, Sadhana; Patil, Anushree; Mukherjee, Srabani

    2017-04-01

    Altered global DNA methylation is indicative of epigenomic instability concerning chronic diseases. Investigating its incidence and association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is essential to understand the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. We assessed global DNA methylation differences in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and cumulus granulosa cells (CGCs) of controls and women with PCOS; and their association with PCOS and its traits. This study included a total of 102 controls and women with PCOS. Forty-one women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) and 61 women not undergoing COH were recruited from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and infertility clinics. DNA methylation was measured by ELISA for 5'-methyl-cytosine content and bisulfite sequencing of 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE1/L1). Total 5'-methyl-cytosine and L1 methylation levels in PBLs and CGCs were similar between controls and women with PCOS. Methylation assessed at CpG sites of L1 5'-UTR revealed a single CpG-site (CpG-4) to be consistently hypomethylated in PBLs of both PCOS groups and CGCs of stimulated PCOS group. In unstimulated women, hypomethylation at CpG-4 was strongly associated with PCOS susceptibility, whereas in stimulated group it showed strong associations with PCOS and its hormonal traits. Furthermore, CGCs demonstrated consistent global and CpG-DNA hypomethylation relative to PBLs, irrespective of normal or disease states. Our study revealed strong association of single hypomethylated CpG-site with PCOS. Identification and characterization of more such methyl-CpG signatures in repetitive elements in larger study populations would provide valuable epigenetic insights into PCOS. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  12. Differential insulin and steroidogenic signaling in insulin resistant and non-insulin resistant human luteinized granulosa cells-A study in PCOS patients.

    Belani, Muskaan; Deo, Abhilash; Shah, Preeti; Banker, Manish; Singal, Pawan; Gupta, Sarita

    2018-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is one of the significant aberrations in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), however is only observed in 70%-80% of obese PCOS and 20%-25% of lean PCOS. Hyperinsulinemia accompanies PCOS-IR along with hyperandrogenemia against normal insulin and androgen levels in PCOS-non insulin resistance (NIR). This could possibly be due to defects in the downstream signaling pathways. The study thus aims to unravel insulin and steroidogenic signaling pathways in luteinized granulosa cells isolated from PCOS-IR and NIR vs matched controls. Luteinized granulosa cells from 30 controls and 39 PCOS were classified for IR based on a novel method of down regulation of protein expression of insulin receptor-β (INSR- β) as shown in our previous paper. We evaluated expression of molecules involved in insulin, steroidogenic signaling and lipid metabolism in luteinized granulosa cells followed by analysis of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in follicular fluid. Protein expression of INSR- β, pIRS (ser 307), PI(3)K, PKC-ζ, pAkt, ERK1/2, pP38MAPK and gene expression of IGF showed differential expression in the two groups. Increased protein expression of PPAR-γ was accompanied by up regulation in SREBP1c, FAS, CPT-1 and ACC-1 genes in PCOS-IR group. Expression of StAR, CYP19A1, 17 β- HSD and 3 β- HSD demonstrated significant decrease along with increase in CYP11A1, FSH-R and LH-R in both the groups. Follicular fluid testosterone increased and progesterone decreased in PCOS-IR group. This study shows how candidate molecules that were differentially expressed, aid in designing targeted therapy against the two phenotypes of PCOS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular....../l, respectively. VIP at a concentration of 10 nmol/l caused a significant increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation, and at 1000 nmol/l a significant increase in oestradiol secretion was observed. VIP had no effect on progesterone secretion. PHM at the concentrations tested did not influence any of the activities...

  15. Differential gene expression in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome patients with and without insulin resistance: identification of susceptibility gene sets through network analysis.

    Kaur, Surleen; Archer, Kellie J; Devi, M Gouri; Kriplani, Alka; Strauss, Jerome F; Singh, Rita

    2012-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, genetically complex, endocrine disorder of uncertain etiology in women. Our aim was to compare the gene expression profiles in stimulated granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance vs. matched controls. This study included 12 normal ovulatory women (controls), 12 women with PCOS without evidence for insulin resistance (PCOS non-IR), and 16 women with insulin resistance (PCOS-IR) undergoing in vitro fertilization. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling was accomplished using Affymetrix Human Genome-U133 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to gene ontology using ingenuity pathway analysis tools. Microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. A total of 211 genes were differentially expressed in PCOS non-IR and PCOS-IR granulosa cells (fold change≥1.5; P≤0.001) vs. matched controls. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation genes were significantly increased in PCOS-IR patients. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed higher expression of NCF2 (2.13-fold), TCF7L2 (1.92-fold), and SERPINA1 (5.35-fold). Increased expression of inflammation genes ITGAX (3.68-fold) and TAB2 (1.86-fold) was confirmed in PCOS non-IR. Different cardiometabolic disease genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Decreased expression of CAV1 (-3.58-fold) in PCOS non-IR and SPARC (-1.88-fold) in PCOS-IR was confirmed. Differential expression of genes involved in TGF-β signaling (IGF2R, increased; and HAS2, decreased), and oxidative stress (TXNIP, increased) was confirmed in both groups. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes linked to diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and infertility in the granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. Because these dysregulated genes are also involved in oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling, we hypothesize that these

  16. The effect of metformin treatment in vivo on acute and long-term energy metabolism and progesterone production in vitro by granulosa cells from women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Maruthini, D; Harris, S E; Barth, J H; Balen, A H; Campbell, B K; Picton, H M

    2014-10-10

    What are the consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathology and metformin-pretreatment in vivo in women with PCOS on the metabolism and steroid production of follicular phenotype- and long-term cultured-granulosa cells (GC)? PCOS pathology significantly compromised glucose metabolism and the progesterone synthetic capacity of follicular- and long-term cultured-GCs and the metabolic impact of PCOS on GC function was alleviated by metformin-pretreatment in vivo. Granulosa cells from women with PCOS have been shown to have an impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and lactate production in vitro. However, these results were obtained by placing GCs in unphysiological conditions in culture medium containing high glucose and insulin concentrations. Moreover, existing data on insulin-responsive steroid production in vitro by PCOS GCs vary. Case-control experimental research comparing glucose uptake, pyruvate and lactate production and progesterone production in vitro by GCs from three aetiological groups, all undergoing IVF; healthy control women (Control, n = 12), women with PCOS treated with metformin in vivo (Metformin, n = 8) and women with PCOS not exposed to metformin (PCOS, n = 8). The study was conducted over a period of 3 years between 2007 and 2010. Rotterdam criteria were used for the diagnosis of PCOS; all subjects were matched for age, BMI and baseline FSH. Individual patient cultures were undertaken with cells incubated in a validated, physiological, serum-free culture medium containing doses of 0-6 mM glucose and 0-100 ng/ml insulin for 6 h and 144 h to quantify the impact of treatments on acute and long-term metabolism, respectively, and progesterone production. The metabolite content of spent media was measured using spectrophotometric plate reader assay. The progesterone content of spent media was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Viable GC number was quantified after 144 h of culture by the vital dye Neutral Red uptake assay

  17. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of MMP, and progesterone secretion in luteinized granulosa cells from normally ovulating women with polycystic ovary disease.

    Ben-Shlomo, Izhar; Goldman, Shlomit; Shalev, Eliezer

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the regulation of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and progesterone via three signal transduction pathways in luteinized granulosa cells from normal ovulatory and PCOD women. In vitro study. Laboratory for Research in Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ha'Emek Hospital, Afula, Israel. Ten normal ovulatory and 10 women with polycystic ovary disease (PCOD) treated in an assisted reproduction program. Cultured cells were exposed to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), acting via protein kinase C (PKC), to epidermal growth factor (EGF), acting via protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), and to forskolin, acting via protein kinase A (PKA). Secretion of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and progesterone. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate elicited an increase in MMP-9 and TIMP-1 secretion in both groups and apparently did not affect progesterone secretion. Epidermal growth factor did not change significantly neither MMP-9 nor TIMP-1 secretion but dose dependently decreased MMP-9-TIMP-1 ratio and increased progesterone secretion in the PCOD group. Forskolin inhibited MMP-9 activity and increased TIMP-1 and progesterone secretion in both groups. Progesterone production was inversely related to the ratio of MMP-9-TIMP-1 regardless of cell origin. In this preliminary study, similar and divergent patterns have emerged in the regulation of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in human luteinized granulosa cells. Repressing MMP-9-TIMP-1 ratio may have an important modulatory effect on progesterone secretion.

  18. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) induces forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) expression in primary culture of human granulosa cells in vitro.

    Sacchi, Sandro; Marinaro, Federica; Xella, Susanna; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) are two pivotal genes expressed in human granulosa cells (hGCs) where both genes share similar inhibitory functions on activation and follicular growth in order to preserve the ovarian follicle reserve. Furthermore, AMH and FOXL2 contribute to inhibit steroidogenesis, decreasing or preventing the activation of gonadotrophin-dependent aromatase CYP19A1 cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of AMH in regulating the expression of FOXL2. Primary cultures of hGCs were treated with increasing concentrations of recombinant human AMH (rhAMH; range 10-100 ng/ml) for 3 h. Negative controls were performed using corresponding amounts of AMH vehicle. Total RNA or proteins were purified and quantified by spectrophotometry. FOXL2 and CYP19A1 gene expression, normalized by reference gene ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7), was evaluated by RT-qPCR. Each reaction was repeated in triplicate. Statistical analysis was performed. Extracted proteins were analyzed by immunoblot using anti-FOXL2 and anti-β-actin as primary antibodies. rhAMH treatments tested did not modulate the basal expression of aromatase CYP19A1 gene. rhAMH (50 ng/ml) was able to increase FOXL2 gene expression and its intracellular content. This study demonstrated the existence of an AMH-FOXL2 relationship in hGCs. AMH is capable of increasing both gene and protein expression of FOXL2. Because FOXL2 induces AMH transcription, these ovarian factors could be finely regulated by a positive feedback loop mechanism to preserve the ovarian follicle reserve.

  19. The anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) acts as a gatekeeper of ovarian steroidogenesis inhibiting the granulosa cell response to both FSH and LH.

    Sacchi, Sandro; D'Ippolito, Giovanni; Sena, Paola; Marsella, Tiziana; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Maggi, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Tirelli, Alessandra; Giulini, Simone; La Marca, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Anti Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has a negative and inhibitory role in many functions of human granulosa-lutein cells (hGCs) including notoriously the reduction of the aromatase CYP19A1 expression induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). No data have been provided on the possible role of AMH in modulating the response to luteinizing hormone (LH) (alone or combined with FSH) as well as its effect on other enzymes involved in steroidogenesis including aromatase P450scc. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AMH as regulator of the basal and stimulated steroids production by hGCs. Primary culture of hGCs were incubated with hormones AMH, LH, and FSH, alone or in combination. The CYP19A1 and P450scc messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, normalized by housekeeping ribosomal protein S7 (RpS7) gene, was evaluated by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Each reaction was repeated in triplicate. Negative controls using corresponding amount of vehicle control for each hormone treatment were performed. AMH did not modulate the basal mRNA expression of both aromatase genes at any of the concentrations tested. Meanwhile, the strong mRNA induction of CYP19A1 and P450scc generated by a 24-h gonadotropin treatment (alone and combined) was suppressed by 20 ng/ml AMH added to culture medium. These findings contribute in clarifying the relationship between hormones regulating the early phase of steroidogenesis confirming that AMH is playing a suppressive role on CYP19A1 expression stimulated by gonadotropin in hGCs. Furthermore, a similar inhibitory effect for AMH was observed on P450scc gene expression when activated by gonadotropin treatment.

  20. Astragalin, a Flavonoid from Morus alba (Mulberry Increases Endogenous Estrogen and Progesterone by Inhibiting Ovarian Granulosa Cell Apoptosis in an Aged Rat Model of Menopause

    Min Wei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the mechanism by which the flavonoid glycoside astragalin (AST reduces ovarian failure in an aged rat model of menopause. Methods: The in vivo effect of AST on granulosa cell (GC apoptosis in aged female rats was determined using flow cytometry. In vitro, the effects of AST on cultured GCs were investigated using the MTT proliferation assay and western blot assays. Results: Aged rats had significantly higher GC apoptosis as compared with young female rats. Treatment of aged rats with AST (all three doses; p < 0.01 or Progynova (p < 0.01 significantly reduced GC apoptosis as compared with the aged controls. The proportions of total apoptotic GCs was 25.70%, 86.65%, 47.04%, 27.02%, 42.09% and 56.42% in the normal, aged, 17β-estradiol (E2, high dose AST, medium dose AST, and low dose AST-treated groups, respectively. Significant increases of serum E2 and P4 levels, as well as altered levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH levels. In cultured rat GCs, AST stimulated GC proliferation, E2 and progesterone (P4 secretion, reduced apoptosis, reduced the level of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (p < 0.01, but had no effect on BAX. Conclusions: AST enhanced ovarian function in aged female rats by increasing E2 and P4 levels, and reducing ovarian GC apoptosis via a mechanism involving Bcl-2. These data demonstrate a new pharmacological activity for AST, as well as a novel mechanism of action, and further suggest that AST may be a new therapeutic agent for the management of menopausal symptoms.

  1. Circular RNA expression profiling of human granulosa cells during maternal aging reveals novel transcripts associated with assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

    Jing Cheng

    Full Text Available Circular RNAs (circRNAs are a unique class of endogenous RNAs which could be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of many diseases. Our study aimed to investigate circRNA profiles in human granulosa cells (GCs during maternal aging and to uncover age-related circRNA variations that potentially reflect decreased oocyte competence. CircRNAs in GCs from in vitro fertilization (IVF patients with young age (YA, ≤ 30 years and advanced age (AA, ≥ 38 years were profiled by microarray, and validated in 20 paired samples. The correlation between circRNAs expression and clinical characteristics was analyzed in additional 80 samples. Chip-based analysis revealed 46 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated circRNAs in AA samples (fold change > 2.0. Specifically, circRNA_103829, circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 were validated to be up-regulated, while circRNA_101889 was down-regulated in AA samples. After adjustment for gonadotropin treatment, only circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 levels were positively associated with maternal age (partial r = 0.332, P = 0.045; partial r = 0.473, P = 0.003; respectively. Moreover, circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 expressions in GCs were negatively correlated with the number of top quality embryos (r = -0.235, P = 0.036; r = -0.221, P = 0.049; respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis indicated that the performance of circRNA_103827 for live birth prediction reached 0.698 [0.570-0.825], with 77.2% sensitivity and 60.9% specificity (P = 0.006, and that of circRNA_104816 was 0.645 [0.507-0.783] (P = 0.043. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that both circRNAs were potentially involved in glucose metabolism, mitotic cell cycle, and ovarian steroidogenesis. Therefore, age-related up-regulation of circRNA_103827 and circRNA_104816 might be potential indicators of compromised follicular micro-environment which could be used to predict IVF prognosis, and improve female infertility

  2. Luteinizing hormone-stimulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide system and its role in progesterone production in human luteinized granulosa cells.

    Park, Hyun-Jeong; Choi, Bum-Chae; Song, Sang-Jin; Lee, Dong-Sik; Roh, Jaesook; Chun, Sang-Young

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the gonadotropin regulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and PACAP type I receptor (PAC(1)-R) expression, and its role in progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells. The stimulation of both PACAP and PAC(1)-R mRNA levels by LH was detected using a competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PACAP transcript was stimulated by LH reaching maximum levels at 12 hours in a dose dependent manner. LH treatment also stimulated PAC(1)-R mRNA levels within 24 hours. Addition of PACAP-38 (10(-7) M) as well as LH significantly stimulated progesterone production during 48 hours culture. Furthermore, co-treatment with PACAP antagonist partially inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone production. Treatment with vasoactive intestinal peptide, however, did not affect progesterone production. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that LH causes a transient stimulation of PACAP and PAC(1)-R expression and that PACAP stimulates progesterone production in the human luteinized granulosa cells, suggesting a possible role of PACAP as a local ovarian regulator in luteinization.

  3. Hydrostatic pressure affects in vitro maturation of oocytes and follicles and increases granulosa cell death.

    Rashidi, Zahra; Azadbakht, Mehri; Amini, Ali; Karimi, Isac

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure on in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes derived from in vitro grown follicles. In this experimental study, preantral follicles were isolated from 12-day-old female NMRI mice. Each follicle was cultured individually in Alpha Minimal Essential Medium (α-MEM) under mineral oil for 12 days. Then, follicles were induced for IVM and divided into two groups, control and experiment. In the experiment group follicles were subjected to 20 mmHg pressure for 30 minutes and cultured for 24-48 hours. We assessed for viability and IVM of the oocytes. The percentage of apoptosis in cumulus cells was determined by the TUNEL assay. A comparison between groups was made using the student's t test. The percentage of metaphase II oocytes (MII) increased in hydrostatic pressuretreated follicles compared to controls (phydrostatic pressure-treated follicles compared to controls (pHydrostatic pressure, by inducing apoptosis in cumulus cells, participates in the cumulus oocyte coupled relationship with oocyte maturation.

  4. The incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in 1031 patients with a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: long-term follow-up in a population-based cohort study

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Overbeek, Lucy I. H.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent presence of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) is common, with reported incidences of 25.6% to 65.5%. Consequently, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy is usually recommended in patients with a GCT, but this remains debatable. Our

  5. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  6. Dopamine in human follicular fluid is associated with cellular uptake and metabolism-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species in granulosa cells: implications for physiology and pathology.

    Saller, S; Kunz, L; Berg, D; Berg, U; Lara, H; Urra, J; Hecht, S; Pavlik, R; Thaler, C J; Mayerhofer, A

    2014-03-01

    Is the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the human ovary involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)? Human ovarian follicular fluid contains DA, which causes the generation of ROS in cultured human granulosa cells (GCs), and alterations of DA levels in follicular fluid and DA uptake/metabolism in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are linked to increased levels of ROS. DA is an important neurotransmitter in the brain, and the metabolism of DA results in the generation of ROS. DA was detected in human ovarian homogenates, but whether it is present in follicular fluid and plays a role in the follicle is not known. We used human follicular fluid from patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), GCs from patients with or without PCOS and also employed mathematical modeling to investigate the presence of DA and its effects on ROS. DA in follicular fluid and GCs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GC viability, apoptosis and generation of ROS were monitored in GCs upon addition of DA. Inhibitors of DA uptake and metabolism, an antioxidant and DA receptor agonists, were used to study cellular uptake and the mechanism of DA-induced ROS generation. Human GCs were examined for the presence and abundance of transcripts of the DA transporter (DAT; SLC6A3), the DA-metabolizing enzymes monoamine oxidases A/B (MAO-A/B) and catechol-O-methyltransferase and the vesicular monoamine transporter. A computational model was developed to describe and predict DA-induced ROS generation in human GCs. We found DA in follicular fluid of ovulatory follicles of the human ovary and in GCs. DAT and MAO-A/B, which are expressed by GCs, are prerequisites for a DA receptor-independent generation of ROS in GCs. Blockers of DAT and MAO-A/B, as well as an antioxidant, prevented the generation of ROS (P human follicular compartment, functions of DA could only be studied in IVF-derived GCs, which can be viewed as a cellular model for the

  7. Nearly 30 Years of Treatment for Recurrent Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Deanna Teoh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old woman was diagnosed with a stage IA granulosa cell tumor (GCT of the ovary in 1979. Following removal of the adnexal mass and complete surgical staging, she remained disease-free for 12 years. In 1991 she underwent a resection of a retroperitoneal mass, confirmed to be a recurrent GCT. Despite adjuvant radiation treatment at the time of recurrence, the patient presented five years later with abdominal pain, and was found to have a second recurrence. Over the next 10 years the patient had multiple recurrences and progressive disease despite surgical resection, cytotoxic, hormonal and targeted chemotherapy treatments. In conclusion, there is no standard management for recurrent GCT of the ovary. We review this patient’s treatment in the context of the current literature.

  8. Concentration of activin A and follistatin in follicular fluid from human small antral follicles associated to gene expression of the corresponding granulosa cells

    Jeppesen, J V; Nielsen, M E; Kristensen, S G

    2012-01-01

    The present study correlated concentrations of activin A and follistatin in follicular fluid (FF) from human small antral follicles to FF concentrations of AMH, inhibin B, progesterone, and oestradiol and to the mRNA expression of FSH-receptor (FSHR), LH-receptor (LHR), AMH-receptor2 (AMHR2), CYP19...... activin A levels increased in follicles exceeding 10 mm in diameter. Levels of activin A and inhibin B showed a highly significant inverse association. Follistatin showed highly significant positive associations with AMH and inhibin B levels and with FSHR and AR gene expression in GC. This study revealed......a, and androgen-receptor (AR) in the corresponding granulosa cells (GC). FF from 144 follicles (3-12 mm in diameter) was included whereas mRNA expression profiles were established in GC from 66 of the 144 follicles. Levels of follistatin remained constant in relation to follicular diameter, whereas...

  9. Hexavalent chromium-induced apoptosis of granulosa cells involves selective sub-cellular translocation of Bcl-2 members, ERK1/2 and p53

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Lee, JeHoon; Stephen, Sam D.; Arosh, Joe A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) has been widely used in industries throughout the world. Increased usage of CrVI and atmospheric emission of CrVI from catalytic converters of automobiles, and its improper disposal causes various health hazards including female infertility. Recently we have reported that lactational exposure to CrVI induced a delay/arrest in follicular development at the secondary follicular stage. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism, primary cultures of rat granulosa cells were treated with 10 μM potassium dichromate (CrVI) for 12 and 24 h, with or without vitamin C pre-treatment for 24 h. The effects of CrVI on intrinsic apoptotic pathway(s) were investigated. Our data indicated that CrVI: (i) induced DNA fragmentation and increased apoptosis, (ii) increased cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to cytosol, (iii) downregulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, HSP70 and HSP90; upregulated pro-apoptotic BAX and BAD, (iv) altered translocation of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, BAX, BAD, HSP70 and HSP90 to the mitochondria, (v) upregulated p-ERK and p-JNK, and selectively translocated p-ERK to the mitochondria and nucleus, (vi) activated caspase-3 and PARP, and (vii) increased phosphorylation of p53 at ser-6, ser-9, ser-15, ser-20, ser-37, ser-46 and ser-392, increased p53 transcriptional activation, and downregulated MDM-2. Vitamin C pre-treatment mitigated CrVI effects on apoptosis and related pathways. Our study, for the first time provides a clear insight into the effect of CrVI on multiple pathways that lead to apoptosis of granulosa cells which could be mitigated by vitamin C.

  10. BMP4 and BMP7 Suppress StAR and Progesterone Production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 in Human Granulosa-Lutein Cells.

    Zhang, Han; Klausen, Christian; Zhu, Hua; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Adequate production of progesterone by the corpus luteum is critical to the successful establishment of pregnancy. In animal models, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 and BMP7 have been shown to suppress either basal or gonadotropin-induced progesterone production, depending on the species examined. However, the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on progesterone production in human granulosa cells are unknown. In the present study, we used immortalized (SVOG) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells to investigate the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and progesterone production and to examine the underlying molecular mechanism. Treatment of primary and immortalized human granulosa cells with recombinant BMP4 or BMP7 decreased StAR expression and progesterone accumulation. In SVOG cells, the suppressive effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression were blocked by pretreatment with inhibitors of activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)2/3/6 (dorsomorphin) or ALK2/3 (DMH1) but not ALK4/5/7 (SB-431542). Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of ALK3, but not ALK2 or ALK6, reversed the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Likewise, BMP4- and BMP7-induced phosphorylation of SMAD 1/5/8 was reversed by treatment with DMH1 or small interfering RNA targeting ALK3. Knockdown of SMAD4, the essential common SMAD for BMP/TGF-β signaling, abolished the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 on StAR expression. Our results suggest that BMP4 and BMP7 down-regulate StAR and progesterone production via ALK3 and SMAD1/5/8-SMAD4 signaling in human granulosa-lutein cells.

  11. Influence of ionizing radiation, photoperiod, and environmental temperature on cell proliferation in the intestinal epithelium of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Kinetics of cell division in the intestinal epithelial proliferative cells (cell nests) of the rough-skinned newt, Taricha granulosa, were studied using tritiated thymidine autoradiography and the mitotic arresting properties of colcemid. Percent labeled mitoses (PLM) curves were drawn from the autoradiographic data from two separate experiments in which the newts were maintained at room temperature (22 to 23 0 C). In those experiments, groups of newts were intraperitoneally injected with tritiated thymidine at times ranging between 5 and 58 hours before they were killed. Each newt in both experiments was intraperitoneally injected with colcemid five hours before it was killed. Data from both experiments were very similar and the PLM curves were used to estimate cell cycle phase durations in the cell nests. The DNA synthetic phase was estimated to be 41 hours long and the sum of the G 2 phase duration and one-half the duration of mitosis was approximately seven hours. The duration of the entire cell cycle was considered to be longer than 100 hours and the duration of the G 1 phase longer than 50 hours. Whole-body exposure of newts to 100 R x irradiation essentially stopped mitotic activity in the intestinal cell nests for 32 hours and exposure to 200 R stopped the mitotic activity for 56 hours. Recovery of mitotic activity in the cell nests was in evidence in data from both groups of animals after both those time periods. Whole-body exposure of newts to 1000 R x irradiation severely depressed mitotic activity in the intestinal cell nests for at least 78 hours and resulted in diminished numbers of the cell nests although the mature cells of the intestinal cells appeared to be relatively radioresistant

  12. Molecular cloning and expression analyses of porcine MAP1LC3A in the granulosa cells of normal and miniature pig

    Kim Sang H

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The members of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain (MAP1LC family, especially those of the LC3 family (MAP1LC3A, B, C, are known to induce autophagy upon localization onto the autophagosomal membrane. In this regard, LC3 can be utilized as a marker for the formation of autophagosomes during the process of autophagy. The aims of this study are to clone porcine MAP1LC3A, and analyze the pattern of its expression in the ovarian tissues of normal and miniature pig ovary in an attempt to understand the distinct mode of apoptosis between two strains. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE were used to obtain the 5′ and 3′ ends of the porcine MAP1LC3A full length cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine MAP1LC3A. The localization of MAP1LC3A in the ovary was determined by In situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemical staining. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine MAP1LC3A and identified an open reading frame of 980 bp encoding 121 amino acids. Based on its homology to known mammalian proteins (98% this novel cDNA was designated as porcine MAP1LC3A and registered to the GenBank (Accession No. GU272221. We compared the expression of MAP1LC3A in the Graafian follicles of normal and miniature pigs by in situ hybridization at day 15 of the estrus cycle. While normal pigs showed a stronger expression of MAP1LC3A mRNA than miniature pigs in the theca cell area, the expression was lower in the granulosa cells. Immunofluorescence analysis of the MAP1LC3A fusion reporter protein showed the subcellular localization of porcine MAP1LC3A and ATG5 as a punctate pattern in the cytoplasm of porcine granulosa cells under stress conditions. In addition, the expressions of MAP1LC3A and ATG5 were higher in normal pigs than in miniature pigs both in the presence and absence of rapamycin. Conclusions The newly cloned porcine

  13. Time- and Dose-Dependent Effects of 17 Beta-Estradiol on Short-Term, Real-Time Proliferation and Gene Expression in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Sylwia Ciesiółka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key mechanisms responsible for achievement of full reproductive and developmental capability in mammals are the differentiation and transformation of granulosa cells (GCs during folliculogenesis, oogenesis, and oocyte maturation. Although the role of 17 beta-estradiol (E2 in ovarian activity is widely known, its effect on proliferative capacity, gap junction connection (GJC formation, and GCs-luteal cells transformation requires further research. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the real-time proliferative activity of porcine GCs in vitro in relation to connexin (Cx, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, and aromatase (CYP19A1 expression during short-term (168 h primary culture. The cultured GCs were exposed to acute (at 96 h of culture and/or prolonged (between 0 and 168 h of culture administration of 1.8 and 3.6 μM E2. The relative abundance of Cx36, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, LHR, FSHR, and CYP19A1 mRNA was measured. We conclude that the proliferation capability of GCs in vitro is substantially associated with expression of Cxs, LHR, FSHR, and CYP19A1. Furthermore, the GC-luteal cell transformation in vitro may be significantly accompanied by the proliferative activity of GCs in pigs.

  14. LncRNA-LET inhibits cell viability, migration and EMT while induces apoptosis by up-regulation of TIMP2 in human granulosa-like tumor cell line KGN.

    Han, Qingfang; Zhang, Wenke; Meng, Jinlai; Ma, Li; Li, Aihua

    2018-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disease characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses, and polycystic ovaries. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in PCOS patients; however, little is known about the effects of the lncRNA-low expression in tumor (lncRNA-LET) on PCOS. We aimed to explore the effects of lncRNA-LET on human granulosa-like tumor cell line, KGN. Expression of lncRNA-LET in normal IOSE80 cells and granulosa cells was determined by qRT-PCR. KGN cell viability, apoptosis and migration were measured by trypan blue exclusion method, flow cytometry assay and wound healing assay, respectively. TGF-β1 was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. LncRNA-LET expression and mRNA expressions of TIMP2 and EMT-related proteins were measured by qRT-PCR. Western blot analysis was used to measure the protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins, EMT-related proteins, TIMP2, and the proteins in the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. lncRNA-LET was down-regulated in KGN cells, and its overexpression inhibited cell viability and migration, and promoted apoptosis in KGN cells. Overexpression of lncRNA-LET increased the expression of E-cadherin and decreased the expressions of N-cadherin and vimentin in KGN cells. These effects of lncRNA-LET on KGN cells were reversed by TIMP2 suppression. Overexpression of TIMP2 inhibited cell viability, migration and EMT process, and increased apoptosis by activating the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Overexpression of lncRNA-LET inhibits cell viability, migration and EMT process, and increases apoptosis in KGN cells by up-regulating the expression of TIMP2 and activating the Wnt/β-catenin and notch signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Adult Type Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Very Rare Case of Sex-Cord Tumor of the Testis with Review of the Literature

    Dimosthenis Miliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumor (GST is a sex-cord/stromal neoplasm of the gonads, more commonly arising in the ovaries, while approximately 80 cases have been reported in the testes. Out of these, 30 cases were of the adult type, while the remainder 50 cases were of the juvenile type. The latter mostly concerned infants and followed a benign course. However, the adult type testicular GCTs may be potentially malignant as it also happens in female patients with such neoplasms. We present a case of an adult type GCT located at the left testis. The patient was subjected to total orchiectomy and received no further treatment. Histology showed typical GCT histomorphology with Call-Exner bodies in some places. The immunoprofile of the tumor was CD99 (+, calretinin (+, inhibin (+, alpha smooth muscle actin (+, vimentin (+, ER (−, PR (−, keratin AE1/AE3 (−, alpha fetoprotein (−, CD117 (−, and placental alkaline phosphatase (−. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well with no signs of recurrence.

  16. Effectiveness of different treatment modalities for the management of adult-onset granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (primary and recurrent).

    Gurumurthy, Mahalakshmi; Bryant, Andrew; Shanbhag, Smruta

    2014-04-21

    Granulosa cell tumour is a rare gynaecological tumour of the ovary with recurrences many years after initial diagnosis and treatment. Evidence-based management of granulosa cell tumour of the ovary is limited, and treatment has not been standardised. Surgery, including fertility-sparing procedures for young women, has traditionally been the standard treatment. Adjuvant treatments following surgery have been based on non-randomised trials. A combination of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) has traditionally been used for treatment of advanced and/or recurrent disease that cannot be optimally managed surgically. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatment modalities offered in current practice for the management of primary, residual and recurrent adult-onset granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) of the ovary. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to December 2013. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and observational studies that examined women with adult-onset granulosa cell tumours of the ovary (primary and recurrent). For non-randomised studies, we included studies that used multivariate analysis to adjust for baseline characteristics. Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were heterogeneous with respect to treatment comparisons, so data were not synthesised in meta-analyses, and methods for assessing heterogeneity were not needed. Risk of bias in included studies was assessed by using the six core items used to assess RCTs and by evaluating four additional criteria specifically addressing risk of bias in non-randomised studies. Five retrospective cohort studies (535 women with a diagnosis of GCT) that used appropriate statistical methods

  17. TGF-β signaling controls FSHR signaling-reduced ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis through the SMAD4/miR-143 axis.

    Du, Xing; Zhang, Lifan; Li, Xinyu; Pan, Zengxiang; Liu, Honglin; Li, Qifa

    2016-11-24

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and its intracellular signaling control mammalian follicular development and female infertility. Our previous study showed that FSHR is downregulated during follicular atresia of porcine ovaries. However, its role and regulation in follicular atresia remain unclear. Here, we showed that FSHR knockdown induced porcine granulosa cell (pGC) apoptosis and follicular atresia, and attenuated the levels of intracellular signaling molecules such as PKA, AKT and p-AKT. FSHR was identified as a target of miR-143, a microRNA that was upregulated during porcine follicular atresia. miR-143 enhanced pGC apoptosis by targeting FSHR, and reduced the levels of intracellular signaling molecules. SMAD4, the final molecule in transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, bound to the promoter and induced significant downregulation of miR-143 in vitro and in vivo. Activated TGF-β signaling rescued miR-143-reduced FSHR and intracellular signaling molecules, and miR-143-induced pGC apoptosis. Overall, our findings offer evidence to explain how TGF-β signaling influences and FSHR signaling for regulation of pGC apoptosis and follicular atresia by a specific microRNA, miR-143.

  18. Dioxin-like (PCB 126) and non dioxin-like (PCB 153) action on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells. Preliminary data

    Gregoraszczuk, E.L.; Wojtowicz, A. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Kapiszewska, M.; Magnowska, Z. [Dept. of General Biochemistry, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Approximately 60-90% of all cancer cases are now generally believed to be due to environmental factors, to which humans are exposed by taking food, and water or inhaling air. These chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), can be subdivided into different classes. TCDD was classified as group (documented carcinogen in humans) Benzo [a] pyrene and benzo [a] anthracene were included into group 2A (probably carcinogen in humans). PCB is not mentioned in this list. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) maintains a register of human carcinogens and suspected human carcinogens. The capacity of PCBs to induce DNA strand breaks has been studied to a lesser degree and is quite controversial. DNA strand breaks are the potentially mutagenic lesions that have been proposed as a genotoxicity biomarker for the biomonitoring of environmental pollutants. The mutations induced by these lesions in pollutant-exposed populations are believed to be induced by chemical carcinogens. The formation of PCB adducts has been demonstrated and measured in vitro and in vivo 3. The capacity of PCBs to form DNA adducts depends on their metabolic rate, which is determined by the degree of chlorination. The aim of the presented preliminary data was to evaluate the follicular stage-specific action of PCB 126 and PCB 153 on DNA damage and apoptosis in granulosa cells.

  19. Telomere length is short in PCOS and oral contraceptive does not affect the telomerase activity in granulosa cells of patients with PCOS.

    Li, Ying; Deng, Bingbing; Ouyang, Nengyong; Yuan, Ping; Zheng, Lingyan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association of telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length (TL) in granulosa cells (GCs) with IVF outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and the effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on these two parameters. One hundred sixty-three infertile women were enrolled and divided into a PCOS group (n = 65) and a non-PCOS group (n = 98). The PCOS group was further divided into an OCP pretreatment group (n = 35) and a non-OCP pretreatment group (n = 30), a TA PCOS group and 1.118 in non-PCOS group (P = 0.005). The patients with TL ≥1 accounted for 36.9% in PCOS group and 54.1% in non-PCOS group (P = 0.032). The average duration of infertility for PCOS patients was 5 years in TA PCOS patients. Shorter TL was found in PCOS patients. The TA levels did not change significantly in PCOS patients. PCOS patients with a lower TA level and shorter telomeres had an earlier onset of infertility symptoms. No predictive value was found for TA and TL in terms of embryo quality or IVF outcomes in PCOS patients, and no effect OCP pretreatment was observed on either TA and TL.

  20. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives (alpha and beta zearalenol on apoptosis and proliferation of cultured granulosa cells from equine ovaries

    Minoia Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-zearalenol (alpha and beta-ZOL, synthesized by genera Fusarium, often occur as contaminants in cereal grains and animal feeds. The importance of ZEA on reproductive disorders is well known in domestic animals species, particularly in swine and cattle. In the horse, limited data are available to date on the influence of dietary exposure to ZEA on reproductive health and on its in vitro effects on reproductive cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-ZOL, on granulosa cells (GCs from the ovaries of cycling mares. Methods The cell proliferation was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT test after 3 days exposure at different concentrations of ZEA and its derivatives (from 1 × 10-7 to 0.1 microM. The apoptosis induction was evaluated after 1 day exposure, by DNA analysis using flow cytometry. Results An increase in cell proliferation with respect to the control was observed in the presence of ZEA at 1 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-4 microM and apoptosis was induced by all mycotoxins at different concentrations. Conclusion The simultaneous presence of apoptosis and proliferation in GC cultures treated with zearalenones could indicate that these mycotoxins could be effective in inducing follicular atresia. These effects of zearalenones may result from both direct interaction with oestrogen-receptors as well as interaction with the enzymes 3alpha (beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD, involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones. These cellular disturbances, described for the first time in equine GCs cultured in vitro, could be hypothesized as referred to reproductive failures of unknown ethiology in the mare.

  1. Growth differentiation factor 9 reverses activin A suppression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and progesterone production in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Cheung, Anthony P; Klausen, Christian; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C K

    2010-10-01

    We have reported that growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) can enhance activin A (β(A)β(A))-induced inhibin B (αβ(B)) secretion in human granulosa-lutein (hGL) cells, but its effects on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, and progesterone production are unknown. We undertook this study to further evaluate GDF9 in this regard. hGL cells from women undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were cultured with and without small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeted at inhibin α-subunit or GDF9 before treatment with GDF9, activin A, FSH, or combinations. We compared StAR, P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in hGL cells and progesterone levels in culture media after these treatments. mRNA, protein, and hormone levels were assessed with real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Activin A alone reduced basal and FSH-induced progesterone production by decreasing the expression of StAR protein, which regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis but not P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. GDF9 attenuated these activin A effects on StAR and progesterone. After transfection of α-subunit siRNA, activin A level increased (P progesterone production were attenuated (P progesterone secretion than those observed with activin A treatment alone. GDF9 attenuates the suppressive effects of activin A on StAR expression and progesterone production by increasing the expression of inhibin B, which acts as an activin A competitor.

  2. Growth differentiation factor 3 is induced by bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and BMP-7 and increases luteinizing hormone receptor messenger RNA expression in human granulosa cells.

    Shi, Jia; Yoshino, Osamu; Osuga, Yutaka; Akiyama, Ikumi; Harada, Miyuki; Koga, Kaori; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Yano, Tetsu; Taketani, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    To examine the relevance of growth differentiation factor 3 (GDF-3) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) cytokines in human ovary. Molecular studies. Research laboratory. Eight women undergoing salpingo-oophorectomy and 30 women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Localizing GDF-3 protein in human ovaries; granulosa cells (GC) cultured with GDF-3, BMP-6, or BMP-7 followed by RNA extraction. The localization of GDF-3 protein in normal human ovaries via immunohistochemical analysis, GDF-3 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression evaluation via quantitative real-time reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and evaluation of the effect of GDF-3 on leuteinizing hormone (LH) receptor mRNA expression via quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In the ovary, BMP cytokines, of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, are known as a luteinization inhibitor by suppressing LH receptor expression in GC. Growth differentiation factor 3, a TGF-β superfamily cytokine, is recognized as an inhibitor of BMP cytokines in other cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that GDF-3 was strongly detected in the GC of antral follicles. An in vitro assay revealed that BMP-6 or BMP-7 induced GDF-3 mRNA in GC. Also, GDF-3 increased LH receptor mRNA expression and inhibited the effect of BMP-7, which suppressed the LH receptor mRNA expression in GC. GDF-3, induced with BMP-6 and BMP-7, might play a role in folliculogenesis by inhibiting the effect of BMP cytokines. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Regulation of MicroRNAs, and the Correlations of MicroRNAs and Their Targeted Genes by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Ovarian Granulosa Cells.

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles (NPs have been applied in numerous industrial products and personal care products like sunscreens and cosmetics. The released ZnO NPs from consumer and household products into the environment might pose potential health issues for animals and humans. In this study the expression of microRNAs and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes in ZnO NPs treated chicken ovarian granulosa cells were investigated. ZnSO4 was used as the sole Zn2+ provider to differentiate the effects of NPs from Zn2+. It was found that ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs involved in embryonic development although ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml and ZnSO4-10 μg/ml treatments produced the same intracellular Zn concentrations and resulted in similar cell growth inhibition. And ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml also specifically regulated the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes. This is the first investigation that intact NPs in ZnO-NP-5 μg/ml treatment specifically regulated the expression of microRNAs, and the correlations of microRNAs and their targeted genes compared to that by Zn2+. This expands our knowledge for biological effects of ZnO NPs and at the same time it raises the health concerns that ZnO NPs might adversely affect our biological systems, even the reproductive systems through regulation of specific signaling pathways.

  4. Exposure of different cryoprotectants and concentrations on diameter and number of the granulosa cells of bovine preantral follicles Exposição de diferentes crioprotetores e concentrações sobre o diâmetro e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais bovinos

    Iraceles Aparecida Laura

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of glycerol (GLY, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and propylene glycol (PROH in diameter of follicle, of oocyte and of granulosa cells number of preantral follicles cattle. Ovarian fragments were exposed to cryoprotectants at concentrations of 20 and 40% for 10 min. Then, the tissue was fixed in Carnoy and processed by traditional technique of histology. Slides were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and evaluated under optical microscope equipped with eyes wide with morphometric. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Regarding diameter of the follicle, no difference was found among the control and the groups exposed to the cryoprotectants. However, in relation to the diameter of the oocyte, 40% concentration in all tested cryoprotectants the primary follicles showed reduction in diameter, including 20% of propylene glycol. For primary follicles, only 40% of glycerol presented difference from control group. For the granulosa cells 40% of DMSO and 20 and 40% of PROH showed significant reduction compared to control group, in primary follicles. In conclusion primary follicles were resistant to cryoprotectants effects. For the primary structures, glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide and propylene glycol led to reduction of diameter of oocyte and number of granulosa cells but not of follicular diameter.O objetivo, no presente estudo, foi avaliar o efeito do glicerol (GLI, dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO e propilenoglicol (PROH sobre o diâmetro do folículo, do ovócito e do número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais bovinos. Fragmentos ovarianos foram imediatamente fixados em Carnoy (controle ou expostos aos crioprotetores nas concentrações de 20 e 40%, por 10min. Após o período de exposição, o tecido ovariano também foi fixado em Carnoy e processado para inclusão em parafina. As secções (5 de tecido ovariano foram coradas em hematoxilina e eosina e analisadas ao microscópio de luz com ocular em escala microm

  5. Atrazine enhances progesterone production through activation of multiple signaling pathways in FSH-stimulated rat granulosa cells: evidence for premature luteinization.

    Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Samardzija, Dragana; Fa, Svetlana; Hrubik, Jelena; Glisic, Branka; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Andric, Nebojsa

    2014-11-01

    Premature luteinization is a possible cause of infertility in women. It is currently unknown whether environmental chemicals can induce changes associated with premature luteinization. Using rat granulosa cells (GC) in vitro, we demonstrated that exposure to atrazine (ATR), a widely used herbicide, causes GC phenotype that resembles that of human premature luteinization. At the end of the 48-h stimulation with FSH, ATR-exposed GC showed (1) higher levels of progesterone, (2) overexpression of luteal markers (Star and Cyp11a1), and (3) an increase in progesterone:estradiol ratio above 1. Mechanistic experiments were conducted to understand the signaling events engaged by ATR that lead to this phenotype. Western blot analysis revealed prolonged phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in ATR- and FSH-exposed GC. An increased level of ERK1/2-dependent transcriptional factor CCATT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB) was observed after 4 h of ATR exposure. Inhibitors of PI3K (wortmannin) and MEK (U0126) prevented ATR-induced rise in progesterone level and expression of luteal markers in FSH-stimulated GC. Atrazine intensified AKT and CEBPB signaling and caused Star overexpression in forskolin-stimulated GC but not in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated GC. In the presence of rolipram, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), ATR was not able to further elevate AKT phosphorylation, CEBPB protein level, and Star mRNA in FSH-stimulated GC, suggesting that ATR inhibits PDE4. Overall, this study showed that ATR acts as a FSH sensitizer leading to enhanced cAMP, AKT, and CEBPB signaling and progesterone biosynthesis, which promotes premature luteinization phenotype in GC. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  6. HER2 and GATA4 are new prognostic factors for early-stage ovarian granulosa cell tumor—a long-term follow-up study

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Andersson, Noora; Bützow, Ralf; Leminen, Arto; Heikinheimo, Markku; Anttonen, Mikko; Unkila-Kallio, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) carry a risk of recurrence also at an early stage, but reliable prognostic factors are lacking. We assessed clinicopathological prognostic factors and the prognostic roles of the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER 2–4) and the transcription factor GATA4 in GCTs. We conducted a long-term follow-up study of 80 GCT patients with a mean follow-up time of 16.8 years. A tumor-tissue microarray was immunohistochemically stained for HER2–4 and GATA4. Expression of HER2–4 mRNA was studied by means of real time polymerase chain reaction and HER2 gene amplification was analyzed by means of silver in situ hybridization. The results were correlated to clinical data on recurrences and survival. We found that GCTs have an indolent prognosis, with 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) being 97.5%. Tumor recurrence was detected in 24% of the patients at a median of 7.0 years (range 2.6–18 years) after diagnosis. Tumor stage was not prognostic of disease-free survival (DFS). Of the molecular prognostic factors, high-level expression of HER2, and GATA4, and high nuclear atypia were prognostic of shorter DFS. In multivariate analyses, high-level coexpression of HER2 and GATA4 independently predicted DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 8.75, 95% CI 2.20–39.48, P = 0.002). High-level expression of GATA4 also predicted shorter DSS (HR 3.96, 95% CI 1.45–12.57, P = 0.006). In multivariate analyses, however, tumor stage (II–III) and nuclear atypia were independent prognostic factors of DSS. In conclusion HER2 and GATA4 are new molecular prognostic markers of GCT recurrence, which could be utilized to optimize the management and follow-up of patients with early-stage GCTs

  7. Expression of miR-15a, miR-145, and miR-182 in granulosa-lutein cells, follicular fluid, and serum of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Naji, Mohammad; Nekoonam, Saeid; Aleyasin, Ashraf; Arefian, Ehsan; Mahdian, Reza; Azizi, Elham; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam; Amidi, Fardin

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathies that affects women in reproductive age. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in normal function of female reproductive system and folliculogenesis. Deregulated expression of miRNAs in PCOS condition may be significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of PCOS. We determined relative expression of miR-15a, miR-145, and miR-182 in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs), follicular fluid (FF), and serum of PCOS patients. Human subjects were divided into PCOS (n = 20) and control (n = 21) groups. GLCs, FF, and serum were isolated and stored. RNA isolation was performed and cDNA was reversely transcribed using specific stem-loop RT primers. Relative expression of miRNAs was calculated after normalization against U6 expression. Correlation of miRNAs' expression level with basic clinical features and predictive value of miRNAs in FF and serum were appraised. Relative expression of miR-145 and miR-182 in GLCs was significantly decreased in PCOS, but miR-182 in FF of PCOS patients revealed up-regulated levels. Significant correlations between level of miRNAs in FF and serum and hormonal profile of subjects were observed. MiR-182 in FF showed a significant predictive value with AUC of 0.73, 76.4% sensitivity, and 70.5% specificity which was improved after combination of miR-182 and miR-145. A significant dysregulation of miR-145 and miR-182 in GLCs of PCOS may indicate their involvement in pathogenesis of PCOS. Differential up-regulation of miR-182 in FF of PCOS patients with its promising predictive values for discrimination of PCOS reinforced the importance of studying miRNAs' profile in FF.

  8. Evidence of a local negative role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART, inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production during follicular waves in cattle

    Ireland James J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability of ovarian follicles to produce large amounts of estradiol is a hallmark of follicle health status. Estradiol producing capacity is lost in ovarian follicles before morphological signs of atresia. A prominent wave like pattern of growth of antral follicles is characteristic of monotocous species such as cattle, horses and humans. While our knowledge of the role of pituitary gonadotropins in support of antral follicle growth and development is well established, the intrinsic factors that suppress estradiol production and may help promote atresia during follicular waves are not well understood. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been reported to suppress granulosa cell estradiol production in vitro, but the association of expression of many such factors in vivo with follicle health status and their physiological significance are not clear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting a local physiological role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in negative regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production, with emphasis on evidence from the bovine model system.

  9. Cytotoxicity and mitogenicity assays with real-time and label-free monitoring of human granulosa cells with an impedance-based signal processing technology intergrating micro-electronics and cell biology.

    Oktem, Ozgur; Bildik, Gamze; Senbabaoglu, Filiz; Lack, Nathan A; Akin, Nazli; Yakar, Feridun; Urman, Defne; Guzel, Yilmaz; Balaban, Basak; Iwase, Akira; Urman, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    A recently developed technology (xCelligence) integrating micro-electronics and cell biology allows real-time, uninterrupted and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation, viability and cytotoxicity by measuring the electrical impedance of the cell population in the wells without using any labeling agent. In this study we investigated if this system is a suitable model to analyze the effects of mitogenic (FSH) and cytotoxic (chemotherapy) agents with different toxicity profiles on human granulosa cells in comparison to conventional methods of assessing cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. The system generated the real-time growth curves of the cells, and determined their doubling times, mean cell indices and generated dose-response curves after exposure to cytotoxic and mitogenic stimuli. It accurately predicted the gonadotoxicity of the drugs and distinguished less toxic agents (5-FU and paclitaxel) from more toxic ones (cisplatin and cyclophosphamide). This platform can be a useful tool for specific end-point assays in reproductive toxicology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Androgen receptor-mediated non-genomic effects of vinclozolin on porcine ovarian follicles and isolated granulosa cells: Vinclozolin and non-genomic effects in porcine ovarian follicles.

    Wartalski, Kamil; Knet-Seweryn, Malgorzata; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Duda, Malgorzata

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the influence of the androgen receptor (AR) agonists testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and vinclozolin (Vnz), a fungicide with antiandrogenic activity, on non-genomic signal transduction within ovarian follicles. Porcine granulosa cells (GCs) isolated from mature follicles were cultured for 48h. For the last 24h of culture, they were exposed to T (10(-7)M), DHT (10(-7)M), Vnz (1.4×10(-5)M), T and Vnz (T+Vnz), or DHT and Vnz (DHT+Vnz) at the same concentrations. To better imitate in vivo conditions, whole follicles (4-6mm in diameter) were incubated (24h) in an organ culture system with the same factors. Expression of AR mRNA and protein was determined by real-time PCR and western blot analyses. To demonstrate AR localization in cultured GCs and whole follicles, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed, respectively. To elucidate the possible non-genomic action of Vnz in GCs, protein expression and the activity of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases were determined by western blot and ELISA analyses. The immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry results showed that exposure of GCs and follicles to Vnz resulted in cytoplasmic and perinuclear AR localization. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that AR mRNA and protein expression increased (P≤0.001) in GC cultures after combined treatment with an androgen and Vnz. In whole follicles, such treatment also increased AR mRNA with a decrease in the respective protein expression (P≤0.001). Moreover, addition of T or DHT with Vnz increased the activity of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases in cultured GCs (P≤0.001). The results suggest a novel mechanism for Vnz action in porcine ovarian follicles on both AR mRNA and protein levels. Thus, this environmental antiandrogen activates non-genomic signaling pathways, as indicated by the increased activity of both investigated kinases observed within minutes of Vnz addition. Given the widespread presence of Vnz in the

  11. Specific genes are selectively expressed between cumulus and granulosa cells from individual human pre-ovulatory follicles

    Grøndahl, M L; Andersen, C Yding; Bogstad, J

    2012-01-01

    and MGC suggesting specialized function in these compartments, e.g. pepsinogen-A was selectively expressed in MGC, while ryanodine-receptor-2 (RYR2) was selectively expressed in CC. Positive correlations were present between expression levels of RYR2 and the amphiregulin and gap-junction proteins...

  12. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    Guo, Jiajia [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Yuan, Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong [State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Yang, Lijuan [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Liu, Wanli [MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yuan, Xiaohong [School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang (China); Zhang, Guolin, E-mail: zhanggl@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China); Wang, Fei, E-mail: wangfei@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences Sichuan Translational Medicine Research Hospital, Chengdu (China)

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  13. Influence of Estradiol-17beta on Progesterone and Estrogen Receptor mRNA Expression in Porcine Follicular Granulosa Cells during Short-Term, In Vitro Real-Time Cell Proliferation

    Sylwia Ciesiółka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone (P4 and estradiol (E2 play a significant role in mammalian reproduction. Our study demonstrated that separated porcine cumulus cells (CCs and/or granulosa cells (GCs might proliferate in vitro during short-term, real-time primary culture. The GCs were analyzed according to gene expression of the progesterone receptor (nuclear form (pgr, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (pgrmc1, and estrogen-related receptor beta 3 (esrrb3 in relation to two housekeeping genes: actb and pbgd. GCs were cultivated in medium with the E2. Both pgr/actb and pgr/pbgd revealed higher expression between 24 and 168 h of IVC of prolonged E2 treatment and at 48 h of IVC after acute E2 administration. The pgrmc1/actb and pgrmc1/pbgd displayed increased expression after prolonged E2 treatment between 24 and 120 h of IVC. The highest level of esrrb3/actb at 120 and 144 h, as well as esrrb3/pbgd at 120 h, in untreated controls as compared to the hormone-stimulated group, was observed. We suggest that E2 significantly influences the upregulation of pgr, pgrmc1, and esrrb3 expression in porcine GCs during real-time cell proliferation. Since esrrb3 expression is stimulated by E2 in both an acute and prolonged manner, estradiol may be recognized as a potential estrogen receptor agonist in GCs.

  14. Morphometry and granulosa cells number of preantral ovarian follicles from bovine (“Bos indicus” preserved at 4ºC in saline solution for different periods of time Morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais de bovino ("Bos indicus" preservados a 4ºC em solução salina por diferentes períodos de tempo

    Hélder Silva Luna

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the objective to evaluate the effect of cooling at 4 ºC, at different periods of time, in the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of preantral ovarian follicles of bovines. Ovaries were gotten from slaughterhouse, divided in 4 parts and distributed in 4 groups: control (without cooling and groups cooled for 12, 24 and 48 h in saline solution (NaCl 0.9% at 4 ºC. After treatment, samples were fixed in Carnoy and forwarded to classic histology techniques. The follicles were analyzed with optic and ocular microscope with micrometric scale. Total of 340 follicles were analyzed, which 242 were primordial and 98 primary. Results indicated that the primordial and primary follicles when cooled in saline solution at 4 ºC did not present variation in oocyte and diameter and amount of cells of the granulosa when comparing the control group to 12, 24 and 48 h groups (P > 0.05. In conclusion, the temperature at 4 ºC does not influence the morphometry of the follicles and the amount of the granulosa cells.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do resfriamento a 4 ºC, em diferentes períodos de tempo, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais de ovário bovino. Os ovários foram obtidos em abatedouro, divididos em 4 partes e distribuídos em 4 grupos: controle (sem resfriamento e grupos resfriados por 12, 24 e 48 h em solução salina (NaCl a 0,9% a 4 ºC. Após tratamento, as amostras foram fixadas em Carnoy e encaminhadas para rotina histológica clássica. Para análise folicular, utilizou-se microscópio óptico e ocular com escala micrométrica. Foram analisados um total de 340 folículos, sendo 242 primordiais e 98 primários. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os folículos primordiais e primários, quando resfriados em solução salina a 4 ºC, não apresentam variação em sua morfometria e quantidade de células da granulosa, quando comparado o grupo controle com

  15. Effect of the FSH receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms (FSHR 307/680) on the follicular fluid hormone profile and the granulosa cell gene expression in human small antral follicles

    Borgbo, Tanni Kjær; Jeppesen, J V; Lindgren, I

    2014-01-01

    ), by evaluating the hormone and gene expression profiles of human small antral follicles collected under physiological conditions in connection with fertility preservation. In total 69 women at various time during the menstrual cycle were included in this study. The intrafollicular hormone content of 179...... was significantly increased, whereas AMH gene expression was significantly reduced for the G/G genotype. In follicles >6 mm, estradiol and CYP19A1 gene expression levels were significantly higher for the G/G genotype. In conclusion, significant changes were observed between the FSHR 307/680 polymorphisms in human......The most pronounced effects of FSH signalling are potentially displayed in the follicle fluid, which acts as a reservoir for FSH-induced granulosa cell (GC) secreted hormones. This study investigates the effects of two common polymorphisms of FSHR, FSHR 307 (rs6165) and FSHR 680 (rs6166...

  16. Secretory function of ovarian cells and myometrial contractions in cow are affected by chlorinated insecticides (chlordane, heptachlor, mirex) in vitro

    Wrobel, Michael Hubert; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of chlordane, heptachlor and mirex, on hormonal regulation of the force of myometrial contractions. Myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells as well as strips of myometrium from non-pregnant cows were incubated with three insecticides at environmentally relevant doses (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml). None of the insecticides affected the viability of studied cells. Chlordane stimulated, while heptachlor and mirex inhibited, secretion of testosterone and estradiol from granulosa cells as well as secretion of progesterone from luteal cells, respectively. Secretion of oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells was increased after incubation with all studied insecticides. Only mirex stimulated OT secretion from luteal cells, while heptachlor inhibited this effect. None of them affected synthesis of OT in luteal cells and prostaglandins (PGF2 and PGE2) secretion from uterine cells, except PGE2 secretion from endometrial cells was decreased when the cells were incubated with 0.1 ng/ml of chlordane. Basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions were increased by mirex and decreased by heptachlor. The data show that the insecticides altered secretory function of ovarian cells. Heptachlor and mirex affected also myometrial contractions in vitro, but uterine secretion of prostaglandins were not involved in the mechanism of that adverse effect of insecticides. The data indicate on potential of these insecticides to disturb fertilisation, blastocyst implantation or even the length of gestation. - Highlights: • The studied insecticides affected steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Mirex stimulated bovine myometrial contractions. • Heptachlor inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the insecticides on uterine contractions.

  17. Influência de diferentes concentrações de etileno glicol nO número de células da granulosa e morfometria de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano de Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758 Influence of different concentrations of the glycol in the number of granulosa cells and morphometry of the preantral ovarian follicles of Bos taurus indicus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Hélder Silva e Luna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de folículos ovarianos pré-antrais pode ajudar na conservação de muitas espécies domésticas e selvagens. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar o efeito do etileno glicol, em diferentes concentrações, na morfometria e número de células da granulosa de folículos pré-antrais inclusos em tecido ovariano bovino. O teste de toxicidade foi realizado com fragmentos ovarianos expostos ao etileno glicol em concentrações de 10, 20 ou 40%. O tecido foi analisado por técnica histológica clássica. Os folículos primordiais expostos à concentração de 40% apresentaram redução do diâmetro folicular e ovocitário quando comparados ao grupo controle (sem exposição, 10% e 20% (P0,05. Esses resultados sugerem que folículos primários são mais resistentes aos efeitos do etileno glicol quando comparados aos primordiais.The cryopreservation of the ovarian preantral follicles could help the conservation of several domestic and wild animal species. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different concentrations of ethylene glycol on the morphometry and number of granulosa cells of the preantral ovarian follicles. A toxicity test was conducted with strips of ovarian cortex using ethylene glycol (10, 20 or 40%. Tissue analysis was done using classical histology techniques. The primordial follicles expose at a concentration of 40% showed reduction of the follicular diameter and oocyte when compared to the control (non exposing, 10 and 20% groups (P0.05. These results suggest that primary follicles are more resistant to the effect of ethylene glycol when compared to primordial ones.

  18. Effect of bovine pellucid zone 3 monoclonal antibodies on B cell lymphoma 2 expressions of granulosa cell and mice (Mus musculus follicle diameter

    Heti Ira Ayue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of pellucid zone 3 monoclonal antibodies against B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 expression and mice follicle diameter at various time periods.Methods: The animal model of this study was 36 Balb/c mice (Mus musculus. A true experimental design was used with a post-test only control group approach. BCL-2 expression was observed using immunohistochemistry, while the follicle diameter was observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. The data was analyzed using nested ANOVA to compare the results of the mean expression of BCL-2 on the 5th and 20th day of observation in the pre-antral and antral follicle between the control and treatment groups.Results: No significant differences were found in BCL-2 gene expression. There were also no significant differences in BCL-2 expression on the 10th day of pre-antral follicle analysis. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the mean follicle diameter on the 5th, 10th, and 20th day of pre-antral and antral follicle development between the control and treatment groups. The addition of bovine pellucid zone 3 (bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 5th and 20th day of observation did not decrease the expression of BCL-2 gene in the pre-antral and antral follicle of mice. Administering bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 10th day of observation did not affect BCL-2 expression in the pre-antral follicle but did decrease BCL-2 expression in the antral follicle. Supplying bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 5th, 10th and 20th day did not affect the diameter of pre-antral and antral follicles of the mice.Conclusion: The monoclonal antibodies bovine zona pelusida 3 has the potential to be developed as a safe immunocontraception preparation.

  19. Prohibitin (PHB) inhibits apoptosis in rat granulosa cells (GCs) through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the Bcl family of proteins.

    Chowdhury, Indrajit; Thompson, Winston E; Welch, Crystal; Thomas, Kelwyn; Matthews, Roland

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development is tightly regulated by crosstalk between cell death and survival signals, which include both endocrine and intra-ovarian regulators. Whether the follicle ultimately ovulates or undergoes atresia is dependent on the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, differentiation or apoptosis. Prohibitin (PHB) is a highly conserved, ubiquitous protein that is abundantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and associated with GC differentiation and apoptosis. The current study was designed to characterize the regulation of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic factors in undifferentiated rat GCs (gonadotropin independent phase) governed by PHB. Microarray technology was initially employed to identify potential apoptosis-related genes, whose expression levels within GCs were altered by either staurosporine (STS) alone or STS in presence of ectopically over-expressed PHB. Next, immunoblot studies were performed to examine the expression patterns of selective Bcl-2 family members identified by the microarray analysis, which are commonly regulated in the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway. These studies were designed to measure protein levels of Bcl2 family in relation to expression of the acidic isoform (phosphorylated) PHB and the components of MEK-Erk1/2 pathway. These studies indicated that over-expression of PHB in undifferentiated GCs inhibit apoptosis which concomitantly results in an increased level of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl2 and Bclxl, reduced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and inhibition of caspase-3 activity. In contrast, silencing of PHB expression resulted in change of mitochondrial morphology from the regular reticular network to a fragmented form, which enhanced sensitization of these GCs to the induction of apoptosis. Collectively, these studies have provided new insights on the PHB-mediated anti-apoptotic mechanism, which occurs in undifferentiated GCs through a PHB → Mek-Erk1

  20. Paraqueratosis granulosa de la axila.

    Gerzaín Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La paraqueratosis granulosa de la axila es un transtorno adquirido de la cornificación, en el cual la capa córnea es muy gruesa y conserva los gránulos de profilagrina (queratohialina. Se han publicado 32 casos desde su descripción en 1991, de Estados Unidos, Europa y Australia. No conocemos informes de la entidad en Latinoamérica. Estudiamos tres mujeres obesas que presentaron pápulas y placas axilares, costrosas, hiperqueratósicas e hiperpigmentadas, que se diagnosticaron clínicamente como pénfigo familiar benigno o tinea nigra. Las biopsias mostraron enorme capa córnea paraqueratósica con aspecto basófilo dado por la presencia de gránulos de queratohialina, identificados con la hematoxilina-eosina y con microscopía electrónica del tejido obtenido del bloque de parafina. La inmunohistoquímica para S-100 no demostró células de Langerhans en las lesiones. La coloración de PAS no demostró hongos. Los infundíbulos presentaron voluminosos tapones córneos con el mismo cambio. No se vió mayor inflamación dérmica. Estos hallazgos sugieren que la entidad es una dermatitis de contacto irritativo. Las historias clínicas y la revisión de la literatura indican que el uso de desodorantes, la obesidad y la humedad son los factores desencadenantes. El diagnóstico debe ser realizado sin dificultad por el patólogo o el dermatopatólogo, ya que por ser una entidad relativamente nueva no es fácil reconocerla clínicamente.

  1. Mast Cell Function

    da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2014-01-01

    Since first described by Paul Ehrlich in 1878, mast cells have been mostly viewed as effectors of allergy. It has been only in the past two decades that mast cells have gained recognition for their involvement in other physiological and pathological processes. Mast cells have a widespread distribution and are found predominantly at the interface between the host and the external environment. Mast cell maturation, phenotype and function are a direct consequence of the local microenvironment and have a marked influence on their ability to specifically recognize and respond to various stimuli through the release of an array of biologically active mediators. These features enable mast cells to act as both first responders in harmful situations as well as to respond to changes in their environment by communicating with a variety of other cells implicated in physiological and immunological responses. Therefore, the critical role of mast cells in both innate and adaptive immunity, including immune tolerance, has gained increased prominence. Conversely, mast cell dysfunction has pointed to these cells as the main offenders in several chronic allergic/inflammatory disorders, cancer and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge of mast cell function in both normal and pathological conditions with regards to their regulation, phenotype and role. PMID:25062998

  2. The possible FAT1-mediated apoptotic pathways in porcine cumulus cells

    Wu, Xinhui; Fu, Yao; Liu, Chang; Chai, Menglong; Chen, Chengzhen; Dai, Lisheng; Gao, Yan; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Jiabao

    Porcine cumulus cells are localized around oocytes and act as a specific type of granulosa that plays essential roles in the development and maturation of oocytes, the development and atresia of follicles, and the development of embryos. Studies of FAT1 have demonstrated its functions in cell-cell

  3. Direct effect of curcumin on porcine ovarian cell functions.

    Kádasi, Attila; Maruniaková, Nora; Štochmaľová, Aneta; Bauer, Miroslav; Grossmann, Roland; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kolesárová, Adriana; Sirotkin, Alexander V

    2017-07-01

    Curcuma longa Linn (L.) is a plant widely used in cooking (in curry powder a.o.) and in folk medicine, but its action on reproductive processes and its possible mechanisms of action remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to examine the direct effects of curcumin, the major Curcuma longa L. molecule, on basic ovarian cell functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, viability and steroidogenesis. Porcine ovarian granulosa cells were cultured with and without curcumin (at doses of 0, 1, 10 and 100μg/ml of medium). Markers of proliferation (accumulation of PCNA) and apoptosis (accumulation of bax) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry. The expression of mRNA for PCNA and bax was detected by RT-PCR. Cell viability was detected by trypan blue exclusion test. Release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone) was measured by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). It was observed that addition of curcumin reduced ovarian cell proliferation (expression of both PCNA and its mRNA), promoted apoptosis (accumulation of both bax and its mRNA), reduced cell viability, and stimulated both progesterone and testosterone release. These observations demonstrate the direct suppressive effect of Curcuma longa L./curcumin on female gonads via multiple mechanisms of action - suppression of ovarian cell proliferation and viability, promotion of their apoptosis (at the level of mRNA transcription and subsequent accumulation of promoters of genes regulating these activities) and release of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic progesterone and androgen. The potential anti-gonadal action of curcumin should be taken into account by consumers of Curcuma longa L.-containing products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. FOXL2 Is an Essential Activator of SF-1-Induced Transcriptional Regulation of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Human Granulosa Cells.

    Hanyong Jin

    Full Text Available Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is required for proper sexual differentiation by regulating the regression of the Müllerian ducts in males. Recent studies indicate that AMH could be an important factor for maintaining the ovarian reserve. However, the mechanisms of AMH regulation in the ovary are largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that AMH is an ovarian target gene of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, an orphan nuclear receptor required for proper follicle development. FOXL2 is an evolutionally conserved transcription factor, and its mutations cause blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES, wherein affected females display eyelid defects and premature ovarian failure (POF. Notably, we found that functional FOXL2 is essential for SF-1-induced AMH regulation, via protein-protein interactions between FOXL2 and SF-1. A BPES-inducing mutant of FOXL2 (290-291delCA was unable to interact with SF-1 and failed to mediate the association between SF-1 and the AMH promoter. Therefore, this study identified a novel regulatory circuit for ovarian AMH production; specifically, through the coordinated interplay between FOXL2 and SF-1 that could control ovarian follicle development.

  5. The inhibition of myometrial contractions by chlorinated herbicides (atrazine and linuron), and their disruptive effect on the secretory functions of uterine and ovarian cells in cow, in vitro.

    Wrobel, Michał H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The effect of atrazine and linuron, the popular and widely used chlorinated herbicides, on both myometrial contractions and secretory functions of bovine uterus and ovaries in vitro, was investigated. The pesticides inhibited (Pherbicides affected PGs secretion from myometrium and PGF2α from endometrium. Only the lowest dose of both tested compounds decreased PGE2 secretion from endometrium. The pesticides increased (P<0.05) the OT secretion from granulosa. However, only linuron stimulated (P<0.05) the OT secretion from the luteal cells, and it increased (P<0.05) the expression of mRNA for the OT precursor. Both compounds stimulated (P<0.05) the secretion of testosterone and atrazine increased (P<0.05) also the secretion of estradiol from the granulosa cells. While atrazine and linuron reduced (P<0.05) the progesterone secretion from the luteal cells. The data show that atrazine and linuron altered the secretory functions of ovarian cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stem cell function and maintenance

    Stem cell research holds a promise to treat and prevent age-related degenerative changes in humans. Literature is replete with studies showing that stem cell function declines with aging, especially in highly proliferative tissues/organs. Among others, telomerase and telomere damage is one of the intrinsic physical ...

  7. Cell Elasticity Determines Macrophage Function

    Patel, Naimish R.; Bole, Medhavi; Chen, Cheng; Hardin, Charles C.; Kho, Alvin T.; Mih, Justin; Deng, Linhong; Butler, James; Tschumperlin, Daniel; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Koziel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function. PMID:23028423

  8. Cell elasticity determines macrophage function.

    Naimish R Patel

    Full Text Available Macrophages serve to maintain organ homeostasis in response to challenges from injury, inflammation, malignancy, particulate exposure, or infection. Until now, receptor ligation has been understood as being the central mechanism that regulates macrophage function. Using macrophages of different origins and species, we report that macrophage elasticity is a major determinant of innate macrophage function. Macrophage elasticity is modulated not only by classical biologic activators such as LPS and IFN-γ, but to an equal extent by substrate rigidity and substrate stretch. Macrophage elasticity is dependent upon actin polymerization and small rhoGTPase activation, but functional effects of elasticity are not predicted by examination of gene expression profiles alone. Taken together, these data demonstrate an unanticipated role for cell elasticity as a common pathway by which mechanical and biologic factors determine macrophage function.

  9. Function of donor cell centrosome in intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos

    Zhong Zhisheng; Zhang Gang; Meng Xiaoqian; Zhang Yanling; Chen Dayuan; Schatten, Heide; Sun Qingyuan

    2005-01-01

    Centrosomes, the main microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs) in most animal cells, are important for many cellular activities such as assembly of the mitotic spindle, establishment of cell polarity, and cell movement. In nuclear transfer (NT), MTOCs that are located at the poles of the meiotic spindle are removed from the recipient oocyte, while the centrosome of the donor cell is introduced. We used mouse MII oocytes as recipients, mouse fibroblasts, rat fibroblasts, or pig granulosa cells as donor cells to construct intraspecies and interspecies nuclear transfer embryos in order to observe centrosome dynamics and functions. Three antibodies against centrin, γ-tubulin, and NuMA, respectively, were used to stain the centrosome. Centrin was not detected either at the poles of transient spindles or at the poles of first mitotic spindles. γ-tubulin translocated into the two poles of the transient spindles, while no accumulated γ-tubulin aggregates were detected in the area adjacent to the two pseudo-pronuclei. At first mitotic metaphase, γ-tubulin was translocated to the spindle poles. The distribution of γ-tubulin was similar in mouse intraspecies and rat-mouse interspecies embryos. The NuMA antibody that we used can recognize porcine but not murine NuMA protein, so it was used to trace the NuMA protein of donor cell in reconstructed embryos. In the pig-mouse interspecies reconstructed embryos, NuMA concentrated between the disarrayed chromosomes soon after activation and translocated to the transient spindle poles. NuMA then immigrated into pseudo-pronuclei. After pseudo-pronuclear envelope breakdown, NuMA was located between the chromosomes and then translocated to the spindle poles of first mitotic metaphase. γ-tubulin antibody microinjection resulted in spindle disorganization and retardation of the first cell division. NuMA antibody microinjection also resulted in spindle disorganization. Our findings indicate that (1) the donor cell centrosome, defined as

  10. The numerology of T cell functional diversity.

    Haining, W Nicholas

    2012-01-27

    Memory T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function. In this issue of Immunity, Newell et al. (2012) use a new flow cytometry platform to show that the functional heterogeneity of the human T cell compartment is even greater than previously thought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Numerology of T Cell Functional Diversity

    Haining, W. Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Memory T cells are heterogeneous in phenotype and function. In this issue of Immunity Newell et al. (2012) use a new flow cytometry platform to show that the functional heterogeneity in the human T cell compartment is even greater than expected.

  12. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  13. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  14. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  15. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  16. Membrane elastic properties and cell function.

    Bruno Pontes

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function.

  17. Role of Polyamines in Immune Cell Functions

    Rebecca S. Hesterberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Polyamines have several purported roles and high levels of polyamines are manifest in tumor cells as well in autoreactive B- and T-cells in autoimmune diseases. In the tumor microenvironment, l-arginine catabolism by both tumor cells and suppressive myeloid cells is known to dampen cytotoxic T-cell functions suggesting there might be links between polyamines and T-cell suppression. Here, we review studies suggesting roles of polyamines in normal immune cell function and highlight their connections to autoimmunity and anti-tumor immune cell function.

  18. Functional significance of the signal transduction pathways Akt and Erk in ovarian follicles: in vitro and in vivo studies in cattle and sheep

    Ryan Kate E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intracellular signalling mechanisms that regulate ovarian follicle development are unclear; however, we have recently shown differences in the Akt and Erk signalling pathways in dominant compared to subordinate follicles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inhibiting Akt and Erk phosphorylation on IGF- and gonadotropin- stimulated granulosa and theca cell function in vitro, and on follicle development in vivo. Methods Bovine granulosa and theca cells were cultured for six days and stimulated with FSH and/or IGF, or LH in combination with PD98059 (Erk inhibitor and/or LY294002 (Akt inhibitor and their effect on cell number and hormone secretion (estradiol, activin-A, inhibin-A, follistatin, progesterone and androstenedione determined. In addition, ovarian follicles were treated in vivo with PD98059 and/or LY294002 in ewes on Day 3 of the cycle and follicles were recovered 48 hours later. Results We have shown that gonadotropin- and IGF-stimulated hormone production by granulosa and theca cells is reduced by treatment with PD98059 and LY294002 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with PD98059 and LY294002 reduced follicle growth and oestradiol production in vivo. Conclusion These results demonstrate an important functional role for the Akt and Erk signalling pathways in follicle function, growth and development.

  19. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  20. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Quanwen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bundles. The hair-cell-like cells exhibited rapid permeation of FM1-43FX. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to measure the membrane currents of cells differentiated for 7 days on chicken utricle stromal cells and analyze the biophysical properties of the hair-cell-like cells by recording membrane properties of cells. The results suggested that the hair-cell-like cells derived from inner ear multipotent cells were functional following differentiation in an enabling environment.

  1. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins.

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hybrid cell adhesive material for instant dielectrophoretic cell trapping and long-term cell function assessment.

    Reyes, Darwin R; Hong, Jennifer S; Elliott, John T; Gaitan, Michael

    2011-08-16

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) for cell manipulation has focused, for the most part, on approaches for separation/enrichment of cells of interest. Advancements in cell positioning and immobilization onto substrates for cell culture, either as single cells or as cell aggregates, has benefited from the intensified research efforts in DEP (electrokinetic) manipulation. However, there has yet to be a DEP approach that provides the conditions for cell manipulation while promoting cell function processes such as cell differentiation. Here we present the first demonstration of a system that combines DEP with a hybrid cell adhesive material (hCAM) to allow for cell entrapment and cell function, as demonstrated by cell differentiation into neuronlike cells (NLCs). The hCAM, comprised of polyelectrolytes and fibronectin, was engineered to function as an instantaneous cell adhesive surface after DEP manipulation and to support long-term cell function (cell proliferation, induction, and differentiation). Pluripotent P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells flowing within a microchannel were attracted to the DEP electrode surface and remained adhered onto the hCAM coating under a fluid flow field after the DEP forces were removed. Cells remained viable after DEP manipulation for up to 8 d, during which time the P19 cells were induced to differentiate into NLCs. This approach could have further applications in areas such as cell-cell communication, three-dimensional cell aggregates to create cell microenvironments, and cell cocultures.

  3. Functional duality of the cell wall.

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne

    2014-08-01

    The polysaccharide cell wall is the extracellular armour of the fungal cell. Although essential in the protection of the fungal cell against aggressive external stresses, the biosynthesis of the polysaccharide core is poorly understood. For a long time it was considered that this cell wall skeleton was a fixed structure whose role was only to be sensed as non-self by the host and consequently trigger the defence response. It is now known that the cell wall polysaccharide composition and localization continuously change to adapt to their environment and that these modifications help the fungus to escape from the immune system. Moreover, cell wall polysaccharides could function as true virulence factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 61 HUGE BENIGN GRANULOSA CELL TUMOUR IN A 61 YEAR ...

    Dr. E. P. Gharoro

    peritoneal cavity, huge right ovarian cyst measuring 37cm/29cm as in figure 1a, weighing 8.3 kg with a thick smooth wall without excrescences on surface. ... is released in the blood during pregnancy and is produced in other conditions such as endometriosis, fibroids and diverticulitis. It is useful in monitoring therapy.

  5. Acute pancreatitis following granulosa cell tumor removal in a mare

    Gomez, Diego E.; Radtke, Catherine L.; Russell, Lauren A.; Lopez, Alfonso; Wichtel, Maureen W.

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare disease in horses and is often associated with gastrointestinal disorders. Accurate diagnosis is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific clinical signs. This case represents the first documentation of acute pancreatitis in a horse following surgery of the reproductive tract. PMID:26483579

  6. The adverse effects of aldrin and dieldrin on both myometrial contractions and the secretory functions of bovine ovaries and uterus in vitro

    Wrobel, Michał H., E-mail: m.wrobel@pan.olsztyn.pl; Grzeszczyk, Marlena; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-05-15

    Aldrin and dieldrin are chloroorganic insecticides which are recognised as endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to investigate their effect on the secretory functions of the uterus and ovary and on myometrial contractions. Myometrial strips and uterine and ovarian cells from nonpregnant cows were incubated with the xenobiotics (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 24 or 72 h. Next, their effect on viability of myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells, myometrial strip contractions, the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from uterine cells, the secretion of oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells were determined. Neither of the xenobiotics (10 ng/ml) affected (P > 0.05) the viability of the ovarian and uterine cells, while both (0.1–10 ng/ml) decreased (P < 0.05) the basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions. In spite of these effects, neither of the insecticides affected (P > 0.05) the synthesis and the secretion of PGs from the myometrial cells. Although they also did not impair the secretion of the PGs from the endometrial cells, they abolished (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of OT (P < 0.05) on the secretion of the PGs and stimulated (P < 0.05) the secretion of OT from the granulosa and luteal cells. Moreover, aldrin and dieldrin stimulated secretion of E2 and T from the granulosa cells, while only dieldrin increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of P4 from luteal cells. The data show that aldrin and dieldrin stimulated the secretory function of the cultured granulosa and luteal cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions of cows in vitro, which may affect on natural parturition. - Highlights: • Aldrin and dieldrin inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • The studied xenobiotics stimulated steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the xenobiotics on

  7. Cell functional enviromics: Unravelling the function of environmental factors

    Alves Paula M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While functional genomics, focused on gene functions and gene-gene interactions, has become a very active field of research in molecular biology, equivalent methodologies embracing the environment and gene-environment interactions are relatively less developed. Understanding the function of environmental factors is, however, of paramount importance given the complex, interactive nature of environmental and genetic factors across multiple time scales. Results Here, we propose a systems biology framework, where the function of environmental factors is set at its core. We set forth a "reverse" functional analysis approach, whereby cellular functions are reconstructed from the analysis of dynamic envirome data. Our results show these data sets can be mapped to less than 20 core cellular functions in a typical mammalian cell culture, while explaining over 90% of flux data variance. A functional enviromics map can be created, which provides a template for manipulating the environmental factors to induce a desired phenotypic trait. Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of cellular function reconstruction guided by the analysis and manipulation of dynamic envirome data.

  8. Lipids in the cell: organisation regulates function.

    Santos, Ana L; Preta, Giulio

    2018-06-01

    Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling. Lipid organisation is tightly regulated and can be observed across different model organisms, including bacteria, yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting that lipid organisation is evolutionarily conserved. In this review, we summarise the importance and function of specific lipid domains in main cellular organelles and discuss recent advances that investigate how these specific and highly regulated structures contribute to diverse biological processes.

  9. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  10. Functional imaging of microdomains in cell membranes.

    Duggan, James; Jamal, Ghadir; Tilley, Mark; Davis, Ben; McKenzie, Graeme; Vere, Kelly; Somekh, Michael G; O'Shea, Paul; Harris, Helen

    2008-10-01

    The presence of microdomains or rafts within cell membranes is a topic of intense study and debate. The role of these structures in cell physiology, however, is also not yet fully understood with many outstanding problems. This problem is partly based on the small size of raft structures that presents significant problems to their in vivo study, i.e., within live cell membranes. But the structure and dynamics as well as the factors that control the assembly and disassembly of rafts are also of major interest. In this review we outline some of the problems that the study of rafts in cell membranes present as well as describing some views of what are considered the generalised functions of membrane rafts. We point to the possibility that there may be several different 'types' of membrane raft in cell membranes and consider the factors that affect raft assembly and disassembly, particularly, as some researchers suggest that the lifetimes of rafts in cell membranes may be sub-second. We attempt to review some of the methods that offer the ability to interrogate rafts directly as well as describing factors that appear to affect their functionality. The former include both near-field and far-field optical approaches as well as scanning probe techniques. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are outlined. Finally, we describe our own views of raft functionality and properties, particularly, concerning the membrane dipole potential, and describe briefly some of the imaging strategies we have developed for their study.

  11. Mioblatoma de células granulosas: Presentación de un caso clínico

    Nelia Fernández Acosta

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available El tumor de las células granulosas en una rara entidad; existen numerosas teorías sobre su origen que aún están bajo polémica, aunque la más aceptada es la neurogénica que asimila su procedencia como neuroectodérmico. Se detectó un paciente en consulta con cuadro clínico similar al de esta patología con localización en el dorso de la lengua. La lesión se mostraba submucosa, elevada, no dolorosa y de aspecto áspero. El caso fue remitido a la atención secundaria de cirugía del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología (INOR donde, tras realizar la operación y practicar la biopsia, se corroboró el diagnóstico de un mioblastoma de células granulosas.The tumor of granular cells is a rare entity. There are numerous theories about its origin that are still polemic, though the most accepted is the neurogenic one that assimilates its source as neuroectodermic .A patient with a clinical picture similar to that of this pathology with localization on the dorsum of the tongue was observed at the physician’s office. The lesion was submucous, elevated, unpainful and with a rough aspect. The case was referred to the secondary surgery care service of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology (INOR, in Spanish, where the patient was operated on and a biopsy was performed that confirmed the diagnosis of granular cell myoblastoma.

  12. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  13. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PORCINE OVARIAN FUNCTIONS

    Attila Kádasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information about the impact of chosen natural plant extracts on basic ovarian functions. This article summarizes our results concerning the effect of selected plant extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion – release of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and leptin (L on porcine granulosa cells (GC, We analyzed effects of ginkgo (GB, rooibos (RB, flaxseed (FL, green tea polyphenols (GTPP, green tea - epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol (RSV and curcumin (CURC (0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.ml-1 on markers of proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells by using immunocytochemistry and EIA. It was demonstrated, that all these natural plants and plant molecules inhibited the accumulation of proliferation-related peptide (PCNA and apoptosis-associated peptide (Bax in cultured. Furthermore, it was observed that natural plant extracts altered progesterone, testosterone and leptin release in porcine ovarian cells. It is concluded, that GB, RB, FL, RSV, CURC, GTPP and EGCG can directly affect ovarian cells and therefore they could potentially influence ovarian functions.

  15. Pilidiella tibouchinae sp. nov. associated with foliage blight of Tibouchina granulosa (quaresmeira) in Brazil

    Miranda, B.E.C.; Barreto, R.W.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Tibouchina granulosa (Melastomataceae), Brazilian glorytree (Brazilian common name - quaresmeira), a common tree of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, is widely used as an ornamental for its violet or pink blossoms. Little is known about fungal diseases affecting this species, although these represent a

  16. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  17. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  18. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    Behrens, Axel; van Deursen, Jan M.; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Schumacher, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cell dysfunction with ageing. Here, we review the impact of the various types of DNA damage that accumulate with ageing on stem cell functionality, as well as the development of cancer. We discuss DNA-damage-induced cell intrinsic and extrinsic alterations that influence these processes, and review recent advances in understanding systemic adjustments to DNA damage and how they affect stem cells. PMID:24576896

  19. Liver-resident NK cells and their potential functions.

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Rui

    2017-09-18

    Natural killer (NK) cells represent a heterogeneous population of innate lymphocytes with phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. In particular, recent studies have identified a unique subset of NK cells residing within the liver that are maintained as tissue-resident cells, confer antigen-specific memory responses and exhibit different phenotypical and developmental characteristics compared with conventional NK (cNK) cells. These findings have encouraged researchers to uncover tissue-resident NK cells at other sites, and detailed analyses have revealed that these tissue-resident NK cells share many similarities with liver-resident NK cells and tissue-resident memory T cells. Here, we present a brief historical perspective on the discovery of liver-resident NK cells and discuss their relationship to cNK cells and other emerging NK cell subsets and their potential functions.Cellular &Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 18 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.72.

  20. Cell lipids: from isolation to functional dynamics

    Veldman, R.JJ; Pecheur, EL; van Ijzendoorn, Sven; Kok, Jan Willem; Hoekstra, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    81. Veldman RJ, Pécheur EI., Van IJzendoorn SCD., Kok JW. and Hoekstra D. (2003) . In: Essential Cell Biology. Cell Structure (Davey, J. and Lord, M. eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford. Vol. 1, pp.

  1. Ontogeny and function of murine epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Kaplan, Daniel H

    2017-09-19

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are epidermis-resident antigen-presenting cells that share a common ontogeny with macrophages but function as dendritic cells (DCs). Their development, recruitment and retention in the epidermis is orchestrated by interactions with keratinocytes through multiple mechanisms. LC and dermal DC subsets often show functional redundancy, but LCs are required for specific types of adaptive immune responses when antigen is concentrated in the epidermis. This Review will focus on those developmental and functional properties that are unique to LCs.

  2. Regulation of Hematopoietic Cell Development and Function Through Phosphoinositides

    Mila Elich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most paramount receptor-induced signal transduction mechanisms in hematopoietic cells is production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5trisphosphate (PIP3 by class I phosphoinositide 3 kinases (PI3K. Defective PIP3 signaling impairs almost every aspect of hematopoiesis, including T cell development and function. Limiting PIP3 signaling is particularly important, because excessive PIP3 function in lymphocytes can transform them and cause blood cancers. Here, we review the key functions of PIP3 and related phosphoinositides in hematopoietic cells, with a special focus on those mechanisms dampening PIP3 production, turnover, or function. Recent studies have shown that beyond “canonical” turnover by the PIP3 phosphatases and tumor suppressors phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN and SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1/2, PIP3 function in hematopoietic cells can also be dampened through antagonism with the soluble PIP3 analogs inositol(1,3,4,5tetrakisphosphate (IP4 and inositol-heptakisphosphate (IP7. Other evidence suggests that IP4 can promote PIP3 function in thymocytes. Moreover, IP4 or the kinases producing it limit store-operated Ca2+ entry through Orai channels in B cells, T cells, and neutrophils to control cell survival and function. We discuss current models for how soluble inositol phosphates can have such diverse functions and can govern as distinct processes as hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, neutrophil macrophage and NK cell function, and development and function of B cells and T cells. Finally, we will review the pathological consequences of dysregulated IP4 activity in immune cells and highlight contributions of impaired inositol phosphate functions in disorders such as Kawasaki disease, common variable immunodeficiency, or blood cancer.

  3. Vaccinating for natural killer cell effector functions

    Wagstaffe, Helen R; Mooney, Jason P; Riley, Eleanor M; Goodier, Martin R

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Vaccination has proved to be highly effective in reducing global mortality and eliminating infectious diseases. Building on this success will depend on the development of new and improved vaccines, new methods to determine efficacy and optimum dosing and new or refined adjuvant systems. NK cells are innate lymphoid cells that respond rapidly during primary infection but also have adaptive characteristics enabling them to integrate innate and acquired immune responses. NK cells are ac...

  4. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour /sup 51/Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder.

  5. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.

    1982-01-01

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour 51 Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder

  6. Mitochondrial respiration controls lysosomal function during inflammatory T cell responses

    Baixauli, Francesc; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Villarroya-Beltrí, Carolina; Mazzeo, Carla; Nuñez-Andrade, Norman; Gabandé-Rodriguez, Enrique; Dolores Ledesma, Maria; Blázquez, Alberto; Martin, Miguel Angel; Falcón-Pérez, Juan Manuel; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Mittelbrunn, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Summary The endolysosomal system is critical for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. However, how endolysosomal compartment is regulated by mitochondrial function is largely unknown. We have generated a mouse model with defective mitochondrial function in CD4+ T lymphocytes by genetic deletion of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam). Mitochondrial respiration-deficiency impairs lysosome function, promotes p62 and sphingomyelin accumulation and disrupts endolysosomal trafficking pathways and autophagy, thus linking a primary mitochondrial dysfunction to a lysosomal storage disorder. The impaired lysosome function in Tfam-deficient cells subverts T cell differentiation toward pro-inflammatory subsets and exacerbates the in vivo inflammatory response. Restoration of NAD+ levels improves lysosome function and corrects the inflammatory defects in Tfam-deficient T cells. Our results uncover a mechanism by which mitochondria regulate lysosome function to preserve T cell differentiation and effector functions, and identify novel strategies for intervention in mitochondrial-related diseases. PMID:26299452

  7. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

    James B. Konopka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  8. Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.

    Wagener, Victoria; Schilling, Achim; Mainka, Astrid; Hennig, Diana; Gerum, Richard; Kelch, Marie-Luise; Keim, Simon; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2016-05-18

    The biocompatibility of commercially pure magnesium-based (cp Mg) biodegradable implants is compromised of strong hydrogen evolution and surface alkalization due to high initial corrosion rates of cp Mg in the physiological environment. To mitigate this problem, the addition of corrosion-retarding alloying elements or coating of implant surfaces has been suggested. In the following work, we explored the effect of organic coatings on long-term cell growth. cp Mg was coated with aminopropyltriehtoxysilane + vitamin C (AV), carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), or stearic acid (SA). All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together, these data demonstrate that surface coating with AV is a viable strategy for improving long-term biocompatibility of cp Mg-based implants. EIS measurements confirmed that the presence of a confluent cell layer increased the corrosion resistance.

  9. Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads.

    Danielle M Maatouk

    Full Text Available The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells.

  10. Germ Cells Are Not Required to Establish the Female Pathway in Mouse Fetal Gonads

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Hinson, Ashley; Kobayashi, Akio; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. PMID:23091613

  11. Mioblastoma de células granulosas de la base de la lengua en el recién nacido

    Manuel Estrada Sarmiento

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica del mioblastoma de células granulosas de la lengua, sus características clínicas y diagnóstico diferencial. Se hace énfasis en la posibilidad real de su presentación frente a un síndrome de dificultad respiratoria del recién nacido. Se presenta a un enfermo con estas características, el cual fue intervenido quirúrgicamente por un grupo multidisciplinario en nuestra institución. El paciente tuvo una evolución posoperatoria libre de complicaciones y se le dio de alta curado.A bibiliographic review of the granular cell tumor of the tongue, its clinical characteristics and differential diagnosis is made. The real possibility of its appearance in the face of a respiratory distress syndrome in a newborn infant is emphasized. A patient with these characteristics that was operated on by a multidisciplinary team in our institution is presented. The patient had a postoperative evolution with no complications and he was discharged completely cured.

  12. Hematopoietic stem cell function in motheaten mice

    Shultz, L.D.; Bailey, C.L.; Coman, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation ''motheaten'' have normal numbers of multipotential hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen as determined by spleen colony assay. Histologic examination shows no qualitative abnormality in morphology of stem cell colonies in recipients of bone marrow or spleen cells from motheaten mice. Despite the apparently normal ontogeny, distribution, and differentiative capacity of CFU stem cells, bone marrow and spleen cells from motheaten mice fail to save congenic +/+ lethally gamma-irradiated hosts. This impaired lifesparing capacity is not due to defective self-renewal but appears to be due in part to pulmonary hemorrhage from alveolar capillaries in the gamma-irradiated hosts. Treatment of motheaten mice with 500 R gamma-irradiation followed by reconstitution with normal bone marrow cells increases the lifespan of this mutant to 10 months of age. The early onset of pneumonitis and subsequent short lifespan of motheaten mice is determined at the level of progenitor cells in the bone marrow

  13. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  14. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  15. Mitochondrial function in Müller cells - Does it matter?

    Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Skytt, Dorte Marie; Svare, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    in the most predominant glial cells of the retina, the Müller cells. Müller cells span the entire thickness of the neuroretina and are in close proximity to retinal cells including the retinal neurons that provides visual signaling to the brain. Among multiple functions, Müller cells are responsible...... for the removal of neurotransmitters, buffering potassium, and providing neurons with essential metabolites. Thus, Müller cells are responsible for a stable metabolic dialogue in the inner retina and their crucial role in supporting retinal neurons is indisputable. Müller cell functions require considerable......Growing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction might play a key role in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative inner retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Therefore, the present review provides a perspective on the impact of functional mitochondria...

  16. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    2015-11-04

    Final report for “Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function” Principal Investigator: Christina D. Smolke...SUBTITLE Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18   2 Synthetic RNA controllers for programming mammalian cell fate and function Task 1

  17. Skeletal muscle aging: stem cell function and tissue homeostasis

    Victor, Pedro Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Muscle aging, in particular, is characterized by the reduction of tissue mass and function, which are particularly prominent in geriatric individuals undergoing sarcopenia. The age-associated muscle wasting is also associated with a decline in regenerative ability and a reduction in resident muscle stem cell (satellite cell) number and function. Although sarcopenia is one of the major contributors to the general loss of physiological function, the mechanisms involved in age-related loss of mu...

  18. Radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of radiation LET

    Lobachevskij, P.N.; Krasavin, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    A model is proposed for interpreting the radiosensitivity of yeast cells as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) of ionizing radiation. The model takes into account the role of repair processes in sensitivity of yeast cells to ionizing radiation of different LET. Two types of repair are discussed: (1) a nonspecific repair (characteristic of both haploid and diploid cells), and (2) a diploid - soecific repair (characteristic of diploid cells only)

  19. Ex vivo cytosolic delivery of functional macromolecules to immune cells.

    Armon Sharei

    Full Text Available Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach's potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies.

  20. Interpreting heterogeneity in intestinal tuft cell structure and function.

    Banerjee, Amrita; McKinley, Eliot T; von Moltke, Jakob; Coffey, Robert J; Lau, Ken S

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal tuft cells are a morphologically unique cell type, best characterized by striking microvilli that form an apical tuft. These cells represent approximately 0.5% of gut epithelial cells depending on location. While they are known to express chemosensory receptors, their function has remained unclear. Recently, numerous groups have revealed startling insights into intestinal tuft cell biology. Here, we review the latest developments in understanding this peculiar cell type's structure and function. Recent advances in volumetric microscopy have begun to elucidate tuft cell ultrastructure with respect to its cellular neighbors. Moreover, single-cell approaches have revealed greater diversity in the tuft cell population than previously appreciated and uncovered novel markers to characterize this heterogeneity. Finally, advanced model systems have revealed tuft cells' roles in mucosal healing and orchestrating type 2 immunity against eukaryotic infection. While much remains unknown about intestinal tuft cells, these critical advances have illuminated the physiological importance of these previously understudied cells and provided experimentally tractable tools to interrogate this rare cell population. Tuft cells act as luminal sensors, linking the luminal microbiome to the host immune system, which may make them a potent clinical target for modulating host response to a variety of acute or chronic immune-driven conditions.

  1. Membrane phosphorylation and nerve cell function

    Baer, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the phosphorylation of membrane components. In part I a series of experiments is described using the hippocampal slice as a model system. In part II a different model system - cultured hybrid cells - is used to study protein and lipid phosphorylation, influenced by incubation with neuropeptides. In part III in vivo and in vitro studies are combined to study protein phosphorylation after neuroanatomical lesions. In a section of part II (Page 81-90) labelling experiments of the membrane inositol-phospholipids are described. 32 P-ATP was used to label phospholipids in intact hybrid cells, and short incubations were found to be the most favourable. (C.F.)

  2. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  3. Kupffer cell complement receptor clearance function and host defense.

    Loegering, D J

    1986-01-01

    Kupffer cells are well known to be important for normal host defense function. The development of methods to evaluate the in vivo function of specific receptors on Kupffer cells has made it possible to assess the role of these receptors in host defense. The rationale for studying complement receptors is based on the proposed important role of these receptors in host defense and on the observation that the hereditary deficiency of a complement receptor is associated with recurrent severe bacterial infections. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that forms of injury that are associated with depressed host defense including thermal injury, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, and surgery also cause a decrease in complement receptor clearance function. This decrease in Kupffer cell receptor clearance function was shown not to be the result of depressed hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement components. Complement receptor function was also depressed following the phagocytosis of particulates that are known to depress Kupffer cell host defense function. Endotoxemia and bacteremia also were associated with a depression of complement receptor function. Complement receptor function was experimentally depressed in uninjured animals by the phagocytosis of IgG-coated erythrocytes. There was a close association between the depression of complement receptor clearance function and increased susceptibility to the lethal effects of endotoxin and bacterial infection. These studies support the hypotheses that complement receptors on Kupffer cells are important for normal host defense and that depression of the function of these receptors impairs host defense.

  4. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Skeletal Stem Cells: Origins, Functions and Uncertainties.

    Mohamed, Fatma F; Franceschi, Renny T

    2017-12-01

    The development and maintenance of the skeleton requires a steady source of skeletal progenitors to provide the osteoblasts and chondrocytes necessary for bone and cartilage growth and development. The current model for skeletal stem cells (SSCs) posits that SSC/progenitor cells are present in bone marrow (BM) and other osteogenic sites such as cranial sutures where they undergo self-renewal and differentiation to give rise to the main skeletal tissues. SSCs hold great promise for understanding skeletal biology and genetic diseases of bone as well as for the advancement of bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies. In the past few years, a considerable effort has been devoted to identifying and purifying skeletal stem cells and determining their contribution to bone formation and homeostasis. Here, we review recent progress in this area with particular emphasis on the discovery of specific SSC markers, their use in tracking the progression of cell populations along specific lineages and the regulation of SSCs in both the appendicular and cranial skeleton.

  6. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    Fliedner, T.M.; Nothdurft, W.

    1979-01-01

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compartments. They differ in transit and cell cycle times and in the number of amplification division - aside from the difference in their functional and biochemical make-up. The stem cell pools are providing the cells capable of differentiation without depleting their own kind. This can be achieved by symmetrical or assymmetrical stem cell division. In normal steady state, 50% of the stem cell division remain in the stem cell pool, while the other 50% leave it to differentiate, proliferate and mature, hemopoietic system is distributed throughout bodies. This is an important factor in the radiation biology of mammalian organisms since the loss of function in one area can be compensated for by more production in other areas, and locally depleted sites can be reseeded with the stem cells migrating in from blood. (Yamashita, S.)

  7. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  8. Matrix regulators in neural stem cell functions.

    Wade, Anna; McKinney, Andrew; Phillips, Joanna J

    2014-08-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) reside within a complex and dynamic extracellular microenvironment, or niche. This niche regulates fundamental aspects of their behavior during normal neural development and repair. Precise yet dynamic regulation of NSPC self-renewal, migration, and differentiation is critical and must persist over the life of an organism. In this review, we summarize some of the major components of the NSPC niche and provide examples of how cues from the extracellular matrix regulate NSPC behaviors. We use proteoglycans to illustrate the many diverse roles of the niche in providing temporal and spatial regulation of cellular behavior. The NSPC niche is comprised of multiple components that include; soluble ligands, such as growth factors, morphogens, chemokines, and neurotransmitters, the extracellular matrix, and cellular components. As illustrated by proteoglycans, a major component of the extracellular matrix, the NSPC, niche provides temporal and spatial regulation of NSPC behaviors. The factors that control NSPC behavior are vital to understand as we attempt to modulate normal neural development and repair. Furthermore, an improved understanding of how these factors regulate cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, crucial for malignancy, may reveal novel anti-tumor strategies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Developmental and Functional Control of Natural Killer Cells by Cytokines

    Yang Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are effective in combating infections and tumors and as such are tempting for adoptive transfer therapy. However, they are not homogeneous but can be divided into three main subsets, including cytotoxic, tolerant, and regulatory NK cells, with disparate phenotypes and functions in diverse tissues. The development and functions of such NK cells are controlled by various cytokines, such as fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL, kit ligand (KL, interleukin (IL-3, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, transforming growth factor-β, and common-γ chain family cytokines, which operate at different stages by regulating distinct signaling pathways. Nevertheless, the specific roles of each cytokine that regulates NK cell development or that shapes different NK cell functions remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to describe the characteristics of each cytokine and the existing protocols to expand NK cells using different combinations of cytokines and feeder cells. A comprehensive understanding of the role of cytokines in NK cell development and function will aid the generation of better efficacy for adoptive NK cell treatment.

  10. Role of Growth Differentiation Factor 9 and Bone Morphogenetic Protein 15 in Ovarian Function and Their Importance in Mammalian Female Fertility — A Review

    Fernanda Cavallari de Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors play an important role during early ovarian development and folliculogenesis, since they regulate the migration of germ cells to the gonadal ridge. They also act on follicle recruitment, proliferation/atresia of granulosa cells and theca, steroidogenesis, oocyte maturation, ovulation and luteinization. Among the growth factors, the growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9 and the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily, have been implicated as essential for follicular development. The GDF9 and BMP15 participate in the evolution of the primordial follicle to primary follicle and play an important role in the later stages of follicular development and maturation, increasing the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression, plasminogen activator and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR. These factors are also involved in the interconnections between the oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells, where they regulate absorption of amino acids, glycolysis and biosynthesis of cholesterol cumulus cells. Even though the mode of action has not been fully established, in vitro observations indicate that the factors GDF9 and BMP15 stimulate the growth of ovarian follicles and proliferation of cumulus cells through the induction of mitosis in cells and granulosa and theca expression of genes linked to follicular maturation. Thus, seeking greater understanding of the action of these growth factors on the development of oocytes, the role of GDF9 and BMP15 in ovarian function is summarized in this brief review.

  11. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Wataru Sonoyama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla. Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  13. Human CD8 T cells generated in vitro from hematopoietic stem cells are functionally mature

    Zúñiga-Pflücker Juan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background T cell development occurs within the highly specialized thymus. Cytotoxic CD8 T cells are critical in adaptive immunity by targeting virally infected or tumor cells. In this study, we addressed whether functional CD8 T cells can be generated fully in vitro using human umbilical cord blood (UCB hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in coculture with OP9-DL1 cells. Results HSC/OP9-DL1 cocultures supported the differentiation of CD8 T cells, which were TCR/CD3hi CD27hi CD1aneg and thus phenotypically resembled mature functional CD8 single positive thymocytes. These in vitro-generated T cells also appeared to be conventional CD8 cells, as they expressed high levels of Eomes and low levels of Plzf, albeit not identical to ex vivo UCB CD8 T cells. Consistent with the phenotypic and molecular characterization, upon TCR-stimulation, in vitro-generated CD8 T cells proliferated, expressed activation markers (MHC-II, CD25, CD38, secreted IFN-γ and expressed Granzyme B, a cytotoxic T-cell effector molecule. Conclusion Taken together, the ability to direct human hematopoietic stem cell or T-progenitor cells towards a mature functional phenotype raises the possibility of establishing cell-based treatments for T-immunodeficiencies by rapidly restoring CD8 effector function, thereby mitigating the risks associated with opportunistic infections.

  14. Apoptosis-Inducing-Factor-Dependent Mitochondrial Function Is Required for T Cell but Not B Cell Function.

    Milasta, Sandra; Dillon, Christopher P; Sturm, Oliver E; Verbist, Katherine C; Brewer, Taylor L; Quarato, Giovanni; Brown, Scott A; Frase, Sharon; Janke, Laura J; Perry, S Scott; Thomas, Paul G; Green, Douglas R

    2016-01-19

    The role of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in promoting cell death versus survival remains controversial. We report that the loss of AIF in fibroblasts led to mitochondrial electron transport chain defects and loss of proliferation that could be restored by ectopic expression of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase Ndi1. Aif-deficiency in T cells led to decreased peripheral T cell numbers and defective homeostatic proliferation, but thymic T cell development was unaffected. In contrast, Aif-deficient B cells developed and functioned normally. The difference in the dependency of T cells versus B cells on AIF for function and survival correlated with their metabolic requirements. Ectopic Ndi1 expression rescued homeostatic proliferation of Aif-deficient T cells. Despite its reported roles in cell death, fibroblasts, thymocytes and B cells lacking AIF underwent normal death. These studies suggest that the primary role of AIF relates to complex I function, with differential effects on T and B cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber,...

  16. Microculture system for studying monolayers of functional beta-cells.

    Dobersen, M J; Scharff, J E; Notkins, A L

    1980-04-01

    A method is described for growing monolayers of newborn rat beta-cells in microculture trays. After disruption of the pancreas with collagenase, islets were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, trypsinized to obtain individual cells, and plated in 96-well tissue culture trays. The cells were incubated for the first 3 days in growth medium containing 0.1 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine to promote monolayer formation. The cultures could be maintained in a functional state, as defined by their responsiveness to known modulators of insulin secretion, for at least 2 weeks. As few as 1 X 10(3) islet cells/well gave results that were reproducible within +/- 10%. It is suggested that the microculture system for islet cells might prove to be a rapid and reproducible screening technique for studying drugs, viruses, or other agents that affect beta-cell function.

  17. Diacylglycerol kinases in T cell tolerance and effector function

    Shelley S Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules such as RasGRP1, PKC, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms,  and , in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation.

  18. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Kosan, Christian; Godmann, Maren

    2016-01-01

    All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function. PMID:26798358

  19. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  20. Potential of bursa-immigrated hematopoietic precursor cells to differentiate to functional B and T cells

    Weber, W.T.; Alexander, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of hematopoietic precursor cells, recently immigrated into the 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursa, to migrate to the thymus and to differentiate to functional T cells was investigated. Chromosomally marked cell populations obtained from 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursas were transferred i.v. to 780 R γ-irradiated chick embryos of equivalent age. When appropriate chimeras were examined at 4 to 12 weeks after cell transfer, donor cells were found to proliferate primarily in the bursa. Significant donor cell influx into the thymus was not detected. In correlation with these findings, Con A- and PHA-responsive T cells in thymus and spleen cell cultures of recipients remained of host origin whereas the number of anti-CIg responsive B cells of donor type increased gradually in the spleens of recipients. An initial lag period preceded the accumulation of functional donor B cells in the spleens of recipients, despite the predominant presence of dividing donor cells in the bursa. This suggests that the transferred bursal cell population required substantially longer to mature and emigrate from the bursa as functional B cells than the host cell population remaining in the irradiated bursas at time of cell transfer. The failure to detect significant influx of donor cells into the thymus and their failure to differentiate to functional T cells suggest that the recently bursa-immigrated hematopoietic stem cells of 13- and 14-day-old embryos may not be pluripotential cells, but rather cells already committed to the B cell line of differentiation

  1. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    Mossink, MH; Groot, de J.; Zon, van A; Franzel-Luiten, E; Schoester, M.; Scheffer, G.L.; Sonneveld, P.; Scheper, R.J.; Wiemer, EA

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human

  2. Ascorbate regulates haematopoietic stem cell function and leukaemogenesis.

    Agathocleous, Michalis; Meacham, Corbin E; Burgess, Rebecca J; Piskounova, Elena; Zhao, Zhiyu; Crane, Genevieve M; Cowin, Brianna L; Bruner, Emily; Murphy, Malea M; Chen, Weina; Spangrude, Gerald J; Hu, Zeping; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Morrison, Sean J

    2017-09-28

    Stem-cell fate can be influenced by metabolite levels in culture, but it is not known whether physiological variations in metabolite levels in normal tissues regulate stem-cell function in vivo. Here we describe a metabolomics method for the analysis of rare cell populations isolated directly from tissues and use it to compare mouse haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to restricted haematopoietic progenitors. Each haematopoietic cell type had a distinct metabolic signature. Human and mouse HSCs had unusually high levels of ascorbate, which decreased with differentiation. Systemic ascorbate depletion in mice increased HSC frequency and function, in part by reducing the function of Tet2, a dioxygenase tumour suppressor. Ascorbate depletion cooperated with Flt3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3 ITD ) leukaemic mutations to accelerate leukaemogenesis, through cell-autonomous and possibly non-cell-autonomous mechanisms, in a manner that was reversed by dietary ascorbate. Ascorbate acted cell-autonomously to negatively regulate HSC function and myelopoiesis through Tet2-dependent and Tet2-independent mechanisms. Ascorbate therefore accumulates within HSCs to promote Tet activity in vivo, limiting HSC frequency and suppressing leukaemogenesis.

  3. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...... originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  4. High Glucose Aggravates the Detrimental Effects of Pancreatic Stellate Cells on Beta-Cell Function

    Min Zha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. We here assess the effects of PSCs on β-cell function and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods. PSCs were transplanted into Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats. Sixteen weeks after transplantation, β-cell function, apoptosis, and islet fibrosis were assessed. In vitro the effects of PSCs conditioned medium (PSCs-CM and/or high concentration of glucose on INS-1 cell function was assessed by measuring insulin secretion, INS-1 cell survival, apoptosis, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress associated CHOP expression. Results. PSCs transplantation exacerbated the impaired β-cell function in GK rats, but had no significant effects in Wistar rats. In vitro, PSCs-CM caused impaired INS-1 cell viability and insulin secretion and increased apoptosis, which were more pronounced in the presence of high glucose. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that PSCs induce β-cell failure in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  7. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  8. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics.

    Vanapalli, Siva A; Duits, Michel H G; Mugele, Frieder

    2009-01-05

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature's most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax-thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to remodeling of the cytoskeleton. To understand this intricate coupling between mechanical properties, mechanical function and force-induced biochemical signaling requires tools that are capable of both controlling and manipulating the cell microenvironment and measuring the resulting mechanical response. In this review, the power of microfluidics as a functional tool for research in cell mechanics is highlighted. In particular, current literature is discussed to show that microfluidics powered by soft lithographic techniques offers the following capabilities that are of significance for understanding the mechanical behavior of cells: (i) Microfluidics enables the creation of in vitro models of physiological environments in which cell mechanics can be probed. (ii) Microfluidics is an excellent means to deliver physical cues that affect cell mechanics, such as cell shape, fluid flow, substrate topography, and stiffness. (iii) Microfluidics can also expose cells to chemical cues, such as growth factors and drugs, which alter their mechanical behavior. Moreover, these chemical cues can be delivered either at the whole cell or subcellular level. (iv) Microfluidic devices offer the possibility of measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of cells in a high throughput fashion. (v) Finally, microfluidic methods provide exquisite control over drop size, generation, and manipulation. As a result, droplets are being increasingly used to control the physicochemical environment of cells and as biomimetic analogs of living cells. These powerful attributes of microfluidics should further stimulate novel means of investigating the link between physicochemical cues and the biomechanical

  9. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  10. Functional heterogeneity and heritability in CHO cell populations.

    Davies, Sarah L; Lovelady, Clare S; Grainger, Rhian K; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; James, David C

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we address the hypothesis that it is possible to exploit genetic/functional variation in parental Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell populations to isolate clonal derivatives that exhibit superior, heritable attributes for biomanufacturing--new parental cell lines which are inherently more "fit for purpose." One-hundred and ninety-nine CHOK1SV clones were isolated from a donor CHOK1SV parental population by limiting dilution cloning and microplate image analysis, followed by primary analysis of variation in cell-specific proliferation rate during extended deep-well microplate suspension culture of individual clones to accelerate genetic drift in isolated cultures. A subset of 100 clones were comparatively evaluated for transient production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (Mab) and green fluorescent protein following transfection of a plasmid vector encoding both genes. The heritability of both cell-specific proliferation rate and Mab production was further assessed using a subset of 23 clones varying in functional capability that were subjected to cell culture regimes involving both cryopreservation and extended sub-culture. These data showed that whilst differences in transient Mab production capability were not heritable per se, clones exhibiting heritable variation in specific proliferation rate, endocytotic transfectability and N-glycan processing were identified. Finally, for clonal populations most "evolved" by extended sub-culture in vitro we investigated the relationship between cellular protein biomass content, specific proliferation rate and cell surface N-glycosylation. Rapid-specific proliferation rate was inversely correlated to CHO cell size and protein content, and positively correlated to cell surface glycan content, although substantial clone-specific variation in ability to accumulate cell biomass was evident. Taken together, our data reveal the dynamic nature of the CHO cell functional genome and the potential to evolve and

  11. Widespread immunological functions of mast cells: fact or fiction?

    Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Feyerabend, Thorsten B

    2012-07-27

    Immunological functions of mast cells are currently considered to be much broader than the original role of mast cells in IgE-driven allergic disease. The spectrum of proposed mast cell functions includes areas as diverse as the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, protective immunity against viral, microbial, and parasitic pathogens, autoimmunity, tolerance to graft rejection, promotion of or protection from cancer, wound healing, angiogenesis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and others. The vast majority of in vivo mast cell data have been based on mast cell-deficient Kit mutant mice. However, work in new mouse mutants with unperturbed Kit function, which have a surprisingly normal immune system, has failed to corroborate some key immunological aspects, formerly attributed to mast cells. Here, we consider the implications of these recent developments for the state of the field as well as for future work, aiming at deciphering the physiological functions of mast cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Curcumin Modulates Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Derived Exosomal Function

    Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Lynch, James C.; Leaf, Patrick; Gonda, Amber; Ferguson Bennit, Heather R.; Griffiths, Duncan; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rates of all cancer types. One potential explanation for the aggressiveness of this disease is that cancer cells have been found to communicate with one another using membrane-bound vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes carry pro-survival molecules and increase the proliferation, survival, and metastatic potential of recipient cells, suggesting that tumor-derived exosomes are powerful drivers of tumor progression. Thus, to successfully address and eradicate pancreatic cancer, it is imperative to develop therapeutic strategies that neutralize cancer cells and exosomes simultaneously. Curcumin, a turmeric root derivative, has been shown to have potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that exosomal curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on recipient cells. However, curcumin’s effects on exosomal pro-tumor function have yet to be determined. We hypothesize that curcumin will alter the pro-survival role of exosomes from pancreatic cancer cells toward a pro-death role, resulting in reduced cell viability of recipient pancreatic cancer cells. The main objective of this study was to determine the functional alterations of exosomes released by pancreatic cancer cells exposed to curcumin compared to exosomes from untreated pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate, using an in vitro cell culture model involving pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, that curcumin is incorporated into exosomes isolated from curcumin-treated pancreatic cancer cells as observed by spectral studies and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, curcumin is delivered to recipient pancreatic cancer cells via exosomes, promoting cytotoxicity as demonstrated by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy as well as AlamarBlue and Trypan blue exclusion assays. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells through

  13. Radiosensitivity of the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)

    Willis, D.L.; Lappenbusch, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Newts were collected locally and maintained unfed at 10 0 C both before and after irradiation. Whole-body exposures ranging up to 80 kR were given with 250 kVp x-rays, 300 kVp x-rays and 60 Co gamma-rays. The mean survival time-exposure curve was sigmoid, following the typical appearance of such curves for mammalian species. A dose-independent region extending from roughly 700 R to 5000 R was evident. A variety of skin lesions and depigmentation effects were noted at exposures above 250 R, whose time of appearance decreased with increasing dose. A total of 832 newts were used in this phase of the study. Assuming that hematopoietic damage was primarily responsible for deaths below 700 to 800 R, additional studies of hematopoiesis were initiated. The effect of a 650 R-exposure on liver weight, spleen weight and concentration of circulating red blood cells for 1 1 / 2 months postirradiation was assessed. The results indicate a progressive state of anemia. This was further substantiated by a study of 59 Fe incorporation by red blood cells at intervals up to 1 month for five exposures ranging up to 1000 R

  14. Function of bunching segment in multi-cell RF gun

    Yang Xingfan; Xu Zhou Liu Xisan

    2001-01-01

    With a bunching segment and a shortened first cell, the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun produced in CAEP has been proved experimentally to be effective in reducing electron back bombardment. The analysis of the electric field distribution and electron motion in bunching segment of multi-cell RF gun is presented. The electron capture efficiency and electron trajectory with different initial phase are calculated using Runge-Kutta method. The function of the bunching segment is discussed. The calculated parameters of the 4 + 1/2 cell RF gun agree well with the experimental results

  15. Heterogeneity of functional properties of Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells expressing various stem cell phenotypes.

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Farrell, Tracy; Sharma, Gayatri; McGuire, Timothy R; O'Kane, Barbara; Sharp, J Graham

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer grows, metastasizes and relapses from rare, therapy resistant cells with a stem cell phenotype (cancer stem cells/CSCs). However, there is a lack of studies comparing the functions of CSCs isolated using different phenotypes in order to determine if CSCs are homogeneous or heterogeneous. Cells with various stem cell phenotypes were isolated by sorting from Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that grow orthotopically in immune intact syngeneic mice. These populations were compared by in vitro functional assays for proliferation, growth, sphere and colony formation; and in vivo limiting dilution analysis of tumorigenesis. The proportion of cells expressing CD44(high)CD24(low/neg), side population (SP) cells, ALDH1(+), CD49f(high), CD133(high), and CD34(high) differed, suggesting heterogeneity. Differences in frequency and size of tumor spheres from these populations were observed. Higher rates of proliferation of non-SP, ALDH1(+), CD34(low), and CD49f(high) suggested properties of transit amplifying cells. Colony formation was higher from ALDH1(-) and non-SP cells than ALDH1(+) and SP cells suggesting a progenitor phenotype. The frequency of clonal colonies that grew in agar varied and was differentially altered by the presence of Matrigel™. In vivo, fewer cells with a stem cell phenotype were needed for tumor formation than "non-stem" cells. Fewer SP cells were needed to form tumors than ALDH1(+) cells suggesting further heterogeneities of cells with stem phenotypes. Different levels of cytokines/chemokines were produced by Clone 66 with RANTES being the highest. Whether the heterogeneity reflects soluble factor production remains to be determined. These data demonstrate that Clone 66 murine breast cancer cells that express stem cell phenotypes are heterogeneous and exhibit different functional properties, and this may also be the case for human breast cancer stem cells.

  16. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function......). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially...... and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents...

  17. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of cells of innate immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils

    Galli, Stephen J; Borregaard, Niels; Wynn, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    ). Here we focus on the occurrence of phenotypically distinct subpopulations in three lineages of myeloid cells with important roles in innate and acquired immunity: macrophages, mast cells and neutrophils. Cytokine signals, epigenetic modifications and other microenvironmental factors can substantially......Hematopoietic cells, including lymphoid and myeloid cells, can develop into phenotypically distinct 'subpopulations' with different functions. However, evidence indicates that some of these subpopulations can manifest substantial plasticity (that is, undergo changes in their phenotype and function...... and, in some cases, rapidly and reversibly alter the phenotype of these cells and influence their function. This suggests that regulation of the phenotype and function of differentiated hematopoietic cells by microenvironmental factors, including those generated during immune responses, represents...

  18. Cell-Intrinsic Roles for Autophagy in Modulating CD4 T Cell Functions

    Elise Jacquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy plays important functions in inflammatory and immune responses by modulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade, a cell-intrinsic role for autophagy in modulating CD4 T cell functions and differentiation was revealed. After the initial observation of autophagosomes in effector CD4 T cells, further work has shown that not only autophagy levels are modulated in CD4 T cells in response to environmental signals but also that autophagy critically affects the biology of these cells. Mouse models of autophagy deletion in CD4 T cells have indeed shown that autophagy is essential for CD4 T cell survival and homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Furthermore, autophagy is required for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to T cell receptor activation. Recent developments have uncovered that autophagy controls CD4 T cell differentiation and functions. While autophagy is required for the maintenance of immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T cells, it restrains the differentiation of TH9 effector cells, thus limiting their antitumor and pro-inflammatory properties. We will here discuss these findings that collectively suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy could be exploited for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  19. [Cell-derived microparticles unveil their fibrinolytic and proteolytic function].

    Doeuvre, Loïc; Angles-Cano, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (MP) are membrane microvesicles, 0.1-1 microm in size, shed by cells following activation or during apoptosis in a variety of pathological conditions. MPs released by blood cells or by vascular endothelial cells display molecular signatures that allow their identification and functional characterization. In addition, they provide tissue factor (TF) and a procoagulant phospholipid surface. Therefore, at present, the most strongly established applied research on MPs is their procoagulant activity as a determinant of thrombotic risk in various clinical conditions. Previous studies have indicated that MPs derived from malignant cells express matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase and its receptor (uPA/uPAR) that, in the presence of plasminogen, may act in concert to degrade extracellular matrix proteins. Recently, it was shown that MPs from TNFa-stimulated endothelial cells served as a surface for interaction with plasminogen and its conversion into plasmin by the uPA/uPAR system expressed at their surface. This capacity of MPs to promote plasmin generation confers them a new profibrinolytic and proteolytic function that may be of relevance in fibrinolysis, cell migration, angiogenesis, dissemination of malignant cells, cell detachment and apoptosis.

  20. Ras proteins have multiple functions in vegetative cells of Dictyostelium.

    Bolourani, Parvin; Spiegelman, George; Weeks, Gerald

    2010-11-01

    During the aggregation of Dictyostelium cells, signaling through RasG is more important in regulating cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemotaxis, whereas signaling through RasC is more important in regulating the cAMP relay. However, RasC is capable of substituting for RasG for chemotaxis, since rasG⁻ cells are only partially deficient in chemotaxis, whereas rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells are totally incapable of chemotaxis. In this study we have examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasC in vegetative cells by comparing the vegetative cell properties of rasG⁻, rasC⁻, and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells. In addition, since RasD, a protein not normally found in vegetative cells, is expressed in vegetative rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells and appears to partially compensate for the absence of RasG, we have also examined the possible functional overlap between RasG and RasD by comparing the properties of rasG⁻ and rasC⁻/rasG⁻ cells with those of the mutant cells expressing higher levels of RasD. The results of these two lines of investigation show that RasD is capable of totally substituting for RasG for cytokinesis and growth in suspension, whereas RasC is without effect. In contrast, for chemotaxis to folate, RasC is capable of partially substituting for RasG, but RasD is totally without effect. Finally, neither RasC nor RasD is able to substitute for the role that RasG plays in regulating actin distribution and random motility. These specificity studies therefore delineate three distinct and none-overlapping functions for RasG in vegetative cells.

  1. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    Corne Jonathan M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3- cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects was significantly lower (0.6% than in healthy smokers (smokers (2.8%, p +CD3- cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p +CD3+ cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p +CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective.

  2. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells

    Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of [ 125 I]LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics

  5. Functional cell mediated lympholysis I. Description of the assay

    Goeken, N.E.; Thompson, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    The anamnestic response by human bi-directional (BD) mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC) to restimulation by cells of the original stimulating type is generally strikingly reduced as compared to that of standard one-way cultures. This difference was shown not to be related to a change in kinetics nor was it due to exhaustion of the media or soluble factors since fresh media did not ameliorate the effect nor were supernatants from BD cultures found to be suppressive. The relative inhibition was also not reversed by removal of the allogeneic cells by phenotype specific antiserum. Cytotoxic tests with donor and responder specific antisera revealed that the cells bearing that phenotype were dramatically reduced in BD as compared to one-way cultures. Thus, the diminished secondary response appears to be due to cytotoxic elimination of the responder cells. This allogeneic cytotoxicity is dependent on non-T, phagocytic, adherent cells. The phenomenon is called Functional Cell Mediated Lympholysis (F-CML). (author)

  6. Overexpression of neurofilament H disrupts normal cell structure and function

    Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Smith, George M.; Li, Ping; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Studying exogenously expressed tagged proteins in live cells has become a standard technique for evaluating protein distribution and function. Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. However, overexpression of many proteins leads to mislocalization and pathologies. Therefore, for normative studies, moderate levels of expression may be more suitable. To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell, we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. This system allows for turning on or off the synthesis of NFH-GFP at a selected time, for a defined period, in a dose-dependent manner. We used this inducible system for live cell imaging of changes in filament structure and cell shape, motility, and transport associated with increasing NFH-GFP expression. Cells with low to intermediate levels of NFH-GFP were structurally and functionally similar to neighboring, nonexpressing cells. In contrast, overexpression led to pathological alterations in both filament organization and cell function. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Novel immunomodulatory effects of adiponectin on dendritic cell functions.

    Tsang, Julia Yuen Shan; Li, Daxu; Ho, Derek; Peng, Jiao; Xu, Aimin; Lamb, Jonathan; Chen, Yan; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang

    2011-05-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory properties. Although it has been reported that ADN can inhibit the immunostimulatory function of monocytes and macrophages, little is known of its effect on dendritic cells (DC). Recent data suggest that ADN can regulate immune responses. DCs are uniquely specialised antigen presenting cells that play a central role in the initiation of immunity and tolerance. In this study, we have investigated the immuno- modulatory effects of ADN on DC functions. We found that ADN has only moderate effect on the differentiation of murine bone marrow (BM) derived DCs but altered the phenotype of DCs. The expression of major histocompatibilty complex class II (MHCII), CD80 and CD86 on ADN conditioned DCs (ADN-DCs) was lower than that on untreated cells. The production of IL-12p40 was also suppressed in ADN-DCs. Interestingly, ADN treated DCs showed an increase in the expression of the inhibitory molecule, programmed death-1 ligand (PDL-1) compared to untreated cells. In vitro co-culture of ADN-DCs with allogeneic T cells led to a decrease in T cell proliferation and reduction of IL-2 production. Concomitant with that, a higher percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was detected in co-cultures of T cells and ADN-DCs. Blocking PD-1/PDL-1 pathway could partially restore T cell function. These findings suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of ADN on immune responses could be at least partially be mediated by its ability to alter DC function. The PD-1/PDL-1 pathway and the enhancement of Treg expansion are implicated in the immunomodulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Abnormal red cell structure and function in neuroacanthocytosis.

    Judith C A Cluitmans

    Full Text Available Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN belongs to a group of hereditary neurodegenerative disorders known as neuroacanthocytosis (NA. This genetically heterogeneous group of diseases is characterized by degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia and by the presence of deformed red blood cells with thorny protrusions, acanthocytes, in the circulation.The goal of our study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this aberrant red cell morphology and the corresponding functional consequences. This could shed light on the etiology of the neurodegeneration.We performed a qualitative and semi-quantitative morphological, immunofluorescent, biochemical and functional analysis of the red cells of several patients with PKAN and, for the first time, of the red cells of their family members.We show that the blood of patients with PKAN contains not only variable numbers of acanthocytes, but also a wide range of other misshapen red cells. Immunofluorescent and immunoblot analyses suggest an altered membrane organization, rather than quantitative changes in protein expression. Strikingly, these changes are not limited to the red blood cells of PKAN patients, but are also present in the red cells of heterozygous carriers without neurological problems. Furthermore, changes are not only present in acanthocytes, but also in other red cells, including discocytes. The patients' cells, however, are more fragile, as observed in a spleen-mimicking device.These morphological, molecular and functional characteristics of red cells in patients with PKAN and their family members offer new tools for diagnosis and present a window into the pathophysiology of neuroacanthocytosis.

  9. Biogenesis and function of T cell-derived exosomes

    Miguel Angel Alonso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are a particular type of extracellular vesicle, characterized by their endosomal origin as intraluminal vesicles present in large endosomes with a multivesicular structure. After these endosomes fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are secreted into the extracellular space. The ability of exosomes to carry and selectively deliver bioactive molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins and nucleic acids confers on them the capacity to modulate the activity of receptor cells, even if these cells are located in distant tissues or organs. Since exosomal cargo depends on cell type, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the biochemical composition of exosomes is fundamental to a comprehensive view of exosome function. Here, we review the latest advances concerning exosome function and biogenesis in T cells, with particular focus on the mechanism of protein sorting at multivesicular endosomes. Exosomes secreted by specific T-cell subsets can modulate the activity of immune cells, including other T-cell subsets. Ceramide, tetraspanins and MAL have been revealed to be important in exosome biogenesis by T cells. These molecules, therefore, constitute potential molecular targets for artificially modulating exosome production and, hence, the immune response for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Function and Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Feifei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complicated disorder and largely attributable to dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. Despite therapeutic advances over past decades, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Due to their capability of immunomodulation and tissue regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have evolved as an attractive therapeutic agent in various diseases including atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidences support the protective role of MSCs in all stages of atherosclerosis. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of MSCs including their characteristics such as molecular markers, tissue distribution, migratory property, immune-modulatory competence, etc. We also summarize MSC functions in animal models of atherosclerosis. MSC transplantation is able to modulate cytokine and chemokine secretion, reduce endothelial dysfunction, promote regulatory T cell function, decrease dyslipidemia, and stabilize vulnerable plaques during atherosclerosis development. In addition, MSCs may migrate to lesions where they develop into functional cells during atherosclerosis formation. Finally, the perspectives of MSCs in clinical atherosclerosis therapy are discussed.

  11. Activated NKT cells imprint NK-cell differentiation, functionality and education.

    Riese, Peggy; Trittel, Stephanie; May, Tobias; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Chambers, Benedict J; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    NK cells represent a vital component of the innate immune system. The recent discoveries demonstrating that the functionality of NK cells depends on their differentiation and education status underscore their potential as targets for immune intervention. However, to exploit their full potential, a detailed understanding of the cellular interactions involved in these processes is required. In this regard, the cross-talk between NKT cells and NK cells needs to be better understood. Our results provide strong evidence for NKT cell-induced effects on key biological features of NK cells. NKT-cell activation results in the generation of highly active CD27(high) NK cells with improved functionality. In this context, degranulation activity and IFNγ production were mainly detected in the educated subset. In a mCMV infection model, we also demonstrated that NKT-cell stimulation induced the generation of highly functional educated and uneducated NK cells, crucial players in viral control. Thus, our findings reveal new fundamental aspects of the NKT-NK cell axis that provide important hints for the manipulation of NK cells in clinical settings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. XIAP reverses various functional activities of FRNK in endothelial cells

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Chi, Sung-Gil; Park, Heonyong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FRNK domain is recruited into focal adhesion (FA), controlling endothelial cell adhesion. ► XIAP binds the FRNK domain of FAK. ► XIAP inhibits recruitment of FRNK into Fas and FRNK-promoted cell adhesion. ► XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) regulates cell proliferation, migration, adhesion, and shear-stimulated activation of MAPK. We recently found that FAK is recruited into focal adhesion (FA) sites through interactions with XIAP (X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) and activated by Src kinase in response to shear stress. In this study, we examined which domain(s) of FAK is(are) important for various vascular functions such as FA recruiting, XIAP-binding and shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. Through a series of experiments, we determined that the FRNK domain is recruited into FA sites and promotes endothelial cell adhesion. Interestingly, XIAP knockdown was shown to reduce FA recruitment of FRNK and the cell adhesive effect of FRNK. In addition, we found that XIAP interacts with FRNK, suggesting cross-talk between XIAP and FRNK. We also demonstrated that FRNK inhibits endothelial cell migration and shear-stimulated ERK activation. These inhibitory effects of FRNK were reversed by XIAP knockdown. Taken together, we can conclude that XIAP plays a key role in vascular functions of FRNK or FRNK domain-mediated vascular functions of FAK.

  13. Effect of intraovarian factors on porcine follicular cells: cumulus expansion, granulosa and cumulus cell progesterone production

    Ježová, M.; Scsuková, S.; Nagyová, Eva; Vranová, J.; Procházka, Radek; Kolena, J.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2001), s. 115-126 ISSN 0378-4320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/98/0231; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : pig-ovary * cumulus expansion * luteinization stimulator Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2001

  14. Alternative mitochondrial functions in cell physiopathology: beyond ATP production

    Kowaltowski A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mitochondria are the main site for ATP generation within most tissues. However, mitochondria also participate in a surprising number of alternative activities, including intracellular Ca2+ regulation, thermogenesis and the control of apoptosis. In addition, mitochondria are the main cellular generators of reactive oxygen species, and may trigger necrotic cell death under conditions of oxidative stress. This review concentrates on these alternative mitochondrial functions, and their role in cell physiopathology.

  15. Studies on catecholamine function in human fat cells

    Hellström, Lena

    1996-01-01

    Catecholamine function in human fat cells Lena Hellström, Centre for Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, S-141 86 Huddinge, Sweden Human adipose tissue is a heterogeneous organ as regards metabolism. The effects of catecholamines, the main lipolytic hormones in man vary considerably in different regions. Fat cell lipolysis also changes in a number of physiological and pathophysiological states...

  16. Stem Cell Antigen-1 in Skeletal Muscle Function

    Bernstein, Harold S.; Samad, Tahmina; Cholsiripunlert, Sompob; Khalifian, Saami; Gong, Wenhui; Ritner, Carissa; Aurigui, Julian; Ling, Vivian; Wilschut, Karlijn J.; Bennett, Stephen; Hoffman, Julien; Oishi, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the Ly-6 multigene family encoding highly homologous, glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Sca-1 is expressed on muscle-derived stem cells and myogenic precursors recruited to sites of muscle injury. We previously reported that inhibition of Sca-1 expression stimulated myoblast proliferation in vitro and regulated the tempo of muscle repair in vivo. Despite its function in myoblast expansion during muscle repair, a role for Sca-1...

  17. Invariant NKT cells: regulation and function during viral infection.

    Jennifer A Juno

    Full Text Available Natural killer T cells (NKT cells represent a subset of T lymphocytes that express natural killer (NK cell surface markers. A subset of NKT cells, termed invariant NKT cells (iNKT, express a highly restricted T cell receptor (TCR and respond to CD1d-restricted lipid ligands. iNKT cells are now appreciated to play an important role in linking innate and adaptive immune responses and have been implicated in infectious disease, allergy, asthma, autoimmunity, and tumor surveillance. Advances in iNKT identification and purification have allowed for the detailed study of iNKT activity in both humans and mice during a variety of chronic and acute infections. Comparison of iNKT function between non-pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection models and chronic HIV-infected patients implies a role for iNKT activity in controlling immune activation. In vitro studies of influenza infection have revealed novel effector functions of iNKT cells including IL-22 production and modulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, but ex vivo characterization of human iNKT cells during influenza infection are lacking. Similarly, as recent evidence suggests iNKT involvement in dengue virus pathogenesis, iNKT cells may modulate responses to a number of emerging pathogens. This Review will summarize current knowledge of iNKT involvement in responses to viral infections in both human and mouse models and will identify critical gaps in knowledge and opportunities for future study. We will also highlight recent efforts to harness iNKT ligands as vaccine adjuvants capable of improving vaccination-induced cellular immune responses.

  18. MicroRNAs control transcription factor NF-kB (p65) expression in human ovarian cells.

    Sirotkin, Alexander V; Alexa, Richard; Kišová, Gabriela; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Ovcharenko, Dmitriy; Mlynček, Miloš

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to influence ovarian cell proliferation, apoptosis and hormone release, but it remains unknown whether miRNAs affect ovarian functions via transcription factors. We examined the effect of miRNAs on nuclear factor-κappaB (NF-kB) (p65) expression in human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells. We transfected cultured primary human ovarian luteinized granulosa cells with 80 different constructs encoding human pre-miRNAs and then evaluated NF-kB (p65) expression (percentage of cells containing p65) by immunocytochemistry. We found that 21 of the constructs stimulated NF-kB (p65) expression and 18 of the constructs inhibited NF-kB (p65) expression. This is the first direct demonstration that miRNAs affect NF-kB (p65) expression and the first genome-scale miRNA screen to identify upregulation and downregulation of NF-kB accumulation by miRNAs in the ovary. Novel miRNAs that affect the NF-kB signalling pathway could be useful for the control of NF-kB-dependent reproductive processes and the treatment of NF-kB-dependent reproductive disorders.

  19. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  20. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Isabel Perea-Martinez

    Full Text Available Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  1. Functional cell types in taste buds have distinct longevities.

    Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Nagai, Takatoshi; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2013-01-01

    Taste buds are clusters of polarized sensory cells embedded in stratified oral epithelium. In adult mammals, taste buds turn over continuously and are replenished through the birth of new cells in the basal layer of the surrounding non-sensory epithelium. The half-life of cells in mammalian taste buds has been estimated as 8-12 days on average. Yet, earlier studies did not address whether the now well-defined functional taste bud cell types all exhibit the same lifetime. We employed a recently developed thymidine analog, 5-ethynil-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to re-evaluate the incorporation of newly born cells into circumvallate taste buds of adult mice. By combining EdU-labeling with immunostaining for selected markers, we tracked the differentiation and lifespan of the constituent cell types of taste buds. EdU was primarily incorporated into basal extragemmal cells, the principal source for replenishing taste bud cells. Undifferentiated EdU-labeled cells began migrating into circumvallate taste buds within 1 day of their birth. Type II (Receptor) taste cells began to differentiate from EdU-labeled precursors beginning 2 days after birth and then were eliminated with a half-life of 8 days. Type III (Presynaptic) taste cells began differentiating after a delay of 3 days after EdU-labeling, and they survived much longer, with a half-life of 22 days. We also scored taste bud cells that belong to neither Type II nor Type III, a heterogeneous group that includes mostly Type I cells, and also undifferentiated or immature cells. A non-linear decay fit described these cells as two sub-populations with half-lives of 8 and 24 days respectively. Our data suggest that many post-mitotic cells may remain quiescent within taste buds before differentiating into mature taste cells. A small number of slow-cycling cells may also exist within the perimeter of the taste bud. Based on their incidence, we hypothesize that these may be progenitors for Type III cells.

  2. Defective immunoregulatory T-cell function in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Han, T.; Ozer, H.; Henderson, E.S.; Dadey, B.; Nussbaum-Blumenson, A.; Barcos, M.

    1981-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) of B-cell origin results in the malignant proliferation of small immunoglobulin-bearing lymphocytes. There is currently a controversy in the literature regarding both the ability of this leukemic population to differentiate into mature plasma cells, as well as the ability of apparently normal T cells from these patients to regulate allogeneic B-cell differentiation. In the present study we have examined the lymphocytes of CLL patients in various clinical stages of their disease and with different surface phenotypes of their leukemic B-cell population. Our results show that leukemic CLL B cells from all 20 patients (including one patient with a monoclonal IgM paraprotein and another with a monoclonal IgG paraprotein) are incapable of further differentiation even in the absence of suppressor T cells and the presence of helper T lymphocytes. This lack of capacity to differentiate is unaffected by clinical stage, by therapy, or by the phenotype of the malignant population. Since the leukemic B population did not suppress normal allogeneic B-cell differentiation, the maturation deficit is evidently intrinsic to the leukemic clone rather than a result of activity of non-T suppressor cells. T helper function was also variably depressed in the blood of some patients with CLL, and this depression did not correlate with clinical stage, with therapy, or with the degree of lymphocytosis. Dysfunction of radiosensitive T suppressor cells was found to be the most consistent regulatory deficit of CLL T cells. Each of 11 patients whose leukemic cell population was of the μdelta, μα, or μ phenotype had both helper and suppressor cell defects

  3. Angiocrine functions of organ-specific endothelial cells

    Rafii, Shahin; Butler, Jason M; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Preface Endothelial cells lining blood vessel capillaries are not just passive conduits for delivering blood. Tissue-specific endothelium establish specialized vascular niches that deploy specific sets of growth factors, known as angiocrine factors, which actively participate in inducing, specifying, patterning, and guiding organ regeneration and maintaining homeostasis and metabolism. Angiocrine factors upregulated in response to injury orchestrates self-renewal and differentiation of tissue-specific repopulating resident stem and progenitor cells into functional organs. Uncovering the precise mechanisms whereby physiological-levels of angiocrine factors are spatially and temporally produced, and distributed by organotypic endothelium to repopulating cells, will lay the foundation for driving organ repair without scarring. PMID:26791722

  4. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  6. Oct4 targets regulatory nodes to modulate stem cell function.

    Pearl A Campbell

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by two defining features, the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into highly specialized cell types. The POU homeodomain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1 is an essential mediator of the embryonic stem cell state and has been implicated in lineage specific differentiation, adult stem cell identity, and cancer. Recent description of the regulatory networks which maintain 'ES' have highlighted a dual role for Oct4 in the transcriptional activation of genes required to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency while concomitantly repressing genes which facilitate lineage specific differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism by which Oct4 mediates differential activation or repression at these loci to either maintain stem cell identity or facilitate the emergence of alternate transcriptional programs required for the realization of lineage remains to be elucidated. To further investigate Oct4 function, we employed gene expression profiling together with a robust statistical analysis to identify genes highly correlated to Oct4. Gene Ontology analysis to categorize overrepresented genes has led to the identification of themes which may prove essential to stem cell identity, including chromatin structure, nuclear architecture, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Our experiments have identified previously unappreciated roles for Oct4 for firstly, regulating chromatin structure in a state consistent with self-renewal and pluripotency, and secondly, facilitating the expression of genes that keeps the cell poised to respond to cues that lead to differentiation. Together, these data define the mechanism by which Oct4 orchestrates cellular regulatory pathways to enforce the stem cell state and provides important insight into stem cell function and cancer.

  7. Usher protein functions in hair cells and photoreceptors.

    Cosgrove, Dominic; Zallocchi, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The 10 different genes associated with the deaf/blind disorder, Usher syndrome, encode a number of structurally and functionally distinct proteins, most expressed as multiple isoforms/protein variants. Functional characterization of these proteins suggests a role in stereocilia development in cochlear hair cells, likely owing to adhesive interactions in hair bundles. In mature hair cells, homodimers of the Usher cadherins, cadherin 23 and protocadherin 15, interact to form a structural fiber, the tip link, and the linkages that anchor the taller stereocilia's actin cytoskeleton core to the shorter adjacent stereocilia and the elusive mechanotransduction channels, explaining the deafness phenotype when these molecular interactions are perturbed. The conundrum is that photoreceptors lack a synonymous mechanotransduction apparatus, and so a common theory for Usher protein function in the two neurosensory cell types affected in Usher syndrome is lacking. Recent evidence linking photoreceptor cell dysfunction in the shaker 1 mouse model for Usher syndrome to light-induced protein translocation defects, combined with localization of an Usher protein interactome at the periciliary region of the photoreceptors suggests Usher proteins might regulate protein trafficking between the inner and outer segments of photoreceptors. A distinct Usher protein complex is trafficked to the ribbon synapses of hair cells, and synaptic defects have been reported in Usher mutants in both hair cells and photoreceptors. This review aims to clarify what is known about Usher protein function at the synaptic and apical poles of hair cells and photoreceptors and the prospects for identifying a unifying pathobiological mechanism to explain deaf/blindness in Usher syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking stem cell function and growth pattern of intestinal organoids.

    Thalheim, Torsten; Quaas, Marianne; Herberg, Maria; Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kerner, Christiane; Loeffler, Markus; Aust, Gabriela; Galle, Joerg

    2018-01-15

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) require well-defined signals from their environment in order to carry out their specific functions. Most of these signals are provided by neighboring cells that form a stem cell niche, whose shape and cellular composition self-organize. Major features of this self-organization can be studied in ISC-derived organoid culture. In this system, manipulation of essential pathways of stem cell maintenance and differentiation results in well-described growth phenotypes. We here provide an individual cell-based model of intestinal organoids that enables a mechanistic explanation of the observed growth phenotypes. In simulation studies of the 3D structure of expanding organoids, we investigate interdependences between Wnt- and Notch-signaling which control the shape of the stem cell niche and, thus, the growth pattern of the organoids. Similar to in vitro experiments, changes of pathway activities alter the cellular composition of the organoids and, thereby, affect their shape. Exogenous Wnt enforces transitions from branched into a cyst-like growth pattern; known to occur spontaneously during long term organoid expansion. Based on our simulation results, we predict that the cyst-like pattern is associated with biomechanical changes of the cells which assign them a growth advantage. The results suggest ongoing stem cell adaptation to in vitro conditions during long term expansion by stabilizing Wnt-activity. Our study exemplifies the potential of individual cell-based modeling in unraveling links between molecular stem cell regulation and 3D growth of tissues. This kind of modeling combines experimental results in the fields of stem cell biology and cell biomechanics constituting a prerequisite for a better understanding of tissue regeneration as well as developmental processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Co-administration of amygdalin and deoxynivalenol disrupted regulatory proteins linked to proliferation of porcine ovarian cells in vitro

    Marek Halenár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON represents one of the most prevalent trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, causing economic and health impacts. On the other hand, amygdalin has been demonstrated to possess both prophylactic and curative properties, thus it has been used as a traditional drug because of its wide range of medicinal benefits, including curing or preventing cancer, relieving fever, suppressing cough, and quenching thirst. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate potential effects of natural product amygdalin combined with mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON on the key regulators of cell proliferation and apoptosis in porcine ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells were incubated for 24h with amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg.mL-1 combined with deoxynivalenol (1 μg.mL-1, while the control group remained untreated. The presence of proliferative (cyclin B1, PCNA and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells after amygdalin treatment (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg.mL-1 combined with deoxynivalneol (1 μg.mL-1 was detected by immunocytochemistry. The presence of proliferative (cyclin B1, PCNA and apoptotic markers (caspase-3 in porcine ovarian granulosa cells was detected by immunocytochemistry. Co-administration of amygdalin plus DON significantly (p <0.05 increased the number of granulosa cells containing cyclin B1 and PCNA at all tested concetrations, when compared to control. However, percentage of granulosa cells containing major apoptotic marker caspase-3 did not differ after co-administration of amygdalin and DON. In summary, results form this in vitro study indicate that co-exposure of amygdalin and deoxynivalenol  may act to stimulate proliferation-associated peptides in porcine ovarian granulosa cells, and thus alter cell proliferation and normal follicular development.

  10. Pretransplantation recipient regulatory T cell suppressive function predicts delayed and slow graft function after kidney transplantation.

    Nguyen, Minh-Tri J P; Fryml, Elise; Sahakian, Sossy K; Liu, Shuqing; Michel, Rene P; Lipman, Mark L; Mucsi, Istvan; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Tchervenkov, Jean I; Paraskevas, Steven

    2014-10-15

    Delayed graft function (DGF) and slow graft function (SGF) are a continuous spectrum of ischemia-reperfusion-related acute kidney injury (AKI) that increases the risk for acute rejection and graft loss after kidney transplantation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical in transplant tolerance and attenuate murine AKI. In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated whether pretransplantation peripheral blood recipient Treg frequency and suppressive function are predictors of DGF and SGF after kidney transplantation. Deceased donor kidney transplant recipients (n=53) were divided into AKI (n=37; DGF, n=10; SGF, n=27) and immediate graft function (n=16) groups. Pretransplantation peripheral blood CD4CD25FoxP3 Treg frequency was quantified by flow cytometry. Regulatory T-cell suppressive function was measured by suppression of autologous effector T-cell proliferation by Treg in co-culture. Pretransplantation Treg suppressive function, but not frequency, was decreased in AKI recipients (Paccounting for the effects of cold ischemic time and donor age, Treg suppressive function discriminated DGF from immediate graft function recipients in multinomial logistic regression (odds ratio, 0.77; Pfunction is a potential independent pretransplantation predictor of DGF and SGF.

  11. Left ventricular systolic function in sickle cell anaemia: an ...

    Keywords: Left ventricular systolic function, sickle cell anaemia, echocardiographic evaluation, adult Nigerian patients. ..... Quadratic .505. -0.390. 12.231. 8.587 .001*. Cubic .510. -0.180. 8.264. 8.619 .001*. This relationship was further evaluated by means of scat- ter plots and subsequently by regression analysis. The.

  12. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Noerskov, K. H.; Schjødt, I.; Syrjala, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction...

  13. Microfluidics as a functional tool for cell mechanics

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2009-01-01

    Living cells are a fascinating demonstration of nature’s most intricate and well-coordinated micromechanical objects. They crawl, spread, contract, and relax—thus performing a multitude of complex mechanical functions. Alternatively, they also respond to physical and chemical cues that lead to

  14. The vitamin D receptor and T cell function

    Martin eKongsbak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vitamin D receptor (VDR is a nuclear, ligand-dependent transcription factor that in complex with hormonally active vitamin D, 1,25(OH2D3, regulates the expression of more than 900 genes involved in a wide array of physiological functions. The impact of 1,25(OH2D3-VDR signaling on immune function has been the focus of many recent studies as a link between 1,25(OH2D3 and sus-ceptibility to various infections and to development of a variety of inflammatory diseases has been suggested. It is also becoming increasingly clear that microbes slow down immune reactivity by dysregulating the VDR ultimately to increase their chance of survival. Immune modulatory therapies that enhance VDR expression and activity are therefore considered in the clinic today to a greater extent. As T cells are of great importance for both protective immunity and development of inflammatory diseases a variety of studies have been engaged investigating the impact of VDR ex-pression in T cells and found that VDR expression and activity plays an important role in both T cell development, differentiation and effector function. In this review we will analyze current know-ledge of VDR regulation and function in T cells and discuss its importance for immune activity.

  15. Lifelong dietary intervention does not affect hematopoietic stem cell function

    Lazare, Seka; Ausema, Albertina; Reijne, Aaffien C; van Dijk, Gertjan; van Os, Ronald; de Haan, Gerald

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) undergo a profound functional decline during normal aging. Because caloric or dietary restriction has been shown to delay multiple aspects of the aging process in many species, we explored the consequences of lifelong caloric restriction, or conversely, lifelong

  16. Reduced fetal androgen exposure compromises Leydig cell function in adulthood

    Teerds, K.J.; Keijer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of normal fetal development can influence functioning of organs and cells in adulthood. Circumstantial evidence suggests that subtle reductions in fetal androgen production may be the cause of adult male reproductive disorders due to reduced testosterone production. The mechanisms through

  17. Liver Function In Patients With Homozygous Sickle Cell Disease ...

    Using the sensitive ELISA technique, 213 patients with sickle cell anemia (112 males and 101 females) aged 6 months to 18 years were screened for Hepatitis B infection using Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen. A biochemical evaluation of liver function was carried out on all ...

  18. Biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions enhance the paracrine function of MSCs.

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Duda, Georg N; Geissler, Sven

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that play crucial roles during tissue regeneration. Whether this paracrine function is influenced by the properties of biomaterials in general, and those used for cell delivery in particular, largely remains unexplored. Here, we investigated if three-dimensional culture in distinct microenvironments - nanoporous hydrogels (mean pore size ∼5 nm) and macroporous scaffolds (mean pore size ∼120 μm) - affects the secretion pattern of MSCs, and consequently leads to differential paracrine effects on target progenitor cells such as myoblasts. We report that compared to MSCs encapsulated in hydrogels, scaffold seeded MSCs show an enhanced secretion profile and exert beneficial paracrine effects on various myoblast functions including migration and proliferation. Additionally, we show that the heightened paracrine effects of scaffold seeded cells can in part be attributed to N-cadherin mediated cell-cell interactions during culture. In hydrogels, this physical interaction between cells is prevented by the encapsulating matrix. Functionally blocking N-cadherin negatively affected the secretion profile and paracrine effects of MSCs on myoblasts, with stronger effects observed for scaffold seeded compared to hydrogel encapsulated cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that the therapeutic potency of MSCs can be enhanced by biomaterials that promote cell-cell interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional implications of plasma membrane condensation for T cell activation.

    Carles Rentero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC, which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process.

  20. Single-Cell Transcriptomics and Fate Mapping of Ependymal Cells Reveals an Absence of Neural Stem Cell Function.

    Shah, Prajay T; Stratton, Jo A; Stykel, Morgan Gail; Abbasi, Sepideh; Sharma, Sandeep; Mayr, Kyle A; Koblinger, Kathrin; Whelan, Patrick J; Biernaskie, Jeff

    2018-05-03

    Ependymal cells are multi-ciliated cells that form the brain's ventricular epithelium and a niche for neural stem cells (NSCs) in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). In addition, ependymal cells are suggested to be latent NSCs with a capacity to acquire neurogenic function. This remains highly controversial due to a lack of prospective in vivo labeling techniques that can effectively distinguish ependymal cells from neighboring V-SVZ NSCs. We describe a transgenic system that allows for targeted labeling of ependymal cells within the V-SVZ. Single-cell RNA-seq revealed that ependymal cells are enriched for cilia-related genes and share several stem-cell-associated genes with neural stem or progenitors. Under in vivo and in vitro neural-stem- or progenitor-stimulating environments, ependymal cells failed to demonstrate any suggestion of latent neural-stem-cell function. These findings suggest remarkable stability of ependymal cell function and provide fundamental insights into the molecular signature of the V-SVZ niche. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. © 2015 Richardson et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  2. Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by EZH2

    THEODOROS KARANTANOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2, one of the polycomb group (PcG proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12 and RpAp46/48 induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic (Hox gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency and cancer biology. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft versus host disease (GvHD. In this review we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation, effector function and homing in the tumor microenvironment and we will discuss possible therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in order to alter T cell immune functions.

  3. Generation of functional podocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Osele Ciampi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Generating human podocytes in vitro could offer a unique opportunity to study human diseases. Here, we describe a simple and efficient protocol for obtaining functional podocytes in vitro from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Cells were exposed to a three-step protocol, which induced their differentiation into intermediate mesoderm, then into nephron progenitors and, finally, into mature podocytes. After differentiation, cells expressed the main podocyte markers, such as synaptopodin, WT1, α-Actinin-4, P-cadherin and nephrin at the protein and mRNA level, and showed the low proliferation rate typical of mature podocytes. Exposure to Angiotensin II significantly decreased the expression of podocyte genes and cells underwent cytoskeleton rearrangement. Cells were able to internalize albumin and self-assembled into chimeric 3D structures in combination with dissociated embryonic mouse kidney cells. Overall, these findings demonstrate the establishment of a robust protocol that, mimicking developmental stages, makes it possible to derive functional podocytes in vitro.

  4. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms That Maintain Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function

    Christian Kosan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All hematopoiesis cells develop from multipotent progenitor cells. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC have the ability to develop into all blood lineages but also maintain their stemness. Different molecular mechanisms have been identified that are crucial for regulating quiescence and self-renewal to maintain the stem cell pool and for inducing proliferation and lineage differentiation. The stem cell niche provides the microenvironment to keep HSC in a quiescent state. Furthermore, several transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers are involved in this process. These create modifications that regulate the cell fate in a more or less reversible and dynamic way and contribute to HSC homeostasis. In addition, HSC respond in a unique way to DNA damage. These mechanisms also contribute to the regulation of HSC function and are essential to ensure viability after DNA damage. How HSC maintain their quiescent stage during the entire life is still matter of ongoing research. Here we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that regulate HSC function.

  5. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  6. Versatile functional roles of horizontal cells in the retinal circuit.

    Chaya, Taro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sugita, Yuko; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Tachibana, Masao; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2017-07-17

    In the retinal circuit, environmental light signals are converted into electrical signals that can be decoded properly by the brain. At the first synapse of the visual system, information flow from photoreceptors to bipolar cells is modulated by horizontal cells (HCs), however, their functional contribution to retinal output and individual visual function is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated functional roles for HCs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) response properties and optokinetic responses by establishing a HC-depleted mouse line. We observed that HC depletion impairs the antagonistic center-surround receptive field formation of RGCs, supporting a previously reported HC function revealed by pharmacological approaches. In addition, we found that HC loss reduces both the ON and OFF response diversities of RGCs, impairs adjustment of the sensitivity to ambient light at the retinal output level, and alters spatial frequency tuning at an individual level. Taken together, our current study suggests multiple functional aspects of HCs crucial for visual processing.

  7. Immunohistochemical localization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in the pig ovary.

    Milan TomĂĄnek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein (PCNA in the pig ovary. The localization of PCNA was demonstrated in paraffin sections of pig ovarian tissue using primary mouse monoclonal anti-PCNA antibody. In primordial follicles, no remarkable staining for PCNA either in granulosa cells or in the oocytes was observed. In primary to secondary follicles, positive staining in oocytes and in some granulosa cells was detected. The advanced preantral and particularly actively growing small to large antral follicles showed extensive PCNA labeling in the layers of granulosa and theca cells and in the cumulus cells encircling the oocyte. PCNA labeling was expressed in nuclei of oocytes in preantral and small antral follicles. In atretic follicles, the level of PCNA protein expression was dependent on the stage of atresia. Follicles demonstrating advanced atresia showed only limited or no PCNA labeled granulosa and theca cells. The results of the study demonstrate that follicular growth and development in pig ovary may be effectively monitored by determining the granulosa cell expression of PCNA.

  8. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Factors Restore Function to Human Frataxin-Deficient Cells.

    Kemp, Kevin; Dey, Rimi; Cook, Amelia; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2017-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited neurological disorder characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. At present, no therapy has been shown to reduce disease progression. Strategies being trialled to treat Friedreich's ataxia include drugs that improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative injury. In addition, stem cells have been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach. We have used siRNA-induced knockdown of frataxin in SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro cellular model for Friedreich's ataxia. Knockdown of frataxin protein expression to levels detected in patients with the disorder was achieved, leading to decreased cellular viability, increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, dysregulation of key anti-oxidant molecules and deficiencies in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Bone marrow stem cells are being investigated extensively as potential treatments for a wide range of neurological disorders, including Friedreich's ataxia. The potential neuroprotective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were therefore studied using our frataxin-deficient cell model. Soluble factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells protected against cellular changes induced by frataxin deficiency, leading to restoration in frataxin levels and anti-oxidant defences, improved survival against oxidative stress and stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation down the Schwann cell lineage. The demonstration that mesenchymal stem cell-derived factors can restore cellular homeostasis and function to frataxin-deficient cells further suggests that they may have potential therapeutic benefits for patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

  10. Modulation of antigen presenting cell functions during chronic HPV infection

    Abate Assefa Bashaw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV infect basal keratinocytes, where in some individuals they evade host immune responses and persist. Persistent HR-HPV infection of the cervix causes precancerous neoplasia that can eventuate in cervical cancer. Dendritic cells (DCs are efficient in priming/cross-priming antigen-specific T cells and generating antiviral and antitumor cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, HR-HPV have adopted various immunosuppressive strategies, with modulation of DC function crucial to escape from the host adaptive immune response. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter recruitment and localization of epidermal DCs, while soluble regulatory factors derived from HPV-induced hyperplastic epithelium change DC development and influence initiation of specific cellular immune responses. This review focuses on current evidence for HR-HPV manipulation of antigen presentation in dendritic cells and escape from host immunity.

  11. Cell Adhesion Molecules and Ubiquitination—Functions and Significance

    Homrich, Mirka; Gotthard, Ingo; Wobst, Hilke; Diestel, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily represent the biggest group of cell adhesion molecules. They have been analyzed since approximately 40 years ago and most of them have been shown to play a role in tumor progression and in the nervous system. All members of the Ig superfamily are intensively posttranslationally modified. However, many aspects of their cellular functions are not yet known. Since a few years ago it is known that some of the Ig superfamily members are modified by ubiquitin. Ubiquitination has classically been described as a proteasomal degradation signal but during the last years it became obvious that it can regulate many other processes including internalization of cell surface molecules and lysosomal sorting. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the ubiquitination of cell adhesion molecules of the Ig superfamily and to discuss its potential physiological roles in tumorigenesis and in the nervous system. PMID:26703751

  12. Amelioration of NK cell function driven by Vα24+ invariant NKT cell activation in multiple myeloma.

    Iyoda, Tomonori; Yamasaki, Satoru; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio; Abe, Yu; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kadowaki, Norimitsu; Shimizu, Kanako; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro

    2018-02-01

    NK cells represent a first line of immune defense, but are progressively dysregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. To restore and facilitate their antitumor effect, NK cells are required in sufficient quantities and must be stimulated. We initially assessed the proportions of NKT and NK cells in 34 MM patients. The frequencies of both in PBMC populations correlated with those in BMMNCs irrespective of low BMMNC numbers. We then assessed the adjunctive effect of stimulating NKT cells with CD1d and α-GalCer complexes on the NK cells. The expression of NKG2D on CD56 dim CD16 + NK cells and DNAM-1 on CD56 bright CD16 - NK cells increased after NKT cell activation. Apparently, NK cell-mediated anti-tumor effects were dependent on NKG2D and DNAM-1 ligands on myeloma cells. Thus, NK cell function in patients could be ameliorated, beyond the effect of immunosuppression, by NKT cell activation. This NKT-driven NK cell therapy could represent a potential new treatment modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolism of murine TH 17 cells: Impact on cell fate and function.

    Wang, Ran; Solt, Laura A

    2016-04-01

    An effective adaptive immune response relies on the ability of lymphocytes to rapidly act upon a variety of insults. In T lymphocytes, this response includes cell growth, clonal expansion, differentiation, and cytokine production, all of which place a significant energy burden on the cell. Recent evidence shows that T-cell metabolic reprogramming is an essential component of the adaptive immune response and specific metabolic pathways dictate T-cell fate decisions, including the development of TH 17 versus T regulatory (Treg) cells. TH 17 cells have garnered significant attention due to their roles in the pathology of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Attempts to characterize TH 17 cells have demonstrated that they are highly dynamic, adjusting their function to environmental cues, which dictate their metabolic program. In this review, we highlight recent data demonstrating the impact of cellular metabolism on the TH 17/Treg balance and present factors that mediate TH 17-cell metabolism. Some examples of these include the differential impact of the mTOR signaling complexes on T-helper-cell differentiation, hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) promotion of glycolysis to favor TH 17-cell development, and ACC1-dependent de novo fatty acid synthesis favoring TH 17-cell development over Treg cells. Finally, we discuss the potential therapeutic options and the implications of modulating TH 17-cell metabolism for the treatment of TH 17-mediated diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  15. Neoexpression of a functional primary cilium in colorectal cancer cells

    Blanche Sénicourt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is involved in the maintenance of numerous cell types both during development and in the adult. Often deregulated in cancers, its involvement in colorectal cancer has come into view during the last few years, although its role remains poorly defined. In most tissues, the HH pathway is highly connected to the primary cilium (PC, an organelle that recruits functional components and regulates the HH pathway. However, normal epithelial cells of the colon display an inactive HH pathway and lack a PC. In this study, we report the presence of the PC in adenocarcinoma cells of primary colorectal tumors at all stages. Using human colorectal cancer cell lines we found a clear correlation between the presence of the PC and the expression of the final HH effector, GLI1, and provide evidence of a functional link between the two by demonstrating the recruitment of the SMO receptor to the membrane of the primary cilium. We conclude that the primary cilium directly participates in the HH pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

  16. Ouabain modulates cell contacts as well as functions that depend on cell adhesion.

    Larre, Isabel; Contreras, Ruben G; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    Ouabain, a toxic of vegetal origin used for centuries to treat heart failure, has recently been demonstrated to have an endogenous counterpart, most probably ouabain itself, which behaves as a hormone. Therefore, the challenge now is to discover the physiological role of hormone ouabain. We have recently shown that it modulates cell contacts such as gap junctions, which communicate neighboring cells, as well as tight junctions (TJs), which are one of the two differentiated features of epithelial cells, the other being apical/basolateral polarity. The importance of cell contacts can be hardly overestimated, since the most complex object in the universe, the brain, assembles itself depending on what cells contacts what other(s) how, when, and how is the molecular composition and special arrangement of the contacts involved. In the present chapter, we detail the protocols used to demonstrate the effect of ouabain on the molecular structure and functional properties of one of those cell-cell contacts: the TJ.

  17. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier function determines cell stemness and metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells

    Li, Xiaoran; Kan, Quancheng; Fan, Zhirui; Li, Yaqing; Ji, Yasai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Mingzhi; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Berge, Viktor; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; M. Nesland, Jahn; Suo, Zhenhe

    2017-01-01

    One of the remarkable features of cancer cells is aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the “Warburg Effect”, in which cells rely preferentially on glycolysis instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as the main energy source even in the presence of high oxygen tension. Cells with dysfunctional mitochondria are unable to generate sufficient ATP from mitochondrial OXPHOS, and then are forced to rely on glycolysis for ATP generation. Here we report our results in a prostate cancer cell line in which the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1 (MPC1) gene was knockout. It was discovered that the MPC1 gene knockout cells revealed a metabolism reprogramming to aerobic glycolysis with reduced ATP production, and the cells became more migratory and resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In addition, the MPC1 knockout cells expressed significantly higher levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Hif1α, Notch1, CD44 and ALDH. To further verify the correlation of MPC gene function and cell stemness/metabolic reprogramming, MPC inhibitor UK5099 was applied in two ovarian cancer cell lines and similar results were obtained. Taken together, our results reveal that functional MPC may determine the fate of metabolic program and the stemness status of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:28624784

  18. Restoration of heart functions using human embryonic stem cells derived heart muscle cells.

    Gepstein, Lior; Kehat, Izhak

    2005-02-01

    Extract: Recent advances in molecular and cellular biology and specifically in the areas of stem cell biology and tissue engineering have paved the way for the development of a new field in biomedicine, regenerative medicine. This exciting approach seeks to develop new biological solutions, using the mobilization of endogenous stem cells or delivery of exogenous cells to replace or modify the function of diseased, absent, or malfunctioning tissue. The adult heart represents an attractive candidate for these emerging technologies, since adult cardiomyocytes have limited regenerative capacity. Thus, any significant heart cell loss or dysfunction, such as occurs during heart attack, is mostly irreversible and may lead to the development of progressive heart failure, one of the leading causes of world-wide morbidity and mortality. Similarly, dysfunction of the specialized electrical conduction system within the heart may result in inefficient rhythm initiation or impulse conduction, leading to significant slowing of the heart rate, usually requiring the implantation of a permanent electronic pacemaker. Replacement of the dysfunctional myocardium (heart muscle) by implantation of external heart muscle cells is emerging as a novel paradigm for restoration of the myocardial electromechanical properties, but has been significantly hampered by the paucity of cell sources for human heart cells and by the relatively limited evidence for functional integration between grafted and host cells. The recently described human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines may provide a possible solution for the aforementioned cell sourcing problem.

  19. Neurogenic and non neurogenic functions of endogenous neural stem cells.

    Erica eButti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis is a lifelong process that occurs in two main neurogenic niches of the brain, namely in the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricles and in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG in the hippocampus. In the 1960s, studies on adult neurogenesis have been hampered by the lack of established phenotypic markers. The precise tracing of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs was therefore, not properly feasible. After the (partial identification of those markers, it was the lack of specific tools that hindered a proper experimental elimination and tracing of those cells to demonstrate their terminal fate and commitment. Nowadays, irradia-tion, cytotoxic drugs as well as genetic tracing/ablation procedures have moved the field forward and increased our understanding of neurogenesis processes in both physiological and pathological conditions. Newly formed NPC progeny from the SVZ can replace granule cells in the olfactory bulbs of rodents, thus contributing to orchestrate sophisticated odour behaviour. SGZ-derived new granule cells, instead, integrate within the DG where they play an essential role in memory functions. Furthermore, converging evidence claim that endogenous NPCs not only exert neurogenic functions, but might also have non-neurogenic homeostatic functions by the release of different types of neuroprotective molecules. Remarkably, these non-neurogenic homeostatic functions seem to be necessary, both in healthy and diseased conditions, for example for preventing or limiting tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the neurogenic and the non-neurogenic functions of adult NPCs both in physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. Core functions of the Web-of-Cells control scheme

    Evenblij, Berend; Rikos, Evangelos; Heussen, Kai

    In order to maintain frequency (balancing) and voltage control in the future power system, the ELECTRA Web-of-Cells (WoC) control scheme introduces six high-level use cases, which are Balance Restoration Control (BRC), Frequency Containment Control (FCC), Inertia Response Power Control (IRPC), Ba......), Balance Steering Control (BSC), Primary Voltage Control (PVC) and Post Primary Voltage Control (PPVC). This document presents the detailed description of the core functions that are needed and sufficient for controlling the grid in a Web-of-Cells architecture....

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells generate distinct functional hybrids in vitro via cell fusion or entosis.

    Sottile, Francesco; Aulicino, Francesco; Theka, Ilda; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2016-11-09

    Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression. We report that MSCs can either fuse forming heterokaryons, or be invaded by ESCs through entosis. While entosis-derived hybrids never share their genomes and induce degradation of the target cell, fusion-derived hybrids can convert into synkaryons. Importantly we show that hetero-to-synkaryon transition occurs through cell division and not by nuclear membrane fusion. Additionally, we also observe that the ROCK-actin/myosin pathway is required for both fusion and entosis in ESCs but only for entosis in MSCs. Overall, we show that MSCs can undergo fusion or entosis in culture by generating distinct functional cellular entities. These two processes are profoundly different and their outcomes should be considered given the beneficial or possible detrimental effects of MSC-based therapeutic applications.

  2. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  3. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  4. Unimpaired dendritic cell functions in MVP/LRP knockout mice.

    Mossink, Marieke H; de Groot, Jan; van Zon, Arend; Fränzel-Luiten, Erna; Schoester, Martijn; Scheffer, George L; Sonneveld, Pieter; Scheper, Rik J; Wiemer, Erik A C

    2003-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) act as mobile sentinels of the immune system. By stimulating T lymphocytes, DCs are pivotal for the initiation of both T- and B-cell-mediated immune responses. Recently, ribonucleoprotein particles (vaults) were found to be involved in the development and/or function of human DCs. To further investigate the role of vaults in DCs, we examined the effects of disruption of the major vault protein (MVP/LRP) on the development and antigen-presenting capacity of DCs, using our MVP/LRP knockout mouse model. Mononuclear bone marrow cells were isolated from wild-type and knockout mice and stimulated to differentiate to DCs. Like human DCs, the wild-type murine DC cultures strongly expressed MVP/LRP. Nevertheless, the MVP/LRP-deficient DCs developed normally and showed similar expression levels of several DC surface markers. No differences were observed in in vitro studies on the antigen uptake and presenting capacities of the wild-type and MVP/LRP knockout DCs. Moreover, immunization of the MVP/LRP-deficient mice with several T-cell antigens led to responses similar to those observed in the wild-type mice, indicating that the in vivo DC migration and antigen-presentation capacities are intact. Moreover, no differences were observed in the induction of the T cell-dependent humoral responses and orally induced peripheral T-cell tolerance. In conclusion, vaults are not required for primary DC functions. Their abundance in DCs may, however, still reflect basic roles in myeloid cell proliferation and DC development.

  5. Functional dysregulation of stem cells during aging: a focus on skeletal muscle stem cells.

    García-Prat, Laura; Sousa-Victor, Pedro; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2013-09-01

    Aging of an organism is associated with the functional decline of tissues and organs, as well as a sharp decline in the regenerative capacity of stem cells. A prevailing view holds that the aging rate of an individual depends on the ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Therefore, manipulations that favor the balance towards regeneration may prevent or delay aging. Skeletal muscle is a specialized tissue composed of postmitotic myofibers that contract to generate force. Satellite cells are the adult stem cells responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration. Recent studies on the biology of skeletal muscle and satellite cells in aging have uncovered the critical impact of systemic and niche factors on stem cell functionality and demonstrated the capacity of aged satellite cells to rejuvenate and increase their regenerative potential when exposed to a youthful environment. Here we review the current literature on the coordinated relationship between cell extrinsic and intrinsic factors that regulate the function of satellite cells, and ultimately determine tissue homeostasis and repair during aging, and which encourage the search for new anti-aging strategies. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  6. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland); Rzasa, J. [Akademia Rolnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10{sup -7} M or 2x10{sup -7} M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively), and E2 (272.5 pg/10{sup 5} cells, 10.6 pg/10{sup 5} cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10{sup 5} cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10{sup 5} cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle `in vivo`. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Evidence for inhibition of steroid hormone secretion by arginine vasotocin (AVT) in tissue culture of isolated ovarian follicular cells

    Stoklosowa, S.; Gregoraszczuk, E.; Galas, J.; Rzasa, J.

    1994-01-01

    Two follicular compartments, granulosa (G) and theca interna (T) cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured alone or in co-culture (GT). Cells were grown as monolayers in a control medium without hormone and in a media supplemented with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) at a concentration of either 10 -7 M or 2x10 -7 M. Progesterone (P4), estrogen (E2) and androgen (A) concentrations in the culture media were taken as measures of the effect of AVT on the function of follicular cells. Steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. AVT action in this culture system was expressed as a decrease in progesterone secretion by cultures of granulosa cells alone, and specially as a change in the pattern of estradiol and androgen secretion by co-cultures. Control T and G cells cultured alone secreted small amounts of A (238.0 pg/10 5 cells, respectively), and E2 272.5 pg/10 5 cells, 10.6 pg/10 5 cells, respectively) while in co-culture these two cell types interacted and the result of this positive interaction was a significant increase in secretion of these two steroids (941.0 pg/10 5 cell androgen secretion and 854.1 pg/10 5 cells estradiol secretion). This phenomenon is similar to that observed in the intact follicle 'in vivo'. AVT introduced to the culture medium impaired the effect of this positive interaction of mixed G and T cells on the production of high levels of E2 and A by untreated co-cultures. (author). 37 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  8. Requirement for CD4 T Cell Help in Generating Functional CD8 T Cell Memory

    Shedlock, Devon J.; Shen, Hao

    2003-04-01

    Although primary CD8 responses to acute infections are independent of CD4 help, it is unknown whether a similar situation applies to secondary responses. We show that depletion of CD4 cells during the recall response has minimal effect, whereas depletion during the priming phase leads to reduced responses by memory CD8 cells to reinfection. Memory CD8 cells generated in CD4+/+ mice responded normally when transferred into CD4-/- hosts, whereas memory CD8 cells generated in CD4-/- mice mounted defective recall responses in CD4+/+ adoptive hosts. These results demonstrate a previously undescribed role for CD4 help in the development of functional CD8 memory.

  9. Mast-Cell-Derived TNF Amplifies CD8+ Dendritic Cell Functionality and CD8+ T Cell Priming

    Jan Dudeck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are critical promoters of adaptive immunity in the contact hypersensitivity model, but the mechanism of allergen sensitization is poorly understood. Using Mcpt5-CreTNFFL/FL mice, we show here that the absence of TNF exclusively in mast cells impaired the expansion of CD8+ T cells upon sensitization and the T-cell-driven adaptive immune response to elicitation. T cells primed in the absence of mast cell TNF exhibited a diminished efficiency to transfer sensitization to naive recipients. Specifically, mast cell TNF promotes CD8+ dendritic cell (DC maturation and migration to draining lymph nodes. The peripherally released mast cell TNF further critically boosts the CD8+ T-cell-priming efficiency of CD8+ DCs, thereby linking mast cell effects on T cells to DC modulation. Collectively, our findings identify the distinct potential of mast cell TNF to amplify CD8+ DC functionality and CD8+ T-cell-dominated adaptive immunity, which may be of great importance for immunotherapy and vaccination approaches.

  10. Loss of circulating CD4 T cells with B cell helper function during chronic HIV infection.

    Kristin L Boswell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between follicular T helper cells (TFH and B cells in the lymph nodes and spleen has a major impact on the development of antigen-specific B cell responses during infection or vaccination. Recent studies described a functional equivalent of these cells among circulating CD4 T cells, referred to as peripheral TFH cells. Here, we characterize the phenotype and in vitro B cell helper activity of peripheral TFH populations, as well as the effect of HIV infection on these populations. In co-culture experiments we confirmed CXCR5+ cells from HIV-uninfected donors provide help to B cells and more specifically, we identified a CCR7(highCXCR5(highCCR6(highPD-1(high CD4 T cell population that secretes IL-21 and enhances isotype-switched immunoglobulin production. This population is significantly decreased in treatment-naïve, HIV-infected individuals and can be recovered after anti-retroviral therapy. We found impaired immunoglobulin production in co-cultures from HIV-infected individuals and found no correlation between the frequency of peripheral TFH cells and memory B cells, or with neutralization activity in untreated HIV infection in our cohort. Furthermore, we found that within the peripheral TFH population, the expression level of TFH-associated genes more closely resembles a memory, non-TFH population, as opposed to a TFH population. Overall, our data identify a heterogeneous population of circulating CD4 T cells that provides in vitro help to B cells, and challenges the origin of these cells as memory TFH cells.

  11. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: Development, functions, and role in atherosclerotic inflammation

    Dimitry A Chistiakov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs are a specialized subset of DCs that links innate and adaptive immunity. They sense viral and bacterial pathogens and release high levels of Type I interferons (IFN-I in response to infection. pDCs were shown to contribute to inflammatory responses in the steady state and in pathology. In atherosclerosis, pDCs are involved in priming vascular inflammation and atherogenesis through production of IFN-I and chemokines that attract inflammatory cells to inflamed sites. pDCs also contribute to the proinflammatory activation of effector T cells, cytotoxic T cells, and conventional DCs. However, tolerogenic populations of pDCs are found that suppress atherosclerosis-associated inflammation through down-regulation of function and proliferation of proinflammatory T cell subsets and induction of regulatory T cells with potent immunomodulatory properties. Notably, atheroprotective tolerogenic DCs could be induced by certain self-antigens or bacterial antigens that suggests for great therapeutic potential of these DCs for development of DC-based anti-atherogenic vaccines.

  12. Calcium exchange, structure, and function in cultured adult myocardial cells

    Langer, G.A.; Frank, J.S.; Rich, T.L.; Orner, F.B.

    1987-01-01

    Cells digested from adult rat heart and cultured for 14 days demonstrate all the structural elements, in mature form, associated with the process of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. The transverse tubular (TT) system is well developed with an extensive junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (JSR). In nonphosphate-containing buffer contraction of the cells is lost as rapidly as zero extracellular Ca concentration ([Ca] 0 ) solution is applied and a negative contraction staircase is produced on increase of stimulation frequency. Structurally and functionally the cells have the characteristics of adult cells in situ. 45 Ca exchange and total 45 Ca measurement in N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES)-buffered perfusate define three components of cellular Ca: 1) a rapidly exchangeable component accounting for 36% of total Ca, 2) a slowly exchangeable component (t/sub 1/2/ 53 min) accounting for 7% total Ca, and 3) the remaining 57% cellular Ca is inexchangeable (demonstrates no significant exchange within 60 min). The slowly exchangeable component can be increased 10-fold within 60 min by addition of phosphate to the perfusate. The Ca distribution and exchange characteristics are little different from those of 3-day cultures of neonatal rat heart previously studied. The results suggest that the cells are representative of adult cells in situ and that both sarcolemmal-bound and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca contribute to the component of Ca that is rapidly exchangeable

  13. Interaction of multi-functional silver nanoparticles with living cells

    Sur, Ilknur; Cam, Dilek; Kahraman, Mehmet; Culha, Mustafa; Baysal, Asli

    2010-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in household products and in medicine due to their antibacterial and to wound healing properties. In recent years, there is also an effort for their use in biomedical imaging and photothermal therapy. The primary reason behind the effort for their utility in biomedicine and therapy is their unique plasmonic properties and easy surface chemistry for a variety of functionalizations. In this study, AgNPs modified with glucose, lactose, oligonucleotides and combinations of these ligands are investigated for their cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in living non-cancer (L929) and cancer (A549) cells. It is found that the chemical nature of the ligand strongly influences the toxicity and cellular uptake into the model cells. While the lactose-and glucose-modified AgNPs enter the L929 cells at about the same rate, a significant increase in the rate of lactose-modified AgNPs into the A549 cells is observed. The binding of oligonucleotides along with the carbohydrate on the AgNP surfaces influences the differential uptake rate pattern into the cells. The cytotoxicity study with the modified AgNPs reveals that only naked AgNPs influence the viability of the A549 cells. The findings of this study may provide the key to developing effective applications in medicine such as cancer therapy.

  14. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell