WorldWideScience

Sample records for granular material flows

  1. Granular flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nakanishi, Hiizu

    2012-01-01

    Granular material is a collection of macroscopic particles that are visible with naked eyes. The non-equilibrium nature of the granular materials makes their rheology quite different from that of molecular systems. In this minireview, we present the unique features of granular materials focusing...... on the shear flow of dry granular materials and granule-liquid mixture....

  2. Granular materials flow like complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Binquan; Cao, Yixin; Li, Jindong; Xia, Chengjie; Li, Zhifeng; Dong, Haipeng; Zhang, Ang; Zhang, Jie; Kob, Walter; Wang, Yujie

    2017-11-01

    Granular materials such as sand, powders and foams are ubiquitous in daily life and in industrial and geotechnical applications. These disordered systems form stable structures when unperturbed, but in the presence of external influences such as tapping or shear they `relax', becoming fluid in nature. It is often assumed that the relaxation dynamics of granular systems is similar to that of thermal glass-forming systems. However, so far it has not been possible to determine experimentally the dynamic properties of three-dimensional granular systems at the particle level. This lack of experimental data, combined with the fact that the motion of granular particles involves friction (whereas the motion of particles in thermal glass-forming systems does not), means that an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics of granular materials is lacking. Here we use X-ray tomography to determine the microscale relaxation dynamics of hard granular ellipsoids subject to an oscillatory shear. We find that the distribution of the displacements of the ellipsoids is well described by a Gumbel law (which is similar to a Gaussian distribution for small displacements but has a heavier tail for larger displacements), with a shape parameter that is independent of the amplitude of the shear strain and of the time. Despite this universality, the mean squared displacement of an individual ellipsoid follows a power law as a function of time, with an exponent that does depend on the strain amplitude and time. We argue that these results are related to microscale relaxation mechanisms that involve friction and memory effects (whereby the motion of an ellipsoid at a given point in time depends on its previous motion). Our observations demonstrate that, at the particle level, the dynamic behaviour of granular systems is qualitatively different from that of thermal glass-forming systems, and is instead more similar to that of complex fluids. We conclude that granular materials can relax

  3. A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad

    2017-06-01

    The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.

  4. Non-Steady Oscillatory Flow in Coarse Granular Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. H.; Gent, M. R. A. van; Meer, J. W. van der

    1992-01-01

    Stationary and oscillatory flow through coarse granular materials have been investigated experimentally at Delft Hydraulics in their oscillating water tunnel with the objective of determining the coefficients of the extended Forchheimer equation. Cylinders, spheres and different types of rock have....... Further, for the non-stationary term, the virtual mass coefficient will be derived....

  5. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  6. Experimental and analytical investigations of granular materials: Shear flow and convective heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hojin

    1989-12-01

    Granular materials flowing down an inclined chute were studied experimentally and analytically. Characteristics of convective heat transfer to granular flows were also investigated experimentally and numerically. Experiments on continuous, steady flows of granular materials in an inclined chute were conducted with the objectives of understanding the characteristics of chute flows and of acquiring information on the rheological behavior of granular material flow. Existing constitutive equations and governing equations were used to solve for fully developed chute flows of granular materials, and thus the boundary value problem was formulated with two parameters (the coefficient of restitution between particles, and the chute inclination) and three boundary values at the chute base wall (the values of solid fraction, granular temperature, and mean velocity at the wall). The boundary value problem was numerically solved by the shooting method. These analytical results were also compared with the present experimental values and with the computer simulations by other investigators in their literature. Experiments on heat transfer to granular flows over a flat heating plate were conducted with three sizes of glass beads, polystyrene beads, and mustard seeds. A modification on the existing model for the convective heat transfer was made using the effective Nusselt number and the effective Peclet number, which include the effects of solid fraction variations. The slightly modified model could describe the heat transfer characteristics of both fast and slow flows (supercritical and subcritical). A numerical analysis of the transfer to granular flows was also performed. The results were compared with the present experimental data, and reasonable agreement was found in the comparison.

  7. Numerical investigations on flow dynamics of prismatic granular materials using the discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, W.; Weatherley, D.; Wruck, B.; Chitombo, G. P.

    2012-04-01

    The flow dynamics of granular materials is of broad interest in both the geosciences (e.g. landslides, fault zone evolution, and brecchia pipe formation) and many engineering disciplines (e.g chemical engineering, food sciences, pharmaceuticals and materials science). At the interface between natural and human-induced granular media flow, current underground mass-mining methods are trending towards the induced failure and subsequent gravitational flow of large volumes of broken rock, a method known as cave mining. Cave mining relies upon the undercutting of a large ore body, inducement of fragmentation of the rock and subsequent extraction of ore from below, via hopper-like outlets. Design of such mines currently relies upon a simplified kinematic theory of granular flow in hoppers, known as the ellipsoid theory of mass movement. This theory assumes that the zone of moving material grows as an ellipsoid above the outlet of the silo. The boundary of the movement zone is a shear band and internal to the movement zone, the granular material is assumed to have a uniformly high bulk porosity compared with surrounding stagnant regions. There is however, increasing anecdotal evidence and field measurements suggesting this theory fails to capture the full complexity of granular material flow within cave mines. Given the practical challenges obstructing direct measurement of movement both in laboratory experiments and in-situ, the Discrete Element Method (DEM [1]) is a popular alternative to investigate granular media flow. Small-scale DEM studies (c.f. [3] and references therein) have confirmed that movement within DEM silo flow models matches that predicted by ellipsoid theory, at least for mono-disperse granular material freely outflowing at a constant rate. A major draw-back of these small-scale DEM studies is that the initial bulk porosity of the simulated granular material is significantly higher than that of broken, prismatic rock. In this investigation, more

  8. Flow and Jamming of Granular Materials in a Two-dimensional Hopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junyao

    Flow in a hopper is both a fertile testing ground for understanding fundamental granular flow rheology and industrially highly relevant. Despite increasing research efforts in this area, a comprehensive physical theory is still lacking for both jamming and flow of granular materials in a hopper. In this work, I have designed a two dimensional (2D) hopper experiment using photoelastic particles (particles' shape: disk or ellipse), with the goal to build a bridge between macroscopic phenomenon of hopper flow and microscopic particle-scale dynamics. Through synchronized data of particle tracking and stress distributions in particles, I have shown differences between my data of the time-averaged velocity/stress profile of 2D hopper flow with previous theoretical predictions. I have also demonstrated the importance of a mechanical stable arch near the opening on controlling hopper flow rheology and suggested a heuristic phase diagram for the hopper flow/jamming transition. Another part of this thesis work is focused on studying the impact of particle shape of particles on hopper flow. By comparing particle-tracking and photoelastic data for ellipses and disks at the appropriate length scale, I have demonstrated an important role for the rotational freedom of elliptical particles in controlling flow rheology through particle tracking and stress analysis. This work has been supported by International Fine Particle Research Institute (IFPRI) .

  9. Granular flows in constrained geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik

    Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.

  10. Computational domain discretization in numerical analysis of flow within granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowski, Marcin

    2018-06-01

    The discretization of computational domain is a crucial step in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) because it influences not only the numerical stability of the analysed model but also the agreement of obtained results and real data. Modelling flow in packed beds of granular materials is a very challenging task in terms of discretization due to the existence of narrow spaces between spherical granules contacting tangentially in a single point. Standard approach to this issue results in a low quality mesh and unreliable results in consequence. Therefore the common method is to reduce the diameter of the modelled granules in order to eliminate the single-point contact between the individual granules. The drawback of such method is the adulteration of flow and contact heat resistance among others. Therefore an innovative method is proposed in the paper: single-point contact is extended to a cylinder-shaped volume contact. Such approach eliminates the low quality mesh elements and simultaneously introduces only slight distortion to the flow as well as contact heat transfer. The performed analysis of numerous test cases prove the great potential of the proposed method of meshing the packed beds of granular materials.

  11. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  12. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  13. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  14. Granular flows: fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Paul W.

    DEM allows the prediction of complex industrial and geophysical particle flows. The importance of particle shape is demonstrated through a series of simple examples. Shape controls resistance to shear, the magnitude of collision stress, dilation and the angle of repose. We use a periodic flow of a bed of particles to demonstrate the different states of granular matter, the generation of dilute granular flow when granular temperature is high and the flow dependent nature of the granular thermodynamic boundary conditions. A series of industrial case studies examines how DEM can be used to understand and improve processes such as separation, mixing, grinding, excavation, hopper discharge, metering and conveyor interchange. Finally, an example of landslide motion over real topography is presented.

  15. A theoretical and numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane. [Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1995-09-01

    The mechanics of the flowing granular materials such as coal, agricultural products, fertilizers, dry chemicals, metal ores, etc. have received a great deal of attention as it has relevance to several important technological problems. Despite wide interest and more than five decades of experimental and theoretical investigations, most aspects of the behavior of flowing granular materials are still not well understood. So Experiments have to be devised which quantify and describe the non-linear behavior of the granular materials, and theories developed which can explain the experimentally observed facts. Here we carry out a systematic numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane using the models that stem from both the continuum theory approach and the kinetic theory approach. We also look at the existence of solutions, multiplicity and stability of solutions to the governing equations.

  16. A theoretical and numerical study of the flow of granular materials down an inclined plane. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The mechanics of the flowing granular materials such as coal, agricultural products, at deal of attention as it has fertilizers, dry chemicals, metal ores, etc. have received a great deal of attention as it has relevance to several important technological problems. Despite wide interest and more than five decades of experimental and theoretical investigations, most aspects of the behavior of flowing granular materials are still not well understood. So Experiments have to be devised which quantify and describe the non-linear behavior of the modular materials, and theories developed which can explain the experimentally observed facts. As many models have been suggested for describing the behavior of granular materials, from both continuum and kinetic theory viewpoints, we proposed to investigate the validity and usefulness of representative models from both the continuum and kinetic theory points of view, by determining the prediction of such a theory, in a representative flow, with respect to existence, non-existence, multiplicity and stability of solutions. The continuum model to be investigated is an outgrowth of a model due to Goodman and Cowin (1971, 1972) and the kinetic theory models being those due to Jenkins and Richman (1985) and Boyle and Massoudi (1989). In this report we present detailed results regarding the same. Interestingly, we find that the predictions of all the theories, in certain parameter space associated with these models, are qualitatively similar. This ofcourse depends on the values assumed for various material parameters in the models, which as yet are unknown, as reliable experiments have not been carried out as yet for their determination.

  17. Thermal conductivity of granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyevich, Yu A

    1974-01-01

    Stationary heat transfer in a granular material consisting of a continuous medium containing spherical granules of other substances is considered under the assumption that the spatial distribution of granules is random. The effective thermal conductivity characterizing macroscopic heat transfer in such a material is expressed as a certain function of the conductivities and volume fractions of the medium and dispersed substances. For reasons of mathematical analogy, all the results obtained for the thermal conductivity are valid while computing the effective diffusivity of some admixture in granular materials as well as for evaluation of the effective electric conductivity or the mean dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of granular conductors and dielectrics. (23 refs.)

  18. International Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Hans; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich; Social, Traffic and Granular Dynamics

    2000-01-01

    "Are there common phenomena and laws in the dynamic behavior of granular materials, traffic, and socio-economic systems?" The answers given at the international workshop "Traffic and Granular Flow '99" are presented in this volume. From a physical standpoint, all these systems can be treated as (self)-driven many-particle systems with strong fluctuations, showing multistability, phase transitions, non-linear waves, etc. The great interest in these systems is due to several unexpected new discoveries and their practical relevance for solving some fundamental problems of today's societies. This includes intelligent measures for traffic flow optimization and methods from "econophysics" for stabilizing (stock) markets.

  19. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  20. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  1. Granular flow through an aperture: influence of the packing fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Aguirre , Maria; De Schant , Rosario; Géminard , Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g. silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. Unlike fluid flows, that are controlled by the pressure, granular flow is not sensitive to the local pressure but rather to the local velocity of the grains a...

  2. Torsional shear flow of granular materials: shear localization and minimum energy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The rheological properties of granular matter submitted to torsional shear are investigated numerically by means of discrete element method. The shear cell is made of a cylinder filled by grains which are sheared by a bumpy bottom and submitted to a vertical pressure which is applied at the top. Regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. The effects of the (i) the applied pressure, (ii) sidewall friction, and (iii) angular velocity are investigated. A model, based on the purely local μ (I)-rheology and a minimum energy principle is able to capture the effect of the two former quantities but unable to account the effect of the latter. Although, an ad hoc modification of the model allows to reproduce all the numerical results, our results point out the need for an alternative rheology.

  3. A numerical study of granular dam-break flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophet, N.; Rébillout, L.; Ozeren, Y.; Altinakar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate prediction of granular flow behavior is essential to optimize mitigation measures for hazardous natural granular flows such as landslides, debris flows and tailings-dam break flows. So far, most successful models for these types of flows focus on either pure granular flows or flows of saturated grain-fluid mixtures by employing a constant friction model or more complex rheological models. These saturated models often produce non-physical result when they are applied to simulate flows of partially saturated mixtures. Therefore, more advanced models are needed. A numerical model was developed for granular flow employing a constant friction and μ(I) rheology (Jop et al., J. Fluid Mech. 2005) coupled with a groundwater flow model for seepage flow. The granular flow is simulated by solving a mixture model using Finite Volume Method (FVM). The Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) technique is used to capture the free surface motion. The constant friction and μ(I) rheological models are incorporated in the mixture model. The seepage flow is modeled by solving Richards equation. A framework is developed to couple these two solvers in OpenFOAM. The model was validated and tested by reproducing laboratory experiments of partially and fully channelized dam-break flows of dry and initially saturated granular material. To obtain appropriate parameters for rheological models, a series of simulations with different sets of rheological parameters is performed. The simulation results obtained from constant friction and μ(I) rheological models are compared with laboratory experiments for granular free surface interface, front position and velocity field during the flows. The numerical predictions indicate that the proposed model is promising in predicting dynamics of the flow and deposition process. The proposed model may provide more reliable insight than the previous assumed saturated mixture model, when saturated and partially saturated portions of granular mixture co-exist.

  4. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  5. Traffic and Granular Flow ’03

    CERN Document Server

    Luding, Stefan; Bovy, Piet; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    These proceedings are the fifth in the series Traffic and Granular Flow, and we hope they will be as useful a reference as their predecessors. Both the realistic modelling of granular media and traffic flow present important challenges at the borderline between physics and engineering, and enormous progress has been made since 1995, when this series started. Still the research on these topics is thriving, so that this book again contains many new results. Some highlights addressed at this conference were the influence of long range electric and magnetic forces and ambient fluids on granular media, new precise traffic measurements, and experiments on the complex decision making of drivers. No doubt the “hot topics” addressed in granular matter research have diverged from those in traffic since the days when the obvious analogies between traffic jams on highways and dissipative clustering in granular flow intrigued both c- munities alike. However, now just this diversity became a stimulating feature of the ...

  6. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang; Bao, Kai; Zhu, Jian; Wu, Enhua

    2012-01-01

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke's law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. A particle-based method for granular flow simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Chang, Yuanzhang

    2012-03-16

    We present a new particle-based method for granular flow simulation. In the method, a new elastic stress term, which is derived from a modified form of the Hooke\\'s law, is included in the momentum governing equation to handle the friction of granular materials. Viscosity force is also added to simulate the dynamic friction for the purpose of smoothing the velocity field and further maintaining the simulation stability. Benefiting from the Lagrangian nature of the SPH method, large flow deformation can be well handled easily and naturally. In addition, a signed distance field is also employed to enforce the solid boundary condition. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and efficient for handling the flow of granular materials, and different kinds of granular behaviors can be well simulated by adjusting just one parameter. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Oblique shock waves in granular flows over bluff bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopan Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows around an object have been the focus of numerous analytical, experimental and simulation studies. The structure and nature of the oblique shock wave developed when a quasi-two dimensional flow of spherical granular particles streams past an immersed, fixed cylindrical obstacle forms the focus of this study. The binary granular mixture, consisting of particles of the same diameter but different material properties, is investigated by using a modified LIGGGHTS package as the simulation engine. Variations in the solid fraction and granular temperature within the resulting flow are studied. The Mach number is calculated and is used to distinguish between the subsonic and the supersonic regions of the bow shock.

  9. Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials for Pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is focused on the characterization of the mechanical behavior of unbound granular road base materials (UGMs). An extensive laboratory investigation is described, in which various methods for determination of the mechanical properties of granular materials are examined for their

  10. Shear failure of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiuli, Eric; Balmforth, Neil; McElwaine, Jim; Schoof, Christian; Hewitt, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Connecting the macroscopic behavior of granular materials with the microstructure remains a great challenge. Recent work connects these scales with a discrete calculus [1]. In this work we generalize this formalism from monodisperse packings of disks to 2D assemblies of arbitrarily shaped grains. In particular, we derive Airy's expression for a symmetric, divergence-free stress tensor. Using these tools, we derive, from first-principles and in a mean-field approximation, the entropy of frictional force configurations in the Force Network Ensemble. As a macroscopic consequence of the Coulomb friction condition at contacts, we predict shear failure at a critical shear stress, in accordance with the Mohr-Coulomb failure condition well known in engineering. Results are compared with numerical simulations, and the dependence on the microscopic geometric configuration is discussed. [4pt] [1] E. DeGiuli & J. McElwaine, PRE 2011. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041310

  11. Traffic and Granular Flow '11

    CERN Document Server

    Buslaev, Alexander; Bugaev, Alexander; Yashina, Marina; Schadschneider, Andreas; Schreckenberg, Michael; TGF11

    2013-01-01

    This book continues the biannual series of conference proceedings, which has become a classical reference resource in traffic and granular research alike. It addresses new developments at the interface between physics, engineering and computational science. Complex systems, where many simple agents, be they vehicles or particles, give rise to surprising and fascinating phenomena.   The contributions collected in these proceedings cover several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Topics include highway, pedestrian and internet traffic, granular matter, biological transport, transport networks, data acquisition, data analysis and technological applications. Different perspectives, i.e. modeling, simulations, experiments and phenomenological observations, are considered.

  12. The behaviour of free-flowing granular intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyburn Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle shape affects both the quasi-static and dynamic behaviour of granular media. There has been significant research devoted to the flowability of systems of irregularly shaped particles, as well as the flow of grains around fixed intruders, however the behaviour of free flowing intruders within granular flows remains comparatively unexplored. Here, the effect of the shape of these intruder particles is studied, looking at the kinematic behaviour of the intruders and in particular their tendency of orientation. Experiments are carried out within the Stadium Shear Device, which is a novel apparatus able to continuously apply simple shear conditions to two-dimensional grain analogues. It is found that the intruder shows different behaviour to that of the bulk flow, and that this behaviour is strongly shape dependent. These insights could lead to the development of admixtures that alter the flowability of granular materials.

  13. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  14. Some exact velocity profiles for granular flow in converging hoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Hill, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Gravity flow of granular materials through hoppers occurs in many industrial processes. For an ideal cohesionless granular material, which satisfies the Coulomb-Mohr yield condition, the number of known analytical solutions is limited. However, for the special case of the angle of internal friction δ equal to ninety degrees, there exist exact parametric solutions for the governing coupled ordinary differential equations for both two-dimensional wedges and three-dimensional cones, both of which involve two arbitrary constants of integration. These solutions are the only known analytical solutions of this generality. Here, we utilize the double-shearing theory of granular materials to determine the velocity field corresponding to these exact parametric solutions for the two problems of gravity flow through converging wedge and conical hoppers. An independent numerical solution for other angles of internal friction is shown to coincide with the analytical solution.

  15. Simulation of 2D Granular Hopper Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhusong; Shattuck, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Jamming and intermittent granular flow are big problems in industry, and the vertical hopper is a canonical example of these difficulties. We simulate gravity driven flow and jamming of 2D disks in a vertical hopper and compare with identical companion experiments presented in this session. We measure and compare the flow rate and probability for jamming as a function of particle properties and geometry. We evaluate the ability of standard Hertz-Mindlin contact mode to quantitatively predict the experimental flow.

  16. 11th Traffic and Granular Flow Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Daamen, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    The Conference on Traffic and Granular Flow brings together international researchers from different fields ranging from physics to computer science and engineering to discuss the latest developments in traffic-related systems. Originally conceived to facilitate new ideas by considering the similarities of traffic and granular flow, TGF'15, organised by Delft University of Technology, now covers a broad range of topics related to driven particle and transport systems. Besides the classical topics of granular flow and highway traffic, its scope includes data transport (Internet traffic), pedestrian and evacuation dynamics, intercellular transport, swarm behaviour and the collective dynamics of other biological systems. Recent advances in modelling, computer simulation and phenomenology are presented, and prospects for applications, for example to traffic control, are discussed. The conference explores the interrelations between the above-mentioned fields and offers the opportunity to stimulate interdisciplinar...

  17. Granular flow down a flexible inclined plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonar Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete and continuous systems are commonly studied individually, but seldom together. Indeed, granular flows are typically studied through flows over a rigid base. Here, we investigate the behaviour of granular flows over an inclined, flexible base. The flexible base is modeled as a rigid platform mounted on springs and has one degree of freedom. The base vibrations are introduced by the flow. We simulate such flows through a discrete element method and compare with experiments. We find that a flexible base increased the upper limit of the inclination up to which a steady flow is possible by at least 3 degrees. This stabilized zone may have important implications in applications such as conveyor belts and chutes.

  18. The Granular Blasius Problem: High inertial number granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jonathan; Dalziel, Stuart; Vriend, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    The classical Blasius problem considers the formation of a boundary layer through the change at x = 0 from a free-slip to a no-slip boundary beneath an otherwise steady uniform flow. Discrete particle model (DPM) simulations of granular gravity currents show that a similar phenomenon exists for a steady flow over a uniformly sloped surface that is smooth upstream (allowing slip) but rough downstream (imposing a no-slip condition). The boundary layer is a region of high shear rate and therefore high inertial number I; its dynamics are governed by the asymptotic behaviour of the granular rheology as I -> ∞ . The μ(I) rheology asserts that dμ / dI = O(1 /I2) as I -> ∞ , but current experimental evidence is insufficient to confirm this. We show that `generalised μ(I) rheologies', with different behaviours as I -> ∞ , all permit the formation of a boundary layer. We give approximate solutions for the velocity profile under each rheology. The change in boundary condition considered here mimics more complex topography in which shear stress increases in the streamwise direction (e.g. a curved slope). Such a system would be of interest in avalanche modelling. EPSRC studentship (Tsang) and Royal Society Dorothy Hodgkin Fellowship (Vriend).

  19. Acoustic waves in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.; Luding, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic simulations with discrete elements are used to obtain more insight into the wave propagation in dense granular media. A small perturbation is created on one side of a dense, static packing and examined during its propagation until it arrives at the opposite side. The influence of

  20. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  1. Assessing continuum postulates in simulations of granular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, Chris; Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin

    2008-08-26

    Continuum mechanics relies on the fundamental notion of a mesoscopic volume"element" in which properties averaged over discrete particles obey deterministic relationships. Recent work on granular materials suggests a continuum law may be inapplicable, revealing inhomogeneities at the particle level, such as force chains and slow cage breaking. Here, we analyze large-scale three-dimensional Discrete-Element Method (DEM) simulations of different granular flows and show that an approximate"granular element" defined at the scale of observed dynamical correlations (roughly three to five particle diameters) has a reasonable continuum interpretation. By viewing all the simulations as an ensemble of granular elements which deform and move with the flow, we can track material evolution at a local level. Our results confirm some of the hypotheses of classical plasticity theory while contradicting others and suggest a subtle physical picture of granular failure, combining liquid-like dependence on deformation rate and solid-like dependence on strain. Our computational methods and results can be used to guide the development of more realistic continuum models, based on observed local relationships betweenaverage variables.

  2. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiuli, E.; Wyart, M.

    2017-08-01

    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, μ(I), is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent θs. We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of μ(I), which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts χ, and the sliding velocity, in terms of θs. Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  3. Friction law and hysteresis in granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiuli, E; Wyart, M

    2017-08-29

    The macroscopic friction of particulate materials often weakens as the flow rate is increased, leading to potentially disastrous intermittent phenomena including earthquakes and landslides. We theoretically and numerically study this phenomenon in simple granular materials. We show that velocity weakening, corresponding to a nonmonotonic behavior in the friction law, [Formula: see text], is present even if the dynamic and static microscopic friction coefficients are identical, but disappears for softer particles. We argue that this instability is induced by endogenous acoustic noise, which tends to make contacts slide, leading to faster flow and increased noise. We show that soft spots, or excitable regions in the materials, correspond to rolling contacts that are about to slide, whose density is described by a nontrivial exponent [Formula: see text] We build a microscopic theory for the nonmonotonicity of [Formula: see text], which also predicts the scaling behavior of acoustic noise, the fraction of sliding contacts [Formula: see text], and the sliding velocity, in terms of [Formula: see text] Surprisingly, these quantities have no limit when particles become infinitely hard, as confirmed numerically. Our analysis rationalizes previously unexplained observations and makes experimentally testable predictions.

  4. Traffic and Granular Flow ’07

    CERN Document Server

    Chevoir, François; Gondret, Philippe; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lebacque, Jean-Patrick; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This book covers several research fields, all of which deal with transport. Three main topics are treated: road traffic, granular matter, and biological transport. Different points of view, i.e. modelling, simulations, experiments, and phenomenological observations, are considered. Sub-topics include: highway or urban vehicular traffic (dynamics of traffic, macro/micro modelling, measurements, data analysis, security issues, psychological issues), pedestrian traffic, animal traffic (e.g. social insects), collective motion in biological systems (molecular motors...), granular flow (dense flows, intermittent flows, solid/liquid transition, jamming, force networks, fluid and solid friction), networks (biological networks, urban traffic, the internet, vulnerability of networks, optimal transport networks) and cellular automata applied to the various aforementioned fields.

  5. Rheological Behavior of Dense Assemblies of Granular Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, Sankaran; Tardos, Gabriel I.; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Assemblies of granular materials behave differently when they are owing rapidly, from when they are slowly deforming. The behavior of rapidly owing granular materials, where the particle-particle interactions occur largely through binary collisions, is commonly related to the properties of the constituent particles through the kinetic theory of granular materials. The same cannot be said for slowly moving or static assemblies of granular materials, where enduring contacts between particles are prevalent. For instance, a continuum description of the yield characteristics of dense assemblies of particles in the quasistatic ow regime cannot be written explicitly on the basis of particle properties, even for cohesionless particles. Continuum models for this regime have been proposed and applied, but these models typically assume that the assembly is at incipient yield and they are expressed in terms of the yield function, which we do not yet know how to express in terms of particle-level properties. The description of the continuum rheology in the intermediate regime is even less understood. Yet, many practically important flows in nature and in a wide range of technological applications occur in the dense flow regime and at the transition between dilute and dense regimes; the lack of validated continuum rheological models for particle assemblies in these regimes limits predictive modeling of such flows. This research project is aimed at developing such rheological models.

  6. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    OpenAIRE

    Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo

    1998-01-01

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...

  7. Size-induced axial band structure and directional flow of a ternary-size granular material in a 3-D horizontal rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliang; Sun, Yuhao; Ma, Honghe; Chew, Jia Wei

    2018-05-01

    Differences in the material property of the granular material induce segregation which inevitably influences both natural and industrial processes. To understand the dynamical segregation behavior, the band structure, and also the spatial redistribution of particles induced by the size differences of the particles, a ternary-size granular mixture in a three-dimensional rotating drum operating in the rolling flow regime is numerically simulated using the discrete element method. The results demonstrate that (i) the axial bands of the medium particles are spatially sandwiched in between those of the large and small ones; (ii) the total mass in the active and passive regions is a global parameter independent of segregation; (iii) nearly one-third of all the particles are in the active region, with the small particles having the highest mass fraction; (iv) the axial bands initially appear near the end wall, then become wider and purer in the particular species with time as more axial bands form toward the axial center; and (v) the medium particle type exhibits segregation later and has the narrowest axial bandwidth and least purity in the bands. Compared to the binary-size system, the presence of the medium particle type slightly increases the total mass in the active region, leads to larger mass fractions of the small and large particle types in the active region, and enhances the axial segregation in the system. The results obtained in the current work provide valuable insights regarding size segregation, and band structure and formation in the rotating drum with polydisperse particles.

  8. Dynamics of crater formations in immersed granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, G.; Vidal, V.; Géminard, J.

    2009-12-01

    Craters are part of the widespread phenomena observed in nature. Among the main applications to natural phenomena, aside from meteorite impact craters, are the formation and growth of volcanic edifices, by successive ejecta emplacement and/or erosion. The time evolution and dynamics play a crucial role here, as the competition between volcanic-jet mass-flux (degassing and ejecta) and crater-size evolution may control directly the eruptive regime. Crater morphology in dry granular material has been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Most of these studies investigate the final, steady crater shape resulting from the collision of solid bodies with the material surface and scaling laws are derived. In immersed granular material, craters generated by an underwater vortex ring, or underwater impact craters generated by landslide, have been reported. In a previous experimental study, Gostiaux et al. [Gran. Matt., 2002] have investigated the dynamics of air flowing through an immersed granular layer. They reported that, depending on the flow rate, the system exhibits two qualitatively different regimes: At small flow rate, the bubbling regime during which bubbles escape the granular layer independently one from another; At large flow rate, the open-channel regime which corresponds to the formation of a channel crossing the whole thickness of the granular bed through which air escapes almost continuously. At intermediate flow rate, a spontaneous alternation between these two regimes is observed. Here, we report the dynamics of crater formations at the free surface of an immersed granular bed, locally crossed by an ascending gas flow. We reproduce the experimental conditions of Gostiaux et al. (2002) in two dimensions: In a vertical Hele-Shaw cell, the crater consists of two sand piles which develop around the location of the gas emission. We observe that the typical size of the crater increases logarithmically with time, independently of the gas

  9. An automata model of granular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutt, G.M.; Haff, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a new modeling technique (the Lattice Grain Model) is presented for the simulation of two-dimensional granular systems involving large numbers of grains. These granular systems may include both high shear rate regions as well as static plugs of grains and cannot easily be handled within the framework of existing continuum theories such as soil mechanics. The Lattice Grain Model (LGrM) is similar to the Lattice Gas Model (LBM). This allows large simulations to be programmed onto a hypercube concurrent processor in a straightforward manner. However, it differs from LBM in that it includes the inelastic collisions and volume-filling properties of macroscopic grains. Examples to be presented will include Couette flow, flow through an hourglass, and gravity-driven flows around obstacles

  10. Martian gullies: possible formation mechanism by dry granular material..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    section Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies Some theories developed tried explain its origin either by liquid water liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows In winter CO 2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain In spring the CO 2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO 2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies By experimental work with dry granular material we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material section We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City M e xico We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas to target goal recognize or to distinguish to identify possible processes evolved in its formation Also we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters Finally we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material

  11. Mathematics and Mechanics of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, James M

    2005-01-01

    Granular or particulate materials arise in almost every aspect of our lives, including many familiar materials such as tea, coffee, sugar, sand, cement and powders. At some stage almost every industrial process involves a particulate material, and it is usually the cause of the disruption to the smooth running of the process. In the natural environment, understanding the behaviour of particulate materials is vital in many geophysical processes such as earthquakes, landslides and avalanches. This book is a collection of current research from some of the major contributors in the topic of modelling the behaviour of granular materials. Papers from every area of current activity are included, such as theoretical, numerical, engineering and computational approaches. This book illustrates the numerous diverse approaches to one of the outstanding problems of modern continuum mechanics.

  12. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zamyatin Nikolaj; Smirnov Gennadij; Fedorchuk Yuri; Rusina Olga

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy infer...

  13. Transient response in granular bounded heap flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.

    2017-11-01

    Heap formation, a canonical granular flow, is common in industry and is also found in nature. Here, we study the transition between steady flow states in quasi-2D bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate from one fixed value to another. During the transition, in both experiments and discrete element method simulations, an additional wedge of flowing particles propagates over the rising free surface. The downstream edge of the wedge - the wedge front - moves downstream with velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The transient flux profile during the entire transition is well modeled by a diffusion-like equation derived from local mass balance and a local linear relation between the flux and the surface slope. Scalings for the transient kinematics during the flow transitions are developed based on the flux profiles. Funded by NSF Grant CBET-1511450.

  14. NMRI Measurements of Flow of Granular Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Waggoner, R. Allen; Fukushima, Eiichi

    1996-01-01

    We investigate complex 3D behavior of granular mixtures in shaking and shearing devices. NMRI can non-invasively measure concentration, velocity, and velocity fluctuations of flows of suitable particles. We investigate origins of wall-shear induced convection flow of single component particles by measuring the flow and fluctuating motion of particles near rough boundaries. We also investigate if a mixture of different size particles segregate into their own species under the influence of external shaking and shearing disturbances. These non-invasive measurements will reveal true nature of convecting flow properties and wall disturbance. For experiments in a reduced gravity environment, we will design a light weight NMR imager. The proof of principle development will prepare for the construction of a complete spaceborne system to perform experiments in space.

  15. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  16. Experimental observations of granular debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, P.

    2003-04-01

    Various tests are run using two different laboratory flumes with rectangular cross section and transparent walls. The grains used in a single experiment have an almost constant grain sizes; mean diameter ranges from 5 mm to 20 mm. In each test various measurements are taken: hydrograms, velocity distribution near the transparent walls and on the free surface, average flow concentration. Concentration values are measured taking samples. Velocity distributions are obtained from movies recorded by high speed video cameras capable of 350 frames per second; flow rates and depth hydrograms are computed from the same velocity distributions. A gate is installed at the beginning of one of the flumes; this gate slides normally to the bed and opens very quickly, reproducing a dam-break. Several tests are run using this device, varying channel slope, sediment concentration, initial mixture thickness before the gate. Velocity distribution in the flume is almost constant from left to right, except for the flow sections near the front. The observed discharges and velocities are less than those given by a classic dam break formula, and depend on sediment concentration. The other flume is fed by a mixture with constant discharge and concentration, and is mainly used for measuring velocity distributions when the flow is uniform, with both rigid and granular bed, and to study erosion/deposition processes near debris flow dams or other mitigation devices. The equilibrium slope of the granular bed is very close to that given by the classical equilibrium formulas for debris flow. Different deposition processes are observed depending on mixture concentration and channel geometry.

  17. Granular flow through an aperture: Influence of the packing fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. A.; De Schant, R.; Géminard, J.-C.

    2014-07-01

    For the last 50 years, the flow of a granular material through an aperture has been intensely studied in gravity-driven vertical systems (e.g., silos and hoppers). Nevertheless, in many industrial applications, grains are horizontally transported at constant velocity, lying on conveyor belts or floating on the surface of flowing liquids. Unlike fluid flows, that are controlled by the pressure, granular flow is not sensitive to the local pressure but rather to the local velocity of the grains at the outlet. We can also expect the flow rate to depend on the local density of the grains. Indeed, vertical systems are packed in dense configurations by gravity, but, in contrast, in horizontal systems the density can take a large range of values, potentially very small, which may significantly alter the flow rate. In the present article, we study, for different initial packing fractions, the discharge through an orifice of monodisperse grains driven at constant velocity by a horizontal conveyor belt. We report how, during the discharge, the packing fraction is modified by the presence of the outlet, and we analyze how changes in the packing fraction induce variations in the flow rate. We observe that variations of packing fraction do not affect the velocity of the grains at the outlet, and, therefore, we establish that flow-rate variations are directly related to changes in the packing fraction.

  18. Electrostatics effects in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saurabh; Chaudhuri, Bodhisattwa

    2013-06-01

    This purpose of this study is to investigate the role of physiochemical properties and operational conditions in determining the electrostatic interactions between two species on a surface under typical industrial conditions. The variables considered for the study were particle type, particle size and shape, loading mass, surface type, angle of inclination of chute, nature and concentration of additive. Triboelectrification of simple and binary mixtures in a simple hopper and chute geometry was observed to be strongly linked to work function and moisture content of the powdered material.

  19. Advances in studies of dense volcanic granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bursik, M [University of Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Patra, A [University of Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Pitman, E B [University of Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Nichita, C [University of Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Macias, J L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, Mexico D F (Mexico); Saucedo, R [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, Mexico D F (Mexico); Girina, O [Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    The collapse and decrepitation of a lava dome at the summit of a volcano generally results in the generation of dense granular flows, often referred to as block and ash flows. As the dome particles propagate from the source, they break apart by internal pressure as well as collision. The propagation of block and ash flows can be simulated to some accuracy with a depth averaged numerical model of the equations of continuity and momentum for a material with a frictional resistance. However, important features of such flows, such as the influence of remote stress through force chains, erosion of the volcano substrate, and shock formation and pressurization upon particle break up are poorly understood. In the near future, the influence of these factors will be incorporated into depth averaged models. Various numerical techniques based on particles will some day yield results that can be compared not only with bulk flow properties, but to the internal layering of block and ash flow deposits.

  20. Nonlocal rheological properties of granular flows near a jamming limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranson, Igor S; Tsimring, Lev S; Malloggi, Florent; Clément, Eric

    2008-09-01

    We study the rheology of sheared granular flows close to a jamming transition. We use the approach of partially fluidized theory (PFT) with a full set of equations extending the thin layer approximation derived previously for the description of the granular avalanches phenomenology. This theory provides a picture compatible with a local rheology at large shear rates [G. D. R. Midi, Eur. Phys. J. E 14, 341 (2004)] and it works in the vicinity of the jamming transition, where a description in terms of a simple local rheology comes short. We investigate two situations displaying important deviations from local rheology. The first one is based on a set of numerical simulations of sheared soft two-dimensional circular grains. The next case describes previous experimental results obtained on avalanches of sandy material flowing down an incline. Both cases display, close to jamming, significant deviations from the now standard Pouliquen's flow rule [O. Pouliquen, Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999); 11, 1956 (1999)]. This discrepancy is the hallmark of a strongly nonlocal rheology and in both cases, we relate the empirical results and the outcomes of PFT. The numerical simulations show a characteristic constitutive structure for the fluid part of the stress involving the confining pressure and the material stiffness that appear in the form of an additional dimensionless parameter. This constitutive relation is then used to describe the case of sandy flows. We show a quantitative agreement as far as the effective flow rules are concerned. A fundamental feature is identified in PFT as the existence of a jammed layer developing in the vicinity of the flow arrest that corroborates the experimental findings. Finally, we study the case of solitary erosive granular avalanches and relate the outcome with the PFT analysis.

  1. Controlling mixing and segregation in time periodic granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tathagata

    Segregation is a major problem for many solids processing industries. Differences in particle size or density can lead to flow-induced segregation. In the present work, we employ the discrete element method (DEM)---one type of particle dynamics (PD) technique---to investigate the mixing and segregation of granular material in some prototypical solid handling devices, such as a rotating drum and chute. In DEM, one calculates the trajectories of individual particles based on Newton's laws of motion by employing suitable contact force models and a collision detection algorithm. Recently, it has been suggested that segregation in particle mixers can be thwarted if the particle flow is inverted at a rate above a critical forcing frequency. Further, it has been hypothesized that, for a rotating drum, the effectiveness of this technique can be linked to the probability distribution of the number of times a particle passes through the flowing layer per rotation of the drum. In the first portion of this work, various configurations of solid mixers are numerically and experimentally studied to investigate the conditions for improved mixing in light of these hypotheses. Besides rotating drums, many studies of granular flow have focused on gravity driven chute flows owing to its practical importance in granular transportation and to the fact that the relative simplicity of this type of flow allows for development and testing of new theories. In this part of the work, we observe the deposition behavior of both mono-sized and polydisperse dry granular materials in an inclined chute flow. The effects of different parameters such as chute angle, particle size, falling height and charge amount on the mass fraction distribution of granular materials after deposition are investigated. The simulation results obtained using DEM are compared with the experimental findings and a high degree of agreement is observed. Tuning of the underlying contact force parameters allows the achievement

  2. Critical state flow rules for CFD simulations of wet granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarze, R.; Gladkyy, A.; Luding, Stefan; E. Onate M. Bischoff, E. Ramm; P. Wriggers,

    2013-01-01

    First rheological investigation results of weakly wet granular media are presented. The materials have been examined experimentally and numerically in well- defined shear configurations in steady state, in the intermediate flow regime. For the experiments, a Searl-type ring shear cell with rotating

  3. Viscoinertial regime of immersed granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarsid, L.; Delenne, J.-Y.; Mutabaruka, P.; Monerie, Y.; Perales, F.; Radjai, F.

    2017-07-01

    By means of extensive coupled molecular dynamics-lattice Boltzmann simulations, accounting for grain dynamics and subparticle resolution of the fluid phase, we analyze steady inertial granular flows sheared by a viscous fluid. We show that, for a broad range of system parameters (shear rate, confining stress, fluid viscosity, and relative fluid-grain density), the frictional strength and packing fraction can be described by a modified inertial number incorporating the fluid effect. In a dual viscous description, the effective viscosity diverges as the inverse square of the difference between the packing fraction and its jamming value, as observed in experiments. We also find that the fabric and force anisotropies extracted from the contact network are well described by the modified inertial number, thus providing clear evidence for the role of these key structural parameters in dense suspensions.

  4. Blurring the boundary between rapid granular flow and dense granular flow regimes: Evidence from DEM simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anurag; Prasad, Mahesh; Kumar, Puneet

    2017-11-01

    The saturation of the effective friction coefficient for granular flows at high inertial numbers has been assumed widely by researchers, despite little simulation/experimental evidence. In contrast, a recent simulation study of plane shear flows by Mandal and Khakhar, suggests that the effective friction coefficient becomes maximum and then starts to decrease with increase in the inertial number for I > 0.5 . In order to investigate whether such a dip at higher inertial numbers is indeed a feature of granular rheology, we perform DEM simulations of chute flow of highly inelastic disks. We show that steady, fully developed flows are possible at inclinations much higher than those normally reported in literature. At such high inclinations, the flow is characterised by a significant slip at the base; the height of the layer increases by more than 300 % and kinetic energy of the layer increases by nearly 5 orders of magnitude. We observe, for the first time, steady chute flows at inertial number I 2 and show that the dip at higher inertial numbers can be observed in case of chute flow as well. The predictions of modified μ - I rheology, however, seem to remain valid in the bulk of the layer for packing fractions as low as 0.2. AT acknowledges the funding obtained from IIT Kanpur through the initiation Grant for this study.

  5. Continuum modelling of segregating tridisperse granular chute flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhekai; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.; Lueptow, Richard M.

    2018-03-01

    Segregation and mixing of size multidisperse granular materials remain challenging problems in many industrial applications. In this paper, we apply a continuum-based model that captures the effects of segregation, diffusion and advection for size tridisperse granular flow in quasi-two-dimensional chute flow. The model uses the kinematics of the flow and other physical parameters such as the diffusion coefficient and the percolation length scale, quantities that can be determined directly from experiment, simulation or theory and that are not arbitrarily adjustable. The predictions from the model are consistent with experimentally validated discrete element method (DEM) simulations over a wide range of flow conditions and particle sizes. The degree of segregation depends on the Péclet number, Pe, defined as the ratio of the segregation rate to the diffusion rate, the relative segregation strength κij between particle species i and j, and a characteristic length L, which is determined by the strength of segregation between smallest and largest particles. A parametric study of particle size, κij, Pe and L demonstrates how particle segregation patterns depend on the interplay of advection, segregation and diffusion. Finally, the segregation pattern is also affected by the velocity profile and the degree of basal slip at the chute surface. The model is applicable to different flow geometries, and should be easily adapted to segregation driven by other particle properties such as density and shape.

  6. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  7. Self-diffusion in dense granular shear flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Brian; Behringer, R P

    2004-03-01

    Diffusivity is a key quantity in describing velocity fluctuations in granular materials. These fluctuations are the basis of many thermodynamic and hydrodynamic models which aim to provide a statistical description of granular systems. We present experimental results on diffusivity in dense, granular shear flows in a two-dimensional Couette geometry. We find that self-diffusivities D are proportional to the local shear rate gamma; with diffusivities along the direction of the mean flow approximately twice as large as those in the perpendicular direction. The magnitude of the diffusivity is D approximately gamma;a(2), where a is the particle radius. However, the gradient in shear rate, coupling to the mean flow, and strong drag at the moving boundary lead to particle displacements that can appear subdiffusive or superdiffusive. In particular, diffusion appears to be superdiffusive along the mean flow direction due to Taylor dispersion effects and subdiffusive along the perpendicular direction due to the gradient in shear rate. The anisotropic force network leads to an additional anisotropy in the diffusivity that is a property of dense systems and has no obvious analog in rapid flows. Specifically, the diffusivity is suppressed along the direction of the strong force network. A simple random walk simulation reproduces the key features of the data, such as the apparent superdiffusive and subdiffusive behavior arising from the mean velocity field, confirming the underlying diffusive motion. The additional anisotropy is not observed in the simulation since the strong force network is not included. Examples of correlated motion, such as transient vortices, and Lévy flights are also observed. Although correlated motion creates velocity fields which are qualitatively different from collisional Brownian motion and can introduce nondiffusive effects, on average the system appears simply diffusive.

  8. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  9. The influence of the fractal particle size distribution on the mobility of dry granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Luis E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental analysis on the influence of the particle size distribution (psd on the mobility of dry granular materials. The psd obeys a power law of the form: N(L>d=kd-Df, where N is the number of particles with diameter L greater than a given diameter d, k is a proportionality constant, and Df is the fractal dimension of the psd. No laboratory or numerical study has been conducted to date analysing how a fractal psd influences the mobility of granular flows as in the case of rock avalanches. In this study, the flow characteristics of poly-dispersed granular materials that have a fractal psd were investigated in the laboratory. Granular mixtures having different fractal psd values were placed in a hollow cylinder. The cylinder was lifted and the distance of flow of the mixture was measured with respect to the original position of the cylinder. It was determined that the distance of flow of the mixtures was directly related to their fractal psd values. That is, the larger the distance of flow of the mixture, the larger is the fractal psd of the granular mixture tested. Thus, the fractal psd in dry granular mixtures seems to have a large influence on the easiness by which dry granular mixtures move in the field.

  10. PFEM-based modeling of industrial granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cante, J.; Dávalos, C.; Hernández, J. A.; Oliver, J.; Jonsén, P.; Gustafsson, G.; Häggblad, H.-Å.

    2014-05-01

    The potential of numerical methods for the solution and optimization of industrial granular flows problems is widely accepted by the industries of this field, the challenge being to promote effectively their industrial practice. In this paper, we attempt to make an exploratory step in this regard by using a numerical model based on continuous mechanics and on the so-called Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). This goal is achieved by focusing two specific industrial applications in mining industry and pellet manufacturing: silo discharge and calculation of power draw in tumbling mills. Both examples are representative of variations on the granular material mechanical response—varying from a stagnant configuration to a flow condition. The silo discharge is validated using the experimental data, collected on a full-scale flat bottomed cylindrical silo. The simulation is conducted with the aim of characterizing and understanding the correlation between flow patterns and pressures for concentric discharges. In the second example, the potential of PFEM as a numerical tool to track the positions of the particles inside the drum is analyzed. Pressures and wall pressures distribution are also studied. The power draw is also computed and validated against experiments in which the power is plotted in terms of the rotational speed of the drum.

  11. Granular shear flows of flexible rod-like particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Curtis, J.; Wassgren, C.; Ketterhagen, W.; Hancock, B.

    2013-06-01

    Flexible particles are widely encountered in nature, e.g., stalks of plants, fiberglass particles, and ceramic nanofibers. Early studies indicated that the deformability of particles has a significant impact on the properties of granular materials and fiber suspensions. In this study, shear flows of flexible particles are simulated using the Discrete Element Method (DEM) to explore the effect of particle flexibility on the flow behavior and constitutive laws. A flexible particle is formed by connecting a number of constituent spheres in a straight line using elastic bonds. The forces/moments due to the normal, tangential, bending, and torsional deformation of a bond resist the relative movement between two bonded constituent spheres. The bond stiffness determines how difficult it is to make a particle deform, and the bond damping accounts for the energy dissipation in the particle vibration process. The simulation results show that elastically bonded particles have smaller coefficients of restitution compared to rigidly connected particles, due to the fact that kinetic energy is partially converted to potential energy in a contact between flexible particles. The coefficient of restitution decreases as the bond stiffness decreases and the bond damping coefficient increases. As a result, smaller stresses are obtained for granular flows of the flexible particles with smaller bond stiffness and larger bond damping coefficient.

  12. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  13. Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.; Brito, R.

    The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which

  14. Jetting and flooding of granular backfill materials : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Granular backfill materials on highway projects are often compacted by mechanical methods. : This requires the contractor to place backfill material into loose lifts of varying thickness : and use compaction equipment to reduce air voids and increase...

  15. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Marston, J. O.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  16. Penetration in bimodal, polydisperse granular material

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, N.

    2016-11-07

    We investigate the impact penetration of spheres into granular media which are compositions of two discrete size ranges, thus creating a polydisperse bimodal material. We examine the penetration depth as a function of the composition (volume fractions of the respective sizes) and impact speed. Penetration depths were found to vary between delta = 0.5D(0) and delta = 7D(0), which, for mono-modal media only, could be correlated in terms of the total drop height, H = h + delta, as in previous studies, by incorporating correction factors for the packing fraction. Bimodal data can only be collapsed by deriving a critical packing fraction for each mass fraction. The data for the mixed grains exhibit a surprising lubricating effect, which was most significant when the finest grains [d(s) similar to O(30) mu m] were added to the larger particles [d(l) similar to O(200 - 500) mu m], with a size ratio, epsilon = d(l)/d(s), larger than 3 and mass fractions over 25%, despite the increased packing fraction. We postulate that the small grains get between the large grains and reduce their intergrain friction, only when their mass fraction is sufficiently large to prevent them from simply rattling in the voids between the large particles. This is supported by our experimental observations of the largest lubrication effect produced by adding small glass beads to a bed of large sand particles with rough surfaces.

  17. How granular vortices can help understanding rheological and mixing properties of dense granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense granular flows exhibit fascinating kinematic patterns characterised by strong fluctuations in grain velocities. In this paper, we analyse these fluctuations and discuss their possible role on macroscopic properties such as effective viscosity, non-locality and shear-induced diffusion. The analysis is based on 2D experimental granular flows performed with the stadium shear device and DEM simulations. We first show that, when subjected to shear, grains self-organised into clusters rotating like rigid bodies. The average size of these so-called granular vortices is found to increase and diverge for lower inertial numbers, when flows decelerate and stop. We then discuss how such a microstructural entity and its associated internal length scale, possibly much larger than a grain, may be used to explain two important properties of dense granular flows: (i the existence of shear-induced diffusion of grains characterised by a shear-rate independent diffusivity and (ii the development of boundary layers near walls, where the viscosity is seemingly lower than the viscosity far from walls.

  18. Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete particle simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Luding, Stefan; Bokhove, Onno

    2011-01-01

    A shallow-layer model for granular flows is completed with a closure relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction coefficient between

  19. Physical modelling of granular flows at multiple-scales and stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take, Andy; Bowman, Elisabeth; Bryant, Sarah

    2015-04-01

    The rheology of dry granular flows is an area of significant focus within the granular physics, geoscience, and geotechnical engineering research communities. Studies performed to better understand granular flows in manufacturing, materials processing or bulk handling applications have typically focused on the behavior of steady, continuous flows. As a result, much of the research on relating the fundamental interaction of particles to the rheological or constitutive behaviour of granular flows has been performed under (usually) steady-state conditions and low stress levels. However, landslides, which are the primary focus of the geoscience and geotechnical engineering communities, are by nature unsteady flows defined by a finite source volume and at flow depths much larger than typically possible in laboratory experiments. The objective of this paper is to report initial findings of experimental studies currently being conducted using a new large-scale landslide flume (8 m long, 2 m wide slope inclined at 30° with a 35 m long horizontal base section) and at elevated particle self-weight in a 10 m diameter geotechnical centrifuge to investigate the granular flow behavior at multiple-scales and stress levels. The transparent sidewalls of the two flumes used in the experimental investigation permit the combination of observations of particle-scale interaction (using high-speed imaging through transparent vertical sidewalls at over 1000 frames per second) with observations of the distal reach of the landslide debris. These observations are used to investigate the applicability of rheological models developed for steady state flows (e.g. the dimensionless inertial number) in landslide applications and the robustness of depth-averaged approaches to modelling dry granular flow at multiple scales. These observations indicate that the dimensionless inertial number calculated for the flow may be of limited utility except perhaps to define a general state (e.g. liquid

  20. Can Wet Rocky Granular Flows Become Debris Flows Due to Fine Sediment Production by Abrasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Bianchi, G.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flows are rapid mass movements in which elevated pore pressures are sustained by a viscous fluid matrix with high concentrations of fine sediments. Debris flows may form from coarse-grained wet granular flows as fine sediments are entrained from hillslope and channel material. Here we investigate whether abrasion of the rocks within a granular flow can produce sufficient fine sediments to create debris flows. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we used a set of 4 rotating drums ranging from 0.2 to 4.0 m diameter. Each drum has vanes along the boundary ensure shearing within the flow. Shear rate was varied by changing drum rotational velocity to maintain a constant Froude Number across drums. Initial runs used angular clasts of granodiorite with a tensile strength of 7.6 MPa, with well-sorted coarse particle size distributions linearly scaled with drum radius. The fluid was initially clear water, which rapidly acquired fine-grained wear products. After each 250 m tangential distance, we measured the particle size distributions, and then returned all water and sediment to the drums for subsequent runs. We calculate particle wear rates using statistics of size and mass distributions, and by fitting the Sternberg equation to the rate of mass loss from the size fraction > 2mm. Abundant fine sediments were produced in the experiments, but very little change in the median grain size was detected. This appears to be due to clast rounding, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of stable equilibrium resting points. We find that the growth in the fine sediment concentration in the fluid scales with unit drum power. This relationship can be used to estimate fine sediment production rates in the field. We explore this approach at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in the Sierra Nevada, California. There, a significant debris flow occurred in July 2013, which originated as a coarse-grained wet granular flow. We use surveys to estimate flow depth and velocity where super

  1. Ill-posedness of Dynamic Equations of Compressible Granular Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Michael; Gray, Nico

    2017-11-01

    We introduce models for 2-dimensional time-dependent compressible flow of granular materials and suspensions, based on the rheology of Pouliquen and Forterre. The models include density dependence through a constitutive equation in which the density or volume fraction of solid particles with material density ρ* is taken as a function of an inertial number I: ρ = ρ * Φ(I), in which Φ(I) is a decreasing function of I. This modelling has different implications from models relying on critical state soil mechanics, in which ρ is treated as a variable in the equations, contributing to a flow rule. The analysis of the system of equations builds on recent work of Barker et al in the incompressible case. The main result is the identification of a criterion for well-posedness of the equations. We additionally analyze a modification that applies to suspensions, for which the rheology takes a different form and the inertial number reflects the role of the fluid viscosity.

  2. Editorial: Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Einav, Itai

    2015-01-01

    This is the editorial for the special issue on “Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials” in the journal on Computational Particle Mechanics (CPM). The issue aims to provide an opportunity for physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and computational scientists to discuss the current progress and latest advancements in the field of advanced numerical methods and modelling of granular materials. The focus will be on computational methods, improved algorithms and the m...

  3. Non-spherical granular flows down inclined chutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, R.C.; Rubio-Largo, S.M.; Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Weinhart, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we numerically examine the steady-state granular flow of 3D non-spherical particles down an inclined plane. We use a hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the discrete element method of nonspherical elongated particles. Thus, a systematic study of the system response is performed varying

  4. Rheology of granular flows immersed in a viscous fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarsid, Lhassan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of granular materials immersed in a viscous fluid by means of extensive simulations based on the Discrete Element Method for particle dynamics coupled with the Lattice Boltzmann method for the fluid. We show that, for a broad range of parameters such as shear rate, confining stress and viscosity, the internal friction coefficient and packing fraction are well described by a single 'visco-inertial' dimensionless parameter combining inertial and Stokes numbers. The frictional behavior under constant confining pressure is mapped into a viscous behavior under volume-controlled conditions, leading to the divergence of the effective normal and shear viscosities in inverse square of the distance to the critical packing fraction. The results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of Boyer et al. (2011). The evolution of the force network in terms of connectivity and anisotropy as a function of the visco-inertial number, indicates that the increase of frictional strength is a direct consequence of structural anisotropy enhanced by both fluid viscosity and grain inertia. In view of application to a potential nuclear accident, we also study the fragmentation and flow of confined porous aggregates in a fluid under the action of local overpressures and pressure gradients as well as gravity-driven flow of immersed particles in an hourglass. (author)

  5. Technological effect of vibroprocessing by flows of organic granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Shishkina, A. P.; Davydova, I. V.; Morozova, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of approaches to modeling of vibrational processing by granulated media is carried out. The vibroprocessing model which provides effective finishing of the surfaces of the parts due to the stone fruit organic media granules is developed. The model is based on the granule flow energy impact on the surface being treated. As the main characteristic of the organic media processing, a specific volumetric metal scrap is used, the physical meaning of which is the increase rate in the thickness of the material removed from the surface at a given velocity and pressure of the medium. It is shown that the metal scrap depends on the medium flow velocity, the height of the loading column of the granular medium, and the conditions for the formation of a medium stationary circulation motion. Based on the analysis of the results of experimental studies of the influence of amplitude-frequency characteristics on the removal of metal in the process of vibroprocessing with abrasive granules, the dependence of the specific volume metal removal is proposed for organic media processing, taking into account the threshold amplitude and frequency of oscillations of the working chamber, at which the effect of surface treatment is observed. The established set of relationships describing the effective conditions for vibroprocessing with stone organic media was obtained using experimental data, which allows us to assume that the model obtained is valid.

  6. Flowability of granular materials with industrial applications - An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Serra, Joel; Romero, Enrique; Rodríguez-Ferran, Antonio; Caba, Joan; Arderiu, Xavier; Padullés, Josep-Manel; González, Juanjo

    2017-06-01

    Designing bulk material handling equipment requires a thorough understanding of the mechanical behaviour of powders and grains. Experimental characterization of granular materials is introduced focusing on flowability. A new prototype is presented which performs granular column collapse tests. The device consists of a channel whose design accounts for test inspection using visualization techniques and load measurements. A reservoir is attached where packing state of the granular material can be adjusted before run-off to simulate actual handling conditions by fluidisation and deaeration of the pile. Bulk materials on the market, with a wide range of particle sizes, can be tested with the prototype and the results used for classification in terms of flowability to improve industrial equipment selection processes.

  7. DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of

  8. Granular-front formation in free-surface flow of concentrated suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Alessandro; Cabrera, Miguel; Wittel, Falk K.; Kaitna, Roland; Mendoza, Miller; Wu, Wei; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-11-01

    A granular front emerges whenever the free-surface flow of a concentrated suspension spontaneously alters its internal structure, exhibiting a higher concentration of particles close to its front. This is a common and yet unexplained phenomenon, which is usually believed to be the result of fluid convection in combination with particle size segregation. However, suspensions composed of uniformly sized particles also develop a granular front. Within a large rotating drum, a stationary recirculating avalanche is generated. The flowing material is a mixture of a viscoplastic fluid obtained from a kaolin-water dispersion with spherical ceramic particles denser than the fluid. The goal is to mimic the composition of many common granular-fluid materials, such as fresh concrete or debris flow. In these materials, granular and fluid phases have the natural tendency to separate due to particle settling. However, through the shearing caused by the rotation of the drum, a reorganization of the phases is induced, leading to the formation of a granular front. By tuning the particle concentration and the drum velocity, it is possible to control this phenomenon. The setting is reproduced in a numerical environment, where the fluid is solved by a lattice-Boltzmann method, and the particles are explicitly represented using the discrete element method. The simulations confirm the findings of the experiments, and provide insight into the internal mechanisms. Comparing the time scale of particle settling with the one of particle recirculation, a nondimensional number is defined, and is found to be effective in predicting the formation of a granular front.

  9. Scaling of wet granular flows in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarray Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the effect of capillary forces and particle size on wet granular flows and we propose a scaling methodology that ensures the conservation of the bed flow. We validate the scaling law experimentally by using different size glass beads with tunable capillary forces. The latter is obtained using mixtures of ethanol-water as interstitial liquid and by increasing the hydrophobicity of glass beads with an ad-hoc silanization procedure. The scaling methodology in the flow regimes considered (slipping, slumping and rolling yields similar bed flow for different particle sizes including the angle of repose that normally increases when decreasing the particle size.

  10. Rheology of dense granular flows in two dimensions: Comparison of fully two-dimensional flows to unidirectional shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the rheology of steady two-dimensional granular flows, in different geometries, using discrete element method-based simulations of soft spheres. The flow classification parameter (ψ ), which defines the local flow type (ranging from pure rotation to simple shear to pure extension), varies spatially, to a significant extent, in the flows. We find that the material behaves as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The μ -I scaling proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006), 10.1038/nature04801] is found to be valid in both two-dimensional and unidirectional flows, as observed in previous studies; however, the data for each flow geometry fall on a different curve. The results for the two-dimensional silo flow indicate that the viscosity does not depend directly on the flow type parameter, ψ . We find that the scaling based on "granular fluidity" [Zhang and Kamrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 058001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.058001] gives good collapse of the data to a single curve for all the geometries. The data for the variation of the solid faction with inertial number show a reasonable collapse for the different geometries.

  11. Modelling of Granular Materials Using the Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1997-01-01

    With the Discrete Element Method it is possible to model materials that consists of individual particles where a particle may role or slide on other particles. This is interesting because most of the deformation in granular materials is due to rolling or sliding rather that compression of the gra...

  12. Frost susceptibility of granular subbase materials contaminated by deicing chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Orlander, Tobias; Doré, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The increase in urban population in arctic areas leads to an increased demand for transportation infrastructures (such as roads and airfields) in the regions. This challenges the road constructions in terms of condition, bearing capacity and maintenance. It is believed that deicing agents used...... on roads and airfields enter the granular subbase materials and thereby makes the soil more frost-susceptible. In this project a series of isothermal frost heave tests has been carried out on granular subbase material from the runway at Kuujjuaq Airport, Québec, Canada. The tests have been carried out...

  13. Bedrock erosion by sliding wear in channelized granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Smith, B.; Maia, H. T.; Li, L.; Reitz, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Boundary forces generated by debris flows can be powerful enough to erode bedrock and cause considerable damage to infrastructure during runout. Bedrock wear can be separated into impact and sliding wear processes. Here we focus on sliding wear. We have conducted experiments with a 40-cm-diameter grainflow-generating rotating drum designed to simulate dry channelized debris flows. To generate sliding erosion, we placed a 20-cm-diameter bedrock plate axially on the back wall of the drum. The rotating drum was half filled with 2.3-mm-diameter grains, which formed a thin grain-avalanching layer with peak flow speed and depth close to the drum axis. The whole experimental apparatus was placed on a 100g-ton geotechnical centrifuge and, in order to scale up the stress level, spun to a range of effective gravity levels. Rates and patterns of erosion of the bedrock plate were mapped after each experiment using 3d micro-photogrammetry. High-speed video and particle tracking were employed to measure granular flow dynamics. The resulting data for granular velocities and flow geometry were used to estimate impulse exchanges and forces on the bedrock plate. To address some of the complexities of granular flow under variable gravity levels, we developed a continuum model framed around a GDR MiDi rheology. This model allowed us to scale up boundary forcing while maintaining the same granular flow regime, and helped us to understand important aspects of the flow dynamics including e.g. fluxes of momentum and kinetic energy. In order to understand the detailed processes of boundary forcing, we performed numerical simulations with a new contact dynamics model. This model confirmed key aspects of our continuum model and provided information on second-order behavior such as fluctuations in the forces acting on the wall. By combining these measurements and theoretical analyses, we have developed and calibrated a constitutive model for sliding wear that is a threshold function of

  14. Sidewall-friction-driven ordering transition in granular channel flows: Implications for granular rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology—the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.

  15. Sidewall-friction-driven ordering transition in granular channel flows: Implications for granular rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sandip; Khakhar, D V

    2017-11-01

    We report a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state in the flow of nearly monodisperse granular matter flowing in an inclined channel with planar slide walls and a bumpy base, using discrete element method simulations. For low particle-sidewall friction coefficients, the flowing particles are disordered, however, for high sidewall friction, an ordered state is obtained, characterized by a layering of the particles and hexagonal packing of the particles in each layer. The extent of ordering, quantified by the local bond-orientational order parameter, varies in the cross section of the channel, with the highest ordering near the sidewalls. The flow transition significantly affects the local rheology-the effective friction coefficient is lower, and the packing fraction is higher, in the ordered state compared to the disordered state. A simple model, incorporating the extent of local ordering, is shown to describe the rheology of the system.

  16. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials : Constitutive Behavior and Pattern Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göncü, F.

    2012-01-01

    From pharmaceutical to mining or traveling desert dunes to earthquakes, granular materials are at the heart of many industries and natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of the machines handling them or, constructing safer buildings requires a critical understanding of their behavior. However,

  18. Statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical framework is presented for the statics and kinematics of discrete Cosserat-type granular materials. In analogy to the force and moment equilibrium equations for particles, compatibility equations for closed loops are formulated in the two-dimensional case for relative displacements and

  19. Discrete Element study of granular material - Bumpy wall interface behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Cheikh, Khadija; Rémond, Sébastien; Pizette, Patrick; Vanhove, Yannick; Djelal, Chafika

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a DEM study of a confined granular material sheared between two parallel bumpy walls. The granular material consists of packed dry spherical particles. The bumpiness is modeled by spheres of a given diameter glued on horizontal planes. Different bumpy surfaces are modeled by varying diameter or concentration of glued spheres. The material is sheared by moving the two bumpy walls at fixed velocity. During shear, the confining pressure applied on each bumpy wall is controlled. The effect of wall bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient and on the granular material behavior at the bumpy walls is reported for various shearing conditions. For given bumpiness and confining pressure that we have studied, it is found that the shear velocity does not affect the shear stress. However, the effective friction coefficient and the behavior of the granular material depend on the bumpiness. When the diameter of the glued spheres is larger than about the average grains diameter of the medium, the latter is uniformly sheared and the effective friction coefficient remains constant. For smaller diameters of the glued spheres, the effective friction coefficient increases with the diameter of glued spheres. The influence of glued spheres concentration is significant only for small glued spheres diameters, typically half of average particle diameter of the granular material. In this case, increasing the concentration of glued spheres leads to a decrease in effective friction coefficient and to shear localization at the interface. For different diameters and concentrations of glued spheres, we show that the effect of bumpiness on the effective friction coefficient can be characterized by the depth of interlocking.

  20. Relaxation-type nonlocal inertial-number rheology for dry granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keng-lin; Yang, Fu-ling

    2017-12-01

    We propose a constitutive model to describe the nonlocality, hysteresis, and several flow features of dry granular materials. Taking the well-known inertial number I as a measure of sheared-induced local fluidization, we derive a relaxation model for I according to the evolution of microstructure during avalanche and dissipation processes. The model yields a nonmonotonic flow law for a homogeneous flow, accounting for hysteretic solid-fluid transition and intermittency in quasistatic flows. For an inhomogeneous flow, the model predicts a generalized Bagnold shear stress revealing the interplay of two microscopic nonlocal mechanisms: collisions among correlated structures and the diffusion of fluidization within the structures. In describing a uniform flow down an incline, the model reproduces the hysteretic starting and stopping heights and the Pouliquen flow rule for mean velocity. Moreover, a dimensionless parameter reflecting the nonlocal effect on the flow is discovered, which controls the transition between Bagnold and creeping flow dynamics.

  1. Consideration of reinforcement mechanism in the short fiber mixing granular materials by granular element simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaneko, Kenji; Hashizume, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The short fiber mixing method is well known as one of the method to improve the strength of gran- ular soils in geotechnical engineering. Mechanical properties of the short fiber mixing granular materials are influenced by many factors, such as the mixture ratio of the short fiber, the material of short fiber, the length, and the orientation. In particular, the mixture ratio of the short fibers is very important in mixture design. In the past study, we understood that the strength is reduced by too much short fiber mixing by a series of tri-axial compression experiments. Namely, there is "optimum mixture ratio" in the short fiber mixing granular soils. In this study, to consider the mechanism of occurrence of the optimum mixture ratio, we carried out the numerical experiments by granular element method. As the results, we can understand that the strength decrease when too much grain-fiber contact points exist, because a friction coefficient is smaller than the grain-grain contact points.

  2. Revisiting Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we revisit Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions for granular flows. The oblique collision between a particle and a flat wall is analyzed by adopting the classic rigid-body theory and a more realistic semianalytical model. Based on the kinetic granular theory, the input parameter for the partial-slip boundary conditions, specularity coefficient, which is not measurable in experiments, is then interpreted as a function of the particle-wall restitution coefficient, the frictional coefficient, and the normalized slip velocity at the wall. An analytical expression for the specularity coefficient is suggested for a flat, frictional surface with a low frictional coefficient. The procedure for determining the specularity coefficient for a more general problem is outlined, and a working approximation is provided.

  3. Dense granular Flows: a conceptual design of high-power neutron source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-power neutron source system is very useful for multifunctional applications, such as material facilities for advanced nuclear power, space radiation studies, radiography and tomography. Here the idea of inclined dense granular flow is utilized and developed in a new conceptual design of a compact high-power target to produce a high-energy and high-flux neutron irradiation (the flux is up to 1015 n/cm2/s or even 1016. Comparing to the traditional solid and liquid heavy metal targets, this design has advantages in material choice, fluid stability, heat removal, etc. In this paper the natures of the granular flows in an inclined chute are investigated and preliminary experimental and numerical results are reported. Then the feasibility of this design is discussed.

  4. Breakage mechanics for granular materials in surface-reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yida; Buscarnera, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    It is known that the crushing behaviour of granular materials is sensitive to the state of the fluids occupying the pore space. Here, a thermomechanical theory is developed to link such macroscopic observations with the physico-chemical processes operating at the microcracks of individual grains. The theory relies on the hypothesis that subcritical fracture propagation at intra-particle scale is the controlling mechanism for the rate-dependent, water-sensitive compression of granular specimens. First, the fracture of uniaxially compressed particles in surface-reactive environments is studied in light of irreversible thermodynamics. Such analysis recovers the Gibbs adsorption isotherm as a central component linking the reduction of the fracture toughness of a solid to the increase of vapour concentration. The same methodology is then extended to assemblies immersed in wet air, for which solid-fluid interfaces have been treated as a separate phase. It is shown that this choice brings the solid surface energy into the dissipation equations of the granular matrix, thus providing a pathway to (i) integrate the Gibbs isotherm with the continuum description of particle assemblies and (ii) reproduce the reduction of their yield strength in presence of high relative humidity. The rate-effects involved in the propagation of cracks and the evolution of breakage have been recovered by considering non-homogenous dissipation potentials associated with the creation of surface area at both scales. It is shown that the proposed model captures satisfactorily the compression response of different types of granular materials subjected to varying relative humidity. This result was achieved simply by using parameters based on the actual adsorption characteristics of the constituting minerals. The theory therefore provides a physically sound and thermodynamically consistent framework to study the behaviour of granular solids in surface-reactive environments.

  5. Nonlinear stability, bifurcation and resonance in granular plane Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Priyanka; Alam, Meheboob

    2010-11-01

    A weakly nonlinear stability theory is developed to understand the effect of nonlinearities on various linear instability modes as well as to unveil the underlying bifurcation scenario in a two-dimensional granular plane Couette flow. The relevant order parameter equation, the Landau-Stuart equation, for the most unstable two-dimensional disturbance has been derived using the amplitude expansion method of our previous work on the shear-banding instability.ootnotetextShukla and Alam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 068001 (2009). Shukla and Alam, J. Fluid Mech. (2010, accepted). Two types of bifurcations, Hopf and pitchfork, that result from travelling and stationary linear instabilities, respectively, are analysed using the first Landau coefficient. It is shown that the subcritical instability can appear in the linearly stable regime. The present bifurcation theory shows that the flow is subcritically unstable to disturbances of long wave-lengths (kx˜0) in the dilute limit, and both the supercritical and subcritical states are possible at moderate densities for the dominant stationary and traveling instabilities for which kx=O(1). We show that the granular plane Couette flow is prone to a plethora of resonances.ootnotetextShukla and Alam, J. Fluid Mech. (submitted, 2010)

  6. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  7. Recent advances in understanding deformation and flow of granular matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesarović Siniša Đ.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of graph theory, we analyze the changes in topology of a granular assembly during deformation. The elementary mechanism of diffuse deformation consists of intermittent flips. We show that dilatancy is the direct result of: an increasing number of flips, and, elastic relaxation of particles upon flips. Both are dependent on particles' elastic potential energy prior to flip and after the flip. The latter is the result of non uniform distribution of interparticle forces in force chains. Next, we consider shear bands in granular materials. Formation of shear bands is accompanied by accompanied by massive rolling of particle. Since rolling is constrained by neighbors, a characteristic rolling correlation length appears. The transmission of rotations in a particular direction depends on the strength of the force chain branches in the direction of propagation and across. The maximum propagation distance is comparable to observed widths of shear bands. Finally, we turn to the question of vortex formation within shear bands and argue that vortex pattern minimizes the dissipation/resistance in granular fluid.

  8. Granular flows on erodible layers: type and evolution of flow and deposit structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, G.; De Blasio, F.; De Caro, M.; Volpi, G.; Frattini, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction of a fast moving landslide mass with the basal layer over which movement takes place has been discussed in previous contributions. Nevertheless, the evolution of the structures within the moving mass and the erodible layer are still to be described in detail (Hungr and Evans, 2004; Crosta et al., 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011; Dufresne et al., 2010; Mangeney et al., 2010) and modeling results (Crosta et al., 2006, 2009, 2011; Mangeney et al., 2010). We present some of the results from a campaign of laboratory experiments aimed at studying the evolution of a granular flow at the impact with and during the successive spreading over a cohesionless erodible layer. We performed these test to study the processes and to collect data and evidences to compare them with the results of numerical simulations and to verify capabilities of numerical codes. The laboratory setup consists of an inclined slope and an horizontal sector where release and transport, and deposition take place, respectively. Materials used for the tests are: a uniform rounded siliceous sand (Hostun sand; 0.125-0.5 mm) commonly adopted in lab tests because free of scale effects, and a gravel made of angular elements (12 mm in ave. size). Both the materials have been tested in dry conditions. Different slope angles have been tested (40, 45, 50, 55, 50, 66°) as well as different thicknesses of the erodible layer (0, 0.5, 1, 2 cm) and volumes of the released material (1.5, 3, 5, 9.6 liters). Tests have been monitored by means of a high speed camera and the pre- and post-failure geometries have been surveyed by means of a laser scanner. Deposit description allowed also the computation of volumes and the characterization of the different structures developed and frozen into the deposit. Experiments allowed us to observe the extreme processes occurring during the movement and the mise en place of the deposits. In particular, we observe the formation of a clear wave-like feature developing during the

  9. Coexistence and transition between shear zones in slow granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Robabeh; Shaebani, M Reza; Maleki, Maniya; Török, János; Wolf, Dietrich E; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    We report experiments on slow granular flows in a split-bottom Couette cell that show novel strain localization features. Nontrivial flow profiles have been observed which are shown to be the consequence of simultaneous formation of shear zones in the bulk and at the boundaries. The fluctuating band model based on a minimization principle can be fitted to the experiments over a large variation of morphology and filling height with one single fit parameter, the relative friction coefficient μ(rel) between wall and bulk. The possibility of multiple shear zone formation is controlled by μ(rel). Moreover, we observe that the symmetry of an initial state, with coexisting shear zones at both side walls, breaks spontaneously below a threshold value of the shear velocity. A dynamical transition between two asymmetric flow states happens over a characteristic time scale which depends on the shear strength.

  10. Flow of Dense Granular Suspensions on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, C.; Lanuza, J.; Lindner, A.; Clément, E.

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the flow behavior of dense granular suspensions, by the use of an inclined plane. The suspensions are prepared at high packing fractions and consist of spherical non-Brownian particles density matched with the suspending fluid. On the inclined plane, we perform a systematic study of the surface velocity as a function of the layer thickness for various flow rates and tilt angles. We perform measurements on a classical rheometer (parallel-plate rheometer) that is shown to be in good agreement with existing models, up to a volume fraction of 50%. Comparing these results, we show that the flow on an inclined plane can, up to a volume fraction of 50%, indeed be described by a purely viscous model in agreement with the results from classical rheometry.

  11. "Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this

  12. "Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.

    1999-09-01

    The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this

  13. The nature of quasistatic deformation in granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    ROUX, JN

    2005-01-01

    Strain in granular materials in quasistatic conditions under varying stress originate in (I) contact deformation and (II) rearrangements of the contact network. Depending on sample history and applied load, eiter mechanism might dominate. One may thus define rheological regimes I and II accordingly. Their porperties are presented and illustrated here with discrete numerical simulatiion results in 2 and 3 dimensions. This discussion of the microscopic physical origin of strain is shown to clar...

  14. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  15. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, François; Golshan, Pouya; Shen, Luming; Valdès, Julio R.; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  16. Impurity in a granular gas under nonlinear Couette flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco; Garzó, Vicente; Santos, Andrés

    2008-01-01

    We study in this work the transport properties of an impurity immersed in a granular gas under stationary nonlinear Couette flow. The starting point is a kinetic model for low-density granular mixtures recently proposed by the authors (Vega Reyes et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 061306). Two routes have been considered. First, a hydrodynamic or normal solution is found by exploiting a formal mapping between the kinetic equations for the gas particles and for the impurity. We show that the transport properties of the impurity are characterized by the ratio between the temperatures of the impurity and gas particles and by five generalized transport coefficients: three related to the momentum flux (a nonlinear shear viscosity and two normal stress differences) and two related to the heat flux (a nonlinear thermal conductivity and a cross-coefficient measuring a component of the heat flux orthogonal to the thermal gradient). Second, by means of a Monte Carlo simulation method we numerically solve the kinetic equations and show that our hydrodynamic solution is valid in the bulk of the fluid when realistic boundary conditions are used. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic solution applies to arbitrarily (inside the continuum regime) large values of the shear rate, of the inelasticity, and of the rest of the parameters of the system. Preliminary simulation results of the true Boltzmann description show the reliability of the nonlinear hydrodynamic solution of the kinetic model. This shows again the validity of a hydrodynamic description for granular flows, even under extreme conditions, beyond the Navier–Stokes domain

  17. Analysis of Cylindrical Granular Material Silos under Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Butenweg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Silos generally work as storage structures between supply and demand for various goods, and their structural safety has long been of interest to the civil engineering profession. This is especially true for dynamically loaded silos, e.g., in case of seismic excitation. Particularly thin-walled cylindrical silos are highly vulnerable to seismic induced pressures, which can cause critical buckling phenomena of the silo shell. The analysis of silos can be carried out in two different ways. In the first, the seismic loading is modeled through statically equivalent loads acting on the shell. Alternatively, a time history analysis might be carried out, in which nonlinear phenomena due to the filling as well as the interaction between the shell and the granular material are taken into account. The paper presents a comparison of these approaches. The model used for the nonlinear time history analysis considers the granular material by means of the intergranular strain approach for hypoplasticity theory. The interaction effects between the granular material and the shell is represented by contact elements. Additionally, soil–structure interaction effects are taken into account.

  18. A Stochastic Description of Transition Between Granular Flow States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Decai; Sun Gang; Lu Kunquan

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional granular flow in a channel with small exit is studied by molecular dynamics simulations. We firstly define a key area near the exit, which is considered to be the choke area of the system. Then we observe the time variation of the local packing fraction and flow rate in this area for several fixed inflow rate, and find that these quantities change abruptly when the transition from dilute flow state to dense flow state happens. A relationship between the local flow rate and the local packing fraction in the key area is also given. The relationship is a continuous function under the fixed particle number condition, and has the characteristic that the flow rate has a maximum at a moderate packing fraction and the packing fraction is terminated at a high value with negative slope. By use of the relationship, the properties of the flow states under the fixed inflow rate condition are discussed in detail, and the discontinuities and the complex time variation behavior observed in the preexisting works are naturally explained by a stochastic process.

  19. Transient response in granular quasi-two-dimensional bounded heap flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M; Umbanhowar, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    We study the transition between steady flows of noncohesive granular materials in quasi-two-dimensional bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate. In both experiments and simulations, the primary feature of the transition is a wedge of flowing particles that propagates downstream over the rising free surface with a wedge front velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The entire transition is well modeled as a moving boundary problem with a diffusionlike equation derived from local mass balance and a local relation between the flux and the surface slope.

  20. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  1. Confined granular flow in silos experimental and numerical investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Tejchman, Jacek

    2013-01-01

      During confined flow of bulk solids in silos some characteristic phenomena can be created, such as: —         sudden and significant increase of wall stresses, —         different flow patterns, —         formation and propagation of wall and interior shear zones, —         fluctuation of pressures and, —         strong autogenous dynamic effects. These phenomena have not been described or explained in detail yet. The main intention of the experimental and theoretical research presented in this book is to explain the above mentioned phenomena in granular bulk solids and to describe them with numerical FE models verified by experimental results.

  2. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  3. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  4. A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.

  5. Leaching models for multiple immersed materials and for granular materials flushed in a column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper addresses the leaching of hazardous contaminants from immersed and replenished materials and from granular materials flushed in a column. First, the leaching of an immersed material in contact with a limited volume of leachant is studied. The mass transfer from material to leachant

  6. Bulbous head formation in bidisperse shallow granular flows over inclined planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, I.; Thornton, A.; Weinhart, T.; Luding, S.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the behaviour of hazardous natural granular flows (e.g. debris-flows and pyroclastic flows) is vital for an accurate assessment of the risks posed by such events. In these situations, an inversely graded vertical particle-size distribution develops, with larger particles on top of smaller particles. As the surface velocity of such flows is larger than the mean velocity, the larger material is then transported to the flow front. This creates a downstream size-segregation structure, resulting in a flow front composed purely of large particles, that are generally more frictional in geophysical flows. Thus, this segregation process reduces the mobility of the flow front, resulting in the formation of, a so-called, bulbous head. One of the main challenges of simulating these hazardous natural granular flows is the enormous number of particles they contain, which makes discrete particle simulations too computationally expensive to be practically useful. Continuum methods are able to simulate the bulk flow- and segregation behaviour of such flows, but have to make averaging approximations that reduce the huge number of degrees of freedom to a few continuum fields. Small-scale periodic discrete particle simulations can be used to determine the material parameters needed for the continuum model. In this presentation, we use a depth-averaged model to predict the flow profile for particulate chute flows, based on flow height, depth-averaged velocity and particle-size distribution [1], and show that the bulbous head structure naturally emerges from this model. The long-time behaviour of this solution of the depth-averaged continuum model converges to a novel travelling wave solution [2]. Furthermore, we validate this framework against computationally expensive 3D particle simulations, where we see surprisingly good agreement between both approaches, considering the approximations made in the continuum model. We conclude by showing that the travelling distance and

  7. Granular flow considerations in the design of a cascade solid breeder reaction chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, O.R.

    1983-10-01

    Both horizontally and vertically oriented rotating chambers with granular material held on the inner surface by centrifugal action are examined. Modifications to the condition for controlled quasi-static flow on an incline plane, phi/sub w/ 0 +- 10 0 for ceramic particles and metal surfaces. For vertical orientations the maximum half-angle of the top cone is slightly less than the wall friction angle phi/sub w/ while the lower portion can have a half angle as large as (90 0 - phi/sub w). Percolation of fines through shearing granular solids is briefly discussed and recommended experimental and calculational studies to obtain a better understanding of this behavior are described

  8. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsu Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  9. DEM study of granular flow around blocks attached to inclined walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsu, Joel; Zhou, Zongyan; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Damage due to intense particle-wall contact in industrial applications can cause severe problems in industries such as mineral processing, mining and metallurgy. Studying the flow dynamics and forces on containing walls can provide valuable feedback for equipment design and optimising operations to prolong the equipment lifetime. Therefore, solids flow-wall interaction phenomena, i.e. induced wall stress and particle flow patterns should be well understood. In this work, discrete element method (DEM) is used to study steady state granular flow in a gravity-fed hopper like geometry with blocks attached to an inclined wall. The effects of different geometries, e.g. different wall angles and spacing between blocks are studied by means of a 3D DEM slot model with periodic boundary conditions. The findings of this work include (i) flow analysis in terms of flow patterns and particle velocities, (ii) force distributions within the model geometry, and (iii) wall stress vs. model height diagrams. The model enables easy transfer of the key findings to other industrial applications handling granular materials.

  10. Shear localization and effective wall friction in a wall bounded granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2017-06-01

    In this work, granular flow rheology is investigated by means of discrete numerical simulations of a torsional, cylindrical shear cell. Firstly, we focus on azimuthal velocity profiles and study the effect of (i) the confining pressure, (ii) the particle-wall friction coefficient, (iii) the rotating velocity of the bottom wall and (iv) the cell diameter. For small cell diameters, azimuthal velocity profiles are nearly auto-similar, i.e. they are almost linear with the radial coordinate. Different strain localization regimes are observed : shear can be localized at the bottom, at the top of the shear cell, or it can be even quite distributed. This behavior originates from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the system. Then we study the effective friction at the cylindrical wall, and point out the strong link between wall friction, slip and fluctuations of forces and velocities. Even if the system is globally below the sliding threshold, force fluctuations trigger slip events, leading to a nonzero wall slip velocity and an effective wall friction coefficient different from the particle-wall one. A scaling law was found linking slip velocity, granular temperature in the main flow direction and effective friction. Our results suggest that fluctuations are an important ingredient for theories aiming to capture the interface rheology of granular materials.

  11. Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne

    2016-04-01

    One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental

  12. Implicit integration of plasticity models for granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahadi, A.; Krenk, Steen

    2003-01-01

    A stress integration algorithm for granular materials based on fully implicit integration with explicit updating is presented. In the implicit method the solution makes use of the gradient to the potential surface at the final stress state which is unknown. The final stress and hardening parameters...... stresses are not supported the functions and their derivatives are not representative outside the compressive octant of the principal stress space. The elastic predictor is therefore preconditioned in order to ensure that the first predictor is within the valid region. Capability and robustness...

  13. A review on numerical models for granular flow inside hoppers and its applications in PBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yushi; Guo Qiuju; Zhang Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Granular flow is the shearing motion of a collection of discrete solid particles which are commonly seen and widely utilized in various industrial applications. One of the essential applications of dense slow granular flow in engineering is the pebble flow in pebble-bed nuclear reactor (PBR). A number of numerical models have been established for researching the basic physical mechanisms and properties of granular flow. For the purpose of generating an appropriate model for high temperature reactor-pebblebed modules (HTR-PM) in the future, numerical models on granular flow in hoppers and some of their previous applications on PBRs are reviewed. In this paper, basic transport and contact mechanisms of granular flow are firstly introduced, then kinetic theory from gas molecules and plastic theory from metal mechanics approaches give descriptions of the macroscopic behavior of rapid flow and quasistatic flow regimes, respectively, subsequently kinematic continuum method and discrete element method (DEM) are presented to describe the bulk features of dense slow flow in hoppers. Since various kinematic models, DEM models and their modified versions for dense slow granular flow in hoppers have been experimentally verified and applied in prediction of pebble flow in PBRs, a promising model for HTR-PM is expected with further work to generate pebble flow profile in the future. (author)

  14. Experimental and numerical study of granular flow characteristics of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He; Li Tianjin; Qi Weiwei; Huang Zhiyong; Bo Hanliang

    2014-01-01

    Absorber sphere pneumatic conveying system is the main part of absorber sphere shutdown system and closely related to granular flow. Granular flow characteristics, such as mass flow rate, angle of repose, contact forces, etc., are crucial important for the optimization of absorber sphere pneumatic conveying process. Mass flow rate of granular flow through the sphere discharge valve and the bend tube are significant for the time of ball dropping and the time of conveying back rate, respectively. Experiments and DEM simulations have been conducted to investigate the granular flow characteristics. Experimental results showed that the relation between average mass flow rate through the sphere discharge valve and the valve stroke was composed of three zones i. e. the idle stroke zone, linearly zone and orifice restriction zone. The Beverloo's law was suitable for the granular flow through the multi-orifice during the orifice restriction zone. The variation of average mass flow rate with the valve stroke could be described by modified Beverloo's law based on the valve stroke. DEM simulation results showed that the drained angle of repose remained 23° at different valve strokes. Mass flow rate during steady granular flow through the sphere discharge valve at different valve strokes kept stable. The variation of mass flow rate through a bend tube was different from that through a circular orifice. (author)

  15. Gravity-driven granular flow in a silo: Characterizing local forces and rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thackray Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not wellunderstood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. In this paper, we present our results thus far.

  16. Discharge flow of a granular media from a silo: effect of the packing fraction and of the hopper angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamine, Mebirika; Aussillous, Pascale; Dalloz-Dubrujeaud, Blanche

    2017-06-01

    Silos are widely used in the industry. While empirical predictions of the flow rate, based on scaling laws, have existed for more than a century (Hagen 1852, translated in [1] - Beverloo et al. [2]), recent advances have be made on the understanding of the control parameters of the flow. In particular, using continuous modeling together with a mu(I) granular rheology seem to be successful in predicting the flow rate for large numbers of beads at the aperture (Staron et al.[3], [4]). Moreover Janda et al.[5] have shown that the packing fraction at the outlet plays an important role when the number of beads at the apeture decreases. Based on these considerations, we have studied experimentally the discharge flow of a granular media from a rectangular silo. We have varied two main parameters: the angle of the hopper, and the bulk packing fraction of the granular material by using bidisperse mixtures. We propose a simple physical model to describe the effect of these parameters, considering a continuous granular media with a dilatancy law at the outlet. This model predicts well the dependance of the flow rate on the hopper angle as well as the dependance of the flow rate on the fine mass fraction of a bidisperse mixture.

  17. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Buscombe,; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.

  18. Discrete Element Method simulations of standing jumps in granular flows down inclines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méjean Ségolène

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a numerical set-up which uses Discrete Element Method to produce standing jumps in flows of dry granular materials down a slope in two dimensions. The grain-scale force interactions are modeled by a visco-elastic normal force and an elastic tangential force with a Coulomb threshold. We will show how it is possible to reproduce all the shapes of the jumps observed in a previous laboratory study: diffuse versus steep jumps and compressible versus incompressible jumps. Moreover, we will discuss the additional measurements that can be done thanks to discrete element modelling.

  19. Temperature scaling in a dense vibrofluidized granular material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunthar, P; Kumaran, V

    1999-08-01

    The leading order "temperature" of a dense two-dimensional granular material fluidized by external vibrations is determined. The grain interactions are characterized by inelastic collisions, but the coefficient of restitution is considered to be close to 1, so that the dissipation of energy during a collision is small compared to the average energy of a particle. An asymptotic solution is obtained where the particles are considered to be elastic in the leading approximation. The velocity distribution is a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution in the leading approximation. The density profile is determined by solving the momentum balance equation in the vertical direction, where the relation between the pressure and density is provided by the virial equation of state. The temperature is determined by relating the source of energy due to the vibrating surface and the energy dissipation due to inelastic collisions. The predictions of the present analysis show good agreement with simulation results at higher densities where theories for a dilute vibrated granular material, with the pressure-density relation provided by the ideal gas law, are in error.

  20. Fundamental changes of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Roche, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On steeper slopes, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing slope angle, column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect

  1. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  2. Concentration profiles in the wake of a sphere buried in a granular bed through which fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes de Carvalho, J.R.F.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Alves, M.A. [Porto Univ., Dpet. de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal)

    2005-07-01

    The concentration distribution in the wake of a soluble sphere immersed in a granular bed of inerts has been obtained numerically, for transport by both advection and diffusion/dispersion. Fluid flow in the granular bed around the sphere was assumed to follow Darcy's law and, at each point, dispersion of solute was considered in both the cross-stream and stream-wise directions. The elliptic PDE equation, resulting from a differential material balance on the solute, has been solved numerically over a wide range of values of the relevant parameters. (authors)

  3. Segregating photoelastic particles in free-surface granular flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amalia; Vriend, Nathalie; Environmental; Industrial Fluid Dynamics Team

    2017-11-01

    We present results from a novel experimental set-up creating 2D avalanches of photoelastic discs. Two distinct hoppers supply either monodisperse or bidisperse particles at adjustable flow-rates into a 2 meter long, narrow acrylic chute inclined at 20°. For 20-40 seconds the avalanche maintains a steady-state that accelerates and thins downstream. The chute basal roughness is variable, allowing for different flow profiles. Using a set of polarizers and a high-speed camera, we visualize and quantify the forces due to dynamic interactions between the discs using photoelastic theory. Velocity and density profiles are derived from particle tracking at different distances from the discharge point and are coarse-grained to obtain continuous fields. With the access to both force information and dynamical properties via particle-tracking, we can experimentally validate existing mu(I) and non-local rheologies. As an extension, we probe the effect of granular segregation in bimodal mixtures by using the two separate inflow hoppers. We derive the state of segregation along the avalanche channel and measure the segregation velocities of each species. This provides insight in, and a unique validation of, the fundamental physical processes that drive segregation in avalanching geometries.

  4. Failure evolution in granular material retained by rigid wall in active mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Magdalena; Leśniewska, Danuta

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of a selected small scale model test, performed on a sample of surrogate granular material, retained by a rigid wall (typical geotechnical problem of earth thrust on a retaining wall). The experimental data presented in this paper show that the deformation of granular sample behind retaining wall can undergo some cyclic changes. The nature of these cycles is not clear - it is probably related to some micromechanical features of granular materials, which are recently extensively studied in many research centers in the world. Employing very precise DIC (PIV) method can help to relate micro and macro-scale behavior of granular materials.

  5. STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS IN FIXED BED OF COMPOSITE GRANULAR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Petrescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at the experimental determination of pressure drop and friction factor at gas flow through fixed beds of granular silica gel, alumina and activated carbon, and establishment of an equation containing a modified friction factor Fm to calculate pressure drop. In order to calculate the modified friction factor, an equation was suggested.The experimental values for pressure drop and friction factor were determined using spherical grains of silica gel, cylindrical grains of alumina and silica gel, alumina and activated carbon impregnated with calcium chloride. By means of the suggested equation, the values of pressure drop in fixed bed were calculated and compared with the experimental values. A good agreement between the predicted and experimental data is noticed.

  6. Micromechanical definition of an entropy for quasi-static deformation of granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothenburg, L.; Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    2009-01-01

    A micromechanical theory is formulated for quasi-static deformation of granular materials, which is based on information theory. A reasoning is presented that leads to the definition of an information entropy that is appropriate for quasi-static deformation of granular materials. This definition is

  7. Modelling transient 3D multi-phase criticality in fluidised granular materials - the FETCH code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Eaton, M.D.; Ziver, A.K.; Umpleby, A.P.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Goddard, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    The development and application of a generic model for modelling criticality in fluidised granular materials is described within the Finite Element Transient Criticality (FETCH) code - which models criticality transients in spatial and temporal detail from fundamental principles, as far as is currently possible. The neutronics model in FETCH solves the neutron transport in full phase space with a spherical harmonics angle of travel representation, multi-group in neutron energy, Crank Nicholson based in time stepping, and finite elements in space. The fluids representation coupled with the neutronics model is a two-fluid-granular-temperature model, also finite element fased. A separate fluid is used to represent the liquid/vapour gas and the solid fuel particle phases, respectively. Particle-particle, particle-wall interactions are modelled using a kinetic theory approach on an analogy between the motion of gas molecules subject to binary collisions and granular flows. This model has been extensively validated by comparison with fluidised bed experimental results. Gas-fluidised beds involve particles that are often extremely agitated (measured by granular temperature) and can thus be viewed as a particularly demanding application of the two-fluid model. Liquid fluidised systems are of criticality interest, but these can become demanding with the production of gases (e.g. radiolytic and water vapour) and large fluid/particle velocities in energetic transients. We present results from a test transient model in which fissile material ( 239 Pu) is presented as spherical granules subsiding in water, located in a tank initially at constant temperature and at two alternative over-pressures in order to verify the theoretical model implemented in FETCH. (author)

  8. 2D transient granular flows over obstacles: experimental and numerical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, Carmelo; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Murillo, Javier; García-Navarro, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Landslides are an ubiquitous natural hazard, and therefore human infrastructure and settlements are often at risk in mountainous regions. In order to better understand and predict landslides, systematic studies of the phenomena need to be undertaken. In particular, computational tools which allow for analysis of field problems require to be thoroughly tested, calibrated and validated under controlled conditions. And to do so, it is necessary for such controlled experiments to be fully characterized in the same terms as the numerical model requires. This work presents an experimental study of dry granular flow over a rough bed with topography which resembles a mountain valley. It has an upper region with a very high slope. The geometry of the bed describes a fourth order polynomial curve, with a low point with zero slope, and afterwards a short region with adverse slope. Obstacles are present in the lower regions which are used as model geometries of human structures. The experiments consisted of a sudden release a mass of sand on the upper region, and allowing it to flow downslope. Furthermore, it has been frequent in previous studies to measure final states of the granular mass at rest, but seldom has transient data being provided, and never for the entire field. In this work we present transient measurements of the moving granular surfaces, obtained with a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor. The sensor, developed for the videogame industry, allows to measure the moving surface of the sand, thus obtaining elevation fields. The experimental results are very consistent and repeatable. The measured surfaces clearly show the distinctive features of the granular flow around the obstacles and allow to qualitatively describe the different flow patterns. More importantly, the quantitative description of the granular surface allows for benchmarking and calibration of predictive numerical models, key in scaling the small-scale experimental knowledge into the field. In addition, as

  9. Experimental study of shear bands formation in a granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thai Binh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental investigation of the formation of shear bands in a granular sample submitted to a biaxial test. Our principal result is the direct observation of the bifurcation at the origin of the localization process in the material. At the bifurcation, the shear band is spatially extended: we observe a breaking of symmetry without any sudden localization of the deformation in a narrow band. Our work thus allows to clearly distinguish different phenomena: bifurcation which is a ponctual event which occurs before the peak, localization which is a process that covers a range of deformation of several percents during which the peak occurs and finally stationary shear bands which are well-defined permanent structures that can be observed at the end of the localization process, after the peak.

  10. Thermodynamical aspects of modeling the mechanical response of granular materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elata, D.

    1995-01-01

    In many applications in rock physics, the material is treated as a continuum. By supplementing the related conservation laws with constitutive equations such as stress-strain relations, a well-posed problem can be formulated and solved. The stress-strain relations may be based on a combination of experimental data and a phenomenological or micromechanical model. If the model is physically sound and its parameters have a physical meaning, it can serve to predict the stress response of the material to unmeasured deformations, predict the stress response of other materials, and perhaps predict other categories of the mechanical response such as failure, permeability, and conductivity. However, it is essential that the model be consistent with all conservation laws and consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. Specifically, some models of the mechanical response of granular materials proposed in literature, are based on intergranular contact force-displacement laws that violate the second law of thermodynamics by permitting energy generation at no cost. This diminishes the usefulness of these models as it invalidates their predictive capabilities. [This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48.

  11. Segregation-mobility feedback for bidisperse shallow granular flows: Towards understanding segregation in geophysical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A.; Denissen, I.; Weinhart, T.; Van der Vaart, K.

    2017-12-01

    The flow behaviour of shallow granular chute flows for uniform particles is well-described by the hstop-rheology [1]. Geophysical flows, however, are often composed of highly non-uniform particles that differ in particle (size, shape, composition) or contact (friction, dissipation, cohesion) properties. The flow behaviour of such mixtures can be strongly influenced by particle segregation effects. Here, we study the influence of particle size-segregation on the flow behaviour of bidisperse flows using experiments and the discrete particle method. We use periodic DPM to derive hstop-rheology for the bi-dispersed granular shallow layer equations, and study their dependence on the segregation profile. In the periodic box simulations, size-segregation results in an upward coarsening of the size distribution with the largest grains collecting at the top of the flow. In geophysical flows, the fact the flow velocity is greatest at the top couples with the vertical segregation to preferentially transported large particles to the front. The large grains may be overrun, resegregated towards the surface and recirculated before being shouldered aside into lateral levees. Theoretically it has been suggested this process should lead to a breaking size-segregation (BSS) wave located between a large-particle-rich front and a small-particle-rich tail [2,3]. In the BSS wave large particles that have been overrun rise up again to the free-surface while small particles sink to the bed. We present evidence for the existences of the BSS wave. This is achieved through the study of three-dimensional bidisperse granular flows in a moving-bed channel. Our analysis demonstrates a relation between the concentration of small particles in the flow and the amount of basal slip, in which the structure of the BSS wave plays a key role. This leads to a feedback between the mean bulk flow velocity and the process of size-segregation. Ultimately, these findings shed new light on the recirculation of

  12. The Rolling Transition in a Granular Flow along a Rotating Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Le Quiniou

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a dry granular material composed of spherical particles along a rotating boundary has been studied by the discrete element method (DEM. This type of flow is used, among others, as a process to spread particles. The flow consists of several phases. A compression phase along the rotating wall is followed by an elongation of the flow along the same boundary. Eventually, the particles slide or roll independently along the boundary. We show that the main motion of the flow can be characterized by a complex deformation rate of traction/compression and shear. We define numerically an effective friction coefficient of the flow on the scale of the continuum and show a strong decrease of this effective friction beyond a certain critical friction coefficient μ*. We correlate this phenomenon with the apparition of a new transition from a sliding regime to a rolling without sliding regime that we called the rolling transition; this dynamic transition is controlled by the value of the friction coefficient between the particle and the wall. We show that the spherical shape for the particles may represent an optimum for the flow in terms of energetic.

  13. Lift on side by side intruders of various geometries within a granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Escalante, M. F.; Caballero-Robledo, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    Obstacles within fluids have been widely used in engineering and in physics to study hydrodynamic interactions. In granular matter, objects within a granular flow have helped to understand fundamental features of drag and lift forces. In our group, we have studied numerically the flow mediated interaction between two static disks within a vertical granular flow in a two-dimensional container where the flow velocity and the distance between obstacles were varied. Attractive and repulsive forces were found depending on flow velocity and separation between intruders. The simulations evidenced a relationship between the average flow velocity in a specific section ahead of the obstacles and the attractive-repulsive lift. On the other hand, it was showed that the lift force on an object dragged within a granular medium depends on the shape of the intruder. Here we present experimental results of the interaction between two side-by-side intruders of different shapes within a vertical granular flow. We built a quasi-two-dimensional container in which we placed the intruders and using load cells we measured lift and drag forces during the discharge process for different flow velocities.

  14. Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chui, S.T.; Lin, Z.F.; Hu, L.-B.

    2003-01-01

    There is recently interests in the 'left-handed' materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument

  15. Shear test on viscoelastic granular material using Contact Dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Sagnol, Loba; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-06-01

    By means of 3D contact dynamic simulations, the behavior of a viscoelastic granular material under shear loading is investigated. A viscoelastic fluid phase surrounding the solid particles is simulated by a contact model acting between them. This contact law was implemented in the LMGC90 software, based on the Burgers model. This model is able to simulate also the effect of creep relaxation. To validate the proposed contact model, several direct shear tests were performed, experimentally and numerically using the Leutner device. The numerical samples were created using spheres with two particle size distribution, each one identified for two layers from a road structure. Our results show a reasonable agreement between experimental and numerical data regarding the strain-stress evolution curves and the stress levels measured at failure. The proposed model can be used to simulate the mechanical behavior of multi-layer road structure and to study the influence of traffic on road deformation, cracking and particles pull-out induced by traffic loading.

  16. Effective Wall Friction in Wall-Bounded 3D Dense Granular Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2015-10-09

    We report numerical simulations on granular shear flows confined between two flat but frictional sidewalls. Novel regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the flow. The effective friction at sidewalls is characterized (effective friction coefficient and orientation of the friction force) for each regime, and its interdependence with slip and force fluctuations is pointed out. We propose a simple scaling law linking the slip velocity to the granular temperature in the main flow direction which leads naturally to another scaling law for the effective friction.

  17. DEM GPU studies of industrial scale particle simulations for granular flow civil engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizette, Patrick; Govender, Nicolin; Wilke, Daniel N.; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2017-06-01

    The use of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for industrial civil engineering industrial applications is currently limited due to the computational demands when large numbers of particles are considered. The graphics processing unit (GPU) with its highly parallelized hardware architecture shows potential to enable solution of civil engineering problems using discrete granular approaches. We demonstrate in this study the pratical utility of a validated GPU-enabled DEM modeling environment to simulate industrial scale granular problems. As illustration, the flow discharge of storage silos using 8 and 17 million particles is considered. DEM simulations have been performed to investigate the influence of particle size (equivalent size for the 20/40-mesh gravel) and induced shear stress for two hopper shapes. The preliminary results indicate that the shape of the hopper significantly influences the discharge rates for the same material. Specifically, this work shows that GPU-enabled DEM modeling environments can model industrial scale problems on a single portable computer within a day for 30 seconds of process time.

  18. In situ bioremediation: A network model of diffusion and flow in granular porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Nilson, R.H.; Bradshaw, R.W.

    1997-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is a potentially expedient, permanent and cost- effective means of waste site decontamination. However, permeability reductions due to the transport and deposition of native fines or due to excessive microorganism populations may severely inhibit the injection of supplemental oxygen in the contamination zone. To help understand this phenomenon, we have developed a micro-mechanical network model of flow, diffusion and particle transport in granular porous materials. The model differs from most similar models in that the network is defined by particle positions in a numerically-generated particle array. The model is thus widely applicable to computing effective transport properties for both ordered and realistic random porous media. A laboratory-scale apparatus to measure permeability reductions has also been designed, built and tested.

  19. A granular refillable filter for glas-flows contaminated by radioactive impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Description is given of a granular charcoal refillable filter adapted to adsorb the radioactive impurities of a gaseous flow. That flow comprises a number of filtering layers, the consumed charcoal of which can be discharged by a pneumatic device without exposing the personnel to radioactivity. This can be applied to emergency devices in nuclear facilities [fr

  20. Fundamental change of granular flows dynamics, deposition and erosion processes at sufficiently high slope angles: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical granular flows commonly interact with their substrate in various ways depending on the mechanical properties of the underlying material. Granular substrates, resulting from deposition of earlier flows or various geological events, are often eroded by avalanches [see Hungr and Evans, 2004 for review]. The entrainment of underlying debris by the flow is suspected to affect flow dynamics because qualitative and quantitative field observations suggest that it can increase the flow velocity and deposit extent, depending on the geological setting and flow type [Sovilla et al., 2006; Iverson et al., 2011]. Direct measurement of material entrainment in nature, however, is very difficult. We conducted laboratory experiments on granular column collapse over an inclined channel with and without an erodible bed of granular material. The controlling parameters were the channel slope angle, the granular column volume and its aspect ratio (i.e. height over length), the inclination of the column with respect to the channel base, the channel width, and the thickness and compaction of the erodible bed. For slope angles below a critical value θc, between 10° and 16°, the runout distance rf is proportional to the initial column height h0 and is unaffected by the presence of an erodible bed. On slopes greater than θc, the flow dynamics change fundamentally since a last phase of slow propagation develops at the end of the flow front deceleration, and prolongates significantly the flow duration. This phase has similar characteristics that steady, uniform flows. The slow propagation phase lasts longer for increasing column volume, column inclination with respect to the slope, and channel width, and for decreasing column aspect ratio. It is however independent of the maximum front velocity and, on an erodible bed, of the maximum depth of excavation within the bed. Both on rigid and erodible beds, the increase of the slow propagation phase duration has a crucial effect on

  1. Editorial: Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony Richard; Einav, Itai

    2015-01-01

    This is the editorial for the special issue on “Modelling and computational challenges in granular materials” in the journal on Computational Particle Mechanics (CPM). The issue aims to provide an opportunity for physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and computational scientists to discuss

  2. The respective roles of bulk friction and slip velocity during a granular mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, Lydie

    2016-04-01

    Catastrophic granular mass flows form an important natural hazard. Mitigation has motivated numerous studies on the properties of natural granular flows, and in particular, their ability to travel long distances away from the release point. The mobility of granular flows is commonly characterised through the definition of rheological properties and effective friction. Yet, it is widely accepted that the description in term of effective friction may include various lubrication effects, softening at the base of the flow and large slip velocities being a most likely one. In this case, flow bulk properties may obliterate the flow boundary conditions. In this contribution, we investigate how disentangling bulk properties from boundary conditions may improve our understanding of the flow. Using discrete simulations, we induce increasing slip velocities in different flow configurations. We show that increased mobility may be achieved without changing bulk properties. The results are interpreted in terms of a Robin-Navier slip condition and implemented in a continuum Navier-Stokes solver. We quantify the respective role of rheological bulk properties and boundary conditions in the general behaviour of a transient mass flow. We show that omitting the description of boundary conditions leads to misinterpretation of the flow properties. The outcome is discussed in terms of models reliability. References P.-Y. Lagrée et al, The granular column collapse as a continuum: validity of a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes model with the mu(I) rheology, J. Fluid Mech. 686, 378-408 (2011) L. Staron and E. Lajeunesse, Understanding how the volume affects the mobility of dry debris flows, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L12402 (2009) L. Staron, Mobility of long-runout rock flows: a discrete numerical investigation, Geophys. J. Int. 172, 455-463 (2008)

  3. Shear dilatancy and acoustic emission in dry and saturated granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Siman-Tov, S.

    2017-12-01

    Shearing of granular materials plays a strong role in naturally sheared systems as landslides and faults. Many works on granular flows have concentrated on dry materials, but relatively little work has been done on water saturated sands. Here we experimentally investigate dry versus saturated quartz-rich sand to understand the effect of the fluid medium on the rheology and acoustic waves emission of the sheared sand. The sand was sheared in a rotary shear rheometer under applied constant normal stress boundary at low (100 µm/s) to high (1 m/s) velocities. Mechanical, acoustic data and deformation were continuously recorded and imaged. For dry and water saturated experiments the granular volume remains constant for low shear velocities ( 10-3 m/s) and increases during shearing at higher velocities ( 1 m/s). Continuous imaging of the sheared sand show that the steady state shear band thickness is thicker during the high velocity steps. No significant change observed in the shear band thickness between dry and water saturated experiments. In contrast, the amount of dilation during water saturated experiments is about half the value measured for dry material. The measured decrease cannot be explained by shear band thickness change as such is not exist. However, the reduced dilation is supported by our acoustic measurements. In general, the event rate and acoustic event amplitudes increase with shear velocity. While isolated events are clearly detected during low velocities at higher the events overlap, resulting in a noisy signal. Although detection is better for saturated experiments, during the high velocity steps the acoustic energy measured from the signal is lower compared to that recorded for dry experiments. We suggest that the presence of fluid suppresses grain motion and particles impacts leading to mild increase in the internal pressure and therefore for the reduced dilation. In addition, the viscosity of fluids may influence the internal pressure via

  4. Experimental study and DEM simulation of granular flow through a new sphere discharge valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang He; Li Tianjin; Huang Zhiyong; Gao Zhi; Qi Weiwei; Bo Hanliang

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and DEM simulation have been conducted to investigate the granular flow through a new type of sphere discharge valve. The new sphere discharge valve was based on the principle of angle of repose. The glass sphere was used in the granular discharge experiments. Experimental results showed that the relation between the averaging sphere discharge mass flow rate and the stroke of the sphere discharge valve were consisted of three zones, i.e. the idle stroke zone, linearly zone and orifice restriction zone. The Beverloo's law was suitable for the granular flow through multi-orifices in the orifice restriction zone. The variation of averaging sphere discharge mass flow rate with the stroke of the sphere discharge valve was described by Beverloo's law with the modification based on the stroke of the sphere discharge valve. DEM simulation results showed that the drained angle of repose during granular flow in the sphere storage vessel remained 23 degrees with different stroke of the sphere discharge valve. (authors)

  5. Water flow exchange characteristics in coarse granular filter media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    Elution of inhibitory metabolites is a key parameter controlling the efficiency of air cleaning bio- and biotrickling filters. To the authors knowledge no studies have yet considered the relationship between specific surface area related elution velocity and physical media characteristics, which...... in this study are performed at a concurrent airflow of 0.3 m s−1, water irrigation rates of 1–21 cm h−1 in materials with particle diameters ranging from 2 to 14 mm to represent media and operation conditions relevant for low flow biotrickling filter design. Specific surface area related elution velocity...... distribution was closely related to the filter water content, water irrigation rate, media specific surface area and particle size distribution. A predictive model linking the specific surface area related elution velocity distribution to irrigation rate, specific surface area and particle size distribution...

  6. Three-dimensional granular model of semi-solid metallic alloys undergoing solidification: Fluid flow and localization of feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A.B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) granular model which simulates fluid flow within solidifying alloys with a globular microstructure, such as that found in grain refined Al alloys, is presented. The model geometry within a representative volume element (RVE) consists of a set of prismatic triangular elements representing the intergranular liquid channels. The pressure field within the liquid channels is calculated using a finite elements (FEs) method assuming a Poiseuille flow within each channel and flow conservation at triple lines. The fluid flow is induced by solidification shrinkage and openings at grain boundaries due to deformation of the coherent solid. The granular model predictions are validated against bulk data calculated with averaging techniques. The results show that a fluid flow simulation of globular semi-solid materials is able to reproduce both a map of the 3-D intergranular pressure and the localization of feeding within the mushy zone. A new hot cracking sensitivity coefficient is then proposed. Based on a mass balance performed over a solidifying isothermal volume element, this coefficient accounts for tensile deformation of the semi-solid domain and for the induced intergranular liquid feeding. The fluid flow model is then used to calculate the pressure drop in the mushy zone during the direct chill casting of aluminum alloy billets. The predicted pressure demonstrates that deep in the mushy zone where the permeability is low the local pressure can be significantly lower than the pressure predicted by averaging techniques.

  7. 2D granular flows with the μ(I) rheology and side walls friction: A well-balanced multilayer discretization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Garres-Díaz, J.; Mangeney, A.; Narbona-Reina, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present here numerical modelling of granular flows with the μ (I) rheology in confined channels. The contribution is twofold: (i) a model to approximate the Navier-Stokes equations with the μ (I) rheology through an asymptotic analysis; under the hypothesis of a one-dimensional flow, this model takes into account side walls friction; (ii) a multilayer discretization following Fernández-Nieto et al. (2016) [20]. In this new numerical scheme, we propose an appropriate treatment of the rheological terms through a hydrostatic reconstruction which allows this scheme to be well-balanced and therefore to deal with dry areas. Based on academic tests, we first evaluate the influence of the width of the channel on the normal profiles of the downslope velocity thanks to the multilayer approach that is intrinsically able to describe changes from Bagnold to S-shaped (and vice versa) velocity profiles. We also check the well-balanced property of the proposed numerical scheme. We show that approximating side walls friction using single-layer models may lead to strong errors. Secondly, we compare the numerical results with experimental data on granular collapses. We show that the proposed scheme allows us to qualitatively reproduce the deposit in the case of a rigid bed (i.e. dry area) and that the error made by replacing the dry area by a small layer of material may be large if this layer is not thin enough. The proposed model is also able to reproduce the time evolution of the free surface and of the flow/no-flow interface. In addition, it reproduces the effect of erosion for granular flows over initially static material lying on the bed. This is possible when using a variable friction coefficient μ (I) but not with a constant friction coefficient.

  8. Dispersed plug flow model for upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors with focus on granular sludge dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Fedorovich, V.V.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to model upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB)-reactors, referred to as a one-dimensional dispersed plug flow model, was developed. This model focusses on the granular sludge dynamics along the reactor height, based on the balance between dispersion, sedimentation and convection using

  9. Rheological Modeling of Macro Viscous Flows of Granular Suspension of Regular and Irregular Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pellegrino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to complex granular-fluid mixtures involved into geophysical flows, such as debris and hyper-concentrated flows. For such phenomena, the interstitial fluids play a role when they are in the viscous regime. Referring to experiments on granular-fluid mixture carried out with pressure imposed annular shear cell, we study the rheological behaviour of dense mixture involving both spheres and irregular-shaped particles. For the case of viscous suspensions with irregular grains, a significant scatter of data from the trend observed for mixtures with spherical particles was evident. In effect, the shape of the particles likely plays a fundamental role in the flow dynamics, and the constitutive laws proposed by the frictional theory for the spheres are no longer valid. Starting from the frictional approach successfully applied to suspension of spheres, we demonstrate that also in case of irregular particles the mixture rheology may be fully characterized by the two relationships involving friction coefficient µ and volume concentration Ф as a function of the dimensionless viscous number Iv. To this goal, we provided a new consistent general model, referring to the volume fraction law and friction law, which accounts for the particle shape. In this way, the fitting parameters reduce just to the static friction angle µ1, and the two parameters, k and fs related to the grain shape. The resulting general model may apply to steady fully developed flows of saturated granular fluid mixture in the viscous regime, no matter of granular characteristics.

  10. Subglacial sediment mechanics investigated by computer simulation of granular material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Tulaczyk, Slawek

    The mechanical properties of subglacial sediments are known to directly influence the stability of ice streams and fast-moving glaciers, but existing models of granular sediment deformation are poorly constrained. In addition, upscaling to generalized mathematical models is difficult due to the m......The mechanical properties of subglacial sediments are known to directly influence the stability of ice streams and fast-moving glaciers, but existing models of granular sediment deformation are poorly constrained. In addition, upscaling to generalized mathematical models is difficult due....... The numerical method is applied to better understand the mechanical properties of the subglacial sediment and its interaction with meltwater. The computational approach allows full experimental control and offers insights into the internal kinematics, stress distribution, and mechanical stability. During...

  11. Study of an athermal quasi static plastic deformation in a 2D granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    In crystalline materials, the plasticity has been well understood in terms of dynamics of dislocation, i.e. flow defects in the crystals where the flow defects can be directly visualized under a microscope. In a contrast, the plasticity in amorphous materials, i.e. glass, is still poorly understood due to the disordered nature of the materials. In this talk, I will discuss the recent results we have obtained in our ongoing research of the plasticity of a 2D glass in the athermal quasi static limit where the 2D glass is made of bi-disperse granular disks with very low friction. Starting from a densely packed homogeneous and isotropic initial state, we apply pure shear deformation to the system. For a sufficiently small strain, the response of the system is linear and elastic like; when the strain is large enough, the plasticity of the system gradually develops and eventually the shear bands are fully developed. In this study, we are particularly interested in how to relate the local plastic deformation to the macroscopic response of the system and also in the development of the shear bands.

  12. Experimentally determined distribution of granular-flow characteristics in collisional bed load transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of laboratory experiments on turbulent open-channel two-phase flow in a form of intense bed load transport is reported. Measurements in a laboratory tilting flume included camera based imaging techniques to identify the structure of the flow at the local level. Obtained experimental distributions of two-phase flow related parameters - granular velocity, concentration, and temperature - across a collisional transport layer are discussed. The results are analysed together with additional measured quantities (discharges of mixture and grains, flow depth, bed slope etc. Our major goal is to evaluate the distribution of granular stresses across the transport layer with a special attention paid to the interface between the transport layer and the bed. Furthermore, comparisons are discussed between the experimental results and predictions produced by suitable kinetic-theory based models.

  13. Kinematics and statistics of dense, slow granular flow through vertical channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, K. S.; Moka, Sudheshna; Nott, Prabhu R.

    We have investigated the flow of dry granular materials through vertical channels in the regime of dense slow flow using video imaging of the particles adjacent to a transparent wall. Using an image processing technique based on particle tracking velocimetry, the video movies were analysed to obtain the velocities of individual particles. Experiments were conducted in two- and three-dimensional channels. In the latter, glass beads and mustard seeds were used as model granular materials, and their translational velocities were measured. In the former, aluminium disks with a dark diametral stripe were used and their translational velocities and spin were measured. Experiments in the three-dimensional channels were conducted for a range of the channel width W, and for smooth and rough sidewalls. As in earlier studies, we find that shearing takes place predominantly in thin layers adjacent to the walls, while the rest of the material appears to move as a plug. However, there are large velocity fluctuations even in the plug, where the macroscopic deformation rate is negligibly small. The thickness of the shear layer, scaled by the particle diameter dp, increases weakly with W/dp. The experimental data for the velocity field are in good agreement with the Cosserat plasticity model proposed recently. We also measured the mean spin of the particles in the two-dimensional channel, and its deviation from half the vorticity. There is a clear, measurable deviation, which too is in qualitative agreement with the Cosserat plasticity model. The statistics of particle velocity and spin fluctuations in the two-dimensional channel were analysed by determining their probability distribution function, and their spatial and temporal correlation. They were all found to be broadly similar to previous observations for three-dimensional channels, but some differences are evident. The spatial correlation of the velocity fluctuations are much stronger in the two-dimensional channel, implying

  14. Effective Wall Friction in Wall-Bounded 3D Dense Granular Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Artoni, Riccardo; Richard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    to be published in Physical Review LettersThe numerical simulations were carried out at theCCIPL (Centre de Calcul Intensif des Pays de la Loire)under the project MTEEGD; We report numerical simulations on granular shear flows confined between two flat but frictional sidewalls. Novel regimes differing by their strain localization features are observed. They originate from the competition between dissipation at the sidewalls and dissipation in the bulk of the flow. The effective friction at si...

  15. Flexible fiber in interaction with a dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algarra Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fiber acting as a flexible intruder. We study experimentally the reconfiguration and the forces exerted on the flexible fiber produced by the flow at a constant and low velocity of a two-dimensional disordered packing of grains close but below the jamming transition.

  16. Flexible fiber in interaction with a dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarra, Nicolas; Leang, Marguerite; Lazarus, Arnaud; Vandembroucq, Damien; Kolb, Evelyne

    2017-06-01

    We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fiber acting as a flexible intruder. We study experimentally the reconfiguration and the forces exerted on the flexible fiber produced by the flow at a constant and low velocity of a two-dimensional disordered packing of grains close but below the jamming transition.

  17. A soft-rigid contact model of MPM for granular flow impact on retaining structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinpo; Xie, Yanfang; Gutierrez, Marte

    2018-02-01

    Protective measures against hazards associated with rapid debris avalanches include a variety of retaining structures such as rock/boulder fences, gabions, earthfill barriers and retaining walls. However, the development of analytical and numerical methods for the rational assessment of impact force generated by granular flows is still a challenge. In this work, a soft-rigid contact model is built under the coding framework of MPM which is a hybrid method with Eulerian-Lagrangian description. The soft bodies are discretized into particles (material points), and the rigid bodies are presented by rigid node-based surfaces. Coulomb friction model is used to implement the modeled contact mechanics, and a velocity-dependent friction coefficient is coupled into the model. Simulations of a physical experiment show that the peak and residual value of impact forces are well captured by the MPM model. An idealized scenario of debris avalanche flow down a hillslope and impacting on a retaining wall are analyzed using the MPM model. The calculated forces can provide a quantitative estimate from which mound design could proceed for practical implementation in the field.

  18. Flow Characteristics and Grain Size Distribution of Granular Gangue Mineral by Compaction Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A test system for water flow in granular gangue mineral was designed to study the flow characteristics by compaction treatment. With the increase of the compaction displacement, the porosity decreases and void in granular gangue becomes less. The main reason causing initial porosity decrease is that the void of larger size is filled with small particles. Permeability tends to decrease and non-Darcy flow factor increases under the compaction treatment. The change trend of flow characteristics shows twists and turns, which indicate that flow characteristics of granular gangue mineral are related to compaction level, grain size distribution, crushing, and fracture structure. During compaction, larger particles are crushed, which in turn causes the weight of smaller particles to increase, and water flow induces fine particles to migrate (weight loss; meanwhile, a sample with more weight of size (0–2.5 mm has a higher amount of weight loss. Water seepage will cause the decrease of some chemical components, where SiO2 decreased the highest in these components; the components decreased are more likely locked at fragments rather than the defect of the minerals. The variation of the chemical components has an opposite trend when compared with permeability.

  19. Mechanical strength model for plastic bonded granular materials at high strain rates and large strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.V.; Scammon, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Modeling impact events on systems containing plastic bonded explosive materials requires accurate models for stress evolution at high strain rates out to large strains. For example, in the Steven test geometry reactions occur after strains of 0.5 or more are reached for PBX-9501. The morphology of this class of materials and properties of the constituents are briefly described. We then review the viscoelastic behavior observed at small strains for this class of material, and evaluate large strain models used for granular materials such as cap models. Dilatation under shearing deformations of the PBX is experimentally observed and is one of the key features modeled in cap style plasticity theories, together with bulk plastic flow at high pressures. We propose a model that combines viscoelastic behavior at small strains but adds intergranular stresses at larger strains. A procedure using numerical simulations and comparisons with results from flyer plate tests and low rate uniaxial stress tests is used to develop a rough set of constants for PBX-9501. Comparisons with the high rate flyer plate tests demonstrate that the observed characteristic behavior is captured by this viscoelastic based model. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. A new methodology to simulate subglacial deformation of water saturated granular material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of glaciers are to a large degree governed by processes operating at the ice-bed interface, and one of the primary mechanisms of glacier flow over soft unconsolidated sediments is subglacial deformation. However, it has proven difficult to constrain the mechanical response of subglac......The dynamics of glaciers are to a large degree governed by processes operating at the ice-bed interface, and one of the primary mechanisms of glacier flow over soft unconsolidated sediments is subglacial deformation. However, it has proven difficult to constrain the mechanical response...... or weakening components, depending on the rate of deformation, the material state, clay mineral content, and the hydrological properties of the material. The influence of the fluid phase is negligible when relatively permeable sediment is deformed. However, by reducing the local permeability, fast deformation...... can cause variations in the pore-fluid pressure. The pressure variations weaken or strengthen the granular phase, and in turn influence the distribution of shear strain with depth. In permeable sediments the strain distribution is governed by the grain-size distribution and effective normal stress...

  1. Suitability of granular carbon as an anode material for sediment microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, Jan B.A.; Blondeel, Evelyne; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering; Tennison, Steve R. [Mast Carbon International Ltd., Basingstoke, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Sediment microbial fuel cells (S-MFCs) are bio-electrochemical devices that are able to oxidize organic matter directly into harvestable electrical power. The flux of organic matter into the sediment is rather low; therefore, other researchers have introduced plants for a continuous supply of organic matter to the anode electrode. Until now only interconnected materials have been considered as anode materials in S-MFCs. Here, granular carbon materials were investigated for their suitability as an anode material in S-MFCs. Materials and methods: Laboratory microcosms with eight different electrode materials (granules, felts and cloths) were examined with controlled organic matter addition under brackish conditions. Current density, organic matter removal and microbial community composition were monitored using 16S rRNA gene PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The main parameters investigated were the influence of the amount of electrode material applied to the sediment, the size of the granular material and the electrode configuration. Results and discussion: Felt material had an overall superior performance in terms of current density per amount of applied electrode material; felt and granular anode obtained similar current densities (approx. 50-60 mA m{sup -2}), but felt materials required 29 % less material to be applied. Yet, when growing plants, granular carbon is more suited because it is considered to restore, upon disturbance, the electrical connectivity within the anode compartment. Small granules (0.25-0.5 mm) gave the highest current density compared to larger granules (1-5 mm) of the same material. Granules with a rough surface had a better performance compared to smooth granules of the same size. The different granular materials lead to a selection of distinct microbial communities for each material, as shown by DGGE. Conclusions: Granular carbon is suitable as an anode material for S-MFCs. This opens the possibility

  2. Resolved granular debris-flow simulations with a coupled SPH-DCDEM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birjukovs Canelas, Ricardo; Domínguez, José M.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2016-04-01

    Debris flows represent some of the most relevant phenomena in geomorphological events. Due to the potential destructiveness of such flows, they are the target of a vast amount of research (Takahashi, 2007 and references therein). A complete description of the internal processes of a debris-flow is however still an elusive achievement, explained by the difficulty of accurately measuring important quantities in these flows and developing a comprehensive, generalized theoretical framework capable of describing them. This work addresses the need for a numerical model applicable to granular-fluid mixtures featuring high spatial and temporal resolution, thus capable of resolving the motion of individual particles, including all interparticle contacts. This corresponds to a brute-force approach: by applying simple interaction laws at local scales the macro-scale properties of the flow should be recovered by upscaling. This methodology effectively bypasses the complexity of modelling the intermediate scales by resolving them directly. The only caveat is the need of high performance computing, a demanding but engaging research challenge. The DualSPHysics meshless numerical implementation, based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), is expanded with a Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) in order to explicitly solve the fluid and the solid phase. The model numerically solves the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the liquid phase and Newton's motion equations for solid bodies. The interactions between solids are modelled with classical DEM approaches (Kruggel-Emden et al, 2007). Among other validation tests, an experimental set-up for stony debris flows in a slit check dam is reproduced numerically, where solid material is introduced trough a hopper assuring a constant solid discharge for the considered time interval. With each sediment particle undergoing tens of possible contacts, several thousand time-evolving contacts are efficiently treated

  3. Analysis and Modeling of Structure Formation in Granular and Fluid-Solid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric

    Granular and multiphase flows are encountered in a number of industrial processes with particular emphasis in this manuscript given to the particular applications in cement pumping, pneumatic conveying, fluid catalytic cracking, CO2 capture, and fast pyrolysis of bio-materials. These processes are often modeled using averaged equations that may be simulated using computational fluid dynamics. Closure models are then required that describe the average forces that arise from both interparticle interactions, e.g. shear stress, and interphase interactions, such as mean drag. One of the biggest hurdles to this approach is the emergence of non-trivial spatio-temporal structures in the particulate phase, which can significantly modify the qualitative behavior of these forces and the resultant flow phenomenology. For example, the formation of large clusters in cohesive granular flows is responsible for a transition from solid-like to fluid-like rheology. Another example is found in gas-solid systems, where clustering at small scales is observed to significantly lower in the observed drag. Moreover, there remains the possibility that structure formation may occur at all scales, leading to a lack of scale separation required for traditional averaging approaches. In this context, several modeling problems are treated 1) first-principles based modeling of the rheology of cement slurries, 2) modeling the mean solid-solid drag experienced by polydisperse particles undergoing segregation, and 3) modeling clustering in homogeneous gas-solid flows. The first and third components are described in greater detail. In the study on the rheology of cements, several sub-problems are introduced, which systematically increase in the number and complexity of interparticle interactions. These interparticle interactions include inelasticity, friction, cohesion, and fluid interactions. In the first study, the interactions between cohesive inelastic particles was fully characterized for the

  4. Jamming of three-dimensional prolate granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, K; Franklin, Scott V

    2006-03-01

    We have found that the ability of long thin rods to jam into a solidlike state in response to a local perturbation depends upon both the particle aspect ratio and the container size. The dynamic phase diagram in this parameter space reveals a broad transition region separating granular stick-slip and solidlike behavior. In this transition region the pile displays both solid and stick-slip behavior. We measure the force on a small object pulled through the pile, and find the fluctuation spectra to have power law tails with an exponent characteristic of the region. The exponent varies from beta=-2 in the stick-slip region to beta=-1 in the solid region. These values reflect the different origins--granular rearrangements vs dry friction--of the fluctuations. Finally, the packing fraction shows only a slight dependence on container size, but depends on aspect ratio in a manner predicted by mean-field theory and implies an aspect-ratio-independent contact number of =5.25 +/- 0.03.

  5. Force and flow at the onset of drag in plowed granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Umbanhowar, Paul B; Goldman, Daniel I

    2014-04-01

    We study the transient drag force FD on a localized intruder in a granular medium composed of spherical glass particles. A flat plate is translated horizontally from rest through the granular medium to observe how FD varies as a function of the medium's initial volume fraction, ϕ. The force response of the granular material differs above and below the granular critical state, ϕc, the volume fraction which corresponds to the onset of grain dilatancy. For ϕϕc, FD rapidly rises to a maximum and then decreases over further displacement. The maximum force for ϕ>ϕc increases with increasing drag velocity. In quasi-two-dimensional drag experiments, we use granular particle image velocimetry (PIV) to measure time resolved strain fields associated with the horizontal motion of a plate started from rest. PIV experiments show that the maxima in FD for ϕ>ϕc are associated with maxima in the spatially averaged shear strain field. For ϕ>ϕc the shear strain occurs in a narrow region in front of the plate, a shear band. For ϕϕc, surface particles move only during the formation of the shear band, coincident with the maxima in FD, after which the particles remain immobile until the sheared region reaches the measurement region.

  6. NMR studies of granular media and two-phase flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu

    This dissertation describes two experimental studies of a vibrofluidized granular medium and a preliminary study of two-phase fluid flow in a porous medium using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The first study of granular medium is to test a scaling law of the rise in center of mass in a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular system. Our granular system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 40 Hz from 0g to 14g. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to measure density profile in vibrated direction. We observed that the rise in center of mass scaled as nu 0alpha/Nlbeta with alpha = 1.0 +/- 0.2 and beta = 0.5 +/- 0.1, where nu 0 is the vibration velocity and Nl is the number of layers of grains in the container. A simple theory was proposed to explain the scaling exponents. In the second study we measured both density and velocity information in the same setup of the first study. Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG)-NMR combined with MRI was used to do this measurement. The granular system was fully fluidized at 14.85g 50 Hz with Nl ≤ 4. The velocity distributions at horizontal and vertical direction at different height were measured. The distributions were nearly-Gaussian far from sample bottom and non-Gaussian near sample bottom. Granular temperature profiles were calculated from the velocity distributions. The density and temperature profile were fit to a hydrodynamic theory. The theory agreed with experiments very well. A temperature inversion near top was also observed and explained by additional transport coefficient from granular hydrodynamics. The third study was the preliminary density measurement of invading phase profile in a two-phase flow in porous media. The purpose of this study was to test an invasion percolation with gradient (IPG) theory in two-phase flow of porous media. Two phases are dodecane and water doped with CuSO4. The porous medium was packed glass beads. The front tail width sigma and front width of invading phase were

  7. Textural evidence for jamming and dewatering of a sub-surface, fluid-saturated granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, T. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2011-12-01

    Sand injectites are spectacular examples of large-scale granular flows involving migration of hundreds of cubic meters of sand slurry over hundreds of meters to kilometers in the sub-surface. By studying the macro- and microstructural textures of a kilometer-scale sand injectite, we interpret the fluid flow regimes during emplacement and define the timing of formation of specific textures in the injected material. Fluidized sand sourced from the Santa Margarita Fm., was injected upward into the Santa Cruz Mudstone, Santa Cruz County, California. The sand injectite exposed at Yellow Bank Beach records emplacement of both hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries. Elongate, angular mudstone clasts were ripped from the wall rock during sand migration, providing evidence for high velocity, turbid flow. However, clast long axis orientations are consistently sub-horizontal suggesting the slurry transitioned to a laminar flow as the flow velocity decreased in the sill-like intrusion. Millimeter to centimeter scale laminations are ubiquitous throughout the sand body and are locally parallel to the mudstone clast long axes. The laminations are distinct in exposure because alternating layers are preferentially cemented with limonite sourced from later groundwater infiltration. Quantitative microstructural analyses show that the laminations are defined by subtle oscillations in grain alignment between limonite and non-limonite stained layers. Grain packing, size and shape distributions do not vary. The presence of limonite in alternating layers results from differential infiltration of groundwater, indicating permeability changes between the layers despite minimal grain scale differences. Convolute dewatering structures deform the laminations. Dolomite-cemented sand, a signature of hydrocarbon saturation, forms irregular bodies that cross-cut the laminations and dewatering structures. Laminations are not formed in the dolomite-cemented sand. The relative viscosity difference

  8. Simulation of granular and gas-solid flows using discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyalakuntla, Dhanunjay S.

    2003-10-01

    In recent years there has been increased research activity in the experimental and numerical study of gas-solid flows. Flows of this type have numerous applications in the energy, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals process industries. Typical applications include pulverized coal combustion, flow and heat transfer in bubbling and circulating fluidized beds, hopper and chute flows, pneumatic transport of pharmaceutical powders and pellets, and many more. The present work addresses the study of gas-solid flows using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques and discrete element simulation methods (DES) combined. Many previous studies of coupled gas-solid flows have been performed assuming the solid phase as a continuum with averaged properties and treating the gas-solid flow as constituting of interpenetrating continua. Instead, in the present work, the gas phase flow is simulated using continuum theory and the solid phase flow is simulated using DES. DES treats each solid particle individually, thus accounting for its dynamics due to particle-particle interactions, particle-wall interactions as well as fluid drag and buoyancy. The present work involves developing efficient DES methods for dense granular flow and coupling this simulation to continuum simulations of the gas phase flow. Simulations have been performed to observe pure granular behavior in vibrating beds. Benchmark cases have been simulated and the results obtained match the published literature. The dimensionless acceleration amplitude and the bed height are the parameters governing bed behavior. Various interesting behaviors such as heaping, round and cusp surface standing waves, as well as kinks, have been observed for different values of the acceleration amplitude for a given bed height. Furthermore, binary granular mixtures (granular mixtures with two particle sizes) in a vibrated bed have also been studied. Gas-solid flow simulations have been performed to study fluidized beds. Benchmark 2D

  9. Rheology of confined granular flows: scale invariance, glass transition, and friction weakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, P; Valance, A; Métayer, J-F; Sanchez, P; Crassous, J; Louge, M; Delannay, R

    2008-12-12

    We study fully developed, steady granular flows confined between parallel flat frictional sidewalls using numerical simulations and experiments. Above a critical rate, sidewall friction stabilizes the underlying heap at an inclination larger than the angle of repose. The shear rate is constant and independent of inclination over much of the flowing layer. In the direction normal to the free surface, the solid volume fraction increases on a scale equal to half the flowing layer depth. Beneath a critical depth at which internal friction is invariant, grains exhibit creeping and intermittent cage motion similar to that in glasses, causing gradual weakening of friction at the walls.

  10. Attachment and Detachment Behavior of Human Adenovirus and Surrogates in Fine Granular Limestone Aquifer Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Margaret E; Sommer, Regina; Lindner, Gerhard; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Toze, Simon; Kirschner, Alexander K T; Blaschke, Alfred P; Sidhu, Jatinder P S

    2015-09-01

    The transport of human adenovirus, nanoparticles, and PRD1 and MS2 bacteriophages was tested in fine granular limestone aquifer material taken from a borehole at a managed aquifer recharge site in Adelaide, South Australia. Comparison of transport and removal of virus surrogates with the pathogenic virus is necessary to understand the differences between the virus and surrogate. Because experiments using pathogenic viruses cannot be done in the field, laboratory tests using flow-through soil columns were used. Results show that PRD1 is the most appropriate surrogate for adenovirus in an aquifer dominated by calcite material but not under high ionic strength or high pH conditions. It was also found that straining due to size and the charge of the colloid were not dominant removal mechanisms in this system. Implications of this study indicate that a certain surrogate may not represent a specific pathogen solely based on similar size, morphology, and/or surface charge. Moreover, if a particular surrogate is representative of a pathogen in one aquifer system, it may not be the most appropriate surrogate in another porous media system. This was apparent in the inferior performance of MS2 as a surrogate, which is commonly used in virus transport studies. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Numerical investigation of particle-blast interaction during explosive dispersal of liquids and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Lhoumeau, M.; Milne, A. M.; Longbottom, A. W.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Experiments show that when a high-explosive charge with embedded particles or a charge surrounded by a layer of liquid or granular material is detonated, the flow generated is perturbed by the motion of the particles and the blast wave profile differs from that of an ideal Friedlander form. Initially, the blast wave overpressure is reduced due to the energy dissipation resulting from compaction, fragmentation, and heating of the particle bed, and acceleration of the material. However, as the blast wave propagates, particle-flow interactions collectively serve to reduce the rate of decay of the peak blast wave overpressure. Computations carried out with a multiphase hydrocode reproduce the general trends observed experimentally and highlight the transition between the particle acceleration/deceleration phases, which is not accessible experimentally, since the particles are obscured by the detonation products. The dependence of the particle-blast interaction and the blast mitigation effectiveness on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, the particle size, and the initial solid volume fraction is investigated systematically. The reduction in peak blast overpressure is, as in experiments, primarily dependent on the mass ratio of material to explosive, with the particle size, density, and initial porosity of the particle bed playing secondary roles. In the near field, the blast overpressure decreases sharply with distance as the particles are accelerated by the flow. When the particles decelerate due to drag, energy is returned to the flow and the peak blast overpressure recovers and reaches values similar to that of a bare explosive charge for low mass ratios. Time-distance trajectory plots of the particle and blast wave motion with the pressure field superimposed, illustrate the weak pressure waves generated by the motion of the particle layer which travel upstream and perturb the blast wave motion. Computation of the particle and gas momentum flux in the multiphase

  12. Numerical investigation of particle-blast interaction during explosive dispersal of liquids and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontalier, Q.; Lhoumeau, M.; Milne, A. M.; Longbottom, A. W.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    Experiments show that when a high-explosive charge with embedded particles or a charge surrounded by a layer of liquid or granular material is detonated, the flow generated is perturbed by the motion of the particles and the blast wave profile differs from that of an ideal Friedlander form. Initially, the blast wave overpressure is reduced due to the energy dissipation resulting from compaction, fragmentation, and heating of the particle bed, and acceleration of the material. However, as the blast wave propagates, particle-flow interactions collectively serve to reduce the rate of decay of the peak blast wave overpressure. Computations carried out with a multiphase hydrocode reproduce the general trends observed experimentally and highlight the transition between the particle acceleration/deceleration phases, which is not accessible experimentally, since the particles are obscured by the detonation products. The dependence of the particle-blast interaction and the blast mitigation effectiveness on the mitigant to explosive mass ratio, the particle size, and the initial solid volume fraction is investigated systematically. The reduction in peak blast overpressure is, as in experiments, primarily dependent on the mass ratio of material to explosive, with the particle size, density, and initial porosity of the particle bed playing secondary roles. In the near field, the blast overpressure decreases sharply with distance as the particles are accelerated by the flow. When the particles decelerate due to drag, energy is returned to the flow and the peak blast overpressure recovers and reaches values similar to that of a bare explosive charge for low mass ratios. Time-distance trajectory plots of the particle and blast wave motion with the pressure field superimposed, illustrate the weak pressure waves generated by the motion of the particle layer which travel upstream and perturb the blast wave motion. Computation of the particle and gas momentum flux in the multiphase

  13. Experimental Study of Dry Granular Flow and Impact Behavior Against a Rigid Retaining Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-Jun; Towhata, Ikuo

    2013-07-01

    Shallow slope failure in mountainous regions is a common and emergent hazard in terms of its damage to important traffic routes and local communities. The impact of dry granular flows consisting of rock fragments and other particles resulting from shallow slope failures on retaining structures has yet to be systematically researched and is not covered by current design codes. As a preliminary study of the impact caused by dry granular flows, a series of dry granular impact experiments were carried out for one model of a retaining wall. It was indirectly verified that the total normal force exerted on a retaining wall consists of a drag force ( F d), a gravitational and frictional force ( F gf), and a passive earth force ( F p), and that the calculation of F d can be based on the empirical formula defined in NF EN Eurocode 1990 ( Eurocode structuraux. Base de calcul des structures, AFNOR La plaine Saint Denis, 2003). It was also indirectly verified that, for flow with Froude number from 6 to 11, the drag coefficient ( C d) can be estimated using the previously proposed empirical parameters.

  14. Effect of Anisotropy on the Resilient Behaviour of a Granular Material in Low Traffic Pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Peng; Nowamooz, Hossein; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-12-03

    Granular materials are often used in pavement structures. The influence of anisotropy on the mechanical behaviour of granular materials is very important. The coupled effects of water content and fine content usually lead to more complex anisotropic behaviour. With a repeated load triaxial test (RLTT), it is possible to measure the anisotropic deformation behaviour of granular materials. This article initially presents an experimental study of the resilient repeated load response of a compacted clayey natural sand with three fine contents and different water contents. Based on anisotropic behaviour, the non-linear resilient model (Boyce model) is improved by the radial anisotropy coefficient γ ₃ instead of the axial anisotropy coefficient γ ₁. The results from both approaches ( γ ₁ and γ ₃) are compared with the measured volumetric and deviatoric responses. These results confirm the capacity of the improved model to capture the general trend of the experiments. Finally, finite element calculations are performed with CAST3M in order to validate the improvement of the modified Boyce model (from γ ₁ to γ ₃). The modelling results indicate that the modified Boyce model with γ ₃ is more widely available in different water contents and different fine contents for this granular material. Besides, based on the results, the coupled effects of water content and fine content on the deflection of the structures can also be observed.

  15. REFINEMENT AND GRANULATING OF COHERENT-GRANULAR MATERIALS IN MACHINES OF ROLL TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Lozhechnikov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of selective break of heterogeneous compositions, in particular slags of copper-smelting production and also granular metal-containing powder materials, is based and developed. Calibration of the rolls, providing contrilled granulating of metal-containing powders by rolling.

  16. Gravity-driven, dry granular flows over a loose bed in stationary and homogeneous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meninno, Sabrina; Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Flows involving solid particulates have been widely studied in recent years, but their dynamics are still a complex issue to model because they strongly depend on the interaction with the boundary conditions. We report on laboratory investigations regarding homogeneous and steady flows of identical particles over a loose bed in a rectangular channel. Accurate measurements were carried out through imaging techniques to estimate profiles of the mean velocity, solid concentration, and granular temperature for a large set of flow rates and widths. Vertical and transversal structures observed in the flow change as interparticle interactions become more collisional, and they depend on the bottom over which the flow develops. The lateral confinement has a remarkable effect on the flow, especially for narrow channels compared with the grain size, and a hydraulic analogy is able to show how the walls influence the mechanisms of friction and energy dissipation.

  17. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  18. Creepy landscapes : river sediment entrainment develops granular flow rheology on creeping bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prancevic, J.; Chatanantavet, P.; Ortiz, C. P.; Houssais, M.; Durian, D. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    To predict rates of river sediment transport, one must first address the zeroth-order question: when does sediment move? The concept and determination of the critical fluid shear stress remains hazy, as observing particle motion and determining sediment flux becomes increasingly hard in its vicinity. To tackle this problem, we designed a novel annular flume experiment - reproducing an infinite river channel - where the refractive index of particles and the fluid are matched. The fluid is dyed with a fluorescent powder and a green laser sheet illuminates the fluid only, allowing us to observe particle displacements in a vertical plane. Experiments are designed to highlight the basic granular interactions of sediment transport while suppressing the complicating effects of turbulence; accordingly, particles are uniform spheres and Reynolds numbers are of order 1. We have performed sediment transport measurements close to the onset of particle motion, at steady state, and over long enough time to record averaged rheological behavior of particles. We find that particles entrained by a fluid exhibit successively from top to bottom: a suspension regime, a dense granular flow regime, and - instead of a static bed - a creeping regime. Data from experiments at a range of fluid stresses can be collapsed onto one universal rheologic curve that indicates the effective friction is a monotonic function of a dimensionless number called the viscous number. These data are in remarkable agreement with the local rheology model proposed by Boyer et al., which means that dense granular flows, suspensions and bed-load transport are unified under a common frictional flow law. Importantly, we observe slow creeping of the granular bed even in the absence of bed load, at fluid stresses that are below the apparent critical value. This last observation challenges the classical definition of the onset of sediment transport, and points to a continuous transition from quasi-static deformation to

  19. Granular patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, Igor S

    2009-01-01

    This title presents a review of experiments and novel theoretical concepts needed to understand the mechanisms of pattern formation in granular materials. An effort is made to connect concepts and ideas developed in granular physics with new emergent fields, especially in biology, such as cytoskeleton dynamics.

  20. Diffusion and mixing in gravity-driven dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaehyuk; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rosales, Rodolfo R; Bazant, Martin Z

    2004-04-30

    We study the transport properties of particles draining from a silo using imaging and direct particle tracking. The particle displacements show a universal transition from superdiffusion to normal diffusion, as a function of the distance fallen, independent of the flow speed. In the superdiffusive (but sub-ballistic) regime, which occurs before a particle falls through its diameter, the displacements have fat-tailed and anisotropic distributions. In the diffusive regime, we observe very slow cage breaking and Péclet numbers of order 100, contrary to the only previous microscopic model (based on diffusing voids). Overall, our experiments show that diffusion and mixing are dominated by geometry, consistent with long-lasting contacts but not thermal collisions, as in normal fluids.

  1. Toward high-efficiency and detailed Monte Carlo simulation study of the granular flow spallation target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Han-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Lei; Fu, Fen; Li, Jian-Yang; Zhang, Xun-Chao; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Yan, Xue-Song; Lin, Ping; Xv, Jian-Ya; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    The dense granular flow spallation target is a new target concept chosen for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical (ADS) project in China. For the R&D of this kind of target concept, a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) program named GMT was developed to perform the simulation study of the beam-target interaction. Owing to the complexities of the target geometry, the computational cost of the MC simulation of particle tracks is highly expensive. Thus, improvement of computational efficiency will be essential for the detailed MC simulation studies of the dense granular target. Here we present the special design of the GMT program and its high efficiency performance. In addition, the speedup potential of the GPU-accelerated spallation models is discussed.

  2. Mechanical properties of granular materials: A variational approach to grain-scale simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzman, R.; Silin, D.B.; Patzek, T.W.

    2009-01-15

    The mechanical properties of cohesionless granular materials are evaluated from grain-scale simulations. A three-dimensional pack of spherical grains is loaded by incremental displacements of its boundaries. The deformation is described as a sequence of equilibrium configurations. Each configuration is characterized by a minimum of the total potential energy. This minimum is computed using a modification of the conjugate gradient algorithm. Our simulations capture the nonlinear, path-dependent behavior of granular materials observed in experiments. Micromechanical analysis provides valuable insight into phenomena such as hysteresis, strain hardening and stress-induced anisotropy. Estimates of the effective bulk modulus, obtained with no adjustment of material parameters, are in agreement with published experimental data. The model is applied to evaluate the effects of hydrate dissociation in marine sediments. Weakening of the sediment is quantified as a reduction in the effective elastic moduli.

  3. Erosion by sliding wear in granular flows: Experiments with realistic contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, C. P.; Hung, C. Y.; Smith, B.; Li, L.; Grinspun, E.; Capart, H.

    2015-12-01

    Debris flow erosion is a powerful and sometimes dominant process in steep channels. Despite its importance, this phenomenon is relatively little studied in the lab. The large drum experiments of Hsu are a notable exception, in which almost-field-scale impact forces were generated at the head of a synthetic debris flow whose properties (grain size, proportion of fines, etc) were varied widely.A key challenge in these and similar experiments is to explore how erosion rate varies as a function of the scale of the flow (thereby varying inertial stresses, impact forces, etc). The geometrical limitations of most lab experiments, and their short run time, severely limit the scope of such explorations.We achieve this scale exploration in a set of drum erosion experiments by varying effective gravity across several orders of magnitude (1g, 10g, 100g) in a geotechnical centrifuge. By half-filling our 40cm-diameter drum with dry 2.3mm grains, placing a synthetic rock plate at the back and a glass plate at the front 3cm apart, and rotating the drum at 1-50rpm, we simulate wear in a channelized dry granular flow. In contrast to Hsu's experiments, we focus on sliding wear erosion at the flow boundary rather than impact/frictional wear at the flow head. By varying effective gravity from 1g-100g we can tune the pressure exerted by the grains at the boundary without having to change the scale of our apparatus. Using a recently developed depth-averaged, kinetic-energy closure theory for granular flow, we can simultaneously tune the drum rotation rate such that the flow dynamics remain invariant. We can thereby explore how changing the scale of a granular flow, and thus the contact forces of grains on the boundary, controls the rate of rock erosion. Using a small apparatus we can simulate the erosion generated by debris flows several meters deep involving grains up to 10cm in diameter.Our results suggest that sliding wear is the main erosion process, and are consistent with Archard

  4. Network flow model of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Tobin, Steven T; Cil, Mehmet; Alshibli, Khalid; Behringer, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    An established aspect of force transmission in quasistatic deformation of granular media is the existence of a dual network of strongly versus weakly loaded particles. Despite significant interest, the regulation of strong and weak forces through the contact network remains poorly understood. We examine this aspect of force transmission using data on microstructural fabric from: (I) three-dimensional discrete element models of grain agglomerates of bonded subspheres constructed from in situ synchrotron microtomography images of silica sand grains under unconfined compression and (II) two-dimensional assemblies of unbonded photoelastic circular disks submitted to biaxial compression under constant volume. We model force transmission as a network flow and solve the maximum flow-minimum cost (MFMC) problem, the solution to which yields a percolating subnetwork of contacts that transmits the "maximum flow" (i.e., the highest units of force) at "least cost" (i.e., the dissipated energy from such transmission). We find the MFMC describes a two-tier hierarchical architecture. At the local level, it encapsulates intraconnections between particles in individual force chains and in their conjoined 3-cycles, with the most common configuration having at least one force chain contact experiencing frustrated rotation. At the global level, the MFMC encapsulates interconnections between force chains. The MFMC can be used to predict most of the force chain particles without need for any information on contact forces, thereby suggesting the network flow framework may have potential broad utility in the modeling of force transmission in unbonded and bonded granular media.

  5. Deformation-driven diffusion and plastic flow in amorphous granular pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbin; Rieser, Jennifer M; Liu, Andrea J; Durian, Douglas J; Li, Ju

    2015-06-01

    We report a combined experimental and simulation study of deformation-induced diffusion in compacted quasi-two-dimensional amorphous granular pillars, in which thermal fluctuations play a negligible role. The pillars, consisting of bidisperse cylindrical acetal plastic particles standing upright on a substrate, are deformed uniaxially and quasistatically by a rigid bar moving at a constant speed. The plastic flow and particle rearrangements in the pillars are characterized by computing the best-fit affine transformation strain and nonaffine displacement associated with each particle between two stages of deformation. The nonaffine displacement exhibits exponential crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior with respect to the cumulative deviatoric strain, indicating that in athermal granular packings, the cumulative deviatoric strain plays the role of time in thermal systems and drives effective particle diffusion. We further study the size-dependent deformation of the granular pillars by simulation, and find that different-sized pillars follow self-similar shape evolution during deformation. In addition, the yield stress of the pillars increases linearly with pillar size. Formation of transient shear lines in the pillars during deformation becomes more evident as pillar size increases. The width of these elementary shear bands is about twice the diameter of a particle, and does not vary with pillar size.

  6. A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2015-04-01

    We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the

  7. Reconfiguration of a flexible fiber immersed in a 2D dense granular flow close to the jamming transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Algarra, Nicolas; Vandembroucq, Damien; Lazarus, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new fluid/structure interaction in the unusual case of a dense granular medium flowing against an elastic fibre acting as a flexible intruder. We experimentally studied the deflection of a mylar flexible beam clamped at one side, the other free side facing a 2D granular flow in a horizontal cell moving at a constant velocity. We investigated the reconfiguration of the fibre as a function of the fibre's rigidity and of the granular packing fraction close but below the jamming in 2D. Imposing the fibre geometry like its length or thickness sets the critical buckling force the fibre is able to resist if it was not supported by lateral grains, while increasing the granular packing fraction might laterally consolidate the fibre and prevent it from buckling. But on the other side, the approach to jamming transition by increasing the granular packing fraction will be characterized by a dramatically increasing size of the cluster of connected grains forming a solid block acting against the fibre, which might promote the fibre's deflection. Thus, we investigated the granular flow fields, the fibre's deflexion as well as the forces experienced by the fibre and compared them with theoretical predictions from elastica for different loadings along the fibre. PMMH, CNRS UMR 7636, UPMC, ESPCI-ParisTech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

  8. Slow sedimentary processes on-a-chip: experiments on porous flow effects on granular bed creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Maldarelli, C.; Shattuck, M.; Morris, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Steep soils dynamics is hard to catch. they exhibit very slow granular creep most of the time, and sometimes, mostly under or after rain, turn into a landslide, a very fast avalanche flow.The conditions of transition from soil creep to avalanching remains a lot non-understood, and Safe Factor law (empirical criteria, function of rain intensity and duration). On another side, in marine fast deposition environments, compaction drives vertical porous flow, which makes bed shear resistance change, and form over time bed size patterns (pipes, dishes) or mechanical heterogeneities.Capturing how the slow creep dynamics depends on the porous flow would allow for much more accurate landscape evolution modeling.We present here preliminary results of an experimental investigation of one the major triggering condition for soils destabilization: rain infiltration, and more generally porous flow through a tilted granular bed. In a quasi-2D microfluidics channel, a flat sediment bed made of spherical particles is prepared, in fully submerged condition. It is thereafter tilted (at slope under critical slope of avalanching) and simultaneously put under vertical weak porous flow (well under the critical flow of liquefaction regarding positive pressure gradients). The two control parameters are varied, and local particles concentration and motion are measured. Interestingly, although staying in the sub-critical creeping regime, we observe an acceleration of the bed deformation downward, as the porous flow and the bed slope are increased, until the criteria for avalanching is reached. Those results appear to present similitudes with the case of tilted dry sediment bed under controlled vibrations. Consequently it opens the discussion about a potential universal model of landslides triggering due to frequent seismological and rainstorm events.

  9. Static Friction Phenomena in Granular Materials: Coulomb Law vs. Particle Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Poeschel, T.; Buchholtz, V.

    1993-01-01

    The static as well as the dynamic behaviour of granular material are determined by dynamic {\\it and} static friction. There are well known methods to include static friction in molecular dynamics simulations using scarcely understood forces. We propose an Ansatz based on the geometrical shape of nonspherical particles which does not involve an explicit expression for static friction. It is shown that the simulations based on this model are close to experimental results.

  10. Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Liu; Dongxu You

    2013-01-01

    The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctua...

  11. A numerical toolkit to understand the mechanics of partially saturated granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Roux , Jean-Noël

    2015-01-01

    ``Focus on Fluids'' section; International audience; The mechanisms by which a wetting, non-saturating liquid bestows macroscopic cohesion and strength to a granular material are usually not accessible to micromechanical investigations for saturations exceeding the pendular regime of isolated menisci, easily studied by discrete element models. The " JFM-Rapids " paper (vol. 762, R5, 2015) by Delenne, Richefeu and Radja¨ıRadja¨ı, exploiting a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann approach, pioneers the...

  12. Physical Explanation of Archie's Porosity Exponent in Granular Materials: A Process-Based, Pore-Scale Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qifei; Zhang, Chi

    2018-02-01

    The empirical Archie's law has been widely used in geosciences and engineering to explain the measured electrical resistivity of many geological materials, but its physical basis has not been fully understood yet. In this study, we use a pore-scale numerical approach combining discrete element-finite difference methods to study Archie's porosity exponent m of granular materials over a wide porosity range. Numerical results reveal that at dilute states (e.g., porosity ϕ > 65%), m is exclusively related to the particle shape and orientation. As the porosity decreases, the electric flow in pore space concentrates progressively near particle contacts and m increases continuously in response to the intensified nonuniformity of the local electrical field. It is also found that the increase in m is universally correlated with the volume fraction of pore throats for all the samples regardless of their particle shapes, particle size range, and porosities.

  13. A new perspective of particle adsorption: Dispersed oil and granular materials interactions in simulated coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Long; Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan

    2017-09-15

    This study, adsorption behaviors of dispersed oil in seawaters by granular materials were explored in simulation environment. We quantitatively demonstrated the dispersed oil adsorbed by granular materials were both dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons (DPHs) and oil droplets. Furthermore, DPHs were accounted for 42.5%, 63.4%, and 85.2% (35.5% was emulsion adsorption) in the adsorption of dispersed oil by coastal rocks, sediments, and bacterial strain particles respectively. Effects of controlling parameters, such as temperature, particle size and concentration on adsorption of petroleum hydrocarbons were described in detail. Most strikingly, adsorption concentration was followed a decreasing order of bacterial strain (0.5-2μm)>sediments (0.005-0.625mm)>coastal rocks (0.2-1cm). With particle concentration or temperature increased, adsorption concentration increased for coastal rocks particle but decreased for sediments particle. Besides, particle adsorption rate of petroleum hydrocarbons (n-alkanes and PAHs) was different among granular materials during 60 days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exact Solutions of the Hierarchical Korteweg-de Vries Equation of Micro structured Granular Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourabia, A.M.; El-Danaf, T.S.; Morad, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The problem under consideration are related to wave propagation in micro structured materials, characterized by higher-order nonlinear and higher-order dispersive effects; particularly, the wave propagation in dilatant granular materials. In the present paper the model equation is solved analytically by exact method called Jacobi elliptic method. The types of solutions are defined and discussed over a wide range of material parameters (two dispersion parameters and one microstructure parameter). The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions

  15. An accurate tangential force-displacement model for granular-flow simulations: Contacting spheres with plastic deformation, force-driven formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu-Quoc, L.; Lesburg, L.; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    An elasto-plastic frictional tangential force-displacement (TFD) model for spheres in contact for accurate and efficient granular-flow simulations is presented in this paper; the present TFD is consistent with the elasto-plastic normal force-displacement (NFD) model presented in [ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 67 (2) (2000) 363; Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A 455 (1991) (1999) 4013]. The proposed elasto-plastic frictional TFD model is accurate, and is validated against non-linear finite-element analyses involving plastic flows under both loading and unloading conditions. The novelty of the present TFD model lies in (i) the additive decomposition of the elasto-plastic contact area radius into an elastic part and a plastic part, (ii) the correction of the particles' radii at the contact point, and (iii) the correction of the particles' elastic moduli. The correction of the contact-area radius represents an effect of plastic deformation in colliding particles; the correction of the radius of curvature represents a permanent indentation after impact; the correction of the elastic moduli represents a softening of the material due to plastic flow. The construction of both the present elasto-plastic frictional TFD model and its consistent companion, the elasto-plastic NFD model, parallels the formalism of the continuum theory of elasto-plasticity. Both NFD and TFD models form a coherent set of force-displacement (FD) models not available hitherto for granular-flow simulations, and are consistent with the Hertz, Cattaneo, Mindlin, Deresiewicz contact mechanics theory. Together, these FD models will allow for efficient simulations of granular flows (or granular gases) involving a large number of particles

  16. A study of energy dissipation and critical speed of granular flow in a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Sergiu C.; Sinnott, Mathew D.; Semercigil, S. Eren; Turan, Özden F.

    2014-12-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers may improve the safety of flexible structures which are prone to excessive oscillation magnitudes under dynamic loads. A novel absorber design proposes sloshing of granular material in a rotating cylinder where the granular material is the energy dissipating agent. As the conventional dissipative elements require maintenance due to the nature of their function, the new design may represent a virtually maintenance free alternative. The angular speed of the cylinder containing particles has a critical centrifuging speed, after which particles remain permanently in contact with the walls and there can be no further dissipation. Until the critical speed, however, dissipation increases proportionally with the angular speed. It is then vital to know the value of the critical speed as the limit of dissipation. The focus of the present study is on determination of the critical centrifuge speed. This critical speed is also of practical importance in bulk-material handling rotary mills, such as dryers and crushers. Experiments and numerical simulations, using Discrete Element Method, are used to determine the critical centrifuging speed. In addition, predictions are given and guidelines are offered for the choice of material properties to maximize the energy dissipation. As a result of a parametric study, the coefficient of friction is found to have the greatest significance on the centrifuging speed.

  17. Residence-Time Distributions in Laminar Flows and During the Passage of Granular Solids Through Rotary Kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, W. J.; De Ridder, H. J. [Technische Hogeschool, Delft (Netherlands); Houtman, J. P.W.; Kuiper, D. [Reactor Instituut, Delft (Netherlands)

    1967-06-15

    Data on residence-time distributions are important in the design of apparatus for the chemical industry. Radioactive tracers can be useful in many cases, e.g. where a pulse technique is desired. Two examples are given in which a pulse of radioactive tracer is used. The first example deals with the residence-time distribution of a laminar, Newtonian flow in an annulus. This problem arises especially in the extrusion and injection moulding of polymers and in the coating of wires with plastics. In these cases the fractions of polymer with long residence times may have other properties than the polymer that flows fastest, because the polymerization reaction or the degradation reactions go on during the process. Two difficulties are to be considered: (a) the tracer pulse (a radioactive Au-sol suspended in the liquid used) cannot be distributed over the cross-section in proportion to the local flow velocity, and (b) the outflowing liquid must be sampled discontinuously. Both effects have been studied and corrections are indicated. When these corrections are applied to the measured distribution curve, the result is in fair agreement with the calculated residence-time distribution. The second example considers the residence-time distribution in a granular solid (sand) passing through a rotary kiln. The response was measured at the outlet to a pulse at the inlet of radioactive material (sand impregnated with a solution of radioactive AuCl{sub 3}). When calculating the residence-time distribution from the experimental data, difficulties were encountered because the duration of the pulse was of the same order of magnitude as the average residence time. Considering this, it was found that the axial dispersion of the flow of sand could be described by an effective dispersion coefficient. This dispersion coefficient proved to be very low (order of magnitude 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s); hence, in practical situations, the flow of granular material through a rotary kiln may often be

  18. Partitioning of fresh crude oil between floating, dispersed and sediment phases: Effect of exposure order to dispersant and granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    When three or more high and low energy substrates are mixed, wetting order can significantly affect the behavior of the mixture. We analyzed the phase distribution of fresh floating Louisiana crude oil into dispersed, settled and floating phases depending on the exposure sequence to Corexit 9500A (dispersant) and granular materials. In the experiments artificial sea water at salinity 34‰ was used. Limestone (2.00-0.300 mm) and quartz sand (0.300-0.075 mm) were used as the natural granular materials. Dispersant Corexit 9500A increased the amount of dispersed oil up to 33.76 ± 7.04%. Addition of granular materials after the dispersant increased dispersion of oil to 47.96 ± 1.96%. When solid particles were applied on the floating oil before the dispersant, oil was captured as oil-particle aggregates and removed from the floating layer. However, dispersant addition led to partial release of the captured oil, removing it from the aggregated form to the dispersed and floating phases. There was no visible oil aggregation with the granular materials when quartz or limestone was at the bottom of the flask before the addition of oil and dispersant. The results show that granular materials can be effective when applied from the surface for aggregating or dispersing oil. However, the granular materials in the sediments are not effective neither for aggregating nor dispersing floating oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPORTAMIENTO RESILIENTE DE MATERIALES GRANULARES EN PAVIMENTOS FLEXIBLES: ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO RESILIENT BEHAVIOR OF GRANULAR MATERIALS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS: STATE OF THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Los vehículos que circulan sobre una estructura de pavimento inducen ciclos de carga y descarga que generan dentro de las capas granulares deformaciones recuperables (resilientes y permanentes (plásticas. La ingeniería de pavimentos ha venido desarrollando estudios desde la década de los 60 con el fin de intentar comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares cuando conforman capas de base y subbase en estructuras flexibles. La mayor parte de las investigaciones que se han realizado en esta área se han concentrado en estudiar su comportamiento resiliente. El estado del conocimiento de estudios desarrollados para medir la respuesta resiliente y la deformación permanente en materiales granulares es presentado en dos artículos por separado. En este primer artículo se presenta la forma como ha sido estudiado el comportamiento resiliente de materiales granulares y se discuten los factores que influyen en dicho comportamiento. Al final del artículo se presenta la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas a partir de resultados de estudios teóricos y experimentales. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el fenómeno de deformación permanente es presentado en un segundo artículo.When vehicles move on a pavement structure, they induce load cycles that generate resilient and permanent strains inside granular layers. Since the 60's, pavement engineering has developed studies in order to understand the elasto-plastic behavior that granular materials experiment on base and sub-base layers of flexible pavements. Most of the researches that have been made in this area have concentrated in studying their resilient behavior. A state of the art about the behavior of granular materials in flexible pavements is presented in two separate papers. This first paper tries on resilient stress-strain characteristics of such materials. The mathematical equations found in the literature to predict the resilient

  20. A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables. Part II - Validation and localization analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arghya; Tengattini, Alessandro; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai

    2014-10-01

    We study the mechanical failure of cemented granular materials (e.g., sandstones) using a constitutive model based on breakage mechanics for grain crushing and damage mechanics for cement fracture. The theoretical aspects of this model are presented in Part I: Tengattini et al. (2014), A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables, Part I - Theory (Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 10.1016/j.jmps.2014.05.021). In this Part II we investigate the constitutive and structural responses of cemented granular materials through analyses of Boundary Value Problems (BVPs). The multiple failure mechanisms captured by the proposed model enable the behavior of cemented granular rocks to be well reproduced for a wide range of confining pressures. Furthermore, through comparison of the model predictions and experimental data, the micromechanical basis of the model provides improved understanding of failure mechanisms of cemented granular materials. In particular, we show that grain crushing is the predominant inelastic deformation mechanism under high pressures while cement failure is the relevant mechanism at low pressures. Over an intermediate pressure regime a mixed mode of failure mechanisms is observed. Furthermore, the micromechanical roots of the model allow the effects on localized deformation modes of various initial microstructures to be studied. The results obtained from both the constitutive responses and BVP solutions indicate that the proposed approach and model provide a promising basis for future theoretical studies on cemented granular materials.

  1. Simulation of the effect of defence structures on granular flows using SPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lachamp

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics numerical method adapted to complex rheology and free surface flow. It has been developed to simulate the local effect of a simple obstacle on a granular flow. We have introduced this specific rheology to the classical formalism of the method and thanks to experimental devices, we were able to validate the results. Two viscosity values have been simultaneously computed to simulate "plugs" and "dead zone" with the same code. First, some experiments have been done on a simple inclined slope to show the accuracy of the numerical results. We have fixed the mass flow rate to see the variations of the flow depth according to the channel slope. Then we put a weir to block the flow and we analysed the dependence between the obstacle height and the length of influence upstream from the obstacle. After having shown that numerical results were consistent, we have studied speed profiles and pressure impact on the structure. Also results with any topography will be presented. This will have a great interest to study real flow over natural topography while using the model for decision help.

  2. Implementation and Re nement of a Comprehensive Model for Dense Granular Flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaresan, Sankaran [The Trustees Of Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Dense granular ows are ubiquitous in both natural and industrial processes. They manifest three di erent ow regimes, each exhibiting its own dependence on solids volume fraction, shear rate, and particle-level properties. This research project sought to develop continuum rheological models for dense granular ows that bridges multiple regimes of ow, implement them in open-source platforms for gas-particle ows and perform test simulations. The rst phase of the research covered in this project involved implementation of a steady- shear rheological model that bridges quasi-static, intermediate and inertial regimes of ow into MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges - a general purpose computer code developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory). MFIX simulations of dense granular ows in hourglass-shaped hopper were then performed as test examples. The second phase focused on formulation of a modi ed kinetic theory for frictional particles that can be used over a wider range of particle volume fractions and also apply for dynamic, multi- dimensional ow conditions. To guide this work, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres were also performed using the discrete element method. The third phase of this project sought to develop and implement a more rigorous treatment of boundary e ects. Towards this end, simulations of simple shear ows of identical mono-disperse spheres con ned between parallel plates were performed and analyzed to formulate compact wall boundary conditions that can be used for dense frictional ows at at frictional boundaries. The fourth phase explored the role of modest levels of cohesive interactions between particles on the dense phase rheology. The nal phase of this project focused on implementation and testing of the modi ed kinetic theory in MFIX and running bin-discharge simulations as test examples.

  3. Effect of cohesion on local compaction and granulation of sheared soft granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sudeshna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from an ongoing investigation of the effect of cohesion on the compaction of sheared soft wet granular materials. We compare dry non-cohesive and wet moderately-to-strongly cohesive soft almost frictionless granular materials and report the effect of cohesion between the grains on the local volume fraction. We study this in a three dimensional, unconfined, slowly sheared split-bottom ring shear cell, where materials while sheared are subject to compression under the confining weight of the material above. Our results show that inter-particle cohesion has a considerable impact on the compaction of soft materials. Cohesion causes additional stresses, due to capillary forces between particles, leading to an increase in volume fraction due to higher compaction. This effect is not visible in a system of infinitely stiff particles. In addition, acting oppositely, we observe a general decrease in volume fraction due to increased cohesion for frictional particle, which we attribute to the role of contact friction that enhances dilation.

  4. An approach to discriminatively determine thoron and radon emanation rates for a granular material with a scintillation cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, Akihiro; Meisenberg, Oliver; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    A powder sandwich technique was applied to determine thoron ("2"2"0Rn) and radon ("2"2"2Rn) emanation rates for a granular material. The feature of this technique is the sample preparation, in which a granular material is put and fixed between two membrane filters. Airflow is directly given to this sandwich sample, will include thoron and radon emanated from the material, and then is transferred to the detector. This method makes sure that thoron and radon emanated are not retained in pore space within the sample volume, which is crucial for the appropriate emanation test. This technique was first introduced by Kanse et al. (2013) with the intention to measure the emanation of thoron - but not of radon - from materials having much higher "2"2"4Ra activity than "2"2"6Ra. In the present study, the methodology for the discriminative determination of thoron and radon emanation rates from a granular material has been examined using a flow-through scintillation cell and sandwich sample. The mathematical model was developed to differentiate total alpha counts into thoron- and radon-associated counts. With a sample of uranium ore, this model was experimentally validated by comparison between the scintillation cell and a reference detector that can discriminatively measure thoron and radon concentrations. Furthermore, the detection limits and uncertainties were evaluated to discuss the characteristics of this method. Key parameters for improving the determination of thoron and radon emanations were found to be the background radon concentration and the leakage of radon from the measurement system, respectively. It was concluded that the present method is advantageous to a sample that has much higher "2"2"6Ra activity than "2"2"4Ra. - Highlights: • The methodology of appropriate and discriminative measurement of thoron and radon emanation is presented. • Measurement of thoron and radon emanated from a sample was made using a scintillation cell. • Detection limits and

  5. Deformación permanente de materiales granulares en pavimentos flexibles: estado del conocimiento Permanent strain of granular materials in flexible pavements: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexánder Rondón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios han sido desarrollados en el área de los pavimentos para comprender el comportamiento elastoplástico que experimentan materiales granulares bajo carga cíclica. Este es el segundo de dos artículos que presentan el estado del conocimiento de investigaciones desarrolladas en esta área. Basado en una amplia revisión bibliográfica, este artículo da cuenta de la forma como ha sido estudiado el fenómeno de deformación permanente en materiales granulares empleados para conformar capas de base y sub-base de estructuras de pavimentos flexibles. Además, se exponen y se discuten los factores que afectan la resistencia a la deformación permanente y la evolución de las ecuaciones matemáticas desarrolladas para predecir la deformación que experimentan estos materiales bajo carga cíclica. Un estado del conocimiento sobre el comportamiento resiliente de estos materiales es presentado en el primer artículo (Rondón y Reyes, 2007.Several studies have been conducted in pavement field for trying to understand the elastoplastic behavior experienced by granular materials under a cyclic load. This is the second out of two articles which show state-of-the-art of researches conducted in this field. Based on a wide literature review, this article accounts for the way how permanent strain phenomenon has been studied in granular materials used for creating base and sub-base layers of flexible pavement structures. Besides, this article displays and discusses factors which affect resistance to permanent strain and evolution of mathematical equations developed for predicting that strain experienced by these materials under a cyclic load. A state-of-the-art about resilient behavior of these materials has been presented in the first article (Rondón and Reyes, 2007.

  6. Instability-induced ordering, universal unfolding and the role of gravity in granular Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meheboob; Arakeri, V. H.; Nott, P. R.; Goddard, J. D.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2005-01-01

    Linear stability theory and bifurcation analysis are used to investigate the role of gravity in shear-band formation in granular Couette flow, considering a kinetic-theory rheological model. We show that the only possible state, at low shear rates, corresponds to a "plug" near the bottom wall, in which the particles are densely packed and the shear rate is close to zero, and a uniformly sheared dilute region above it. The origin of such plugged states is shown to be tied to the spontaneous symmetry-breaking instabilities of the gravity-free uniform shear flow, leading to the formation of ordered bands of alternating dilute and dense regions in the transverse direction, via an infinite hierarchy of pitchfork bifurcations. Gravity plays the role of an "imperfection", thus destroying the "perfect" bifurcation structure of uniform shear. The present bifurcation problem admits universal unfolding of pitchfork bifurcations which subsequently leads to the formation of a sequence of a countably infinite number of "isolas", with the solution structures being a modulated version of their gravity-free counterpart. While the solution with a plug near the bottom wall looks remarkably similar to the shear-banding phenomenon in dense slow granular Couette flows, a "floating" plug near the top wall is also a solution of these equations at high shear rates. A two-dimensional linear stability analysis suggests that these floating plugged states are unstable to long-wave travelling disturbances.The unique solution having a bottom plug can also be unstable to long waves, but remains stable at sufficiently low shear rates. The implications and realizability of the present results are discussed in the light of shear-cell experiments under "microgravity" conditions.

  7. An automatic granular structure generation and finite element analysis of heterogeneous semi-solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Hamid; Larouche, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The quality of cast metal products depends on the capacity of the semi-solid metal to sustain the stresses generated during the casting. Predicting the evolution of these stresses with accuracy in the solidification interval should be highly helpful to avoid the formation of defects like hot tearing. This task is however very difficult because of the heterogeneous nature of the material. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the mechanical behaviour of a metal during solidification using a mesh generation technique of the heterogeneous semi-solid material for a finite element analysis at the microscopic level. This task is done on a two-dimensional (2D) domain in which the granular structure of the solid phase is generated surrounded by an intergranular and interdendritc liquid phase. Some basic solid grains are first constructed and projected in the 2D domain with random orientations and scale factors. Depending on their orientation, the basic grains are combined to produce larger grains or separated by a liquid film. Different basic grain shapes can produce different granular structures of the mushy zone. As a result, using this automatic grain generation procedure, we can investigate the effect of grain shapes and sizes on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the semi-solid material. The granular models are automatically converted to the finite element meshes. The solid grains and the liquid phase are meshed properly using quadrilateral elements. This method has been used to simulate the microstructure of a binary aluminium–copper alloy (Al–5.8 wt% Cu) when the fraction solid is 0.92. Using the finite element method and the Mie–Grüneisen equation of state for the liquid phase, the transient mechanical behaviour of the mushy zone under tensile loading has been investigated. The stress distribution and the bridges, which are formed during the tensile loading, have been detected. (paper)

  8. Influence of particle shape on the microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianqiu; Liu, Enlong; Jiang, Lian; Jiang, Xiaoqiong; Sun, Yi; Xu, Ran

    2018-06-01

    In order to study the influence of particle shape on the microstructure evolution and the mechanical properties of granular materials, a two-dimensional DEM analysis of samples with three particle shapes, including circular particles, triangular particles, and elongated particles, is proposed here to simulate the direct shear tests of coarse-grained soils. For the numerical test results, analyses are conducted in terms of particle rotations, fabric evolution, and average path length evolution. A modified Rowe's stress-dilatancy equation is also proposed and successfully fitted onto simulation data.

  9. Combined full field stress and strain measurement methods for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broere W.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper re-introduces the photoelastic measurement method in experimental geomechanics. A full-field phase stepping polariscope suitable for geomechanical model tests has been developed. Additional constraints on the measurement and mechanical setup arising from geomechanical test conditions are outlined as well as the opportunity to measure the displacement fields in the sample with digital image correlation. The capability of the current setup in retrieving the stress and strain field in a granular material is demonstrated.

  10. Effect of Bed Depth on Granular Flow and Homogenization in a Vertical Bladed Mixer via Discrete Element Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barczi, T.; Trávníčková, Tereza; Havlica, Jaromír; Kohout, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 7 (2015), s. 1195-1202 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : granular mixing * DEM * flow patterns Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.385, year: 2015

  11. Self-Synchronization of Numerical Granular Flows: A Key to Musical Sands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staron, L.

    2011-12-01

    In some rare circumstances, sand flows at the surface of dunes are able to produce a loud sound known as "the song of dunes". The complex mechanisms at the source of these singing properties are far from fully understood. In this study, granular flows are simulated in two dimensions using the discrete Contact Dynamics algorithm. We show that the motion of grains at the surface of the flows exhibits a well-defined oscillation, the frequency of which is not described by the natural frequencies of the system, and does not depend on the rigid or erodible bottom condition. To explain this oscillation, we propose a simple synchronization model based on the existence of coherent structures, or clusters, at the surface of the flow, which yields successful prediction of the numerically observed frequencies. Our analysis gives consistent results when compared with field data from booming dunes, offers a possible explanation for the field observation of sound-generation velocity threshold, and provides new keys to the understanding of musical sands.

  12. Effect of particle stiffness on contact dynamics and rheology in a dense granular flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathraj, S.; Kumaran, V.

    2018-01-01

    Dense granular flows have been well described by the Bagnold rheology, even when the particles are in the multibody contact regime and the coordination number is greater than 1. This is surprising, because the Bagnold law should be applicable only in the instantaneous collision regime, where the time between collisions is much larger than the period of a collision. Here, the effect of particle stiffness on rheology is examined. It is found that there is a rheological threshold between a particle stiffness of 104-105 for the linear contact model and 105-106 for the Hertzian contact model above which Bagnold rheology (stress proportional to square of the strain rate) is valid and below which there is a power-law rheology, where all components of the stress and the granular temperature are proportional to a power of the strain rate that is less then 2. The system is in the multibody contact regime at the rheological threshold. However, the contact energy per particle is less than the kinetic energy per particle above the rheological threshold, and it becomes larger than the kinetic energy per particle below the rheological threshold. The distribution functions for the interparticle forces and contact energies are also analyzed. The distribution functions are invariant with height, but they do depend on the contact model. The contact energy distribution functions are well fitted by Gamma distributions. There is a transition in the shape of the distribution function as the particle stiffness is decreased from 107 to 106 for the linear model and 108 to 107 for the Hertzian model, when the contact number exceeds 1. Thus, the transition in the distribution function correlates to the contact regime threshold from the binary to multibody contact regime, and is clearly different from the rheological threshold. An order-disorder transition has recently been reported in dense granular flows. The Bagnold rheology applies for both the ordered and disordered states, even though

  13. Developing a Magnetic Resonance Imaging measurement of the forces within 3D granular materials under external loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrington, Stefan; Bertrand, Thibault; Frey, Merideth; Shattuck, Mark; O'Hern, Corey; Barrett, Sean

    2014-03-01

    Granular materials are comprised of an ensemble of discrete macroscopic grains that interact with each other via highly dissipative forces. These materials are ubiquitous in our everyday life ranging in scale from the granular media that forms the Earth's crust to that used in agricultural and pharmaceutical industries. Granular materials exhibit complex behaviors that are poorly understood and cannot be easily described by statistical mechanics. Under external loads individual grains are jammed into place by a network of force chains. These networks have been imaged in quasi two-dimensional and on the outer surface of three-dimensional granular materials. Our goal is to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect contact forces deep within three-dimensional granular materials, using hydrogen-1 relaxation times as a reporter for changes in local stress and strain. To this end, we use a novel pulse sequence to narrow the line width of hydrogen-1 in rubber. Here we present our progress to date, and prospects for future improvements.

  14. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth; Elaboracion de material de construccion a partir de residuos industriales solidos granulares procedentes de tierras diatomaceas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  15. Capillary pressure-saturation relationships for porous granular materials: Pore morphology method vs. pore unit assembly method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweijen, Thomas; Aslannejad, Hamed; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid

    2017-09-01

    In studies of two-phase flow in complex porous media it is often desirable to have an estimation of the capillary pressure-saturation curve prior to measurements. Therefore, we compare in this research the capability of three pore-scale approaches in reproducing experimentally measured capillary pressure-saturation curves. To do so, we have generated 12 packings of spheres that are representative of four different glass-bead packings and eight different sand packings, for which we have found experimental data on the capillary pressure-saturation curve in the literature. In generating the packings, we matched the particle size distributions and porosity values of the granular materials. We have used three different pore-scale approaches for generating the capillary pressure-saturation curves of each packing: i) the Pore Unit Assembly (PUA) method in combination with the Mayer and Stowe-Princen (MS-P) approximation for estimating the entry pressures of pore throats, ii) the PUA method in combination with the hemisphere approximation, and iii) the Pore Morphology Method (PMM) in combination with the hemisphere approximation. The three approaches were also used to produce capillary pressure-saturation curves for the coating layer of paper, used in inkjet printing. Curves for such layers are extremely difficult to determine experimentally, due to their very small thickness and the presence of extremely small pores (less than one micrometer in size). Results indicate that the PMM and PUA-hemisphere method give similar capillary pressure-saturation curves, because both methods rely on a hemisphere to represent the air-water interface. The ability of the hemisphere approximation and the MS-P approximation to reproduce correct capillary pressure seems to depend on the type of particle size distribution, with the hemisphere approximation working well for narrowly distributed granular materials.

  16. DEM Simulation of Biaxial Compression Experiments of Inherently Anisotropic Granular Materials and the Boundary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Xia Tong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of discrete element method (DEM numerical simulations is significantly dependent on the particle-scale parameters and boundary conditions. To verify the DEM models, two series of biaxial compression tests on ellipse-shaped steel rods are used. The comparisons on the stress-strain relationship, strength, and deformation pattern of experiments and simulations indicate that the DEM models are able to capture the key macro- and micromechanical behavior of inherently anisotropic granular materials with high fidelity. By using the validated DEM models, the boundary effects on the macrodeformation, strain localization, and nonuniformity of stress distribution inside the specimens are investigated using two rigid boundaries and one flexible boundary. The results demonstrate that the boundary condition plays a significant role on the stress-strain relationship and strength of granular materials with inherent fabric anisotropy if the stresses are calculated by the force applied on the wall. However, the responses of the particle assembly measured inside the specimens are almost the same with little influence from the boundary conditions. The peak friction angle obtained from the compression tests with flexible boundary represents the real friction angle of particle assembly. Due to the weak lateral constraints, the degree of stress nonuniformity under flexible boundary is higher than that under rigid boundary.

  17. An Investigation of Parallel Post-Laminar Flow through Coarse Granular Porous Media with the Wilkins Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashes Banerjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of flow resistance with velocity is still undefined for post-laminar flow through coarse granular media. This can cause considerable errors during flow measurements in situations like rock fill dams, water filters, pumping wells, oil and gas exploration, and so on. Keeping the non-deviating nature of Wilkins coefficients with the hydraulic radius of media in mind, the present study further explores their behaviour to independently varying media size and porosity, subjected to parallel post-laminar flow through granular media. Furthermore, an attempt is made to simulate the post-laminar flow conditions with the help of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Model in ANSYS FLUENT, since conducting large-scale experiments are often costly and time-consuming. The model output and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. Percentage deviations between the experimental and numerical results are found to be in the considerable range. Furthermore, the simulation results are statistically validated with the experimental results using the standard ‘Z-test’. The output from the model advocates the importance and applicability of CFD modelling in understanding post-laminar flow through granular media.

  18. Capturing 2D transient surface data of granular flows against obstacles with an RGB-D sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes-Voullieme, Daniel; Juez, Carmelo; Murillo, Javier; Garcia-Navarro, Pilar

    2014-05-01

    Landslides are an ubiquitous natural hazard, and therefore human infrastructure and settlements are often at risk in mountainous regions. In order to better understand and predict landslides, systematic studies of the phenomena need to be undertaken. In particular, computational tools which allow for analysis of field problems require to be thoroughly tested, calibrated and validated under controlled conditions. And to do so, it is necessary for such controlled experiments to be fully characterized in the same terms as the numerical model requires. This work presents an experimental study of dry granular flow over a rough bed with topography which resembles a mountain valley. It has an upper region with a very high slope. The geometry of the bed describes a fourth order polynomial curve, with a low point with zero slope, and afterwards a short region with adverse slope. Obstacles are present in the lower regions which are used as model geometries of human structures. The experiments consisted of a sudden release a mass of sand on the upper region, and allowing it to flow downslope. Furthermore, it has been frequent in previous studies to measure final states of the granular mass at rest, but seldom has transient data being provided, and never for the entire field. In this work we present transient measurements of the moving granular surfaces, obtained with a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor. The sensor, developed for the videogame industry, allows to measure the moving surface of the sand, thus obtaining elevation fields. The experimental results are very consistent and repeatable. The measured surfaces clearly show the distinctive features of the granular flow around the obstacles and allow to qualitatively describe the different flow patterns. More importantly, the quantitative description of the granular surface allows for benchmarking and calibration of predictive numerical models, key in scaling the small-scale experimental knowledge into the field.

  19. Relationship between electrical conductivity anisotropy and fabric anisotropy in granular materials during drained triaxial compressive tests: a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qifei; Revil, André; Li, Zhaofeng; Wang, Yu-Hsing

    2017-07-01

    The anisotropy of granular media and its evolution during shearing are important aspects required in developing physics-based constitutive models in Earth sciences. The development of relationships between geoelectrical properties and the deformation of porous media has applications to the monitoring of faulting and landslides. However, such relationships are still poorly understood. In this study, we first investigate the definition of the electrical conductivity anisotropy tensor of granular materials in presence of surface conductivity of the grains. Fabric anisotropy is related to the components of the fabric tensor. We define an electrical anisotropy factor based on the Archie's exponent second-order symmetric tensor m of granular materials. We use numerical simulations to confirm a relationship between the evolution of electrical and fabric anisotropy factors during shearing. To realize the simulations, we build a virtual laboratory in which we can easily perform synthetic experiments. We first simulate drained compressive triaxial tests of loose and dense granular materials (porosity 0.45 and 0.38, respectively) using the discrete element method. Then, the electrical conductivity tensor of a set of deformed synthetic samples is computed using the finite-difference method. The numerical results show that shear strains are responsible for a measurable anisotropy in the bulk conductivity of granular media. The observed electrical anisotropy response, during shearing, is distinct for dense and loose synthetic samples. Electrical and fabric anisotropy factors exhibit however a unique linear correlation, regardless of the shear strain and the initial state (porosity) of the synthetic samples. The practical implication of this finding confirms the usefulness of the electrical conductivity method in studying the fabric tensor of granular media. This result opens the door in using time-lapse electrical resistivity to study non-intrusively the evolution of anisotropy

  20. Enhanced desalination performance of membrane capacitive deionization cells by packing the flow chamber with granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Yanhong; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Changyong; Huang, Xia

    2015-11-15

    A new design of membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) cell was constructed by packing the cell's flow chamber with granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC packed-MCDI (GAC-MCDI) delivered higher (1.2-2.5 times) desalination rates than the regular MCDI at all test NaCl concentrations (∼ 100-1000 mg/L). The greatest performance enhancement by packed GAC was observed when treating saline water with an initial NaCl concentration of 100 mg/L. Several different GAC materials were tested and they all exhibited similar enhancement effects. Comparatively, packing the MCDI's flow chamber with glass beads (GB; non-conductive) and graphite granules (GG; conductive but with lower specific surface area than GAC) resulted in inferior desalination performance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the GAC-MCDI had considerably smaller internal resistance than the regular MCDI (∼ 19.2 ± 1.2 Ω versus ∼ 1222 ± 15 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The packed GAC also decreased the ionic resistance across the flow chamber (∼ 1.49 ± 0.05 Ω versus ∼ 1130 ± 12 Ω at 100 mg/L NaCl). The electric double layer (EDL) formed on the GAC surface was considered to store salt ions during electrosorption, and facilitate the ion transport in the flow chamber because of the higher ion conductivity in the EDLs than in the bulk solution, thereby enhancing the MCDI's desalination rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  2. Startup and oxygen concentration effects in a continuous granular mixed flow autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas, Rodrigo; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Giustinianovich, Elisa; Behar, Jack; Fernández, Katherina; Roeckel, Marlene

    2015-08-01

    The startup and performance of the completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process was tested in a continuously fed granular bubble column reactor (BCR) with two different aeration strategies: controlling the oxygen volumetric flow and oxygen concentration. During the startup with the control of oxygen volumetric flow, the air volume was adjusted to 60mL/h and the CANON reactor had volumetric N loadings ranging from 7.35 to 100.90mgN/Ld with 36-71% total nitrogen removal and high instability. In the second stage, the reactor was operated at oxygen concentrations of 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2mg/L. The best condition was 0.2 mgO2/L with a total nitrogen removal of 75.36% with a CANON reactor activity of 0.1149gN/gVVSd and high stability. The feasibility and effectiveness of CANON processes with oxygen control was demonstrated, showing an alternative design tool for efficiently removing nitrogen species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Granular flow in static mixers by coupled DEM/CFD approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezo Lato

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixing process greatly influence the mixing efficiency, as well as the quality and the price of the intermediate and/or the final product. Static mixer is used for premixing action before the main mixing process, for significant reduction of mixing time and energy consumption. This type of premixing action is not investigated in detail in the open literature. In this article, the novel numerical approach called Discrete Element Method is used for modelling of granular flow in multiple static mixer applications (1 - 3 Komax or Ross mixing elements were utilized, while the Computational Fluid Dynamic method was chosen for fluid flow modelling, using the Eulerian multiphase model. The main aim of this article is to predict the behaviour of granules being gravitationally transported in different mixer configuration and to choose the best configuration of the mixer taking into account the total particle path, the number of mixing elements and the quality of the obtained mixture. The results of the numerical simulations in the static mixers were compared to experimental results, the mixing quality is examined by RSD (relative standard deviation criterion, and the effects on the mixer type and the number of mixing elements on mixing process were studied. The effects of the mixer type and the number of mixing elements on mixing process were studied using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Mathematical modelling is used for optimization of number of Ross and Komax segments in mixer in order to gain desirable mixing results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31055

  4. Does modifying the particle size distribution of a granular material (i.e., material scalping alters its shear strength?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azéma Emilien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of two dimensional contact dynamics simulations, we analyzed the effect of the particle size distribution (PSD on the shear strength of granular materials composed of un-breakable disks. We modelled PSDs with a normalized beta function, which allows for building S-shaped gradation curves, such as those that typically occur in soils. We systematically controlled and varied the size span and the shape of the PSD, and found that the shear strength is independent both characteristics. This implies that PSD modification procedures such as material scalping (i.e., removing the smallest and/or largest particles in the sample should not affect significantly the shear strength of the material composed of unbreakable discs. In order to explore the origins of the invariance of the shear strength with PSD, we analyzed the connectivity, force transmission, and friction mobilization in terms of anisotropies, finding that the constant shear strength is due to a subtle compensation of anisotropies.

  5. The Effect of Rotational Speed on Granular Flow in a Vertical Bladed Mixer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlica, Jaromír; Jirounková, K.; Trávníčková, Tereza; Kohout, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 280, AUG (2015), s. 180-190 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : DEM * granular mixing * granular dynamics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.759, year: 2015

  6. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanheng; Ji, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  7. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanheng, E-mail: liy19@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  8. Granular Materials and the Risks They Pose for Success on the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, R. Allen; Behringer, Robert P.; Jenkins, James T.; Louge, Michel Y.

    2005-02-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to do it on the Moon and Mars as we do it on Earth. This paper brings to the fore how little these processes are understood and the millennia-long trial-and-error practices that lead to today's massive over-design, high failure rate, and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks.

  9. A thermomechanical constitutive model for cemented granular materials with quantifiable internal variables. Part I-Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengattini, Alessandro; Das, Arghya; Nguyen, Giang D.; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Hall, Stephen A.; Einav, Itai

    2014-10-01

    This is the first of two papers introducing a novel thermomechanical continuum constitutive model for cemented granular materials. Here, we establish the theoretical foundations of the model, and highlight its novelties. At the limit of no cement, the model is fully consistent with the original Breakage Mechanics model. An essential ingredient of the model is the use of measurable and micro-mechanics based internal variables, describing the evolution of the dominant inelastic processes. This imposes a link between the macroscopic mechanical behavior and the statistically averaged evolution of the microstructure. As a consequence this model requires only a few physically identifiable parameters, including those of the original breakage model and new ones describing the cement: its volume fraction, its critical damage energy and bulk stiffness, and the cohesion.

  10. Numerical Simulation on Dense Packing of Granular Materials by Container Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The packing of granular materials is a basic and important problem in geomechanics. An approach, which generates dense packing of spheres confined in cylindrical and cuboidal containers in three steps, is introduced in this work. A loose packing structure is first generated by means of a reference lattice method. Then a dense packing structure is obtained in a container by simulating dropping of particles under gravitational forces. Furthermore, a scheme that makes the bottom boundary fluctuate up and down was applied to obtain more denser packing. The discrete element method (DEM was employed to simulate the interactions between particle-particle and particle-boundary during the particles' motions. Finally, two cases were presented to indicate the validity of the method proposed in this work.

  11. Leaching behaviour of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: From granular material to monolithic concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Abbà, Alessandro

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the leaching behaviour of the bottom ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) used in concrete production. In particular, the release of pollutants was evaluated by the application of different leaching tests, both on granular materials and monolithic samples (concrete mixtures cast with bottom ash). The results confirmed that, according to Italian regulations, unwashed bottom ashes present critical issues for the use as alternative aggregates in the construction sector due to the excessive release of pollutants; instead, the leachate from washed bottom ashes was similar to natural aggregates. The concentration of pollutants in the leachate from concrete mixtures was lower than regulation limits for reuse. The crushing process significantly influenced the release of pollutants: this behaviour was due both to the increase in surface area and the release of contaminants from cement. Moreover, the increase in contact time (up to 64 days) involved more heavy metals to be released.

  12. VELOCITY FIELD COMPUTATION IN VIBRATED GRANULAR MEDIA USING AN OPTICAL FLOW BASED MULTISCALE IMAGE ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Debayle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An image analysis method has been developed in order to compute the velocity field of a granular medium (sand grains, mean diameter 600 μm submitted to different kinds of mechanical stresses. The differential method based on optical flow conservation consists in describing a dense motion field with vectors associated to each pixel. A multiscale, coarse-to-fine, analytical approach through tailor sized windows yields the best compromise between accuracy and robustness of the results, while enabling an acceptable computation time. The corresponding algorithmis presented and its validation discussed through different tests. The results of the validation tests of the proposed approach show that the method is satisfactory when attributing specific values to parameters in association with the size of the image analysis window. An application in the case of vibrated sand has been studied. An instrumented laboratory device provides sinusoidal vibrations and enables external optical observations of sand motion in 3D transparent boxes. At 50 Hz, by increasing the relative acceleration G, the onset and development of two convective rolls can be observed. An ultra fast camera records the grain avalanches, and several pairs of images are analysed by the proposed method. The vertical velocity profiles are deduced and allow to precisely quantify the dimensions of the fluidized region as a function of G.

  13. Incorporation of velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and particle surface friction into kinetic theory for modeling granular flow cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yifei; Feng, Zhi-Gang

    2017-12-01

    Kinetic theory (KT) has been successfully used to model rapid granular flows in which particle interactions are frictionless and near elastic. However, it fails when particle interactions become frictional and inelastic. For example, the KT is not able to accurately predict the free cooling process of a vibrated granular medium that consists of inelastic frictional particles under microgravity. The main reason that the classical KT fails to model these flows is due to its inability to account for the particle surface friction and its inelastic behavior, which are the two most important factors that need be considered in modeling collisional granular flows. In this study, we have modified the KT model that is able to incorporate these two factors. The inelasticity of a particle is considered by establishing a velocity-dependent expression for the restitution coefficient based on many experimental studies found in the literature, and the particle friction effect is included by using a tangential restitution coefficient that is related to the particle friction coefficient. Theoretical predictions of the free cooling process by the classical KT and the improved KT are compared with the experimental results from a study conducted on an airplane undergoing parabolic flights without the influence of gravity [Y. Grasselli, G. Bossis, and G. Goutallier, Europhys. Lett. 86, 60007 (2009)10.1209/0295-5075/86/60007]. Our results show that both the velocity-dependent restitution coefficient and the particle surface friction are important in predicting the free cooling process of granular flows; the modified KT model that integrates these two factors is able to improve the simulation results and leads to better agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Shear test results for cohesion and friction coefficients for different granular materials : Scaling implications for their usage in analogue modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on dry granular materials such as quartz sand, glass microspheres and sugar with different grain size, rounding and sphericity. The measurements have been made with a simple shear test machine for different values of normal stress (~ 50-900 Pa). Shear stress

  15. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 2. Direct measures of particle properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscombe, D.; Rubin, D. M.

    2012-06-01

    In this, the second of a pair of papers on the structure of well-sorted natural granular material (sediment), new methods are described for automated measurements from images of sediment, of: 1) particle-size standard deviation (arithmetic sorting) with and without apparent void fraction; and 2) mean particle size in material with void fraction. A variety of simulations of granular material are used for testing purposes, in addition to images of natural sediment. Simulations are also used to establish that the effects on automated particle sizing of grains visible through the interstices of the grains at the very surface of a granular material continue to a depth of approximately 4 grain diameters and that this is independent of mean particle size. Ensemble root-mean squared error between observed and estimated arithmetic sorting coefficients for 262 images of natural silts, sands and gravels (drawn from 8 populations) is 31%, which reduces to 27% if adjusted for bias (slope correction between observed and estimated values). These methods allow non-intrusive and fully automated measurements of surfaces of unconsolidated granular material. With no tunable parameters or empirically derived coefficients, they should be broadly universal in appropriate applications. However, empirical corrections may need to be applied for the most accurate results. Finally, analytical formulas are derived for the one-step pore-particle transition probability matrix, estimated from the image's autocorrelogram, from which void fraction of a section of granular material can be estimated directly. This model gives excellent predictions of bulk void fraction yet imperfect predictions of pore-particle transitions.

  16. Flow above and within granular media composed of spherical and non-spherical particles - using a 3D numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartzke, Gerhard; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    The entrainment of single grains and, hence, their erosion characteristics are dependent on fluid forcing, grain size and density, but also shape variations. To quantitatively describe and capture the hydrodynamic conditions around individual grains, researchers commonly use empirical approaches such as laboratory flume tanks. Nonetheless, it is difficult with such physical experiments to measure the flow velocities in the direct vicinity or within the pore spaces of sediments, at a sufficient resolution and in a non-invasive way. As a result, the hydrodynamic conditions in the water column, at the fluid-porous interface and within pore spaces of a granular medium of various grain shapes is not yet fully understood. For that reason, there is a strong need for numerical models, since these are capable of quantifying fluid speeds within a granular medium. A 3D-SPH (Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics) numerical wave tank model was set up to provide quantitative evidence on the flow velocities in the direct vicinity and in the interior of granular beds composed of two shapes as a complementary method to the difficult task of in situ measurement. On the basis of previous successful numerical wave tank models with SPH, the model geometry was chosen in dimensions of X=2.68 [m], Y=0.48 [m], and Z=0.8 [m]. Three suites of experiments were designed with a range of particle shape models: (1) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the across-stream direction, (2) ellipsoids with the long axis oriented in the along-stream direction, and (3) spheres. Particle diameters ranged from 0.04 [m] to 0.08 [m]. A wave was introduced by a vertical paddle that accelerated to 0.8 [m/s] perpendicular to the granular bed. Flow measurements showed that the flow velocity values into the beds were highest when the grains were oriented across the stream direction and lowest in case when the grains were oriented parallel to the stream, indicating that the model was capable to simulate simultaneously

  17. Mechanical and Structural Behavior of Granular Material Packed Beds for Space Life Support System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, Ramesh B.; Anandakumar, Ganesh

    2005-01-01

    Long-term human mission to space, such as living in International Space Station (ISS), Lunar, and Martian bases, and travel to Mars, must m ake use of Advanced Life Support Systems (ALSS) to generate and recycle critical life supporting elements like oxygen and water. Oxygen Gen eration Assembly (OGA) and Water Processor Assembly (WPA), critical c omponents of ALSS, make use of series of granular material packed beds for generation and recycling of oxygen and water. Several granular m aterials can be used for generation, recycling, processing and recovery of oxygen and water. For example, they may include soft bed media, e.g. ion exchange resins for oxygen generation assembly and hard bed media such as, activated alumina, magchem (Magnesium oxide) and activa ted carbon to remove organic species like ethanol, methanol, and urea from wastewater in Water recovery/processing assembly. These beds are generally packed using a plate-spring mechanism to provide sufficien t compaction to the bed media throughout the course of operation. This paper presents results from an experimental study of a full-scale, 3 8.1 cm (15 inches) long and 3.7 cm (1.44 inches) diameter. activated alumina bed enclosed in a cylinder determining its force-displacement behavior, friction mobilizing force, and axial normal stress distribu tion under various axially applied loads and at different levels of packing. It is observed that force-displacement behavior is non-linear for low compaction level and becomes linear with increase in compaction of the bed media. Axial normal stress distribution along the length of the bed media decreased non-linearly with increase in depth from the loading end of the granular media. This paper also presents experimental results on the amount of particulates generated corresponding to various compaction levels. Particulates generated from each of the tests were measured using standard US sieves. It was found that the p articulates and the overall displacement of

  18. On the computation of steady Hopper flows. II: von Mises materials in various geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremaud, Pierre A.; Matthews, John V.; O'Malley, Meghan

    2004-11-01

    Similarity solutions are constructed for the flow of granular materials through hoppers. Unlike previous work, the present approach applies to nonaxisymmetric containers. The model involves ten unknowns (stresses, velocity, and plasticity function) determined by nine nonlinear first order partial differential equations together with a quadratic algebraic constraint (yield condition). A pseudospectral discretization is applied; the resulting problem is solved with a trust region method. The important role of the hopper geometry on the flow is illustrated by several numerical experiments of industrial relevance.

  19. On the computation of steady Hopper flows II: von Mises materials in various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremaud, Pierre A.; Matthews, John V.; O'Malley, Meghan

    2004-01-01

    Similarity solutions are constructed for the flow of granular materials through hoppers. Unlike previous work, the present approach applies to nonaxisymmetric containers. The model involves ten unknowns (stresses, velocity, and plasticity function) determined by nine nonlinear first order partial differential equations together with a quadratic algebraic constraint (yield condition). A pseudospectral discretization is applied; the resulting problem is solved with a trust region method. The important role of the hopper geometry on the flow is illustrated by several numerical experiments of industrial relevance

  20. Rapid injection of particles and gas into non-fluidized granular material, and some volcanological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; Zimanowski, Bernd; Büttner, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    In diatremes and other volcanic vents, steep bodies of volcaniclastic material having differing properties (particle size distribution, proportion of lithic fragments, etc.) from those of the surrounding vent-filling volcaniclastic material are often found. It has been proposed that cylindrical or cone-shaped bodies result from the passage of “debris jets” generated after phreatomagmatic explosions or other discrete subterranean bursts. To learn more about such phenomena, we model experimentally the injection of gas-particulate dispersions through other particles. Analogue materials (glass beads or sand) and a finite amount of compressed air are used in the laboratory. The gas is made available by rapidly opening a valve—therefore the injection of gas and coloured particles into a granular host is a brief (non-erupting injections produce cylindrical bodies of coloured beads whereas erupting runs produce flaring upward or conical deposits. Changing the particle size of the host glass beads does not have a large effect under the size range investigated (100 200 to 300 400 μm). Doubling the host thickness (injection depth) requires a doubling of the initial gas pressure to produce similar phenomena. Such injections—whether erupting or wholly subterranean—provide a compelling explanation for the origin and characteristics of multiple cross-cutting bodies that have been documented for diatreme and other vent deposits.

  1. Granular superconductor in a honeycomb lattice as a realization of bosonic Dirac material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S.; Fransson, J.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Ågren, H.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    We examine the low-energy effective theory of phase oscillations in a two-dimensional granular superconducting sheet where the grains are arranged in a honeycomb lattice structure. Using the example of graphene, we present evidence for the engineered Dirac nodes in the bosonic excitations: the spectra of the collective bosonic modes cross at the K and K' points in the Brillouin zone and form Dirac nodes. We show how two different types of collective phase oscillations are obtained and that they are analogous to the Leggett and the Bogoliubov-Anderson-Gorkov modes in a two-band superconductor. We show that the Dirac node is preserved in the presence of an intergrain interaction, despite induced changes of the qualitative features of the two collective modes. Finally, breaking the sublattice symmetry by choosing different on-site potentials for the two sublattices leads to a gap opening near the Dirac node, in analogy with fermionic Dirac materials. The Dirac node dispersion of bosonic excitations is thus expanding the discussion of the conventional Dirac cone excitations to the case of bosons. We call this case as a representative of bosonic Dirac materials (BDM), similar to the case of Fermionic Dirac materials extensively discussed in the literature.

  2. Stress distribution retrieval in granular materials: A multi-scale model and digital image correlation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Luigi; Decuzzi, Paolo; Gentile, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The promise of nanotechnology lies in the possibility of engineering matter on the nanoscale and creating technological interfaces that, because of their small scales, may directly interact with biological objects, creating new strategies for the treatment of pathologies that are otherwise beyond the reach of conventional medicine. Nanotechnology is inherently a multiscale, multiphenomena challenge. Fundamental understanding and highly accurate predictive methods are critical to successful manufacturing of nanostructured materials, bio/mechanical devices and systems. In biomedical engineering, and in the mechanical analysis of biological tissues, classical continuum approaches are routinely utilized, even if these disregard the discrete nature of tissues, that are an interpenetrating network of a matrix (the extra cellular matrix, ECM) and a generally large but finite number of cells with a size falling in the micrometer range. Here, we introduce a nano-mechanical theory that accounts for the-non continuum nature of bio systems and other discrete systems. This discrete field theory, doublet mechanics (DM), is a technique to model the mechanical behavior of materials over multiple scales, ranging from some millimeters down to few nanometers. In the paper, we use this theory to predict the response of a granular material to an external applied load. Such a representation is extremely attractive in modeling biological tissues which may be considered as a spatial set of a large number of particulate (cells) dispersed in an extracellular matrix. Possibly more important of this, using digital image correlation (DIC) optical methods, we provide an experimental verification of the model.

  3. Nonlinear theory of nonstationary low Mach number channel flows of freely cooling nearly elastic granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerson, Baruch; Fouxon, Itzhak; Vilenkin, Arkady

    2008-02-01

    We employ hydrodynamic equations to investigate nonstationary channel flows of freely cooling dilute gases of hard and smooth spheres with nearly elastic particle collisions. This work focuses on the regime where the sound travel time through the channel is much shorter than the characteristic cooling time of the gas. As a result, the gas pressure rapidly becomes almost homogeneous, while the typical Mach number of the flow drops well below unity. Eliminating the acoustic modes and employing Lagrangian coordinates, we reduce the hydrodynamic equations to a single nonlinear and nonlocal equation of a reaction-diffusion type. This equation describes a broad class of channel flows and, in particular, can follow the development of the clustering instability from a weakly perturbed homogeneous cooling state to strongly nonlinear states. If the heat diffusion is neglected, the reduced equation becomes exactly soluble, and the solution develops a finite-time density blowup. The blowup has the same local features at singularity as those exhibited by the recently found family of exact solutions of the full set of ideal hydrodynamic equations [I. Fouxon, Phys. Rev. E 75, 050301(R) (2007); I. Fouxon,Phys. Fluids 19, 093303 (2007)]. The heat diffusion, however, always becomes important near the attempted singularity. It arrests the density blowup and brings about previously unknown inhomogeneous cooling states (ICSs) of the gas, where the pressure continues to decay with time, while the density profile becomes time-independent. The ICSs represent exact solutions of the full set of granular hydrodynamic equations. Both the density profile of an ICS and the characteristic relaxation time toward it are determined by a single dimensionless parameter L that describes the relative role of the inelastic energy loss and heat diffusion. At L>1 the intermediate cooling dynamics proceeds as a competition between "holes": low-density regions of the gas. This competition resembles Ostwald

  4. Influence of granular material characteristics in the behaviour of “Bouregreg Valley” soft ground improved with stone columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehab Noura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of finite element analysis has become widespread in geotechnical practice as means of optimizing engineering tasks; it can be easily applied to the treated areas by stone columns, which are a method of improving the soil having low geotechnical properties and likely to deform significantly under load action, by incorporating granular material (commonly called ballast compacted by remounting passes, so they act mainly as inclusions with a higher stiffness, shear strength than the natural soil. Moreover the stone columns are highly permeable and act as vertical drains facilitating consolidation of the soft soil improving the performance of the foundation. However the characteristics of this granular material influence the behavior of soft soils treated by the stone columns technique, especially: the friction angle, the cohesion, the modular ratio and the constitutive model. The choice of the constitutive model depends on many factors but, in general, it is related to the type of analysis that we intend to perform. Numerical modeling must consider the diversity of the materials nature, the complex geometry of structures-land and the behavior of materials generally nonlinear (permanent deformation. It is a simple and effective alternative to approach the real behavior of soils reinforced by stone columns and the influence of materials characteristics, it allows settlement analysis, lateral deformation, vertical and horizontal stresses in order to understand the behavior of columns and soil. It also has the advantage of integrating the settlements of the underlying layers. This paper aims to study the mechanisms of functioning and interactions of stone columns with the surrounding ground, and vis-à-vis the various parameters characterizing the granular material "ballast" and the surrounding soil, which influence the behavior of the improved soil, The paper presents, in the first part, soil conditions and the parameters associated with

  5. Memory of jamming – multiscale flow in soft and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Nishant; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Soft, disordered, micro-structured materials are ubiquitous in nature and industry, and are different from ordinary fluids or solids, with unusual, interesting static and flow properties. The transition from fluid to solid - at the so-called jamming density - features a multitude of complex

  6. Elaboration of building materials from industrial waste from solid granular diatomaceous earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Angel S, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work the initial characterization of granular solid industrial waste from diatomaceous earth was carried out using techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction. In a second stage leaching of the material was undertaken to the US Patent Number 5, 376,000 and 5, 356,601 obtaining the samples M1-S ph 2, M1-L ph, M1-S ph 10 and M1-L ph 10. In the third stage a new characterization of the samples obtained with the techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was performed, the latter in order to determine the efficiency percentage of the leaching process. In the fourth stage the specimens for performing mechanical, physical and chemical tests were manufactured, using molds as PVC pipes of 1 inch in diameter and 2 inches in length, with a composition of 50% of diatomaceous earth and 50% of cement produced in each. Finally, in the fifth stage mechanical testing (compression resistance), physical (moisture absorption rate) and chemical (composition and structure of the material) are performed. In the last stage, when conducting mechanical testing with the test specimens, the presence of bubbles enclosed in each obtaining erroneous results noted, so it was necessary to develop the specimens again, obtaining in this occasion concentrations of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40 and 80:20 of diatomaceous earth with the cement. These results were analyzed to determine if the used material is suitable for the production of building materials such as bricks or partitions, being demonstrated by the tests carried out if they are eligible. (Author)

  7. Granular and layered ferroelectric–ferromagnetic thin-film nanocomposites as promising materials with high magnetotransmission effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbashev, A.R. [Department of Materials Science, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Telegin, A.V., E-mail: telegin@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kaul, A.R. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, Yu.P. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of RAS, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr{sub 1–x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO{sub 3} were grown on ZrO{sub 2}(Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr–Sr–Lu–Mn–O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature. - Highlights: • Thin-film ferromagnetic–ferroelectric nanocomposites have been prepared by MOCVD. • Giant change of optical transparency of nanocomposites in magnetic field was detected. • Positive magnetotransmission in the granular nanocomposite was discovered in the IR. • Negative magnetotransmission in the layered nanocomposite was revealed in the IR. • Ferroelectric–ferromangetic nanocomposite is a promising material for optoelectronics.

  8. Granular and layered ferroelectric–ferromagnetic thin-film nanocomposites as promising materials with high magnetotransmission effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbashev, A.R.; Telegin, A.V.; Kaul, A.R.; Sukhorukov, Yu.P.

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial thin films of granular and layered nanocomposites consisting of ferromagnetic perovskite Pr 1–x Sr x MnO 3 and ferroelectric hexagonal LuMnO 3 were grown on ZrO 2 (Y 2 O 3 ) substrates using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A self-organized growth of the granular composite took place in situ as a result of phase separation of the Pr–Sr–Lu–Mn–O system into the perovskite and hexagonal phases. Optical transmission measurements revealed a large negative magnetotransmission effect in the layered nanocomposite over a wide spectral and temperature range. The granular nanocomposite unexpectedly showed an even larger, but positive, magnetotransmission effect at room temperature. - Highlights: • Thin-film ferromagnetic–ferroelectric nanocomposites have been prepared by MOCVD. • Giant change of optical transparency of nanocomposites in magnetic field was detected. • Positive magnetotransmission in the granular nanocomposite was discovered in the IR. • Negative magnetotransmission in the layered nanocomposite was revealed in the IR. • Ferroelectric–ferromangetic nanocomposite is a promising material for optoelectronics

  9. Materials in the economy; material flows, scarcity, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of materials to the economy of the United States is described, including the levels of consumption and uses of materials. The paths (or flows) that materials take from extraction, through processing, to consumer products, and then final disposition are illustrated. Scarcity and environmental issues as they relate to the flow of materials are discussed. Examples for the three main themes of the report (material flows, scarcity, and the environment) are presented.

  10. Localization and Instability in Sheared Granular Materials: Role of Pore Fluids and Non-monotonic Rate Dependent Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Elbanna, A. E.; Kothari, K.

    2017-12-01

    Fault zone dynamics hold the key to resolving many outstanding geophysical problems including the heat flow paradox, discrepancy between fault static and dynamic strength, and energy partitioning. Most fault zones that generate tectonic events are gouge filled and fluid saturated posing the need for formulating gouge-specific constitutive models that capture spatially heterogeneous compaction and dilation, non-monotonic rate dependence, and transition between localized and distributed deformation. In this presentation, we focus primarily on elucidating microscopic underpinnings for shear banding and stick-slip instabilities in sheared saturated granular materials and explore their implications for earthquake dynamics. We use a non-equilibrium thermodynamics model, the Shear Transformation Zone theory, to investigate the dynamics of strain localization and its connection to stability of sliding in the presence and absence of pore fluids. We also consider the possible influence of self-induced mechanical vibrations as well as the role of external acoustic vibrations as analogue for triggering by a distant event. For the dry case, our results suggest that at low and intermediate strain rates, persistent shear bands develop only in the absence of vibrations. Vibrations tend to fluidize the granular network and de-localize slip at these rates. Stick-slip is only observed for rough grains and it is confined to the shear band. At high strain rates, stick-slip disappears and the different systems exhibit similar stress-slip response. Changing the vibration intensity, duration or time of application alters the system response and may cause long-lasting rheological changes. The presence of pore fluids modifies the stick slip pattern and may lead to both loss and development of slip instability depending on the value of the confining pressure, imposed strain rate and hydraulic parameters. We analyze these observations in terms of possible transitions between rate

  11. Numerical insight into the micromechanics of jet erosion of a cohesive granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuéllar Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate the physical mechanisms behind the surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil induced by an impinging jet by means of numerical simulations coupling fluid and grains at the microscale. The 2D numerical model combines the Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann methods (DEM-LBM and accounts for the granular cohesion with a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. Here we review first the hydrodynamical conditions imposed by the fluid jet on a solid granular packing, turning then the attention to the impact of cohesion on the erosion kinetics. Finally, the use of an additional subcritical debonding damage model based on the work of Silvani and co-workers provides a novel insight into the internal solicitation of the cohesive granular sample by the impinging jet.

  12. Numerical insight into the micromechanics of jet erosion of a cohesive granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuéllar, Pablo; Benseghier, Zeyd; Luu, Li-Hua; Bonelli, Stéphane; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Radjaï, Farhang; Philippe, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Here we investigate the physical mechanisms behind the surface erosion of a cohesive granular soil induced by an impinging jet by means of numerical simulations coupling fluid and grains at the microscale. The 2D numerical model combines the Discrete Element and Lattice Boltzmann methods (DEM-LBM) and accounts for the granular cohesion with a contact model featuring a paraboloidal yield surface. Here we review first the hydrodynamical conditions imposed by the fluid jet on a solid granular packing, turning then the attention to the impact of cohesion on the erosion kinetics. Finally, the use of an additional subcritical debonding damage model based on the work of Silvani and co-workers provides a novel insight into the internal solicitation of the cohesive granular sample by the impinging jet.

  13. Pulling an intruder from a granular material: a novel depinning experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional impact experiments by Clark et al. [2] identified the source of inertial drag to be caused by ‘collisions’ with a latent force network, leading to large fluctuations of the force experienced by the impactor. These collisions provided the major drag on an impacting intruder until the intruder was nearly at rest. As a complement, we consider controlled pull-out experiments where a buried intruder is pulled out of a material, starting from rest. This provides a means to better understand the non-inertial part of the drag force, and to explore the mechanisms associated with the force fluctuations. To some extent, the pull out process is a time reversed version of the impact process. In order to visualize this pulling process, we use 2D photoelastic disks from which circular intruders of different radii are pulled out. We present results about the dynamics of the intruder and the structures of the force chains inside the granular system as captured by slow and high speed imaging.

  14. Particle Damping with Granular Materials for Multi Degree of Freedom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanobu Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A particle damper consists of a bed of granular materials moving in cavities within a multi degree-of-freedom (MDOF structure. This paper deals with the damping effects on forced vibrations of a MDOF structure provided with the vertical particle dampers. In the analysis, the particle bed is assumed to be a single mass, and the collisions between the granules and the cavities are completely inelastic, i.e., all energy dissipation mechanisms are wrapped into zero coefficient of restitution. To predict the particle damping effect, equations of motion are developed in terms of equivalent single degree-of-freedom (SDOF system and damper mass with use made of modal approach. In this report, the periodic vibration model comprising sustained contact on or separation of the damper mass from vibrating structure is developed. A digital model is also formulated to simulate the damped motion of the physical system, taking account of all vibration modes. Numerical and experimental studies are made of the damping performance of plural dampers located at selected positions throughout a 3MDOF system. The experimental results confirm numerical prediction that collision between granules and structures is completely inelastic as the contributing mechanism of damping in the vertical vibration. It is found that particle dampers with properly selected mass ratios and clearances effectively suppress the resonance peaks over a wide frequency range.

  15. Submicron and Nanoparticulate Matter Removal by HEPA-Rated Media Filters and Packed Beds of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Agui, J. H.; Vijayakimar, R

    2016-01-01

    Contaminants generated aboard crewed spacecraft by diverse sources consist of both gaseous chemical contaminants and particulate matter. Both HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material, such as activated carbon, which are both commonly employed for cabin atmosphere purification purposes have efficacy for removing nanoparticulate contaminants from the cabin atmosphere. The phenomena associated with particulate matter removal by HEPA media filters and packed beds of granular material are reviewed relative to their efficacy for removing fine (less than 2.5 micrometers) and ultrafine (less than 0.01 micrometers) sized particulate matter. Considerations are discussed for using these methods in an appropriate configuration to provide the most effective performance for a broad range of particle sizes including nanoparticulates.

  16. Stagnation, circulation, and erosion of granular materials through belt conveyor sluice gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Moralda, Michael; Dunne, Ryan

    2013-11-01

    Control of flow rates in conversion reactors for discrete materials like biomass can be achieved in belt conveyors through a combination of belt speed, hopper size, and aperture opening. As material is extracted from the bottom of the storage hopper, other material cannot achieve plug flow and therefore is restricted from exiting through a sluice-gate type opening. The excess material moves vertically from the opening causing a pile up and recirculation back along the free surface of the hopper. Experimental results obtained through high speed imaging show the position of the stagnation point as well as the rate of circulation is dependent on the mass flow rate achieved and instantaneous fill level. The movement of material into the plug flow along the belt allows verification of deposition models on erodible beds rather than rigid surfaces with artificial roughness of glued particles. Similarly, the pile-up at the exit influences the efficiency of the transport affecting the narrow energy return on investment of biomass resources. The laboratory-scale behavior can therefore be translated into industrial performance metrics for increased operational efficiency. This work is supported by the NSF REU Site Operation E-Tank under award number 1156789.

  17. Dynamic Deformation and Collapse of Granular Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.; Tsuji, K.; Doi, S.

    2009-12-01

    Large dynamic deformation of granular materials may be found in nature not only in the failure of slopes and cliffs — due to earthquakes, rock avalanches, debris flows and landslides — but also in earthquake faulting itself. Granular surface flows often consist of solid grains and intergranular fluid, but the effect of the fluid may be usually negligible because the volumetric concentration of grains is in many cases high enough for interparticle forces to dominate momentum transport. Therefore, the investigation of dry granular flow of a mass might assist in further understanding of the above mentioned geophysical events. Here, utilizing a high-speed digital video camera system, we perform a simple yet fully-controlled series of laboratory experiments related to the collapse of granular columns. We record, at an interval of some microseconds, the dynamic transient granular mass flow initiated by abrupt release of a tube that contains dry granular materials. The acrylic tube is partially filled with glass beads and has a cross-section of either a fully- or semi-cylindrical shape. Upon sudden removal of the tube, the granular solid may fragment under the action of its own weight and the particles spread on a rigid horizontal plane. This study is essentially the extension of the previous ones by Lajeunesse et al. (Phys. Fluids 2004) and Uenishi and Tsuji (JPGU 2008), but the striped layers of particles in a semi-cylindrical tube, newly introduced in this contribution, allow us to observe the precise particle movement inside the granular column: The development of slip lines inside the column and the movement of particles against each other can be clearly identified. The major controlling parameters of the spreading dynamics are the initial aspect ratio of the granular (semi-)cylindrical column, the frictional properties of the horizontal plane (substrate) and the size of beads. We show the influence of each parameter on the average flow velocity and final radius

  18. Radio Frequencies Emitted by Mobile Granular Materials: A Basis for Remote Sensing of Sand and Dust Activity on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Farrell, W.; Houser, G.; Bratton, C.

    1999-01-01

    In recent laboratory experiments, measurements were made of microsecond radio-wave (RF) bursts emitted by grains of sand as they energetically circulated in a closed, electrically ungrounded chamber. The bursts appeared to result from nanoscale electrical discharging from grain surfaces. Both the magnitude and wave form of the RF pulses varied with the type of material undergoing motion. The release of RF from electrical discharging is a well-known phenomenon, but it is generally measured on much larger energy scales (e.g., in association with lightning or electrical motors). This phenomenon might be used to detect, on planetary surfaces, the motion and composition of sand moving over dunes, the turbulent motion of fine particles in dust storms, highly-energetic grain and rock collisions in volcanic eruptions, and frictional grinding of granular materials in dry debris flows, landslides, and avalanches. The occurrence of these discharges has been predicted from theoretical considerations Additional information is contained in the original.

  19. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  20. Granular MX-80 bentonite as buffer material: a focus on swelling characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzi, M.; Laloui, L.; Salager, S.; Marschall, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Swiss High Level Waste (HLW) disposal concept envisages the emplacement of the waste canisters in horizontal tunnels excavated at a depth of several hundred meters in an over-consolidated clay-stone formation. After waste emplacement the disposal tunnels are backfilled with MX-80 granular bentonite. Research activities are presented in this paper, aimed at characterising the geomechanical behaviour of the MX-80 granular bentonite and at providing the theoretical framework for modelling its response to thermo-hydro- mechanical (THM) perturbations. From the experimental point of view, a series of tests has been designed in order to extract constitutive data and to assess the temperature and suction effects on the mechanical behaviour of the bentonite, paying particular attention in the investigation to the swelling behaviour of the material. As for the theoretical framework an elasto-plastic constitutive model has been developed to take into account those coupled processes of stress, capillary pressure, and temperature to which the bentonite will be submitted,. Bentonite is mainly composed of the smectite mineral montmorillonite with a high swelling capacity which may provide sufficient sealing properties to seal the tunnel without gaps and to restore the buffer continuity. In fact, as bentonite hydrates in the repositories it will expand in those areas where it is allowed and will exert a swelling pressure where the material is confined. The results of both confined and free swelling tests are presented. Confined tests are aiming at determining the pressure applied by the material during complete saturation under isochoric conditions, whereas in the free swelling tests the strain on hydration is measured. Some results from confined swelling tests at ambient temperature are presented. The specimen is compacted uniaxially directly in the cells, the initial dry density being chosen in the range between 1.6 and 1

  1. Connecting grain-scale physics to macroscopic granular flow behavior using discrete contact-dynamics simulations, centrifuge experiments, and continuum modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Stark, Colin; Hung, Chi-Yao; Smith, Breannan; Grinspin, Eitan; Capart, Herve; Li, Liming; Crone, Timothy; Hsu, Leslie; Ling, Hoe

    2014-05-01

    A complete theoretical understanding of geophysical granular flow is essential to the reliable assessment of landslide and debris flow hazard and for the design of mitigation strategies, but several key challenges remain. Perhaps the most basic is a general treatment of the processes of internal energy dissipation, which dictate the runout velocity and the shape and scale of the affected area. Currently, dissipation is best described by macroscopic, empirical friction coefficients only indirectly related to the grain-scale physics. Another challenge is describing the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow, which dictate the entrainment of further debris and the erosion of cohesive surfaces. While the granular effects on these boundary forces have been shown to be large compared to predictions from continuum approximations, the link between granular effects and erosion or entrainment rates has not been settled. Here we present preliminary results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at improving our understanding of granular flow energy dissipation and boundary forces, through an effort to connect grain-scale physics to macroscopic behaviors. Insights into grain-scale force distributions and energy dissipation mechanisms are derived from discrete contact-dynamics simulations. Macroscopic erosion and flow behaviors are documented from a series of granular flow experiments, in which a rotating drum half-filled with grains is placed within a centrifuge payload, in order to drive effective gravity levels up to ~100g and approach the forces present in natural systems. A continuum equation is used to characterize the flowing layer depth and velocity resulting from the force balance between the down-slope pull of gravity and the friction at the walls. In this presentation we will focus on the effect of granular-specific physics such as force chain networks and grain-grain collisions, derived from the contact dynamics simulations. We will describe our efforts to

  2. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  3. Anisotropy in cohesive, frictional granular media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luding, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The modelling of cohesive, frictional granular materials with a discrete particle molecular dynamics is reviewed. From the structure of the quasi-static granular solid, the fabric, stress, and stiffness tensors are determined, including both normal and tangential forces. The influence of the material properties on the flow behaviour is also reported, including relations between the microscopic attractive force and the macroscopic cohesion as well as the dependence of the macroscopic friction on the microscopic contact friction coefficient. Related to the dynamics, the anisotropy of both structure and stress are exponentially approaching the maximum

  4. The material flow of salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostick, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Salt (NaCl) is a universal mineral commodity used by virtually every person in the world. Although a very common mineral today, at one time it was considered as precious as gold in certain cultures. This study traces the material flow of salt from its origin through the postconsumer phase of usage. The final disposition of salt in the estimated 14,000 different uses, grouped into several macrocategories, is traced from the dispersive loss of salt into the environment to the ultimate disposal of salt-base products into the waste stream after consumption. The base year for this study is 1990, in which an estimated 196 million short tons of municipal solid waste was discarded by the US population. Approximately three-fourths of domestic salt consumed is released to the environment and unrecovered while about one-fourth is discharged to landfills and incinerators as products derived from salt. Cumulative historical domestic production, trade, and consumption data have been compiled to illustrate the long-term trends within the US salt industry and the cumulative contribution that highway deicing salt has had on the environment. Salt is an important component of drilling fluids in well drilling. It is used to flocculate and to increase the density of the drilling fluid in order to overcome high down-well gas pressures. Whenever drilling activities encounter salt formations, salt is added to the drilling fluid to saturate the solution and minimize the dissolution within the salt strata. Salt is also used to increase the set rate of concrete in cemented casings. This subsector includes companies engaged in oil, gas, and crude petroleum exploration and in refining and compounding lubricating oil. It includes SIC major groups 13 and 29. 13 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    -boundary diffusion and precipitation on pore walls. As a first step to better describe creep in sands and sandstones, we have derived a simple model for intergranular pressure solution (IPS) within an ordered pack of spherical grains, employing existing IPS rate models, such as those derived by Renard et al. (1999) and Spiers et al. (2004). This universal model is able to predict the conditions under which each of the respective pressure solution serial processes, i.e. diffusion, precipitation or dissolution, is dominant. In essence, this creates generic deformation mechanism maps for any granular material. We have used our model to predict the amount and rate of compaction for sandstone reservoirs, and compared our predictions to known subsidence rates for reservoirs around the world. This gives a first order-comparison to verify whether or not IPS is an important mechanism in controlling reservoir compaction.

  6. Sound propagation in dry granular materials : discrete element simulations, theory, and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouraille, O.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In this study sound wave propagation through different types of dry confined granular systems is studied. With three-dimensional discrete element simulations, theory and experiments, the influence of several micro-scale properties: friction, dissipation, particle rotation, and contact disorder, on

  7. Comparison of the release of constituents from granular materials under batch and column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Meza, Sarynna; Garrabrants, Andrew C; van der Sloot, Hans; Kosson, David S

    2008-01-01

    Column leaching testing can be considered a better basis for assessing field impact data than any other available batch test method and thus provides a fundamental basis from which to estimate constituent release under a variety of field conditions. However, column testing is time-intensive compared to the more simplified batch testing, and may not always be a viable option when making decisions for material reuse. Batch tests are used most frequently as a simple tool for compliance or quality control reasons. Therefore, it is important to compare the release that occurs under batch and column testing, and establish conservative interpretation protocols for extrapolation from batch data when column data are not available. Five different materials (concrete, construction debris, aluminum recycling residue, coal fly ash and bottom ash) were evaluated via batch and column testing, including different column flow regimes (continuously saturated and intermittent unsaturated flow). Constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the column flow regimes when constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. In most cases batch and column testing agreed when presented in the form of cumulative release. For arsenic in carbonated materials, however, batch testing underestimates the column constituent release for most LS ratios and also on a cumulative basis. For cases when As is a constituent of concern, column testing may be required.

  8. Thermal transport in lithium ion batteries: An experimental investigation of interfaces and granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitonde, Aalok Jaisheela Uday

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the characterization and thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the battery's charge/discharge cycle is poorly dissipated to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work presents a technique to measure the thermal conduction across the metallic case-plastic separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. The polymeric separator and metallic case are harvested from discharged commercial 18650 battery cells for thermal testing. A miniaturized version of the reference bar method enables measurements of the interface resistance between the case and the separator by establishing a temperature gradient across a multilayer stack consisting of two reference layers of known thermal conductivity and the case-separator sample. The case-separator interfacial conductance is reported for a range of case temperatures and interface pressures. The mean thermal conductance across the case-separator interface is 670 +/- 275 W/(m2K) and no significant temperature or pressure dependence is observed. The effective thermal conductivity of the battery stack is measured to be 0.27 W/m/K and 0.32 W/m/K in linear and radial configurations, respectively. Many techniques for fabricating battery electrodes involve coating particles of the active materials on metallic current collectors. The impact of mechanical shearing on the resultant thermal properties of these packed particle beds during the fabrication process has not yet been studied. Thus, the final portion of this thesis designs and validates a measurement system to measure the effects of mechanical shearing on the thermal conductivity of packed granular beds. This system

  9. Correlations and the Ring-Kinetic Equation in Dense Sheared Granular Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, V.

    A formal way of deriving fluctuation-correlation relations in densesheared granular media, starting with the Enskog approximation for the collision integral in the Chapman-Enskog theory, is discussed. The correlation correction to the viscosity is obtained using the ring-kinetic equation, in terms of the correlations in the hydrodynamic modes of the linearised Enskog equation. It is shown that the Green-Kubo formula for the shear viscosity emerges from the two-body correlation function obtained from the ring-kinetic equation.

  10. Biodegradation of phenol in batch and continuous flow microbial fuel cells with rod and granular graphite electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lyman; Nemati, Mehdi; Predicala, Bernardo

    2018-01-01

    Phenol biodegradation was evaluated in batch and continuous flow microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In batch-operated MFCs, biodegradation of 100-1000 mg L -1 phenol was four to six times faster when graphite granules were used instead of rods (3.5-4.8 mg L -1  h -1 vs 0.5-0.9 mg L -1  h -1 ). Similarly maximum phenol biodegradation rates in continuous MFCs with granular and single-rod electrodes were 11.5 and 0.8 mg L -1  h -1 , respectively. This superior performance was also evident in terms of electrochemical outputs, whereby continuous flow MFCs with granular graphite electrodes achieved maximum current and power densities (3444.4 mA m -3 and 777.8 mW m -3 ) that were markedly higher than those with single-rod electrodes (37.3 mA m -3 and 0.8 mW m -3 ). Addition of neutral red enhanced the electrochemical outputs to 5714.3 mA m -3 and 1428.6 mW m -3 . Using the data generated in the continuous flow MFC, biokinetic parameters including μ m , K S , Y and K e were determined as 0.03 h -1 , 24.2 mg L -1 , 0.25 mg cell (mg phenol) -1 and 3.7 × 10 -4  h -1 , respectively. Access to detailed kinetic information generated in MFC environmental conditions is critical in the design, operation and control of large-scale treatment systems utilizing MFC technology.

  11. Improved Characterization of Groundwater Flow in Heterogeneous Aquifers Using Granular Polyacrylamide (PAM) Gel as Temporary Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Loew, Simon; Selker, John

    2018-02-01

    The range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we show how a new temporary borehole sealing technique using soft grains of polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as a sealing material can be used to investigate natural groundwater flow dynamics and discuss other possible applications of the technology. If no compressive stress is applied, the gel packing, with a permeability similar to open gravel, suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature measurements and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel packing. Active heating laboratory and field experiments combined with temperature measurements along fiber optic cables were conducted in water-filled boreholes and boreholes filled with soft grains of polyacrylamide gel. The gel packing is shown to minimize the effect of free convection within the well column and enable detection of thin zones of relatively high or low velocity in a highly transmissive alluvial aquifer, thus providing a significant improvement compared to temperature measurements in open boreholes. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that under modest compressive stress to the gel media the permeability transitions from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Under this configuration the gel packing could potentially allow for monitoring local response pressure from the formation with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated.

  12. Computational study on the behaviors of granular materials under mechanical cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Ye, Minyou; Chen, Hongli

    2015-01-01

    Considering that fusion pebble beds are probably subjected to the cyclic compression excitation in their future applications, we presented a computational study to report the effect of mechanical cycling on the behaviors of granular matter. The correctness of our numerical experiments was confirmed by a comparison with the effective medium theory. Under the cyclic loads, the fast granular compaction was observed to evolve in a stretched exponential law. Besides, the increasing stiffening in packing structure, especially the decreasing moduli pressure dependence due to granular consolidation, was also observed. For the force chains inside the pebble beds, both the internal force distribution and the spatial distribution of force chains would become increasingly uniform as the external force perturbation proceeded and therefore produced the stress relief on grains. In this case, the originally proposed 3-parameter Mueth function was found to fail to describe the internal force distribution. Thereby, its improved functional form with 4 parameters was proposed here and proved to better fit the data. These findings will provide more detailed information on the pebble beds for the relevant fusion design and analysis

  13. The contact heat transfer between the heating plate and granular materials in rotary heat exchanger under overloaded condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanfang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the contact heat transfer between the granular materials and heating plates inside plate rotary heat exchanger (PRHE was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient is dominated by the contact heat transfer coefficient at hot wall surface of the heating plates and the heat penetration inside the solid bed. A plot scale PRHE with a diameter of Do = 273 mm and a length of L = 1000 mm has been established. Quartz sand with dp = 2 mm was employed as the experimental material. The operational parameters were in the range of ω = 1 – 8 rpm, and F = 15, 20, 25, 30%, and the effect of these parameters on the time-average contact heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. The time-average contact heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of rotary speed, but decreases with the increase of the filling degree. The measured data of time-average heat transfer coefficients were compared with theoretical calculations from Schlünder’s model, a good agreement between the measurements and the model could be achieved, especially at a lower rotary speed and filling degree level. The maximum deviation between the calculated data and the experimental data is approximate 10%. Keywords: Rotary heat exchanger, Contact heat transfer, Granular material, Heating plate, Overloaded

  14. Study of performances, stability and microbial characterization of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor working at low recirculation flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Marco; Beccari, Mario; Di Iaconi, Claudio; Majone, Mauro; Rossetti, Simona; Tandoi, Valter

    2013-02-01

    The Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) is a promising wastewater treatment technology characterized by high biomass concentration in the system, good depuration performance and low sludge production. Its main drawback is the high energy consumption required for wastewater recirculation through the reactor bed to ensure both shear stress and oxygen supply. Therefore, the effect of low recirculation flow on the long-term (38 months) performance of a laboratory scale SBBGR was studied. Both the microbial components of the granules, and their main metabolic activities were evaluated (heterotrophic oxidation, nitrification, denitrification, fermentation, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis). The results indicate that despite reduced recirculation, the SBBGR system maintained many of its advantageous characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational investigation of the flow field contribution to improve electricity generation in granular activated carbon-assisted microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Jian; Battaglia, Francine; He, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer an alternative approach to treat wastewater with less energy input and direct electricity generation. To optimize MFC anodic performance, adding granular activated carbon (GAC) has been proved to be an effective way, most likely due to the enlarged electrode surface for biomass attachment and improved mixing of the flow field. The impact of a flow field on the current enhancement within a porous anode medium (e.g., GAC) has not been well understood before, and thus is investigated in this study by using mathematical modeling of the multi-order Butler-Volmer equation with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. By comparing three different CFD cases (without GAC, with GAC as a nonreactive porous medium, and with GAC as a reactive porous medium), it is demonstrated that adding GAC contributes to a uniform flow field and a total current enhancement of 17%, a factor that cannot be neglected in MFC design. However, in an actual MFC operation, this percentage could be even higher because of the microbial competition and energy loss issues within a porous medium. The results of the present study are expected to help with formulating strategies to optimize MFC with a better flow pattern design.

  16. Granular gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Brilliantov, Nikolai

    2003-01-01

    While there is not yet any general theory for granular materials, significant progress has been achieved for dilute systems, also called granular gases. The contributions in this book address both the kinetic approach one using the Boltzmann equation for dissipative gases as well as the less established hydrodynamic description. The last part of the book is devoted to driven granular gases and their analogy with molecular fluids. Care has been taken so as to present the material in a pedagogical and self-contained way and this volume will thus be particularly useful to nonspecialists and newcomers to the field.

  17. Preliminary study on aerobic granular biomass formation with aerobic continuous flow reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Andik; Soewondo, Prayatni; Handajani, Marissa; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi

    2017-03-01

    A paradigm shift in waste processing is done to obtain additional benefits from treated wastewater. By using the appropriate processing, wastewater can be turned into a resource. The use of aerobic granular biomass (AGB) can be used for such purposes, particularly for the processing of nutrients in wastewater. During this time, the use of AGB for processing nutrients more reactors based on a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Studies on the use of SBR Reactor for AGB demonstrate satisfactory performance in both formation and use. SBR reactor with AGB also has been applied on a full scale. However, the use use of SBR reactor still posses some problems, such as the need for additional buffer tank and the change of operation mode from conventional activated sludge to SBR. This gives room for further reactor research with the use of a different type, one of which is a continuous reactor. The purpose of this study is to compare AGB formation using continuous reactor and SBR with same operation parameter. Operation parameter are Organic Loading Rate (OLR) set to 2,5 Kg COD/m3.day with acetate as substrate, aeration rate 3 L/min, and microorganism from Hospital WWTP as microbial source. SBR use two column reactor with volumes 2 m3, and continuous reactor uses continuous airlift reactor, with two compartments and working volume of 5 L. Results from preliminary research shows that although the optimum results are not yet obtained, AGB can be formed on the continuous reactor. When compared with AGB generated by SBR, then the characteristics of granular diameter showed similarities, while the sedimentation rate and Sludge Volume Index (SVI) characteristics showed lower yields.

  18. What Actually Happens When Granular Materials Deform Under Shear: A Look Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, C.

    2012-12-01

    depends on the quality of the physics one injects: ideally, this comes directly from experiments. In Grenoble, this is what we do, combining various advanced experimental techniques. We are able to image, in three dimensions and at small scales, the deformation processes accompanying failure in geomaterials. This allows us to understand these processes and subsequently to define models at a pertinently small scale. I will present a few examples of the kind of experimental results which could inform a micro scale model. X-ray micro tomography imaging is the key measurement tool. This is used during loading, providing complete 3D images of a sand specimen at several stages throughout a triaxial compression test. Images from x-rays are then analyzed either in a continuum sense (using 3D Digital Image Correlation) or looking at the individual particle kinematics (Particle Tracking). I will show some of our most recent results, in which individual sand grains are followed with a technique combining very recent developments in image correlation and particle tracking. These advanced techniques offer us a look at what actually happens when a granular material deforms and eventually fails.

  19. Direct numerical simulation of granular flows with fluid; Simulation numerique directe d'ecoulements granulaires en presence de fluide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komiwes, V.

    1999-09-01

    Numerical models applied to simulation of granular flow with fluid are developed. The physical model selected to describe particles flow is a discrete approach. Particle trajectories are calculated by the Newton law and collision is describe by a soft-sphere approach. The fluid flow is modelled by Navier-Stokes equations. The modelling of the momentum transfer depends on the resolution scale: for a scale of the order of the particle diameter, it is modelled by a drag-law and for a scale smaller than the particle diameter, it is directly calculated by stress tensor computation around particles. The direct model is used to find representative elementary volume and prove the local character of the Ergun's law. This application shows the numerical (mesh size), physical (Reynolds number) and computational (CPU time and memory consumptions) limitations. The drag law model and the direct model are validated with analytical and empirical solutions and compared. For the two models, the CPU time and the memory consumptions are discussed. The drag law model is applied to the simulation of gas-solid dense fluidized-beds. In the case of uniform gas distribution, the fluidized-bed simulation heights are compared to experimental data for particle of group A and B of the Geldart classification. (author)

  20. The response of dense dry granular material to the shear reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Ren, Jie; Farhadi, Somayeh; Behringer, Robert

    2008-11-01

    We have performed two dimensional granular experiments under pure shear using bidisperse photo-elastic disks. Starting from a stress free state, a square box filled with granular particles is subject to shear. The forward shears involved various number of steps, leading to maximum strains between 0.1 and 0.3. The area is kept constant during the shear. The network of force chains gradually built up as the strain increased, leading to increased pressure and shear stress. Reverse shear was then applied to the system. Depending on the initial packing fraction and the strain at which the shear is reversed, the force chain network built prior to the shear reversal may be destroyed completely or partially destroyed. Following the force chain weakening, when the reserve shear is continuously applied to the system, there is a force chain strengthening. Following each change of the system, contact forces of individual disks were measured by applying an inverse algorithm. We also kept track of the displacement and angle of rotation of every particle from frame to frame. We present the results for the structure failure and reconstruction during shear reversals. We also present data for stresses, contact force distributions and other statistical measures.

  1. Numerical investigation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards using satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Matsushima, T.

    2018-05-01

    The volume of debris flows occurred in mountainous areas is mainly affected by the volume of debris materials deposited at the valley bottom. Quantitative evaluation of debris materials prior to debris flow hazards is important to predict and prevent hazards. At midnight on 7th August 2010, two catastrophic debris flows were triggered by the torrential rain from two valleys in the northern part of Zhouqu City, NW China, resulting in 1765 fatalities and huge economic losses. In the present study, a depth-integrated particle method is adopted to simulate the debris materials, based on 2.5 m resolution satellite images. In the simulation scheme, the materials are modeled as dry granular solids, and they travel down from the slopes and are deposited at the valley bottom. The spatial distributions of the debris materials are investigated in terms of location, volume and thickness. Simulation results show good agreement with post-disaster satellite images and field observation data. Additionally, the effect of the spatial distributions of the debris materials on subsequent debris flows is also evaluated. It is found that the spatial distributions of the debris materials strongly influence affected area, runout distance and flow discharge. This study might be useful in hazard assessments prior to debris flow hazards by investigating diverse scenarios in which the debris materials are unknown.

  2. COMPORTAMIENTO DE UN MATERIAL GRANULAR NO TRATADO EN ENSAYOS TRIAXIALES CÍCLICOS CON PRESIÓN DE CONFINAMIENTO CONSTANTE Y VARIABLE BEHAVIOR OF AN UNBOUND GRANULAR MATERIAL IN CYCLIC TRIAXIAL TESTS WITH CONSTANT AND VARIABLE CONFINING PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexander Rondón Quintana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En un pavimento, cada una de las capas de la estructura experimenta bajo una carga vehicular ciclos de esfuerzo con componentes vertical, horizontal y de corte. Para el estudio de materiales granulares no tratados (utilizados para conformar capas de base y subbase, la mayor parte de las investigaciones se realizan empleando equipos triaxiales cíclicos en donde sólo la carga vertical es cíclica y la presión de confinamiento permanece constante durante el ensayo. Un ensayo que reproduce mejor la forma como se distribuyen los esfuerzos en estas capas es el ensayo triaxial cíclico con presión de confinamiento variable. En este ensayo se pueden modelar las componentes cíclicas tanto en el sentido vertical como horizontal. A pesar que son ensayos distintos, la ingeniería de pavimentos supone que la respuesta que experimentan estos materiales en estos ensayos es similar, lo anterior basado en algunos estudios realizados en la década de los setenta. En la presente investigación se diseña y desarrolla un programa experimental más detallado, para comparar el comportamiento que desarrolla un material granular no tratado en estos ensayos. De los resultados se evidencia que sólo para algunas trayectorias de esfuerzo, la dirección y la acumulación de la deformación vertical y volumétrica es similar.In a pavement structure, passing wheel loads impose cyclic stresses consisting of vertical, horizontal and shear components. Studies of the behavior of unbound granular materials (UGM, used for base and sub-base layers under cyclic loading are mostly performed using the axisymmetric triaxial test with constant confining pressure (CCP test and a cyclic variation of the axial stress. However, in this type of test only the vertical component of the cyclic stress path is considered. The oscillation of the horizontal stress can be reproduced by an additional cyclic variation of the confining pressure (VCP test. CCP and VCP tests are sometimes assumed to

  3. Formation and mechanics of granular waves in gravity and shallow overland flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment transport in overland flow is a highly complex process involving many properties relative to the flow regime characteristics, soil surface conditions, and type of sediment. From a practical standpoint, most sediment transport studies are concerned with developing relationships of rates of s...

  4. Compaction and flow of cohesive granular media assisted by vibrations: application to filling press molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonnet, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the ASTRID project, the nuclear fuel production process by powder metallurgy, for Fast Neutron Reactors, is revisited in order to be simplified. In particular, we seek to remove the mechanical granulation step of the powder which gives a good flow behavior during the filling of press molds. The aim is to reach a spontaneous and quick powder flow through a hole in which the powder does not flow without external energy. Furthermore, the powder alternates between flow phases during the filling of press molds, and non-flow phases during the compaction and ejection of the pellet. We hence apply horizontal vibrations to ensure the flow of the powder through the press mold. The vibrations help the powder to flow and increase the production rates. However, they have the disadvantage to compact the powder and delay the future flows, during the non-flow phases. The art of filling the press mold assisted by vibrations is to master/control the ambivalent nature of the vibrations. The remarkable packing fraction evolution of actinides powders, during the non-flow phases, allows us to define a simple 1D stochastic model to understand the compaction kinetics. The comparison of the stochastic model with the empirical compaction laws found in the literature helps us to identify the physical meaning of fitting parameters proposed by the empirical models. Furthermore, we have also proposed a new compaction law with two-stretched exponentials. This new law not only reflects the compaction kinetics of actinides powders, but also of all the compaction data we found in the literature. (author) [fr

  5. Quasi-static incremental behavior of granular materials: Elastic-plastic coupling and micro-scale dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Matthew R.; Daouadji, Ali

    2018-05-01

    The paper addresses a common assumption of elastoplastic modeling: that the recoverable, elastic strain increment is unaffected by alterations of the elastic moduli that accompany loading. This assumption is found to be false for a granular material, and discrete element (DEM) simulations demonstrate that granular materials are coupled materials at both micro- and macro-scales. Elasto-plastic coupling at the macro-scale is placed in the context of thermomechanics framework of Tomasz Hueckel and Hans Ziegler, in which the elastic moduli are altered by irreversible processes during loading. This complex behavior is explored for multi-directional loading probes that follow an initial monotonic loading. An advanced DEM model is used in the study, with non-convex non-spherical particles and two different contact models: a conventional linear-frictional model and an exact implementation of the Hertz-like Cattaneo-Mindlin model. Orthotropic true-triaxial probes were used in the study (i.e., no direct shear strain), with tiny strain increments of 2 ×10-6 . At the micro-scale, contact movements were monitored during small increments of loading and load-reversal, and results show that these movements are not reversed by a reversal of strain direction, and some contacts that were sliding during a loading increment continue to slide during reversal. The probes show that the coupled part of a strain increment, the difference between the recoverable (elastic) increment and its reversible part, must be considered when partitioning strain increments into elastic and plastic parts. Small increments of irreversible (and plastic) strain and contact slipping and frictional dissipation occur for all directions of loading, and an elastic domain, if it exists at all, is smaller than the strain increment used in the simulations.

  6. Comparisons of physical experiment and discrete element simulations of sheared granular materials in an annular shear cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, S.; Hanes, D.M.; Shen, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we report a direct comparison between a physical test and a computer simulation of rapidly sheared granular materials. An annular shear cell experiment was conducted. All parameters were kept the same between the physical and the computational systems to the extent possible. Artificially softened particles were used in the simulation to reduce the computational time to a manageable level. Sensitivity study on the particle stiffness ensured such artificial modification was acceptable. In the experiment, a range of normal stress was applied to a given amount of particles sheared in an annular trough with a range of controlled shear speed. Two types of particles, glass and Delrin, were used in the experiment. Qualitatively, the required torque to shear the materials under different rotational speed compared well with those in the physical experiments for both the glass and the Delrin particles. However, the quantitative discrepancies between the measured and simulated shear stresses were nearly a factor of two. Boundary conditions, particle size distribution, particle damping and friction, including a sliding and rolling, contact force model, were examined to determine their effects on the computational results. It was found that of the above, the rolling friction between particles had the most significant effect on the macro stress level. This study shows that discrete element simulation is a viable method for engineering design for granular material systems. Particle level information is needed to properly conduct these simulations. However, not all particle level information is equally important in the study regime. Rolling friction, which is not commonly considered in many discrete element models, appears to play an important role. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Discrete Element Method for Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Unsaturated Granular Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tourani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a significant portion of conditions encountered in geotechnical engineering, for investigating engineering behavior of soil, involves unsaturated soils; the traditional analysis and design approach has been to assume the limiting conditions of soils being either completely dry or completely saturated. In unsaturated soils the capillary force produce attractive forces between particles. Discrete Element Method (DEM is an appropriate tool to consider the capillary effects. The calculations performed in DEM is based on iterative application of Newton’s second law to the particles and force-displacement law at the contacts. In the present study, the behavior of unsaturated soils in pendular regime is simulated utilizing DEM. Triaxial  compression tests were modeled as two-dimensional, considering capillary force effects. Finally, capillary effects on Macro parameters of a simulated granular soil (stress, axial strain, volumetric strain and void ratio and Mohr Coulomb failure criteria parameters were studied.

  8. Percolation-induced plasmonic state and double negative electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu granular composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massango, Herieta; Kono, Koji; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2018-05-01

    Complex permeability and permittivity spectra of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu hybrid granular composite materials have been studied in the RF to microwave frequency range. The electrical conductivity σ shows insulating properties in the volume fraction of Cu particles below φ = 0.14. A large jump in conductivity was observed between φ = 0.14 and 0.24 indicating that the Cu particles make metallic conduction between this interval. Hence, the percolation threshold φC, was estimated to be 0.14. A percolation-induced low frequency plasmonic state with negative permittivity spectrum was observed from φ = 0.14-0.24. Meanwhile the negative permeability was observed at φ = 0.16, 0.19 and 0.24. Hence the DNG characteristic was realized in these Cu volume content in the frequency range from 105 MHz to 2 GHz.

  9. Flow chemistry meets advanced functional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Rebecca M; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Turner, Richard M; Ley, Steven V

    2014-09-22

    Flow chemistry and continuous processing techniques are beginning to have a profound impact on the production of functional materials ranging from quantum dots, nanoparticles and metal organic frameworks to polymers and dyes. These techniques provide robust procedures which not only enable accurate control of the product material's properties but they are also ideally suited to conducting experiments on scale. The modular nature of flow and continuous processing equipment rapidly facilitates reaction optimisation and variation in function of the products. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mathematical models of granular matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mariano, Paolo; Giovine, Pasquale

    2008-01-01

    Granular matter displays a variety of peculiarities that distinguish it from other appearances studied in condensed matter physics and renders its overall mathematical modelling somewhat arduous. Prominent directions in the modelling granular flows are analyzed from various points of view. Foundational issues, numerical schemes and experimental results are discussed. The volume furnishes a rather complete overview of the current research trends in the mechanics of granular matter. Various chapters introduce the reader to different points of view and related techniques. New models describing granular bodies as complex bodies are presented. Results on the analysis of the inelastic Boltzmann equations are collected in different chapters. Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry is also discussed.

  11. Mathematical modelling of the transport of a poorly sorted granular mixture as a debris-flow. The case of Madeira Island torrential floods in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Oliveira, Rodrigo P.; Conde, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    On the 20th February 2010, heavy rainfall was registered at Madeira Island, North Atlantic. Stony debris flows, mudflows and mudslides ensued causing severe property loss, 1.5 m thick sediment deposits at downtown Funchal including 16th century monuments, and a death toll of 47 lives. Debris-flow fronts propagated downstream while carrying very high concentrations of solid material. These two-phase solid-fluid flows were responsible for most of the infrastructural damage across the island, due to their significantly increased mass and momentum. The objective of the present modelling work is to validate a 2DH model for torrential flows featuring the transport and interaction of several size fractions of a poorly-sorted granular mixture typical of stony debris flow in Madeira. The module for the transport of poorly-sorted material was included in STAV-2D (CERIS-IST), a shallow-water and morphology solver based on a finite-volume method using a flux-splitting technique featuring a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, with appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. STAV-2D also includes formulations of flow resistance and bedload transport adequate for debris-flows with natural mobile beds (Ferreira et al., 2009) and has been validated with both theoretical solutions and laboratory data (Soares-Frazão et al., 2012; Canelas et al., 2013). The modelling of the existing natural and built environment is fully explicit. All buildings, streets and channels are accurately represented within the mesh geometry. Such detail is relevant for the reliability of the validation using field data, since the major sedimentary deposits within the urban meshwork of Funchal were identified and characterized in terms of volume and grain size distribution during the aftermath of the 20th February of 2010 event. Indeed, the measure of the quality of the numerical results is the agreement between simulated and estimated volume of deposited sediment and between estimated and

  12. Numerical Investigation of Monodisperse Granular Flow Through an Inclined Rotating Chute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirsath, Sushil S.; Padding, J.T.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Peeters, Tim W.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    A discrete element model of spherical glass particles flowing down a rotating chute is validated against high quality experimental data. The simulations are performed in a corotating frame of reference, taking into account Coriolis and centrifugal forces. In view of future extensions aimed at

  13. Modelling of granular flows through inclined rotating chutes using a discrete particle model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirsath, S.S.; Padding, J.T.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In blast furnaces, particles like coke, sinter and pellets enter from a hopper and are distributed on the burden surface by a rotating chute. Such particulate flows suffer occasionally from chocking and particle segregation at bottlenecks, which hinders efficient throughflow. To get a more

  14. Aplicação da alvenaria estrutural em sistemas de armazenamento de produtos agrícolas a granel Applying structural masonry for granular material storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. de A Marques Neto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O armazenamento de produtos agrícolas cumpre um papel importante no agronegócio. Observa-se uma tendência cada vez maior em se trabalhar com produtos a granel, em grandes volumes. Visando a uma concepção construtiva racional e econômica, o presente trabalho propõe um sistema misto em concreto armado e alvenaria estrutural aplicado a silos para armazenagem de produto agrícola a granel. No projeto proposto, o silo é composto de células em alvenaria estrutural, geminadas duas a duas na largura e com um número variável de células no comprimento, em função do volume desejado de armazenagem. Esse sistema simétrico favorece a racionalidade operacional, garantindo a continuidade entre os fluxos de recebimento e de expedição. O fundo da célula é em forma de tremonha dupla troncopiramidal, com saída central, construída em painéis treliçados pré-moldados. A sustentação das células e das tremonhas é feita através de vigas e de pilares de concreto armado. O isolamento térmico necessário para que a qualidade do produto armazenado seja garantida é estabelecido pela utilização de telhas trapezoidais de aço galvanizado, tanto na cobertura como nos fechamentos laterais. A fim de ilustrar o presente trabalho, um exemplo de silo utilizando o sistema proposto é apresentado, e a viabilidade da concepção construtiva adotada é analisada.The storage of granular materials has had an important role in the agribusiness. Storing granular materials in silos, instead of in bags or big-bags, has been an increase tendency. Aiming at an economic and rational solution for storing granular materials this paper presents an alternative design: a multi-cell silo group composed of reinforced masonry rectangular cells coupled two by two in width, and a variable number of cells in length according to the volume of desired storage. Such symmetrical system benefits the loading and the unloading operations, and guarantees the continuity between the

  15. Dynamic induced softening in frictional granular materials investigated by discrete-element-method simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemrich, Laure; Carmeliet, Jan; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; Jia, Xiaoping

    2017-12-01

    A granular system composed of frictional glass beads is simulated using the discrete element method. The intergrain forces are based on the Hertz contact law in the normal direction with frictional tangential force. The damping due to collision is also accounted for. Systems are loaded at various stresses and their quasistatic elastic moduli are characterized. Each system is subjected to an extensive dynamic testing protocol by measuring the resonant response to a broad range of ac drive amplitudes and frequencies via a set of diagnostic strains. The system, linear at small ac drive amplitudes, has resonance frequencies that shift downward (i.e., modulus softening) with increased ac drive amplitude. Detailed testing shows that the slipping contact ratio does not contribute significantly to this dynamic modulus softening, but the coordination number is strongly correlated to this reduction. This suggests that the softening arises from the extended structural change via break and remake of contacts during the rearrangement of bead positions driven by the ac amplitude.

  16. The Grading Entropy-based Criteria for Structural Stability of Granular Materials and Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Lőrincz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with three grading entropy-based rules that describe different soil structure stability phenomena: an internal stability rule, a filtering rule and a segregation rule. These rules are elaborated on the basis of a large amount of laboratory testing and from existing knowledge in the field. Use is made of the theory of grading entropy to derive parameters which incorporate all of the information of the grading curve into a pair of entropy-based parameters that allow soils with common behaviours to be grouped into domains on an entropy diagram. Applications of the derived entropy-based rules are presented by examining the reason of a dam failure, by testing against the existing filter rules from the literature, and by giving some examples for the design of non-segregating grading curves (discrete particle size distributions by dry weight. A physical basis for the internal stability rule is established, wherein the higher values of base entropy required for granular stability are shown to reflect the closeness between the mean and maximum grain diameters, which explains how there are sufficient coarser grains to achieve a stable grain skeleton.

  17. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  18. The Quantified Characterization Method of the Micro-Macro Contacts of Three-Dimensional Granular Materials on the Basis of Graph Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanpeng; Wang, Enzhi; Liu, Xiaoli; Wang, Sijing; Luan, Hebing

    2017-08-03

    We have attempted a multiscale and quantified characterization method of the contact in three-dimensional granular material made of spherical particles, particularly in cemented granular material. Particle contact is defined as a type of surface contact with voids in its surroundings, rather than a point contact. Macro contact is a particle contact set satisfying the restrictive condition of a two-dimensional manifold with a boundary. On the basis of graph theory, two dual geometrical systems are abstracted from the granular pack. The face and the face set, which satisfies the two-dimensional manifold with a boundary in the solid cell system, are extracted to characterize the particle contact and the macro contact, respectively. This characterization method is utilized to improve the post-processing in DEM (Discrete Element Method) from a micro perspective to describe the macro effect of the cemented granular material made of spherical particles. Since the crack has the same shape as its corresponding contact, this method is adopted to characterize the crack and realize its visualization. The integral failure route of the sample can be determined by a graph theory algorithm. The contact force is assigned to the weight value of the face characterizing the particle contact. Since the force vectors can be added, the macro contact force can be solved by adding the weight of its corresponding faces.

  19. Frequency Methods Applied to the Characterization of the Thermophysical Properties of a Granular Material with a Cylindrical Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Olivier; Defer, Didier; Antczak, Emmanuel; Chartier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    In many fields, such as in the agri-food industry or in the building industry, it is important to be able to monitor the thermophysical properties of granular materials. Regular thermal probes allow for the determination of one or several thermophysical factors. The success of the method used depends in part on the nature of the signal sent, on the type of physical model applied and eventually on the type of probe used and its implantation in the material. Although efficacious for most applications, regular thermal probes do present some limitations. It is the case, for example, when one has to know precisely the thermal contact resistance or the nature of the signal sent. In this article is presented a characterization method based on thermal impedance formalism. This method allows for the determination of the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, and the contact thermal resistance in one single test. The application of this method requires the use of a specific probe developed to enable measurement of heat flux and temperature at the interface of the probe and the studied material. Its practical application is presented for dry sand.

  20. Relationship between dilatancy, stresses and plastic dissipation in a granular material with rigid grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evesque, Pierre; Stefani, Christian

    1991-11-01

    By considering a drained cohesionless granular sample made up of rigid grains and submitted to a triaxial test, we derive an equation relating the dilatancy K, the deviatoric stress q and the confining pressure p to the energy losses D_plastic due to plastic yielding. We demonstrate that the system is contracting (K le 0) at q = 0, when q is increasing and that spontaneous uncontrolled yielding begins occurring when dilatancy K is maximum. We also demonstrate the existence of the characteristic state introduced by Luong and Habib and the existence of the critical state of Schofield and Wroth. Finally, we give a method to determine the plastic losses during a triaxial cell test using the experimental data. En utilisant un postulat de reproductibilité des essais triaxiaux et une relation liant l'énergie dissipée, la dilatance K et les contraintes imposées à un échantillon, on démontre qu'un matériau granulaire ne peut que se contracter après avoir subi une contrainte de confinement isotrope (i.e. q = 0), que la rupture spontanée a lieu après un maximum de dilatance, qu'il existe un état caractéristique (au sens de Luong et Habib) et qu'il existe un état “ critique ” (au sens de Schofield et Wroth). Nous donnons de plus une méthode pour estimer la dissipation-plastique durant un essai triaxial à partir des résultats expérimentaux.

  1. Reflections on Daily Runs and Material Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    This essay reflects on the material flows and intensive states that surround us in our everyday lives, to provide an understanding of the ways in which they permeate and affect our bodies and cause a change in them, when we are moving through a landscape alongside various materialities, rhythms...... and movements. Based on my felt experiences during daily runs, it analyzes these vibrant land-scapes as heterogeneous assemblages, as collectives co-constituted between human-nonhuman actors, to study the material flows that move our bodies and expose them to new organizations. It sums up, that technologies......, milieus and human-nonhuman beings that lives alongside each other, have an immediate impact on each other caused by the circulating intensities within the heterogeneous collectives. We discover that changes in one context interface with changes in another, rhythms resonate and create new movements...

  2. Granular boycott effect: How to mix granulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, J.; Mazozi, T.

    1999-11-01

    Granular material can display the basic features of the Boycott effect in sedimentation. A simple experiment shows that granular material falls faster in an inclined tube than in a vertical tube, in analogy with the Boycott effect. As long as the inclination of the tube is above the avalanche threshold, descent of granular material in the tube causes internal convection which in turn results in an efficient mixture of the granular components. By contrast, as in analogous experiments in two dimensions, a vertical fall of granular material occurs via successive block fragmentation, resulting in poor mixing.

  3. Granular model, percolation-resistivity, ESR and elastic modulus of carbonaceous materials application to the babassu endocarp heat treated up to 22000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmerich, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    A microscopic model (granular model) is presented to study heat treated carbons. A granular structure is defined in the carbon matrix, composed of turbostratic graphite-like microcrystallites, cross-linkings and micropores. A general expression is developed to calculate the volume fraction X of the conducting phase of the granular structure as a function of structural parameters obtained from X-ray diffraction small angle X-ray scattering. The granular model and the percolation theory are used to explain the electrical resistivity behaviour with the heat treatment temperature (HTT), where X is the fundamental parameter. An electron spin resonance (ESR) study of the low and high HTT ranges is presented, including the transition range (700-1300 0 C). The elucitation of the spin center nature in this range and the liking with the two adjacent ranges has been pursued. An expression to calculate the elastic modulus (Young's modulus), based on the microscopic granular model with the fundamental participation of the cross-linkings, is derived to account for the behavior of the modulus with the HTT. The granular model with the expression of X, the percolation-resistivity theory, the ESR study, and the expression of the elastic modulus are applied to the babassu endocarp carbon heat treated up to 2200 0 C. This material can be classified as a tipical non-graphitic carbon, being useful to search the validity of the model and the proposed expressions. It is observed that the theoretical expressions describe with reasonable accuracy the respective experimental behaviours. The measurements of physical and chemical parameters of the babassu endocarp treated up to 2200 0 C area also included. (author) [pt

  4. Vortex jamming in superconductors and granular rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Nogawa, Tomoaki; Kim, Bongsoo

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that a highly frustrated anisotropic Josephson junction array (JJA) on a square lattice exhibits a zero-temperature jamming transition, which shares much in common with those in granular systems. Anisotropy of the Josephson couplings along the horizontal and vertical directions plays roles similar to normal load or density in granular systems. We studied numerically static and dynamic response of the system against shear, i.e. injection of external electric current at zero temperature. Current-voltage curves at various strength of the anisotropy exhibit universal scaling features around the jamming point much as do the flow curves in granular rheology, shear-stress versus shear-rate. It turns out that at zero temperature the jamming transition occurs right at the isotropic coupling and anisotropic JJA behaves as exotic fragile vortex matter: it behaves as a superconductor (vortex glass) in one direction, whereas it is a normal conductor (vortex liquid) in the other direction even at zero temperature. Furthermore, we find a variant of the theoretical model for the anisotropic JJA quantitatively reproduces universal master flow-curves of the granular systems. Our results suggest an unexpected common paradigm stretching over seemingly unrelated fields-the rheology of soft materials and superconductivity.

  5. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kong Tham

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms, uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku, and magnetic grain diameter (GD of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm of each oxides (Tmave. Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α. By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  6. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Kim Kong; Kushibiki, Ryosuke; Kamada, Tomonari; Hinata, Shintaro; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms), uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku), and magnetic grain diameter (GD) of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm) of each oxides (Tmave). Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain) shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α). By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  7. Effects of Noise and Vibration on the Solid to Liquid Fluidization Transition in Small Dense Granular Systems Under Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhus, Martin Frederic

    2011-07-01

    Granular materials exhibit bulk properties that are distinct from conventional solids, liq- uids, and gases, due to the dissipative nature of the inter-granular forces. Understanding the fundamentals of granular materials draws upon and gives insight into many fields at the current frontiers of physics, such as plasticity of solids, fracture and friction, com- plex systems such as colloids, foams and suspensions, and a variety of biological systems. Particulate flows are widespread in geophysics, and are also essential to many industries. Despite the importance of these phenomena, we lack a theoretical model that explains most behaviors of granular materials. Since granular assemblies are highly dissipative, they are often far from mechanical equilibrium, making most classical analyses inappli- cable. A theory for dilute granular systems exists, but for dense granular systems (by far the majority of granular systems in the real world) no comparable theory is accepted. We approach this problem by examining the fluidization, or transition from solid to liquid, in dense granular systems. In this study, the separate effects of random noise and vibration on the static to flowing transition of a dense granular assembly under planar shear is studied numerically using soft contact particle dynamics simulations in two dimensions. We focus on small systems in a thin planar Couette cell, examining the bistable region while increasing shear, with varying amounts of random noise or vibration, and determine the statistics of the shear required for the onset of flow. We find that the applied power is the key parameter in determining the magnitude of the effects of the noise or vibration, with vibration frequency also having an influence. Similarities and differences between noise and vibration are determined, and the results compare favorably with a two phase model for dense granular flow.

  8. Effect of oxidation of carbon material on suspension electrodes for flow electrode capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, Kelsey B; Hatzell, Marta C; Cook, Kevin M; Boota, Muhammad; Housel, Gabrielle M; McBride, Alexander; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-03-03

    Flow electrode deionization (FCDI) is an emerging area for continuous and scalable deionization, but the electrochemical and flow properties of the flow electrode need to be improved to minimize energy consumption. Chemical oxidation of granular activated carbon (AC) was examined here to study the role of surface heteroatoms on rheology and electrochemical performance of a flow electrode (carbon slurry) for deionization processes. Moreover, it was demonstrated that higher mass densities could be used without increasing energy for pumping when using oxidized active material. High mass-loaded flow electrodes (28% carbon content) based on oxidized AC displayed similar viscosities (∼21 Pa s) to lower mass-loaded flow electrodes (20% carbon content) based on nonoxidized AC. The 40% increased mass loading (from 20% to 28%) resulted in a 25% increase in flow electrode gravimetric capacitance (from 65 to 83 F g(-1)) without sacrificing flowability (viscosity). The electrical energy required to remove ∼18% of the ions (desalt) from of the feed solution was observed to be significantly dependent on the mass loading and decreased (∼60%) from 92 ± 7 to 28 ± 2.7 J with increased mass densities from 5 to 23 wt %. It is shown that the surface chemistry of the active material in a flow electrode effects the electrical and pumping energy requirements of a FCDI system.

  9. Non-Newtonian stress tensor and thermal conductivity tensor in granular plane shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Meheboob; Saha, Saikat

    2014-11-01

    The non-Newtonian stress tensor and the heat flux in the plane shear flow of smooth inelastic disks are analysed from the Grad-level moment equations using the anisotropic Gaussian as a reference. Closed-form expressions for shear viscosity, pressure, first normal stress difference (N1) and the dissipation rate are given as functions of (i) the density or the area fraction (ν), (ii) the restitution coefficient (e), (iii) the dimensionless shear rate (R), (iv) the temperature anisotropy [ η, the difference between the principal eigenvalues of the second moment tensor] and (v) the angle (ϕ) between the principal directions of the shear tensor and the second moment tensor. Particle simulation data for a sheared hard-disk system is compared with theoretical results, with good agreement for p, μ and N1 over a large range of density. In contrast, the predictions from a Navier-Stokes order constitutive model are found to deviate significantly from both the simulation and the moment theory even at moderate values of e. We show that the gradient of the deviatoric part of the kinetic stress drives a heat current and the thermal conductivity is characterized by an anisotropic 2nd rank tensor for which explicit expressions are derived.

  10. Energy and material flows of megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher A; Stewart, Iain; Facchini, Angelo; Cersosimo, Igor; Mele, Renata; Chen, Bin; Uda, Mariko; Kansal, Arun; Chiu, Anthony; Kim, Kwi-Gon; Dubeux, Carolina; Lebre La Rovere, Emilio; Cunha, Bruno; Pincetl, Stephanie; Keirstead, James; Barles, Sabine; Pusaka, Semerdanta; Gunawan, Juniati; Adegbile, Michael; Nazariha, Mehrdad; Hoque, Shamsul; Marcotullio, Peter J; González Otharán, Florencia; Genena, Tarek; Ibrahim, Nadine; Farooqui, Rizwan; Cervantes, Gemma; Sahin, Ahmet Duran

    2015-05-12

    Understanding the drivers of energy and material flows of cities is important for addressing global environmental challenges. Accessing, sharing, and managing energy and material resources is particularly critical for megacities, which face enormous social stresses because of their sheer size and complexity. Here we quantify the energy and material flows through the world's 27 megacities with populations greater than 10 million people as of 2010. Collectively the resource flows through megacities are largely consistent with scaling laws established in the emerging science of cities. Correlations are established for electricity consumption, heating and industrial fuel use, ground transportation energy use, water consumption, waste generation, and steel production in terms of heating-degree-days, urban form, economic activity, and population growth. The results help identify megacities exhibiting high and low levels of consumption and those making efficient use of resources. The correlation between per capita electricity use and urbanized area per capita is shown to be a consequence of gross building floor area per capita, which is found to increase for lower-density cities. Many of the megacities are growing rapidly in population but are growing even faster in terms of gross domestic product (GDP) and energy use. In the decade from 2001-2011, electricity use and ground transportation fuel use in megacities grew at approximately half the rate of GDP growth.

  11. Clogging of granular material in vertical pipes discharged at constant velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Rodríguez Diego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an experimental study on the flow of spherical particles through a vertical pipe discharged at constant velocity by means of a conveyor belt placed at the bottom. For a pipe diameter 3.67 times the diameter of the particles, we observe the development of hanging arches that stop the flow as they are able to support the weight of the particles above them. We find that the distribution of times that it takes until a stable clog develops, decays exponentially. This is compatible with a clogging probability that remains constant during the discharge. We also observe that the probability of clogging along the pipe decreases with the height, i.e. most of the clogs are developed near the bottom. This spatial dependence may be attributed to different pressure values within the pipe which might also be related to a spontaneous development of an helical structure of the grains inside the pipe.

  12. Micro-mechanical investigation of the effect of fine content on mechanical behavior of gap graded granular materials using DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Habib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a micro-mechanical study of the effect of fine content on the behavior of gap graded granular samples by using numerical simulations performed with the Discrete Element Method. Different samples with fine content varied from 0% to 30% are simulated. The role of fine content in reinforcing the granular skeleton and in supporting the external deviatoric stress is then brought into the light.

  13. Analysis and Modeling of Process of Residual Deformations Accumulation in Soils and Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, A. S.; Dolgih, G. V.; Kalinin, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    It is established that under the influence of repeated loads the process of plastic deformation in soils and discrete materials is hereditary. To perform the mathematical modeling of plastic deformation, the authors applied the integral equation by solution of which they manage to obtain the power and logarithmic dependencies connecting plastic deformation with the number of repeated loads, the parameters of the material and components of the stress tensor in the principal axes. It is shown that these dependences generalize a number of models proposed earlier in Russia and abroad. Based on the analysis of the experimental data obtained during material testing in the dynamic devices of triaxial compression at different values of the stress deviator, the coefficients in the proposed models of deformation are determined. The authors determined the application domain for logarithmic and degree dependences.

  14. Influence of Fines Content on Consolidation and Compressibility Characteristics of Granular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Mirosław J.; Wdowska, Małgorzata K.; Jaroń, Łukasz

    2017-10-01

    Various behaviour of soil under loading results to large extent from kind of soil considered. There is a lot of literature concerning pure sand or plastic clays, while little is known about materials, which are from classification point of view, between those soils. These materials can be considered as cohesionless soils with various fines content. The paper present results of tests carried out in large consolidometer on three kinds of soil, containing 10, 36 and 97% of fines content. Consolidation, permeability and compressibility characteristics were determined. Analysis of the test results allowed to formulate conclusion concerning change in soil behaviour resulting from fines content.

  15. Normal Stresses in a Granular Material Under Falling Weight Deflectometer loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Askegaar, Vagn; Sjølin, Finn Ole

    1996-01-01

    The vertical normal stress under a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) was measured in a sand. The material had more than 90 percent falling within the sand fraction from 60 micrometer to 2 mm. The stress was measured with three different transducers. All transducers were installed at a depth of 2...

  16. Spreading of a granular droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Eric; Sanchez, Ivan; Raynaud, Franck; Lanuza, Jose; Andreotti, Bruno; Aranson, Igor

    2008-03-01

    The influence of controlled vibrations on the granular rheology is investigated in a specifically designed experiment in which a granular film spreads under the action of horizontal vibrations. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived theoretically that describes the evolution of the deposit shape. A self-similar parabolic shape (the``granular droplet'') and a spreading dynamics are predicted that both agree quantitatively with the experimental results. The theoretical analysis is used to extract effective friction coefficients between the base and the granular layer under sustained and controlled vibrations. A shear thickening regime characteristic of dense granular flows is evidenced at low vibration energy, both for glass beads and natural sand. Conversely, shear thinning is observed at high agitation.

  17. Column studies of strontium and cesium migration in a granular geologic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, W.D.; Gilham, R.W.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-06-01

    Infinite-pulse, miscible-displacement experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of batch Ksub(d) values in the prediction of reactive solute transport during dynamic flow through porous media. Non-reactive tracers (chloride, tritium and oxygen-18), and the reactive tracers (strontium-85 and cesium-137) were passed through a column 5.0 cm long and 6.5 cm in diameter packed with a medium to fine sand. The effluent concentrations of the nonreactive solutes were accurately predicted using the advection-dispersion equation; however, there were large discrepancies between the measured and predicted effluent concentrations for both reactive species. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and computed results by incorporating an empirical isotherm into the advection-dispersion model

  18. MICROCT AND PREPARATION OF ß-TCP GRANULAR MATERIAL BY THE POLYURETHANE FOAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Filmon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Commercial ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP is commercialy available in granules manufactured by sintering of powders. We have evaluated the different steps of the manufacturing process of ß-TCP ceramics granules prepared from blocks obtained with the polyurethane foam technology. Three types of slurry were prepared with 10, 15 and 25 g of ß-TCP per gram of polyurethane foam. Analysis was done by scanning electron microscopy, EDX, Raman spectroscopy and microcomputed tomography combined with image analysis. A special algorithm was used to identify the internal microporosity (created by the calcination of the foam from the internal macroporosity due to the spatial repartition of the material. The low ß-TCP dosages readily infiltrated the foam and the slurry was deposited along the polymer rods. On the contrary, the highest concentration produced inhomogeneous infiltrated blocks and foam cavities appeared completely filled in some areas. 2D microcomputed sections and reconstructed 3D models evidenced this phenomenon and the frequency distribution of the thickness and separation of material trabeculae confirmed the heterogeneity of the distribution. When crushed, blocks prepared with the 25 g slurry provided the largest and irregular granulates.

  19. Mechanics of a granular skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Somnath; Sane, Anit; Bhattacharya, S.; Ghosh, Shankar

    2017-04-01

    Magic sand, a hydrophobic toy granular material, is widely used in popular science instructions because of its nonintuitive mechanical properties. A detailed study of the failure of an underwater column of magic sand shows that these properties can be traced to a single phenomenon: the system self-generates a cohesive skin that encapsulates the material inside. The skin, consisting of pinned air-water-grain interfaces, shows multiscale mechanical properties: they range from contact-line dynamics in the intragrain roughness scale, to plastic flow at the grain scale, all the way to sample-scale mechanical responses. With decreasing rigidity of the skin, the failure mode transforms from brittle to ductile (both of which are collective in nature) to a complete disintegration at the single-grain scale.

  20. Erosion of a wet/dry granular interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Lefebvre, Gautier

    2013-04-01

    To model the dynamic of landslides, the evolution of the interface between the erodible ground and the flowing material is still studied experimentally or numerically (ie. Mangeney et al. 2010, Iverson 2012). In some cases, the basal material is more cohesive than the flowing one. Such situation arises for example due to cementation or humidity. What are the exchange rates between these phases? What is the coupling between the evolution of the interface and the flow? We studied the erosion phenomenon and performed laboratory experiments to focus on the interaction between a cohesive unsaturated granular material and a dry granular flow. Both materials were spherical grains, the cohesion being induced by adding a given mass of liquid to the grains. Two configurations were explored: a circular aggregate submitted to a dry flow in a rotating drum, and a granular flow eroding a wet granular pile. First, we focused on the influence of the cohesion, controlled by the liquid properties, such as the surface tension and the viscosity. Then the flow characteristics were modified by varying the grain size and density. These results allowed us to present a model for the erosion mechanisms, based on the flow and fluid properties. The main results are the need to take into account the whole probability distribution the stress applied on the wet grains and that both the surface tension and the viscosity are important since they play a different roles. The latter is mainly responsible of the time scale of the dynamic of a wet grain, while the former acts as a threshold on the force distribution. In the second configuration, we could also control the inclination of the slope. This system supported the previous model and moreover revealed an interface instability, leading the formation of steep steps, which is a reminiscence of the cyclic-steps observed during river-channel incision (Parker and Izumi 2000). We will present the dynamics of such granular steps. [1] Mangeney, A., O

  1. Electromagnetic properties of Fe-Co granular composite materials containing acicular nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Teruhiro; Massango, Herieta; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2018-03-01

    Electromagnetic properties of acicular (needle-like) Fe76Co24 nanoparticle composite materials have been studied in microwave frequency range up to 20 GHz. The Fe76Co24 particles are commercially available acicular Fe76Co24 nanoparticles with an approximate length and diameter of 100 and 25 nm, respectively. The Fe76Co24 nanocomposites were prepared by embedding the Fe76Co24 nanoparticle in an appropriate resin. Since the metallic Fe76Co24 nanoparticles have an oxidized surface, even high particle content composites at 78 vol.%, which is in the percolated state, does not show metallic conduction; a low frequency plasmonic state with the negative permittivity spectrum was not observed. Meanwhile, the negative permeability spectrum caused by the magnetic resonance in Fe76Co24 alloy was obtained in the high particle content composites. From the measurement of the complex permeability spectra under the external dc magnetic field, it was clarified that the gyromagnetic spin rotation mainly contributes to the permeability spectrum of nanocomposites due to extremely small quantity of domain walls in the acicular nanoparticles. This result suggests that the negative permeability spectrum was caused by the gyromagnetic spin resonance. By the comparison of the complex permeability spectrum between the acicular Fe76Co24 nanocomposite and the spherical Fe50Co50 microcomposite, the gyromagnetic spin resonance frequency of the acicular nanocomposite tends to locate higher than that of the spherical microcomposite owing to the demagnetizing field effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the negative permeability frequency band of the acicular nanocomposite is higher than that of the spherical microcomposite at the same particle content.

  2. A two-phase debris-flow model that includes coupled evolution of volume fractions, granular dilatancy, and pore-fluid pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.

  3. Behavior of pressure and viscosity at high densities for two-dimensional hard and soft granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, Michio; Hayakawa, Hisao; Luding, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The pressure and the viscosity in two-dimensional sheared granular assemblies are investigated numerically. The behavior of both pressure and viscosity is smoothly changing qualitatively when starting from a mono-disperse hard-disk system without dissipation and moving towards a system of (i)

  4. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  5. Traffic and Granular Flow’05

    CERN Document Server

    Pöschel, Thorsten; Kühne, Reinhart; Schreckenberg, Michael; Wolf, Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    The conference series Tra?c and Granular Flow has been established in 1995 and has since then been held biannually. At that time, the investigation of granular materials and tra?c was still somewhat exotic and was just starting to become popular among physicists. Originally the idea behind this conference series was to facilitate the c- vergence of the two ?elds, inspired by the similarities of certain phenomena and the use of similar theoretical methods. However, in recent years it has become clear that probably the di?erences between the two systems are much more interesting than the similarities. Nevertheless, the importance of various interrelations among these ?elds is still growing. The workshop continues to o?er an opportunity to stimulate this interdisciplinary research. Over the years the spectrum of topics has become much broader and has included also problems related to topics ranging from social dynamics to - ology. The conference manages to bring together people with rather di?erent background, r...

  6. Cavitation and multiphase flow forum - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyt, J.W.; Furuya, O.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on fluid flow. Topics considered at the conference included cavitation inception, bubble growth, cavitation noise, holography, axial flow pumps, vortices, cavitation erosion, two-phase flow in nozzles, coal slurry valves, hopper flows of granular materials, helium bubble transport in a closed vertical duct, and a numerical model for flow in a venturi scrubber

  7. Fracture surfaces of granular pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Abdelhaye, Y O; Chaouche, M; Van Damme, H

    2013-11-01

    Granular pastes are dense dispersions of non-colloidal grains in a simple or a complex fluid. Typical examples are the coating, gluing or sealing mortars used in building applications. We study the cohesive rupture of thick mortar layers in a simple pulling test where the paste is initially confined between two flat surfaces. After hardening, the morphology of the fracture surfaces was investigated, using either the box counting method to analyze fracture profiles perpendicular to the mean fracture plane, or the slit-island method to analyze the islands obtained by cutting the fracture surfaces at different heights, parallel to the mean fracture plane. The fracture surfaces were shown to exhibit scaling properties over several decades. However, contrary to what has been observed in the brittle or ductile fracture of solid materials, the islands were shown to be mass fractals. This was related to the extensive plastic flow involved in the fracture process.

  8. Thin film plasma coatings from dielectric free-flowing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, L.A.; Katrich, S.A.; Solntsev, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film plasma coatings from insulating free-flowing materials is considered. Molybdenum-tart ammonium coating of 3...5 μ thickness deposited on glassy carbon, aluminium, silicon, nickel, cast iron and steel substrates in 'Bulat-ZT' machine using insulating free-flowing materials cathod was found to form due to adsorption, absorption and dissuasion processes. The use of insulating free-flowing materials coatings allow to exclude pure metals cathods in plasma-plating process

  9. The Effect of Binder and Waste Granular Materials (WGM on the Shear Strength and Shear Resistance of Dredged Marine Soils (DMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman Mohammad Zawawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dredged marine soil (DMS is considered as weak and soft problematic soil. It is possible to give this type of soil a second life if only its geotechnical properties are improved. Infusing soil with solidification agent is the common practice of soil improvement. This study uses binder and waste granular material (WGM such as cement, bottom ash (BA and palm oil clinker (POC. The aforementioned materials are capable to fortify the poor features of the soil. Series numbers of soil bed samples were tested for its shear strength and shear resistance. Test results show that the mentioned soil parameters were corresponded with each other. In short, geo-waste and biomass materials are possible to be reused instead of being discarded.

  10. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  11. Challenges of particle flow reconstruction in the CMS High-Granularity Calorimeter at the High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chlebana, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The challenges of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are driven by the large number of overlapping proton-proton collisions (pileup) in each bunch-crossing and the extreme radiation dose to detectors positioned at high pseudorapidity. To overcome this challenge CMS is designing and implementing an endcap electromagnetic+hadronic sampling calorimeter employing silicon pad devices in the electromagnetic and front hadronic sections, comprising over 6 million channels, and highly-segmented plastic scintillators in the rear part of the hadronic section. This High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) will be the first of its kind used in a colliding beam experiment. Clustering deposits of energy over many cells and layers is a complex and challenging computational task, particularly in the high-pileup and high-event-rate environment of HL-LHC. These challenges and their solutions will be discussed in detail, as well as their implementation in the HGCAL offline reconstruction. Baseline detector performance results will be ...

  12. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  13. Distrofia corneal granular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeide de la C Castillo Pérez

    Full Text Available Las distrofias corneales constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades que presentan, en su mayoría, una baja incidencia y se caracterizan por acúmulo de material hialino o amiloide que disminuyen la transparencia corneal. La distrofia granular es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que presenta opacidades grises en el estroma superficial central de la córnea y se hacen visibles en la primera y segunda décadas de la vida, lo que provoca disminución de la visión más significativa cerca de los 40 años de edad. Presentamos dos casos clínicos de distrofia granular en pacientes hermanos de diferentes sexos, quienes acudieron a la consulta y refirieron visión nublada. El estudio de la historia familiar nos ayuda en el correcto diagnóstico y la biomicroscopia constituye el elemento más importante.

  14. Effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liru; Aye, Lu [International Technologies Center (IDTC), Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Lu, Zhongwu [Institute of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhang, Peihong [Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Shenyang Architecture University, Shenyang 110168 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Many energy-intensive process industries have complex material flows, which have a strong effect on the overall energy intensity of the final product (OEIF). This problem, however, has only been recognised qualitatively due to the lack of quantitative analysis methods. This paper presents an in-depth quantitative analysis of the effect of material flows on energy intensity in process industries. Based on the concept of a standard material flow diagram (SMFD), as used in steel manufacturing, the SMFD for a generic process industry was first developed. Then material flow scenarios were addressed in a practical material flow diagram (PMFD) using the characteristics of practical process industries. The effect of each material flow deviating from a SMFD on the OEIF was analysed. The steps involved in analysing the effect of material flows in a PMFD on its energy intensity are also discussed in detail. Finally, using 1999 statistical data from the Chinese Zhenzhou alumina refinery plant, the PMFD and SMFD for this plant were constructed as a case study. The effect of material flows on the overall energy intensity of alumina (OEIA) was thus analysed quantitatively. To decrease OEIA, the process variations which decrease the product ratios could be employed in all except in multi-supplied fraction cases. In these cases, the fractions from the stream with lower energy intensities should be increased. (author)

  15. Modeling of light dynamic cone penetration test - Panda 3 ® in granular material by using 3D Discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quoc Anh; Chevalier, Bastien; Benz, Miguel; Breul, Pierre; Gourvès, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The recent technological developments made on the light dynamic penetration test Panda 3 ® provide a dynamic load-penetration curve σp - sp for each impact. This curve is influenced by the mechanical and physical properties of the investigated granular media. In order to analyze and exploit the load-penetration curve, a numerical model of penetration test using 3D Discrete Element Method is proposed for reproducing tests in dynamic conditions in granular media. All parameters of impact used in this model have at first been calibrated by respecting mechanical and geometrical properties of the hammer and the rod. There is a good agreement between experimental results and the ones obtained from simulations in 2D or 3D. After creating a sample, we will simulate the Panda 3 ®. It is possible to measure directly the dynamic load-penetration curve occurring at the tip for each impact. Using the force and acceleration measured in the top part of the rod, it is possible to separate the incident and reflected waves and then calculate the tip's load-penetration curve. The load-penetration curve obtained is qualitatively similar with that obtained by experimental tests. In addition, the frequency analysis of the measured signals present also a good compliance with that measured in reality when the tip resistance is qualitatively similar.

  16. Role of gravity or confining pressure and contact stiffness in granular rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.; Saitoh, K.; Magnanimo, Vanessa; Luding, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The steady-state shear rheology of granular materials is investigated in slow quasistatic and inertial flows. The effect of gravity (thus the local pressure) and the often-neglected contact stiffness are the focus of this study. A series of particle simulations are performed on a weakly frictional

  17. Deformation and flow of polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Münstedt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the properties of single polymer molecules and polymeric materials and the methods how to characterize them. Molar masses, molar mass distributions and branching structure are discussed in detail. These properties are decisive for a deeper understanding of structure/properties relationships of polymeric materials. This book therefore describes and discusses them in detail. The mechanical behavior as a function of time and temperature is a key subject of the book. The authors present it on the basis of many original results they have obtained in their long research careers. They present the temperature dependence of mechanical properties of various polymeric materials in a wide temperature range: from cryogenic temperatures to the melt. Besides an extensive data collection on the transitions of various different polymeric materials, they also carefully present the physical explanations of the observed phenomena. Glass transition and melting temperatures are discussed, particularly, with the...

  18. Grain-scale numerical modeling of granular mechanics and fluid dynamics and application in a glacial context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Anders; Egholm, David Lundbek; Beem, Lucas H.

    The macroscopic behavior of granular materials is the result of the self-organizing complexity of the constituent grains. Granular materials are known for their ability to change phase, where each phase is characterized by distinct mechanical properties. This rich generic phenomenology has made...... it difficult to constrain generalized and adequate mathematical models for their mechanical behavior. Glaciers and ice streams often move by deformation of underlying melt-water saturated sediments. Glacier flow models including subglacial sediment deformation use simplified a priori assumptions for sediment......, the method imposes intense computational requirements on the computational time step. The majority of steps in the granular dynamics algorithm are massively parallel, which makes the DEM an obvious candidate for exploiting the capabilities of modern GPUs. The granular computations are coupled to a fluid...

  19. Calculation of the dynamic air flow resistivity of fibre materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    The acoustic attenuation of acoustic fiber materials is mainly determined by the dynamic resistivity to an oscillating air flow. The dynamic resistance is calculated for a model with geometry close to the geometry of real fibre material. The model constists of parallel cylinders placed randomly.......The second procedure is an extension to oscillating air flow of the Brinkman self-consistent procedure for dc flow. The procedures are valid for volume concentrations of cylinders less than 0.1. The calculations show that for the density of fibers of interest for acoustic fibre materials the simple self...

  20. Global nuclear material flow/control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies

  1. Granular corneal dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Pérez, Alexeide de la C; Vilches Lescaille, Daysi; Noriega, Justo Luis; Martínez Balido, Daneel; León Balbón, Bárbaro Ramón; León Bernal, Danysleidi

    2015-01-01

    Las distrofias corneales constituyen un conjunto de enfermedades que presentan, en su mayoría, una baja incidencia y se caracterizan por acúmulo de material hialino o amiloide que disminuyen la transparencia corneal. La distrofia granular es una enfermedad autosómica dominante que presenta opacidades grises en el estroma superficial central de la córnea y se hacen visibles en la primera y segunda décadas de la vida, lo que provoca disminución de la visión más significativa cerca de los 40 año...

  2. Tracing Thermal Creep Through Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinpilz, Tobias; Teiser, Jens; Koester, Marc; Schywek, Mathias; Wurm, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    A temperature gradient within a granular medium at low ambient pressure drives a gas flow through the medium by thermal creep. We measured the resulting air flow for a sample of glass beads with particle diameters between 290 μ m and 420 μ m for random close packing. Ambient pressure was varied between 1 Pa and 1000 Pa. The gas flow was quantified by means of tracer particles during parabolic flights. The flow varies systematically with pressure between 0.2 cm/s and 6 cm/s. The measured flow velocities are in quantitative agreement to model calculations that treat the granular medium as a collection of linear capillaries.

  3. Isotope specific arbitrary material flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.; Post, John C.; Jones, Edwin

    2016-10-25

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  4. Automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, I.; Vasko, M.; Daniska, V.; Schultz, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation the automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process is discussed. It is concluded that: computer simulation of the decommissioning process is one of the important attributes of computer code Omega; one of the basic tools of computer optimisation of decommissioning waste processing are the tools of integral material and radioactivity flow; all the calculated parameters of materials are stored in each point of calculation process and they can be viewed; computer code Omega represents opened modular system, which can be improved; improvement of the module of optimisation of decommissioning waste processing will be performed in the frame of improvement of material procedures and scenarios.

  5. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  6. Two-phase modeling of deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular materials: A critical examination of modeling issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Son, S.F.; Kapila, A.K.; Stewart, D.S.

    1999-01-01

    The two-phase mixture model developed by Baer and Nunziato (BN) to study the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in granular explosives is critically reviewed. The continuum-mixture theory foundation of the model is examined, with particular attention paid to the manner in which its constitutive functions are formulated. Connections between the mechanical and energetic phenomena occurring at the scales of the grains, and their manifestations on the continuum averaged scale, are explored. The nature and extent of approximations inherent in formulating the constitutive terms, and their domain of applicability, are clarified. Deficiencies and inconsistencies in the derivation are cited, and improvements suggested. It is emphasized that the entropy inequality constrains but does not uniquely determine the phase interaction terms. The resulting flexibility is exploited to suggest improved forms for the phase interactions. These improved forms better treat the energy associated with the dynamic compaction of the bed and the single-phase limits of the model. Companion papers of this study [Kapila et al., Phys. Fluids 9, 3885 (1997); Kapila et al., in preparation; Son et al., in preparation] examine simpler, reduced models, in which the fine scales of velocity and pressure disequilibrium between the phases allow the corresponding relaxation zones to be treated as discontinuities that need not be resolved in a numerical computation. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  7. Current challenges for pre-earthquake electromagnetic emissions: shedding light from micro-scale plastic flow, granular packings, phase transitions and self-affinity notion of fracture process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eftaxias

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there credible electromagnetic (EM potential earthquake (EQ precursors? This a question debated in the scientific community and there may be legitimate reasons for the critical views. The negative view concerning the existence of EM potential precursors is enhanced by features that accompany their observation which are considered as paradox ones, namely, these signals: (i are not observed at the time of EQs occurrence and during the aftershock period, (ii are not accompanied by large precursory strain changes, (iii are not accompanied by simultaneous geodetic or seismological precursors and (iv their traceability is considered problematic. In this work, the detected candidate EM potential precursors are studied through a shift in thinking towards the basic science findings relative to granular packings, micron-scale plastic flow, interface depinning, fracture size effects, concepts drawn from phase transitions, self-affine notion of fracture and faulting process, universal features of fracture surfaces, recent high quality laboratory studies, theoretical models and numerical simulations. We try to contribute to the establishment of strict criteria for the definition of an emerged EM anomaly as a possibly EQ-related one, and to the explanation of potential precursory EM features which have been considered as paradoxes. A three-stage model for EQ generation by means of pre-EQ fracture-induced EM emissions is proposed. The claim that the observed EM potential precursors may permit a real-time and step-by-step monitoring of the EQ generation is tested.

  8. Current challenges for pre-earthquake electromagnetic emissions: shedding light from micro-scale plastic flow, granular packings, phase transitions and self-affinity notion of fracture process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftaxias, K.; Potirakis, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Are there credible electromagnetic (EM) potential earthquake (EQ) precursors? This a question debated in the scientific community and there may be legitimate reasons for the critical views. The negative view concerning the existence of EM potential precursors is enhanced by features that accompany their observation which are considered as paradox ones, namely, these signals: (i) are not observed at the time of EQs occurrence and during the aftershock period, (ii) are not accompanied by large precursory strain changes, (iii) are not accompanied by simultaneous geodetic or seismological precursors and (iv) their traceability is considered problematic. In this work, the detected candidate EM potential precursors are studied through a shift in thinking towards the basic science findings relative to granular packings, micron-scale plastic flow, interface depinning, fracture size effects, concepts drawn from phase transitions, self-affine notion of fracture and faulting process, universal features of fracture surfaces, recent high quality laboratory studies, theoretical models and numerical simulations. We try to contribute to the establishment of strict criteria for the definition of an emerged EM anomaly as a possibly EQ-related one, and to the explanation of potential precursory EM features which have been considered as paradoxes. A three-stage model for EQ generation by means of pre-EQ fracture-induced EM emissions is proposed. The claim that the observed EM potential precursors may permit a real-time and step-by-step monitoring of the EQ generation is tested.

  9. Performance analysis of flow lines with non-linear flow of material

    CERN Document Server

    Helber, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Flow line design is one of the major tasks in production management. The decision to install a set of machines and buffers is often highly irreversible. It determines both cost and revenue to a large extent. In order to assess the economic impact of any possible flow line design, production rates and inventory levels have to be estimated. These performance measures depend on the allocation of buffers whenever the flow of material is occasionally disrupted, for example due to machine failures or quality problems. The book describes analytical methods that can be used to evaluate flow lines much faster than with simulation techniques. Based on these fast analytical techniques, it is possible to determine a flow line design that maximizes the net present value of the flow line investment. The flow of material through the line may be non-linear, for example due to assembly operations or quality inspections.

  10. Grain scale simulation of multiphase flow through porous media; Simulacao em escala granular do escoamento multifasico em meio poroso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Ricardo Golghetto; Cheng, Liang-Yee [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    2012-07-01

    Since the grain scale modeling of multi-phase flow in porous media is of great interest for the oil industry, the aim of the present research is to show an implementation of Moving Particle Semi-Implicit (MPS) method for the grain scale simulation of multi-phase flow in porous media. Geometry data obtained by a high-resolution CT scan of a sandstone sample has been used as input for the simulations. The results of the simulations performed considering different resolutions are given, the head loss and permeability obtained numerically, as well as the influence of the wettability of the fluids inside the sample of the reservoir's sandstone. (author)

  11. E-learning Materials Development: Applying and Implementing Software Reuse Principles and Granularity Levels in the Small

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Arman

    2010-01-01

    E-learning materials development is typically acknowledged as an expensive, complicated, and lengthy process, often producing materials that are of low quality and difficult to adaptand maintain. It has always been a challenge to identify proper e-learning materials that can be reused at a reasonable cost and effort. In this paper, software engineering reuse principlesare applied to e-learning materials development process. These principles are then applied and implemented in a prototype that...

  12. Advanced Granular System Modeling, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceports of the future will utilize new granular materials in unique applications including insulation for cryogenic tanks and Lunar regolith processing for usable...

  13. Storage and discharge of a granular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Martinez, Hector; van Gerner, Henk Jan; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2008-02-01

    Experiments and computational simulations are carried out to study the behavior of a granular column in a silo whose walls are able to vibrate horizontally. The column is brought to a steady fluidized state and it behaves similar to a hydrostatic system. We study the dynamics of the granular discharge through openings at the bottom of the silo in order to search for a Torricelli-like behavior. We show that the flow rate scales with the wall induced shear rate, and at high rates, the granular bed indeed discharges similar to a viscous fluid.

  14. Architected squirt-flow materials for energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tal; Kurzeja, Patrick; Bertoldi, Katia

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we explore material architectures that lead to enhanced dissipation properties by taking advantage of squirt-flow - a local flow mechanism triggered by heterogeneities at the pore level. While squirt-flow is a known dominant source of dissipation and seismic attenuation in fluid saturated geological materials, we study its untapped potential to be incorporated in highly deformable elastic materials with embedded fluid-filled cavities for future engineering applications. An analytical investigation, that isolates the squirt-flow mechanism from other potential dissipation mechanisms and considers an idealized setting, predicts high theoretical levels of dissipation achievable by squirt-flow and establishes a set of guidelines for optimal dissipation design. Particular architectures are then investigated via numerical simulations showing that a careful design of the internal voids can lead to an increase of dissipation levels by an order of magnitude, compared with equivalent homogeneous void distributions. Therefore, we suggest squirt-flow as a promising mechanism to be incorporated in future architected materials to effectively and reversibly dissipate energy.

  15. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to Be Used in Subballast Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Sgnes, C.

    2016-07-01

    Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the analysis of unbound mixtures of granular materials with different percentages of rubber particles to be used as subballast layers. Mixtures are tested under cyclic triaxial tests so as to obtain their resilient modulus and evaluate their permanent deformations. It is found that as the rubber content increases, the resilient modulus decreases and the permanent deformation increases. Taking into account the usual loads transmitted to the subballast layer, the optimum rubber content that does not compromise the behaviour of the mixture is set in a range between 2.5% and 5% in terms of weight. (Author)

  16. ASSESSMENT OF PLASTIC FLOWS AND STOCKS IN SERBIA USING MATERIAL FLOW ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vujić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Material flow analysis (MFA was used to assess the amounts of plastic materials flows and stocks that are annually produced, consumed, imported, exported, collected, recycled, and disposed in the landfills in Serbia. The analysis revealed that approximatelly 269,000 tons of plastic materials are directly disposed in uncontrolled landfills in Serbia without any preatretment, and that siginificant amounts of these materials have already accumulated in the landfills. The substantial amounts of landfilled plastics represent not only a loss of valuable recourses, but also pose a seriuos treath to the environment and human health, and if the trend of direct plastic landfilling is continued, Serbia will face with grave consecequnces.

  17. Flow-permeability feedbacks and the development of segregation pipes in volcanic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Flow and transformation in volcanic porous media is important for the segregation of melts and aqueous fluids from magmas as well as elutriation of fine ash from pyroclastic flows and vents. The general topic will be discussed in the framework of understanding sets of vertical pipes found in two very different types of volcanic deposits: 1) vesicular (bubbly) cylinders in basalt lava flows and 2) gas escape pipes in pyroclastic flow deposits. In both cases the cylinders can be explained by a flow-permeability feedback where perturbations in porosity and thus permeability cause locally higher flow speeds that in turn locally increase the permeability. For vesicular cylinders in lava flows, the porous medium is a framework of crystals within the magma. Above a critical crystallinity, which depends on the shape and size distribution of the crystals, the crystals form a touching framework. As the water-saturated magma continues to cool, it crystallizes anhydrous minerals, resulting in the exsolution of water vapour bubbles that can drive flow of bubbly melt through the crystal network. It is common to find sets of vertical cylinders of bubby melt in solidified lava flows, with compositions that match the residual melt from 35-50% crystallization of the host basalt. These cylinders resemble chimneys in experiments of crystallising ammonium chloride solution that are explained by reactive flow with porous medium convection. The Rayleigh number for the magmatic case is too low for convection but the growth of steam bubbles as the magma crystallizes induces pore fluid flow up through the permeable crystal pile even if there is no convective instability. This bubble-growth-driven upward flow is reactive and can lead to channelization because of a feedback between velocity and permeability. For the gas escape pipes in pyroclastic flows, the porous medium is a very poorly sorted granular material composed of fragments of solid magma with a huge range of grain sizes from ash

  18. Bubbling in vibrated granular films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamankhan, Piroz

    2011-02-01

    With the help of experiments, computer simulations, and a theoretical investigation, a general model is developed of the flow dynamics of dense granular media immersed in air in an intermediate regime where both collisional and frictional interactions may affect the flow behavior. The model is tested using the example of a system in which bubbles and solid structures are produced in granular films shaken vertically. Both experiments and large-scale, three-dimensional simulations of this system are performed. The experimental results are compared with the results of the simulation to verify the validity of the model. The data indicate evidence of formation of bubbles when peak acceleration relative to gravity exceeds a critical value Γ(b). The air-grain interfaces of bubblelike structures are found to exhibit fractal structure with dimension D=1.7±0.05.

  19. Strain localisation in granular media

    OpenAIRE

    Desrues , Jacques

    1984-01-01

    This study is devoted to strain localisation in Granular materials. Both experimental and theoretical results have been obtained.The first part of the thesis is a review of the methods and theories about rupture in sols mechanics and more generally, in solid mechanics. The classical framework of Shear Band analysis is presented, and the main results available for different classes of materials are discussed.The second part describes an experimental study of strain localisation in sand specime...

  20. Applying flow chemistry: methods, materials, and multistep synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H

    2013-07-05

    The synthesis of complex molecules requires control over both chemical reactivity and reaction conditions. While reactivity drives the majority of chemical discovery, advances in reaction condition control have accelerated method development/discovery. Recent tools include automated synthesizers and flow reactors. In this Synopsis, we describe how flow reactors have enabled chemical advances in our groups in the areas of single-stage reactions, materials synthesis, and multistep reactions. In each section, we detail the lessons learned and propose future directions.

  1. A Theory of Material Spike Formation in Flow Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Mattia; Haller, George

    2017-11-01

    We develop a frame-invariant theory of material spike formation during flow separation over a no-slip boundary in two-dimensional flows with arbitrary time dependence. This theory identifies both fixed and moving separation, is effective also over short-time intervals, and admits a rigorous instantaneous limit. Our theory is based on topological properties of material lines, combining objectively stretching- and rotation-based kinematic quantities. The separation profile identified here serves as the theoretical backbone for the material spike from its birth to its fully developed shape, and remains hidden to existing approaches. Finally, our theory can be used to rigorously explain the perception of off-wall separation in unsteady flows, and more importantly, provide the conditions under which such a perception is justified. We illustrate our results in several examples including steady, time-periodic and unsteady analytic velocity fields with flat and curved boundaries, and an experimental dataset.

  2. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Frank [The Open University, Faculty of Maths, Computing and Technology, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  3. Linking material and energy flow analyses and social theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores the potential of Habermas' theory of communicative action to alter the social reflexivity of material and energy flow analysis. With his social macro theory Habermas has provided an alternative, critical justification for social theory that can be distinguished from economic libertarianism and from political liberalism. Implicitly, most flow approaches draw from these theoretical traditions rather than from discourse theory. There are several types of material and energy flow analyses. While these concepts basically share a system theoretical view, they lack a specific interdisciplinary perspective that ties the fundamental insight of flows to disciplinary scientific development. Instead of simply expanding micro-models to the social macro-dimension social theory suggests infusing the very notion of flows to the progress of disciplines. With regard to the functional integration of society, material and energy flow analyses can rely on the paradigm of ecological economics and at the same time progress the debate between strong and weak sustainability within the paradigm. However, placing economics at the centre of their functional analyses may still ignore the broader social integration of society, depending on their pre-analytic outline of research and the methods used. (author)

  4. Use of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ashes in alkali-activated materials, ceramics and granular applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R V; de Brito, J; Lynn, C J; Dhir, R K

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents a literature review on the incorporation of municipal solid waste incinerated bottom ash as raw material in several markets, other than those where it is conventionally used, such as geotechnical applications and road pavement construction. The main findings of an ample selection of experimental investigations on the use of the bottom ash as precursor of alkali-activated materials, as an adsorbent material for the removal of hazardous elements from wastewater and landfill gases, as soil replacement in agricultural activities, as partial or complete substitute of raw materials for the manufacture of ceramic-based products, as landfill cover and as biogas production enhancer, were gathered, collated and analysed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Computer simulation of hopper flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, A.V.; Campbell, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two-dimensional computer simulations of granular flow in plane hoppers. The simulations can reproduce an experimentally observed asymmetric unsteadiness for monodispersed particle sizes, but also could eliminate it by adding a small amount of polydispersity. This appears to be a result of the strong packings that may be formed by monodispersed particles and is thus a noncontinuum effect. The internal stress state was also sampled, which among other things, allows an evaluation of common assumptions made in granular material models. These showed that the internal friction coefficient is far from a constant, which is in contradiction to common models based on plasticity theory which assume that the material is always at the point of imminent yield. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that rapid granular flow theory, another common modeling technique, is inapplicable to this problem even near the exit where the flow is moving its fastest. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. CASH-FLOW SENSITIVITY TO PAYMENTS FOR MATERIAL RESSOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Elena BRÎNDESCU OLARIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The financing decision is taken based on the expectations concerning the future cash-flows generated in the operating activity, which should provide coverage for the debt service and allow for an increase of the shareholders’ wealth. Still, the future cash-flows are affected by risk, which makes the sensitivity analysis a very important part of the decision process. The current research sets to evaluate the sensitivity of the payment capacity to variations of the payments for raw materials and consumables. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flow statements collected from 50 companies together with detailed information concerning the hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study allow for the establishment of benchmarks for the payment capacity’s sensitivity, the determination of the mechanisms through which the variation of payments for raw materials and consumables impacts the payment capacity, as well as the identification of the possible causes of such a variation.

  7. Analysis of Material Flow in Screw Extrusion of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bjoern; Oernskar, Magnus; Welo, Torgeir; Wideroee, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Screw extrusion of aluminum is a new process for production of aluminum profiles. The commercial potential could be large. Little experimental and numerical work has been done with respect to this process.The material flow of hot aluminum in a screw extruder has been analyzed using finite element formulations for the non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. Aluminum material properties are modeled using the Zener-Holloman material model. Effects of stick-slip conditions are investigated with respect to pressure build up and mixing quality of the extrusion process.The numerical results are compared with physical experiments using an experimental screw extruder.

  8. Granular Gases: Probing the Boundaries of Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhirsch, I.

    1999-01-01

    The dissipative nature of the particle interactions in granular systems renders granular gases mesoscopic and bearing some similarities to regular gases in the ''continuum transition regime'' where shear rates and/or thermal gradients are very large). The following properties of granular gases support the above claim: (i). Mean free times are of the same order as macroscopic time scales (inverse shear rates); (ii). Mean free paths can be macroscopic and comparable to the system's dimensions; (iii). Typical flows are supersonic; (iv). Shear rates are typically ''large''; (v). Stress fields are scale (resolution) dependent; (vi). Burnett and super-Burnett corrections to both the constitutive relations and the boundary conditions are of importance; (vii). Single particle distribution functions can be far from Gaussian. It is concluded that while hydrodynamic descriptions of granular gases are relevant, they are probing the boundaries of applicability of hydrodynamics and perhaps slightly beyond

  9. Pore-scale simulations of drainage in granular materials: Finite size effects and the representative elementary volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chao; Chareyre, Bruno; Darve, Félix

    2016-09-01

    A pore-scale model is introduced for two-phase flow in dense packings of polydisperse spheres. The model is developed as a component of a more general hydromechanical coupling framework based on the discrete element method, which will be elaborated in future papers and will apply to various processes of interest in soil science, in geomechanics and in oil and gas production. Here the emphasis is on the generation of a network of pores mapping the void space between spherical grains, and the definition of local criteria governing the primary drainage process. The pore space is decomposed by Regular Triangulation, from which a set of pores connected by throats are identified. A local entry capillary pressure is evaluated for each throat, based on the balance of capillary pressure and surface tension at equilibrium. The model reflects the possible entrapment of disconnected patches of the receding wetting phase. It is validated by a comparison with drainage experiments. In the last part of the paper, a series of simulations are reported to illustrate size and boundary effects, key questions when studying small samples made of spherical particles be it in simulations or experiments. Repeated tests on samples of different sizes give evolution of water content which are not only scattered but also strongly biased for small sample sizes. More than 20,000 spheres are needed to reduce the bias on saturation below 0.02. Additional statistics are generated by subsampling a large sample of 64,000 spheres. They suggest that the minimal sampling volume for evaluating saturation is one hundred times greater that the sampling volume needed for measuring porosity with the same accuracy. This requirement in terms of sample size induces a need for efficient computer codes. The method described herein has a low algorithmic complexity in order to satisfy this requirement. It will be well suited to further developments toward coupled flow-deformation problems in which evolution of the

  10. Reutilisation-extended material flows and circular economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Tianzhu; Liang, Sai

    2013-06-01

    Circular economy (CE), with its basic principle of Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle, has been determined as the key strategy for the national development plan by the Chinese government. Given the economy-wide material flow analysis (EW-MFA) that leaves the inner flow of resource reutilisation unidentified, the reutilisation-extended EW-MFA is first introduced to evaluate and analyse the material input, solid waste generation, and reutilisation simultaneously. The total amount of comprehensive reutilisation (CR) is divided into three sub-flows, namely, reutilisation, recycle, and reuse. Thus, this model is used to investigate the resource CR in China from 2000 to 2010. China's total amount of CR and its sub-flows, as well as the CR rate, remain to have a general upward trend. By the year 2010, about 60% of the overall solid waste generation had already been reutilised, and more than 20% of the total resource requirement was reutilised resource. Moreover, the growth patterns of the CR sub flows show different characteristics. Interpretations of resource reutilisation-related laws and regulations of CE and the corresponding policy suggestions are proposed based on the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational simulation of heat transfer in laser melted material flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.; Gnanamuthu, D.

    1986-01-01

    A computational procedure has been developed to study the heat transfer process in laser-melted material flow associated with surface heat treatment of metallic alloys to improve wear-and-tear and corrosion resistance. The time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, accounting for both convective and conductive heat transfer processes. The convection, induced by surface tension and high surface temperature gradients, sets up a counterrotating vortex flow within the molten pool. This recirculating material flow is responsible for determining the molten pool shape and the associated cooling rates which affect the solidifying material composition. The numerical method involves an implicit triple-approximate factorization scheme for the energy equation, and an explicit treatment for the momentum and the continuity equations. An experimental setup, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser beam as a heat source, has been carried out to generate data for validation of the computational model. Results in terms of the depth, width, and shape of the molten pool and the heat-affected zone for various power settings and shapes of the laser, and for various travel speeds of the workpiece, compare very well with experimental data. The presence of the surface tension-induced vortex flow is demonstrated

  12. Eight energy and material flow characteristics of urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Recent decades have seen an expanding literature exploring urban energy and material flows, loosely branded as urban metabolism analysis. However, this has occurred largely in parallel to the mainstream studies of cities as ecosystems. This paper aims to conceptually bridge these two distinctive fields of research, by (a) identifying the common aspects between them; (b) identifying key characteristics of urban ecosystems that can be derived from energy and material flow analysis, namely energy and material budget and pathways; flow intensity; energy and material efficiency; rate of resource depletion, accumulation and transformation; self-sufficiency or external dependency; intra-system heterogeneity; intersystem and temporal variation; and regulating mechanism and governing capacity. I argue that significant ecological insight can be, or has the potential to be, drawn from the rich and rapidly growing empirical findings of urban metabolism studies to understand the behaviour of cities as human-dominated, complex systems. A closer intellectual linkage and cross pollination between urban metabolism and urban ecosystem studies will advance our scientific understanding and better inform urban policy and management practices.

  13. A trans-phase granular continuum relation and its use in simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrin, Ken; Dunatunga, Sachith; Askari, Hesam

    The ability to model a large granular system as a continuum would offer tremendous benefits in computation time compared to discrete particle methods. However, two infamous problems arise in the pursuit of this vision: (i) the constitutive relation for granular materials is still unclear and hotly debated, and (ii) a model and corresponding numerical method must wear ``many hats'' as, in general circumstances, it must be able to capture and accurately represent the material as it crosses through its collisional, dense-flowing, and solid-like states. Here we present a minimal trans-phase model, merging an elastic response beneath a fictional yield criterion, a mu(I) rheology for liquid-like flow above the static yield criterion, and a disconnection rule to model separation of the grains into a low-temperature gas. We simulate our model with a meshless method (in high strain/mixing cases) and the finite-element method. It is able to match experimental data in many geometries, including collapsing columns, impact on granular beds, draining silos, and granular drag problems.

  14. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Laner, David; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    material source-segregation and collection was the least effective strategy for reducing chemical contamination, if the overall recycling rates should be maintained at the current level (approximately 70% for Europe). The study provides a consistent approach for evaluating contaminant levels in material......This study provides a systematic approach for assessment of contaminants in materials for recycling. Paper recycling is used as an illustrative example. Three selected chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs), are evaluated within the paper...... cycle. The approach combines static material flow analysis (MFA) with dynamic material and substance flow modeling. The results indicate that phasing out of chemicals is the most effective measure for reducing chemical contamination. However, this scenario was also associated with a considerable lag...

  15. Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Selegue

    2011-11-17

    During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.

  16. Systematic Evaluation of Uncertainty in Material Flow Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a tool to investigate material flows and stocks in defined systems as a basis for resource management or environmental pollution control. Because of the diverse nature of sources and the varying quality and availability of data, MFA results are inherently uncertain....... Uncertainty analyses have received increasing attention in recent MFA studies, but systematic approaches for selection of appropriate uncertainty tools are missing. This article reviews existing literature related to handling of uncertainty in MFA studies and evaluates current practice of uncertainty analysis......) and exploratory MFA (identification of critical parameters and system behavior). Whereas mathematically simpler concepts focusing on data uncertainty characterization are appropriate for descriptive MFAs, statistical approaches enabling more-rigorous evaluation of uncertainty and model sensitivity are needed...

  17. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Constitutive law of dense granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The frictional properties of dense granular matter under steady shear flow are investigated using numerical simulation. Shear flow tends to localize near the driving boundary unless the coefficient of restitution is close to zero and the driving velocity is small. The bulk friction coefficient is independent of shear rate in dense and slow flow, whereas it is an increasing function of shear rate in rapid flow. The coefficient of restitution affects the friction coefficient only in such rapid flow. Contrastingly, in dense and slow regime, the friction coefficient is independent of the coefficient of restitution and mainly determined by the elementary friction coefficient and the rotation of grains. It is found that the mismatch between the vorticity of flow and the angular frequency of grains plays a key role to the frictional properties of sheared granular matter.

  19. A direct Eulerian method for the simulation of multi-material compressible flows with material sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, R.; Braeunig, J.P.; Peybernes, M.

    2012-01-01

    As the simulation of compressible flows with several materials is essential for applications studied within the CEA-DAM, the authors propose an approach based on finite volumes with centred variables for the resolution of compressible Euler equations. Moreover, they allow materials to slide with respect to each other as it is the case for water and air, for example. A conservation law is written for each material in a hybrid grid, and a condition of contact between materials under the form of fluxes is expressed. It is illustrated by the case of an intense shock propagating in water and interacting with an air bubble which will be strongly deformed and compressed

  20. Modelling the Solid Waste Flow into Sungai Ikan Landfill Sites by Material Flow Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Latifah A.; Ali, Nora'aini; Hassan, Nur Syafiqah A.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the material flow of solid waste flows at Kuala Terengganu by using Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method, generated by STAN Software Analysis. Sungai Ikan Landfill has been operated for about 10 years. Average, Sungai Ikan Landfill receive an amount around 260 tons per day of solid waste. As for the variety source of the solid waste coming from, leachates that accumulated has been tested and measured. Highest reading of pH of the leachate is 8.29 which is still in the standard level before discharging the leachate to open water which pH in between 8.0-9.0. The percentages of the solid waste has been calculated and seven different types of solid waste has been segregated. That is, plastics, organic waste, paper, polystyrene, wood, fabric and can. The estimation of the solid waste that will be end as a residue are around 244 tons per day.

  1. A Lagrangian PFEM approach for non-Newtonian viscoplastic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Larese, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a stabilized mixed Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) to the solution of viscoplastic non-Newtonian flows. The application of the proposed model to the deformation of granular non-cohesive material is analysed. A variable yield threshold modified Bingham model is presented, using a Mohr Coulomb resistance criterion. Since the granular material is expected to undergo severe deformation, a Lagrangian approach is preferred to a fixed mesh one. PFEM i...

  2. Detection and Analysis of the Magnetic Field Component of Electromagnetic Radiation Emission from Macroscopic Fracturing of Cement-Bound Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquiling, J. T.; Ceralde, P. I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Countries most prone to earthquake damage have been in pursuit of a possible earthquake precursor. This study aims to detect and measure the magnetic field component of the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) emitted by quasi-brittle materials that undergo macroscopic fracturing. Cement-Bound Granular Materials (CBGM) were prepared by mixing cement, sand and gravel in a beam mold. Additional aggregates in the form of saw dust were added to produce variable CBGM samples. A concrete beam holder was designed and fabricated such that induced cracks from impact loading would form at the center of the beam. Six Vernier software magnetic field sensors were used to detect the magnetic field (MF) component of the EMR emission. Initial calibration was done to minimize noise in the laboratory. The magnetic field sensors were set at a low amplification range (±6.4x10-3 T) setting with 0.0002 mT precision at 20-50 Hz. Sensor locations and orientations were specified and fixed throughout the experiment. The impact loading process was repeated until concrete failure. The time of drop was determined through the occurrence of peak sound levels (dB) induced by the collision noise using a sound level meter at fast time weighting. Magnetic field fluctuations manifesting near the occurrence of sound level impulses were recorded. Peak magnetic field values within ±200ms from the recorded time of impact were considered to be originating from the concrete fracture. Concrete samples consisting of cement, sand and gravel produced magnetic field emissions measuring 0.58-1.07 μT while the same concrete mixture added with dispersed fine sawdust released 0.55-1.28 μT. A more dispersed set of values of magnetic field emissions were observed for concrete with sawdust. Comparison between the average number of drops done before failure occurs between the two concrete mixtures also indicated that the addition of dispersed sawdust resulted to weaker CBGM samples. Upon increasing input energy from

  3. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids

  4. A thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures considering pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi

    2016-11-01

    A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.

  5. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  6. On the rheology of dilative granular media: Bridging solid- and fluid-like behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, José E.; Chen, Qiushi; Le, Phong H.; Avila, Carlos F.; Matthew Evans, T.

    2012-06-01

    A new rate-dependent plasticity model for dilative granular media is presented, aiming to bridge the seemingly disparate solid- and fluid-like behavioral regimes. Up to date, solid-like behavior is typically tackled with rate-independent plasticity models emanating from Mohr-Coulomb and Critical State plasticity theory. On the other hand, the fluid-like behavior of granular media is typically treated using constitutive theories amenable to viscous flow, e.g., Bingham fluid. In our proposed model, the material strength is composed of a dilation part and a rate-dependent residual strength. The dilatancy strength plays a key role during solid-like behavior but vanishes in the fluid-like regime. The residual strength, which in a classical plasticity model is considered constant and rate-independent, is postulated to evolve with strain rate. The main appeal of the model is its simplicity and its ability to reconcile the classic plasticity and rheology camps. The applicability and capability of the model are demonstrated by numerical simulation of granular flow problems, as well as a classical shear banding problem, where the performance of the continuum model is compared to discrete particle simulations and physical experiment. These results shed much-needed light onto the mechanics and physics of granular media at various shear rates.

  7. Damage mechanisms and metallic materials development in multiphase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yugui; Liu, Wei; Yao, Zhiming; Ke, Wei

    2002-01-01

    The investigation on the synergistic effects among corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion has special significance for hydraulic turbines operated in Yangtze River and Yellow River where the high concentration solid particles exist in water. Two typical metallic materials i.e. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel and Ni-Ti shapememory-alloy, and two typical materials used for hydraulic turbines 20SiMn and 0Cr13Ni5Mo as compared materials were selected in order to investigate the roles of work-hardening ability and martensitic transformation as well as pseudoelastics in damage mechanism in multiphase flow. Both modified rotating disk rig and ultrasonic vibration facility were used to simulate the possible damage mechanism of materials in multiphase flow. The effects of corrosion on cavitation erosion were investigated through adding 3wt% NaCl. The degradation mechanism was analyzed by electrochemical test, SEM observation, hardness and roughness measurement. The results showed that there was a strong synergistic interaction among electrochemical corrosion, slurry erosion and cavitation erosion for 20SiMn in liquid-solid two-phase medium. In contrast, corrosion played little role for 0Cr13Ni5Mo. Cr-Mn-N stainless steel with high Mn content showed better resistance to cavitation erosion and slurry erosion than 0Cr13Ni5Mo, which was mainly due to its good work-hardening ability as well as strain-induced martensite transformation. The cavitation micro-cracks for Cr-Mn-N stainless steel were parallel to the specimen surface in contrast with 0Cr13Ni5Mo whose micro-cracks were perpendicular to the surface. Ni-Ti alloy with pseudoelasticity showed excellent resistance to combined interaction of cavitation erosion and slurry erosion

  8. Granular motor in the non-Brownian limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarte Galvez, Loreto Alejandra; van der Meer, Roger M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we experimentally study a granular rotor which is similar to the famous Smoluchowski–Feynman device and which consists of a rotor with four vanes immersed in a granular gas. Each side of the vanes can be composed of two different materials, creating a rotational asymmetry and turning

  9. Granular Leidenfrost effect: Experiment and theory of floating particle clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Peter; Eshuis, P.G.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2005-01-01

    Granular material is vertically vibrated in a 2D container: above a critical shaking strength, and for a sufficient number of beads, a crystalline cluster is elevated and supported by a dilute gaseous layer of fast beads underneath. We call this phenomenon the granular Leidenfrost effect. The

  10. USE OF GRANULAR GRAPHITE FOR ELECTROLYTIC DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granular graphite is a potential electrode material for the electrochemical remediation of refractory chlorinated organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE). However, the use of granular graphite can complicate the experimental results. On one hand, up to 99% of TCE was re...

  11. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  12. Granular contact dynamics using mathematical programming methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhoft, K.; Lyamin, A. V.; Huang, J.

    2012-01-01

    granular contact dynamics formulation uses an implicit time discretization, thus allowing for large time steps. Moreover, in the limit of an infinite time step, the general dynamic formulation reduces to a static formulation that is useful in simulating common quasi-static problems such as triaxial tests...... is developed and it is concluded that the associated sliding rule, in the context of granular contact dynamics, may be viewed as an artifact of the time discretization and that the use of an associated flow rule at the particle scale level generally is physically acceptable. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...

  13. Surface instabilities in shock loaded granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, K.; Khaderi, S. N.; Wadley, H. N. G.; Deshpande, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    The initiation and growth of instabilities in granular materials loaded by air shock waves are investigated via shock-tube experiments and numerical calculations. Three types of granular media, dry sand, water-saturated sand and a granular solid comprising PTFE spheres were experimentally investigated by air shock loading slugs of these materials in a transparent shock tube. Under all shock pressures considered here, the free-standing dry sand slugs remained stable while the shock loaded surface of the water-saturated sand slug became unstable resulting in mixing of the shocked air and the granular material. By contrast, the PTFE slugs were stable at low pressures but displayed instabilities similar to the water-saturated sand slugs at higher shock pressures. The distal surfaces of the slugs remained stable under all conditions considered here. Eulerian fluid/solid interaction calculations, with the granular material modelled as a Drucker-Prager solid, reproduced the onset of the instabilities as seen in the experiments to a high level of accuracy. These calculations showed that the shock pressures to initiate instabilities increased with increasing material friction and decreasing yield strain. Moreover, the high Atwood number for this problem implied that fluid/solid interaction effects were small, and the initiation of the instability is adequately captured by directly applying a pressure on the slug surface. Lagrangian calculations with the directly applied pressures demonstrated that the instability was caused by spatial pressure gradients created by initial surface perturbations. Surface instabilities are also shown to exist in shock loaded rear-supported granular slugs: these experiments and calculations are used to infer the velocity that free-standing slugs need to acquire to initiate instabilities on their front surfaces. The results presented here, while in an idealised one-dimensional setting, provide physical understanding of the conditions required to

  14. Granular Silo collapse: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Eric; Gutierriez, Gustavo; Boltenhagen, Philippe; Lanuza, Jose

    2008-03-01

    We present an experimental work that develop some basic insight into the pre-buckling behavior and the buckling transition toward plastic collapse of a granular silo. We study different patterns of deformation generated on thin paper cylindrical shells during granular discharge. We study the collapse threshold for different bed height, flow rates and grain sizes. We compare the patterns that appear during the discharge of spherical beads, with those obtained in the axially compressed cylindrical shells. When the height of the granular column is close to the collapse threshold, we describe a ladder like pattern that rises around the cylinder surface in a spiral path of diamond shaped localizations, and develops into a plastic collapsing fold that grows around the collapsing silo.

  15. Modelação da perda de carga na filtração direta ascendente em meio granular de areia grossa e pedregulho Modeling of the head loss in up flow coarse sand and gravel direct filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Botari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Compreender e quantificar os mecanismos relacionados à perda de carga e à remoção de partículas em um meio filtrante granular é de importância fundamental para o estudo do processo da filtração. Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento dos modelos de perda de carga na filtração em meios porosos e a proposição da modelação matemática semiempírica da perda de carga para meios filtrantes limpos e do desenvolvimento do perfil de perda de carga ao longo do tempo de filtração a partir da equação de Ergun. Objetivou-se a determinação dos valores das constantes da equação de Ergun para meio granular de areia grossa e pedregulho. Alguns exemplos de aplicação dessa modelação matemática são também apresentados e discutidos pelos autores com base em dados experimentais obtidos em uma estação piloto de dupla filtração.To understand and to quantify the head loss due to the particles removal in a porous medium has primary importance to filtration process study. This paper presents the development of the models of head loss used in the filtration in porous media and proposes a mathematical semi-empiric model for head loss in clean beds and head loss increasing profile during the filtration run length, by means of the Ergun equation. The goal was the determination of Ergun’s equation coefficients for granular material constituted of coarse sand and gravel. Examples of application of these mathematical modeling are also presented and discussed by the authors based on experimental data obtained in a double filtration pilot plant.

  16. Theoretical model of granular compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Naim, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Knight, J.B. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nowak, E.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.; Jaeger, H.M.; Nagel, S.R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). James Franck Inst.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental studies show that the density of a vibrated granular material evolves from a low density initial state into a higher density final steady state. The relaxation towards the final density follows an inverse logarithmic law. As the system approaches its final state, a growing number of beads have to be rearranged to enable a local density increase. A free volume argument shows that this number grows as N = {rho}/(1 {minus} {rho}). The time scale associated with such events increases exponentially e{sup {minus}N}, and as a result a logarithmically slow approach to the final state is found {rho} {infinity} {minus}{rho}(t) {approx_equal} 1/lnt.

  17. "EGM" (Electrostatics of Granular Matter): A Space Station Experiment to Examine Natural Particulate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Buehler, M.; Farrell, W.; Green, R.; Birchenough, A.

    1999-09-01

    A granular-materials experiment is being developed for a 2002 launch for Space Station deployment. The experiment is funded by NASA HQ and managed through NASA Lewis Research Center. The experiment will examine electrostatic aggregation of coarse granular materials with the goals of (a) obtaining proof for an electrostatic dipole model of grain interactions, and (b) obtaining knowledge about the way aggregation affects the behavior of natural particulate masses: (1) in unconfined dispersions (clouds such as nebulae, aeolian dust palls, volcanic plumes), (2) in semi-confined, self-loaded masses as in fluidized flows (pyroclastic surges, avalanches) and compacted regolith, or (3) in semi-confined non-loaded masses as in dust layers adhering to solar cells or space suits on Mars. The experiment addresses both planetary/astrophysical issues as well as practical concerns for human exploration of Mars or other solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original.

  18. Granular computing: perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, JingTao; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Pedrycz, Witold

    2013-12-01

    Granular computing, as a new and rapidly growing paradigm of information processing, has attracted many researchers and practitioners. Granular computing is an umbrella term to cover any theories, methodologies, techniques, and tools that make use of information granules in complex problem solving. The aim of this paper is to review foundations and schools of research and to elaborate on current developments in granular computing research. We first review some basic notions of granular computing. Classification and descriptions of various schools of research in granular computing are given. We also present and identify some research directions in granular computing.

  19. Effective elasticity coefficients of native rocks and consolidated granular matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Beatrix M.; Schulz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The elastic coefficients of binary heterogeneous materials, such as several native rock materials or consolidated granular matter will be determined in terms of a perturbation expansion. Furthermore, in order to check the validity of the obtained results, these are compared with numerical investigations using Boole's model of randomly distributed spheres. Finally, we apply the results on several classes of native rocks and consolidated granular materials

  20. Logistics of Materials Flow in an Iron Foundry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents issues related to creating and realizing added value by logistic processes and processing in a casting enterprise. It discusses possibilities of improving systems of casts production by evaluating labour intensity of casts manufacture and analyzing manufacturing prime costs. Operations with added value, processes indirectly creating added value and operations without added value have been specified. The problem was presented on the example of materials flow design in a foundry, where casts are manufactured in expendable moulds and using automated foundry lines. On the basis of the Pareto analysis, a group of casts was specified whose manufacture significantly influences the functioning of the whole enterprise. Finishing treatment operations have been particularly underlined, as they are performed away from the line and are among the most labour-consuming processes during casts production.

  1. A material flow of lithium batteries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.C.; You, S.J.; Yu, B.S.; Yao, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Li batteries, including secondary and cylindrical/button primary Li batteries, are used worldwide in computers, communications and consumer electronics products. However, there are several dangerous issues that occur during the manufacture, shipping, and storage of Li batteries. This study analyzes the material flow of lithium batteries and their valuable heavy metals in Taiwan for the year 2006 by material flow analysis. According to data from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, Taiwan External Trade Development Council, Bureau of Foreign Trade, Directorate General of Customs, and the Li batteries manufactures/importers/exporters. It was found that 2,952,696 kg of Li batteries was input into Taiwan for the year 2006, including 2,256,501 kg of imported Li batteries and 696,195 kg of stock Li batteries in 2005. In addition, 1,113,867 and 572,215 kg of Li batteries was domestically produced and sold abroad, revealing that 3,494,348 kg of different types of Li batteries was sold in Taiwan. Of these domestically sold batteries, 504,663 and 146,557 kg were treated domestically and abroad. Thus, a total of 2,843,128 kg of Li batteries was stored by individual/industry users or illegally disposed. In addition, it was also observed that 2,120,682 kg of heavy metals contained in Li batteries, including Ni, Co, Al, Cu and Ni, was accumulated in Taiwan, with a recycled value of 38.8 million USD. These results suggest that these heavy metals should be recovered by suitable collection, recycling and reuse procedures

  2. Evaluating Energy Flux in Vibrofluidized Granular Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Sheikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular flows require sustained input of energy for fluidization. A level of fluidization depends on the amount of heat flux provided to the flow. In general, the dissipation of the grains upon interaction balances the heat inputs and the resultant flow patterns can be described using hydrodynamic models. However, with the increase in packing fraction, the heat fluxes prediction of the cell increases. Here, a comparison is made for the proposed theoretical models against the MD simulations data. It is observed that the variation of packing fraction in the granular cell influences the heat flux at the base. For the elastic grain-base interaction, the predictions vary appreciably compared to MD simulations, suggesting the need to accurately model the velocity distribution of grains for averaging.

  3. Granular Gas in a Periodic Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration [image omitted] of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low…

  4. Anomalous infrared absorption in granular superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G.L.; Garland, J.C.; Tanner, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Granular superconductors are shown to have a far-infrared absorption that is larger when the samples are superconducting than when they are normal. By constrast, theoretical models for these materials predict that when the samples become superconducting, the absorption should decrease

  5. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  6. Deposition and shaking of dry granular piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasan, M.

    2003-01-01

    A friction force model describing reversible stick-slip transition during contact has been developed with the special purpose to simulate the deposition of granular material. A test with a mass on a conveyor belt kept in position by a spring shows that a numerical simulation of the dynamics of such

  7. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kelly, Jarod C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. Lithium metal is also an emerging anode material. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  8. Statistical and visual probing of evolving granular assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Laurence M.

    2002-01-01

    The majority of processes in the chemical and allied industries involve the storage and conveyancing of granular material, the physics of which is still not particularly well understood. Whilst some non-invasive techniques have been developed, much experimental work unfortunately interferes with the fields being investigated. For this reason and in conjunction with increasing computing power, there has been an increase in simulation based studies. Granular dynamics simulations, being based upon inter-particle interaction laws, give the potential to investigate assemblies at the 'micro-level' and have been successful in modelling process conditions in a number of granular flow situations. To date, most analyses of these simulations are essentially static in nature involving 'time snapshots'. However, in a granular dynamics simulation there is a wealth of data available on a time referenced basis which has the potential to allow a quantitative analysis of the dynamics of assembly evolution. This dissertation describes the development and application of a toolkit for post-simulation analysis. However, the utilities within the toolkit would be equally applicable to large experimental data sets should such data sets exist. The application of the toolset focuses largely on the dynamics of heap evolution in both 2D and 3D with some supportive 3D work on hopper discharge. A major part of the work involves the application of time series techniques (including the wavelet transform) in the context of variable coupling during avalanching. Segregation by self-diffusion receives particular attention and a new mechanism is proposed by which segregation by particle size takes place in the boundary layer of a low impact feed heap displaying a clear velocity gradient during discrete avalanching. Periodic lateral surging is shown to enforce mixing for a high impact feed, a phenomenon which appears to switch off below a certain feed impact. Segregation by self-diffusion is also shown

  9. 20. German materials flow congress; 20. Deutscher Materialfluss-Kongress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the 20th German Material Flow Meeting of the VDI Wissensforum GmbH (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) at 14th to 15th April, 2011 in Garching (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) From group logistics to service provider - The innovation process of Hermes Fulfilment GmbH (D. Urbanke); (2) Production structures of the future - Challenges for fabrics through the ages (M. Schenk); (3) Value-driven supply of materials for the implementation of a switching cabinet of great diesel engines (S. Meissner); (4) Material and optimisation of productions with APS - Real operation since January 2008 (M. Mayer); (5) Automation of the material flow in the production - Fully automatic supply of production using the multi-shuttle technology at Siemens site Amberg (M. Paehr); (6) Sustainable enhancement of the process efficiency at Demag Cranes Group (R. Harkort); (7) 'Activity-based logistics' Logistics at Strauss Innovation (A. Witte); (8) A new dimension in e-commerce: Handling of retours at the company Next (UK) - Tendencies and developments in E-Commerce - Handling of increasing quota of retours - A new intralogistic concept approach for handling retours - Green logistics at mail-order companies (V. Welsch); (9) Requirements concerning a tailor-made distribution logistics at office management wholesale trade (R. Barth); (10) New concepts for te distribution logistics - Trading Logistics Center Schweinfurt - The perfect combination of processes and technology for the delivery of an international free spare parts market (T. Nuss); (11) LEAN, BI, APS: Opposition or complementation (A. de Windt); (12) Next E-commerce Generations: How brand manufacturers generate new online sales channels via the utilisation of existing trading structures (M. Thomas); (13) From bus assembly to service provider for spare part logistics - Choice of location (U.J. Unger); (14) Design and implementation of a modular overall logistic system (M

  10. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2013-07-15

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  11. Impact of granular drops

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the spreading and splashing of granular drops during impact with a solid target. The granular drops are formed from roughly spherical balls of sand mixed with water, which is used as a binder to hold the ball together during free-fall. We measure the instantaneous spread diameter for different impact speeds and find that the normalized spread diameter d/D grows as (tV/D)1/2. The speeds of the grains ejected during the “splash” are measured and they rarely exceed twice that of the impact speed.

  12. Material and Energy Flows in the Production of Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; James, Christine [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Science Dept.; Gaines, Linda G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Gallagher, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2014-09-30

    The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model has been expanded to include four new cathode materials that can be used in the analysis of battery-powered vehicles: lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2 [NMC]), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 [LFP]), lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2 [LCO]), and an advanced lithium cathode (0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.44Co0.25Mn0.31O2 [LMR-NMC]). In GREET, these cathode materials are incorporated into batteries with graphite anodes. In the case of the LMR-NMC cathode, the anode is either graphite or a graphite-silicon blend. This report documents the material and energy flows of producing each of these cathode and anode materials from raw material extraction through the preparation stage. For some cathode materials, we considered solid state and hydrothermal preparation methods. Further, we used Argonne National Laboratory’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model to determine battery composition (e.g., masses of cathode, anode, electrolyte, housing materials) when different cathode materials were used in the battery. Our analysis concluded that cobalt- and nickel-containing compounds are the most energy intensive to produce.

  13. The dependence of granular plasticity on particle shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kieran; Jaeger, Heinrich

    Granular materials plastically deform through reworking an intricate network of particle-particle contacts. Some particle rearrangements have only a fleeting effect before being forgotten while others set in motion global restructuring. How particle shape affects local interactions and how those, in turn, influence the nature of the aggregate's plasticity is far from clear, especially in three dimensions. Here we investigate the remarkably wide range of behaviors in the yielding regime, from quiescent flow to violent jerks, depending on particle shape. We study this complex dependence via uniaxial compression experiments on aggregates of 3D-printed particles, and complement stress-strain data with simultaneous x-ray videos and volumetric strain measurements. We find power law distributions of the slip magnitudes, and discuss their universality. Our data show that the multitude of small slips serves to gradually dilate the packing whereas the fewer large ones accompany significant compaction events. Our findings provide new insights into general features of granular materials during plastic deformation and highlight how small changes in particle shape can give rise to drastic differences in yielding behavior.

  14. Role of hydraulic retention time and granular medium in microbial removal in tertiary treatment reed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Joan; Vivar, Joan; Aromir, Maria; Mujeriego, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the role of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular medium in faecal coliform (FC) and somatic coliphage (SC) removal in tertiary reed beds. Experiments were carried out in a pilot plant with four parallel reed beds (horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands), each one containing a different type of granular medium. This pilot plant is located in a wastewater treatment plant in Montcada i Reixac, near Barcelona, in northeastern Spain. The microbial inactivation ratios obtained in the different beds are compared as a function of three selected HRTs. Secondary effluent from the wastewater treatment plant was used as the influent of the pilot system. The microbial inactivation ratio ranged between 0.1 and 2.7 log-units for FC and from 0.5 to 1.7 log-units for SC in beds with coarser granular material (5-25mm), while it ranged between 0.7 and 3.4 log-units for FC and from 0.9 to 2.6 log-units for SC in the bed with finer material (2-13mm). HRT and granular medium are both key factors in microbial removal in the tertiary reed beds. The microbial inactivation ratio rises as the HRT increases until it reaches a saturation value (in general at an HRT of 3 days). The value of the microbial inactivation ratio at the saturation level depends on the granular medium contained in the bed. The specific surface area necessary to reach 2-3 log-units of FC and SC is approximately 3m(2)/person-equivalent.

  15. Wave propagation of spectral energy content in a granular chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical wave is propagation of vibration with transfer of energy and momentum. Understanding the spectral energy characteristics of a propagating wave through disordered granular media can assist in understanding the overall properties of wave propagation through inhomogeneous materials like

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Granular/Particulate Media Reinforced with Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalowski, Radoslw

    1999-01-01

    ... out. This investigation was built on the results of a previous study. Fiber-reinforced granular material was considered as a composite, and a mathematical homogenization scheme was used to arrive at its macroscopic properties...

  17. Pneumatic fractures in Confined Granular Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Toussaint, Renaud; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Grude Flekkøy, Eirik; Turkaya, Semih

    2016-04-01

    We will present our ongoing study of the patterns formed when air flows into a dry, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. This is an optically transparent system consisting of two glass plates separated by 0.5 to 1 mm, containing a packing of dry 80 micron beads in between. The cell is rectangular and has an air-permeable boundary (blocking beads) at one short edge, while the other three edges are completely sealed. The granular medium is loosely packed against the semi-permeable boundary and fills about 80 % of the cell volume. This leaves an empty region at the sealed side, where an inlet allows us to set and maintain the air at a constant overpressure (0.1 - 2 bar). For the air trapped inside the cell to relax its overpressure it has to move through the deformable granular medium. Depending on the applied overpressure and initial density of the medium, we observe a range of different behaviors such as seepage through the pore-network with or without an initial compaction of the solid, formation of low density bubbles with rearrangement of particles, granular fingering/fracturing, and erosion inside formed channels/fractures. The experiments are recorded with a high-speed camera at a framerate of 1000 images/s and a resolution of 1024x1024 pixels. We use various image processing techniques to characterize the evolution of the air invasion patterns and the deformations in the surrounding material. The experiments are similar to deformation processes in porous media which are driven by pore fluid overpressure, such as mud volcanoes and hydraulic or pneumatic (gas-induced) fracturing, and the motivation is to increase the understanding of such processes by optical observations. In addition, this setup is an experimental version of the numerical models analyzed by Niebling et al. [1,2], and is useful for comparison with their results. In a directly related project [3], acoustic emissions from the cell plate are recorded during

  18. Granular Cell Tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1). Her packed cell volume was 40%, she was system, gastro-intestinal tract, brain, heart, and negative to human immunodeficiency virus. 2 female reproductive . ... histocytes and neurons at various times. They granules. The granules are probably of lysosmal were consequently termed granular cell origin and contain ...

  19. On the submerging of a spherical intruder into granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Chuan-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials are complex systems and their mechanical behaviours are determined by the material properties of individual particles, the interaction between particles and the surrounding media, which are still incompletely understood. Using an advanced discrete element method (DEM, we simulate the submerging process of a spherical projectile (an intruder into granular materials of various properties with a zero penetration velocity (i.e. the intruder is touching the top surface of the granular bed and released from stationary and examine its settling behaviour. By systematically changing the density and size of the intruder and the particle density (i.e. the density of the particles in the granular bed, we find that the intruder can sink deep into the granular bed even with a zero penetration velocity. Furthermore, we confirm that under certain conditions the granular bed can behave like a Newtonian liquid and the submerging intruder can reach a constant velocity, i.e. the terminal velocity, identical to the settling of a sphere in a liquid, as observed experimentally. A mathematical model is also developed to predict the maximum penetration depth of the intruder. The model predictions are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,good agreement was obtained, demonstrating the model can accurately predict the submerging behaviour of the intruder in the granular media.

  20. Effect of weld line shape on material flow during friction stir welding of aluminum and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Toshiaki; Ando, Naoyuki; Morinaka, Shinpei; Mizushima, Hiroki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The effect of weld line shape on material flow during the friction stir welding of aluminum and steel was investigated. The material flow velocity was evaluated with simulated experiments using plasticine as the simulant material. The validity of the simulated experiments was verified by the marker material experiments on aluminum. The circumferential velocity of material around the probe increased with the depth from the weld surface. The effect is significant in cases where the advancing side is located on the outside of curve and those with higher curvature. Thus, there is an influence of weld line shape on material flow

  1. Nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C.; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, C.

    2017-10-01

    The study of granular crystals, which are nonlinear metamaterials that consist of closely packed arrays of particles that interact elastically, is a vibrant area of research that combines ideas from disciplines such as materials science, nonlinear dynamics, and condensed-matter physics. Granular crystals exploit geometrical nonlinearities in their constitutive microstructure to produce properties (such as tunability and energy localization) that are not conventional to engineering materials and linear devices. In this topical review, we focus on recent experimental, computational, and theoretical results on nonlinear coherent structures in granular crystals. Such structures—which include traveling solitary waves, dispersive shock waves, and discrete breathers—have fascinating dynamics, including a diversity of both transient features and robust, long-lived patterns that emerge from broad classes of initial data. In our review, we primarily discuss phenomena in one-dimensional crystals, as most research to date has focused on such scenarios, but we also present some extensions to two-dimensional settings. Throughout the review, we highlight open problems and discuss a variety of potential engineering applications that arise from the rich dynamic response of granular crystals.

  2. Tap density equations of granular powders based on the rate process theory and the free volume concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian

    2015-02-28

    The tap density of a granular powder is often linked to the flowability via the Carr index that measures how tight a powder can be packed, under an assumption that more easily packed powders usually flow poorly. Understanding how particles are packed is important for revealing why a powder flows better than others. There are two types of empirical equations that were proposed to fit the experimental data of packing fractions vs. numbers of taps in the literature: the inverse logarithmic and the stretched exponential. Using the rate process theory and the free volume concept under the assumption that particles will obey similar thermodynamic laws during the tapping process if the "granular temperature" is defined in a different way, we obtain the tap density equations, and they are reducible to the two empirical equations currently widely used in literature. Our equations could potentially fit experimental data better with an additional adjustable parameter. The tapping amplitude and frequency, the weight of the granular materials, and the environmental temperature are grouped into this parameter that weighs the pace of the packing process. The current results, in conjunction with our previous findings, may imply that both "dry" (granular) and "wet" (colloidal and polymeric) particle systems are governed by the same physical mechanisms in term of the role of the free volume and how particles behave (a rate controlled process).

  3. Controlling wave propagation through nonlinear engineered granular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Andrea

    We study the fundamental dynamic behavior of a special class of ordered granular systems in order to design new, structured materials with unique physical properties. The dynamic properties of granular systems are dictated by the nonlinear, Hertzian, potential in compression and zero tensile strength resulting from the discrete material structure. Engineering the underlying particle arrangement of granular systems allows for unique dynamic properties, not observed in natural, disordered granular media. While extensive studies on 1D granular crystals have suggested their usefulness for a variety of engineering applications, considerably less attention has been given to higher-dimensional systems. The extension of these studies in higher dimensions could enable the discovery of richer physical phenomena not possible in 1D, such as spatial redirection and anisotropic energy trapping. We present experiments, numerical simulation (based on a discrete particle model), and in some cases theoretical predictions for several engineered granular systems, studying the effects of particle arrangement on the highly nonlinear transient wave propagation to develop means for controlling the wave propagation pathways. The first component of this thesis studies the stress wave propagation resulting from a localized impulsive loading for three different 2D particle lattice structures: square, centered square, and hexagonal granular crystals. By varying the lattice structure, we observe a wide range of properties for the propagating stress waves: quasi-1D solitary wave propagation, fully 2D wave propagation with tunable wave front shapes, and 2D pulsed wave propagation. Additionally the effects of weak disorder, inevitably present in real granular systems, are investigated. The second half of this thesis studies the solitary wave propagation through 2D and 3D ordered networks of granular chains, reducing the effective density compared to granular crystals by selectively placing wave

  4. FBR structural material test facility in flowing sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugasundaram, M.; Kumar, Hemant; Ravi, S.

    2016-01-01

    In Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR), components such as Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (CSRDM), Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (DSRDM), Transfer arm and primary sodium pumps etc., are experiencing friction and wear between the moving parts in contact with liquid sodium at high temperature. Hence, it is essential to evaluate the friction and wear behaviour to validate the design of components. In addition, the above core structural reactor components such as core cover plate, control plugs etc., undergoes thermal striping which is random thermal cycling induced by flow stream resulting from the mixing of non isothermal jets near that component. This leads to development of surface cracks and assist in crack growth which in turn may lead to failure of the structural component. Further, high temperature components are often subjected to low cycle fatigue due to temperature gradient induced cyclic thermal stresses caused by start-ups, shutdowns and transients. Also steady state operation at elevated temperature introduces creep and the combination of creep and fatigue leads to creep-fatigue interactions. Therefore, resistance to low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue are important considerations in the design of FBR components. Liquid sodium is used as coolant and hence the study of the above properties in dynamic sodium are equally important. In view of the above, facility for materials testing in sodium (INSOT) has been constructed and in operation for conducting the experiments such as tribology, thermal stripping, low cycle fatigue, creep and creep-fatigue interaction etc. The salient features of the operation and maintenance of creep and fatigue loops of INSOT facility are discussed in detail. (author)

  5. Material flow in butt friction stir welds in AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.N.B.; Dickerson, T.L.; Hattel, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a workpiece joined by friction stir welding (FSW) are directly related to the material flow around the tool. In the present work, the material flow is investigated by traditional metallography as well as X-ray and computer tomography (CT). By introducing a thin copper strip in the workpiece and welding through it, thus, acting as a marker material, detailed information about the flow field is gathered. The two- and three-dimensional CT images are used in parallel with micrographs for visualization of the flow field. Two procedures for estimating the average velocities for material flowing through the shear layer are presented. The procedures depend on the configuration of marker material relative to the welding direction, i.e. longitudinal and transverse. As such, the present work constitutes the first attempt in the literature to estimate flow velocities in FSW based on thorough experimental investigations

  6. A multi points ultrasonic detection method for material flow of belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; He, Rongjun

    2018-03-01

    For big detection error of single point ultrasonic ranging technology used in material flow detection of belt conveyor when coal distributes unevenly or is large, a material flow detection method of belt conveyor is designed based on multi points ultrasonic counter ranging technology. The method can calculate approximate sectional area of material by locating multi points on surfaces of material and belt, in order to get material flow according to running speed of belt conveyor. The test results show that the method has smaller detection error than single point ultrasonic ranging technology under the condition of big coal with uneven distribution.

  7. Analysis of material flow in metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dong Won

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze material flow in the metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material, plasticine. A UBET program is developed to analyze the bulk flow behaviour of various metal forming problems. The elemental strain-hardening effect is considered in an incremental manner and the element system is automatically regenerated at every deforming step in the program. The material flow behaviour in closed-die forging process with rib-web type cavity are analyzed by UBET and elastic-plastic finite element method, and verified by experiments with plasticine. There were good agreements between simulation and experiment. The effect of corner rounding on material flow behavior is investigated in the analysis of backward extrusion with square die. Flat punch indentation process is simulated by UBET, and the results are compared with that of elastic-plastic finite element method. (Author)

  8. Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles

  9. Microservices: Granularity vs. Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Shadija, Dharmendra; Rezai, Mo; Hill, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Microservice Architectures (MA) have the potential to increase the agility of software development. In an era where businesses require software applications to evolve to support emerging software requirements, particularly for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, we examine the issue of microservice granularity and explore its effect upon application latency. Two approaches to microservice deployment are simulated; the first with microservices in a single container, and the second with micr...

  10. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  11. One-dimensional energy flow model for poroelastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Kang, Yeon June

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a one-dimensional energy flow model to investigate the energy behavior for poroelastic media coupled with acoustical media. The proposed energy flow model is expressed by an independent energy governing equation that is classified into each wave component propagating in poroelastic media. The energy governing equation is derived using the General Energetic Method (GEM). To facilitate a comparison with the classical solution based on the conventional displacement-base formulation, approximate solutions of energy density and intensity are obtained. Furthermore, the limitations and usability of the proposed energy flow model for poroelastic media are described.

  12. Robust optimal control of material flows in demand-driven supply networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laumanns, M.; Lefeber, A.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    We develop a model based on stochastic discrete-time controlleddynamical systems in order to derive optimal policies for controllingthe material flow in supply networks. Each node in the network isdescribed as a transducer such that the dynamics of the material andinformation flows within the entire

  13. Similitude study of a moving bed granular filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Huawei Shi; Gerald Colver; Saw-Choon Soo [Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2003-12-10

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a moving bed granular filter designed for hot gas clean up. This study used similitude theory to devise experiments that were conducted at near-ambient conditions while simulating the performance of filters operated at elevated temperatures and pressures (850{sup o}C and 1000 kPa). These experiments revealed that the proposed moving bed granular filter can operate at high collection efficiencies, typically exceeding 99%, and low pressure drops without the need for periodic regeneration through the use of a continuous flow of fresh granular filter media in the filter. In addition, important design constraints were discovered for the successful operation of the proposed moving bed granular filter.

  14. Flow through a Two-Scale Porosity Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Andersson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow through a two-scale porous medium is here investigated by a unique comparison between simulations performed with computational fluid dynamics and the boundary element method with microparticle image velocimetry in model geometries.

  15. Long runout landslides: a solution from granular mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav eParez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Large landslides exhibit surprisingly long runout distances compared to a rigid body sliding from the same slope, and the mechanism of this phenomena has been studied for decades. This paper shows that the observed long runouts can be explained quite simply via a granular pile flowing downhill, while collapsing and spreading, without the need for frictional weakening that has traditionally been suggested to cause long runouts. Kinematics of the granular flow is divided into center of mass motion and spreading due to flattening of the flowing mass. We solve the center of mass motion analytically based on a frictional law valid for granular flow, and find that center of mass runout is similar to that of a rigid body. Based on the shape of deposits observed in experiments with collapsing granular columns and numerical simulations of landslides, we derive a spreading length Rf~V^1/3. Spreading of a granular pile, leading to a deposit angle much lower than the angle of repose or the dynamic friction angle, is shown to be an important, often dominating, contribution to the total runout distance, accounting for the long runouts observed for natural landslides.

  16. Type-2 fuzzy granular models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Mauricio A; Castro, Juan R

    2017-01-01

    In this book, a series of granular algorithms are proposed. A nature inspired granular algorithm based on Newtonian gravitational forces is proposed. A series of methods for the formation of higher-type information granules represented by Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets are also shown, via multiple approaches, such as Coefficient of Variation, principle of justifiable granularity, uncertainty-based information concept, and numerical evidence based. And a fuzzy granular application comparison is given as to demonstrate the differences in how uncertainty affects the performance of fuzzy information granules.

  17. Effect of horizontal vibration on pile of cylinder avalanches as a pseudo-two dimensional granular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardiansyah, Y; Yulia; Khotimah, S N; Viridi, S; Suprijadi

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of pseudo-two dimensional granular material consisted of two layers cylinder piles positioned on top of a horizontally vibrated plate is reported in this work. It is aimed to observe structural change of the cylinder pile vibrated in certain frequency and amplitude. Dimensionless acceleration Γ= 4π 2 f 2 A/g (with g is gravitational acceleration), which is generally used in granular materials to observe transition between states, e.g. stable, rotating without slipping, rolling and slipping in Γ-f plane, does not work well for this system. For this system additional states for the piles can also be observed, e.g. stable and flowing states. Observations parameters are frequency f (measured in Hz) and amplitude A (measured in cm). These parameters are used to construct the A-f plane instead of Γ-f one. (paper)

  18. Unjamming a granular hopper by vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, A.; Maza, D.; Garcimartín, A.; Kolb, E.; Lanuza, J.; Clément, E.

    2009-07-01

    We present an experimental study of the outflow of a hopper continuously vibrated by a piezoelectric device. Outpouring of grains can be achieved for apertures much below the usual jamming limit observed for non-vibrated hoppers. Granular flow persists down to the physical limit of one grain diameter, a limit reached for a finite vibration amplitude. For the smaller orifices, we observe an intermittent regime characterized by alternated periods of flow and blockage. Vibrations do not significantly modify the flow rates both in the continuous and the intermittent regime. The analysis of the statistical features of the flowing regime shows that the flow time significantly increases with the vibration amplitude. However, at low vibration amplitude and small orifice sizes, the jamming time distribution displays an anomalous statistics.

  19. Using a Time Granularity Table for Gradual Granular Data Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    solution for data reduction based on gradual granular data aggregation. With the gradual granular data aggregation mechanism, older data can be made coarse-grained while keeping the newest data fine-grained. For instance, when data is 3 months old aggregate to 1 minute level from 1 second level, when data...... and improve query performance, especially on resource-constrained systems with limited storage and query processing capabilities. A number of data reduction solutions have been developed, however an effective solution particularly based on gradual data reduction is missing. This paper presents an effective...... is 6 months old aggregate to 2 minutes level from 1 minute level and so on. The proposed solution introduces a time granularity based data structure, namely a relational time granularity table that enables long term storage of old data by maintaining it at different levels of granularity and effective...

  20. Granular fingering as a mechanism for ridge formation in debris avalanche deposits: Laboratory experiments and implications for Tutupaca volcano, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, P.; Roche, O.; Samaniego, P.; van Wyk des Vries, B.; Araujo, G.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of subparallel, regularly-spaced longitudinal ridges often observed at the surface of volcanic and other rock avalanche deposits remains unclear. We addressed this issue through analogue laboratory experiments on flows of bi-disperse granular mixtures, because this type of flow is known to exhibit granular fingering that causes elongated structures resembling the ridges observed in nature. We considered four different mixtures of fine (300-400 μm) glass beads and coarse (600-710 μm to 900-1000 μm) angular crushed fruit stones, with particle size ratios of 1.9-2.7 and mass fractions of the coarse component of 5-50 wt%. The coarse particles segregated at the flow surface and accumulated at the front where flow instabilities with a well-defined wavelength grew. These formed granular fingers made of coarse-rich static margins delimiting fines-rich central channels. Coalescence of adjacent finger margins created regular spaced longitudinal ridges, which became topographic highs as finger channels drained at final emplacement stages. Three distinct deposit morphologies were observed: 1) Joined fingers with ridges were formed at low (≤ 1.9) size ratio and moderate (10-20 wt%) coarse fraction whereas 2) separate fingers or 3) poorly developed fingers, forming series of frontal lobes, were created at larger size ratios and/or higher coarse contents. Similar ridges and lobes are observed at the debris avalanche deposits of Tutupaca volcano, Peru, suggesting that the processes operating in the experiments can also occur in nature. This implies that volcanic (and non-volcanic) debris avalanches can behave as granular flows, which has important implications for interpretation of deposits and for modeling. Such behaviour may be acquired as the collapsing material disaggregates and forms a granular mixture composed by a right grain size distribution in which particle segregation can occur. Limited fragmentation and block sliding, or grain size distributions

  1. Sinking a Granular Raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protière, Suzie; Josserand, Christophe; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Stone, Howard A.; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-03-01

    We report experiments that yield new insights on the behavior of granular rafts at an oil-water interface. We show that these particle aggregates can float or sink depending on dimensionless parameters taking into account the particle densities and size and the densities of the two fluids. We characterize the raft shape and stability and propose a model to predict its shape and maximum length to remain afloat. Finally we find that wrinkles and folds appear along the raft due to compression by its own weight, which can trigger destabilization. These features are characteristics of an elastic instability, which we discuss, including the limitations of our model.

  2. Up-Scaled Supercritical Flow Synthesis of Hybrid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellstern, Henrik Christian; Becker, Jacob; Hald, Peter

    A new, up-scaled supercritical flow synthesis apparatus is currently under construction in Aarhus. A module based system allows for a range of parameter studies with improved parameter control. The dual-reactor setup enables both single phase and core-shell nanoparticle synthesis, and the large...

  3. Tsunamis generated by long and thin granular landslides in a large flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Garrett S.; Andy Take, W.; Mulligan, Ryan P.; McDougall, Scott

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, granular material is released down slope to investigate landslide-generated waves. Starting with a known volume and initial position of the landslide source, detailed data are obtained on the velocity and thickness of the granular flow, the shape and location of the submarine landslide deposit, the amplitude and shape of the near-field wave, the far-field wave evolution, and the wave runup elevation on a smooth impermeable slope. The experiments are performed on a 6.7 m long 30° slope on which gravity accelerates the landslides into a 2.1 m wide and 33.0 m long wave flume that terminates with a 27° runup ramp. For a fixed landslide volume of 0.34 m3, tests are conducted in a range of still water depths from 0.05 to 0.50 m. Observations from high-speed cameras and measurements from wave probes indicate that the granular landslide moves as a long and thin train of material, and that only a portion of the landslide (termed the "effective mass") is engaged in activating the leading wave. The wave behavior is highly dependent on the water depth relative to the size of the landslide. In deeper water, the near-field wave behaves as a stable solitary-like wave, while in shallower water, the wave behaves as a breaking dissipative bore. Overall, the physical model observations are in good agreement with the results of existing empirical equations when the effective mass is used to predict the maximum near-field wave amplitude, the far-field amplitude, and the runup of tsunamis generated by granular landslides.

  4. Seismic wave propagation in granular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  5. Data uncertainties in material flow analysis: Municipal solid waste management system in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Tokai, Akihiro; Hanashima, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Material flow analysis can effectively trace and quantify the flows and stocks of materials such as solid wastes in urban environments. However, the integrity of material flow analysis results is compromised by data uncertainties, an occurrence that is particularly acute in low-and-middle-income study contexts. This article investigates the uncertainties in the input data and their effects in a material flow analysis study of municipal solid waste management in Maputo City, the capital of Mozambique. The analysis is based on data collected in 2007 and 2014. Initially, the uncertainties and their ranges were identified by the data classification model of Hedbrant and Sörme, followed by the application of sensitivity analysis. The average lower and upper bounds were 29% and 71%, respectively, in 2007, increasing to 41% and 96%, respectively, in 2014. This indicates higher data quality in 2007 than in 2014. Results also show that not only data are partially missing from the established flows such as waste generation to final disposal, but also that they are limited and inconsistent in emerging flows and processes such as waste generation to material recovery (hence the wider variation in the 2014 parameters). The sensitivity analysis further clarified the most influencing parameter and the degree of influence of each parameter on the waste flows and the interrelations among the parameters. The findings highlight the need for an integrated municipal solid waste management approach to avoid transferring or worsening the negative impacts among the parameters and flows.

  6. Combination of material flow analysis and substance flow analysis: a powerful approach for decision support in waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljevic, Nemanja; Brunner, Paul H

    2014-08-01

    The novelty of this paper is the demonstration of the effectiveness of combining material flow analysis (MFA) with substance flow analysis (SFA) for decision making in waste management. Both MFA and SFA are based on the mass balance principle. While MFA alone has been applied often for analysing material flows quantitatively and hence to determine the capacities of waste treatment processes, SFA is more demanding but instrumental in evaluating the performance of a waste management system regarding the goals "resource conservation" and "environmental protection". SFA focuses on the transformations of wastes during waste treatment: valuable as well as hazardous substances and their transformations are followed through the entire waste management system. A substance-based approach is required because the economic and environmental properties of the products of waste management - recycling goods, residues and emissions - are primarily determined by the content of specific precious or harmful substances. To support the case that MFA and SFA should be combined, a case study of waste management scenarios is presented. For three scenarios, total material flows are quantified by MFA, and the mass flows of six indicator substances (C, N, Cl, Cd, Pb, Hg) are determined by SFA. The combined results are compared to the status quo in view of fulfilling the goals of waste management. They clearly point out specific differences between the chosen scenarios, demonstrating potentials for improvement and the value of the combination of MFA/SFA for decision making in waste management. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Material Flow Analysis of NdFeB magnets for Denmark: A comprehensive waste flow sampling and analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal; Schibye, Peter Klausen; Vestbø, Andreas Peter

    2014-01-01

    for considerable size and weight reduction in modern applications. This study aims to explore the current and future potential of secondary supply of neodymium and dysprosium from recycling of NdFeB magnets. For this purpose, Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has been carried out to perform the detailed mapping...

  8. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs

  9. Analysis of nuclear material flow for experimental DUPIC fuel fabrication process at DFDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, J. J.; Shin, J. M.; Lee, J. W.; Yang, M. S.; Baik, S. Y.; Lee, E. P

    1999-08-01

    This report describes facilities necessary for manufacturing experiment for DUPIC fuel, manufacturing process and equipment. Nuclear material flows among facilities, in PIEF and IMEF, for irradiation test, for post examination of DUPIC fuel, for quality control, for chemical analysis and for treatment of radioactive waste have been analyzed in details. This may be helpful for DUPIC project participants and facility engineers working in related facilities to understand overall flow for nuclear material and radioactive waste. (Author). 14 refs., 15 tabs., 41 figs.

  10. Safe and Sustainable: Optimizing Material Flows in a Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    (unsustainable). When maximizing resource use efficiency and reducing carbon and other emissions through recycling (sustainable), direct consumer exposure is often increased through cross-contamination of recycled materials (unsafe). Hence, circular economy currently fails to unite the required expertise...... to imultaneously increase sustainability and reduce exposure to chemicals in materials reused across life cycles of different products. For a way out of this dilemma, a paradigm shift is needed towards a comprehensive and quantitative assessment framework.......Increasing the sustainability of a globally connected economy is gaining wide attention in a world with limited natural resources and growing chemical pollution. The circular economy has emerged as away to reduce carbon and other emissions, while increasing resource efficiency over several product...

  11. Thermally activated creep and fluidization in flowing disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabia, Samy; Detcheverry, François

    2016-11-01

    When submitted to a constant mechanical load, many materials display power law creep followed by fluidization. A fundamental understanding of these processes is still far from being achieved. Here, we characterize creep and fluidization on the basis of a mesoscopic viscoplastic model that includes thermally activated yielding events and a broad distribution of energy barriers, which may be lowered under the effect of a local deformation. We relate the creep exponent observed before fluidization to the width of barrier distribution and to the specific form of stress redistribution following yielding events. We show that Andrade creep is accompanied by local strain hardening driven by stress redistribution and find that the fluidization time depends exponentially on the applied stress. The simulation results are interpreted in the light of a mean-field analysis, and should help in rationalizing the creep phenomenology in disordered materials.

  12. An information system for sustainable materials management with material flow accounting and waste input–output analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Cheng Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable materials management focuses on the dynamics of materials in economic and environmental activities to optimize material use efficiency and reduce environmental impact. A preliminary web-based information system is thus developed to analyze the issues of resource consumption and waste generation, enabling countries to manage resources and wastes from a life cycle perspective. This pioneering system features a four-layer framework that integrates information on physical flows and economic activities with material flow accounting and waste input–output table analysis. Within this framework, several applications were developed for different waste and resource management stakeholders. The hierarchical and interactive dashboards allow convenient overview of economy-wide material accounts, waste streams, and secondary resource circulation. Furthermore, the system can trace material flows through associated production supply chain and consumption activities. Integrated with economic models; this system can predict the possible overloading on the current waste management facility capacities and provide decision support for designing strategies to approach resource sustainability. The limitations of current system are specified for directing further enhancement of functionalities.

  13. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Terra, Bruno; Maia, Amanda M.

    2010-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo o estabelecimento de fundamentação teórica atualizada baseada em revisão bibliográfica sobre a leucemia de grandes linfócitos granulares (LGLG), doença onco-hematológica, que, devido à sua relativa raridade, é pouco conhecida e subdiagnosticada. A LGLG é caracterizada pela proliferação clonal de linfócitos T ou NK na medula óssea e/ou no sangue periférico. Dentre as manifestações clínico-laboratoriais, podem ocorrer citopenias (anemia e/ou neutropenia e/ou ...

  14. Modification of structural materials by pulsed plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Garkusha, I.E.; Byrka, O.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Features of surface modification and materials alloying from gas and metallic plasma as a result of the plasma ions mixing with the steel substrate in liquid phase are investigated in this paper.The experiments have been carried out with pulsed plasma gun, which generates plasma streams with ion energy up to 2 keV, plasma density 2x10 14 cm -3 , average specific power of 10 MW/cm 2 and plasma energy density in the range of (5-40) J/cm 2 . The nitrogen, helium, other gases and their mixtures can be used as working gases. The regime of plasma treatment was chosen with variation of both the discharge voltage and the distance of the material surface from the gun output. Modification of thin (0.5-2 µm) PVD coatings of MoN, C+W, TiN, TiC, Cr, Cr+CrN and others by the pulsed plasma streams are analyzed also. It is shown that pulsed plasma treatment results in essential improvement of physical and mechanical properties of exposed materials. For example, microhardness of samples with Cr coating, after plasma treatment, increased in 2,5 times. Mechanisms of surface modification of a different alloys and coating irradiated with pulsed plasma streams of different ions are discussed. (authors)

  15. Can one ``Hear'' the aggregation state of a granular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruelle, Christof A.; Sánchez, Almudena García

    2013-06-01

    If an ensemble of macroscopic particles is mechanically agitated the constant energy input is dissipated into the system by multiple inelastic collisions. As a result, the granular material can exhibit, depending on the magnitude of agitation, several physical states - like a gaseous phase for high energy input or a condensed state for low agitation. Here we introduce a new method for quantifying the acoustical response of the granular system. Our experimental system consists of a monodisperse packing of glass beads with a free upper surface, which is confined inside a cylindrical container. An electro-mechanical shaker exerts a sinusoidal vertical vibration at normalized accelerations well above the fluidization threshold for a monolayer of particles. By increasing the number of beads the granular gas suddenly collapses if a critical threshold is exceeded. The transition can be detected easily with a microphone connected to the soundcard of a PC. From the recorded audio track a FFT is calculated in real-time. Depending on either the number of particles at a fixed acceleration or the amount of energy input for a given number of particles, the resulting rattling noise exhibits a power spectrum with either the dominating (shaker) frequency plus higher harmonics for a granular crystal or a high-frequency broad-band noise for a granular gas, respectively. Our new method demonstrates that it is possible to quantify analytically the subjective audio impressions of a careful listener and thus to distinguish easily between different aggregation states of an excited granular system.

  16. Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics of thermal collapse in a freely cooling granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolvin, Itamar; Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch

    2010-08-01

    We show that, in dimension higher than one, heat diffusion and viscosity cannot arrest thermal collapse in a freely evolving dilute granular gas, even in the absence of gravity. Thermal collapse involves a finite-time blowup of the gas density. It was predicted earlier in ideal, Euler hydrodynamics of dilute granular gases in the absence of gravity, and in nonideal, Navier-Stokes granular hydrodynamics in the presence of gravity. We determine, analytically and numerically, the dynamic scaling laws that characterize the gas flow close to collapse. We also investigate bifurcations of a freely evolving dilute granular gas in circular and wedge-shaped containers. Our results imply that, in general, thermal collapse can only be arrested when the gas density becomes comparable with the close-packing density of grains. This provides a natural explanation to the formation of densely packed clusters of particles in a variety of initially dilute granular flows.

  17. Debris flow analysis with a one dimensional dynamic run-out model that incorporates entrained material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Byron Quan; Remaître, Alexandre; van Asch, Theo; Malet, Jean-Philippe; van Westen, Cees

    2010-05-01

    Estimating the magnitude and the intensity of rapid landslides like debris flows is fundamental to evaluate quantitatively the hazard in a specific location. Intensity varies through the travelled course of the flow and can be described by physical features such as deposited volume, velocities, height of the flow, impact forces and pressures. Dynamic run-out models are able to characterize the distribution of the material, its intensity and define the zone where the elements will experience an impact. These models can provide valuable inputs for vulnerability and risk calculations. However, most dynamic run-out models assume a constant volume during the motion of the flow, ignoring the important role of material entrained along its path. Consequently, they neglect that the increase of volume enhances the mobility of the flow and can significantly influence the size of the potential impact area. An appropriate erosion mechanism needs to be established in the analyses of debris flows that will improve the results of dynamic modeling and consequently the quantitative evaluation of risk. The objective is to present and test a simple 1D debris flow model with a material entrainment concept based on limit equilibrium considerations and the generation of excess pore water pressure through undrained loading of the in situ bed material. The debris flow propagation model is based on a one dimensional finite difference solution of a depth-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid motions. The flow is treated as a laminar one phase material, which behavior is controlled by a visco-plastic Coulomb-Bingham rheology. The model parameters are evaluated and the model performance is tested on a debris flow event that occurred in 2003 in the Faucon torrent (Southern French Alps).

  18. Research of thermoluminescence dating for ancient debris flow materials in Qingshui river basin of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junxin; Wei Mingjian; Zhou Rui; Zhang Bin; Liu Tiantian

    2012-01-01

    The thermoluminescence age of the samples for ancient debris flow terraces material of Lingshan and Hongshuikou, which are in Qingshui River Basin of Beijing, was studied using the thermo luminescence technology. The age increases with the increasing depth of two ancient debris flow profile, and the deeper debris flow deposits material the more of the environmental radiation dose is. The trend with depth of U, Th and K contents and annual dose is consistency. And the change with depth of Th content is more discrete than that of U, K contents. (authors)

  19. Cahn-Hiliard theory for unstable granular fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noije, T.P.C.; Ernst, M.H.

    A Cahn-Hilliard-type theory for hydrodynamic fluctuations is proposed that gives a quantitative description of the slowly evolving spatial correlations and structures in density and flow fields in the early stages of evolution of freely cooling granular fluids. Two mechanisms for pattern selection

  20. Interface stability of granular filter structures under currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, H.J.; Hoffmans, G.; Dorst, K.; Van de Sande, S.

    2012-01-01

    Granular filters are used for protection of structures against scour and erosion. For a proper functioning it is necessary that the interfaces between the filter structure, the subsoil and the water flowing above the filter structure are stable. Stability means that there is no transport of subsoil

  1. Kinetics and mass transfer phenomena in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Seghezzo, L.; Lettinga, G.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic properties of acetate-degrading methanogenic granular sludge of different mean diameters were assessed at different up-flow velocities (Vup). Using this approach, the influence of internal and external mass transfer could be estimated. First, the apparent Monod constant (KS) for each

  2. The plastic flow localization effect on crystalline material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajot, A.

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation affects the mechanical properties of materials. In particular, an increase of yield strength followed by a decrease of ductility and a reduction of the elongation to fracture are observed above a threshold irradiation dose. The last two phenomena are correlated with the appearance of bands free of defects (clear bands) in which plastic deformation is confined. These bands also determine accumulation of dislocations at grain boundaries, thereby favouring local grain decohesion and possibly initiating fracture. Clear bands have an important impact on metal resistance, nevertheless our level of understanding is not sufficient to evaluate quantitatively their effect on the loss of ductility and reduction of elongation to fracture that are observed experimentally. A clear band is a microstructural defect, created when loading an irradiated material. Its complex interaction with defects on the nano scale affects the behaviour of the metal at the macroscopic scale. A full understanding implies the application of a multi scale modeling approach. This explains why, even though clear bands have first been

  3. Simulation of Material Flow Through a Sample Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for a modern approach to innovative procedures of the development of current or even newly created equipment for the transport of particulate materials is the utilization of simulation methods, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM. This article focuses on the basic, or initial, validation of movement of material through the sample divider. The mechanical-physical properties of brown coal were measured. Based on these parameters the preliminary input values for EDEM Academic were selected, and a simulation of the dividing process was run. The key monitored parameters included density and friction coefficient. Experiments on a realistic model of the equipment were performed and assessed. The total weights of brown coal at the exit from the divider were determined for a specific speed of the divider. The aim of this task was to simulate the realistically determined weight division of the brown coal sample. The result from the DEM was compared with the results of measurement on a realistic model.

  4. Discrete event dynamic system (DES)-based modeling for dynamic material flow in the pyroprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyo Jik; Kim, Kiho; Kim, Ho Dong; Lee, Han Soo

    2011-01-01

    A modeling and simulation methodology was proposed in order to implement the dynamic material flow of the pyroprocess. Since the static mass balance provides the limited information on the material flow, it is hard to predict dynamic behavior according to event. Therefore, a discrete event system (DES)-based model named, PyroFlow, was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PyroFlow is able to calculate dynamic mass balance and also show various dynamic operational results in real time. By using PyroFlow, it is easy to rapidly predict unforeseeable results, such as throughput in unit process, accumulated product in buffer and operation status. As preliminary simulations, bottleneck analyses in the pyroprocess were carried out and consequently it was presented that operation strategy had influence on the productivity of the pyroprocess.

  5. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1989-11-01

    This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  7. Nutrient enrichment reduces constraints on material flows in a detritus-based food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt F. Cross; Bruce Wallace; Amy D. Rosemond

    2007-01-01

    Most aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing increased nutrient availability, which is affecting their structure and function. By altering community composition and productivity of consumers, enrichment can indirectly cause changes in the pathways and magnitude of material flows in food webs. These changes, in turn, have major consequences for material...

  8. EFFECTS OF REACTOR CONDITIONS ON ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE USING GRANULAR-GRAPHITE ELECTRODE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was electrochemically dechlorinated in aqueous environments using granular graphite cathode in a mixed reactor. Effects of pH, current, electrolyte type, and flow rate on TCE dechlorination rate were evaluated. TCE dechlorination rate constant and gas pr...

  9. IN-SITU REGENERATION OF GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON (GAC) USING FENTON'S REAGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton-dependent regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) initially saturated with one of several chlorinated aliphatic contaminants was studied in batch and continuous-flow reactors. Homogeneous and heterogeneous experiments were designed to investigate the effects of va...

  10. Permeability of granular beds emplaced in vertical drill holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, S.K.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    To determine the permeabilities of granular materials emplaced in vertical drill holes used for underground nuclear tests, an experiment at the USDOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) was conducted. As the hole is being filled, falling material increases pressure above and within the granular beds beneath. When the filling operation starts or stops, a transient pressure response occurs within the beds; measurements of this response in beds of various compositions were made. The permeabilities after emplacement were found by matching analytical predictions of the response to these data. This information is useful in assuring the containment of nuclear tests conducted in such drill holes

  11. Effect of Wetting and Contamination of Granular Beds During Sphere Impact

    KAUST Repository

    Kouraytem, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents results from an experimental study of the impact of dense solid spheres onto granular beds. The overall aim is to further our understanding of the dynamical response of granular materials to impact. In order to do this, we

  12. Superconductivity in inhomogeneous granular metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    A model of elongated metal ellipsoids imbedded in a granular metal is treated by an effective medium approach to explain the observed temperature dependence of the normal-state conductivity of superconducting granular aluminum. Josephson tunneling is thus still required to account for the superconductivity. The model predicts the same kind of contrasting behavior on opposite sides of the metal-insulator transition as is found in the recent scaling treatment of Anderson localization

  13. Voltage fluctuations in granular superconductors in the perpendicular configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerashchenko, O V

    2003-01-01

    The spectral density of voltage fluctuations in granular YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconductors in the perpendicular configuration has been studied in the flux flow mode. It has been found that, in this case, the 1/f-voltage noise observed depends weakly on temperature and is associated with motion of a magnetic flux in the superconductor. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of previous measurements in parallel configuration has shown that voltage noise is produced by a single common source, which is presumably associated with self-organization of the critical state in granular superconductors

  14. Anaerobic horizontal flow reactor with polyethylene terephthalate as support material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Muñoz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A pilot anaerobic reactor was installed to remove the organic load of wastewater from dairy industry. It uses a bacterial inoculum previously acclimated to the substrate. It was disposed horizontally and filled with pieces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET, from plastic bottles. The reactor was operated at room temperature, during 100 days, in three phases: 1 the reactor was stabilized with volumetric organic load from 0.013 to 0.500 kg/day.m³; 2 the hydraulic retention time was of 1 day and the volumetric organic load of 3 kg/day.m³; 3 the volumetric organic load was incremented from 4 to 6.6 kg/day.m³ and the hydraulic retention time was 1 day. Organic material removal efficiencies was of 85%, and approximately 75% were obtained in the second and third phase, respectively. The Y value was 0.15, indicating that 0.15 kg of biomass were generated by kg of QDO supplied to the reactor. Finally, the biomass generated inside the reactor was analyzed, obtaining a value of 18868 mg/L, which is a higher value than those of conventional systems.

  15. Permeable barrier materials for strontium immobilization: Unsaturated flow apparatus determination of hydraulic conductivity -- Column sorption experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Conca, J.

    1996-09-01

    Selected materials were tested to emulate a permeable barrier and to examine the (1) capture efficiency of these materials relating to the immobilization of strontium-90 and hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+ ) in Hanford Site groundwater; and (2) hydraulic conductivity of the barrier material relative to the surrounding area. The emplacement method investigated was a permeable reactive barrier to treat contaminated groundwater as it passes through the barrier. The hydraulic conductivity function was measured for each material, and retardation column experiments were performed for each material. Measurements determining the hydraulic conductivity at unsaturated through saturated water content were executed using the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus

  16. Flow behavior and mobility of contaminated waste rock materials in the abandoned Imgi mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Wu, Y.-H.; Cho, Y. C.; Ji, S. W.

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete mine reclamation can cause ecological and environmental impacts. This paper focuses on the geotechnical and rheological characteristics of waste rock materials, which are mainly composed of sand-size particles, potentially resulting in mass movement (e.g., slide or flow) and extensive acid mine drainage. To examine the potential for contaminant mobilization resulting from physicochemical processes in abandoned mines, a series of scenario-based debris flow simulations was conducted using Debris-2D to identify different hazard scenarios and volumes. The flow behavior of waste rock materials was examined using a ball-measuring rheometric apparatus, which can be adapted for large particle samples, such as debris flow. Bingham yield stresses determined in controlled shear rate mode were used as an input parameter in the debris flow modeling. The yield stresses ranged from 100 to 1000 Pa for shear rates ranging from 10- 5 to 102 s- 1. The results demonstrated that the lowest yield stress could result in high mobility of debris flow (e.g., runout distance > 700 m from the source area for 60 s); consequently, the material contaminants may easily reach the confluence of the Suyoung River through a mountain stream. When a fast slide or debris flow occurs at or near an abandoned mine area, it may result in extremely dynamic and destructive geomorphological changes. Even for the highest yield stress of debris flow simulation (i.e., τy = 2000 Pa), the released debris could flow into the mountain stream; therefore, people living near abandoned mines may become exposed to water pollution throughout the day. To maintain safety at and near abandoned mines, the physicochemical properties of waste materials should be monitored, and proper mitigation measures post-mining should be considered in terms of both their physical damage and chemical pollution potential.

  17. A theoretical study of resin flows for thermosetting materials during prepreg processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    A flow model which describes the process of resin consolidation during prepreg lamination was developed. The salient features of model predictions were explored. It is assumed that resin flows in all directions originate from squeezing action between two approaching adjacent fiber/fabric layers. In the horizontal direction, a squeezing flow between two nonporous parallel plates is analyzed, while in the vertical direction a poiseuille type pressure flow through porous media is assumed. Proper force and mass balance was established for the whole system which is composed of these two types of flow. A flow parameter, CF, shows to be a measure of processibility for the curing resin. For a given external load-F the responses of resin flow during prepreg lamination, as measured by CF, are categorized into three regions: (1) the low CF region where resin flows are inhibited by the high chemoviscosity during initial curing stages; (2) the median CF region where resin flows are properly controllable; and (3) the high CF region where resin flows are ceased due to fiber/fabric compression effects. Resin losses in both directions are calculated. Potential uses of this model and quality control of incoming prepreg material are discussed.

  18. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to be Used in Subballast Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Signes, Carlos Hidalgo; Fernández, Pablo Martínez; Garzón-Roca, Julio; de la Torre, María Elvira Garrido; Franco, Ricardo Insa

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the...

  19. An Evaluation of the Resilient Modulus and Permanent Deformation of Unbound Mixtures of Granular Materials and Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres to Be Used in Subballast Layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Sgnes, Carlos; Martínez Fernández, Pablo; Garzón Roca, Julio; Garrido De La Torre, Mª Elvira; Insa Franco, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Over the last years rubber from scrap tyres has been reused in different civil works such as road embankments and railway platforms due to its resilient properties, low degradation and vibration attenuation. Unfortunately, this issue is still scarce. For instance, in Spain about 175.000 tonnes of scrap tyres were collected in 2014, of which only 0.6% were reused in civil works. Aiming to contribute to the reutilisation of large quantities of this waste material, this paper focuses on the...

  20. Granular chaos and mixing: Whirled in a grain of sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinbrot, Troy, E-mail: shinbrot@rutgers.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we overview examples of chaos in granular flows. We begin by reviewing several remarkable behaviors that have intrigued researchers over the past few decades, and we then focus on three areas in which chaos plays an intrinsic role in granular behavior. First, we discuss pattern formation in vibrated beds, which we show is a direct result of chaotic scattering combined with dynamical dissipation. Next, we consider stick-slip motion, which involves chaotic scattering on the micro-scale, and which results in complex and as yet unexplained peculiarities on the macro-scale. Finally, we examine granular mixing, which we show combines micro-scale chaotic scattering and macro-scale stick-slip motion into behaviors that are well described by dynamical systems tools, such as iterative mappings.