WorldWideScience

Sample records for granularity pflow calorimetry

  1. Study of phase changing characteristics of granular composites using differential scanning calorimetry

    Rady, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of the phase changing behavior of granular materials is an important issue for design and optimization of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. In the present work, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to study the phase changing behavior of granular composites consisting of ceramic encapsulated phase change material (EPCM) with particle diameters of 1-3 mm. The obtained DSC curves characterizing melting and solidification of the composite material are shown to be dependent upon the values of heating and cooling rates. Direct utilization of the measured DSC curves could result in an inexact representation of the sample enthalpy change. A simple procedure has been advised to obtain accurate quantitative results from the DSC measurements based on the estimation of the thermal resistance between the sample and its enclosure. Analysis of the evolution of latent heat of EPCM with temperature at different values of cooling/heating rates is presented.

  2. Calorimetry

    Pope, B.

    1983-01-01

    An overall review of properties of various types of calorimeters is given, with special attention given to the challenges of high luminosity and high energy. The calorimeters described include continuous calorimeters, scintillation sampling calorimetry, gas sampling calorimetry, and liquid ionization calorimeters. Next explored are some limiting factors involved in experiments at high luminosities (or at high energies), and some examples are offered of detectors capable of operating at the highest luminosities (energies). Specific areas where substantial research and development work is needed are itemized

  3. Calorimetry

    McDonald, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The techniques and equipment currently employed for calorimetric dosimetry have been briefly surveyed and the status of some recent measurements presented. The problems which remain to be investigated are: the thermal defect, the suitability of A-150 plastic as a material for heavy charged particle calorimetry and calorimeter designs that are appropriate for specific radiation situations, including cryogenic calorimeters

  4. Calorimetry

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    We have divided this study of calorimetry at the SLC into five topics: physics with calorimeters, readout geometries, performance of existing detectors, calorimeter technologies, and new calorimeter designs. The first topic is a review of the Z 0 physics in which calorimetry would be important. We discuss the Monte Carlo model and the general features of the events which it generates. We consider how the physics affects the design of the electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters in energy resolution, segmentation, solid angle coverage, and general performance. The two ways of reading out a calorimeter, strips and towers, are the basis of the second topic. We discuss a model which makes quantitative comparisons of these two schemes, with particular reference to electromagnetic calorimeters. These programs should be useful in other studies of calorimeter performance as well. There are six detectors at PEP and SPEAR with calorimetric elements. The third topic is a review of their performance at present energies and an evaluation of the problems which would arise at SLC energies. The new technologies which may be mature enough for use in an SLC detector are considered as the fourth topic. Some are now being built into anti pp detectors, others are in test beam stages, and others are still bright ideas. We review ten techniques and include references for further pursuit. The last section combines the physics goals, readout schemes, and present and future techniques into sensible calorimeter designs which sharpen the issues. Six models resulted. We discuss their strengths, weaknesses, feasibility, and rough costs

  5. Challenges of front-end and triggering electronics for High Granularity Calorimetry

    Puljak, Ivica

    2017-01-01

    A high granularity calorimeter is presently being designed by the CMS Collaboration to replace the existing endcap detectors. It must be able to cope with the very high collision rates, imposing the development of novel filtering and triggering strategies, as well as with the harsh radiation environment of the high-luminosity LHC. In this paper we present an overview of the full electronics architecture and the performance of prototype components and algorithms.

  6. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Calorimetry at a Future Electron-Positron Collider (3/4)

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetry will play a central role in determining the physics reach at a future e+e- collider. The requirements for calorimetry place the emphasis on achieving an excellent jet energy resolution. The currently favoured option for calorimetry at a future e+e- collider is the concept of high granularity particle flow calorimetry. Here granularity and a high pattern recognition capability is more important than the single particle calorimetric response. In this lecture I will describe the recent progress in understanding the reach of high granularity particle flow calorimetry and the related R&D efforts which concentrate on test beam demonstrations of the technological options for highly granular calorimeters. I will also discuss alternatives to particle flow, for example the technique of dual readout calorimetry.

  7. Granular flow

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  8. Theory of calorimetry

    Zielenkiewicz, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to give a comprehensive description of the theoretical fundamentals of calorimetry. The considerations are based on the relations deduced from the laws and general equations of heat exchange theory and steering theory.

  9. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin

  10. Calorimetry for the SSC

    Gordon, H.A.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The activities related to calorimetry at Snowmass took place in three main areas. These were: (1) The performance criteria for SSC calorimetry, including the requirements on hermeticity, shower containment, segmentation and time resolution. The use of calorimetric means of particle identification was studied. (2) The study of triggering methods using calorimeter energy, angle and timing information. (3) A review of a wide variety of calorimeter materials for absorber and sampling, as well as several means of obtaining the readout of the energy deposits. 48 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Calorimetry for the SSC

    Gordon, H.A.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The activities related to calorimetry at Snowmass took place in three main areas. These were: (1) The performance criteria for SSC calorimetry, including the requirements on hermeticity, shower containment, segmentation and time resolution. The use of calorimetric means of particle identification was studied. (2) The study of triggering methods using calorimeter energy, angle and timing information. (3) A review of a wide variety of calorimeter materials for absorber and sampling, as well as several means of obtaining the readout of the energy deposits. 48 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  12. Granular patterns

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  13. Calorimetry at the SSC

    Wigmans, R.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art, and the present understanding of the basic limitations in hadron calorimetry, are briefly described. The various options for SSC calorimeters are discussed, and the R ampersand D needed for the ones that look most promising is outlined. The most promising candidates are (1) lead/scintillating fibers and (2) lead (or uranium)/TMS (or other warm liquids)

  14. Calorimetry at the SSC

    Wigmans, R.

    1987-09-01

    The state of the art, and our present understanding of the basic limitations in hadron calorimetry, are briefly described. The various options for SSC calorimeters are discussed, and the R and D needed for the ones that look most promising is outlined. 13 refs.; 8 figs

  15. Recent developments in silicon calorimetry

    Brau, J.E.

    1990-11-01

    We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC

  16. Scintillating-fibre calorimetry

    Livan, M.; Vercesi, V.; Wigmans, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the past decade, calorimetry based on scintillating plastic fibres as active elements was developed from a conceptual idea to a mature detector technology, which is nowadays widely applied in particle physics experiments. This development and the performance characteristics of representative calorimeters, both for the detection of electromagnetic and hadronic showers, are reviewed. We also discuss new information on shower development processes in dense matter and its application to calorimetric principles that has emerged from some very thorough studies that were performed in the framework of this development. (orig.)

  17. Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications

    2002-01-01

    % RD-3 Liquid Argon Calorimetry with LHC-Performance Specifications \\\\ \\\\Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. Among the techniques used so far, or under development, the liquid argon sampling calorimetry offers high radiation resistence, good energy resolution (electromagnetic and hadronic), excellent calibration stability and response uniformity. Its rate capabilities, however, do not yet match the requirements for LHC. \\\\ \\\\The aim of this proposal is to improve the technique in such a way that high granularity, good hermiticity and adequate rate capabilities are obtained, without compromising the above mentioned properties. To reach this goal, we propose to use a novel structure, the $^{\\prime\\prime}$accordion$^{\\prime\\prime}$, coupled to fast preamplifiers working at liquid argon temperature. Converter and readout electrodes are no longer planar and perpendicular to particles, as usual, but instead they are wiggled around a plane containing particles. ...

  18. Laser-flash calorimetry

    Takahashi, Y.; Nakamura, J.-I.

    1982-01-01

    The heat capacity of vanadium has been measured by laser-flash calorimetry in the temperature region from 80 to 1000 K. The results are compared with available low- and high-temperature heat capacities, and revised thermodynamic values of vanadium are given. No heat-capacity anomaly has been found in the pure vanadium sample over the temperature range investigated, while a small heat-capacity discontinuity, less than 1.2 J.K -1 .mol -1 , has been observed at 220 to 230 K on the same sample but electropolished before measurement. This anomaly disappeared after annealing at 1000 K in vacuo for 1 h and is attributable to the introduction of a small amount of hydrogen during electropolishing. (author)

  19. Development of Resistive Micromegas for Sampling Calorimetry

    Geralis, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Kalamaris, A.; Nikas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Chefdeville, M.; Karyotakis, I.; Koletsou, I.; Titov, M.

    2018-02-01

    Resistive micromegas is proposed as an active element for sampling calorimetry. Future linear collider experiments or the HL-LHC experiments can profit from those developments for Particle Flow Calorimetry. Micromegas possesses remarkable properties concerning gain stability, reduced ion feedback, response linearity, adaptable sensitive element granularity, fast response and high rate capability. Recent developments on Micromegas with a protective resistive layer present excellent results, resolving the problem of discharges caused by local high charge deposition, thanks to its RC-slowed charge evacuation. Higher resistivity though, may cause loss of the response linearity at high rates. We have scanned a wide range of resistivities and performed laboratory tests with X-rays that demonstrate excellent response linearity up to rates of (a few) times 10MHz/cm2, with simultaneous mitigation of discharges. Beam test studies at SPS/CERN with hadrons have also shown a remarkable stability of the resistive Micromegas and low currents for rates up to 15MHz/cm2. We present results from the aforementioned studies confronted with MC simulation

  20. Digital Hadron Calorimetry

    Bilki, Burak

    2018-03-01

    The Particle Flow Algorithms attempt to measure each particle in a hadronic jet individually, using the detector providing the best energy/momentum resolution. Therefore, the spatial segmentation of the calorimeter plays a crucial role. In this context, the CALICE Collaboration developed the Digital Hadron Calorimeter. The Digital Hadron Calorimeter uses Resistive Plate Chambers as active media and has a 1-bit resolution (digital) readout of 1 × 1 cm2 pads. The calorimeter was tested with steel and tungsten absorber structures, as well as with no absorber structure, at the Fermilab and CERN test beam facilities over several years. In addition to conventional calorimetric measurements, the Digital Hadron Calorimeter offers detailed measurements of event shapes, rigorous tests of simulation models and various tools for improved performance due to its very high spatial granularity. Here we report on the results from the analysis of pion and positron events. Results of comparisons with the Monte Carlo simulations are also discussed. The analysis demonstrates the unique utilization of detailed event topologies.

  1. Calorimetry at industrial electron accelerators

    Miller, Arne; Kovacs, A.

    1985-01-01

    Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials such as grap......Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials...

  2. Calorimetry end-point predictions

    Fox, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a portion of the work presently in progress at Rocky Flats in the field of calorimetry. In particular, calorimetry end-point predictions are outlined. The problems associated with end-point predictions and the progress made in overcoming these obstacles are discussed. The two major problems, noise and an accurate description of the heat function, are dealt with to obtain the most accurate results. Data are taken from an actual calorimeter and are processed by means of three different noise reduction techniques. The processed data are then utilized by one to four algorithms, depending on the accuracy desired to determined the end-point

  3. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    McCullough, John P

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  4. Water calorimetry: The heat defect

    Klassen, N.V.; Ross, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    Domen developed a sealed water calorimeter at NIST to measure absorbed dose to water from ionizing radiation. This calorimeter exhibited anomalous behavior using water saturated with gas mixtures of H 2 O 2 . Using computer simulations of the radiolysis of water, the authors show that the observed behavior can be explained if, in the gas mixtures, the amount-of-substance of H 2 and of O 2 differed significantly from 50%. The authors also report the results of simulations for other dilute aqueous solutions that are used for water calorimetry--pure water, air-saturated water, and H 2 -saturated water. The production of H 2 O 2 was measured for these aqueous solutions and compared to simulations. The results indicate that water saturated with a gas mixture containing an amount-of-substance of H 2 of 50% and of O 2 of 50% is suitable for water calorimetry if the water is stirred and is in contact with a gas space of similar volume. H 2 -saturated water does not require a gas space but O 2 contamination must be guarded against. The lack of a scavenger for OH radicals in pure water means that, depending on the water purity, some pure water might require a large priming dose to remove reactive impurities. The experimental and theoretical problems associated with air-saturated water and O 2 -saturated water in water calorimeters are discussed

  5. The importance of calorimetry for highly-boosted jet substructure

    Coleman, Evan [Brown U.; Freytsis, Marat [Oregon U.; Hinzmann, Andreas [Hamburg U.; Narain, Meenakshi [Brown U.; Thaler, Jesse [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Tran, Nhan [Fermilab; Vernieri, Caterina [Fermilab

    2017-09-25

    Jet substructure techniques are playing an essential role in exploring the TeV scale at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), since they facilitate the efficient reconstruction and identification of highly-boosted objects. Both for the LHC and for future colliders, there is a growing interest in using jet substructure methods based only on charged-particle information. The reason is that silicon-based tracking detectors offer excellent granularity and precise vertexing, which can improve the angular resolution on highly-collimated jets and mitigate the impact of pileup. In this paper, we assess how much jet substructure performance degrades by using track-only information, and we demonstrate physics contexts in which calorimetry is most beneficial. Specifically, we consider five different hadronic final states - W bosons, Z bosons, top quarks, light quarks, gluons - and test the pairwise discrimination power with a multi-variate combination of substructure observables. In the idealized case of perfect reconstruction, we quantify the loss in discrimination performance when using just charged particles compared to using all detected particles. We also consider the intermediate case of using charged particles plus photons, which provides valuable information about neutral pions. In the more realistic case of a segmented calorimeter, we assess the potential performance gains from improving calorimeter granularity and resolution, comparing a CMS-like detector to more ambitious future detector concepts. Broadly speaking, we find large performance gains from neutral-particle information and from improved calorimetry in cases where jet mass resolution drives the discrimination power, whereas the gains are more modest if an absolute mass scale calibration is not required.

  6. Development of Quartz Fiber Calorimetry

    2002-01-01

    % RD40 \\\\ \\\\ Very Forward Calorimeters (VFCs) in LHC detectors should cover the pseudorapidity range from $\\eta$~=~2.5 to at least $\\eta$~=~5 in order to compute missing transverse energy and for jet tagging. Operation at such high rapidity requires the use of a calorimetry technique that is very radiation resistant, fast and insensitive to radioactivity (especially to neutrons). This can be accomplished through the Quartz-Calorimeter~(Q-Cal) concept of embedding silica core fibers, that resist to the Gigarad radiation level, into an absorber. In this calorimeter the shower particles produce light through the Cherenkov effect generating a signal less than 10~ns in duration. Unique to this new technology the visible energy of hadronic showers has a transverse dimension nearly an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional calorimeters, enabling precise spatial resolution, sharper isolation cuts and better jet recognition against the minimum bias events background. Last but not least, most radioactive ...

  7. Tritium inventory measurements using calorimetry

    Kapulla, H.; Kraemer, R.; Heine, R.

    1992-01-01

    In the past calorimetry has been developed as a powerful tool in radiometrology. Calorimetric methods have been applied for the determination of activities, half lives and mean energies released during the disintegration of radioactive isotopes. The fundamental factors and relations which determine the power output of radioactive samples are presented and some basic calorimeter principles are discussed in this paper. At the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) a family of 3 calorimeters has been developed to measure the energy release from radiative waste products arising from reprocessing operations. With these calorimeters, radiative samples with sizes from a few cm 3 to 2 ·10 5 cm 3 and heat ratings ranging from a few nW to kW can be measured. After modifications of tits inner part the most sensitive calorimeter among the three calorimeters mentioned above would be best suited for measuring the tritium inventory in T-getters of the Amersham-type

  8. The Pandora Software Development Kit for Particle Flow Calorimetry

    Marshall, J S; Thomson, M A

    2012-01-01

    Pandora is a robust and efficient framework for developing and running pattern-recognition algorithms. It was designed to perform particle flow calorimetry, which requires many complex pattern-recognition techniques to reconstruct the paths of individual particles through fine granularity detectors. The Pandora C++ software development kit (SDK) consists of a single library and a number of carefully designed application programming interfaces (APIs). A client application can use the Pandora APIs to pass details of tracks and hits/cells to the Pandora framework, which then creates and manages named lists of self-describing objects. These objects can be accessed by Pandora algorithms, which perform the pattern-recognition reconstruction. Development with the Pandora SDK promotes the creation of small, re-usable algorithms containing just the kernel of a specific operation. The algorithms are configured via XML and can be nested to perform complex reconstruction tasks. As the algorithms only access the Pandora objects in a controlled manner, via the APIs, the framework can perform most book-keeping and memory-management operations. The Pandora SDK has been fully exploited in the implementation of PandoraPFA, which uses over 60 algorithms to provide the state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for ILC and CLIC.

  9. Warm liquid calorimetry for LHC

    Geulig,E; Wallraff,W; Bézaguet, Alain-Arthur; Cavanna, F; Cinnini, P; Cittolin, Sergio; Dreesen, P; Demoulin, M; Dunps, L; Fucci, A; Gallay, G; Givernaud, Alain; Gonidec, A; Jank, Werner; Maurin, Guy; Placci, Alfredo; Porte, J P; Radermacher, E; Samyn, D; Schinzel, D; Schmidt, W F; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1990-01-01

    Results from the beam tests of the U/TMP "warm liquid" calorimeter show that such a technique is very promising for the LHC. Our aim is to extend this programme and design a calorimeter that can satisfy the requirements of high rates, high radiation levels, compensation, uniformity and granularity, as well as fully contain hadronic showers. We propose to construct liquid ionization chambers operated at very high fields, capable of collecting the total charge produced by ionizing particles within times comparable to the bunch crossing time of the future Collider. For this reason we plan to extend the current programme on tetramethylpentane (TMP) to tetramethylsilane (TMSi). An electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of very high field ionization chambers filled with TMSi as sensitive medium with Uranium and/or other high density material as absorber will first be built (to be followed by a full-scale calorimeter module), on which newly designed fast amplifiers and readout electronics will be tested. In addition...

  10. Ultra-Fast Hadronic Calorimetry

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab; Lukić, Strahinja [VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade; Mokhov, Nikolai [Fermilab; Striganov, Sergei [Fermilab; Ujić, Predrag [VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade

    2017-12-18

    Calorimeters for particle physics experiments with integration time of a few ns will substantially improve the capability of the experiment to resolve event pileup and to reject backgrounds. In this paper time development of hadronic showers induced by 30 and 60 GeV positive pions and 120 GeV protons is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and beam tests with a prototype of a sampling steel-scintillator hadronic calorimeter. In the beam tests, scintillator signals induced by hadronic showers in steel are sampled with a period of 0.2 ns and precisely time-aligned in order to study the average signal waveform at various locations w.r.t. the beam particle impact. Simulations of the same setup are performed using the MARS15 code. Both simulation and test beam results suggest that energy deposition in steel calorimeters develop over a time shorter than 3 ns providing opportunity for ultra-fast calorimetry. Simulation results for an "ideal" calorimeter consisting exclusively of bulk tungsten or copper are presented to establish the lower limit of the signal integration window.

  11. WA80 BGO calorimetry electronics

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Maples, R.A.; Young, G.R.; Awes, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes instrumentation designed for BGO scintillator-based calorimetry of particles covering a very wide range of energies (from less than 50 MeV to 50 GeV). The instrumentation was designed to have a measurement accuracy of 0.1% over as much of the energy range as possible so the energy resolution of BGO would be the limiting factor. Two 1.5-cm 2 photodiodes were used per 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm x 25 cm BGO crystal. Both a charge-sensitive preamplifier and a pulse processor were developed specifically for the needs of the WA80 experiment. The preamplifier was designed for high detector capacitance (100 to 700 pF), low integral and differential non-linearity and low power consumption (200 mW). The pulse processor is a time-invariant shaping amplifier with integral peak-detect-and-hold and automatic gain selection circuits. The amplifier use quasi-triangular shaping with 4 μs peaking time, and the hold circuit is gated with a fast first level trigger. The system has more than 20 bits of effective resolution when used with an external 12-bit ADC. Results from beam tests at CERN are presented. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria.

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E

    1986-04-01

    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  13. Granular gas dynamics

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  14. Liquid ionization calorimetry: review and preview

    Fabjan, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    The experimental requirements at existing and planned accelerators, and new facilities for underground or space-borne experimentation have stimulated a wide-ranging R and D programme in liquid ionization calorimetry. Precision sampling calorimetry is approaching ''crystal'' energy resolution whilst their rate capabilities will be able to cope with the highest LHC luminosities. (Quasi)-homogeneous noble-liquid calorimeters are under construction or in the planning stage to address some of the most fundamental physics questions. (orig.)

  15. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges.

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-12-01

    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  16. Impact of granular drops

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  17. Impact of granular drops

    Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  18. Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics

    Wigmans, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...

  19. Study of asphaltene precipitation by Calorimetry

    Verdier, Sylvain Charles Roland; Plantier, Frédéric; Bessières, David

    2007-01-01

    Can calorimetry bring new input to the Current understanding of asphaltene precipitation? In this work, two types of precipitation were studied by means of calorimetry: addition of n-heptane into asphaltene solutions and temperature/pressure variations on a recombined live oil. The first series...... of experiments showed that weak forces determine precipitation. Indeed, isothermal titration calorimetry could not detect any clear signal although this technique can detect low-energy transitions such as liquid-liquid equilibrium and rnicellization. The second series of tests proved that precipitation caused...... by T and P variations is exothermic for this system. Furthermore, the temperature-induced precipitation is accompanied by an increase in the apparent thermal expansivity. Therefore, it seems that these two phase transitions exhibit different calorimetric behaviours and they may not be as similar...

  20. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of semicrystalline polymers.

    Schick, C

    2009-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an effective analytical tool to characterize the physical properties of a polymer. DSC enables determination of melting, crystallization, and mesomorphic transition temperatures, and the corresponding enthalpy and entropy changes, and characterization of glass transition and other effects that show either changes in heat capacity or a latent heat. Calorimetry takes a special place among other methods. In addition to its simplicity and universality, the energy characteristics (heat capacity C(P) and its integral over temperature T--enthalpy H), measured via calorimetry, have a clear physical meaning even though sometimes interpretation may be difficult. With introduction of differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) in the early 1960s calorimetry became a standard tool in polymer science. The advantage of DSC compared with other calorimetric techniques lies in the broad dynamic range regarding heating and cooling rates, including isothermal and temperature-modulated operation. Today 12 orders of magnitude in scanning rate can be covered by combining different types of DSCs. Rates as low as 1 microK s(-1) are possible and at the other extreme heating and cooling at 1 MK s(-1) and higher is possible. The broad dynamic range is especially of interest for semicrystalline polymers because they are commonly far from equilibrium and phase transitions are strongly time (rate) dependent. Nevertheless, there are still several unsolved problems regarding calorimetry of polymers. I try to address a few of these, for example determination of baseline heat capacity, which is related to the problem of crystallinity determination by DSC, or the occurrence of multiple melting peaks. Possible solutions by using advanced calorimetric techniques, for example fast scanning and high frequency AC (temperature-modulated) calorimetry are discussed.

  1. Calorimetry and thermal methods in catalysis

    Auroux, Aline

    2013-01-01

    The book is about calorimetry and thermal analysis methods, alone or linked to other techniques, as applied to the characterization of catalysts, supports and adsorbents, and to the study of catalytic reactions in various domains: air and wastewater treatment, clean and renewable energies, refining of hydrocarbons, green chemistry, hydrogen production and storage. The book is intended to fill the gap between the basic thermodynamic and kinetics concepts acquired by students during their academic formation, and the use of experimental techniques such as thermal analysis and calorimetry to answ

  2. Granular Cell Tumor

    1). Her packed cell volume was 40%, she was system, gastro-intestinal tract, brain, heart, and negative to human immunodeficiency virus. 2 female reproductive . ... histocytes and neurons at various times. They granules. The granules are probably of lysosmal were consequently termed granular cell origin and contain ...

  3. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    Mastrolorenzo, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors wi...

  4. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    Sauvan, Jean-baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities...

  5. New crystals for dual-readout calorimetry

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Carosi, R.; Ciapetti, G.; Ferrari, R.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Hauptman, J.; Incagli, M.; Korzhik, M.; Lacava, F.; La Rotonda, L.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Nikl, Martin; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Popescu, S.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Vandelli, W.; Vedda, A.; Venturelli, T.; Voena, C.; Volobouev, I.; Wigmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 604, č. 3 (2009), s. 512-526 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : calorimetry * Cherenkov light * high-Z scintillating crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.317, year: 2009

  6. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory

    Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

  7. Liquid argon calorimetry for the SSC

    Gordon, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid argon calorimetry is a mature technique. However, adapting it to the challenging environment of the SSC requires a large amount of R ampersand D. The advantages of the liquid argon approach are summarized and the issues being addressed by the R ampersand D program are described. 18 refs

  8. Monte Carlo studies of uranium calorimetry

    Brau, J.; Hargis, H.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Bishop, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed Monte Carlo calculations of uranium calorimetry are presented which reveal a significant difference in the responses of liquid argon and plastic scintillator in uranium calorimeters. Due to saturation effects, neutrons from the uranium are found to contribute only weakly to the liquid argon signal. Electromagnetic sampling inefficiencies are significant and contribute substantially to compensation in both systems. 17 references

  9. Distrofia corneal granular

    Alexeide de la C Castillo Pérez

    Full Text Available Las distrofias corneales constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades que presentan, en su mayoría, una baja incidencia y se caracterizan por acúmulo de material hialino o amiloide que disminuyen la transparencia corneal. La distrofia granular es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que presenta opacidades grises en el estroma superficial central de la córnea y se hacen visibles en la primera y segunda décadas de la vida, lo que provoca disminución de la visión más significativa cerca de los 40 años de edad. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de distrofia granular en pacientes hermanos de diferentes sexos, quienes acudieron a la consulta y refirieron visión nublada. El estudio de la historia familiar nos ayuda en el correcto diagnóstico y la biomicroscopia constituye el elemento más importante.

  10. Microservices: Granularity vs. Performance

    Shadija, Dharmendra; Rezai, Mo; Hill, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Microservice Architectures (MA) have the potential to increase the agility of software development. In an era where businesses require software applications to evolve to support emerging software requirements, particularly for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, we examine the issue of microservice granularity and explore its effect upon application latency. Two approaches to microservice deployment are simulated; the first with microservices in a single container, and the second with micr...

  11. Front-End Electronics in calorimetry: from LHC to ILC

    De La Taille, Ch.

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the electronics developments for liquid argon calorimeter read-out at LHC and the development carried out in the framework of the CALICE collaboration for those of the future linear collider (ILC). It also includes chips designed for multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) used in the OPERA experiment or on ATLAS luminometer, which also find applications in medical imaging. Started in the early 90's, the development for ATLAS calorimetry was extremely challenging in terms of readout speed, radiation tolerance and measurement accuracy. The high speed has required a new approach using current-sensitive preamplifiers instead of charge sensitive ones and the redefinition of noise performance in terms of ENI. The preamplifiers developed at Orsay and the monolithic shapers are described in Chapter 1, including considerations of digital filtering, which was a new technique in our field. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the calibration system, designed and built by Orsay, for which the high performance and accuracy necessitated in-depth studies. The 3. chapter closes the studies for ATLAS with a summary of the detector measurements which had to be carried out on the 200 000 channels in order to understand and model the detector and achieve everywhere the accuracy and uniformity at per-cent level. These developments for ATLAS ended in 2004, although parallel work was also carried out for the NA48 and DO calorimeters which are not detailed here. The next generation of collider will require a new generation of calorimeters, much more granular, referred to as 'imaging calorimetry' with embedded read-out electronics. The ASICs developed for this purpose in the framework of the CALICE collaboration are described in Chapter 4. They integrate all the functionalities of amplification, digitization and read-out making them complex 'System-On-Chip' circuits extremely efficient that find many other applications. A family of 3 chips reads out the Si-W electromagnetic

  12. Analyzing Protein Denaturation using Fast Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Splinter, R.; Van Herwaarden, A.W.; Iervolino, E.; Vanden Poel, G.; Istrate, D.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility to measure protein denaturation with Fast Differential Scanning Calorimetry (FDSC). Cancer can be diagnosed by measuring protein denaturation in blood plasma using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). FDSC can reduce diagnosis time from hours to minutes,

  13. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  14. Mathematical models of granular matter

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  15. Calorimetry and thermodynamics of living systems

    Lamprecht, Ingolf

    2003-01-01

    Calorimetry of living systems and classical thermodynamics developed in parallel, from Lavoisier's early ice calorimeter experiments on guinea pigs, followed by Dubrunfaut's macrocalorimetric research of fermentation processes and Atwater-Rosa's whole-body calorimetry on humans and domestic animals, to the introduction of the famous Tian-Calvet instrument that found entrance into so many different fields of biology. In this work, six examples of living-system calorimetry and thermodynamics are presented. These are: (i) glycolytic oscillations far off the thermodynamic equilibrium; (ii) growth and energy balances in fermenting and respiring yeast cultures; (iii) direct and indirect calorimetric monitoring of electrically stimulated reptile metabolism; (iv) biologic and climatic factors influencing the temperature constancy and distribution in the mound of a wood ant colony as an example of a complex ecological system; (v) energetic considerations on the clustering of European honeybees in winter as a means to save energy and stored food as well as for their Japanese counterparts in defending against hornet predators; and (vi) energetic and evolutionary aspects of the mass specific entropy production rate, the so-called bound dissipation or psiu-function. The examples presented here are just a very personal selection of living systems from a broad spectrum at all levels of complexity. Common for all of them is that they were investigated calorimetrically on the background of classical and irreversible thermodynamics

  16. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  17. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-15

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  18. Calorimetry at the international linear collider. From simulation to reality

    Wattimena, Nanda

    2010-02-01

    Calorimetry plays a crucial role in ongoing and upcoming high-energy physics experiments. To build a powerful calorimetric system with a performance tailored to the expected physics signatures, demands dedicated research and development of new readout technologies as well as dedicated reconstruction algorithms. The presented design of a calorimetric system which meets the high demands of precision physics at the future linear collider ILC, follows the paradigm of particle ow. Particle ow is a reconstruction principle that relies on a calorimetric system with high spatial granularity. In the detector optimisation process, the development of hardware and software are interlinked and cannot be judged independently. This thesis addresses two different aspects of detector optimisation, a test of the detector design against one example physics scenario and the development of a stable calibration procedure. In the rst part, a gauge-mediated Supersymmetry breaking scenario is used to test the design of the electromagnetic calorimeter in a full detector simulation study. The reconstruction of the neutralino properties, each decaying into a photon and a gravitino, requires a good energy resolution, as well as excellent position and angular resolution. The error bounds on the neutralino mass is strongly linked to the energy resolution, while the position and angular reconstruction of neutral particles is essential for the determination of the neutralino lifetime. The second part of this thesis focuses on the calibration procedure for a prototype of the hadron calorimeter. 7608 novel photodetectors are operated and tested in this prototype. They are exposed to beams of well de ned particle type and energy. The calibration is tested with a detailed study of electromagnetic showers inside the cubic-metre-sized prototype, with special attention paid towards the non-linearity correction. (orig.)

  19. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    solution for data reduction based on gradual granular data aggregation. With the gradual granular data aggregation mechanism, older data can be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. For instance, when data is 3 months old aggregate to 1 minute level from 1 second level, when data...... and improve query performance, especially on resource-constrained systems with limited storage and query processing capabilities. A number of data reduction solutions have been developed, however an effective solution particularly based on gradual data reduction is missing. This paper presents an effective...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  20. Granular corneal dystrophy

    Castillo Pérez, Alexeide de la C; Vilches Lescaille, Daysi; Noriega, Justo Luis; Martínez Balido, Daneel; León Balbón, Bárbaro Ramón; León Bernal, Danysleidi

    2015-01-01

    Las distrofias corneales constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades que presentan, en su mayoría, una baja incidencia y se caracterizan por acúmulo de material hialino o amiloide que disminuyen la transparencia corneal. La distrofia granular es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que presenta opacidades grises en el estroma superficial central de la córnea y se hacen visibles en la primera y segunda décadas de la vida, lo que provoca disminución de la visión más significativa cerca de los 40 año...

  1. Sinking a Granular Raft

    Protière, Suzie; Josserand, Christophe; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Stone, Howard A.; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-03-01

    We report experiments that yield new insights on the behavior of granular rafts at an oil-water interface. We show that these particle aggregates can float or sink depending on dimensionless parameters taking into account the particle densities and size and the densities of the two fluids. We characterize the raft shape and stability and propose a model to predict its shape and maximum length to remain afloat. Finally we find that wrinkles and folds appear along the raft due to compression by its own weight, which can trigger destabilization. These features are characteristics of an elastic instability, which we discuss, including the limitations of our model.

  2. Spreading of a granular droplet

    Clement, Eric; Sanchez, Ivan; Raynaud, Franck; Lanuza, Jose; Andreotti, Bruno; Aranson, Igor

    2008-03-01

    The influence of controlled vibrations on the granular rheology is investigated in a specifically designed experiment in which a granular film spreads under the action of horizontal vibrations. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived theoretically that describes the evolution of the deposit shape. A self-similar parabolic shape (the``granular droplet'') and a spreading dynamics are predicted that both agree quantitatively with the experimental results. The theoretical analysis is used to extract effective friction coefficients between the base and the granular layer under sustained and controlled vibrations. A shear thickening regime characteristic of dense granular flows is evidenced at low vibration energy, both for glass beads and natural sand. Conversely, shear thinning is observed at high agitation.

  3. Scintillating Fibre Calorimetry at the LHC

    2002-01-01

    Good electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry will play a central role in an LHC detector. The lead/scintillating fibre calorimeter technique provides a fast signal response well matched to the LHC rate requirements. It can be made to give equal response for electrons and hadrons (compensation) with good electromagnetic and hadronic energy resolutions.\\\\ \\\\ The aim of this R&D proposal is to study in detail the aspects that are relevant for application of this type of calorimeter in an LHC environment, including its integration in a larger system of detectors, e.g.~projective geometry, radiation hardness, light detection, calibration and stability monitoring, electron/hadron separation.....

  4. Fabrication of 12% 240Pu calorimetry standards

    Long, S.M.; Hildner, S.; Gutierrez, D.; Mills, C.; Garcia, W.; Gurule, C.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the DOE complex, laboratories are performing calorimetric assays on items containing high burnup plutonium. These materials contain higher isotopic range and higher wattages than materials previously encountered in vault holdings. Currently, measurement control standards have been limited to utilizing 6% 240 Pu standards. The lower isotopic and wattage value standards do not complement the measurement of the higher burnup material. Participants of the Calorimetry Exchange (CALEX) Program have identified the need for new calorimetric assay standards with a higher wattage and isotopic range. This paper describes the fabrication and verification measurements of the new CALEX standard containing 12% 240 Pu oxide with a wattage of about 6 to 8 watts

  5. A guide to automation techniques in calorimetry

    Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; Breakall, K.L.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Many improvements occurring in calorimetry measurement technology in the past few years will help current users of calorimeters to achieve better use of their existing systems. These include a more user friendly operator computer interface, a more detailed printout at the end of each run, improved data processing to eliminate operator error, and improved system monitoring to detect system or environmental problems. In addition, an electrical calibration heater has been developed to replace plutonium-238 heat standards for calibrating calorimeters, and several automation systems allow for easier and safer system operation

  6. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...... and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40°C for the two systems has been determined to -9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and - 9.3 ± 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol is used....

  7. Experimental Tests of Particle Flow Calorimetry

    Sefkow, Felix; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Pöschl, Roman; Repond, José

    2016-01-01

    Precision physics at future colliders requires highly granular calorimeters to support the Particle Flow Approach for event reconstruction. This article presents a review of about 10 - 15 years of R\\&D, mainly conducted within the CALICE collaboration, for this novel type of detector. The performance of large scale prototypes in beam tests validate the technical concept of particle flow calorimeters. The comparison of test beam data with simulation, of e.g.\\ hadronic showers, supports full detector studies and gives deeper insight into the structure of hadronic cascades than was possible previously.

  8. Experimental tests of particle flow calorimetry

    Sefkow, Felix; White, Andy; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Poeschl, Roman; Repond, Jose

    2015-07-01

    Precision physics at future colliders requires highly granular calorimeters to support the Particle Flow Approach for event reconstruction. This article presents a review of about 10-15 years of R and D, mainly conducted within the CALICE collaboration, for this novel type of detector. The performance of large scale prototypes in beam tests validate the technical concept of particle flow calorimeters. The comparison of test beam data with simulation, of e.g. hadronic showers, supports full detector studies and gives deeper insight into the structure of hadronic cascades than was possible previously.

  9. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Terra, Bruno; Maia, Amanda M.

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo o estabelecimento de fundamentação teórica atualizada baseada em revisão bibliográfica sobre a leucemia de grandes linfócitos granulares (LGLG), doença onco-hematológica, que, devido à sua relativa raridade, é pouco conhecida e subdiagnosticada. A LGLG é caracterizada pela proliferação clonal de linfócitos T ou NK na medula óssea e/ou no sangue periférico. Dentre as manifestações clínico-laboratoriais, podem ocorrer citopenias (anemia e/ou neutropenia e/ou ...

  10. Thermal conductivity of granular materials

    Buyevich, Yu A

    1974-01-01

    Stationary heat transfer in a granular material consisting of a continuous medium containing spherical granules of other substances is considered under the assumption that the spatial distribution of granules is random. The effective thermal conductivity characterizing macroscopic heat transfer in such a material is expressed as a certain function of the conductivities and volume fractions of the medium and dispersed substances. For reasons of mathematical analogy, all the results obtained for the thermal conductivity are valid while computing the effective diffusivity of some admixture in granular materials as well as for evaluation of the effective electric conductivity or the mean dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of granular conductors and dielectrics. (23 refs.)

  11. Granular flows: fundamentals and applications

    Cleary, Paul W.

    DEM allows the prediction of complex industrial and geophysical particle flows. The importance of particle shape is demonstrated through a series of simple examples. Shape controls resistance to shear, the magnitude of collision stress, dilation and the angle of repose. We use a periodic flow of a bed of particles to demonstrate the different states of granular matter, the generation of dilute granular flow when granular temperature is high and the flow dependent nature of the granular thermodynamic boundary conditions. A series of industrial case studies examines how DEM can be used to understand and improve processes such as separation, mixing, grinding, excavation, hopper discharge, metering and conveyor interchange. Finally, an example of landslide motion over real topography is presented.

  12. Characterization of pitches by differential scanning calorimetry

    Ehrburger, P.; Martin, C.; Lahaye, J.; Saint-Romain, J.L.; Couderc, P.

    1988-12-01

    Pitch materials have generally a very complex composition with molecular mass ranging from a few hundred to several thousands units. In order to characterize these materials their properties related to the glassy transformation, in particular to enthalpy relaxation, have been investigated. Solvent soluble fractions have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As with polymeric materials, enthalpy relaxation can provide information about pitches and the interactions occurring between the different types of molecules present in the pitch: mean molecular size, structural factor, molecular-size distribution. The determination of glass transition properties provides a useful means for the characterization of pitch and of their solvent extracts. It also permits insight into the complex reactions which occur when pitch materials are heat-treated. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Synergies between electromagnetic calorimetry and PET

    Moses, William W.

    2002-01-01

    The instrumentation used for the nuclear medical imaging technique of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) shares many features with the instrumentation used for electromagnetic calorimetry. Both fields can certainly benefit from technical advances in many common areas, and this paper discusses both the commonalties and the differences between the instrumentation needs for the two fields. The overall aim is to identify where synergistic development opportunities exist. While such opportunities exist in inorganic scintillators, photodetectors, amplification and readout electronics, and high-speed computing, it is important to recognize that while the requirements of the two fields are similar, they are not identical, and so it is unlikely that advances specific to one field can be transferred without modification to the other

  14. Silicon calorimetry for the SSC[ Superconducting Supercollider

    Bertrand, C.; Borchi, E.; Brau, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    SSC experiments will rely heavily on their calorimeters. Silicon calorimetry, which has been introduced in recent years as a useful technology, has many attractive characteristics which may make it a viable option for consideration. The many attractive properties of silicon detectors are reviewed. The relevant present day applications of large areas of silicon detectors are summarize to illustrate the emerging use. The troublesome issue of radiation damage in a high luminosity environment like the SSC is considered with a summary of much of the recent new measurements which help clarify this situation. A discussion of the electronics and a possible mechanical configuration is presented, followed by a summary of the outstanding R and D issues. 31 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  16. CMS Forward Calorimetry R&D

    Bilki, Burak [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-11

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the CMS Forward Calorimetry Taskforce (FCAL group) who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013-2016 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended primarily for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this scope of work to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents.

  17. Superconductivity in inhomogeneous granular metals

    McLean, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of elongated metal ellipsoids imbedded in a granular metal is treated by an effective medium approach to explain the observed temperature dependence of the normal-state conductivity of superconducting granular aluminum. Josephson tunneling is thus still required to account for the superconductivity. The model predicts the same kind of contrasting behavior on opposite sides of the metal-insulator transition as is found in the recent scaling treatment of Anderson localization

  18. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  19. Differential scanning calorimetry techniques: applications in biology and nanoscience.

    Gill, Pooria; Moghadam, Tahereh Tohidi; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2010-12-01

    This paper reviews the best-known differential scanning calorimetries (DSCs), such as conventional DSC, microelectromechanical systems-DSC, infrared-heated DSC, modulated-temperature DSC, gas flow-modulated DSC, parallel-nano DSC, pressure perturbation calorimetry, self-reference DSC, and high-performance DSC. Also, we describe here the most extensive applications of DSC in biology and nanoscience.

  20. Differential Scanning Calorimetry Techniques: Applications in Biology and Nanoscience

    Gill, Pooria; Moghadam, Tahereh Tohidi; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the best-known differential scanning calorimetries (DSCs), such as conventional DSC, microelectromechanical systems-DSC, infrared-heated DSC, modulated-temperature DSC, gas flow-modulated DSC, parallel-nano DSC, pressure perturbation calorimetry, self-reference DSC, and high-performance DSC. Also, we describe here the most extensive applications of DSC in biology and nanoscience.

  1. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B. [Institute of Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karsruhe - TLK, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  2. Current status of tritium calorimetry at TLK

    Buekki-Deme, A.; Alecu, C.G.; Kloppe, B.; Bornschein, B.

    2015-01-01

    Inside a tritium facility, calorimetry is an important analytical method as it is the only reference method for accountancy (it is based on the measurement of the heat generated by the radioactive decay). Presently, at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK), 4 calorimeters are in operation, one of isothermal type and three of inertial guidance control type (IGC). The volume of the calorimeters varies between 0.5 and 20.6 liters. About two years ago we started an extensive work to improve our calorimeters with regard to reliability and precision. We were forced to upgrade 3 of our 4 calorimeters due to the outdated interfaces and software. This work involved creating new LabView programs driving the devices, re-tuning control loops and replacing obsolete hardware components. In this paper we give a review on the current performance of our calorimeters, comparing it to recently available devices from the market and in the literature. We also show some ideas for a next generation calorimeter based on experiences with our IGC calorimeters and other devices reported in the literature. (authors)

  3. Granular flows in constrained geometries

    Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik

    Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.

  4. Why granular media are thermal after all

    Liu, Mario; Jiang, Yimin

    2017-06-01

    Two approaches exist to account for granular behavior. The thermal one considers the total entropy, which includes microscopic degrees of freedom such as phonons; the athermal one (as with the Edward entropy) takes grains as elementary. Granular solid hydrodynamics (GSH) belongs to the first, DEM, granular kinetic theory and athermal statistical mechanics (ASM) to the second. A careful discussion of their conceptual differences is given here. Three noteworthy insights or results are: (1) While DEM and granular kinetic theory are well justified to take grains as elementary, any athermal entropic consideration is bound to run into trouble. (2) Many general principles are taken as invalid in granular media. Yet within the thermal approach, energy conservation and fluctuation-dissipation theorem remain valid, granular temperatures equilibrate, and phase space is well explored in a grain at rest. Hence these are abnormalities of the athermal approximation, not of granular media as such. (3) GSH is a wide-ranged continuum mechanical description of granular dynamics.

  5. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  6. The CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for the High Luminosity LHC

    Sauvan, J.-B.

    2018-02-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5-1 cm2 cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors will add an extra dimension to event reconstruction, especially in terms of pileup rejection.

  7. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter

    Gómez, L.R.; Turner, A.M.; Vitelli, V.

    2012-01-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates

  8. The CLEO-III Trigger: Calorimetry and tracking

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the pipelined signal processing and pattern recognition schemes used by the calorimeter, and the axial and stereo portions of the drift chamber, to provide the information necessary to make these decisions. Field programmable gate arrays are used extensively to provide cluster filtering and location sorting for calorimetry, and path finding for tracking. Analog processing is also employed in the calorimetry to provide additional leverage on the problem. Timing information is extracted from both calorimetry and tracking

  9. Forward calorimetry in the upgraded UA1 experiment

    Alvarez-Taviel, F.J.; Diez-Hedo, F.; Doncel, P.; Marquina, M.A.; Rodrigo, T.; Bacci, C.; Petrolo, E.; Tusi, A.; Ferrando, A.; Givernaud, A.; Rubbia, C.; Vuillemin, V.

    1989-01-01

    The major improvement in the upgraded UA1 calorimetry at the Santi ppS is the general use of ionization chambers filled with tetramethylpentane (TMP) as a detection medium interspersed with uranium plates as absorber. To achieve overall uniformity of detection down to very small angles, an identical solution is proposed for the forward calorimetry. Forward calorimetry is essential for good total and missing energy measurement at high luminosity in view of the increasing rate of multiple collisions. Both designs for forward and very forward calorimeters are presented along with expected resolutions. (orig.)

  10. Acoustic waves in granular materials

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic simulations with discrete elements are used to obtain more insight into the wave propagation in dense granular media. A small perturbation is created on one side of a dense, static packing and examined during its propagation until it arrives at the opposite side. The influence of

  11. Granular boycott effect: How to mix granulates

    Duran, J.; Mazozi, T.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material can display the basic features of the Boycott effect in sedimentation. A simple experiment shows that granular material falls faster in an inclined tube than in a vertical tube, in analogy with the Boycott effect. As long as the inclination of the tube is above the avalanche threshold, descent of granular material in the tube causes internal convection which in turn results in an efficient mixture of the granular components. By contrast, as in analogous experiments in two dimensions, a vertical fall of granular material occurs via successive block fragmentation, resulting in poor mixing.

  12. The CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) for Operation at the High-Luminosity LHC

    Pitters, Florian Michael

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance and event pileup on detectors, especially for forward calorimetry, and hallmarks the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (ECAL) and hadronic (HCAL) compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance pileup rejection and particle identification, whilst still achieving good energy resolution. The ECAL and a large fraction of HCAL will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm^2 cell size, with the remainder of the HCAL based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. The intrinsic high-precision timing capabilities of the silicon sensors will...

  13. HGCAL A High-Granularity Calorimeter for the Endcaps of CMS at HL-LHC

    Magnan, Anne-marie

    2016-01-01

    Calorimetry at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) faces two enormous challenges, particularly in the forward direction radiation tolerance and unprecedented in-time event pileup. To meet these challenges, the CMS experiment has decided to construct a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), featuring a previously unrealized transverse and longitudinal segmentation, for both electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow-type calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance particle identification, energy resolution and pileup rejection. The majority of the HGCAL will be based on robust and cost-effective hexagonal silicon sensors with $\\simeq 1$\\,cm$^2$ or 0.5\\,cm$^2$ hexagonal cell size, with the final 5 interaction lengths of the hadronic compartment being based on highly segmented plastic scintillator with on-scintillator SiPM readout. We present an overview of the HGCAL project, including the motivation, engineering design, readout/trigger con...

  14. HGCAL: A High-Granularity Calorimeter for the Endcaps of CMS at HL-LHC

    Ochando, Christophe; CMS Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Calorimetry at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) faces two enormous challenges, particularly in the forward direction: radiation tolerance and unprecedented in-time event pileup. To meet these challenges, the CMS experiment has decided to construct a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), featuring a previously unrealized transverse and longitudinal segmentation, for both electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This will facilitate particle-flow-type calorimetry, where the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance particle identification, energy resolution and pileup rejection. The majority of the HGCAL will be based on robust and cost-effective hexagonal silicon sensors with about 1cm2 or 0.5cm2 hexagonal cell size, with the final 5 interaction lengths of the hadronic compartment being based on highly segmented plastic scintillator with on-scintillator SiPM readout. We present an overview of the HGCAL project, including the motivation, engineering design, readout concept and simulated performance.

  15. Continuing Studies on Lead/Scintillating Fibres Calorimetry (LFC)

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the results obtained in the framework of the LAA Project~2B, we propose a continuation of the R&D on lead/scintillating fibres calorimetry (``spaghetti calorimetry''), including further tests on the old calorimeter prototypes and the construction and testing of new prototypes. The main results we pursue concern the performances of a projective calorimeter built with new, cheaper, techniques and the radiation hardness of the scintillating fibres, the optimization of a preshower detector system is also studied.

  16. Fine-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter using plastic scintillator strip-array

    Nagano, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Kim, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Uchida, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Garutti, E.; Iba, S.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kallies, W.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kishimoto, S.; Miyata, H.; Mzavia, D.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, R.; Ono, H.; Samoilov, V.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tsamalaidze, Z.

    2006-01-01

    For the future linear collider calorimetry, fine-granularity is indispensable for energy measurements based on particle flow algorithm, which could achieve better energy resolution for jets than the conventional method. To explore the possibility for such a calorimeter using scintillator, an electromagnetic calorimeter test module, made of scintillator-strips and lead plates, was constructed and tested with test beams. Performance of the test module is presented in this article, in terms of the shower profile studies as well as energy and spatial measurements

  17. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  18. Bubbling in vibrated granular films.

    Zamankhan, Piroz

    2011-02-01

    With the help of experiments, computer simulations, and a theoretical investigation, a general model is developed of the flow dynamics of dense granular media immersed in air in an intermediate regime where both collisional and frictional interactions may affect the flow behavior. The model is tested using the example of a system in which bubbles and solid structures are produced in granular films shaken vertically. Both experiments and large-scale, three-dimensional simulations of this system are performed. The experimental results are compared with the results of the simulation to verify the validity of the model. The data indicate evidence of formation of bubbles when peak acceleration relative to gravity exceeds a critical value Γ(b). The air-grain interfaces of bubblelike structures are found to exhibit fractal structure with dimension D=1.7±0.05.

  19. Strain localisation in granular media

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  20. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  1. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  2. Granular packing as model glass formers

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  3. The Granular Blasius Problem: High inertial number granular flows

    Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    The classical Blasius problem considers the formation of a boundary layer through the change at x = 0 from a free-slip to a no-slip boundary beneath an otherwise steady uniform flow. Discrete particle model (DPM) simulations of granular gravity currents show that a similar phenomenon exists for a steady flow over a uniformly sloped surface that is smooth upstream (allowing slip) but rough downstream (imposing a no-slip condition). The boundary layer is a region of high shear rate and therefore high inertial number I; its dynamics are governed by the asymptotic behaviour of the granular rheology as I -> ∞ . The μ(I) rheology asserts that dμ / dI = O(1 /I2) as I -> ∞ , but current experimental evidence is insufficient to confirm this. We show that `generalised μ(I) rheologies', with different behaviours as I -> ∞ , all permit the formation of a boundary layer. We give approximate solutions for the velocity profile under each rheology. The change in boundary condition considered here mimics more complex topography in which shear stress increases in the streamwise direction (e.g. a curved slope). Such a system would be of interest in avalanche modelling. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship (Vriend).

  4. Theoretical model of granular compaction

    Ben-Naim, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Knight, J.B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nowak, E.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.; Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {rho}/(1 {minus} {rho}). The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially e{sup {minus}N}, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found {rho} {infinity} {minus}{rho}(t) {approx_equal} 1/lnt.

  5. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, H.J.; Ruiz-Suarez, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular

  6. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    Araya, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their

  7. Periurethral granular cell tumor: a case report

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Choi, Hyo Gyeong; Cho, Kyoung Sik

    1998-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are uncommon soft tissue tumors which arise as solitary or multiple masses. Lesions commonly arise in the head, neck, and chest wall, but can occur in any part of the body. To our knowledge, periurethral granular cell tumor has not been previously reported. We report one such case

  8. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  9. Fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon ionization chambers

    Clark, E.; Linn, S.; Piekarz, H.; Wahl, H.; Womersley, J.; Hansen, S.; Hurh, P.; Rivetta, C.; Sanders, R.; Schmitt, R.; Stanek, R.; Stefanik, A.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for the fast sampling calorimetry with solid argon as active medium and the preliminary results from the solid argon test cell are presented. The proposed test calorimeter module structure, the signal routing and the mechanical and cryogenic arrangements are also discussed

  10. Optimization of crystals for applications in dual-readout calorimetry

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Carosi, R.; Ciapetti, G.; Fasoli, M.; Ferrari, R.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Hauptman, J.; Incagli, M.; Lacava, F.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Nikl, Martin; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Popescu, S.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Susinno, G.; Vandelli, W.; Vedda, A.; Venturelli, T.; Voena, C.; Volobouev, I.; Wigmans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 621, 1-3 (2010), 212-221 ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : calorimetry * Cherenkov light * High-Z scintillating crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.142, year: 2010

  11. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Can Provide Critical Thinking Opportunities

    Moore, Dale E.; Goode, David R.; Seney, Caryn S.; Boatwright, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    College chemistry faculties might not have considered including isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in their majors' curriculum because experimental data from this instrumental method are often analyzed via automation (software). However, the software-based data analysis can be replaced with a spreadsheet-based analysis that is readily…

  12. Hadronic shower development in iron-scintillator tile calorimetry

    Amaral, P.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Lokajíček, Miloš; Němeček, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 443, - (2000), s. 51-70 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO RP-4210/69 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010920 Keywords : ATLAS Iron-Scintillator * hadron calorimeter * shower parametrisation * calorimetry * computer data analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.964, year: 2000

  13. Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear collider

    Particle flow calorimetry at the international linear ... It is widely believed that the most promising strategy for achieving a jet ... this level of performance for two main reasons. Firstly ... (i) Tracking: For the studies presented in this paper, the track pattern ... that particles propagating outward from the interaction region will cross ...

  14. Differential Binding Models for Direct and Reverse Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    Herrera, Isaac; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2016-03-10

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a technique to measure the stoichiometry and thermodynamics from binding experiments. Identifying an appropriate mathematical model to evaluate titration curves of receptors with multiple sites is challenging, particularly when the stoichiometry or binding mechanism is not available. In a recent theoretical study, we presented a differential binding model (DBM) to study calorimetry titrations independently of the interaction among the binding sites (Herrera, I.; Winnik, M. A. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 8659-8672). Here, we build upon our DBM and show its practical application to evaluate calorimetry titrations of receptors with multiple sites independently of the titration direction. Specifically, we present a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the general form d[S]/dV that can be integrated numerically to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of free and bound species S at every injection step and, subsequently, to evaluate the volume-normalized heat signal (δQ(V) = δq/dV) of direct and reverse calorimetry titrations. Additionally, we identify factors that influence the shape of the titration curve and can be used to optimize the initial concentrations of titrant and analyte. We demonstrate the flexibility of our updated DBM by applying these differentials and a global regression analysis to direct and reverse calorimetric titrations of gadolinium ions with multidentate ligands of increasing denticity, namely, diglycolic acid (DGA), citric acid (CIT), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and use statistical tests to validate the stoichiometries for the metal-ligand pairs studied.

  15. Indirect calorimetry: assessing animal response to heat and cold stress

    Gaughan, J.B.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Hendriks, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calorimetric thermal stress studies where indirect calorimetry is used as a tool to estimate energy expenditure have been undertaken since this technique was developed. Some examples of these studies are presented in this chapter. The measurement of gas exchange by means of an open-circuit

  16. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  17. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  18. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  19. What does calorimetry and thermodynamics of living cells tell us?

    Maskow, Thomas; Paufler, Sven

    2015-04-01

    This article presents and compares several thermodynamic methods for the quantitative interpretation of data from calorimetric measurements. Heat generation and absorption are universal features of microbial growth and product formation as well as of cell cultures from animals, plants and insects. The heat production rate reflects metabolic changes in real time and is measurable on-line. The detection limit of commercially available calorimetric instruments can be low enough to measure the heat of 100,000 aerobically growing bacteria or of 100 myocardial cells. Heat can be monitored in reaction vessels ranging from a few nanoliters up to many cubic meters. Most important the heat flux measurement does not interfere with the biological process under investigation. The practical advantages of calorimetry include the waiver of labeling and reactants. It is further possible to assemble the thermal transducer in a protected way that reduces aging and thereby signal drifts. Calorimetry works with optically opaque solutions. All of these advantages make calorimetry an interesting method for many applications in medicine, environmental sciences, ecology, biochemistry and biotechnology, just to mention a few. However, in many cases the heat signal is merely used to monitor biological processes but only rarely to quantitatively interpret the data. Therefore, a significant proportion of the information potential of calorimetry remains unutilized. To fill this information gap and to motivate the reader using the full information potential of calorimetry, various methods for quantitative data interpretations are presented, evaluated and compared with each other. Possible errors of interpretation and limitations of quantitative data analysis are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  1. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  2. Fracture surfaces of granular pastes.

    Mohamed Abdelhaye, Y O; Chaouche, M; Van Damme, H

    2013-11-01

    Granular pastes are dense dispersions of non-colloidal grains in a simple or a complex fluid. Typical examples are the coating, gluing or sealing mortars used in building applications. We study the cohesive rupture of thick mortar layers in a simple pulling test where the paste is initially confined between two flat surfaces. After hardening, the morphology of the fracture surfaces was investigated, using either the box counting method to analyze fracture profiles perpendicular to the mean fracture plane, or the slit-island method to analyze the islands obtained by cutting the fracture surfaces at different heights, parallel to the mean fracture plane. The fracture surfaces were shown to exhibit scaling properties over several decades. However, contrary to what has been observed in the brittle or ductile fracture of solid materials, the islands were shown to be mass fractals. This was related to the extensive plastic flow involved in the fracture process.

  3. Shear failure of granular materials

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  4. Mechanics of a granular skin

    Karmakar, Somnath; Sane, Anit; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2017-04-01

    Magic sand, a hydrophobic toy granular material, is widely used in popular science instructions because of its nonintuitive mechanical properties. A detailed study of the failure of an underwater column of magic sand shows that these properties can be traced to a single phenomenon: the system self-generates a cohesive skin that encapsulates the material inside. The skin, consisting of pinned air-water-grain interfaces, shows multiscale mechanical properties: they range from contact-line dynamics in the intragrain roughness scale, to plastic flow at the grain scale, all the way to sample-scale mechanical responses. With decreasing rigidity of the skin, the failure mode transforms from brittle to ductile (both of which are collective in nature) to a complete disintegration at the single-grain scale.

  5. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  6. Energy decay in a granular gas collapse

    Almazán, Lidia; Serero, Dan; Pöschel, Thorsten; Salueña, Clara

    2017-01-01

    An inelastic hard ball bouncing repeatedly off the ground comes to rest in finite time by performing an infinite number of collisions. Similarly, a granular gas under the influence of external gravity, condenses at the bottom of the confinement due to inelastic collisions. By means of hydrodynamical simulations, we find that the condensation process of a granular gas reveals a similar dynamics as the bouncing ball. Our result is in agreement with both experiments and particle simulations, but disagrees with earlier simplified hydrodynamical description. Analyzing the result in detail, we find that the adequate modeling of pressure plays a key role in continuum modeling of granular matter. (paper)

  7. On inconsistency in frictional granular systems

    Alart, Pierre; Renouf, Mathieu

    2018-04-01

    Numerical simulation of granular systems is often based on a discrete element method. The nonsmooth contact dynamics approach can be used to solve a broad range of granular problems, especially involving rigid bodies. However, difficulties could be encountered and hamper successful completion of some simulations. The slow convergence of the nonsmooth solver may sometimes be attributed to an ill-conditioned system, but the convergence may also fail. The prime aim of the present study was to identify situations that hamper the consistency of the mathematical problem to solve. Some simple granular systems were investigated in detail while reviewing and applying the related theoretical results. A practical alternative is briefly analyzed and tested.

  8. Shock waves in weakly compressed granular media.

    van den Wildenberg, Siet; van Loo, Rogier; van Hecke, Martin

    2013-11-22

    We experimentally probe nonlinear wave propagation in weakly compressed granular media and observe a crossover from quasilinear sound waves at low impact to shock waves at high impact. We show that this crossover impact grows with the confining pressure P0, whereas the shock wave speed is independent of P0-two hallmarks of granular shocks predicted recently. The shocks exhibit surprising power law attenuation, which we model with a logarithmic law implying that shock dissipation is weak and qualitatively different from other granular dissipation mechanisms. We show that elastic and potential energy balance in the leading part of the shocks.

  9. Glass transition of anhydrous starch by fast scanning calorimetry.

    Monnier, Xavier; Maigret, Jean-Eudes; Lourdin, Denis; Saiter, Allisson

    2017-10-01

    By means of fast scanning calorimetry, the glass transition of anhydrous amorphous starch has been measured. With a scanning rate of 2000Ks -1 , thermal degradation of starch prior to the glass transition has been inhibited. To certify the glass transition measurement, structural relaxation of the glassy state has been investigated through physical aging as well as the concept of limiting fictive temperature. In both cases, characteristic enthalpy recovery peaks related to the structural relaxation of the glass have been observed. Thermal lag corrections based on the comparison of glass transition temperatures measured by means of differential and fast scanning calorimetry have been proposed. The complementary investigations give an anhydrous amorphous starch glass transition temperature of 312±7°C. This estimation correlates with previous extrapolation performed on hydrated starches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Scintillating glasses for total absorption dual readout calorimetry

    Bonvicini, V. [INFN, Trieste; Driutti, A. [Udine U.; Cauz, D. [Udine U.; Pauletta, G. [Udine U.; Rubinov, P. [Fermilab; Santi, L. [Udine U.; Wenzel, H. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    Scintillating glasses are a potentially cheaper alternative to crystal - based calorimetry with common problems related to light collection, detection and processing. As such, their use and development are part of more extensive R&D aimed at investigating the potential of total absorption, combined with the readout (DR) technique, for hadron calorimetry. A recent series of measurements, using cosmic and particle beams from the Fermilab test beam facility and scintillating glass with the characteristics required for application of the DR technique, serve to illustrate the problems addressed and the progress achieved by this R&D. Alternative solutions for light collection (conventional and silicon photomultipliers) and signal processing are compared, the separate contributions of scintillation and Cherenkov processes to the signal are evaluated and results are compared to simulation.

  11. Inherent limitations of fixed time servo-controlled radiometric calorimetry

    Wetzel, J.R.; Duff, M.F.; Lemming, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    There has been some interest in low precision, short run time calorimetry measurements. This type of calorimetry measurement has been proposed for use when high precision measurements are not required, for example, to screen scrap containers to determine if there is enough material to be measured more accurately of for confirmatory measurements that only require low precision results. The equipment needed to make these measurements is a servo-controlled calorimeter with a sample preequilibration bath. The preequilibration bath temperature is set to the internal temperature of the calorimeter running at a fixed servo-controlled wattage level. The sample power value is determined at a fixed time form the sample loading into the calorimeter. There are some limitations and areas of uncertainties in the use of data obtained by this method. Data collected under controlled conditions demonstrate the limitations. Sample packaging, preequilibration time, and item wattage were chosen as the variables most likely to be encountered in a plant environment

  12. Granular-relational data mining how to mine relational data in the paradigm of granular computing ?

    Hońko, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This book provides two general granular computing approaches to mining relational data, the first of which uses abstract descriptions of relational objects to build their granular representation, while the second extends existing granular data mining solutions to a relational case. Both approaches make it possible to perform and improve popular data mining tasks such as classification, clustering, and association discovery. How can different relational data mining tasks best be unified? How can the construction process of relational patterns be simplified? How can richer knowledge from relational data be discovered? All these questions can be answered in the same way: by mining relational data in the paradigm of granular computing! This book will allow readers with previous experience in the field of relational data mining to discover the many benefits of its granular perspective. In turn, those readers familiar with the paradigm of granular computing will find valuable insights on its application to mining r...

  13. Physicochemical characterization of pitches by differential scanning calorimetry

    Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Saint-Romain, J.L.; Couderc, P.

    1987-11-01

    The glass transition characterization of pitches has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Experimental results and theoretical considerations indicate that: (1) the average molecular mass of pitches can be characterized by the apparent activation energy of the relaxation phenomenon of pitch molecules; (2) the molecular polydispersity is correlated with the width of the glass transition. Characterization of pitch by d.s.c. is well adapted to follow pitch transformation during heat treatment. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The upgraded CDF front end electronics for calorimetry

    Drake, G.; Frei, D.; Hahn, S.R.; Nelson, C.A.; Segler, S.L.; Stuermer, W.

    1991-11-01

    The front end electronics used in the calorimetry of the CDF detector has been upgraded to meet system requirements for higher expected luminosity. A fast digitizer utilizing a 2 {mu}Sec, 16 bit ADC has been designed and built. Improvements to the front end trigger circuitry have been implemented, including the production of 900 new front end modules. Operational experience with the previous system is presented, with discussion of the problems and performance goals.

  15. The upgraded CDF front end electronics for calorimetry

    Drake, G.; Frei, D.; Hahn, S.R.; Nelson, C.A.; Segler, S.L.; Stuermer, W.

    1991-11-01

    The front end electronics used in the calorimetry of the CDF detector has been upgraded to meet system requirements for higher expected luminosity. A fast digitizer utilizing a 2 μSec, 16 bit ADC has been designed and built. Improvements to the front end trigger circuitry have been implemented, including the production of 900 new front end modules. Operational experience with the previous system is presented, with discussion of the problems and performance goals

  16. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    Hauptman, John

    2006-01-01

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification

  17. Application of kinetic inductance thermometers to x-ray calorimetry

    Wai, Y.C.; Labov, S.E.; Silver, E.H.

    1990-01-01

    A kinetic inductance thermometer is applied to x-ray calorimetry, and its operation over a wide range of frequencies and geometries is discussed. Three amplifier configurations are described, one using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifier, another incorporating an FET amplifier in an amplitude modulated system, and the third, using a tunnel diode frequency modulated oscillator circuit. The predicted performance of each configuration is presented. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.; Brito, R.

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which

  19. Granular Gases: Probing the Boundaries of Hydrodynamics

    Goldhirsch, I.

    1999-01-01

    The dissipative nature of the particle interactions in granular systems renders granular gases mesoscopic and bearing some similarities to regular gases in the ''continuum transition regime'' where shear rates and/or thermal gradients are very large). The following properties of granular gases support the above claim: (i). Mean free times are of the same order as macroscopic time scales (inverse shear rates); (ii). Mean free paths can be macroscopic and comparable to the system's dimensions; (iii). Typical flows are supersonic; (iv). Shear rates are typically ''large''; (v). Stress fields are scale (resolution) dependent; (vi). Burnett and super-Burnett corrections to both the constitutive relations and the boundary conditions are of importance; (vii). Single particle distribution functions can be far from Gaussian. It is concluded that while hydrodynamic descriptions of granular gases are relevant, they are probing the boundaries of applicability of hydrodynamics and perhaps slightly beyond

  20. Advanced Granular System Modeling, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  1. Resistance capability of microaerobic granular sludge for ...

    enoh

    2012-02-08

    Feb 8, 2012 ... The resistance capability to pH shock of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) ... process with chlorine gas in pulp and paper, leather and spinning ... nitrifying bacteria in the aerobic zone, and then trans-.

  2. Microbiological aspects of granular methanogenic sludge

    Dolfing, J.

    1987-01-01

    The settling characteristics of anaerobic sludge are enhanced by the formation of microbial conglomerates. Various types of conglomerates having different structures, were distinguished in the present study, viz. granules, pellets and flocs (chapter 1). Granular methanogenic sludge, often

  3. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  4. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter.

    Gómez, Leopoldo R; Turner, Ari M; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  5. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    Trizac, Emmanuel [Center of Theoretical Biological Physics, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0374 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2005-11-25

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution {epsilon} -a central quantity governing the

  6. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of

  7. Granular materials flow like complex fluids

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they `relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  8. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  9. Small-signal analysis of granular semiconductors

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The small-signal ac response of granular n-type semiconductors is calculated analytically using the drift-diffusion theory when electronic trapping at grain boundaries is present. An electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) model of a granular n-type semiconductor is presented. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is very good in a broad frequency range at low dc bias voltages.

  10. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  11. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  12. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  13. Dynamic Deformation and Collapse of Granular Columns

    Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.; Doi, S.

    2009-12-01

    Large dynamic deformation of granular materials may be found in nature not only in the failure of slopes and cliffs — due to earthquakes, rock avalanches, debris flows and landslides — but also in earthquake faulting itself. Granular surface flows often consist of solid grains and intergranular fluid, but the effect of the fluid may be usually negligible because the volumetric concentration of grains is in many cases high enough for interparticle forces to dominate momentum transport. Therefore, the investigation of dry granular flow of a mass might assist in further understanding of the above mentioned geophysical events. Here, utilizing a high-speed digital video camera system, we perform a simple yet fully-controlled series of laboratory experiments related to the collapse of granular columns. We record, at an interval of some microseconds, the dynamic transient granular mass flow initiated by abrupt release of a tube that contains dry granular materials. The acrylic tube is partially filled with glass beads and has a cross-section of either a fully- or semi-cylindrical shape. Upon sudden removal of the tube, the granular solid may fragment under the action of its own weight and the particles spread on a rigid horizontal plane. This study is essentially the extension of the previous ones by Lajeunesse et al. (Phys. Fluids 2004) and Uenishi and Tsuji (JPGU 2008), but the striped layers of particles in a semi-cylindrical tube, newly introduced in this contribution, allow us to observe the precise particle movement inside the granular column: The development of slip lines inside the column and the movement of particles against each other can be clearly identified. The major controlling parameters of the spreading dynamics are the initial aspect ratio of the granular (semi-)cylindrical column, the frictional properties of the horizontal plane (substrate) and the size of beads. We show the influence of each parameter on the average flow velocity and final radius

  14. Calorimetry exchange program annual data report for 1992

    Barnett, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Calorimetry Sample Exchange Program are: discuss measurement differences; review and improve analytical measurements and methods; discuss new measurement capabilities; provide data to DOE on measurement capabilities to evaluate shipper-receiver differences; provide characterized or standard materials as necessary for exchange participants; and provide a measurement control program for plutonium analysis. A sample of PuO 2 powder is available at each participating site for NDA measurement, including either or both calorimetry and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, the elements which are typically combined to provide a calorimetric assay of plutonium. The facilities measure the sample as frequently and to the level of precision which they desire, and then submit the data to the Exchange for analysis. The data report includes summary tables for each measurement and charts showing the performance of each laboratory. Comparisons are made to the accepted values for the exchange sample and to data previously reported by that laboratory. This information is presented, in the form of quarterly and annual reports, intended for use by Exchange participants in measurement control programs, or to indicate when bias corrections may be appropriate. No attempt, however, has been made to standardize methods or frequency of data collection, calibration, or operating procedures. Direct comparisons between laboratories may, therefore, be misleading since data have not been collected to the same precision or for the same time periods. A meeting of the participants of the Calorimetry Exchange is held annually at EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies. The purposes of this meeting are to discuss measurement differences, problems, and new measurement capabilities, and to determine the additional activities needed to fulfill the goals of the Exchange. This document provides data for 1992

  15. Fast differential scanning calorimetry of liquid samples with chips

    Splinter, R.; van Herwaarden, A. W.; van Wetten, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a modified version of standard chips for fast differential scanning calorimetry, DSC of liquid samples has been performed at temperature scan rates of up to 1000 °C/s. This paper describes experimental results with the protein lysozyme, bovine serum, and olive oil. The heating and cooling....... The bovine serum measurements show two main peaks, in good agreement with standard DSC measurements. Olive oil has been measured, with good agreement for the cooling curve and qualitative agreement for the heater curve, compared to DSC measurements....

  16. Neutral-beam aiming and calorimetry for MFTF-B

    Goldner, A.I.; Margolies, D.

    1981-01-01

    The vessel for the Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will have up to eleven 0.5-s-duration neutral-beam injectors for the initial heating of the MFTF-B plasma. Knowing the exact alignment of the beams and their total power is critical to the performance of the experiment. Using prototype aiming and calorimetry systems on the High Voltage Test Stand (HVTS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we hope to prove our ability to obtain an aiming accuracy of +-1 cm at the plasma and a calorimetric accuracy of +-5% of the actual total beam energy

  17. A custom floating point format ADC for LHC calorimetry

    Hermel, V.; Lecoq, J.; Bohner, G.

    1996-01-01

    Due to their large dynamic range (in excess of 16 bits) signals from LHC calorimetry poses severe problems to the shaping and digitizing circuits. We are investigating a solution for an ADC based on a custom floating point format. Since the calorimeter precision is limited, the full dynamic range can be split into 8 positive sub-ranges and 5 negative ones, each with an 8 bits dynamic. The reduced number of bits (8 for the mantissa, 4 for the exponent and 1 for the sign) translates itself into a reduction of the power consumption both of the ADC and of the following digital filtering stages. (authors)

  18. High Granularity Calorimeter for the CMS Endcap at HL-LHC

    Rusack, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Calorimetry at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) faces two enormous challenges, particularly in the forward direction radiation tolerance and unprecedented in-time event pileup. To meet these challenges, the CMS experiment has decided to construct a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL), featuring an unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation in a collider detector, both for electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. This will enable the optimal utilization of the Particle Flow Algorithms, with which the fine structure of showers can be measured and used to enhance particle identification, energy resolution and pileup rejection. The majority of the HGCAL will be based on robust and cost-effective hexagonal silicon sensors with ~1cm^2 or 0.5cm^2 hexagonal cell size, with the final 5 interaction lengths of the hadronic compartment being based on highly segmented plastic scintillator with SiPM readout. Here, we present an overview of the HGCAL project, including the motivation, engineering design, rea...

  19. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  20. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  1. Evaluation of aluminosilicate glass sintering during differential scanning calorimetry

    Souza, Juliana Pereira de

    2015-01-01

    In this work a difference in the baseline in differential scanning calorimetry analyses, observed in a work where aluminosilicate glasses microspheres containing Ho were studied for application in selective internal radiotherapy as hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, was studied. The glasses with nominal composition 53,7 SiO 2 .10,5 Al 2 O 3 . 35,8 MgO in %mol were produced from traditional melting. The first obtained were milled and sieved in the range of 45 a 63 μm. The material was used to produce glass microspheres by the gravitational fall method. The glass powder and the microspheres were characterized by X ray fluorescence spectrometry, laser diffraction, X ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy. After the thermal analyses, pellets were formed in the crucibles and were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X ray diffraction, and He pycnometry. The difference in the baseline was associated to the viscous flow sintering process and happens because of the decrease in the detected heat flow due to the sample shrinkage. Other events as concurrent crystallization with the sintering process were also studied. (author)

  2. Tritium inventory measurements by 'in-bed' gas flowing calorimetry

    Hayashi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Okuno, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the 'in-bed' tritium accounting technology for the ITER scale tritium storage system, a gas flowing calorimetry has been studied using a scaled ZrCo bed (25 g tritium capacity). The basic calorimetric characteristics, steady state temperature raise of He gas stream flowing through a secondary coil line fixed in the ZrCo tritide, was measured and correlated with the stored tritium inventory. The results shows that about 4 degrees raise of He stream temperature can be detected for each gram of tritium storage. The sensitivity of this calorimetry is about 0.05 g of tritium, calculated by 0.2 degrees of temperature sensor error. The accuracy is better than 0.25 g of tritium on 25 g storage, evaluated by 2 times of standard deviation from the repeat measurements. This accuracy of < 1% on full storage capacity is satisfied the target accountability to measure ± 1 gram of tritium on 100 g storage for ITER. 13 refs., 7 figs

  3. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  4. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  5. Granular Silo collapse: an experimental study

    Clement, Eric; Gutierriez, Gustavo; Boltenhagen, Philippe; Lanuza, Jose

    2008-03-01

    We present an experimental work that develop some basic insight into the pre-buckling behavior and the buckling transition toward plastic collapse of a granular silo. We study different patterns of deformation generated on thin paper cylindrical shells during granular discharge. We study the collapse threshold for different bed height, flow rates and grain sizes. We compare the patterns that appear during the discharge of spherical beads, with those obtained in the axially compressed cylindrical shells. When the height of the granular column is close to the collapse threshold, we describe a ladder like pattern that rises around the cylinder surface in a spiral path of diamond shaped localizations, and develops into a plastic collapsing fold that grows around the collapsing silo.

  6. Statistical mechanics of dense granular media

    Coniglio, A; Fierro, A; Nicodemi, M; Ciamarra, M Pica; Tarzia, M

    2005-01-01

    We discuss some recent results on the statistical mechanics approach to dense granular media. In particular, by analytical mean field investigation we derive the phase diagram of monodisperse and bidisperse granular assemblies. We show that 'jamming' corresponds to a phase transition from a 'fluid' to a 'glassy' phase, observed when crystallization is avoided. The nature of such a 'glassy' phase turns out to be the same as found in mean field models for glass formers. This gives quantitative evidence for the idea of a unified description of the 'jamming' transition in granular media and thermal systems, such as glasses. We also discuss mixing/segregation transitions in binary mixtures and their connections to phase separation and 'geometric' effects

  7. 76 FR 8774 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan

    2011-02-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-386 (Third Review)] Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... revocation of the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan would be likely...

  8. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  9. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  10. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    Luding, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  11. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  12. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.

    2012-01-01

    granular contact dynamics formulation uses an implicit time discretization, thus allowing for large time steps. Moreover, in the limit of an infinite time step, the general dynamic formulation reduces to a static formulation that is useful in simulating common quasi-static problems such as triaxial tests...... is developed and it is concluded that the associated sliding rule, in the context of granular contact dynamics, may be viewed as an artifact of the time discretization and that the use of an associated flow rule at the particle scale level generally is physically acceptable. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  13. Tracing Thermal Creep Through Granular Media

    Steinpilz, Tobias; Teiser, Jens; Koester, Marc; Schywek, Mathias; Wurm, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    A temperature gradient within a granular medium at low ambient pressure drives a gas flow through the medium by thermal creep. We measured the resulting air flow for a sample of glass beads with particle diameters between 290 μ m and 420 μ m for random close packing. Ambient pressure was varied between 1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The gas flow was quantified by means of tracer particles during parabolic flights. The flow varies systematically with pressure between 0.2 cm/s and 6 cm/s. The measured flow velocities are in quantitative agreement to model calculations that treat the granular medium as a collection of linear capillaries.

  14. Granular cells Tumor in the gastrointestinal tract

    Castano LL, Rodrigo; Gaitan B, Maria H; Juliao E, Fabian

    2005-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are ubiquitous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, are rare and asymptomatic and they are generally an incidental discovery at gastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy. In the gastrointestinal tract they are more frequently located in the esophagus, right colon and rectum, stomach, appendix, small intestine or biliopancreatic tract. This article describes three patients with four tumors of granular cells in rectum, esophagus (2 lesions) and appendix. It becomes special emphasis in their neural origin, their benign behavior that justifies the endoscopic resections or limited surgical excisions and the necessity of a pursuit for the possibility, although little, of malignant transformation

  15. Advanced ion beam calorimetry for the test facility ELISE

    Nocentini, R.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Ruf, B.; Wünderlich, D.; Bonomo, F.; Pimazzoni, A.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative ion source test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) is in operation since beginning of 2013 at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) in Garching bei München. The large radio frequency driven ion source of ELISE is about 1×1 m 2 in size (1/2 the ITER source) and can produce a plasma for up to 1 h. Negative ions can be extracted and accelerated by an ITER-like extraction system made of 3 grids with an area of 0.1 m 2 , for 10 s every 3 minutes. A total accelerating voltage of up to 60 kV is available, i.e. a maximum ion beam power of about 1.2 MW can be produced. ELISE is equipped with several beam diagnostic tools for the evaluation of the beam characteristics. In order to evaluate the beam properties with a high level of detail, a sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter has been installed in the test facility at the end of 2013, starting operation in January 2014. The diagnostic calorimeter is split into 4 copper plates with separate water calorimetry for each of the plates. Each calorimeter plate is made of 15×15 copper blocks, which act as many separate inertial calorimeters and are attached to a copper plate with an embedded cooling circuit. The block geometry and the connection with the cooling plate are optimized to accurately measure the time-averaged power of the 10 s ion beam. The surface of the blocks is covered with a black coating that allows infrared (IR) thermography which provides a 2D profile of the beam power density. In order to calibrate the IR thermography, 48 thermocouples are installed in as many blocks, arranged in two vertical and two horizontal rows. The paper describes the beam calorimetry in ELISE, including the methods used for the IR thermography, the water calorimetry and the analytical methods for beam profile evaluation. It is shown how the maximum beam inhomogeneity amounts to 13% in average. The beam divergence derived by IR thermography ranges between 1° and 4° and

  16. Offline Reconstruction Algorithms for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    Chen, Z; Meschi, Emilio; Scott, Edward John Titman; Seez, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The upgraded High Luminosity LHC, after the third Long Shutdown (LS3), will provide an instantaneous luminosity of $7.5 \\times 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (levelled), at theCollaboration price of extreme pileup of up to 200 interactions per crossing. Such extreme pileup poses significant challenges, in particular for forward calorimetry. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic and hadronic compartments. The electromagnetic and a large fraction of the hadronic portions will be based on hexagonal silicon sensors of 0.5 - 1 cm$^2$ cell size, with the remainder of the hadronic portion based on highly-segmented scintillators with SiPM readout. Offline clustering algorithms that make use of this extreme granularity require novel approaches to preserve the fine structure of showers and to be stable against pileup, wh...

  17. Hydroxylamine nitrate self-catalytic kinetics study with adiabatic calorimetry

    Liu Lijun [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wei Chunyang [BASF Corporation, Wyandotte, MI 48192 (United States); Guo Yuyan; Rogers, William J. [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Sam Mannan, M. [Mary Kay O' Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)], E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu

    2009-03-15

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is an important member of the hydroxylamine compound family with applications that include equipment decontamination in the nuclear industry and aqueous or solid propellants. Due to its instability and autocatalytic behavior, HAN has been involved in several incidents at the Hanford and Savannah River Site (SRS) [Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate, US Department of Energy, 1998]. Much research has been conducted on HAN in different areas, such as combustion mechanism, decomposition mechanism, and runaway behavior. However, the autocatalytic decomposition behavior of HAN at runaway stage has not been fully addressed due to its highly exothermic and rapid decomposition behavior. This work is focused on extracting HAN autocatalytic kinetics and analyzing HAN critical behavior from adiabatic calorimetry measurements. A lumped autocatalytic kinetic model for HAN and associated model parameters are determined. Also the storage and handling critical conditions of diluted HAN solution without metal presence are quantified.

  18. Review of MEMS differential scanning calorimetry for biomolecular study

    Yu, Shifeng; Wang, Shuyu; Lu, Ming; Zuo, Lei

    2017-12-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is one of the few techniques that allow direct determination of enthalpy values for binding reactions and conformational transitions in biomolecules. It provides the thermodynamics information of the biomolecules which consists of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy in a straightforward manner that enables deep understanding of the structure function relationship in biomolecules such as the folding/unfolding of protein and DNA, and ligand bindings. This review provides an up to date overview of the applications of DSC in biomolecular study such as the bovine serum albumin denaturation study, the relationship between the melting point of lysozyme and the scanning rate. We also introduce the recent advances of the development of micro-electro-mechanic-system (MEMS) based DSCs.

  19. On the Interpretation of Low Temperature Calorimetry Data

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    The effect of selected factors and phenomena on Low Temperature Calorimetry (LTC) results has been investigated, in order to determine the possibilities and limitations of using LTC for characterisation of the porosity of cement-based materials. LTC was carried out on a model material with mono......-sized pores of approximately 14 nm saturated with either distilled water or a sodium chloride solution, as well as on water, the salt solution, and an artificial pore solution, alone. It was found that supercooling is unavoidable during the liquid-solid phase transition, and that even at low temperature...... to limit transport of liquid, whereas heating should be undertaken at a low rate to limit the effect of non-equilibrium....

  20. Probing Free-Energy Surfaces with Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.

    2011-05-01

    Many aspects of protein folding can be understood in terms of projections of the highly dimensional energy landscape onto a few (or even only one) particularly relevant coordinates. These free-energy surfaces can be probed conveniently from experimental differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, as DSC provides a direct relation with the protein partition function. Free-energy surfaces thus obtained are consistent with two fundamental scenarios predicted by the energy-landscape perspective: (a) well-defined macrostates separated by significant free-energy barriers, in some cases, and, in many other cases, (b) marginal or even vanishingly small barriers, which furthermore show a good correlation with kinetics for fast- and ultrafast-folding proteins. Overall, the potential of DSC to assess free-energy surfaces for a wide variety of proteins makes it possible to address fundamental issues, such as the molecular basis of the barrier modulations produced by natural selection in response to functional requirements or to ensure kinetic stability.

  1. Hydroxylamine nitrate self-catalytic kinetics study with adiabatic calorimetry

    Liu Lijun; Wei Chunyang; Guo Yuyan; Rogers, William J.; Sam Mannan, M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is an important member of the hydroxylamine compound family with applications that include equipment decontamination in the nuclear industry and aqueous or solid propellants. Due to its instability and autocatalytic behavior, HAN has been involved in several incidents at the Hanford and Savannah River Site (SRS) [Technical Report on Hydroxylamine Nitrate, US Department of Energy, 1998]. Much research has been conducted on HAN in different areas, such as combustion mechanism, decomposition mechanism, and runaway behavior. However, the autocatalytic decomposition behavior of HAN at runaway stage has not been fully addressed due to its highly exothermic and rapid decomposition behavior. This work is focused on extracting HAN autocatalytic kinetics and analyzing HAN critical behavior from adiabatic calorimetry measurements. A lumped autocatalytic kinetic model for HAN and associated model parameters are determined. Also the storage and handling critical conditions of diluted HAN solution without metal presence are quantified

  2. Novel investigation of enzymatic biodiesel reaction by isothermal calorimetry

    Søtoft, Lene Fjerbaek; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud V.

    2010-01-01

    Isothermal calorimetry (ITC) was used to investigate solvent-free enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40 °C. The aim of the study was to determine reaction enthalpy for the enzymatic...... transesterification and to elucidate the mass transfer and energetic processes taking place. Based on the measured enthalpy and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40 °C for the two systems was determined as −9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and −9.3 ± 0.7 k...

  3. Prospects for and tests of hadron calorimetry with silicon

    Brau, J.E.; Gabriel, T.A.; Rancoita, P.G.

    1989-03-01

    Hadron calorimetry with silicon may provide crucial capabilities in experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future, particularly due to silicon's fast intrinsic speed and absolute calibration. The important underlying processes of our understanding of hadron calorimeters are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, the ratio of the most probable electron signal to hadron signal (e/h) is ∼1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. An experimental test of these predictions is underway at CERN by the SICAPO Collaboration. 64 refs., 19 figs

  4. Liquid argon calorimetry with LHC-performance specifications

    Gianotti, F.; Battistoni, G.; Camin, D.; Cavalli, D.; Costa, G.; Ferrari, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mazzanti, M.; Perini, L.; Pessina, G.; Aubert, B.; Bazan, A.; Beaugiraud, B.; Cavanna, F.; Colas, J.; Lebeau, M.; Leflour, T.; LeMarec, J.C.; Maire, M.; Petitpas, P.; Thion, J.; Vialle, J.P.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Gordon, H.A.; Polychronakos, V.; Radeka, V.; Rahm, D.; Stephani, D.; Baisin, L.; Berset, J.C.; Chevalley, J.L.; Fabjan, C.W.; Franz, A.; Farthouat, P.; Gildemeister, O.; Jenni, P.; Lefebvre, M.; Marin, C.P.; Nessi, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pepe, M.; Polesello, G.; Richter, W.; Sigrist, A.; Stevenson, G.R.; Willis, W.J.; Baze, J.M.; Gosset, L.; Lavocat, P.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Renardy, J.F.; Teiger, J.; Zaccone, H.; Auge, E.; Chase, R.L.; Chollet, J.C.; La Taille, C. de; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Guilhem, G.; Hrisoho, A.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Jean, P.; Merkel, B.; Noppe, J.M.; Parrour, G.; Petroff, P.; Repellin, J.P.; Schaffer, A.; Seguin, N.; Veillet, J.J.; Fuglesang, C.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geometry liquid argon calorimeter with accordion-shaped electrodes and converter plates has been recently conceived. Such a design allows for a fast readout and for a high granularity over large volumes with minimal dead spaces, properties which are considered essential for operation at the future hadron colliders. The first electromagnetic prototype based on this scheme has been built and tested at the CERN SPS. For a response peaking time of 140 ns an energy resolution of 10%/√E(GeV) and a space resolution of 4.4 mm/√E(GeV) with 2.7 cm cell size were achieved for electrons. A few preliminary results from a test with fast readout (response peaking time of less than 40 ns) are also presented. (orig.)

  5. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''

  6. Granular Gas in a Periodic Lattice

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration [image omitted] of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low…

  7. Pion showers in highly granular calorimeters

    New results on properties of hadron showers created by pion beam at 8–80 GeV in high granular electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters are presented. Data were used for the first time to investigate the separation of the neutral and charged hadron showers. The result is important to verify the prediction of the PFA ...

  8. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  9. Vortex jamming in superconductors and granular rheology

    Yoshino, Hajime; Nogawa, Tomoaki; Kim, Bongsoo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a highly frustrated anisotropic Josephson junction array (JJA) on a square lattice exhibits a zero-temperature jamming transition, which shares much in common with those in granular systems. Anisotropy of the Josephson couplings along the horizontal and vertical directions plays roles similar to normal load or density in granular systems. We studied numerically static and dynamic response of the system against shear, i.e. injection of external electric current at zero temperature. Current-voltage curves at various strength of the anisotropy exhibit universal scaling features around the jamming point much as do the flow curves in granular rheology, shear-stress versus shear-rate. It turns out that at zero temperature the jamming transition occurs right at the isotropic coupling and anisotropic JJA behaves as exotic fragile vortex matter: it behaves as a superconductor (vortex glass) in one direction, whereas it is a normal conductor (vortex liquid) in the other direction even at zero temperature. Furthermore, we find a variant of the theoretical model for the anisotropic JJA quantitatively reproduces universal master flow-curves of the granular systems. Our results suggest an unexpected common paradigm stretching over seemingly unrelated fields-the rheology of soft materials and superconductivity.

  10. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  11. Deposition and shaking of dry granular piles

    Hasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    A friction force model describing reversible stick-slip transition during contact has been developed with the special purpose to simulate the deposition of granular material. A test with a mass on a conveyor belt kept in position by a spring shows that a numerical simulation of the dynamics of such

  12. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TREATMENT

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment is a physicochemical process that removes a wide variety of contaminants by adsorbing them from liquid and gas streams [1, p. 6-3]. This treatment is most commonly used to separate organic contaminants from water or air; however, it can b...

  13. Velocity distributions in dilute granular systems

    van Zon, J.S.; Mac Kintosh, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the idea that velocity distributions in granular gases are determined mainly by η, the coefficient of restitution and q, which measures the relative importance of heating (or energy input) to collisions. To this end, we study by numerical simulation the properties of inelastic gases

  14. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Christoph von Klot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  15. Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals

    Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.

    2017-10-01

    The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.

  16. The critical current of granular superconductor

    Ignat'ev, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism of hyper vortex pinning in granular superconductors is proposed to describe the field dependence of the critical current density and pinning potential. The results are in a good agreement with the experiment. The model represents the peak effect and the percolation mechanism of conductivity in ceramic superconductors

  17. PREFACE: XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR2012)

    Akchurin, Nural

    2012-12-01

    from Cells to Cities - a Physicist's Search for Quantitative, Unified Theories of Biological and Social Structure and Dynamics,' inspired many interesting questions from the audience both after the talk and throughout the week during informal conversations. Calorimetry is extremely diverse: many different techniques may be employed in building the detector and also in extracting information from it. The topics of the Calorimeter Techniques sessions included high-rate liquid argon calorimeters, SiPM sensors, highly granular digital calorimeters, new crystals, and beam test and simulation results. In these pages, you will find exciting and sometimes contradicting points of view expressed, for example about fully sampling hadronic calorimeters. A rare astronomical event, the Venus transit, coincided with the second day of the conference. The participants enjoyed viewing Venus' trail across the sun with a solar telescope (H-alpha line at 656 nm). In Santa Fe, the interior ingress was at 16:23:04 and reached center at 19:27:04. The last transit occurred in 2004, and the next one will happen in 2117. In 1627, Johannes Kepler published data about the planetary orbits that predicted that Venus would pass directly between earth and the sun in 1631. Unfortunately Kepler died in 1630 and apparently nobody recorded the 1631 transit. The first recorded observation of a transit was in 1638, which Kepler had not predicted. Later, Jeremiah Horracks, an English astronomer, realized Kepler had made an error in his calculations. It was not until the Venus transit observations of 1769 that scientists measured the distance from the earth to the sun to be 95 million miles (actually 93 million miles or 149.7 million kilometers) based on the 1716 triangulation suggestion from Edmund Halley (of comet fame). It's interesting to remember that before the 18th century, one of the most vexing scientific puzzles, not unlike today's Higgs boson quest, was 'How far away is the Sun?' Although natural

  18. Thermodynamics of biphasic lanthanide extraction by tripodal diglycolamide: a solution calorimetry study

    Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, Willem; Rao, L.

    2016-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was employed for the direct measurement of the enthalpy of extraction (ΔHextr) of Eu(NO3)3 by using a tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) ligand dissolved in n-dodecane containing 5% (v/v) 2-decanol. The enthalpy of extraction obtained by titration calorimetry was in good

  19. An investigation of calibration methods for solution calorimetry.

    Yff, Barbara T S; Royall, Paul G; Brown, Marc B; Martin, Gary P

    2004-01-28

    Solution calorimetry has been used in a number of varying applications within pharmaceutical research as a technique for the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical materials, such as quantifying small degrees of amorphous content, identifying polymorphs and investigating interactions between drugs and carbohydrates or proteins and carbohydrates. A calibration test procedure is necessary to validate the instrumentation; a few of the suggested calibration reactions are the enthalpies of solution associated with dissolving Tris in 0.1 M HCl or NaCl, KCl or propan-1-ol in water. In addition, there are a number of different methods available to determine enthalpies of solution from the experimental data provided by the calorimeter, for example, the Regnault-Pfaundler's method, a graphical extrapolation based on the Dickinson method, or a manual integration-based method. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate how each of these methods influences the values for the enthalpy of solution. Experiments were performed according to the method outlined by Hogan and Buckton [Int. J. Pharm. 207 (2000) 57] using KCl (samples of 50, 100 and 200 mg), Tris and sucrose as calibrants. For all three materials the manual integration method was found to be the most consistent with the KCl in water (sample mass of 200 mg) being the most precise. Thus, this method is recommended for the validation of solution calorimeters.

  20. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management (Sweden); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  1. Isothermal reaction calorimetry as a tool for kinetic analysis

    Zogg, Andreas; Stoessel, Francis; Fischer, Ulrich; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Reaction calorimetry has found widespread application for thermal and kinetic analysis of chemical reactions in the context of thermal process safety as well as process development. This paper reviews the most important reaction calorimetric principles (heat-flow, heat-balance, power-compensation, and Peltier principle) and their applications in commercial or scientific devices. The discussion focuses on the different dynamic behavior of the main calorimetric principles during an isothermal reaction measurement. Examples of available reaction calorimeters are further compared considering their detection limit, time constant as well as temperature range. In a second part, different evaluation methods for the isothermally measured calorimetric data are reviewed and discussed. The methods will be compared, focusing especially on the fact that reaction calorimetric data always contains additional informations not directly related to the actual chemical reaction such as heat of mixing, heat of phase-transfer/change processes or simple measurement errors. Depending on the evaluation method applied such disturbances have a significant influence on the calculated reaction enthalpies or rate constants

  2. Thermodynamic properties of soddyite from solubility and calorimetry measurements

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Mazeina, Lena; Fein, Jeremy B.; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C.; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    The release of uranium from geologic nuclear waste repositories under oxidizing conditions can only be modeled if the thermodynamic properties of the secondary uranyl minerals that form in the repository setting are known. Toward this end, we synthesized soddyite ((UO 2 ) 2 (SiO 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ), and performed solubility measurements from both undersaturation and supersaturation. The solubility measurements rigorously constrain the value of the solubility product of synthetic soddyite, and consequently its standard-state Gibbs free energy of formation. The log solubility product (lg K sp ) with its error (1σ) is (6.43 + 0.20/-0.37), and the standard-state Gibbs free energy of formation is (-3652.2 ± 4.2 (2σ)) kJ mol -1 . High-temperature drop solution calorimetry was conducted, yielding a calculated standard-state enthalpy of formation of soddyite of (-4045.4 ± 4.9 (2σ)) kJ . mol -1 . The standard-state Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of formation yield a calculated standard-state entropy of formation of soddyite of (-1318.7 ± 21.7 (2σ)) J . mol -1 . K -1 . The measurements and associated thermodynamic calculations not only describe the T = 298 K stability and solubility of soddyite, but they also can be used in predictions of repository performance through extrapolation of these properties to repository temperatures

  3. Test of calorimetry for high burn-up plutonium

    Beets, C.; Carchon, R.; Fettweis, P.

    1984-01-01

    In recent times, the interest of applying calorimetry for safeguards purpose is steadily increasing. Calorimetric measurements have been performed on a set of high burn-up (25000 MWd/t) Pu samples, ranging in mass between 60 g and 2.5 kg Pu, distributed as PuO 2 powder embedded in stainless steel containers. The powers produced by these containers ranged between 0.8 W and 36 W. The calorimeter used was the Mound 150 type, and the isotopics and the Am content have been determined earlier by mass spectroscopy, completed with α and γ counting, and were later verified by the same methods. Watts/gram measurements were made on twelve 60 g samples of the same plutonium lot to demonstrate the Pu elemental and isotopic homogeneity, and hence, its suitability for subsequent NDA experiments. These samples were also measured in a stacked way to fill up the mass and wattage gaps between 60 g (0.8W) and 1 kg (14W). Calorimetric assay values, obtained with both isotopic measurements are discussed

  4. Prospects for and tests of hadron calorimetry with silicon

    Brau, James E. [Univ. of Oregon, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gabriel, Tony A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rancoita, P. G. [INFN, Milan (Italy)

    1989-03-01

    Hadron calorimetry with silicon may provide crucial capabilities in experiments at the high luminosity, high energy colliders of the future, particularly due to silicon's fast intrinsic speed and absolute calibration. The important underlying processes of our understanding of hadron calorimeters are reviewed to set the framework for the presentation of recent calculations of the expected performance of silicon detector based hadron calorimeters. Such devices employing uranium are expected to achieve the compensation condition (that is, the ratio of the most probable electron signal to hadron signal (e/h) is approx.1.0) based on the understanding that has been derived from the uranium-liquid argon and uranium-plastic scintillator systems. In fact, even lead-silicon calorimeters are found to achieve the attractive value for the e/h ratio of 1.16 at 10 GeV. An experimental test of these predictions is underway at CERN by the SICAPO Collaboration. 64 refs., 19 figs.

  5. Novel Technique for Quantitative Fast Scanning Calorimetry on Electrospun Fibers

    Thomas, David; Govinna, Nelaka; Schick, Christoph; Cebe, Peggy

    Fast scanning chip calorimetry allows for the study of polymers which have rapid nucleation and/or crystallization kinetics, or degrade within their melting range. Heating rates used, up to 4000 K/s, allow studies of hetero and homogeneous nucleation at time scales inaccessible with conventional calorimeters, whose rates are typically alcohol (PVA) were chosen in the development of a new methodology to obtain quantitative fast scanning thermal data from electrospun nanofibers using a Flash DSC1. The structure of nanofibers requires special methods to load nanogram-sized samples onto a UFSC1 sensor. Fibers were directly spun onto TEM grids which provide a durable substrate to support bundles of nanofibers and possess excellent thermal conductivity allowing for a strong, repeatable signal and ensure good sample to sensor contact. As spun samples were held isothermally at temperatures ranging from Tg to Tm then heated at 2,000 K/s to assess as-spun crystallinity and cold crystallization behaviors. Above Tm the fibers break up into micro- and nano-droplets. On these samples, melt crystallization experiments were performed to study nucleation and crystallization of polymer confined to nanodroplet morphology. NSF DMR-1608125.

  6. Study of Liquid Argon Dopants for LHC Hadron Calorimetry

    2002-01-01

    Hadron calorimetry based on the Liquid Argon Ionisation Chamber technique is one of the choice techniques for LHC-experimentation. A systematic study of the effect of selected dopants on Liquid Argon (LAr) will be carried out with the aim to achieve an improvement on: \\item (i)~``Fast Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the drift velocity. It has been already shown that CH&sub4. added at a fraction of one percent increases the drift velocity by a factor of two or more. \\item (ii)~``Compensated Liquid Argon'' search and study of dopants to increase the response to densely ionising particles, resulting in improved compensation, such as photosensitive dopants. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ Monitoring of the parameters involved in understanding the response of a calorimeter is essential. In case of doped LAr, the charge yield, the non-saturated drift velocity and the electron lifetime in the liquid should be precisely and simultaneously monitored as they all vary with the level of dopant concentrati...

  7. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  8. An automata model of granular materials

    Gutt, G.M.; Haff, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new modeling technique (the Lattice Grain Model) is presented for the simulation of two-dimensional granular systems involving large numbers of grains. These granular systems may include both high shear rate regions as well as static plugs of grains and cannot easily be handled within the framework of existing continuum theories such as soil mechanics. The Lattice Grain Model (LGrM) is similar to the Lattice Gas Model (LBM). This allows large simulations to be programmed onto a hypercube concurrent processor in a straightforward manner. However, it differs from LBM in that it includes the inelastic collisions and volume-filling properties of macroscopic grains. Examples to be presented will include Couette flow, flow through an hourglass, and gravity-driven flows around obstacles

  9. Submammary Granular Parakeratosis Treated With Mastopexy.

    Nelson, Garrett; Lien, Mary H; Messina, Jane L; Ranjit, Sonali; Fenske, Neil Alan

    2017-08-01

    Granular parakeratosis, originally named axillary granular parakeratosis, is an uncommon disease with an unclear etiology. It is thought to result from defective processing of profillagrin to fillagrin, causing retention of keratohyaline granules in the epidermis. A myriad of causative factors has been proposed, including friction, moisture, heat, and contact irritants such as deodorants. We present a case in the inframammary area that resolved with mastopexy, further supporting the role of friction, moisture, and heat. Furthermore, we present electron microscopic evidence demonstrating non-degraded keratohyaline granules upon epidermal maturation. This entity, we believe, is reactive and represents a protective response of the body to moisture and heat. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(8):810-812..

  10. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  11. Memory effect in uniformly heated granular gases

    Trizac, E.; Prados, A.

    2014-07-01

    We evidence a Kovacs-like memory effect in a uniformly driven granular gas. A system of inelastic hard particles, in the low density limit, can reach a nonequilibrium steady state when properly forced. By following a certain protocol for the drive time dependence, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature coincides with its long time value. The temperature subsequently does not remain constant but exhibits a nonmonotonic evolution with either a maximum or a minimum, depending on the dissipation and on the protocol. We present a theoretical analysis of this memory effect at Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation level and show that when dissipation exceeds a threshold, the response can be called anomalous. We find excellent agreement between the analytical predictions and direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Tumor of granular cells of esophagus

    Gonzalez Fabian, Licet; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Perez de la Torre, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    Granular cells tumors are rare and asymptomatic lesions and by general, it is an incidental finding en high or low endoscopy. They were described for the first time by Abrikossoff in 1926. The more frequent locations are the buccal mucosa, dermis and subcutaneous cellular tissue, most of these tumors has a benign origin. This is the case of a woman aged 44 with a pyrosis history from a year ago; by high endoscopy it is noted a 8 mm lesion distal to esophagus and confirmed by histological study of granular cells tumor. Elective treatment of this lesion is the endoscopic polypectomy. Despite that the malign potential is low; we suggested a close clinical and endoscopic follow-up.

  13. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  14. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  15. Granularity controlled irradiation response of cuprate superconductors

    Mishra, N.C.; Behera, D.; Mohanty, T.; Mohanta, D.; Kanjilal, D.; Mehta, G.K.; Pinto, R.

    1999-01-01

    Confining to an energy range where ions can neither create defects through elastic energy loss nor they can create defects through latent track formation, we study the effect of 140 MeV Si-ion irradiation in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO). We show that the evolution of superconducting and normal state properties in such situation is largely governed by the initial defects structure, particularly the grain boundary characteristics of the YBCO system. Both intra- and inter-granular defect structure in films of two batches were made widely different by having Ag as composite and substituent in one and by aging the other prior to irradiation. Evolution of the resistivity vs temperature characteristics in these films with ion fluence reveals the importance of Ag in bringing about both inter- and intra-granular modifications and making the films insensitive to ion irradiation

  16. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    Hill, James M

    2005-01-01

    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  17. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  18. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Zamyatin Nikolaj; Smirnov Gennadij; Fedorchuk Yuri; Rusina Olga

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy infer...

  19. Arching Structures in Granular Sedimentary Deposits

    Kulaviak, Lukáš; Hladil, Jindřich; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří; Saint-Lary, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 246, SEP (2013), s. 269-277 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1110; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11014 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : wet granulars * deposit * arching structure Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; DB - Geology ; Mineralogy (GLU-S) Impact factor: 2.269, year: 2013

  20. Seismic wave propagation in granular media

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  1. Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow

    Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.

  2. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  3. Small solar system bodies as granular systems

    Hestroffer, Daniel; Campo Bagatín, Adriano; Losert, Wolfgang; Opsomer, Eric; Sánchez, Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Staron, Lydie; Taberlet, Nicolas; Yano, Hajime; Eggl, Siegfried; Lecomte, Charles-Edouard; Murdoch, Naomi; Radjai, Fahrang; Richardson, Derek C.; Salazar, Marcos; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Tanga, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Asteroids and other Small Solar System Bodies (SSSBs) are currently of great scientific and even industrial interest. Asteroids exist as the permanent record of the formation of the Solar System and therefore hold many clues to its understanding as a whole, as well as insights into the formation of planetary bodies. Additionally, SSSBs are being investigated in the context of impact risks for the Earth, space situational awareness and their possible industrial exploitation (asteroid mining). In all these aspects, the knowledge of the geophysical characteristics of SSSB surface and internal structure are of great importance. Given their size, constitution, and the evidence that many SSSBs are not simple monoliths, these bodies should be studied and modelled as self-gravitating granular systems in general, or as granular systems in micro-gravity environments in particular contexts. As such, the study of the geophysical characteristics of SSSBs is a multi-disciplinary effort that lies at the crossroads between Granular Mechanics, Celestial Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Aerospace Engineering and Computer Sciences.

  4. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  5. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il; Yim, Mansung

    2014-01-01

    129 I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10 7 years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of 129 I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous 129 I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing 129 I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping 129 I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling

  6. Propulsion via flexible flapping in granular media

    Peng, Zhiwei; Ding, Yang; Pietrzyk, Kyle; Elfring, Gwynn; Pak, On Shun

    2017-11-01

    Biological locomotion in nature is often achieved by the interaction between a flexible body and its surrounding medium. The interaction of a flexible body with granular media is less understood compared with viscous fluids partially due to its complex rheological properties. In this work, we explore the effect of flexibility on granular propulsion by considering a simple mechanical model in which a rigid rod is connected to a torsional spring that is under a displacement actuation using a granular resistive force theory. Through a combined numerical and asymptotic investigation, we characterize the propulsive dynamics of such a flexible flapper in relation to the actuation amplitude and spring stiffness, and we compare these dynamics with those observed in a viscous fluid. In addition, we demonstrate that the maximum possible propulsive force can be obtained in the steady propulsion limit with a finite spring stiffness and large actuation amplitude. These results may apply to the development of synthetic locomotive systems that exploit flexibility to move through complex terrestrial media. Funding for Z.P. and Y.D. was partially provided by NSFC 394 Grant No. 11672029 and NSAF-NSFC Grant No. U1530401.

  7. Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models

    Mohammed M. Eissa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Medical domain has become one of the most important areas of research in order to richness huge amounts of medical information about the symptoms of diseases and how to distinguish between them to diagnose it correctly. Knowledge discovery models play vital role in refinement and mining of medical indicators to help medical experts to settle treatment decisions. This paper introduces four hybrid Rough – Granular Computing knowledge discovery models based on Rough Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithm and Rough Mereology Theory. A comparative analysis of various knowledge discovery models that use different knowledge discovery techniques for data pre-processing, reduction, and data mining supports medical experts to extract the main medical indicators, to reduce the misdiagnosis rates and to improve decision-making for medical diagnosis and treatment. The proposed models utilized two medical datasets: Coronary Heart Disease dataset and Hepatitis C Virus dataset. The main purpose of this paper was to explore and evaluate the proposed models based on Granular Computing methodology for knowledge extraction according to different evaluation criteria for classification of medical datasets. Another purpose is to make enhancement in the frame of KDD processes for supervised learning using Granular Computing methodology.

  8. Settling properties of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM)

    Mat Saad, Azlina; Aini Dahalan, Farrah; Ibrahim, Naimah; Yasina Yusuf, Sara; Aqlima Ahmad, Siti; Khalil, Khalilah Abdul

    2018-03-01

    Aerobic granulation technology is applied to treat domestic and industrial wastewater. The Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) cultivated has strong properties that appears to be denser and compact in physiological structure compared to the conventional activated sludge. It offers rapid settling for solid:liquid separation in wastewater treatment. Aerobic granules were developed using sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with intermittent aerobic - anaerobic mode with 8 cycles in 24 hr. This study examined the settling velocity performance of cultivated aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and aerobic granular sludge molasses (AGSM). The elemental composition in both AGS and AGSM were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The results showed that AGSM has higher settling velocity 30.5 m/h compared to AGS.

  9. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Yang, Geng Chao; Kwok, Chung Yee; Sobral, Yuri Dumaresq

    2017-06-01

    Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and discrete element method (DEM). It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  10. The role of fluid viscosity in an immersed granular collapse

    Yang Geng Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instabilities of immersed slopes and cliffs can lead to catastrophic events that involve a sudden release of huge soil mass. The scaled deposit height and runout distance are found to follow simple power laws when a granular column collapses on a horizontal plane. However, if the granular column is submerged in a fluid, the mobility of the granular collapse due to high inertia effects will be reduced by fluid-particle interactions. In this study, the effects of fluid viscosity on granular collapse is investigated qualitatively by adopting a numerical approach based on the coupled lattice Boltzmann method (LBM and discrete element method (DEM. It is found that the granular collapse can be dramatically slowed down due to the presence of viscous fluids. For the considered granular configuration, when the fluid viscosity increases. the runout distance decreases and the final deposition shows a larger deposit angle.

  11. Silk I and Silk II studied by fast scanning calorimetry

    Cebe, Peggy; Partlow, Benjamin P.; Kaplan, David L.; Wurm, Andreas; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schick, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Using fast scanning calorimetry (FSC), we investigated the glass transition and crystal melting of samples of B. mori silk fibroin containing Silk I and/or Silk II crystals. Due to the very short residence times at high temperatures during such measurements, thermal decomposition of silk protein can be significantly suppressed. FSC was performed at 2000 K/s using the Mettler Flash DSC1 on fibroin films with masses around 130–270 ng. Films were prepared with different crystalline fractions (ranging from 0.26 to 0.50) and with different crystal structures (Silk I, Silk II, or mixed) by varying the processing conditions. These included water annealing at different temperatures, exposure to 50% MeOH in water, or autoclaving. The resulting crystal structure was examined using wide angle X-ray scattering. Degree of crystallinity was evaluated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and from analysis of the heat capacity increment at the glass transition temperature. Silk fibroin films prepared by water annealing at 25 °C were the least crystalline and had Silk I structure. FTIR and FSC studies showed that films prepared by autoclaving or 50% MeOH exposure were the most crystalline and had Silk II structure. Intermediate crystalline fraction and mixed Silk I/Silk II structures were found in films prepared by water annealing at 37 °C. FSC results indicate that Silk II crystals exhibit endotherms of narrower width and have higher mean melting temperature Tm(II) = 351 ± 2.6 °C, compared to Silk I crystals which melt at Tm(I) = 292 ± 3.8 °C. Films containing mixed Silk I/Silk II structure showed two clearly separated endothermic peaks. Evidence suggests that the two types of crystals melt separately and do not thermally interconvert on the extremely short time scale (0.065 s between onset and end of melting) of the FSC experiment.

  12. Laser-Driven Calorimetry Measurements of Petroleum and Biodiesel Fuels.

    Presser, Cary; Nazarian, Ashot; Millo, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Thermochemical characteristics were determined for several National Institute of Standards and Technology standard-reference-material petroleum and biodiesel fuels, using a novel laser-heating calorimetry technique. Measurements focused on the sample thermal behavior, specific heat release rate, and total specific heat release. The experimental apparatus consists of a copper sphere-shaped reactor mounted within a chamber, along with laser-beam-steering optical components, gas-supply manifold, and a computer-controlled data-acquisition system. At the center of the reactor, liquid sample is injected onto a copper pan substrate that rests and is in contact with a fine-wire thermocouple. A second thermocouple is in contact with the inner reactor sphere surface. The reactor is heated from opposing sides by a continuous-wave, near-infrared laser to achieve nearly uniform sample temperature. The change in temperature with time (thermogram) is recorded for both thermocouples, and compared to a baseline thermogram (without liquid in the pan). The thermograms are then processed (using an equation for thermal energy conservation) for the thermochemical information of interest. The results indicated that the energy reaching the pan is dominated by radiative heat transfer processes, while the dominant thermal process for the reactor sphere is the stored (internal) thermal energy within the sphere material. Sufficient laser power is necessary to detect the fuel thermal-related characteristics, and the required power can differ from one fuel to another. With sufficient laser power, one can detect the preferential vaporization of the lighter and heavier fuel fractions. The total specific heat release obtained for the different conventional and biodiesel fuels used in this investigation were similar to the expected values available in the literature.

  13. Tunneling magnetoresistance in granular cermet films with particle size distribution

    Vovk, A.Ya.; Golub, V.O.; Malkinski, L.; Kravets, A.F.; Pogorily, A.M.; Shypil', O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The correlation between tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and field sensitivity (dMR/dH) for granular films (Co 50 Fe 50 ) x -(Al 2 O 3 ) 1-x was studied. The position of TMR maximum is shifted towards the lower x in the higher applied magnetic fields. Such a behavior was observed for metal granular nanocomposites but is first reported for granular cermets. However the highest dMR/dH was found for the compositions just below the percolation threshold

  14. Application of calorimetry and thermodynamics to critical problems in materials science

    Atake, Tooru

    2009-01-01

    Calorimetry and thermodynamic studies have long been playing a very important role in the research fields of fundamental science and technology. Some topics and examples of thermodynamics studies are given, and the details are explained on the basis of the present author's experience, focusing attention to application of adiabatic calorimetry and thermodynamics to solve critical problems in materials science: (1) condensed gas calorimetry and third law entropy, (2) phase transition and polymorphism in simple molecular crystals, (3) incommensurate phase transitions, (4) particle size effects on the phase transitions in ferroelectric/ferroelastic crystals, (5) relaxor ferroelectrics and multi-ferroics, and some other topics in materials science and technology

  15. Application of prediction of equilibrium to servo-controlled calorimetry measurements

    Mayer, R.L. II

    1987-01-01

    Research was performed to develop an endpoint prediction algorithm for use with calorimeters operating in the digital servo-controlled mode. The purpose of this work was to reduce calorimetry measurement times while maintaining the high degree of precision and low bias expected from calorimetry measurements. Data from routine operation of two calorimeters were used to test predictive models at each stage of development against time savings, precision, and robustness criteria. The results of the study indicated that calorimetry measurement times can be significantly reduced using this technique. The time savings is, however, dependent on parameters in the digital servo-control algorithm and on packaging characteristics of measured items

  16. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  17. Scintillator performance at low dose rates and low temperatures for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter for HL-LHC

    Ricci-Tam, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will integrate 10 times more luminosity than the LHC, posing significant challenges for radiation tolerance, especially for forward calorimetry, and highlights the issue for future colliders. As part of its HL-LHC upgrade program, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. The upgrade includes both electromagnetic and hadronic components, with the latter using a mixture of silicon sensors (in the highest radiation regions at high pseudorapidity) and scintillator as its active components. The scintillator will nevertheless receive large doses accumulated at low dose rates, and will have to operate at low temperature - around -30 degrees Celsius. We discuss measurements of scintillator radiation tolerance, from in-situ measurements from the current CMS endcap calorimeters, and from measurements at low temperature and low dose-rate at gamma sources in the laboratory.

  18. A high-granularity scintillator hadronic-calorimeter with SiPM readout for a linear collider detector

    Andreev, V.; Balagura, V; Bobchenko, B.

    2004-01-01

    We report upon the design, construction and operation of a prototype for a high-granularity tile hadronic calorimeter for a future international linear collider(ILC) detector. Scintillating tiles are read out via wavelength-shifting fibers which guides the scintillation light to a novel photodetector, the Silicon Photomultiplier. The prototype has been tested at DESY using a positron test beam. The results are compared with a reference prototype equipped with multichannel vacuum photomultipliers. Detector calibration, noise, linearity and stability are discussed, and the energy response in a 1-6 GeV positron beam is compared with simulation. The work presented serves to establish the application of SiPM for calorimetry, and leads to the choice of this device for the construction of a 1m 3 calorimeter prototype for tests in hadron beams. (orig.)

  19. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  20. Parallelism between gradient temperature raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry results

    Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy (TDR) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDR and D...

  1. Sensors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Maier, Andreas Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment is currently developing high granularity calorimeter endcapsfor its HL-LHC upgrade. The design foresees silicon sensors as the active material for the high radiation region close to the beampipe. Regions of lower radiation are additionally equipped with plastic scintillator tiles. This technology is similar to the calorimeter prototypes developed in the framework of the Linear Collider by the CALICE collaboration. The current status of the silicon sensor development is presented. Results of single diode measurements are shown as well as tests of full 6-inch hexagonal sensor wafers. A short summary of test beam results concludes the article.

  2. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  3. Modelling of dc characteristics for granular semiconductors

    Varpula, Aapo; Sinkkonen, Juha; Novikov, Sergey, E-mail: aapo.varpula@tkk.f [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, PO Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto, Espoo (Finland)

    2010-11-01

    The dc characteristics of granular n-type semiconductors are calculated analytically with the drift-diffusion theory. Electronic trapping at the grain boundaries (GBs) is taken into account. The use of quadratic and linear GB potential profiles in the calculation is compared. The analytical model is verified with numerical simulation performed by SILVACO ATLAS. The agreement between the analytical and numerical results is excellent in a large voltage range. The results show that electronic trapping at the GBs has a remarkable effect on the highly nonlinear I-V characteristics of the material.

  4. Special relativity induced by granular space

    Jizba, Petr; Scardigli, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    We show that the special relativistic dynamics, when combined with quantum mechanics and the concept of superstatistics, can be interpreted as arising from two interlocked non-relativistic stochastic processes that operate at different energy scales. This framework leads to Feynman amplitudes that are, in the Euclidean regime, identical to the transition probability of a Brownian particle propagating through a granular space. For illustration we consider the dynamics and the propagator of a Klein-Gordon particle. Implications for deformed special relativity, quantum field theory, quantum gravity and cosmology are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  6. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  7. Shock propagation in locally driven granular systems

    Joy, Jilmy P.; Pathak, Sudhir N.; Das, Dibyendu; Rajesh, R.

    2017-09-01

    We study shock propagation in a system of initially stationary hard spheres that is driven by a continuous injection of particles at the origin. The disturbance created by the injection of energy spreads radially outward through collisions between particles. Using scaling arguments, we determine the exponent characterizing the power-law growth of this disturbance in all dimensions. The scaling functions describing the various physical quantities are determined using large-scale event-driven simulations in two and three dimensions for both elastic and inelastic systems. The results are shown to describe well the data from two different experiments on granular systems that are similarly driven.

  8. On the velocity distributions of granular gases

    Polito, A.M.M.; Rocha Filho, T.M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine velocity distributions in granular gases to improve the Sonine polynomial expansion of the velocity distribution function, at higher inelasticities, for the homogeneous cooling regime of inelastic hard spheres. The perturbative consistency is recovered using a new set of dynamical variables based on the characteristic function and we illustrate our approach by computing the first four Sonine coefficients for moderate and high inelasticities. The analytical coefficients are compared with molecular dynamics simulations results and with a previous approach by Huthmann et al.

  9. Enzyme-catalyzed and binding reaction kinetics determined by titration calorimetry.

    Hansen, Lee D; Transtrum, Mark K; Quinn, Colette; Demarse, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Isothermal calorimetry allows monitoring of reaction rates via direct measurement of the rate of heat produced by the reaction. Calorimetry is one of very few techniques that can be used to measure rates without taking a derivative of the primary data. Because heat is a universal indicator of chemical reactions, calorimetry can be used to measure kinetics in opaque solutions, suspensions, and multiple phase systems and does not require chemical labeling. The only significant limitation of calorimetry for kinetic measurements is that the time constant of the reaction must be greater than the time constant of the calorimeter which can range from a few seconds to a few minutes. Calorimetry has the unique ability to provide both kinetic and thermodynamic data. This article describes the calorimetric methodology for determining reaction kinetics and reviews examples from recent literature that demonstrate applications of titration calorimetry to determine kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed and ligand binding reactions. A complete model for the temperature dependence of enzyme activity is presented. A previous method commonly used for blank corrections in determinations of equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for binding reactions is shown to be subject to significant systematic error. Methods for determination of the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and for simultaneous determination of thermodynamics and kinetics of ligand binding reactions are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Origin of the resistivity minima in granular superconductors

    Simanek, E.

    1982-01-01

    The recently observed minima in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of a granular superconductor are explained with use of a percolation model of a disordered granular array, which takes into account the electrostatic charging energy. The thermally activated tunneling of Cooper pairs is shown to play an important role in the interpretation of the experimental data on tin films

  11. Granular motor in the non-Brownian limit

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto Alejandra; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we experimentally study a granular rotor which is similar to the famous Smoluchowski–Feynman device and which consists of a rotor with four vanes immersed in a granular gas. Each side of the vanes can be composed of two different materials, creating a rotational asymmetry and turning

  12. Nonlinear instability and convection in a vertically vibrated granular bed

    Shukla, P.; Ansari, I.H.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Lohse, Detlef; Alam, M.

    2014-01-01

    The nonlinear instability of the density-inverted granular Leidenfrost state and the resulting convective motion in strongly shaken granular matter are analysed via a weakly nonlinear analysis of the hydrodynamic equations. The base state is assumed to be quasi-steady and the effect of harmonic

  13. Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The

  14. USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  15. Surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Woortman, A.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of surface effects in the acetylation of granular potato starch with acetic anhydride to degrees of substitution 0.04-0.2 was studied by two different approaches. The first approach involved the fractionation of granular starch acetates into five different size classes and analysis of

  16. Long-range interactions in dilute granular systems

    Müller, M.K

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, on purpose, we focussed on the most challenging, longest ranging potentials. We analyzed granular media of low densities obeying 1/r long-range interaction potentials between the granules. Such systems are termed granular gases and differ in their behavior from ordinary gases by

  17. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some electrical and mechanical properties for pure polyvinyl alcohol. A B Elaydy M Hafez ... Keywords. Polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA); granular strontium chloride, SrCl2; a.c. electrical conductivity; dielectric constant; dielectric loss; Young's modulus; creep relaxation curve.

  18. Large mid-esophageal granular cell tumor: benign versus malignant

    Prarthana Roselil Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumors are rare soft tissue neoplasms, among which only 2% are malignant, arising from nervous tissue. Here we present a case of a large esophageal granular cell tumor with benign histopathological features which metastasized to the liver, but showing on positron emission tomography-computerized tomography standardized uptake value suggestive of a benign lesion.

  19. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    Y. V. Hete; S. B. Gholase; R. U. Khope

    2012-01-01

    This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  20. Adsorption Study of Cobalt on Treated Granular Activated Carbon

    Y. V. Hete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried out for the removal of cobalt from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon in combination with p-nitro benzoic acid at temperature 25±1 °C. The adsorption isotherm of cobalt on granular activated carbon has been determined and the data fitted reasonably well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm for activated carbon.

  1. Density-Driven segregation in Binary and Ternary Granular Systems

    Windows-Yule, Kit; Parker, David

    2015-01-01

    We present a first experimental study of density-induced segregation within a three-dimensional, vibrofluidised, ternary granular system. Using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT), we study the steady-state particle distributions achieved by binary and ternary granular beds under a variety of

  2. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background  Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design  We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results  The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p  Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Picowatt Resolution Calorimetry for Micro and Nanoscale Energy Transport Studies

    Sadat, Seid H.

    Precise quantification of energy transport is key to obtaining insights into a wide range of phenomena across various disciplines including physics, chemistry, biology and engineering. This thesis describes technical advancements into heat-flow calorimetry which enable measurement of energy transport at micro and nanoscales with picowatt resolution. I have developed two types of microfabricated calorimeter devices and demonstrated single digit picowatt resolution at room temperature. Both devices incorporate two distinct features; an active area isolated by a thermal conductance (GTh) of less than 1 microW/K and a high resolution thermometer with temperature resolution (DeltaTres) in the micro kelvin regime. These features enable measurements of heat currents (q) with picowatt resolution (q= Th xDeltaTres). In the first device the active area is suspended via silicon nitride beams with excellent thermal isolation (~600 nW/K) and a bimaterial cantilever (BMC) thermometer with temperature resolution of ~6 microK. Taken together this design enabled calorimetric measurements with 4 pW resolution. In the second device, the BMC thermometry technique is replaced by a high-resolution resistance thermometry scheme. A detailed noise analysis of resistance thermometers, confirmed by experimental data, enabled me to correctly predict the resolution of different measurement schemes and propose techniques to achieve an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of resistive thermometers. By incorporating resistance thermometers with temperature resolution of ~30 microK, combined with a thermal isolation of ~150 nW/K, I demonstrated an all-electrical calorimeter device with a resolution of ~ 5 pW. Finally, I used these calorimeters to study Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer (NF-RHT). Using these devices, we studied--for the first time--the effect of film thickness on the NF-RHT between two dielectric surfaces. We showed that even a very thin film (~50 nm) of silicon

  4. Silk I and Silk II studied by fast scanning calorimetry.

    Cebe, Peggy; Partlow, Benjamin P; Kaplan, David L; Wurm, Andreas; Zhuravlev, Evgeny; Schick, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Using fast scanning calorimetry (FSC), we investigated the glass transition and crystal melting of samples of B. mori silk fibroin containing Silk I and/or Silk II crystals. Due to the very short residence times at high temperatures during such measurements, thermal decomposition of silk protein can be significantly suppressed. FSC was performed at 2000K/s using the Mettler Flash DSC1 on fibroin films with masses around 130-270ng. Films were prepared with different crystalline fractions (ranging from 0.26 to 0.50) and with different crystal structures (Silk I, Silk II, or mixed) by varying the processing conditions. These included water annealing at different temperatures, exposure to 50%MeOH in water, or autoclaving. The resulting crystal structure was examined using wide angle X-ray scattering. Degree of crystallinity was evaluated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and from analysis of the heat capacity increment at the glass transition temperature. Silk fibroin films prepared by water annealing at 25°C were the least crystalline and had Silk I structure. FTIR and FSC studies showed that films prepared by autoclaving or 50%MeOH exposure were the most crystalline and had Silk II structure. Intermediate crystalline fraction and mixed Silk I/Silk II structures were found in films prepared by water annealing at 37°C. FSC results indicate that Silk II crystals exhibit endotherms of narrower width and have higher mean melting temperature T m (II)=351±2.6°C, compared to Silk I crystals which melt at T m (I)=292±3.8°C. Films containing mixed Silk I/Silk II structure showed two clearly separated endothermic peaks. Evidence suggests that the two types of crystals melt separately and do not thermally interconvert on the extremely short time scale (0.065s between onset and end of melting) of the FSC experiment. Silkworm silk is a naturally occurring biomaterial. The fibroin component of silk forms two types of crystals. Silk properties depend upon the

  5. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt.

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  6. Lizard locomotion in heterogeneous granular media

    Schiebel, Perrin; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Locomotion strategies in heterogeneous granular environments (common substrates in deserts), are relatively unexplored. The zebra-tailed lizard (C. draconoides) is a useful model organism for such studies owing to its exceptional ability to navigate a variety of desert habitats at impressive speed (up to 50 body-lengths per second) using both quadrapedal and bidepal gaits. In laboratory experiments, we challenge the lizards to run across a field of boulders (2.54 cm diameter glass spheres or 3.8 cm 3D printed spheres) placed in a lattice pattern and embedded in a loosely packed granular medium of 0.3 mm diameter glass particles. Locomotion kinematics of the lizard are recorded using high speed cameras, with and without the scatterers. The data reveals that unlike the lizard's typical quadrupedal locomotion using a diagonal gait, when scatterers are present the lizard is most successful when using a bipedal gait, with a raised center of mass (CoM). We propose that the kinematics of bipedal running in conjunction with the lizard's long toes and compliant hind foot are the keys to this lizard's successful locomotion in the presence of such obstacles. NSF PoLS

  7. Wrinkles, folds, and plasticity in granular rafts

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protière, Suzie

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the mechanical response of a compressed monolayer of large and dense particles at a liquid-fluid interface: a granular raft. Upon compression, rafts first wrinkle; then, as the confinement increases, the deformation localizes in a unique fold. This characteristic buckling pattern is usually associated with floating elastic sheets, and as a result, particle laden interfaces are often modeled as such. Here, we push this analogy to its limits by comparing quantitative measurements of the raft morphology to a theoretical continuous elastic model of the interface. We show that, although powerful to describe the wrinkle wavelength, the wrinkle-to-fold transition, and the fold shape, this elastic description does not capture the finer details of the experiment. We describe an unpredicted secondary wavelength, a compression discrepancy with the model, and a hysteretic behavior during compression cycles, all of which are a signature of the intrinsic discrete and frictional nature of granular rafts. It suggests also that these composite materials exhibit both plastic transition and jamming dynamics.

  8. Large granular lymphocytic leukaemia pathogenesis and management.

    Dearden, Claire

    2011-02-01

    The WHO classification recognises three distinct disorders of large granular lymphocytes: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia (T-LGL), chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK-cells (CLPD-NK) and agressive NK-cell leukaemia. Despite the different cell of origin, there is considerable overlap between T-LGL and CLPD-NK in terms of clinical presentation and therapy. Many patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. Therapy, with immunosuppressant agents such as low dose methotrexate or ciclosporin, is usually indicated to correct cytopenias. In contrast, aggressive NK-cell leukaemia and the rare CD56(+) aggressive T-LGL leukaemia follow a fulminant clinical course, affect younger individuals and require more intensive combination chemotherapy followed by allogeneic stem cell transplant in eligible patients. The relative rarity of these disorders means that there have been few clinical trials to inform management. However, there is now considerable interest in the pathogenesis of the chronic LGL leukaemias and this has stimulated early trials to evaluate novel agents which target the dysregulated apoptotic pathways characteristic of this disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Characterizing granular networks using topological metrics

    Dijksman, Joshua A.; Kovalcinova, Lenka; Ren, Jie; Behringer, Robert P.; Kramar, Miroslav; Mischaikow, Konstantin; Kondic, Lou

    2018-04-01

    We carry out a direct comparison of experimental and numerical realizations of the exact same granular system as it undergoes shear jamming. We adjust the numerical methods used to optimally represent the experimental settings and outcomes up to microscopic contact force dynamics. Measures presented here range from microscopic through mesoscopic to systemwide characteristics of the system. Topological properties of the mesoscopic force networks provide a key link between microscales and macroscales. We report two main findings: (1) The number of particles in the packing that have at least two contacts is a good predictor for the mechanical state of the system, regardless of strain history and packing density. All measures explored in both experiments and numerics, including stress-tensor-derived measures and contact numbers depend in a universal manner on the fraction of nonrattler particles, fNR. (2) The force network topology also tends to show this universality, yet the shape of the master curve depends much more on the details of the numerical simulations. In particular we show that adding force noise to the numerical data set can significantly alter the topological features in the data. We conclude that both fNR and topological metrics are useful measures to consider when quantifying the state of a granular system.

  10. Collisional model for granular impact dynamics.

    Clark, Abram H; Petersen, Alec J; Behringer, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    When an intruder strikes a granular material from above, the grains exert a stopping force which decelerates and stops the intruder. Many previous studies have used a macroscopic force law, including a drag force which is quadratic in velocity, to characterize the decelerating force on the intruder. However, the microscopic origins of the force-law terms are still a subject of debate. Here, drawing from previous experiments with photoelastic particles, we present a model which describes the velocity-squared force in terms of repeated collisions with clusters of grains. From our high speed photoelastic data, we infer that "clusters" correspond to segments of the strong force network that are excited by the advancing intruder. The model predicts a scaling relation for the velocity-squared drag force that accounts for the intruder shape. Additionally, we show that the collisional model predicts an instability to rotations, which depends on the intruder shape. To test this model, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of the dynamics of two-dimensional granular impacts on beds of photoelastic disks, with different profiles for the leading edge of the intruder. We particularly focus on a simple and useful case for testing shape effects by using triangular-nosed intruders. We show that the collisional model effectively captures the dynamics of intruder deceleration and rotation; i.e., these two dynamical effects can be described as two different manifestations of the same grain-scale physical processes.

  11. Controlling wave propagation through nonlinear engineered granular systems

    Leonard, Andrea

    We study the fundamental dynamic behavior of a special class of ordered granular systems in order to design new, structured materials with unique physical properties. The dynamic properties of granular systems are dictated by the nonlinear, Hertzian, potential in compression and zero tensile strength resulting from the discrete material structure. Engineering the underlying particle arrangement of granular systems allows for unique dynamic properties, not observed in natural, disordered granular media. While extensive studies on 1D granular crystals have suggested their usefulness for a variety of engineering applications, considerably less attention has been given to higher-dimensional systems. The extension of these studies in higher dimensions could enable the discovery of richer physical phenomena not possible in 1D, such as spatial redirection and anisotropic energy trapping. We present experiments, numerical simulation (based on a discrete particle model), and in some cases theoretical predictions for several engineered granular systems, studying the effects of particle arrangement on the highly nonlinear transient wave propagation to develop means for controlling the wave propagation pathways. The first component of this thesis studies the stress wave propagation resulting from a localized impulsive loading for three different 2D particle lattice structures: square, centered square, and hexagonal granular crystals. By varying the lattice structure, we observe a wide range of properties for the propagating stress waves: quasi-1D solitary wave propagation, fully 2D wave propagation with tunable wave front shapes, and 2D pulsed wave propagation. Additionally the effects of weak disorder, inevitably present in real granular systems, are investigated. The second half of this thesis studies the solitary wave propagation through 2D and 3D ordered networks of granular chains, reducing the effective density compared to granular crystals by selectively placing wave

  12. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Curras, E; Gallrapp, C; Gray, L; Mannelli, M; Meridiani, P; Moll, M; Nourbakhsh, S; Scharf, C; Silva, P; Steinbrueck, G; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Vila, I

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb^−1 per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb^−1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10^16 neq/cm^2. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μ...

  13. Large-Area Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Pree, Elias

    2017-01-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about \\mbox{1~cm$^{2}$}. Furthermore, Synopsys...

  14. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of Silicon Detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL)

    Curras Rivera, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or Phase-II) is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC by a factor of about five, delivering about 250 fba-1 per year between 2025 and 2035. Under these conditions the performance degradation of detectors due to integrated radiation dose/fluence will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade many components, including the forward calorimeters. The replacement for the existing endcap preshower, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter, including 30 layers of silicon detectors totalling 600m^2. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with cell sizes of between 0.5-1.0 cm^2 and an active thickness between 100 um and 300 um depending on their location in the endcaps the thinner sensors will be used in the highest radiation environment. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fba-1, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integ...

  15. Large-area hexagonal silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Pree, E.

    2018-02-01

    During the so-called Phase-2 Upgrade, the CMS experiment at CERN will undergo significant improvements to cope with the 10-fold luminosity increase of the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) era. Especially the forward calorimetry will suffer from very high radiation levels and intensified pileup in the detectors. For this reason, the CMS collaboration is designing a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) to replace the existing endcap calorimeters. It features unprecedented transverse and longitudinal segmentation for both electromagnetic (CE-E) and hadronic (CE-H) compartments. The CE-E and a large fraction of CE-H will consist of a sandwich structure with silicon as active detector material. This paper presents an overview of the ongoing sensor development for the HGCAL and highlights important design features and measurement techniques. The design and layout of an 8-inch silicon sensor prototype is shown. The hexagonal sensors consist of 235 pads, each with an area of about 1 cm2. Furthermore, Synopsys TCAD simulations regarding the high voltage stability of the sensors for different geometric parameters are performed. Finally, two different IV characterisation methods are compared on the same sensor.

  16. Experimental and simulation study of irradiated silicon pad detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter

    Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2017-01-01

    The foreseen upgrade of the LHC to its high luminosity phase (HL-LHC), will maximize the physics potential of the facility. The upgrade is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 5 and deliver an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$ after 10 years of operation. As a result of the corresponding increase in radiation and pileup, the electromagnetic calorimetry in the CMS endcaps will sustain maximum integrated doses of 1.5 MGy and neutron fluences above 10$^{16}$ n$_{\\mathrm{eq}}$/cm$^2$, necessitating their replacement for HL-LHC operation. The CMS collaboration has decided to replace the existing endcap electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters by a High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) that will provide unprecedented information on electromagnetic and hadronic showers in the very high pileup of the HL-LHC. The HGCAL will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with 52 layers of active material. The electromagnetic section and the high-radiation region of the hadronic section will use...

  17. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  18. Consideration of reinforcement mechanism in the short fiber mixing granular materials by granular element simulations

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kenji; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The short fiber mixing method is well known as one of the method to improve the strength of gran- ular soils in geotechnical engineering. Mechanical properties of the short fiber mixing granular materials are influenced by many factors, such as the mixture ratio of the short fiber, the material of short fiber, the length, and the orientation. In particular, the mixture ratio of the short fibers is very important in mixture design. In the past study, we understood that the strength is reduced by too much short fiber mixing by a series of tri-axial compression experiments. Namely, there is "optimum mixture ratio" in the short fiber mixing granular soils. In this study, to consider the mechanism of occurrence of the optimum mixture ratio, we carried out the numerical experiments by granular element method. As the results, we can understand that the strength decrease when too much grain-fiber contact points exist, because a friction coefficient is smaller than the grain-grain contact points.

  19. Evaluation of the amorphous content of lactose by solution calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy.

    Katainen, Erja; Niemelä, Pentti; Harjunen, Päivi; Suhonen, Janne; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2005-11-15

    Solution calorimetry can be used to determine the amorphous content of a compound when the solubility and dissolution rate of the compound in the chosen solvent are reasonably high. Sometimes, it can be difficult find a solvent in which a sample is freely soluble. The present study evaluated the use of solution calorimetry for the assessment of the amorphous content of a sample that is poorly soluble in a solvent. Physical mixtures of lactose and spray-dried lactose samples (the amorphous content varied from 0 to 100%) were analyzed by a solution calorimeter and the results were compared with Raman spectroscopy determinations. The heat of solvation of the samples was determined by solution calorimetry in organic solvents MeOH, EtOH, ACN, THF, acetone (400mg sample/100ml solvent). Lactose is virtually insoluble in ACN, THF and acetone and very slightly soluble in EtOH and MeOH. The amorphous content of the samples could not be determined by solution calorimetry in EtOH, ACN, THF or acetone. However, an excellent correlation was observed between the heat of solvation and the amorphous content of the samples in MeOH. Furthermore, the heat of solvation values of the samples in MeOH showed a linear correlation with the Raman quantifications. Therefore, our results demonstrate that solution calorimetry may represent a rapid and simple method for determining the amorphous content also in samples that are not freely soluble in the solvent.

  20. Information granularity, big data, and computational intelligence

    Chen, Shyi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The recent pursuits emerging in the realm of big data processing, interpretation, collection and organization have emerged in numerous sectors including business, industry, and government organizations. Data sets such as customer transactions for a mega-retailer, weather monitoring, intelligence gathering, quickly outpace the capacities of traditional techniques and tools of data analysis. The 3V (volume, variability and velocity) challenges led to the emergence of new techniques and tools in data visualization, acquisition, and serialization. Soft Computing being regarded as a plethora of technologies of fuzzy sets (or Granular Computing), neurocomputing and evolutionary optimization brings forward a number of unique features that might be instrumental to the development of concepts and algorithms to deal with big data. This carefully edited volume provides the reader with an updated, in-depth material on the emerging principles, conceptual underpinnings, algorithms and practice of Computational Intelligenc...

  1. Multiple impacts in dissipative granular chains

    Nguyen, Ngoc Son

    2014-01-01

    The extension of collision models for single impacts between two bodies, to the case of multiple impacts (which take place when several collisions occur at the same time in a multibody system) is a challenge in Solid Mechanics, due to the complexity of such phenomena, even in the frictionless case. This monograph aims at presenting the main multiple collision rules proposed in the literature. Such collisions typically occur in granular materials, the simplest of which are made of chains of aligned balls. These chains are used throughout the book to analyze various multiple impact rules which extend the classical Newton (kinematic restitution), Poisson (kinetic restitution) and Darboux-Keller (energetic or kinetic restitution) approaches for impact modelling. The shock dynamics in various types of chains of aligned balls (monodisperse, tapered, decorated, stepped chains) is carefully studied and shown to depend on several parameters: restitution coefficients, contact stiffness ratios, elasticity coefficients (...

  2. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  3. Capturing gas in soft granular media

    MacMinn, Chris; Lee, Jeremy; Xu, Feng; Lee, Sungyon

    2017-11-01

    Bubble migration through soft granular materials involves a strong coupling between the bubble dynamics and the deformation of the material. This process is relevant to a variety of natural and industrial systems, from fluidized-bed reactors to the migration and venting of biogenic gas in sediments. Here, we study this process experimentally by injecting air into a quasi-2D, liquid-saturated packing of soft particles and measuring the morphology of the bubbles as they invade and then rise due to buoyancy. By systematically varying the confining stress, we show that the competition between buoyancy, capillarity, and elasticity leads to complex bubble-migration dynamics that transition from fluidization to pathway opening to pore invasion, with a strong and surprising impact on the amount of air trapped in the system. The authors are grateful for support from the Royal Society (IE150885), the John Fell Oxford University Press Research Fund, and the Maurice Lubbock Memorial Fund.

  4. Defining and testing a granular continuum element

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-12-03

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of amesoscopic volume "element" in which properties averaged over discreteparticles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granularmaterials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealinginhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cagebreaking. Here, we analyze large-scale Discrete-Element Method (DEM)simulations of different granular flows and show that a "granularelement" can indeed be defined at the scale of dynamical correlations,roughly three to five particle diameters. Its rheology is rather subtle,combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-likedependence on strain. Our results confirm some aspects of classicalplasticity theory (e.g., coaxiality of stress and deformation rate),while contradicting others (i.e., incipient yield), and can guide thedevelopment of more realistic continuum models.

  5. Particle filtration in consolidated granular systems

    Schwartz, L.M.; Wilkinson, D.J.; Bolsterli, M.; Hammond, P.

    1993-01-01

    Grain-packing algorithms are used to model the mechanical trapping of dilute suspensions of particles by consolidated granular media. We study the distribution of filtrate particles, the formation of a damage zone (internal filter cake), and the transport properties of the host--filter-cake composite. At the early stages of filtration, our simulations suggest simple relationships between the structure of the internal filter cake and the characteristics of the underlying host matrix. These relationships are then used to describe the dynamics of the filtration process. Depending on the grain size and porosity of the host matrix, calculated filtration rates may either be greater than (spurt loss) or less than (due to internal clogging) those predicted by standard surface-filtration models

  6. Granular neural networks, pattern recognition and bioinformatics

    Pal, Sankar K; Ganivada, Avatharam

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a uniform framework describing how fuzzy rough granular neural network technologies can be formulated and used in building efficient pattern recognition and mining models. It also discusses the formation of granules in the notion of both fuzzy and rough sets. Judicious integration in forming fuzzy-rough information granules based on lower approximate regions enables the network to determine the exactness in class shape as well as to handle the uncertainties arising from overlapping regions, resulting in efficient and speedy learning with enhanced performance. Layered network and self-organizing analysis maps, which have a strong potential in big data, are considered as basic modules,. The book is structured according to the major phases of a pattern recognition system (e.g., classification, clustering, and feature selection) with a balanced mixture of theory, algorithm, and application. It covers the latest findings as well as directions for future research, particularly highlighting bioinf...

  7. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  8. Granular Segregation by an Oscillating Ratchet Mechanism

    Igarashi, A.; Horiuchi, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a method to segregate granular mixtures which consist of two kinds of particles by an oscillating ''ratchet'' mechanism. The segregation system has an asymmetrical sawtooth-shaped base which is vertically oscillating. Such a ratchet base produces a directional current of particles owing to its transport property. It is a counterintuitive and interesting phenomenon that a vertically vibrated base transports particles horizontally. This system is studied with numerical simulations, and it is found that we can apply such a system to segregation of mixtures of particles with different properties (radius or mass). Furthermore, we find out that an appropriate inclination of the ratchet-base makes the quality of segregation high. (author)

  9. Solitary Wave Interactions in Granular Media

    WEN Zhen-Ying; WANG Shun-Jin; ZHANG Xiu-Ming; LI Lei

    2007-01-01

    We numerically study the interactions of solitary waves in granular media, by considering a chain of beads, which repel upon contact via the Hertz-type potential, V ∝δn, with 5/2 ≤n≤3 and δ≥0,δbeing the bead-bead overlap. There are two collision types of solitary waves, overtaking collision and head-on collision, in the chain of beads. Our quantitative results show that after collision the large solitary wave gains energy and the small one loses energy for overtaking type while the large one loses energy, and the small one gains energy for head-on type. The scattering effects decrease with n for overtaking collision whereas increase with n for head-on collision.

  10. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  11. Thermal energy storage in granular deposits

    Ratuszny, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    Energy storage technology is crucial for the development of the use of renewable energy sources. This is a substantial constraint, however it can, to some extent, be solved by storing energy in its various forms: electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal. This article presents the results of research in thermal properties of granular deposits. Correlation between temperature changes in the stores over a period of time and their physical properties has been studied. The results of the research have practical application in designing thermal stores based on bulk materials and ground deposits. Furthermore, the research results are significant for regeneration of the lower ground sources for heat pumps and provide data for designing ground heat exchangers for ventilation systems.

  12. Frictional granular mechanics: A variational approach

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-10-16

    The mechanical properties of a cohesionless granular material are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. Intergranular interactions, including friction and sliding, are modeled by a set of contact rules based on the theories of Hertz, Mindlin, and Deresiewicz. A computer generated, three-dimensional, irregular pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacement of its boundaries. Deformation is described by a sequence of static equilibrium configurations of the pack. A variational approach is employed to find the equilibrium configurations by minimizing the total work against the intergranular loads. Effective elastic moduli are evaluated from the intergranular forces and the deformation of the pack. Good agreement between the computed and measured moduli, achieved with no adjustment of material parameters, establishes the physical soundness of the proposed model.

  13. Sorption of metaldehyde using granular activated carbon

    S. Salvestrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of granular activated carbon (GAC to sorb metaldehyde was evaluated. The kinetic data could be described by an intra-particle diffusion model, which indicated that the porosity of the sorbent strongly influenced the rate of sorption. The analysis of the equilibrium sorption data revealed that ionic strength and temperature did not play any significant role in the metaldehyde uptake. The sorption isotherms were successfully predicted by the Freundlich model. The GAC used in this paper exhibited a higher affinity and sorption capacity for metaldehyde with respect to other GACs studied in previous works, probably as a result of its higher specific surface area and high point of zero charge.

  14. NMRI Measurements of Flow of Granular Mixtures

    Nakagawa, Masami; Waggoner, R. Allen; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    We investigate complex 3D behavior of granular mixtures in shaking and shearing devices. NMRI can non-invasively measure concentration, velocity, and velocity fluctuations of flows of suitable particles. We investigate origins of wall-shear induced convection flow of single component particles by measuring the flow and fluctuating motion of particles near rough boundaries. We also investigate if a mixture of different size particles segregate into their own species under the influence of external shaking and shearing disturbances. These non-invasive measurements will reveal true nature of convecting flow properties and wall disturbance. For experiments in a reduced gravity environment, we will design a light weight NMR imager. The proof of principle development will prepare for the construction of a complete spaceborne system to perform experiments in space.

  15. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  16. Unjamming a granular hopper by vibration

    Janda, A.; Maza, D.; Garcimartín, A.; Kolb, E.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.

    2009-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the outflow of a hopper continuously vibrated by a piezoelectric device. Outpouring of grains can be achieved for apertures much below the usual jamming limit observed for non-vibrated hoppers. Granular flow persists down to the physical limit of one grain diameter, a limit reached for a finite vibration amplitude. For the smaller orifices, we observe an intermittent regime characterized by alternated periods of flow and blockage. Vibrations do not significantly modify the flow rates both in the continuous and the intermittent regime. The analysis of the statistical features of the flowing regime shows that the flow time significantly increases with the vibration amplitude. However, at low vibration amplitude and small orifice sizes, the jamming time distribution displays an anomalous statistics.

  17. Viscoinertial regime of immersed granular flows

    Amarsid, L.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Mutabaruka, P.; Monerie, Y.; Perales, F.; Radjai, F.

    2017-07-01

    By means of extensive coupled molecular dynamics-lattice Boltzmann simulations, accounting for grain dynamics and subparticle resolution of the fluid phase, we analyze steady inertial granular flows sheared by a viscous fluid. We show that, for a broad range of system parameters (shear rate, confining stress, fluid viscosity, and relative fluid-grain density), the frictional strength and packing fraction can be described by a modified inertial number incorporating the fluid effect. In a dual viscous description, the effective viscosity diverges as the inverse square of the difference between the packing fraction and its jamming value, as observed in experiments. We also find that the fabric and force anisotropies extracted from the contact network are well described by the modified inertial number, thus providing clear evidence for the role of these key structural parameters in dense suspensions.

  18. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  19. Steady state of tapped granular polygons

    Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares

  20. Experimental observations of granular debris flows

    Ghilardi, P.

    2003-04-01

    Various tests are run using two different laboratory flumes with rectangular cross section and transparent walls. The grains used in a single experiment have an almost constant grain sizes; mean diameter ranges from 5 mm to 20 mm. In each test various measurements are taken: hydrograms, velocity distribution near the transparent walls and on the free surface, average flow concentration. Concentration values are measured taking samples. Velocity distributions are obtained from movies recorded by high speed video cameras capable of 350 frames per second; flow rates and depth hydrograms are computed from the same velocity distributions. A gate is installed at the beginning of one of the flumes; this gate slides normally to the bed and opens very quickly, reproducing a dam-break. Several tests are run using this device, varying channel slope, sediment concentration, initial mixture thickness before the gate. Velocity distribution in the flume is almost constant from left to right, except for the flow sections near the front. The observed discharges and velocities are less than those given by a classic dam break formula, and depend on sediment concentration. The other flume is fed by a mixture with constant discharge and concentration, and is mainly used for measuring velocity distributions when the flow is uniform, with both rigid and granular bed, and to study erosion/deposition processes near debris flow dams or other mitigation devices. The equilibrium slope of the granular bed is very close to that given by the classical equilibrium formulas for debris flow. Different deposition processes are observed depending on mixture concentration and channel geometry.

  1. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles

  2. The physics of compensating calorimetry and the new CALOR89 code system

    Gabriel, T.A.; Brau, J.E.; Bishop, B.L.

    1989-03-01

    Much of the understanding of the physics of calorimetry has come from the use of excellent radiation transport codes. A new understanding of compensating calorimetry was introduced four years ago following detailed studies with a new CALOR system. Now, the CALOR system has again been revised to reflect a better comprehension of high energy nuclear collisions by incorporating a modified high energy fragmentation model from FLUKA87. This revision will allow for the accurate analysis of calorimeters at energies of 100's of GeV. Presented in this paper is a discussion of compensating calorimetry, the new CALOR system, the revisions to HETC, and recently generated calorimeter related data on modes of energy deposition and secondary neutron production (E < 50 MeV) in infinite iron and uranium blocks. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Application of prediction of equilibrium to servo-controlled calorimetry measurements

    Mayer, R.L. II.

    1987-01-01

    Research was performed to develop an endpoint prediction algorithm for use with calorimeters operating in the digital servo-controlled mode. The purpose of this work was to reduce calorimetry measurement times while maintaining the high degree of precision and low bias expected from calorimetry measurements. Data from routine operation of two calorimeters were used to test predictive models at each stage of development against time savings, precision, and robustness criteria. The results of the study indicated that calorimetry measurement times can be significantly reduced using this technique. The time savings is, however, dependent on parameters in the digital servo-control algorithm and on packaging characteristics of measured items. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Study of interactions between hyaluronan and cationic surfactants by means of calorimetry, turbidimetry, potentiometry and conductometry.

    Krouská, J; Pekař, M; Klučáková, M; Šarac, B; Bešter-Rogač, M

    2017-02-10

    The thermodynamics of the micelle formation of the cationic surfactants tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with and without the addition of hyaluronan of two molecular weights was studied in aqueous solution by titration calorimetry. Macroscopic phase separation, which was detected by calorimetry and also by conductometry, occurs when charges on the surfactant and hyaluronan are balanced. In contrast, turbidimetry and potentiometry showed hyaluronan-surfactant interactions at very low surfactant concentrations. The observed differences between systems prepared with CTAB and TTAB indicate that besides the electrostatic interactions, which probably predominate, hydrophobic effects also play a significant role in hyaluronan interactions with cationic surfactants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical fibre temperature sensor technology and potential application in absorbed dose calorimetry

    Allen, P.D.; Hargrave, N.J.

    1992-09-01

    Optical fibre based sensors are proposed as a potential alternative to the thermistors traditionally used as temperature sensors in absorbed dose calorimetry. The development of optical fibre temperature sensor technology over the last ten years is reviewed. The potential resolution of various optical techniques is assessed with particular reference to the requirements of absorbed dose calorimetry. Attention is drawn to other issues which would require investigation before the development of practical optical fibre sensors for this purpose could occur. 192 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Thermodynamics of Surfactants, Block Copolymers and Their Mixtures in Water: The Role of the Isothermal Calorimetry

    De Lisi, Rosario; Milioto, Stefania; Muratore, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    The thermodynamics of conventional surfactants, block copolymers and their mixtures in water was described to the light of the enthalpy function. The two methodologies, i.e. the van’t Hoff approach and the isothermal calorimetry, used to determine the enthalpy of micellization of pure surfactants and block copolymers were described. The van’t Hoff method was critically discussed. The aqueous copolymer+surfactant mixtures were analyzed by means of the isothermal titration calorimetry and the enthalpy of transfer of the copolymer from the water to the aqueous surfactant solutions. Thermodynamic models were presented to show the procedure to extract straightforward molecular insights from the bulk properties. PMID:19742173

  7. Development of granular powder manufacturing technology by spray pyrolysis

    Katoh, Yoshiyuki; Kawase, Keiichi; Takahashi, Yoshiharu; Todokoro, Akio

    1996-01-01

    For shortening of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel manufacturing process and improvement in treatment of MOX-powder, we have been developing the granular powder production technology. Since the granular powders have excellent fluidity owing to the spherical shape, there is the possibility of modifying scattering and adcering of the powder in the process equipment. In this paper, spray pyrolysis process in adopted as the process of manufacturing the granular powders and the basic feasibility study has been carried out. The experimental results show that the manufactured granular powders have excellent fluidity and the diameter of the powders is controllable. Furthermore, high density pellets are formed by sintering the powders. Thus, it is clarified that this process is promising for the actual MOX fuel fabrication. (author)

  8. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    Chang, Yuanzhang; Bao, Kai; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Enhua

    2012-01-01

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke's law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Investigation of granular impact using positron emission particle tracking

    Marston, Jeremy O.

    2015-04-01

    We present results from an experimental study of granular impact using a combination of high-speed video and positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The PEPT technique exploits the annihilation of photons from positron decay to determine the position of tracer particles either inside a small granular bed or attached to the object which impacts the bed. We use dense spheres as impactors and the granular beds are comprised of glass beads which are fluidised to achieve a range of different initial packing states. For the first time, we have simultaneously investigated both the trajectory of the sphere, the motion of particles in a 3-D granular bed and particles which jump into the resultant jet, which arises from the collapse of the cavity formed by the impacting sphere.

  10. Massive granular cell ameloblastoma with dural extension and atypical morphology

    Vandana Raghunath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are rare histologically benign, locally aggressive tumors arising from the oral ectoderm that occasionally reach a gigantic size. Giant ameloblastomas are a rarity these days with the advent of panoramic radiography in routine dental practice. Furthermore, the granular cell variant is an uncommon histological subtype of ameloblastoma where the central stellate reticulum like cells in tumor follicles is replaced by granular cells. Although granular cell ameloblastoma (GCA is considered to be a destructive tumor with a high recurrence rate, the significance of granular cells in predicting its biologic behavior is debatable. However, we present a rare case of giant GCA of remarkable histomorphology showing extensive craniofacial involvement and dural extension that rendered a good prognosis following treatment.

  11. An Emotional Agent Model Based on Granular Computing

    Jun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective computing has a very important significance for fulfilling intelligent information processing and harmonious communication between human being and computers. A new model for emotional agent is proposed in this paper to make agent have the ability of handling emotions, based on the granular computing theory and the traditional BDI agent model. Firstly, a new emotion knowledge base based on granular computing for emotion expression is presented in the model. Secondly, a new emotional reasoning algorithm based on granular computing is proposed. Thirdly, a new emotional agent model based on granular computing is presented. Finally, based on the model, an emotional agent for patient assistant in hospital is realized, experiment results show that it is efficient to handle simple emotions.

  12. Micro origins for macro behavior in granular media

    Zhao, J.; Jiang, M.; Soga, K.; Luding, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We report the latest advances in understanding, characterization and modeling of key micro mechanisms and origins underpinning the interesting and complex macroscopic behavior of granular matter. Included in this Topical Collection are novel theories, innovative experimental tools and new numerical

  13. REPEATED REDUCTIVE AND OXIDATIVE TREATMENTS ON GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    Fenton oxidation and Fenton oxidation preceded by reduction solutions were applied to granular activated carbon (GAC) to chemically regenerate the adsorbent. No adsorbate was present on the GAC so physicochemical effects from chemically aggressive regeneration of the carbon coul...

  14. The Regeneration of Granular Activated Carbon Using Hydrothermal Technology

    Sufnarski, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The economic feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) to remove organic contaminants from industrial and municipal wastewater is contingent upon its reuse during multiple adsorption-regeneration cycles (Van Vliet, 1991...

  15. GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION AND INFRARED REACTIVATION: A CASE STUDY

    A study evaluated the effectiveness and cost of removing trace organic contaminants and surrogates from drinking water by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The effect of multiple reactivations of spent GAC was also evaluated. Results indicated that reactivated GAC eff...

  16. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    Michalowski, Radoslw

    1999-01-01

    ... out. This investigation was built on the results of a previous study. Fiber-reinforced granular material was considered as a composite, and a mathematical homogenization scheme was used to arrive at its macroscopic properties...

  18. Jetting and flooding of granular backfill materials : [summary].

    2015-03-01

    Granular backfill materials on highway projects are often compacted by mechanical methods. : This requires the contractor to place backfill material into loose lifts of varying thickness : and use compaction equipment to reduce air voids and increase...

  19. Oblique shock waves in granular flows over bluff bodies

    Gopan Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows around an object have been the focus of numerous analytical, experimental and simulation studies. The structure and nature of the oblique shock wave developed when a quasi-two dimensional flow of spherical granular particles streams past an immersed, fixed cylindrical obstacle forms the focus of this study. The binary granular mixture, consisting of particles of the same diameter but different material properties, is investigated by using a modified LIGGGHTS package as the simulation engine. Variations in the solid fraction and granular temperature within the resulting flow are studied. The Mach number is calculated and is used to distinguish between the subsonic and the supersonic regions of the bow shock.

  20. Tuning strain of granular matter by basal assisted Couette shear

    Zhao Yiqiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel Couette shear apparatus capable of generating programmable azimuthal strain inside 2D granular matter under Couette shear. The apparatus consists of 21 independently movable concentric rings and two boundary wheels with frictional racks. This makes it possible to quasistatically shear the granular matter not only from the boundaries but also from the bottom. We show that, by specifying the collective motion of wheels and rings, the apparatus successfully generates the desired strain profile inside the sample granular system, which is composed of about 2000 photoelastic disks. The motion and stress of each particle is captured by an imaging system utilizing reflective photoelasticimetry. This apparatus provides a novel method to investigate shear jamming properties of granular matter with different interior strain profiles and unlimited strain amplitudes.

  1. Similitude study of a moving bed granular filter

    Robert C. Brown; Huawei Shi; Gerald Colver; Saw-Choon Soo [Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2003-12-10

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving bed granular filter designed for hot gas clean up. This study used similitude theory to devise experiments that were conducted at near-ambient conditions while simulating the performance of filters operated at elevated temperatures and pressures (850{sup o}C and 1000 kPa). These experiments revealed that the proposed moving bed granular filter can operate at high collection efficiencies, typically exceeding 99%, and low pressure drops without the need for periodic regeneration through the use of a continuous flow of fresh granular filter media in the filter. In addition, important design constraints were discovered for the successful operation of the proposed moving bed granular filter.

  2. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Factors influencing the density of aerobic granular sludge.

    Winkler, M.K.; Kleerebezem, R.; Strous, M.; Chandran, K.; Loosdrecht, M.C. van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the factors influencing density of granular sludge particles were evaluated. Granules consist of microbes, precipitates and of extracellular polymeric substance. The volume fractions of the bacterial layers were experimentally estimated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation

  4. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  5. Granular flow through an aperture: influence of the packing fraction

    Alejandra Aguirre , Maria; De Schant , Rosario; Géminard , Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g. silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. Unlike fluid flows, that are controlled by the pressure, granular flow is not sensitive to the local pressure but rather to the local velocity of the grains a...

  6. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  7. Effective elasticity coefficients of native rocks and consolidated granular matter

    Schulz, Beatrix M.; Schulz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The elastic coefficients of binary heterogeneous materials, such as several native rock materials or consolidated granular matter will be determined in terms of a perturbation expansion. Furthermore, in order to check the validity of the obtained results, these are compared with numerical investigations using Boole's model of randomly distributed spheres. Finally, we apply the results on several classes of native rocks and consolidated granular materials

  8. Granular cell tumor of the esophagus. Report of three cases.

    Cohle, S D; McKechnie, J C; Truong, L; Jurco, S

    1981-06-01

    Granular cell tumors, (formerly called myoblastomas) involving the esophagus were encountered in three patients. In all three the tumors were asymptomatic and in two they were multiple. The first published endoscopic photographs of such a tumor are presented. The successful total removal of this neoplasm using the endoscope is described. The pathologic, radiologic and therapeutic aspects of previously reported cases of granular cell tumor of the esophagus are reviewed and compared with the three reported herein.

  9. Editorial: Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials

    Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Einav, Itai

    2015-01-01

    This is the editorial for the special issue on “Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials” in the journal on Computational Particle Mechanics (CPM). The issue aims to provide an opportunity for physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and computational scientists to discuss the current progress and latest advancements in the field of advanced numerical methods and modelling of granular materials. The focus will be on computational methods, improved algorithms and the m...

  10. Self-assembly and speed distributions of active granular particles

    Sánchez, R.; Díaz-Leyva, P.

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between the dynamics of self-propelled systems and the self-assembly of structured clusters are studied via the experimental speed distributions of submonolayers of self-propelled granular particles. A distribution developed for non-self-propelled granular particles describes the speed distributions remarkably well, despite some of the assumptions behind its original derivation not being applicable. This is explained in terms of clustering and dissipation being the key phenomena governing this regime.

  11. Experimental investigation of granular dynamics close to the jamming transition

    Caballero, G.; Kolb, E.; Lindner, A.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.

    2005-06-01

    We present different experiments on dense granular assemblies with the aim of clarifying the notion of 'jamming transition' for these assemblies of non-Brownian particles. The experimental set-ups differ in the way in which external perturbations are applied in order to unjam the systems. The first experiment monitors the response to a locally applied deformation of a model packing at rest. The two other experiments study local and collective dynamics in a granular assembly weakly excited by vibration.

  12. Experimental study of energy exchanges between two coupled granular gases

    Chastaing , J.-Y; Géminard , J.-C; Naert , A

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We report on the energy exchanges between two granular gases of different densities coupled electrome-chanically by immersed blades attached to dc motors. Zeroing the energy flux between the two subsystems, we demonstrate that an immersed blade is a convenient way to assess the properties of the granular gases, provided that the dissipation in the motor is properly taken into account. In addition, when the two gases have different densities, the fluctuations of the ene...

  13. A numerical study of granular dam-break flow

    Pophet, N.; Rébillout, L.; Ozeren, Y.; Altinakar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate prediction of granular flow behavior is essential to optimize mitigation measures for hazardous natural granular flows such as landslides, debris flows and tailings-dam break flows. So far, most successful models for these types of flows focus on either pure granular flows or flows of saturated grain-fluid mixtures by employing a constant friction model or more complex rheological models. These saturated models often produce non-physical result when they are applied to simulate flows of partially saturated mixtures. Therefore, more advanced models are needed. A numerical model was developed for granular flow employing a constant friction and μ(I) rheology (Jop et al., J. Fluid Mech. 2005) coupled with a groundwater flow model for seepage flow. The granular flow is simulated by solving a mixture model using Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) technique is used to capture the free surface motion. The constant friction and μ(I) rheological models are incorporated in the mixture model. The seepage flow is modeled by solving Richards equation. A framework is developed to couple these two solvers in OpenFOAM. The model was validated and tested by reproducing laboratory experiments of partially and fully channelized dam-break flows of dry and initially saturated granular material. To obtain appropriate parameters for rheological models, a series of simulations with different sets of rheological parameters is performed. The simulation results obtained from constant friction and μ(I) rheological models are compared with laboratory experiments for granular free surface interface, front position and velocity field during the flows. The numerical predictions indicate that the proposed model is promising in predicting dynamics of the flow and deposition process. The proposed model may provide more reliable insight than the previous assumed saturated mixture model, when saturated and partially saturated portions of granular mixture co-exist.

  14. Can one ``Hear'' the aggregation state of a granular system?

    Kruelle, Christof A.; Sánchez, Almudena García

    2013-06-01

    If an ensemble of macroscopic particles is mechanically agitated the constant energy input is dissipated into the system by multiple inelastic collisions. As a result, the granular material can exhibit, depending on the magnitude of agitation, several physical states - like a gaseous phase for high energy input or a condensed state for low agitation. Here we introduce a new method for quantifying the acoustical response of the granular system. Our experimental system consists of a monodisperse packing of glass beads with a free upper surface, which is confined inside a cylindrical container. An electro-mechanical shaker exerts a sinusoidal vertical vibration at normalized accelerations well above the fluidization threshold for a monolayer of particles. By increasing the number of beads the granular gas suddenly collapses if a critical threshold is exceeded. The transition can be detected easily with a microphone connected to the soundcard of a PC. From the recorded audio track a FFT is calculated in real-time. Depending on either the number of particles at a fixed acceleration or the amount of energy input for a given number of particles, the resulting rattling noise exhibits a power spectrum with either the dominating (shaker) frequency plus higher harmonics for a granular crystal or a high-frequency broad-band noise for a granular gas, respectively. Our new method demonstrates that it is possible to quantify analytically the subjective audio impressions of a careful listener and thus to distinguish easily between different aggregation states of an excited granular system.

  15. Survivable integrated grooming in multi-granularity optical networks

    Wu, Jingjing; Guo, Lei; Wei, Xuetao; Liu, Yejun

    2012-05-01

    Survivability is an important issue to ensure the service continuity in optical network. At the same time, with the granularity of traffic demands ranging from sub-wavelength-level to wavelength-level, traffic demands need to be aggregated and carried over the network in order to utilize resources effectively. Therefore, multi-granularity grooming is proposed to save the cost and reduce the number of switching ports in Optical-Cross Connects (OXCs). However, current works mostly addressed the survivable wavelength or waveband grooming. Therefore, in this paper, we propose three heuristic algorithms called Multi-granularity Dedicated Protection Grooming (MDPG), Multi-granularity Shared Protection Grooming (MSPG) and Multi-granularity Mixed Protection Grooming (MMPG), respectively. All of them are performed based on the Survivable Multi-granularity Integrated Auxiliary Graph (SMIAG) that includes one Wavelength Integrated Auxiliary Graph (WIAG) for wavelength protection and one waveBand Integrated Auxiliary Graph (BIAG) for waveband protection. Numerical results show that MMPG has the lowest average port-cost, the best resource utilization ratio and the lowest blocking probability among these three algorithms. Compared with MDPG, MSPG has lower average port-cost, better resource utilization ratio and lower blocking probability.

  16. Pneumatic fractures in confined granular media.

    Eriksen, Fredrik K; Toussaint, Renaud; Turquet, Antoine L; Måløy, Knut J; Flekkøy, Eirik G

    2017-06-01

    We perform experiments where air is injected at a constant overpressure P_{in}, ranging from 5 to 250 kPa, into a dry granular medium confined within a horizontal linear Hele-Shaw cell. The setup allows us to explore compacted configurations by preventing decompaction at the outer boundary, i.e., the cell outlet has a semipermeable filter such that beads are stopped while air can pass. We study the emerging patterns and dynamic growth of channels in the granular media due to fluid flow, by analyzing images captured with a high speed camera (1000 images/s). We identify four qualitatively different flow regimes, depending on the imposed overpressure, ranging from no channel formation for P_{in} below 10 kPa, to large thick channels formed by erosion and fingers merging for high P_{in} around 200 kPa. The flow regimes where channels form are characterized by typical finger thickness, final depth into the medium, and growth dynamics. The shape of the finger tips during growth is studied by looking at the finger width w as function of distance d from the tip. The tip profile is found to follow w(d)∝d^{β}, where β=0.68 is a typical value for all experiments, also over time. This indicates a singularity in the curvature d^{2}d/dw^{2}∼κ∼d^{1-2β}, but not of the slope dw/dd∼d^{β-1}, i.e., more rounded tips rather than pointy cusps, as they would be for the case β>1. For increasing P_{in}, the channels generally grow faster and deeper into the medium. We show that the channel length along the flow direction has a linear growth with time initially, followed by a power-law decay of growth velocity with time as the channel approaches its final length. A closer look reveals that the initial growth velocity v_{0} is found to scale with injection pressure as v_{0}∝P_{in}^{3/2}, while at a critical time t_{c} there is a cross-over to the behavior v(t)∝t^{-α}, where α is close to 2.5 for all experiments. Finally, we explore the fractal dimension of the fully

  17. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-15

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  18. Hadron showers in a highly granular calorimeter

    Lutz, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    A future electron-positron collider like the planned International Linear Collider (ILC) needs excellent detectors to exploit the full physics potential. Different detector concepts have been evaluated for the ILC and two concepts on the particle-flow approach were validated. To make particle-flow work, a new type of imaging calorimeters is necessary in combination with a high performance tracking system, to be able to track the single particles through the full detector system. These calorimeters require an unprecedented level of both longitudinal and lateral granularity. Several calorimeter technologies promise to reach the required readout segmentation and are currently studied. This thesis addresses one of these: The analogue hadron calorimeter technology. It combines work on the technological aspects of a highly granular calorimeter with the study of hadron shower physics. The analogue hadron calorimeter technology joins a classical scintillator-steel sandwich design with a modern photo-sensor technology, the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). The SiPM is a millimetre sized, magnetic field insensitive, and low cost photo-sensor, that opens new possibilities in calorimeter design. This thesis outlines the working principle and characteristics of these devices. The requirements for an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read the SiPM are discussed; the performance of a prototype chip for SiPM readout, the SPIROC, is quantified. Also the SiPM specific reconstruction of a multi-thousand channel prototype calorimeter, the CALICE AHCAL, is explained; the systematic uncertainty of the calibration method is derived. The AHCAL does not only offer a test of the calorimeter technology, it also allows to record hadron showers with an unprecedented level of details. Test-beam measurements have been performed with the AHCAL and provide a unique sample for the development of novel analysis techniques and the validation of hadron shower simulations. A method to

  19. Posibilidades del método de elementos finitos y partículas (PFEM) en problemas de erosión de suelos granulares

    Rodríguez Prat, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    El fenómeno de erosión es un tema de vital importancia en el ámbito de la ingeniería civil, especialmente en ingeniería de ríos. En este trabajo se analizan las posibilidades del método de elementos finitos y partículas (PFEM) para abordar este tipo de problemas. El PFEM es una variante del método de elementos finitos clásico (FEM); se ha empezado a utilizar principalmente para modelizar el movimiento de fluidos. El programa que se ha utilizado es el Pflow, desarrollado en C...

  20. Aqueous solutions of proline and NaCl studied by differential scanning calorimetry at subzero temperatures

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Jørgensen, Bo; Nielsen, Jette

    1997-01-01

    The hydration properties of proline are studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in aqueous solutions during freezing to -60 degrees C and subsequent heating to +20 degrees C. The concentration of proline in the freeze concentrated solution was estimated to approximately 50 wt% (w/w) in...... plants and insects living under water stress conditions is discussed. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  1. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and Macromolecular Visualization for the Interaction of Lysozyme and Its Inhibitors

    Wei, Chin-Chuan; Jensen, Drake; Boyle, Tiffany; O'Brien, Leah C.; De Meo, Cristina; Shabestary, Nahid; Eder, Douglas J.

    2015-01-01

    To provide a research-like experience to upper-division undergraduate students in a biochemistry teaching laboratory, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is employed to determine the binding constants of lysozyme and its inhibitors, N-acetyl glucosamine trimer (NAG[subscript 3]) and monomer (NAG). The extremely weak binding of lysozyme/NAG is…

  2. Subsite binding energies of an exo-polygalacturonase using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Thermodynamic parameters for binding of a series of galacturonic acid oligomers to an exo-polygalacturonase, RPG16 from Rhizopus oryzae, were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of oligomers varying in chain length from two to five galacturonic acid residues is an exothermic proc...

  3. Thermodynamic investigations of protein's behaviour with ionic liquids in aqueous medium studied by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Bharmoria, Pankaj; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-05-01

    While a number of reports appear on ionic liquids-proteins interactions, their thermodynamic behaviour using suitable technique like isothermal titration calorimetry is not systematically presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a key technique which can directly measure the thermodynamic contribution of IL binding to protein, particularly the enthalpy, heat capacities and binding stoichiometry. Ionic liquids (ILs), owing to their unique and tunable physicochemical properties have been the central area of scientific research besides graphene in the last decade, and growing unabated. Their encounter with proteins in the biological system is inevitable considering their environmental discharge though most of them are recyclable for a number of cycles. In this article we will cover the thermodynamics of proteins upon interaction with ILs as osmolyte and surfactant. The up to date literature survey of IL-protein interactions using isothermal titration calorimetry will be discussed and parallel comparison with the results obtained for such studies with other techniques will be highlighted to demonstrate the accuracy of ITC technique. Net stability of proteins can be obtained from the difference in the free energy (ΔG) of the native (folded) and denatured (unfolded) state using the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation (ΔG=ΔH-TΔS). Isothermal titration calorimetry can directly measure the heat changes upon IL-protein interactions. Calculation of other thermodynamic parameters such as entropy, binding constant and free energy depends upon the proper fitting of the binding isotherms using various fitting models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monolithic front-end preamplifiers for a broad range of calorimetry applications

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica]|[INFN--Sezzione di Milano, Milano (Italy)

    1993-12-31

    The present paper summarizes the salient results of a research and development activity in the area of low noise preamplifiers for different applications in calorimetry. Design target for all circuits considered here are low noise, ability to cope with broad energy ranges and radiation hardness.

  5. Proton and Copper Binding to Humic Acids Analyzed by XAFS Spectroscopy and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Xu, Jinling; Koopal, Luuk K.; Fang, Linchuan; Xiong, Juan; Tan, Wenfeng

    2018-01-01

    Proton and copper (Cu) binding to soil and lignite-based humic acid (HA) was investigated by combining X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and nonideal-competitive-adsorption (NICA) modeling. NICA model calculations and XAFS results showed

  6. Study of phase transition in hard microcrystalline waxes and wax blends by differential scanning calorimetry

    Kumar, S.; Agrawal, K. M.; Khan, H. U.; Sikora, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, 3 & 4 (2004), s. 337-345 ISSN 1091-6466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phase transition * hard microscrystalline waxes * differential scanning calorimetry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  7. Monolithic junction field-effect transistor charge preamplifier for calorimetry at high luminosity hadron colliders

    Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Rehn, L.A.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.

    1991-11-01

    The outstanding noise and radiation hardness characteristics of epitaxial-channel junction field-effect transistors (JFET) suggest that a monolithic preamplifier based upon them may be able to meet the strict specifications for calorimetry at high luminosity colliders. Results obtained so far with a buried layer planar technology, among them an entire monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier, are described

  8. Detection of sunflower oil in extra virgin olive oil by fast differential scanning calorimetry

    Wetten, I.A.; Herwaarden, A.W.; Splinter, R.; Boerrigter-Eenling, R.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is an economically valuable product, due to its high quality and premium price. Therefore it is vulnerable for adulteration by means of the addition of cheaper vegetable oils. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been suggested as a fast technique for the

  9. Impact of sample saturation on the detected porosity of hardened concrete using low temperature calorimetry

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The present work studied the impact of sample saturation on the analysis of pore volume and pore size distribution by low temperature (micro-)calorimetry. The theoretical background was examined, which emphasizes that the freezing/melting temperature of water/ice confined in non-fully saturated p...

  10. Designing a compensating quartz fiber calorimeter for low angle calorimetry at LHC

    Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M.C.; Josa, M.I.; Khan, A.; Rosowsky, A.; Salicio, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a design of a compensating quartz fiber calorimeter, made of a unique active section, and ment for the specific physics requirements of the low angle calorimetry in LHC experiments. The purposed calorimeter is exemplified for the case of the CMS experiment

  11. Coulometry and Calorimetry of Electric Double Layer Formation in Porous Electrodes

    Janssen, Mathijs; Griffioen, Elian; Biesheuvel, P. M.; Van Roij, René; Erné, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Coulometric measurements on salt-water-immersed nanoporous carbon electrodes reveal, at a fixed voltage, a charge decrease with increasing temperature. During far-out-of-equilibrium charging of these electrodes, calorimetry indicates the production of both irreversible Joule heat and reversible

  12. Thermodynamic profiling of Peptide membrane interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry: a search for pores and micelles

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2011-01-01

    in mixed peptide-lipid micelles. We have investigated the mode of action of the antimicrobial peptide mastoparan-X using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The results show that mastoparan-X induces a range of structural transitions of POPC/POPG (3...

  13. Examination of water phase transitions in Loblolly pine and cell wall components by differential scanning calorimetry

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Michael J. Lambrecht; Samuel V. Glass; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Daniel J. Yelle

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines phase transformations of water in wood and isolated wood cell wall components using differential scanning calorimetry with the purpose of better understanding "Type II water" or "freezable bound water" that has been reported for cellulose and other hydrophilic polymers. Solid loblolly pine (Pinus taeda...

  14. High Pressure Differential Scanning Calorimetry of poly(4-methyl-pentene-1)

    Hoehne, G.W.H.; Rastogi, S.; Wunderlich, B.

    2000-01-01

    The polymer poly(4-methyl pentene-1), P4MP1, displays an unusual pressure–temperature phase diagram. The previous exploration of this phase behavior through X-ray diffraction has been extended through high-pressure calorimetry. The resulting phase diagram displays a melt area, the common tetragonal

  15. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials

    DeGiuli, E.; Wyart, M.

    2017-08-01

    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, μ(I), is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent θs. We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of μ(I), which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts χ, and the sliding velocity, in terms of θs. Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  16. The ATLAS High-Granularity Timing Detector

    Sacerdoti, Sabrina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In the high luminosity phase of the LHC, scheduled to start in 2026, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to up to $\\mathcal{L} = 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. As a consequence, the detectors will be faced with challenging conditions, in particular the increase of pile-up: an average of 200 interactions per bunch crossing are expected, corresponding to an average interaction density of 1.8 collisions/mm. The reconstruction performance will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region of the ATLAS detector, especially for jets and transverse missing energy. The addition of timing information in forward objects through the High-Granularity Timing Detector will help to recover the performance of these regions to levels similar to the ones expected in the central region of the detector. It will also provide a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. This talk will be focused on the developments surrounding the LGAD sensors and front-end electronics, which are aimed to achieve a low time res...

  17. Granular packings with moving side walls

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  18. Emergent Strain Stiffening in Interlocked Granular Chains

    Dumont, Denis; Houze, Maurine; Rambach, Paul; Salez, Thomas; Patinet, Sylvain; Damman, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Granular chain packings exhibit a striking emergent strain-stiffening behavior despite the individual looseness of the constitutive chains. Using indentation experiments on such assemblies, we measure an exponential increase in the collective resistance force F with the indentation depth z and with the square root of the number N of beads per chain. These two observations are, respectively, reminiscent of the self-amplification of friction in a capstan or in interleaved books, as well as the physics of polymers. The experimental data are well captured by a novel model based on these two ingredients. Specifically, the resistance force is found to vary according to the universal relation log F ˜μ √{N }Φ11 /8z /b , where μ is the friction coefficient between two elementary beads, b is their size, and Φ is the volume fraction of chain beads when semidiluted in a surrounding medium of unconnected beads. Our study suggests that theories normally confined to the realm of polymer physics at a molecular level can be used to explain phenomena at a macroscopic level. This class of systems enables the study of friction in complex assemblies, with practical implications for the design of new materials, the textile industry, and biology.

  19. Collision Statistics of Driven Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Chen Zhiyuan; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Guo Xinping; Li Zhongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamical model of two-dimensional polydisperse granular gases with fractal size distribution, in which the disks are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and driven by standard white noise. The inhomogeneity of the disk size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension d f . By Monte Carlo simulations, we have mainly investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity on the statistical properties of the system in the same inelasticity case. Some novel results are found that the average energy of the system decays exponentially with a tendency to achieve a stable asymptotic value, and the system finally reaches a nonequilibrium steady state after a long evolution time. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity has great influence on the steady-state statistical properties. With the increase of the fractal dimension d f , the distributions of path lengths and free times between collisions deviate more obviously from expected theoretical forms for elastic spheres and have an overpopulation of short distances and time bins. The collision rate increases with d f , but it is independent of time. Meanwhile, the velocity distribution deviates more strongly from the Gaussian one, but does not demonstrate any apparent universal behavior

  20. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials.

    DeGiuli, E; Wyart, M

    2017-08-29

    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, [Formula: see text], is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent [Formula: see text] We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of [Formula: see text], which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts [Formula: see text], and the sliding velocity, in terms of [Formula: see text] Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  1. Deflagration to detonation experiments in granular HMX

    Burnside, N.J.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Dickson, P.M.

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors report on continuing work involving a series of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments in which they study the piston-initiated DDT of heavily confined granular cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX). These experiments were designed to he useful in model development and evaluation. A main focus of these experiments is the effect of density on the DDT event. Particle size distribution and morphology are carefully characterized. In this paper they present recent surface area analysis. Earlier studies demonstrated extensive fracturing and agglomeration in samples at densities as low as 75% TMD as evidenced by dramatic decreases in particle size distribution due to mild stimulus. This is qualitatively confirmed with SEM images and quantitatively studied with gas absorption surface area analysis. Also, in this paper they present initial results using a microwave interferometer technique. Dynamic calibration of the technique was performed, a 35 GHz signal is used to increase resolution, and the system has been designed to be inexpensive for repeated experiments. The distance to where deformation of the inner wall begins for various densities is reported. This result is compared with the microwave interferometer measurements.

  2. Granular discharge rate for submerged hoppers

    T. J. Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of spherical grains from a hole in the bottom of a right circular cylinder is measured with the entire system underwater. We find that the discharge rate depends on filling height, in contrast to the well-known case of dry non-cohesive grains. It is further surprising that the rate increases up to about twenty five percent, as the hopper empties and the granular pressure head decreases. For deep filling, where the discharge rate is constant, we measure the behavior as a function of both grain and hole diameters. The discharge rate scale is set by the product of hole area and the terminal falling speed of isolated grains. But there is a small-hole cutoff of about two and half grain diameters, which is larger than the analogous cutoff in the Beverloo equation for dry grains. Received: 11 September 2014, Accepted: 10 October 2014; Reviewed by: L. Staron, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Institut Le Rond d'Alembert, Paris, France; Edited by: L. A. Pugnaloni; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.060009 Cite as: T J Wilson, C R Pfeifer, N Meysingier, D J Durian, Papers in Physics 6, 060009 (2014

  3. Granular cell tumors of the urinary bladder

    Kayani Naila

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granular cell tumors (GCTs are extremely rare lesions of the urinary bladder with only nine cases being reported in world literature of which one was malignant. Generally believed to be of neural origin based on histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies; they mostly follow a clinically benign course but are commonly mistaken for malignant tumors since they are solid looking, ulcerated tumors with ill-defined margins. Materials and methods We herein report two cases of GCTs, one benign and one malignant, presenting with gross hematuria in a 14- and a 47-year-old female, respectively. Results Histopathology revealed characteristic GCTs with positive immunostaining for neural marker (S-100 and negative immunostaining for epithelial (cytokeratin, Cam 5.2, AE/A13, neuroendocrine (neuron specific enolase, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin and sarcoma (desmin, vimentin markers. The benign tumor was successfully managed conservatively with transurethral resection alone while for the malignant tumor, radical cystectomy, hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, anterior vaginectomy, plus lymph node dissection was done. Both cases show long-term disease free survival. Conclusion We recommend careful pathologic assessment for establishing the appropriate diagnosis and either a conservative or aggressive surgical treatment for benign or localized malignant GCT of the urinary bladder, respectively.

  4. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  5. Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems

    El-Hilo, M.; Shatnawy, M.; Al-Rsheed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(ΔE) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(ΔE) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/ΔE behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur and the loops are only predicted when the interaction field is positive. From these predictions, minor loops will form when the interaction field is strong enough to magnetize some moments during the recoil process back to zero field. Thus, these minor loops are originated from interaction driving irreversible changes along the recoil curve and the irreversible component of magnetization has no direct influence on the formation of these minor loops

  6. Modeling of interaction effects in granular systems

    El-Hilo, M; Al-Rsheed, A

    2000-01-01

    Interaction effects on the magnetic behavior of granular solid systems are examined using a numerical model which is capable of predicting the field, temperature and time dependence of magnetization. In this work, interaction effects on the temperature dependence of time viscosity coefficient S(T) and formation of minor hysteresis loops have been studied. The results for the time- and temperature dependence of remanence ratio have showed that the distribution of energy barriers f(DELTA E) obtained depend critically on the strength and nature of interactions. These interactions-based changes in f(DELTA E) can easily give a temperature-independent behavior of S(T) when these changes give a 1/DELTA E behavior to the distribution of energy barriers. Thus, conclusions about macroscopic quantum tunneling must be carefully drawn when the temperature dependence of S(T) is used to probe for MQT effects. For minor hysteresis effects, the result shows that for the non-interacting case, no minor hysteresis loops occur an...

  7. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  8. Chemical kinetics on thermal decompositions of cumene hydroperoxide in cumene studied by calorimetry: An overview

    Duh, Yih-Shing, E-mail: yihshingduh@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Occupation Safety and Health, Jen-Teh Junior College of Medicine, Nursing and Management, Miaoli, 35664, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, No. 1 Lien-Da, Miaoli, 36052, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Chemical kinetics on thermal decompositions of CHP are conducted and summarized. • Kinetics agrees well between data from DSC and adiabatic calorimetry. • Ea is determined to be about 120 kJ mol{sup −1} by various calorimetry. • LogA (A in s{sup −1}) is determined to be about 11.8 by various calorimetry. - Abstract: Study on chemical kinetics related to the thermal decomposition of cumene hydoperoxide (CHP) in cumene is summarized in this work. It is of great importance to gather and compare the differences between these kinetic parameters for further substantial applications in the chemical industry and process safety. CHP has been verified to possess an autocatalytic behavior by using microcalorimetry (such as TAM and C-80) operated at isothermal mode in the temperature range from 70 °C to 120 °C. However, it exhibits a reaction of n-th order detected by non-isothermal DSC scanning and adiabatic calorimeter. By the isothermal aging tests, activation energy and frequency factor in logA(s{sup −1}) were averaged to be (117.3 ± 5.9) kJ mol{sup −1}and (11.4 ± 0.3), respectively. Kinetic parameters acquired from data of interlaboratories by using heat-flow calorimetry, the averaged activation energy and frequency factor in logA(s{sup −1}) were (119.3 ± 11.3) kJ mol{sup −1}and (12.0 ± 0.2), respectively. On the analogy of results from adiabatic calorimetry, the activation energy and frequency factor in logA(s{sup −1}) were respectively averaged to be (122.4 ± 9.2) kJ mol{sup −1}and (11.8 ± 0.8). Five sets of kinetic models in relation to autocatalytic reactions are collected and discussed as well.

  9. Blurring the boundary between rapid granular flow and dense granular flow regimes: Evidence from DEM simulations

    Tripathi, Anurag; Prasad, Mahesh; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-11-01

    The saturation of the effective friction coefficient for granular flows at high inertial numbers has been assumed widely by researchers, despite little simulation/experimental evidence. In contrast, a recent simulation study of plane shear flows by Mandal and Khakhar, suggests that the effective friction coefficient becomes maximum and then starts to decrease with increase in the inertial number for I > 0.5 . In order to investigate whether such a dip at higher inertial numbers is indeed a feature of granular rheology, we perform DEM simulations of chute flow of highly inelastic disks. We show that steady, fully developed flows are possible at inclinations much higher than those normally reported in literature. At such high inclinations, the flow is characterised by a significant slip at the base; the height of the layer increases by more than 300 % and kinetic energy of the layer increases by nearly 5 orders of magnitude. We observe, for the first time, steady chute flows at inertial number I 2 and show that the dip at higher inertial numbers can be observed in case of chute flow as well. The predictions of modified μ - I rheology, however, seem to remain valid in the bulk of the layer for packing fractions as low as 0.2. AT acknowledges the funding obtained from IIT Kanpur through the initiation Grant for this study.

  10. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH 4 /h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO 2 /h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and

  11. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro

  12. Granular Corneal Dystrophy Manifesting after Radial Keratotomy

    Sepehr Feizi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report manifestation of granular corneal dystrophy after radial keratotomy (RK. CASE REPORT: A 32-year-old man presented with white radial lines in both corneas. He had undergone uncomplicated RK in both eyes 8 years ago. Preoperative refraction had been OD: -3.5 -0.75@180 and OS: -3.0 -0.5@175. Uncorrected visual acuity was OD: 8/10 and OS: 7/10; best corrected visual acuity was 9/10 in both eyes with OD: -0.5 -0.5@60 and OS: -0.75 -0.5@80. Slit lamp examination revealed discrete well-demarcated whitish lesions with clear intervening stroma in the central anterior cornea consistent with granular dystrophy. Similar opacities were present within the RK incisions. CONCLUSION: Granular dystrophy deposits may appear within RK incisions besides other previously reported locations.

  1. Hierarchical modular granular neural networks with fuzzy aggregation

    Sanchez, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    In this book, a new method for hybrid intelligent systems is proposed. The proposed method is based on a granular computing approach applied in two levels. The techniques used and combined in the proposed method are modular neural networks (MNNs) with a Granular Computing (GrC) approach, thus resulting in a new concept of MNNs; modular granular neural networks (MGNNs). In addition fuzzy logic (FL) and hierarchical genetic algorithms (HGAs) are techniques used in this research work to improve results. These techniques are chosen because in other works have demonstrated to be a good option, and in the case of MNNs and HGAs, these techniques allow to improve the results obtained than with their conventional versions; respectively artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms.

  2. Disinfection of bacteria attached to granular activated carbon.

    LeChevallier, M W; Hassenauer, T S; Camper, A K; McFeters, G A

    1984-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate count bacteria, coliform organisms, and pathogenic microorganisms attached to granular activated carbon particles were examined for their susceptibility to chlorine disinfection. When these bacteria were grown on carbon particles and then disinfected with 2.0 mg of chlorine per liter (1.4 to 1.6 mg of free chlorine residual per liter after 1 h) for 1 h, no significant decrease in viable counts was observed. Washed cells attached to the surface of granular activated carbon particles showed similar resistance to chlorine, but a progressive increase in sublethal injury was found. Observations made by scanning electron microscope indicated that granular activated carbon was colonized by bacteria which grow in cracks and crevices and are coated by an extracellular slime layer. These data suggest a possible mechanism by which treatment and disinfection barriers can be penetrated and pathogenic bacteria may enter drinking water supplies. Images PMID:6508306

  3. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach

    Torres-Serra, Joel; Romero, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo

    2017-06-01

    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.

  4. Granular chaos and mixing: Whirled in a grain of sand.

    Shinbrot, Troy

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we overview examples of chaos in granular flows. We begin by reviewing several remarkable behaviors that have intrigued researchers over the past few decades, and we then focus on three areas in which chaos plays an intrinsic role in granular behavior. First, we discuss pattern formation in vibrated beds, which we show is a direct result of chaotic scattering combined with dynamical dissipation. Next, we consider stick-slip motion, which involves chaotic scattering on the micro-scale, and which results in complex and as yet unexplained peculiarities on the macro-scale. Finally, we examine granular mixing, which we show combines micro-scale chaotic scattering and macro-scale stick-slip motion into behaviors that are well described by dynamical systems tools, such as iterative mappings.

  5. Magnetoresistances in Ni80Fe20-ITO granular film

    Gao Chunhong; Chen Ke; Yang Yanxia; Xiong Yuanqiang; Chen Peng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnetoresistance (MR) in Ni 80 Fe 20 -ITO granular film are investigated. ► MR is positive at high temperature, and is negative at low temperature. ► MR results from the competition among three mechanisms. - Abstract: The magnetic properties, electrical properties and magnetoresistance are investigated in Ni 80 Fe 20 -ITO granular film with various volume fractions V NF of Ni 80 Fe 20 . The room temperature magnetization hysteresis of sample with V NF = 25% shows superparamagnetic behavior. Current-voltage curve of sample with V NF = 25% at 175 K shows typical tunneling-type behavior. The magnetoresistances of samples with low V NF are positive at high temperature, and are negative at low temperature. The temperature-dependent magnetoresistances result from the competition among ordinary magnetoresistances, the granular-typed tunneling magnetoresistance and the spin-mixing induced magnetoresistances.

  6. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  7. Sidewall-friction-driven ordering transition in granular channel flows: Implications for granular rheology

    Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology—the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.

  8. Sidewall-friction-driven ordering transition in granular channel flows: Implications for granular rheology.

    Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D V

    2017-11-01

    We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology-the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.

  9. Comparison of calorimetry and destructive analytical measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders

    Welsh, T.L.

    1996-01-01

    In Dec. 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on inventory of Pu- bearing materials, originating from the US nuclear weapons complex, at vault 3 of DOE's Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford. Because of the diversity and heterogeneity of the Pu, plant operators have increasingly used calorimetry for accountability measurements. During the recent commencement of IAEA safeguards at vault 3, destructive (electrochemical titration) methods were used to determine Pu concentrations in subsamples of inventory items with widely ranging chemical purities. The Pu concentrations in the subsamples were determined and contribution of heterogeneity to total variability was identified. Measurement results, gathered by PFP and IAEA laboratories, showed total measurement variability for calorimetry to be comparable with or lower than those of sampling and chemical analyses

  10. Application of isothermal calorimetry and uv spectroscopy for stability monitoring of pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    Dosser, L.R.; Pickard, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal stabilities for a series of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) samples with variable surf ace areas were monitored by isothermal calorimetry and UV spectroscopy over the temperature range of 363 to 408 K. Isothermal induction times measured with constant volume calorimetry under an air atmosphere and No evolution rates monitored by UV absorbance at 213 nm under vacuum correlated with the PETN surface area at temperatures equal to or exceeding 383 K. Rate data measured at 383 K are in accord with predictions based on detailed kinetic modeling. Below 383 K, NO evolution data suggested that additional geometric factors may be significant in controlling PETN stability. Mechanisms for influencing surface area upon the rate-determining step are addressed

  11. Radiation damage study for silicon calorimetry: Summary of first year's activity

    Russ, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the first contract year of this activity at Carnegie-Mellon we have had two major objectives. These were to devise and test a non-intrusive means to measure the energy and spatial profiles of the neutrons generated in a hadronic cascade at high energy; and to study the calibration systematics of silicon diode detectors as a prelude to their evaluation for SSC calorimetry. These objectives have been carried out, as are described in this paper. In addition we have recoded the ORNL detector simulation program HETC to operate on a VAX and are working on the conversion of the low energy neutron transport program MORSE. These programs are used heavily at Oak Ridge (Gabriel and coworkers) for cascade studies. For silicon calorimetry one wants to have more control over the energy deposition routines, especially in MORSE. Unfortunately, MORSE is heavily-laden with machine code, and its conversion is going slowly. 11 refs., 5 figs

  12. Laser Calorimetry Spectroscopy for ppm-level Dissolved Gas Detection and Analysis.

    K S, Nagapriya; Sinha, Shashank; R, Prashanth; Poonacha, Samhitha; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Choudhury, Niloy; Mahalik, Saroj; Maity, Sandip

    2017-02-20

    In this paper we report a newly developed technique - laser calorimetry spectroscopy (LCS), which is a combination of laser absorption spectroscopy and calorimetry - for the detection of gases dissolved in liquids. The technique involves determination of concentration of a dissolved gas by irradiating the liquid with light of a wavelength where the gas absorbs, and measuring the temperature change caused by the absorbance. Conventionally, detection of dissolved gases with sufficient sensitivity and specificity was done by first extracting the gases from the liquid and then analyzing the gases using techniques such as gas chromatography. Using LCS, we have been able to detect ppm levels of dissolved gases without extracting them from the liquid. In this paper, we show the detection of dissolved acetylene in transformer oil in the mid infrared (MIR) wavelength (3021 nm) region.

  13. Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry Theoretical and Practical Applications in Polymer Characterisation

    Reading, Mike

    2006-01-01

    MTDSC provides a step-change increase in the power of calorimetry to characterize virtually all polymer systems including curing systems, blends and semicrystalline polymers. It enables hidden transitions to be revealed, miscibility to be accurately assessed, and phases and interfaces in complex blends to be quantified. It also enables crystallinity in complex systems to be measured and provides new insights into melting behaviour. All of this is achieved by a simple modification of conventional DSC. In 1992 a new calorimetric technique was introduced that superimposed a small modulation on top of the conventional linear temperature program typically used in differential scanning calorimetry. This was combined with a method of data analysis that enabled the sample’s response to the linear component of the temperature program to be separated from its response to the periodic component. In this way, for the first time, a signal equivalent to that of conventional DSC was obtained simultaneously with a measure ...

  14. Characterization of the phase transformations in shape-memory alloys by modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    Wei, Z.G.; Sandstroem, R.

    1999-01-01

    Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) is a recently developed calorimetric technique, which has demonstrated some significant advantages over the conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By separating the reversing quantity from the non-reversing component in the total thermal events, it provides some new information that can not be obtained from the conventional DSC. The technique has been applied to various polycrystalline and single crystalline shape-memory alloys, including Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni(Cu), Ni-Mn-Ga and Fe-Mn-Si, to characterize the martensitic transformations, bainitic transformation, chemical and magnetic ordering transitions, atomic reordering and other kinetic relaxation processes in the alloys. The preliminary results of the MDSC measurements are summarized and the interpretation of the MDSC results and some factors affecting the results are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Inherent limitations of fixed-time, servo-controlled radiometric calorimetry

    Wetzel, J.R.; Lemming, J.F.; Duff, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Interest has been shown in using fixed-time, servo-controlled calorimetry to shorten the measurement times for certain samples that require low precision values (3 to 5%). This type of calorimeter measurement could be particularly useful for screening scrap samples to determine whether there is a need for a more accurate measurement or for certain confirmatory measurements for which low precision numbers are sufficient. The equipment required for this type of measurement is a servo-controlled calorimeter and a preconditioning unit. Samples to be measured are placed in the preconditioning unit, which is maintained at the internal temperature of the calorimeter. The power value for the sample is determined at a fixed time after loading into the calorimeter, for example, 30 min. When a calorimeter is operated using a fixed cutoff time, there are additional sources of uncertainty that need to be considered. The major factors affecting the uncertainty of the calorimetry power values are discussed. 2 refs., 4 figs

  16. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Currás, Esteban, E-mail: ecurrasr@cern.ch [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Fernández, Marcos [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Gallrapp, Christian [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Gray, Lindsey [Fermilab, Wilson Street and Kirk Road, Batavia, IL 60510-5011, Illinois (United States); Mannelli, Marcello [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Meridiani, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Moll, Michael [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Nourbakhsh, Shervin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Scharf, Christian [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Silva, Pedro [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, Georg [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fatis, Tommaso Tabarelli de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vila, Iván [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-02-11

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb{sup −1} per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm{sup 2} and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2}. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1.6×10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2} is presented. The properties of these diodes studied before and after irradiation were leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency, annealing effects and timing capability. The results of these measurements validate these sensors as candidates for the HGC system.

  17. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Immersion Calorimetry for the Characterization of PD Catalysts Supported on Activated Carbon

    Liliana Giraldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons obtained from coconut peel were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. Superficial characteristics of these carbons were determined through N2 and CO2 isotherms and functional groups were characterized by TPD. Finally, the microcalorimetry technique was used in order to obtain the immersion enthalpies in diverse liquids and established the relation between them and the results obtained by the other characterization techniques. The results suggested that the immersion calorimetry allow establishing the difference between the supports and the catalysts.

  19. Monitoring of an RNA Multistep Folding Pathway by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Reymond, Cédric; Bisaillon, Martin; Perreault, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to monitor the energetic landscape of a catalytic RNA, specifically that of the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme. Using mutants that isolated various tertiary interactions, the thermodynamic parameters of several ribozyme-substrate intermediates were determined. The results shed light on the impact of several tertiary interactions on the global structure of the ribozyme. In addition, the data indicate that the formation of the P1.1 pseudoknot is the lim...

  20. Low-temperature heat capacity of small Nb3Sn polycrystals by ac calorimetry

    Viswanathan, R.; Johnston, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown by an ac calorimetry technique that the multiple heat capacity anomalies which occur below the superconducting transition temperature for small polycrystalline Nb 3 Sn samples are intrinsic to these samples. The recent suggestions that shear stresses can account for these results are analyzed for their validity. The dependence of the occurrence of these multiple anomalies upon the thermal history of the samples was investigated

  1. A survey of the year 2007 literature on applications of isothermal titration calorimetry

    Bjelic, S; Jelesarov, I

    2008-01-01

    Elucidation of the energetic principles of binding affinity and specificity is a central task in many branches of current sciences: biology, medicine, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, etc. In biomedical research, integral approaches combining structural information with in-solution biophysical data have proved to be a powerful way toward understanding the physical basis of vital cellular phenomena. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a valuable experimental tool facilitating ...

  2. Photothermal beam deflection calorimetry in solution photochemistry: recent progress and future prospects.

    Falvey, D E

    1997-01-01

    Photothermal beam deflection (PBD) calorimetry is a technique that measures changes in the solvent's refractive index that accompanies photothermal heating. This method is capable of extracting both kinetic and thermodynamic information from photochemical reactions. A qualitative description of physical basis of time-resolved PBD is presented. Several recent examples of its application to photochemical and photobiological problems are discussed. Finally, the advantages and limitations of PBD are described.

  3. Application of calorimetry in evaluation of phase transformations in the selected hypoeutectic silumins

    J. Szymszal

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigations of phase transformations described in this study were carried out on hypoeutectic alloys from the Al-Si during heating and cooling. The determination and analysis of characteristic temperature values from the solidification range was made by the DSC method in calorimetric investigations carried out on a high-temperature multi HTC Setaram scanning calorimeter. Applying the lever rule, the phase composition of the examined slumins was calculated and compared with the results of DSC calorimetry.

  4. A bipolar monolithic preamplifier for high-capacitance SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] silicon calorimetry

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Kennedy, E.J.; Bugg, W.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a preamplifier designed and fabricated specifically to address the requirements of silicon calorimetry for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The topology and its features are discussed in addition to the design methodology employed. The simulated and measured results for noise, power consumption, and speed are presented. Simulated an measured data for radiation damage effects as well as data for post-damage annealing are also presented. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Advanced forward calorimetry for the SSC and TeVatron collider

    DiBitonto, D.; Van Peteghem, P.M.; Geiger, R.L.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Thane, J.M.; White, J.T.; Atac, M.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a project to develop fast, radiation hardened forward calorimetry for the SSC and TeVatron collider. Detector technologies discussed are based on gas and warm liquid media. In particular, we present the design of an ultrasensitive hybrid charge preamplifier for liquid technology capable of operating at 0.1-1 GHz. The actual detector bandwidth will depend on the choice of detector media used and the maximum allowable operating high voltage. (orig.)

  6. Recent advances and potential applications of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) in drug development

    Knopp, Matthias Manne; Löbmann, Korbinian; Elder, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is frequently the thermal analysis technique of choice within preformulation and formulation sciences because of its ability to provide detailed information about both the physical and energetic properties of a substance and/or formulation. However, convent......-dried formulations. However, as discussed in the present review, a number of other potential applications could also be relevant for the pharmaceutical scientist....

  7. Determination of the aggregation number for micelles by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, Rene; Westh, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has previously been applied to estimate the aggregation number (n), Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of micellization. However, some difficulties of micelle characterization by ITC still remain; most micelles have aggregation numbers...... insight into optimal design of titration protocols for micelle characterization. By applying the new method, the aggregation number of sodium dodecyl sulphate and glycochenodeoxycholate was determined at concentrations around their critical micelle concentration (CMC)...

  8. Segregation of granular binary mixtures by a ratchet mechanism.

    Farkas, Zénó; Szalai, Ferenc; Wolf, Dietrich E; Vicsek, Tamás

    2002-02-01

    We report on a segregation scheme for granular binary mixtures, where the segregation is performed by a ratchet mechanism realized by a vertically shaken asymmetric sawtooth-shaped base in a quasi-two-dimensional box. We have studied this system by computer simulations and found that most binary mixtures can be segregated using an appropriately chosen ratchet, even when the particles in the two components have the same size and differ only in their normal restitution coefficient or friction coefficient. These results suggest that the components of otherwise nonsegregating granular mixtures may be separated using our method.

  9. 10th International Conference “Traffic and Granular Flow”

    Boltes, Maik; Schadschneider, Andreas; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike, and addresses the latest developments at the intersection of physics, engineering and computational science. These involve complex systems, in which multiple simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena. The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic; granular matter; biological transport; transport networks; data acquisition; data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e., modeling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations are considered.    

  10. A new method for measurement of granular velocities

    Nyborg Andersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    A new, supplementary method to measure granular velocities is presented. The method utilizes the Doppler shift caused by the line of sight component of the solar rotation to cause a wavelength shift through spectral lines as function of heliocentric angle. By measuring the center-to-limb variation of the granular intensity fluctations at different wavelength positions in the lines, the velocities are found. To do this, assumptions regarding the geometrical structure of the velocity and intensity fields have to be made. Preliminary application of the method results in a steep velocity gradient suggesting zero velocity at a hight of 200 km above tau 500 = 1. Possible causes are discussed

  11. Voltage fluctuations in granular superconductors in the perpendicular configuration

    Gerashchenko, O V

    2003-01-01

    The spectral density of voltage fluctuations in granular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductors in the perpendicular configuration has been studied in the flux flow mode. It has been found that, in this case, the 1/f-voltage noise observed depends weakly on temperature and is associated with motion of a magnetic flux in the superconductor. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of previous measurements in parallel configuration has shown that voltage noise is produced by a single common source, which is presumably associated with self-organization of the critical state in granular superconductors

  12. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The increase in urban population in arctic areas leads to an increased demand for transportation infrastructures (such as roads and airfields) in the regions. This challenges the road constructions in terms of condition, bearing capacity and maintenance. It is believed that deicing agents used...... on roads and airfields enter the granular subbase materials and thereby makes the soil more frost-susceptible. In this project a series of isothermal frost heave tests has been carried out on granular subbase material from the runway at Kuujjuaq Airport, Québec, Canada. The tests have been carried out...

  13. Critical fields of niobium nitride films of various granularity

    Antonova, E.A.; Sukhov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The behaviour of lattice parameter, specific electrical resistivity, critical temperature, and temperature dependence of upper critical field near Tsub(cr) of sputtered niobium nitride films is investigated versus the substrate temperature and gas mixture composition in the process of reactive cathode sputtering. The relation between extrapolated value of the upper critical field and granularity of niobium nitride films, close as to composition to the stoichiometric one, has been found. Values of the kappa parameter of the Ginsburg-Landau theory and of the coherence length for niobium nitride films of various granularity are estimated in an approximation of uniform distribution of impurities in a sample

  14. Kovacs-Like Memory Effect in Driven Granular Gases

    Prados, A.; Trizac, E.

    2014-05-01

    While memory effects have been reported for dense enough disordered systems such as glasses, we show here by a combination of analytical and simulation techniques that they are also intrinsic to the dynamics of dilute granular gases. By means of a certain driving protocol, we prepare the gas in a state where the granular temperature T coincides with its long time limit. However, T does not subsequently remain constant but exhibits a nonmonotonic evolution before reaching its nonequilibrium steady value. The corresponding so-called Kovacs hump displays a normal behavior for weak dissipation (as observed in molecular systems) but is reversed under strong dissipation, where it, thus, becomes anomalous.

  15. Properties of surface waves in granular media under gravity

    Zheng He-Peng

    2014-01-01

    Acoustical waves propagating along the free surface of granular media under gravity are investigated in the framework of elasticity theory. The influence of stress on a surface wave is analyzed. The results have shown that two types of surface waves, namely sagittal and transverse modes exist depending on initial stress states, which may have some influence on the dispersion relations of surface waves, but the influence is not great. Considering that the present experimental accuracy is far from distinguishing this detail, the validity of elasticity theory on the surface waves propagating in granular media can still be maintained. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Permeability of granular beds emplaced in vertical drill holes

    Griffiths, S.K.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the permeabilities of granular materials emplaced in vertical drill holes used for underground nuclear tests, an experiment at the USDOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted. As the hole is being filled, falling material increases pressure above and within the granular beds beneath. When the filling operation starts or stops, a transient pressure response occurs within the beds; measurements of this response in beds of various compositions were made. The permeabilities after emplacement were found by matching analytical predictions of the response to these data. This information is useful in assuring the containment of nuclear tests conducted in such drill holes

  17. Indirect calorimetry in nutritional therapy. A position paper by the ICALIC study group.

    Oshima, Taku; Berger, Mette M; De Waele, Elisabeth; Guttormsen, Anne Berit; Heidegger, Claudia-Paula; Hiesmayr, Michael; Singer, Pierre; Wernerman, Jan; Pichard, Claude

    2017-06-01

    This review aims to clarify the use of indirect calorimetry (IC) in nutritional therapy for critically ill and other patient populations. It features a comprehensive overview of the technical concepts, the practical application and current developments of IC. Pubmed-referenced publications were analyzed to generate an overview about the basic knowledge of IC, to describe advantages and disadvantages of the current technology, to clarify technical issues and provide pragmatic solutions for clinical practice and metabolic research. The International Multicentric Study Group for Indirect Calorimetry (ICALIC) has generated this position paper. IC can be performed in in- and out-patients, including those in the intensive care unit, to measure energy expenditure (EE). Optimal nutritional therapy, defined as energy prescription based on measured EE by IC has been associated with better clinical outcome. Equations based on simple anthropometric measurements to predict EE are inaccurate when applied to individual patients. An ongoing international academic initiative to develop a new indirect calorimeter aims at providing innovative and affordable technical solutions for many of the current limitations of IC. Indirect calorimetry is a tool of paramount importance, necessary to optimize the nutrition therapy of patients with various pathologies and conditions. Recent technical developments allow broader use of IC for in- and out-patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  19. Ionic liquids. Combination of combustion calorimetry with high-level quantum chemical calculations for deriving vaporization enthalpies.

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Heintz, Andreas; Schick, Christoph

    2008-07-10

    In this work, the molar enthalpies of formation of the ionic liquids [C2MIM][NO3] and [C4MIM][NO3] were measured by means of combustion calorimetry. The molar enthalpy of fusion of [C2MIM][NO3] was measured using differential scanning calorimetry. Ab initio calculations of the enthalpy of formation in the gaseous phase have been performed for the ionic species using the G3MP2 theory. We have used a combination of traditional combustion calorimetry with modern high-level ab initio calculations in order to obtain the molar enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the ionic liquids under study.

  20. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate by granular biofilms

    Joshi, Hiren M.; Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Venugopalan, V.P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as plasticizer for cellulose esters, lacquers, plastic and vinyl resins and as a solvent extractant of rare earth metals. In nuclear power industry, it is used as a solvent for the extraction of uranium and plutonium salts during fuel reprocessing. TBP does not occur naturally in the environment. It is sparingly soluble in water and once released into soil or aquatic systems, is only moderately biodegradable. There are many proposed mechanisms for TBP biodegradation, which involve stepwise enzymatic hydrolysis to orthophosphate and n-butanol and mono-oxygenase based transformation and then degradation. Microbial processes involving multispecies consortia offer better choice over monoculture processes for degradation of complex wastes. Processes based on immobilized microbial consortia are characterized by significantly reduced settling time, high stability in presence of varying organic load, effective mineralization and amenability to bioaugmentation, which make them a good choice for bioremediation and waste water treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of aerobic microbial granules (also known as granular biofilms) for efficient biodegradation of TBP. For this purpose, we set up 4 litre cylindrical sequencing batch reactors (SBR) in triplicates and inoculated them with sludge (mean sludge size ∼ 60 mm) obtained from an operating wastewater treatment plant. The SBRs were operated on a 6h cycle with 66% volumetric exchange ratio. The reactors were fed with synthetic waste water along with 90 mM acetate and 0.5 mM TBP. The concentration of TBP was slowly raised to 2mM. After 3 months of operation, microbial granules (mean size: 2.05 mm) capable of TBP degradation were observed in the reactors. Gas chromatographic analysis of samples showed that after 6h of operational cycle 2 mM initial concentration of TBP was reduced to 0.2 mM, after which there was no further degradation. Cessation

  1. Granular starch hydrolysis for fuel ethanol production

    Wang, Ping

    Granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GSHE) convert starch into fermentable sugars at low temperatures (≤48°C). Use of GSHE in dry grind process can eliminate high temperature requirements during cooking and liquefaction (≥90°C). In this study, GSHE was compared with two combinations of commercial alpha-amylase and glucoamylase (DG1 and DG2, respectively). All three enzyme treatments resulted in comparable ethanol concentrations (between 14.1 to 14.2% v/v at 72 hr), ethanol conversion efficiencies and ethanol and DDGS yields. Sugar profiles for the GSHE treatment were different from DG1 and DG2 treatments, especially for glucose. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the highest glucose concentration for the GSHE treatment was 7% (w/v); for DG1 and DG2 treatments, maximum glucose concentration was 19% (w/v). GSHE was used in one of the fractionation technologies (enzymatic dry grind) to improve recovery of germ and pericarp fiber prior to fermentation. The enzymatic dry grind process with GSHE was compared with the conventional dry grind process using GSHE with the same process parameters of dry solids content, pH, temperature, time, enzyme and yeast usages. Ethanol concentration (at 72 hr) of the enzymatic process was 15.5% (v/v), which was 9.2% higher than the conventional process (14.2% v/v). Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) generated from the enzymatic process (9.8% db) was 66% less than conventional process (28.3% db). Three additional coproducts, germ 8.0% (db), pericarp fiber 7.7% (db) and endosperm fiber 5.2% (db) were produced. Costs and amounts of GSHE used is an important factor affecting dry grind process economics. Proteases can weaken protein matrix to aid starch release and may reduce GSHE doses. Proteases also can hydrolyze protein into free amino nitrogen (FAN), which can be used as a yeast nutrient during fermentation. Two types of proteases, exoprotease and endoprotease, were studied; protease and urea

  2. Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete particle simulations

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Luding, Stefan; Bokhove, Onno

    2011-01-01

    A shallow-layer model for granular flows is completed with a closure relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction coefficient between

  3. Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method

    Ullidtz, Per

    1997-01-01

    With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression of the gra...

  4. Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the ...

    Practical experiences with granular activated carbon (GAC) at the Rietvlei Water Treatment Plant. ... The porosity was found to be 0.69 for the 12 x 40 size carbon and 0.66 for the 8 x 30 size carbon. By using a ... The third part of the study measured the physical changes of the GAC found at different points in the GAC cycle.

  5. Investigation of granular impact using positron emission particle tracking

    Marston, Jeremy O.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    packing states. For the first time, we have simultaneously investigated both the trajectory of the sphere, the motion of particles in a 3-D granular bed and particles which jump into the resultant jet, which arises from the collapse of the cavity formed

  6. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  7. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    Shrivastava Rohit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like soil. The study of these properties is aimed at modeling wave propagation for oil, mineral or gas exploration (seismic prospecting or non-destructive testing of the internal structure of solids. The focus is on the total energy content of a pulse propagating through an idealized one-dimensional discrete particle system like a mass disordered granular chain, which allows understanding the energy attenuation due to disorder since it isolates the longitudinal P-wave from shear or rotational modes. It is observed from the signal that stronger disorder leads to faster attenuation of the signal. An ordered granular chain exhibits ballistic propagation of energy whereas, a disordered granular chain exhibits more diffusive like propagation, which eventually becomes localized at long time periods. For obtaining mean-field macroscopic/continuum properties, ensemble averaging has been used, however, such an ensemble averaged spectral energy response does not resolve multiple scattering, leading to loss of information, indicating the need for a different framework for micro-macro averaging.

  8. Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and

  9. Editorial: Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials

    Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Einav, Itai

    2015-01-01

    This is the editorial for the special issue on “Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials” in the journal on Computational Particle Mechanics (CPM). The issue aims to provide an opportunity for physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and computational scientists to discuss

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING GRANULAR-GRAPHITE ELECTRODES

    Electrochemical dechlorination of TCE was conducted in a glass column using granular graphite as electrodes. A constant voltage of 15 volt was applied resulting in 60-62 mA of current. Approximately 4-6% of the TCE was dechlorinated. Among the reduced TCE, more than 95% was compl...

  11. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    2010-11-01

    ... Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... resin from Italy and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan...

  12. Stress distribution in quasi-crystalline granular piles

    Trigger, S.A.; Heijst, van G.J.F.; Krasnopolskaya, T.S.; Schram, P.P.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is a rigorous consideration of the stress problem in some simple models of granular piles. Discrete models are considered and the transition to the continuous description is accomplished in order to find the coarse-grained average stress. Some phenomenological rules are

  13. Granular cell tumor with orbital involvement in a child

    Reis, Fabiano [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia; Iyeyasu, Josie Naomi; Carvalho, Keila Monteiro de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Oftalmo-Otorrinolaringologia; Altemani, Albina Messias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FCM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Anatomia Patologica

    2011-09-15

    The authors report a rare case of granular cell tumor in the left medial rectus muscle of a seven-year-old boy. Clinical, pathologic and radiologic findings of the present case are described and a brief literature review is undertaken. (author)

  14. Cahn-Hiliard theory for unstable granular fluids

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.

    A Cahn-Hilliard-type theory for hydrodynamic fluctuations is proposed that gives a quantitative description of the slowly evolving spatial correlations and structures in density and flow fields in the early stages of evolution of freely cooling granular fluids. Two mechanisms for pattern selection

  15. Pesticide Removal by Combined Ozonation and Granular Activated Carbon Filtration

    Orlandini, E.

    1999-01-01

    This research aimed to idendfy and understand mechanisms that underlie the beneficial effect of ozonation on removal of pesdcides and other micropoUutants by Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) filtradon. This allows optimization of the combination of these two processes, termed Biological Activated

  16. Interface stability of granular filter structures under currents

    Verheij, H.J.; Hoffmans, G.; Dorst, K.; Van de Sande, S.

    2012-01-01

    Granular filters are used for protection of structures against scour and erosion. For a proper functioning it is necessary that the interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil and the water flowing above the filter structure are stable. Stability means that there is no transport of subsoil

  17. Martian gullies: possible formation mechanism by dry granular material..

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    section Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies Some theories developed tried explain its origin either by liquid water liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows In winter CO 2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain In spring the CO 2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO 2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies By experimental work with dry granular material we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material section We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City M e xico We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas to target goal recognize or to distinguish to identify possible processes evolved in its formation Also we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters Finally we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material

  18. Kinetics and mass transfer phenomena in anaerobic granular sludge

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Seghezzo, L.; Lettinga, G.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic properties of acetate-degrading methanogenic granular sludge of different mean diameters were assessed at different up-flow velocities (Vup). Using this approach, the influence of internal and external mass transfer could be estimated. First, the apparent Monod constant (KS) for each

  19. Anaerobic granular sludge : characterization, and factors affecting its functioning

    Alphenaar, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many UASB reactors are designed in such a fashion that the presence of granular sludge is necessary for a proper purification process. For achieving an optimum wastewater purification with such reactors, knowledge of the factors that determine the growth, retention and disintegration of

  20. Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge

    Virkutyte, J.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially

  1. Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes

    Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying

  2. Impact of high saline wastewaters on anaerobic granular sludge functionalities

    Jeison, D.A.; Rio, del A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Three UASB reactors were operated at different salinity levels in order to assess the effects on the granular sludge properties. High levels of activity inhibition were observed at sodium concentrations over 7 g Na+/L, which resulted in low applicable organic loading rates and VFA accumulation in

  3. Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der

    1992-01-01

    Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock have....... Further, for the non-stationary term, the virtual mass coefficient will be derived....

  4. Jamming by compressing a system of granular crosses

    Zheng, Hu; Wang, Dong; Barés, Jonathan; Behringer, Robert

    2017-06-01

    A disordered stress-free granular packing can be jammed, transformed into a mechanically rigid structure, by increasing the density of particles or by applying shear deformation. The jamming behavior of systems made of 2D circular discs has been investigated in detail, but very little is known about jamming for non-spherical particles, and particularly, non-convex particles. Here, we perform an experimental study on jamming by compression of a system of quasi-2D granular crosses made of photo-elastic crosses. We measure the pressure evolution during cyclic compression and decompression. The Jamming packing fraction of these quasi-2D granular crosses is ϕJ ≃ 0.475, which is much smaller than the value ϕJ ≃ 0.84 for-2D granular disks. The packing fraction shifts systematically to higher values under compressive cycling, corresponding to systematic shifts in the stress-strain response curves. Associated with these shifts are rotations of the crosses, with minimal changes in their centers of mass.

  5. Rheological Behavior of Dense Assemblies of Granular Materials

    Sundaresan, Sankaran; Tardos, Gabriel I.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Assemblies of granular materials behave differently when they are owing rapidly, from when they are slowly deforming. The behavior of rapidly owing granular materials, where the particle-particle interactions occur largely through binary collisions, is commonly related to the properties of the constituent particles through the kinetic theory of granular materials. The same cannot be said for slowly moving or static assemblies of granular materials, where enduring contacts between particles are prevalent. For instance, a continuum description of the yield characteristics of dense assemblies of particles in the quasistatic ow regime cannot be written explicitly on the basis of particle properties, even for cohesionless particles. Continuum models for this regime have been proposed and applied, but these models typically assume that the assembly is at incipient yield and they are expressed in terms of the yield function, which we do not yet know how to express in terms of particle-level properties. The description of the continuum rheology in the intermediate regime is even less understood. Yet, many practically important flows in nature and in a wide range of technological applications occur in the dense flow regime and at the transition between dilute and dense regimes; the lack of validated continuum rheological models for particle assemblies in these regimes limits predictive modeling of such flows. This research project is aimed at developing such rheological models.

  6. Multifocal Synchronous Granular Cell Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Lipkin-Moore, Zachary; Thomas, Rebecca M.; Rothstein, Robin D.

    2014-01-01

    Granular cell tumors (GCT) are rare and unusual tumors, which are usually benign and asymptomatic. Only 5?10% of cases involve the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly as singular, non-cancerous lesions in the esophagus. We report a rare case of symptomatic, multifocal, synchronous GCT involving the esophagus, stomach, and cecum.

  7. Granular computing in decision approximation an application of rough mereology

    Polkowski, Lech

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a study in knowledge discovery in data with knowledge understood as a set of relations among objects and their properties. Relations in this case are implicative decision rules and the paradigm in which they are induced is that of computing with granules defined by rough inclusions, the latter introduced and studied  within rough mereology, the fuzzified version of mereology. In this book basic classes of rough inclusions are defined and based on them methods for inducing granular structures from data are highlighted. The resulting granular structures are subjected to classifying algorithms, notably k—nearest  neighbors and bayesian classifiers. Experimental results are given in detail both in tabular and visualized form for fourteen data sets from UCI data repository. A striking feature of granular classifiers obtained by this approach is that preserving the accuracy of them on original data, they reduce  substantially the size of the granulated data set as well as the set of granular...

  8. Granular cell tumor with orbital involvement in a child

    Reis, Fabiano; Iyeyasu, Josie Naomi; Carvalho, Keila Monteiro de; Altemani, Albina Messias

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of granular cell tumor in the left medial rectus muscle of a seven-year-old boy. Clinical, pathologic and radiologic findings of the present case are described and a brief literature review is undertaken. (author)

  9. Immersion calorimetry as a tool to evaluate the catalytic performance of titanosilicate materials in the epoxidation of cyclohexene.

    Vernimmen, Jarian; Guidotti, Matteo; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquin; Jardim, Erika O; Mertens, Myrjam; Lebedev, Oleg I; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Psaro, Rinaldo; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie

    2011-04-05

    Different types of titanosilicates are synthesized, structurally characterized, and subsequently catalytically tested in the liquid-phase epoxidation of cyclohexene. The performance of three types of combined zeolitic/mesoporous materials is compared with that of widely studied Ti-grafted-MCM-41 molecular sieve and the TS-1 microporous titanosilicate. The catalytic test results are correlated with the structural characteristics of the different catalysts. Moreover, for the first time, immersion calorimetry with the same substrate molecule as in the catalytic test reaction is applied as an extra means to interpret the catalytic results. A good correlation between catalytic performance and immersion calorimetry results is found. This work points out that the combination of catalytic testing and immersion calorimetry can lead to important insights into the influence of the materials structural characteristics on catalysis. Moreover, the potential of using immersion calorimetry as a screening tool for catalysts in epoxidation reactions is shown.

  10. Dynamics of crater formations in immersed granular materials

    Varas, G.; Vidal, V.; Géminard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Craters are part of the widespread phenomena observed in nature. Among the main applications to natural phenomena, aside from meteorite impact craters, are the formation and growth of volcanic edifices, by successive ejecta emplacement and/or erosion. The time evolution and dynamics play a crucial role here, as the competition between volcanic-jet mass-flux (degassing and ejecta) and crater-size evolution may control directly the eruptive regime. Crater morphology in dry granular material has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of these studies investigate the final, steady crater shape resulting from the collision of solid bodies with the material surface and scaling laws are derived. In immersed granular material, craters generated by an underwater vortex ring, or underwater impact craters generated by landslide, have been reported. In a previous experimental study, Gostiaux et al. [Gran. Matt., 2002] have investigated the dynamics of air flowing through an immersed granular layer. They reported that, depending on the flow rate, the system exhibits two qualitatively different regimes: At small flow rate, the bubbling regime during which bubbles escape the granular layer independently one from another; At large flow rate, the open-channel regime which corresponds to the formation of a channel crossing the whole thickness of the granular bed through which air escapes almost continuously. At intermediate flow rate, a spontaneous alternation between these two regimes is observed. Here, we report the dynamics of crater formations at the free surface of an immersed granular bed, locally crossed by an ascending gas flow. We reproduce the experimental conditions of Gostiaux et al. (2002) in two dimensions: In a vertical Hele-Shaw cell, the crater consists of two sand piles which develop around the location of the gas emission. We observe that the typical size of the crater increases logarithmically with time, independently of the gas

  11. Leucemia de grandes linfócitos granulares Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    Bruno Terra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo o estabelecimento de fundamentação teórica atualizada baseada em revisão bibliográfica sobre a leucemia de grandes linfócitos granulares (LGLG, doença onco-hematológica, que, devido à sua relativa raridade, é pouco conhecida e subdiagnosticada. A LGLG é caracterizada pela proliferação clonal de linfócitos T ou NK na medula óssea e/ou no sangue periférico. Dentre as manifestações clínico-laboratoriais, podem ocorrer citopenias (anemia e/ou neutropenia e/ou plaquetopenia, linfocitose (não costuma ser acentuada, linfadenomegalia, hepatoesplenomegalia, alterações imunológicas e sintomas constitucionais (emagrecimento, febre e sudorese. O curso clínico da LGLG é bastante variável, sendo que no subtipo T costuma ser indolente ou oligossintomática, enquanto no subtipo NK a evolução costuma ser desfavorável. O diagnóstico é firmado através de imunofenotipagem por citometria de fluxo e estudo de clonalidade por métodos de biologia molecular. Seu tratamento é bastante diversificado e é definido de acordo com a apresentação clínica da doença.This is a literature review about large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL, a rare and misdiagnosed oncohematological disease, characterized by a clonal expansion of T-cells (T-LGLL or NK-cells (NK-LGLL in the bone marrow and/or peripheral blood. The clinical features of LGLL include cytopenias (anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, lymphocytosis (usually discrete, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, immune abnormalities and constitutional symptoms (fever, night sweats and weight loss. The diagnosis is based on the confirmation of the clonality of T-cells or NK-cells (polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot are the two methods most commonly used and typical findings of the immunophenotypic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (flow cytometry analyses for specific surface antigens. In contrast to the chronic and indolent

  12. Discrete Element study of granular material - Bumpy wall interface behavior

    El Cheikh, Khadija; Rémond, Sébastien; Pizette, Patrick; Vanhove, Yannick; Djelal, Chafika

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a DEM study of a confined granular material sheared between two parallel bumpy walls. The granular material consists of packed dry spherical particles. The bumpiness is modeled by spheres of a given diameter glued on horizontal planes. Different bumpy surfaces are modeled by varying diameter or concentration of glued spheres. The material is sheared by moving the two bumpy walls at fixed velocity. During shear, the confining pressure applied on each bumpy wall is controlled. The effect of wall bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient and on the granular material behavior at the bumpy walls is reported for various shearing conditions. For given bumpiness and confining pressure that we have studied, it is found that the shear velocity does not affect the shear stress. However, the effective friction coefficient and the behavior of the granular material depend on the bumpiness. When the diameter of the glued spheres is larger than about the average grains diameter of the medium, the latter is uniformly sheared and the effective friction coefficient remains constant. For smaller diameters of the glued spheres, the effective friction coefficient increases with the diameter of glued spheres. The influence of glued spheres concentration is significant only for small glued spheres diameters, typically half of average particle diameter of the granular material. In this case, increasing the concentration of glued spheres leads to a decrease in effective friction coefficient and to shear localization at the interface. For different diameters and concentrations of glued spheres, we show that the effect of bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient can be characterized by the depth of interlocking.

  13. Breakage mechanics for granular materials in surface-reactive environments

    Zhang, Yida; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    It is known that the crushing behaviour of granular materials is sensitive to the state of the fluids occupying the pore space. Here, a thermomechanical theory is developed to link such macroscopic observations with the physico-chemical processes operating at the microcracks of individual grains. The theory relies on the hypothesis that subcritical fracture propagation at intra-particle scale is the controlling mechanism for the rate-dependent, water-sensitive compression of granular specimens. First, the fracture of uniaxially compressed particles in surface-reactive environments is studied in light of irreversible thermodynamics. Such analysis recovers the Gibbs adsorption isotherm as a central component linking the reduction of the fracture toughness of a solid to the increase of vapour concentration. The same methodology is then extended to assemblies immersed in wet air, for which solid-fluid interfaces have been treated as a separate phase. It is shown that this choice brings the solid surface energy into the dissipation equations of the granular matrix, thus providing a pathway to (i) integrate the Gibbs isotherm with the continuum description of particle assemblies and (ii) reproduce the reduction of their yield strength in presence of high relative humidity. The rate-effects involved in the propagation of cracks and the evolution of breakage have been recovered by considering non-homogenous dissipation potentials associated with the creation of surface area at both scales. It is shown that the proposed model captures satisfactorily the compression response of different types of granular materials subjected to varying relative humidity. This result was achieved simply by using parameters based on the actual adsorption characteristics of the constituting minerals. The theory therefore provides a physically sound and thermodynamically consistent framework to study the behaviour of granular solids in surface-reactive environments.

  14. Paraqueratose granular: relato de seis casos em crianças Granular parakeratosis: a report of six cases in children

    Susana Giraldi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A paraqueratose granular é alteração da queratinização, primeiramente descrita em adultos, caracterizada por pápulas e placas hiperqueratósicas nas áreas intertriginosas. Os autores descrevem seis casos de paraqueratose granular em crianças. Um paciente apresentava lesões nas regiões glúteas, dois em ambas as axilas e região cervical (apresentações inéditas na literatura. Três pacientes apresentavam lesões em pregas inguinais. Realizam também revisão da literatura e discutem a possível etiologia dessa rara dermatose.Granular parakeratosis is an alteration of keratinization that was first described in adults. It is characterized by hiperkeratotic plaques and papules in intertriginous areas. The authors describe six cases of granular parakeratosis in children. One patient had lesions on the buttocks; two children presented papules in both axillae and cervical region (presentations never described before in the literature. The remaining three patients presented with lesions in the inguinal folds. Review of the literature and discussion on the pathogenesis of this rare dermatosis are presented.

  15. Percent relative cumulative frequency analysis in indirect calorimetry: application to studies of transgenic mice.

    Riachi, Marc; Himms-Hagen, Jean; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2004-12-01

    Indirect calorimetry is commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess characteristics of energy expenditure. Respiration chambers in indirect calorimetry allow measurements over long periods of time (e.g., hours to days) and thus the collection of large sets of data. Current methods of data analysis usually involve the extraction of only a selected small proportion of data, most commonly the data that reflects resting metabolic rate. Here, we describe a simple quantitative approach for the analysis of large data sets that is capable of detecting small differences in energy metabolism. We refer to it as the percent relative cumulative frequency (PRCF) approach and have applied it to the study of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) deficient and control mice. The approach involves sorting data in ascending order, calculating their cumulative frequency, and expressing the frequencies in the form of percentile curves. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the PRCF approach for analyses of oxygen consumption (.VO2) as well as respiratory exchange ratio data. Statistical comparisons of PRCF curves are based on the 50th percentile values and curve slopes (H values). The application of the PRCF approach revealed that energy expenditure in UCP1-deficient mice housed and studied at room temperature (24 degrees C) is on average 10% lower (p lower environmental temperature, there were no differences in .VO2 between groups. The latter is likely due to augmented shivering thermogenesis in UCP1-deficient mice compared with controls. With the increased availability of murine models of metabolic disease, indirect calorimetry is increasingly used, and the PRCF approach provides a novel and powerful means for data analysis.

  16. Water calorimetry and ionization chamber dosimetry in an 85-MeV clinical proton beam.

    Palmans, H; Seuntjens, J; Verhaegen, F; Denis, J M; Vynckier, S; Thierens, H

    1996-05-01

    In recent years, the increased use of proton beams for clinical purposes has enhanced the demand for accurate absolute dosimetry for protons. As calorimetry is the most direct way to establish the absorbed dose and because water has recently been accepted as standard material for this type of beam, the importance of water calorimetry is obvious. In this work we report water calorimeter operation in an 85-MeV proton beam and a comparison of the absorbed dose to water measured by ionometry with the dose resulting from water calorimetric measurements. To ensure a proper understanding of the heat defect for defined impurities in water for this type of radiation, a relative response study was first done in comparison with theoretical calculations of the heat defect. The results showed that pure hypoxic water and hydrogen-saturated water yielded the same response with practically zero heat defect, in agreement with the model calculations. The absorbed dose inferred from these measurements was then compared with the dose derived from ionometry by applying the European Charged Heavy Particle Dosimetry (ECHED) protocol. Restricting the comparison to chambers recommended in the protocol, the calorimeter dose was found to be 2.6% +/- 0.9% lower than the average ionometry dose. In order to estimate the significance of chamber-dependent effects in this deviation, measurements were performed using a set of ten ionization chambers of five different types. The maximum internal deviation in the ionometry results amounted to 1.1%. We detected no systematic chamber volume dependence, but observed a small but systematic effect of the chamber wall thickness. The observed deviation between calorimetry and ionometry can be attributed to a combination of the value of (Wair/e)p for protons, adopted in the ECHED protocol, the mass stopping power ratios of water to air for protons, and possibly small ionization chamber wall effects.

  17. pytc: Open-Source Python Software for Global Analyses of Isothermal Titration Calorimetry Data.

    Duvvuri, Hiranmayi; Wheeler, Lucas C; Harms, Michael J

    2018-05-08

    Here we describe pytc, an open-source Python package for global fits of thermodynamic models to multiple isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. Key features include simplicity, the ability to implement new thermodynamic models, a robust maximum likelihood fitter, a fast Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo sampler, rigorous implementation, extensive documentation, and full cross-platform compatibility. pytc fitting can be done using an application program interface or via a graphical user interface. It is available for download at https://github.com/harmslab/pytc .

  18. Determination of magnetic characteristics of nanoparticles by low-temperature calorimetry methods

    Ugulava, A.; Toklikishvili, Z. [Department of Physics, I.Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,I.Chavchavadze av. 3, 0179 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Chkhaidze, S., E-mail: simon.chkhaidze@tsu.ge [Department of Physics, I.Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University,I.Chavchavadze av. 3, 0179 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Kekutia, Sh. [V. Chavchanidze Institute of Cybernetics, at the Technical State University, S. Euli str. 5, 0186 Tbilisi, Georgia (United States)

    2017-05-15

    At low temperatures, the heat capacity of a superparamagnetic “ideal gas” determined by magnetic degrees of freedom can greatly exceed the lattice heat capacity. It is shown that in the presence of an external magnetic field, the temperature dependence of the magnetic part of the heat capacity has two maxima. The relations between the temperature at which these maxima are achieved, the magnetic moment of the nanoparticles and the magnetic anisotropy constant have been obtained. Measuring the heat capacity maxima temperatures by low-temperature calorimetry methods and using the obtained relations, we can obtain the numerical values both of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles and the magnetic anisotropy constants.

  19. Physico-chemical changes in heavy ions irradiated polymer foils by differential scanning calorimetry

    Ciesla, K.; Trautmann, Ch.; Vansant, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    The sample of commercial PETP (Hostaphan) and very heavy ions irradiated products were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry in nitrogen flow. Irradiation were performed with Dy ions of 13 MeV/u with fluences 5 x 10 10 ions/cm 2 . Differences were observed in melting behaviour of unirradiated and irradiated foils. The influence of irradiation conditions on the results was noticed. Moreover the samples of polyimide (Kapton) and polycarbonate (Macrofol) irradiated in similar conditions were examined by DSC. The DSC traces have been compared with those of unirradiated reference samples. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  20. Test in a beam of large-area Micromegas chambers for sampling calorimetry

    Adloff, C.; Dalmaz, A.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Peltier, F.; Samarati, J.; Vouters, G.

    2014-06-11

    Application of Micromegas for sampling calorimetry puts specific constraints on the design and performance of this gaseous detector. In particular, uniform and linear response, low noise and stability against high ionisation density deposits are prerequisites to achieving good energy resolution. A Micromegas-based hadronic calorimeter was proposed for an application at a future linear collider experiment and three technologically advanced prototypes of 1$\\times$1 m$^{2}$ were constructed. Their merits relative to the above-mentioned criteria are discussed on the basis of measurements performed at the CERN SPS test-beam facility.

  1. Calorimetry of Pu in the context of fuel fabrication follow-up

    Sanson, C.; Arnal, Thierry

    1979-01-01

    Calorimetry appears to be a particularly attractive method for obtaining balances within the context of fuel fabrication follow-up. Under this method the heat released by any plutonium sample is determined with calorimeters fitted with thermocouples, thereby ensuring perfect stability in time response. The first results achieved with two inexpensive prototype calorimeters are as follows, so far: response time, six hours approximately; sensitivity greater than 4 mv.W -1 and repeatability in the order 1%. It will no doubt be possible to improve this performance to a notable extent in the near future [fr

  2. Insights into glass transition and relaxation behavior using temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Our simulations of TMDSC signals prove that the frequency correction of non-reversing heat flow can give a master curve within a certain range...... of frequencies. This frequency range is dependent not only on the measurement parameters such as linear heating/cooling rate and frequency and amplitude of the modulation, but also on the previous thermal history before the TMDSC measurement. The frequency correction for the reversing heat flow gives more...

  3. On the Frequency Correction in Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry of Glass Transition

    Guo, Xiaoju; Mauro, J.C.; Allan, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) is based on conventional DSC but with a sinusoidally modulated temperature path. Simulations of TMDSC signals were performed for Corning EAGLE XG® glass over a wide range of modulation frequencies. Our results reveal that the frequency...... correction commonly used in the interpretation of TMDSC signals leads to a master nonreversing heat flow curve independent of modulation frequency, provided that sufficiently high frequencies are employed in the TMDSC measurement. A master reversing heat flow curve can also be generated through the frequency...

  4. A novel calorimetry technique for monitoring electron beam curing of polymer resins

    Chen, J.H.; Johnston, A.; Petrescue, L.; Hojjati, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a calorimetry-based technique for monitoring of the curing of electron beam (EB) curable resins, including design of the calorimeter hardware and the development of an analytical model for calculating resin cure rates and radiation dose. Factors affecting the performance of the calorimeter were investigated. Experimental trials monitoring the curing of epoxy resin were conducted under single pass and multiple passes of EB irradiation. Results show that the developed calorimeter is a simple, inexpensive and reasonably accurate technique for monitoring the EB curing of cationic epoxies

  5. Conductivity, calorimetry and phase diagram of the NaHSO4–KHSO4 system

    Hind, Hamma-Cugny; Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Rogez, J.

    2006-01-01

    to polynomials of the form κ(X)=A(X)+B(X)(T-Tm)+C(X)(T-Tm)2, where Tm is the intermediate temperature of the measured temperature range and X, the mole fraction of KHSO4. The possible role of this binary system as a catalyst solvent is also discussed. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Physico-chemical properties of the binary system NaHSO4-KHSO4 were studied by calorimetry and conductivity, The enthalpy of mixing has been measured at 505 K in the full composition range and the phase diagram calculated. The phase diagram has also been constructed from phase transition...

  6. Erosion of a wet/dry granular interface

    Jop, Pierre; Lefebvre, Gautier

    2013-04-01

    To model the dynamic of landslides, the evolution of the interface between the erodible ground and the flowing material is still studied experimentally or numerically (ie. Mangeney et al. 2010, Iverson 2012). In some cases, the basal material is more cohesive than the flowing one. Such situation arises for example due to cementation or humidity. What are the exchange rates between these phases? What is the coupling between the evolution of the interface and the flow? We studied the erosion phenomenon and performed laboratory experiments to focus on the interaction between a cohesive unsaturated granular material and a dry granular flow. Both materials were spherical grains, the cohesion being induced by adding a given mass of liquid to the grains. Two configurations were explored: a circular aggregate submitted to a dry flow in a rotating drum, and a granular flow eroding a wet granular pile. First, we focused on the influence of the cohesion, controlled by the liquid properties, such as the surface tension and the viscosity. Then the flow characteristics were modified by varying the grain size and density. These results allowed us to present a model for the erosion mechanisms, based on the flow and fluid properties. The main results are the need to take into account the whole probability distribution the stress applied on the wet grains and that both the surface tension and the viscosity are important since they play a different roles. The latter is mainly responsible of the time scale of the dynamic of a wet grain, while the former acts as a threshold on the force distribution. In the second configuration, we could also control the inclination of the slope. This system supported the previous model and moreover revealed an interface instability, leading the formation of steep steps, which is a reminiscence of the cyclic-steps observed during river-channel incision (Parker and Izumi 2000). We will present the dynamics of such granular steps. [1] Mangeney, A., O

  7. Direct calorimetry of free-moving eels with manipulated thyroid status

    van Ginneken, Vincent; Ballieux, Bart; Antonissen, Erik; van der Linden, Rob; Gluvers, Ab; van den Thillart, Guido

    2007-02-01

    In birds and mammals, the thyroid gland secretes the iodothyronine hormones of which tetraiodothyronine (T4) is less active than triiodothyronine (T3). The action of T3 and T4 is calorigenic and is involved in the control of metabolic rate. Across all vertebrates, thyroid hormones also play a major role in differentiation, development and growth. Although the fish thyroidal system has been researched extensively, its role in thermogenesis is unclear. In this study, we measured overall heat production to an accuracy of 0.1 mW by direct calorimetry in a free-moving European eel ( Anguilla anguilla L.) with different thyroid status. Hyperthyroidism was induced by injection of T3 and T4, and hypothyroidism was induced with phenylthiourea. The results show for the first time at the organismal level, using direct calorimetry, that neither overall heat production nor overall oxygen consumption in eels is affected by hyperthyroidism. Therefore, we conclude that the thermogenic metabolism-stimulating effect of thyroid hormones (TH) is not present with a cold-blooded fish species like the European eel. This supports the concept that TH does not stimulate thermogenesis in poikilothermic species.

  8. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  9. Titration calorimetry of surfactant–drug interactions: Micelle formation and saturation studies

    Waters, Laura J.; Hussain, Talib; Parkes, Gareth M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal titration calorimetry can be used to monitor the saturation of micelles with pharmaceutical compounds. ► The number of drug molecules per micelle varies depending on the drug used and the temperature of the calorimeter. ► The change in enthalpy for the saturation of micelles with drugs can be endothermic or exothermic. ► The critical micellar concentration of an anionic surfactant (SDS) does not appear to vary in the presence of drugs. - Abstract: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was employed to monitor the addition of five model drugs to anionic surfactant based micelles, composed of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), through to the point at which they were saturated with drug. Analysis of the resultant data using this newly developed method has confirmed the suitability of the technique to acquire such data with saturation limits established in all cases. Values for the point at which saturation occurred ranged from 17 molecules of theophylline per micelle at T = 298 K up to 63 molecules of caffeine per micelle at 310 K. Micellar systems can be disrupted by the presence of additional chemicals, such as the drugs used in this study, therefore a separate investigation was undertaken to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC) for SDS in the presence of each drug at T = 298 K and 310 K using ITC. In the majority of cases, there was no appreciable alteration to the CMC of SDS with drug present.

  10. Kinetics of enzymatic high-solid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass studied by calorimetry.

    Olsen, Søren N; Lumby, Erik; McFarland, Kc; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2011-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of high-solid biomass (>10% w/w dry mass) has become increasingly important as a key step in the production of second-generation bioethanol. To this end, development of quantitative real-time assays is desirable both for empirical optimization and for detailed kinetic analysis. In the current work, we have investigated the application of isothermal calorimetry to study the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of two substrates (pretreated corn stover and Avicel) at high-solid contents (up to 29% w/w). It was found that the calorimetric heat flow provided a true measure of the hydrolysis rate with a detection limit of about 500 pmol glucose s(-1). Hence, calorimetry is shown to be a highly sensitive real-time method, applicable for high solids, and independent on the complexity of the substrate. Dose-response experiments with a typical cellulase cocktail enabled a multidimensional analysis of the interrelationships of enzyme load and the rate, time, and extent of the reaction. The results suggest that the hydrolysis rate of pretreated corn stover is limited initially by available attack points on the substrate surface (conversion) but becomes proportional to enzyme dosage (excess of attack points) at later stages (>10% conversion). This kinetic profile is interpreted as an increase in polymer end concentration (substrate for CBH) as the hydrolysis progresses, probably due to EG activity in the enzyme cocktail. Finally, irreversible enzyme inactivation did not appear to be the source of reduced hydrolysis rate over time.

  11. Study of gamma irradiated polyethylenes by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    Secerov, B.; Galovic, S.; Trifunovic, S.; Milicevic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The various polyethylenes (PEs) and effects of high energy radiation on theirs structures were widely studied in the past using conventional Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. In this work, we applied the Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC) technique in order to obtain more information about the influence of initial structural differences and gamma radiation on the evolution in structure and thermal properties of different polyethylenes. For this reason, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were exposed to gamma radiation, in air, to a wide range of absorbed doses (up to 2400 kGy). The separation of the total heat flow TMDSC signal into a reversing and nonreversing part enabled to observed the low temperature enthalpy relaxation (related to the existence of the 'rigid amorphous phase') and recrystallization processes as well as to follow their and/or radiation-induced evolution of melting in a more revealing manner compared to the case of the conventional DSC. Consequently, our results indicate that TMDSC could improve the understanding of radiation-induced effects in polymers.

  12. A study of gamma-irradiated polyethylenes by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    Galovic, S.; Secerov, B.; Trifunovic, S.; Milicevic, D.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2012-09-01

    Various polyethylenes (PEs) and the effects of high-energy radiation on their structures were widely studied in the past using conventional Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. In this work, we used the Temperature Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TMDSC) technique in order to obtain more information about the influence of the initial structural differences and gamma radiation on the evolution in structure and thermal properties of different polyethylenes. For this reason, low density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were exposed to gamma radiation, in air, to a wide range of absorbed doses (up to 2400 kGy). The separation of the total heat flow TMDSC signal into a reversing and non-reversing part enabled us to observe the low-temperature enthalpy relaxation (related to the existence of the "rigid amorphous phase") and recrystallisation processes, as well as to follow their radiation-induced evolution and/or that of melting in a more revealing manner compared to the case of the conventional DSC. Consequently, our results indicate that TMDSC could improve the understanding of radiation-induced effects in polymers.

  13. Thermal behavior and phase identification of Valsartan by standard and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry.

    Skotnicki, Marcin; Gaweł, Agnieszka; Cebe, Peggy; Pyda, Marek

    2013-10-01

    Thermal behavior of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, Valsartan (VAL), was examined employing thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). The stability of VAL was measured by TGA from 25 to 600°C. Decomposition of Valsartan starts around 160°C. The DSC curve shows two endotherms, occurring around 80°C and 100°C, related to evaporation of water and enthalpy relaxation, respectively. Valsartan was identified by DSC as an amorphous material and it was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction. The glass transition of fresh Valsartan appears around 76°C (fictive temperature). TMDSC allows separation of the total heat flow rate into reversing and nonreversing parts. The nonreversing curve corresponds to the enthalpy relaxation and the reversing curve shows changes of heat capacity around 94°C. In the second run, TMDSC curve shows the glass transition process occurring at around 74°C. Results from standard DSC and TMDSC of Valsartan were compared over the whole range of temperature.

  14. The heat capacity of polyethylene fibers measured by multi-frequency temperature-modulated calorimetry

    Pyda, M.; Nowak-Pyda, E.; Wunderlich, B.

    2006-01-01

    The apparent heat capacity of polyethylene fibers in the melting region was measured by quasi-isothermal, temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) and compared with results from standard differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the solid and liquid thermodynamic heat capacity as references from the ATHAS Data Bank. Using a multi-frequency, complex sawtooth modulation in the quasi-isothermal mode disclosed for the first time that the uncorrected apparent heat capacity C p =A Φ /(A T s ω) of the liquid polyethylene fiber increases with increasing frequency (A Φ is the differential heat-flow rate and A T s is the sample temperature). The frequency-dependent heat capacity cannot be represented by the expression: C p =A Φ /(A T s νω)[1+(τνω) 2 ] 0.5 because of a negative τ 2 . The results were later confirmed by independent measurements on single sinusoidal quasi-isothermal TMDSC on the same material. The error is caused by shrinking of the fiber, which deforms the sample pan

  15. Chip calorimetry for evaluation of biofilm treatment with biocides, antibiotics, and biological agents.

    Morais, Frida Mariana; Buchholz, Friederike; Maskow, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Any growth or bioconversion in biofilms is accompanied by the release of heat. The heat (in J) is tightly related to the stoichiometry of the respective process via law of Hess, and the heat production rate (in W or J/s) is additionally related to the process kinetics. This heat and the heat production rate can nowadays be measured by modern calorimetry with extremely high sensitivity. Flow-through calorimetry allows the measurement of bioprocesses in biofilms in real time, without the need of invasive sample preparation and disturbing of biofilm processes. Furthermore, it can be applied for long-term measurements and is even applicable to turbid media. Chip or miniaturized calorimeters have the additional advantages of extremely short thermal equilibration times and the requirement of very small amounts of media and chemicals. The precision of flow-through chip calorimeters (about 3 mW/L) allows the detection of early stages of biofilm development (about 10(5) bacteria cm(-2)).

  16. A High-Throughput Biological Calorimetry Core: Steps to Startup, Run, and Maintain a Multiuser Facility.

    Yennawar, Neela H; Fecko, Julia A; Showalter, Scott A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    Many labs have conventional calorimeters where denaturation and binding experiments are setup and run one at a time. While these systems are highly informative to biopolymer folding and ligand interaction, they require considerable manual intervention for cleaning and setup. As such, the throughput for such setups is limited typically to a few runs a day. With a large number of experimental parameters to explore including different buffers, macromolecule concentrations, temperatures, ligands, mutants, controls, replicates, and instrument tests, the need for high-throughput automated calorimeters is on the rise. Lower sample volume requirements and reduced user intervention time compared to the manual instruments have improved turnover of calorimetry experiments in a high-throughput format where 25 or more runs can be conducted per day. The cost and efforts to maintain high-throughput equipment typically demands that these instruments be housed in a multiuser core facility. We describe here the steps taken to successfully start and run an automated biological calorimetry facility at Pennsylvania State University. Scientists from various departments at Penn State including Chemistry, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biology, Food Science, and Chemical Engineering are benefiting from this core facility. Samples studied include proteins, nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, synthetic polymers, small molecules, natural products, and virus capsids. This facility has led to higher throughput of data, which has been leveraged into grant support, attracting new faculty hire and has led to some exciting publications. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications of isothermal titration calorimetry - the research and technical developments from 2011 to 2015.

    Falconer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry is a widely used biophysical technique for studying the formation or dissociation of molecular complexes. Over the last 5 years, much work has been published on the interpretation of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for single binding and multiple binding sites. As over 80% of ITC papers are on macromolecules of biological origin, this interpretation is challenging. Some researchers have attempted to link the thermodynamics constants to events at the molecular level. This review highlights work carried out using binding sites characterized using x-ray crystallography techniques that allow speculation about individual bond formation and the displacement of individual water molecules during ligand binding and link these events to the thermodynamic constants for binding. The review also considers research conducted with synthetic binding partners where specific binding events like anion-π and π-π interactions were studied. The revival of assays that enable both thermodynamic and kinetic information to be collected from ITC data is highlighted. Lastly, published criticism of ITC research from a physical chemistry perspective is appraised and practical advice provided for researchers unfamiliar with thermodynamics and its interpretation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Thermochemistry of some binary lead and transition metal compounds by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry

    Meschel, S.V., E-mail: meschel@jfi.uchicago.edu [Illinois Institute of Technology,Thermal Processing Technology Center, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, Illinois 60615 (United States); Gordon Center for Integrated Science, 929 E. 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Nash, P. [Illinois Institute of Technology,Thermal Processing Technology Center, 10 W. 32nd Street, Chicago, Illinois 60615 (United States); Chen, X.Q.; Wei, P. [Materials processing Modeling Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metals Research, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang City (China)

    2015-06-05

    Highlights: • Studied binary lead-transition metal alloys by high temperature calorimetry. • Determined the enthalpies of formation of 8 alloys. • Compared the measurements with predictions by the model of Miedema and by the ab initio method. - Abstract: The standard enthalpies of formation of some binary lead and transition metal compounds have been measured by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry. The reported results are: Pb{sub 3}Sc{sub 5}(−61.3 ± 2.9); PbTi{sub 4}(−16.6 ± 2.4); Pb{sub 3}Y{sub 5}(−64.8 ± 3.6); Pb{sub 3}Zr{sub 5}(−50.6 ± 3.1); PbNb{sub 3}(−10.4 ± 3.4); PbRh(−16.5 ± 3.3); PbPd{sub 3}(−29.6 ± 3.1); PbPt(−34.7 ± 3.3) kJ/mole of atoms. We will compare our results with previously published measurements. We will also compare the experimental measurements with enthalpies of formation of transition metal compounds with elements in the same vertical column in the periodic table. We will compare our measurements with predicted values on the basis of the semi empirical model of Miedema and coworkers and with ab initio values when available.

  19. Thin-film calorimetry. In-situ characterization of materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Omelcenko, Alexander; Wulfmeier, Hendrik; Albrecht, Daniel; Fritze, Holger [Clausthal Univ. of Technology, Goslar (Germany). Inst. of Energy Research and Physical Technologies; El Mofid, Wassima; Ivanov, Svetlozar; Bund, Andreas [Ilmenau Univ. of Technology (Germany). Dept. of Electrochemistry

    2017-11-15

    Thin-film calorimetry allows for qualitative and quantitative in-situ analysis of thermodynamic properties of thin films and thin-film systems from room temperature up to 1000 C. It is based on highly sensitive piezoelectric langasite resonators which serve simultaneously as planar temperature sensors and substrates for the films of interest. Generation or consumption of heat during phase transformations of the films cause deviations from the regular course of the resonance frequency. Thermodynamic data such as phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are extracted from these deviations. Thin-film calorimetry on Sn and Al thin films is performed to prove the concept. The results demonstrate high reproducibility of the measurement approach and are in agreement with literature data obtained by established calorimetric techniques. The calibration of the system is done in different atmospheres by application of defined heat pulses via heating structures. The latter replace the films of interest and simulate phase transformations to provide detailed analysis of the heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the measurement system. Based on this analysis, a data evaluation concept is developed. Application-relevant studies are performed on thin films of the lithium-ion battery materials NMC(A), NCA, LMO, and MoS{sub 2}. Their phase transformation temperatures and enthalpies are evaluated in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. Furthermore, their thermodynamic stability ranges are presented. Finally, measurements on all-solid-state thin-film batteries during electrochemical cycling are performed. They demonstrate the suitability of the system for in-situ investigations.

  20. Methodology of hot nucleus calorimetry and thermometry produced by nuclear reactions around Fermi energies; Methodologie de la calorimetrie et de la thermometrie des noyaux chauds formes lors de collisions nucleaires aux energies de Fermi

    Vient, E

    2006-12-15

    This work deals with the calorimetry and thermometry of hot nuclei produced in collisions Xe + Sn between 25 and 100 MeV/u. The apparatus for hot nucleus physical characterization is the 4{pi} detector array Indra. This study was made by using the event generators Gemini, Simon and Hipse and a data-processing filter simulating the complete operation of the multi-detector. The first chapter presents the different ways of producing hot nuclei. In the second and third chapters, the author presents a critical methodological study of calorimetry and thermometry applied to hot nuclei, different methods are reviewed, their accuracy and application range are assessed. All the calorimetry methods rely on the assumption that we are able to discriminate decay products of the hot nucleus from evaporated particles. In the fourth chapter, the author gives some ways of improving calorimetry characterization of the hot nucleus. An alternative method of calorimetry is proposed in the fifth chapter, this method is based on the experimental determination of an evaporation probability that is deduced from the physical characteristics of the particles present in a restricted domain of the space of velocities.

  1. Calorimetry Hadronic with semidigital reading based on camera of resistive planes of glass for experiments on collision linear e + e-; Calorimetr@a hadr@nica con lectura semidigital basada en c@mara de planos resistivos de vidrio para experimentos en colisionadores lineales e + e-

    Berenguer Antequera, J.

    2015-07-01

    Calorimetry Hadronic with semidigital reading based on camera of resistive planes of glass for experiments on collision linear e + e-. Electron-positron linear colliders have been proposed as next generation particle colliders to complement and extend the physics programme of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) at CERN. Currently, two projects, ILC (International Linear Collider) and CLIC (Compact LInear Collider), have been suggested by the international community to reach this purpose. The requirements for a detector for both linear colliders are defined by the precision needed to fully exploit the physics potential of these colliders. In particular, one of the most important requirements is an excellent jet energy resolution. This can be achieved with the particle-flow concept in which the overall detector performance for jet reconstruction is optimised by reconstructing each particle individually. For this reason, the calorimeter system has to have unprecedented granularity fulfilling the task of shower separation and providing excellent jet energy resolution and background separation. (Author)

  2. Subglacial sediment mechanics investigated by computer simulation of granular material

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    The mechanical properties of subglacial sediments are known to directly influence the stability of ice streams and fast-moving glaciers, but existing models of granular sediment deformation are poorly constrained. In addition, upscaling to generalized mathematical models is difficult due to the m......The mechanical properties of subglacial sediments are known to directly influence the stability of ice streams and fast-moving glaciers, but existing models of granular sediment deformation are poorly constrained. In addition, upscaling to generalized mathematical models is difficult due....... The numerical method is applied to better understand the mechanical properties of the subglacial sediment and its interaction with meltwater. The computational approach allows full experimental control and offers insights into the internal kinematics, stress distribution, and mechanical stability. During...

  3. Clustering impact regime with shocks in freely evolving granular gas

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2017-06-01

    A freely cooling granular gas without any external force evolves from the initial homogeneous state to the inhomogeneous clustering state, at which the energy decay deviates from the Haff's law. The asymptotic behavior of energy in the inelastic hard sphere model have been predicted by several theories, which are based on the mode coupling theory or extension of inelastic hard rods gas. In this study, we revisited the clustering regime of freely evolving granular gas via large-scale molecular dynamics simulation with up to 16.7 million inelastic hard disks. We found novel regime regarding on collisions between "clusters" spontaneously appearing after clustering regime, which can only be identified more than a few million particles system. The volumetric dilatation pattern of semicircular shape originated from density shock propagation are well characterized on the appearing of "cluster impact" during the aggregation process of clusters.

  4. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  5. Textile wastewater treatment: aerobic granular sludge vs activated sludge systems.

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Bergna, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    Textile effluents are characterised by high content of recalcitrant compounds and are often discharged (together with municipal wastewater to increase their treatability) into centralized wastewater treatment plants with a complex treatment scheme. This paper reports the results achieved adopting a granular sludge system (sequencing batch biofilter granular reactor - SBBGR) to treat mixed municipal-textile wastewater. Thanks to high average removals in SBBGR (82.1% chemical oxygen demand, 94.7% total suspended solids, 87.5% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 77.1% surfactants), the Italian limits for discharge into a water receiver can be complied with the biological stage alone. The comparison with the performance of the centralized plant treating the same wastewater has showed that SBBGR system is able to produce an effluent of comparable quality with a simpler treatment scheme, a much lower hydraulic residence time (11 h against 30 h) and a lower sludge production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Granular deformation mechanisms in semi-solid alloys

    Gourlay, C.M.; Dahle, A.K.; Nagira, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Nogita, K.; Uesugi, K.; Yasuda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Deformation mechanisms in equiaxed, partially solid Al-15 wt.% Cu are studied in situ by coupling shear-cell experiments with synchrotron X-ray radiography. Direct evidence is presented for granular deformation mechanisms in both globular and equiaxed-dendritic samples at solid fractions shortly after crystal impingement. It is demonstrated that dilatancy, arching and jamming occur at the crystal scale, and that these can cause stick-slip flow due to periodic dilation and compaction at low displacement rate. Granular deformation is found to be similar in globular and equiaxed-dendritic samples if length is scaled by the crystal size and packing is considered to occur among crystal envelopes. Rheological differences between the morphologies are discussed in terms of the competition between crystal rearrangement and crystal deformation.

  7. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J. [Savoie Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (FR). Lab. d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules] (and others)

    2010-12-15

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  8. Electromagnetic response of a highly granular hadronic calorimeter

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.J.

    2010-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is studying the design of high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for future International Linear Collider detectors. For the hadronic calorimeter, one option is a highly granular sampling calorimeter with steel as absorber and scintillator layers as active material. High granularity is obtained by segmenting the scintillator into small tiles individually read out via silicon photo-multipliers (SiPM). A prototype has been built, consisting of thirty-eight sensitive layers, segmented into about eight thousand channels. In 2007 the prototype was exposed to positrons and hadrons using the CERN SPS beam, covering a wide range of beam energies and incidence angles. The challenge of cell equalization and calibration of such a large number of channels is best validated using electromagnetic processes. The response of the prototype steel-scintillator calorimeter, including linearity and uniformity, to electrons is investigated and described. (orig.)

  9. Freely cooling granular gases with short-ranged attractive potentials

    Murphy, Eric; Subramaniam, Shankar, E-mail: shankar@iastate.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Multiphase Flow Research, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    We treat the case of an undriven gas of inelastic hard-spheres with short-ranged attractive potentials via an extension of the pseudo-Liouville operator formalism. New evolution equations for the granular temperature and coordination number are obtained. The granular temperature exhibits deviation from both Haff’s law and the case of long-ranged potentials. We verify this departure using soft-sphere discrete element method simulations. Excellent agreement is found for the duration of the simulation even beyond where exclusively binary collisions are expected. Simulations show the emergence of strong spatial-velocity correlations on the length scale of the last peak in the pair-correlation function but do not show strong correlations beyond this length scale. We argue that molecular chaos may remain an adequate approximation if the system is modelled as a Smoluchowski type equation with aggregation and break-up processes.

  10. Granular activated carbon assisted ozonation of cephalexin antibiotic

    Akhtar, J.; Amin, N.S.; Imran, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates removal of cephalexin using ozonation in the presence of granular activated carbon. Initial experiments were carried out about adsorption of cephalexin onto granular activated carbon, effect of catalytic ozonation, and biodegradability of cephalexin solution. The effect of ozonation on pH, ozone utilization efficiency and decomposition byproducts, was observed. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize three operating parameters pH of solution, ozone supply and cephalexin concentration. GAC assisted ozonation, was found to be effective in decomposing COD (chemical oxygen demand) and cephalexin from solution. Optimum values of variables were pH from 7-8, ozone supply 30 mg/L and 100 mg/L of cephalexin solution. The complete removal of cephalexin and 60% COD removal was achieved at these optimum input values. (author)

  11. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  12. Oscillatory Dynamics of One-Dimensional Homogeneous Granular Chains

    Starosvetsky, Yuli; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Hasan, Md. Arif; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    The acoustics of the homogeneous granular chains has been studied extensively both numerically and experimentally in the references cited in the previous chapters. This chapter focuses on the oscillatory behavior of finite dimensional homogeneous granular chains. It is well known that normal vibration modes are the building blocks of the vibrations of linear systems due to the applicability of the principle of superposition. One the other hand, nonlinear theory is deprived of such a general superposition principle (although special cases of nonlinear superpositions do exist), but nonlinear normal modes ‒ NNMs still play an important role in the forced and resonance dynamics of these systems. In their basic definition [1], NNMs were defined as time-periodic nonlinear oscillations of discrete or continuous dynamical systems where all coordinates (degrees-of-freedom) oscillate in-unison with the same frequency; further extensions of this definition have been considered to account for NNMs of systems with internal resonances [2]...

  13. The calculation of resonance capture in granular fuels

    Askew, J R; Harris, D W.G.; Hutton, J L

    1971-02-15

    The methods used in the UK for the calculation of resonance capture in granular HTR fuels follow the long established path of determining a 'geometric equivalence' which equates the resonance shielding to that in a homogeneous mixture of the resonance absorber in hydrogen. Simple collision probability arguments, usually for the black limit, were used for AGR and SGHW systems. For granular fuel a 'grey' equivalence, convenient for numerical use, has been adopted, and the geometric solution performed in two ways: by a synthetic collision probability model which is rapid and appropriate for design work and by a Monte Carlo model which allows details of the grain lattice structure to be studied. The results are in good agreement, and are shown to give good results compared with measured relative conversion ratios in the NESTOR stack experiments.

  14. Modeling compaction-induced energy dissipation of granular HMX

    Gonthier, K.A. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-12-31

    A thermodynamically consistent model is developed for the compaction of granular solids. The model is an extension of the single phase limit of two-phase continuum models used to describe Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) experiments. The focus is on the energetics and dissipation of the compaction process. Changes in volume fraction are partitioned into reversible and irreversible components. Unlike conventional DDT models, the model is applicable from the quasi-static to dynamic compaction regimes for elastic, plastic, or brittle materials. When applied to the compaction of granular HMX (a brittle material), the model predicts results commensurate with experiments including stress relaxation, hysteresis, and energy dissipation. The model provides a suitable starting point for the development of thermal energy localization sub-scale models based on compaction-induced dissipation.

  15. The nature of quasistatic deformation in granular materials

    ROUX, JN

    2005-01-01

    Strain in granular materials in quasistatic conditions under varying stress originate in (I) contact deformation and (II) rearrangements of the contact network. Depending on sample history and applied load, eiter mechanism might dominate. One may thus define rheological regimes I and II accordingly. Their porperties are presented and illustrated here with discrete numerical simulatiion results in 2 and 3 dimensions. This discussion of the microscopic physical origin of strain is shown to clar...

  16. Dynamical Heterogeneity in Granular Fluids and Structural Glasses

    Avila, Karina E.

    Our current understanding of the dynamics of supercooled liquids and other similar slowly evolving (glassy) systems is rather limited. One aspect that is particularly poorly understood is the origin and behavior of the strong non trivial fluctuations that appear in the relaxation process toward equilibrium. Glassy systems and granular systems both present regions of particles moving cooperatively and at different rates from other regions. This phenomenon is known as spatially heterogeneous dynamics. A detailed explanation of this phenomenon may lead to a better understanding of the slow relaxation process, and perhaps it could even help to explain the presence of the glass transition. This dissertation concentrates on studying dynamical heterogeneity by analyzing simulation data for models of granular materials and structural glasses. For dissipative granular fluids, the growing behavior of dynamical heterogeneities is studied for different densities and different degrees of inelasticity in the particle collisions. The correlated regions are found to grow rapidly as the system approaches dynamical arrest. Their geometry is conserved even when probing at different cutoff length in the correlation function or when the energy dissipation in the system is increased. For structural glasses, I test a theoretical framework that models dynamical heterogeneity as originated in the presence of Goldstone modes, which emerge from a broken continuous time reparametrization symmetry. This analysis is based on quantifying the size and the spatial correlations of fluctuations in the time variable and of other kinds of fluctuations. The results obtained here agree with the predictions of the hypothesis. In particular, the fluctuations associated to the time reparametrization invariance become stronger for low temperatures, long timescales, and large coarse graining lengths. Overall, this research points to dynamical heterogeneity to be described for granular systems similarly than

  17. Magnetic viscosity study in FePt/C granular films

    Huang, Y.; Butler, W.; Zhang, Y.; Hadjipanayis, G.C.; Weller, D.

    2004-01-01

    The magnetic viscosity of FePt/C granular thin films was studied in the temperature range from 2 to 300 K in order to examine the thermal stability of the nanoparticles. The magnetic viscosity coefficient (S max ) was found to decrease with temperature because of decreased thermal activation. At low temperatures, S max showed an almost linear dependence on temperature. However, S max does not extrapolate to zero but seems to have a finite value at cryogenic temperatures

  18. Microgravity experiments on a granular gas of elongated grains

    Harth, K.; Trittel, T.; Kornek, U.; Höme, S.; Will, K.; Strachauer, U.; Stannarius, R.

    2013-06-01

    Granular gases represent well-suited systems to investigate statistical granular dynamics. The literature comprises numerous investigations of ensembles of spherical or irregularly shaped grains. Mainly computer models, analytical theories and experiments restricted to two dimensions were reported. In three-dimensions, the gaseous state can only be maintained by strong external excitation, e. g. vibrations or electro-magnetic fields, or in microgravity. A steady state, where the dynamics of a weakly disturbed granular gas are governed by particle-particle collisions, is hard to realize with spherical grains due to clustering. We present the first study of a granular gas of elongated cylinders in three dimensions. The mean free path is considerably reduced with respect to spheres at comparable filling fractions. The particles can be tracked in 3D over a sequence of frames. In a homogeneous steady state, we find non-Gaussian velocity distributions and a lack of equipartition of kinetic energy. We discuss the relations between energy input and vibrating plate accelerations. At the request of the authors and the Proceedings Editors, the PDF file of this article has been updated to amend some references present in the PDF file submitted to AIP Publishing. The references affected are listed here:[1] (c) K. Nichol and K. E. Daniels, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 018001 (2012); [11] (e) P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford (1993); [17] (b) K. Harth, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 144102 (2013).A LaTeX processing error resulted in changes to the authors reference formatting, which was not detected prior to publication. Due apologies are given to the authors for this oversight. The updated article PDF was published on 12 August 2013.

  19. Fragility and hysteretic creep in frictional granular jamming.

    Bandi, M M; Rivera, M K; Krzakala, F; Ecke, R E

    2013-04-01

    The granular jamming transition is experimentally investigated in a two-dimensional system of frictional, bidispersed disks subject to quasistatic, uniaxial compression without vibrational disturbances (zero granular temperature). Three primary results are presented in this experimental study. First, using disks with different static friction coefficients (μ), we experimentally verify numerical results that predict jamming onset at progressively lower packing fractions with increasing friction. Second, we show that the first compression cycle measurably differs from subsequent cycles. The first cycle is fragile-a metastable configuration with simultaneous jammed and unjammed clusters-over a small packing fraction interval (φ(1)disk displacements over the same packing fraction interval. This fragile behavior is explained through a percolation mechanism of stressed contacts where cluster growth exhibits spatial correlation with disk displacements and contributes to recent results emphasizing fragility in frictional jamming. Control experiments show that the fragile state results from the experimental incompatibility between the requirements for zero friction and zero granular temperature. Measurements with several disk materials of varying elastic moduli E and friction coefficients μ show that friction directly controls the start of the fragile state but indirectly controls the exponential pressure rise. Finally, under repetitive loading (compression) and unloading (decompression), we find the system exhibits pressure hysteresis, and the critical packing fraction φ(c) increases slowly with repetition number. This friction-induced hysteretic creep is interpreted as the granular pack's evolution from a metastable to an eventual structurally stable configuration. It is shown to depend on the quasistatic step size Δφ, which provides the only perturbative mechanism in the experimental protocol, and the friction coefficient μ, which acts to stabilize the pack.

  20. Stretched exponentials and power laws in granular avalanching

    Head, D. A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-02-01

    We introduce a model for granular surface flow which exhibits both stretched exponential and power law avalanching over its parameter range. Two modes of transport are incorporated, a rolling layer consisting of individual particles and the overdamped, sliding motion of particle clusters. The crossover in behaviour observed in experiments on piles of rice is attributed to a change in the dominant mode of transport. We predict that power law avalanching will be observed whenever surface flow is dominated by clustered motion.