WorldWideScience

Sample records for grants pesticide applicator

  1. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  2. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  3. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  4. 77 FR 38285 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-06-27

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0101; FRL-9348-5] Pesticide Products... announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products containing new active ingredients not... Pollution Prevention Division (7511P) or the Registration Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs...

  5. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  7. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-09-15

    ... Products, Inc., 2625 South 158th Plaza, Omaha, NE 68130. Active ingredient: Bifenthrin. Proposed uses: Dogs... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0008; FRL-8843-5] Pesticide Products... announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing currently...

  8. Pesticide Applicator Certification in Indian Country

    This website provides information about the EPA Plan for the Federal Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides within Indian Country, including plan requirements, how to become certified, how to register for training, and who is certified.

  9. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  11. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides, as...

  12. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  13. Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, & Award

    This infographic shows the National Cancer Institute general timeline progression through Grant Application Development, Submission, Review, and Award Infographic. In the first month, Applicant prepares and submits Grant Application to Grants.gov in response to FOA. In month two, The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) assigns applications that fall under the category of R01s, etc. to a Scientific Review Group (SRG) or the CSR assigns applications that fall under the category of Program Projects and Center Grants to NCI Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). Months four through five: First-level review by Scientific Review Group (SRG) for Scientific Merit: SRG assigns Impact Scores. Month five Summary Sstatements are prepared and are available to NCI Program staff and applicants. Month six, second-level review by National Cancer Advisory board (NCAB) for NCI Funding determination begins. NCAB makes recommendation to NCI Director, NCI develops funding plan, Applications selected for Funding, “Paylists” forwarded to Office of Grant Administration (OGA). Month ten, Award Negotiations and Issuance: Award issued, Award received by Institution, and Investigator begins work. www.cancer.gov Icons made by Freepik from http://www.flaticon.com is licensed by CC BY3.0

  14. Effects of Pesticide Application on the Growth of Soil Nitrifying ...

    ADOWIE PERE

    shows that the bacteria could survive and grow at lower pesticide concentrations but were completely ... soil bacteria before application. .... capacities to degrade or utilize pesticides as carbon ... effects of plastic composted soil on nitrifying.

  15. 38 CFR 61.41 - Special needs grants application.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special needs grants... (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.41 Special needs grants application. (a) To apply for a special needs grant, an applicant must obtain from VA a special needs grant application...

  16. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  17. 38 CFR 61.11 - Applications for capital grants.

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.11 Applications for capital grants. (a) To apply for a capital grant, an applicant must obtain from VA a capital grant application package and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for capital...

  18. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: A method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications

    Leach, A.W.; Mumford, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts. - A method to estimate the external costs of a pesticide application based on the ecotoxicology, environmental behaviour and application rate of an active ingredient

  19. 75 FR 16109 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-03-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0936; FRL-8806-9] Antimicrobial Pesticide...: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new antimicrobial pesticide products... identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received applications as follows to register new antimicrobial...

  20. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    2010-01-27

    ..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection..., Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010-1582 Filed 1-26-10...

  1. Pesticide Application and Safety Training. Sale Publication 4070.

    Stimmann, M. W.

    This guide is intended for use by those preparing to take the California certification examination for commercial pesticide applicators. The first chapter gives brief descriptions and illustrations of types of insect, vertebrate, plant, and microorganism pests. The other chapters cover pesticide classifications and formulations, labels and…

  2. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-06-02

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0325; FRL-8824-2] Antimicrobial Pesticide...: This notice announces receipt of an application to register new antimicrobial pesticide products... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Demson Fuller, Antimicrobials Division...

  3. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2011-10-12

    ... each contact person is: Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs...: October 3, 2011. Keith A Matthews, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  4. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    2010-02-10

    ... (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Shanaz Bacchus, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention... protection, Pesticides and pests. Dated: January 29, 2010. Keith A. Matthews, Acting Director, Biopesticides...

  5. 38 CFR 61.14 - Selecting applications for capital grants.

    2010-07-01

    ... for capital grants. 61.14 Section 61.14 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.14 Selecting applications for capital grants. (a) Applicants will first be grouped in categories according to the funding priorities set...

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  7. Application of Multi-Analyte Methods for Pesticide Formulations

    Lantos, J.; Virtics, I. [Plant Protection & Soil Conservation Service of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County, Nyíregyháza (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The application of multi-analyte methods for pesticide formulations by GC analysis is discussed. HPLC was used to determine active ingredients. HPLC elution sequences were related to individual n-octanol/water partition coefficients. Real laboratory data are presented and evaluated with regard to validation requirements. The retention time data of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions are compared to illustrate the applicability of the methodologies. (author)

  8. Pesticides

    ... stores. Exposure to pesticides can happen in the workplace, through foods that are eaten, and in the ... or place bait in areas where children or pets have access. DO NOT stock up on pesticides, ...

  9. 42 CFR 86.12 - Application for a grant.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for a grant. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants §...

  10. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    2011-03-30

    ... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and... Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: March 18, 2011. Keith A. Matthews, Director, Biopesticides...

  11. 44 CFR 78.7 - Grant application procedures.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION ASSISTANCE § 78.7 Grant application procedures. States will apply for Technical Assistance and...

  12. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  13. Writing Cancer Grant Applications | Center for Cancer Research

    This course focuses on how to write clear and persuasive grant applications. The purpose is to increase the quality of your grant application by successfully communicating scientific data and ideas. Emphasis is placed on how to use the title abstract and introduction sections to draw in reviewers and how to write an organized and focused proposal using specific scientific aims.

  14. 10 CFR 455.131 - State ranking of grant applications.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State ranking of grant applications. 455.131 Section 455... State ranking of grant applications. (a) Except as provided by § 455.92 of this part, all eligible... audit or energy use evaluation pursuant to § 455.20(k). Each State shall develop separate rankings for...

  15. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  17. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  18. 77 FR 12295 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-02-29

    ........ Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... 9); citrus fruits (crop group 10-10); pome fruits (crop group 11-10); stone fruits (crop group 12); berries and small fruits, bushberries (crop subgroup 13-07B); tree nuts (crop group 14); oilseeds (crop...

  19. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-05-04

    ... classification/Use: Terrestrial food use for brassica leafy vegetables, bulb vegetables, cucurbit vegetables...%. Proposed classification/Use: Terrestrial food use for brassica leafy vegetables, bulb vegetables, cucurbit... potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide...

  20. 30 CFR 795.5 - Grant application procedures.

    2010-07-01

    ....5 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SMALL OPERATOR ASSISTANCE PERMANENT REGULATORY PROGRAM-SMALL OPERATOR ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 795.5 Grant application procedures. A State intending to administer a Small Operator Assistance Program under a grant from...

  1. 42 CFR 64.5 - How are grant applications evaluated?

    2010-10-01

    ..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE TRAINING GRANTS § 64.5 How are grant applications evaluated... groups engaged by the Secretary for that purpose. The Secretary's evaluation will be for technical merit... qualifications and competency of the project director and proposed staff, the adequacy of selection criteria for...

  2. Cross-Cutting public policy requirements applicable to federal grants

    There are cross-cutting public policy requirements applicable to Federal grants, including those awarded by the EPA. Some of those requirements are included here because they have been part of appropriations acts for several years without change.

  3. Ecological investigation of application of pesticides in rice fields

    Nouri, J.; Arjomandi, R.; Bayat, H.

    2000-01-01

    Among several pests of rice as one of the main agricultural products in Iran, rice borer, C hilo sarsaparilla is one of the most important pests of this crop. Use of pesticides coincided with the occurrence of this pest in the northern region of Iran in 1972. At present in order to control this pest, more than 12000 tones of pesticides granules are used annually. Ecological effects of pesticides application and the use of Trichograma sp. as a natural enemy, for assessing the impacts of pesticides in environments, especially on different living organisms on the plant, in irrigation water, and in 5 cm depth of surface soil, were investigated in two regions of Amol, named Osk. Mahalleh and Capik Field of Tashbandan. Results indicated that the two treatments were not different on crop loss. One the contrary, in the pesticide treatment, there was a considerable dec tease in the population of living organisms, particularly, no organism was observed in 5 cm depth of surface soil. It is recommended that in order to maintain the balance of environment, the use of chemicals for controlling rice borer must be with extreme care, only in the inevitable was with the use of principles of Integrated Pest Management

  4. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial...

  5. 78 FR 33154 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2014 Grant Application Package

    2013-06-03

    ... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax disputes with the IRS, or educate individuals for whom... Grant Application Package and Guidelines, IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2013), can be downloaded from the...

  6. 49 CFR 110.30 - Grant application.

    2010-10-01

    .... An initial round of the review and award process will consider applications received on or before... tribal government, governing body, or tribal council to the effect that the applicant is authorized to... purpose, exclusive of Federal funds, will not fall below the average level of its expenditures for its...

  7. 42 CFR 51b.605 - How will grant applications be evaluated and the grants awarded?

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR PREVENTIVE HEALTH SERVICES Grants for Research, Demonstrations... has potential to directly benefit the national venereal disease control effort? (2) Are the project...

  8. Supporting Knowledge Mobilization and Research Impact Strategies in Grant Applications

    Phipps, David; Jensen, Krista E.; Johnny, Michael; Poetz, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    Each application to the National Science Foundation (NSF) must contain a Broader Impact (BI) strategy. Similarly, grant applications for most research funders in Canada and the UK require strategies to support the translation of research into impacts on society; however, the guidance provided to researchers is too general to inform the specific…

  9. 7 CFR 1740.9 - Grant application.

    2010-01-01

    ...'s own calculation of its Rurality score, supported by a worksheet showing the population of its core... shall state the details of that collaboration. (g) The applicant's own calculation of its Economic Need... authorized the initiation of digital broadcasting at the project sites. In the event that an FCC construction...

  10. A Mobile App for Military Operational Entomology Pesticide Applications

    2014-09-01

    OPERATIONAL NOTE A MOBILE APP FOR MILITARY OPERATIONAL ENTOMOLOGY PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS SETH C. BRITCH,1 KENNETH J. LINTHICUM,1 ROBERT L. ALDRIDGE,1...2012, Burkett et al. 2013), in particular evaluating and develop- ing innovative enhancements of key operational entomology components such as...Veterinary Entomology , 1600 SW 23rd Drive, Gaines- ville, FL 32608. 2 Navy Entomology Center of Excellence, Naval Air Station, PO Box 43, Jacksonville, FL

  11. 38 CFR 61.12 - Threshold requirements for capital grant applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... for capital grant applications. 61.12 Section 61.12 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.12 Threshold requirements for capital grant applications. To be eligible for a capital grant, an applicant must meet the...

  12. Long-Term Persistence of Pesticides and TPs in Archived Agricultural Soil Samples and Comparison with Pesticide Application.

    Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Keller, Armin; Wächter, Daniel; Steinlin, Christine; Camenzuli, Louise; Hollender, Juliane; Krauss, Martin

    2017-09-19

    For polar and more degradable pesticides, not many data on long-term persistence in soil under field conditions and real application practices exist. To assess the persistence of pesticides in soil, a multiple-compound screening method (log K ow 1.7-5.5) was developed based on pressurized liquid extraction, QuEChERS and LC-HRMS. The method was applied to study 80 polar pesticides and >90 transformation products (TPs) in archived topsoil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) from 1995 to 2008 with known pesticide application patterns. The results reveal large variations between crop type and field sites. For the majority of the sites 10-15 pesticides were identified with a detection rate of 45% at concentrations between 1 and 330 μg/kg dw in soil. Furthermore, TPs were detected in 47% of the cases where the "parent-compound" was applied. Overall, residues of about 80% of all applied pesticides could be detected with half of these found as TPs with a persistence of more than a decade.

  13. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  14. 75 FR 40864 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2010 Border Grant Funding and Solicitation for Applications

    2010-07-14

    ... Federal Grant Web site, http://www.grants.gov . Eligible projects for funding with BEG are identified in... applications for BEG funding at the Federal Grant Web site, http://www.grants.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the MOE explanation, http://www.fmcsa.dot.gov/safety-security/grants/beg/moe.aspx . The Border...

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  16. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Christensen, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus

  17. 75 FR 16111 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2010-03-31

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0935; FRL-8807-1] Antimicrobial Pesticide... . List of Subjects Environmental protection, Antimicrobial pesticides and pest. Dated: March 15, 2010. Joan Harrigan Farrelly, Director, Antimicrobial Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. [FR Doc. 2010...

  18. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology

    Bruno Maia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1 Basic concepts, (2 Factors that affect application, (3 Equipments, (4 Spraying nozzles, (5 Sprayer calibration, (6 Aerial application, (7 Chemigation, (8 Physical-chemical properties, (9 Formulations, (10 Adjuvants, (11 Water quality, and (12 Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1st, 2008, hosted at the web site www.pulverizar.iciag.ufu.br, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.O ensino à distância apresenta grande potencial para minorar os problemas ocorridos no campo na área de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos. Dessa forma, diante da escassez de material instrucional na área de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos em Português e do crescimento elevado da educação à distância, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar um programa computacional para o ensino à distância da parte teórica de tecnologia de aplicação de agroquímicos, utilizando as ferramentas de tecnologia da informação. Os módulos que compuseram o curso, intitulado Pulverizar, foram: (1 Conceitos básicos, (2 Fatores que afetam a aplicação, (3 Equipamentos, (4 Pontas de pulverização, (5 Calibração de pulverizadores

  19. Pesticide Application and Khat Chewing as Predictors of the Neurological Health Outcomes among Pesticide Applicators in a Vector Control Unit, Saudi Arabia

    Ahmed A Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pesticide applicators are at risk of developing neurological symptoms and neurobehavioral deficits. This risk may increase if the applicator chews stimulant plants like khat. Objective: To examine the sociodemographic and exposure determinants of neurological symptoms presentation, neurobehavioral performance, and cholinesterase activity among pesticide applicators in a vector control unit, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 30 pesticide applicators and 32 non-applicators from a vector control unit in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia, were studied. The study participants completed an exposure and medical questionnaire, and a neurobehavioral test battery. Their blood samples were also tested for the measurement of butyryl cholinesterase (BChE. Results: The mean blood BChE level was no significantly different between the applicators and non-applicators. Working in pesticide application and chewing khat were significant predictors of the neurological symptoms presentation and neurobehavioral deficits among the study participants. Each factor was associated with about 40% of the symptoms included in the questionnaire. Exposure to pyrethroids was significantly associated with a decrement in symbol digit test latency, tapping (TAP non-preferred hand, and TAP alternating hands measures, representing the executive and motor speed/coordination functions. Khat chewing was associated with TAP preferred and non-preferred hands and serial digit learning measures, representing the memory and motor speed/coordination functions. Conclusions: It seems that being exposed to pyrethroids and chewing khat are associated with neurological and neurobehavioral drawbacks among pesticide applicators.

  20. 38 CFR 61.42 - Threshold requirements for special needs grant applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... for special needs grant applications. 61.42 Section 61.42 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... requirements for special needs grant applications. To be eligible for a special needs grant, an applicant must... requirements of this part, to maintain eligibility for special need payments and has demonstrated the capacity...

  1. Implementation of pesticide applicator certification schools and continuing education workshops : final report.

    2014-12-11

    The Oklahoma Department of Transportations (ODOT) herbicide applicator training program consists of initial pesticide applicator training schools followed by independent Certification testing and then on-going yearly continuing education workshops...

  2. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    . None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0.......01 to 0.2 mg kg−1 for pyraclostrobin, the pesticide with the lowest variation. Residues of fenoxycarb and indoxacarb were only found in a few apples, probably due to the early application time of these two compounds. The evaluation of the effect of spray quality did not show any major difference between......In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  4. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application

    Steven D. Hicks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06–1.78, p = 0.02. A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center, subject characteristics (race and sex, and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  5. Neurodevelopmental Delay Diagnosis Rates Are Increased in a Region with Aerial Pesticide Application.

    Hicks, Steven D; Wang, Ming; Fry, Katherine; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Wohlford, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses. This regional study identified higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses in an area with aerial pesticides application. Zip codes with aerial pyrethroid exposure were 37% more likely to have higher rates of ASD/DD (adjusted RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.06-1.78, p  = 0.02). A Poisson regression model controlling for regional characteristics (poverty, pesticide use, population density, and distance to medical center), subject characteristics (race and sex), and local birth characteristics (prematurity, low birthweight, and birth rates) identified a significant relationship between aerial pesticide use and ASD/DD rates. The relationship between pesticide application and human neurodevelopment deserves additional study to develop safe and effective methods of mosquito prevention, particularly as communities develop plans for Zika virus control.

  6. 34 CFR 607.13 - How many applications for a development grant may an institution submit?

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many applications for a development grant may an institution submit? 607.13 Section 607.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... Does an Institution Apply for a Grant? § 607.13 How many applications for a development grant may an...

  7. 76 FR 41813 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Higher Education Grant Program Application; Request...

    2011-07-15

    ... Higher Education Grant Program Application; Request for Comments AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... and Budget (OMB) approval for the collection of information for the Higher Education Grant Program... Number: 1076-0101. Title: Higher Education Grant Application, 25 CFR part 40. Brief Description of...

  8. Studies of radioisotope tracer technique and its applications to pesticide sciences in China

    Jia Minghong; Chen Qing; Zheng Ran

    1996-05-01

    The improper use of chemical pesticides has resulted in serious environmental problems and food pollutions, affecting the ecosystem balance and human being health. There are more and more scientists and research institutions being engaged in the area of radioisotope tracer techniques for pesticide sciences in China. So far, more than 80 labeled compounds, including insecticides, fungicides, acaricides, herbicides, metabolic intermediates, fertilizer and biological agents, etc. have been synthesized at the laboratory for application of isotopes in Institute for Application of Atomic Energy, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Over past several years, the great achievements have been made in the researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China, especially in the researches for isotopic labeling, residues, degradation and metabolism of pesticides in plant and animal, behavior and fate of pesticides in environment, and techniques for safe application of pesticide, and so on. The researches of radioisotope tracer techniques and their applications to pesticide sciences in China in the past years are briefly introduced. Some problems are put forward and the development in future is predicted. (1 tab.)

  9. Assessment of pesticide use and application practices in tomato ...

    Pesticides are of great benefit to agriculture in Kenya by decreasing crop losses due to insects, weeds, plant diseases, rodents and other pests. They also save lives through control of disease carrying insects and increase the quality and quantity of agricultural produce. However, pesticides are poisons and can affect ...

  10. A review of model applications for structured soils: b) Pesticide transport.

    Köhne, John Maximilian; Köhne, Sigrid; Simůnek, Jirka

    2009-02-16

    The past decade has seen considerable progress in the development of models simulating pesticide transport in structured soils subject to preferential flow (PF). Most PF pesticide transport models are based on the two-region concept and usually assume one (vertical) dimensional flow and transport. Stochastic parameter sets are sometimes used to account for the effects of spatial variability at the field scale. In the past decade, PF pesticide models were also coupled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and groundwater flow models for application at the catchment and larger regional scales. A review of PF pesticide model applications reveals that the principal difficulty of their application is still the appropriate parameterization of PF and pesticide processes. Experimental solution strategies involve improving measurement techniques and experimental designs. Model strategies aim at enhancing process descriptions, studying parameter sensitivity, uncertainty, inverse parameter identification, model calibration, and effects of spatial variability, as well as generating model emulators and databases. Model comparison studies demonstrated that, after calibration, PF pesticide models clearly outperform chromatographic models for structured soils. Considering nonlinear and kinetic sorption reactions further enhanced the pesticide transport description. However, inverse techniques combined with typically available experimental data are often limited in their ability to simultaneously identify parameters for describing PF, sorption, degradation and other processes. On the other hand, the predictive capacity of uncalibrated PF pesticide models currently allows at best an approximate (order-of-magnitude) estimation of concentrations. Moreover, models should target the entire soil-plant-atmosphere system, including often neglected above-ground processes such as pesticide volatilization, interception, sorption to plant residues, root uptake, and losses by runoff. The

  11. Impact of long term applications of cotton pesticides on soil biological properties, dissipation of [14C]-methyl parathion and persistence of multi-pesticide residues

    Andrea, M.M.; Peres, T.B.; Luchini, L.C.; Marcondes, M.A.; Pettinelli, A. Jr.; Nakagawa, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Biological parameters were followed in soils from a cotton farm (Tatui) where the recommended pesticides have been used for years, and from an experimental field (Sao Paulo) which was subdivided in two areas: one received the recommended pesticides and the other was maintained untreated. The soil bioactivities monitored from 1995 to 1998, after different pesticide applications, were: basal and glucose-induced respiration; anaerobic activity; nitrification rate; activity of the enzymes: dehydrogenase, aryl sulfatase and arginine deaminase; the soil capacity to mineralize an aromatic pesticide molecule ([ 14 C]-2,4-D), fungal and bacterial contributions for soil respiration until the beginning of 1998, and fungal and bacterial numbers from the beginning of 1998. The dissipation of [ 14 C]-methyl parathion - one of the recommended pesticides - was followed by radiometric techniques only in Sao Paulo, but persistence of multi-residues was determined in both soils by gas-liquid chromatography. All the biological parameters varied each sampling time and values also varied among soil samples, being inhibited or stimulated by the different pesticide applications, but they mostly recovered the initially detected activity. Dissipation of methyl parathion was fast and not affected by the other pesticide applications. Pesticide residues varied between the two soils but were mostly low after all applications, which indicates their dissipation. (author)

  12. PestLCI - A new model for estimation of inventory data for pesticide applications

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2003-01-01

    PestLCI is a new, modular model for estimation of pesticide emissions from field application to the different environmental compartments. It calculates emission fractions to the air, water, soil and groundwater compartments of the environment based on generally available information about: Type...... and time of application, crop species and development stage, and properties of the pesticide active ingredients. The required physical-chemical information on the 69 organic pesticides approved for field-use in Denmark is included in the model as a data base. So is the relative leaf area for 28 common...

  13. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  14. Aerial pesticide application causes DNA damage in pilots from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Waliszewski, S M; Amador-Muñoz, O; Meza, E; Calderón-Segura, M E; Zenteno, E; Huichapan-Martínez, J; Caba, M; Félix-Gastélum, R; Longoria-Espinoza, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agricultural production originates residues in the environment where they are applied. Pesticide aerial application is a frequent source of exposure to pesticides by persons dedicated to agricultural practices and those living in neighboring communities of sprayed fields. The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxic effects of pesticides in workers occupationally exposed to these chemicals during their aerial application to agricultural fields of Sinaloa, Mexico. The study involved 30 pilots of airplanes used to apply pesticides via aerial application and 30 unexposed controls. Damage was evaluated through the micronucleus assay and by other nuclear abnormalities in epithelial cells of oral mucosa. The highest frequency ratios (FR) equal to 269.5 corresponded to binucleated cells followed by 54.2, corresponding to cells with pyknotic nuclei, 45.2 of cells with chromatin condensation, 3.7 of cells with broken-egg, 3.6 of cells with micronucleus, and 2.0 of karyolytic cells. Age, worked time, smoking, and alcohol consumption did not have significant influence on nuclear abnormalities in the pilots studied. Pesticide exposure was the main factor for nuclear abnormality results and DNA damage. Marked genotoxic damage was developed even in younger pilots with 2 years of short working period, caused by their daily occupational exposure to pesticides.

  15. Pesticide Application among Farmers in the Catchment of Ashaiman Irrigation Scheme of Ghana: Health Implications

    Memuna M. Mattah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide use in modern day agriculture has increased tremendously. Pesticides are used to control pests and weeds, as well as protect crops from postharvest losses; however, their effects on humans and the environment cannot be overstated. This study examined pesticide acquisition, handling, and use among 120 farmers within the catchment of a small urban irrigation scheme. Also, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among selected farmers through which further data was collected to augment that of the survey. Twelve types of pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides, were found in use in the study areas. Three main sources of information about pesticides were identified, 43.3% from extension officers, 39.2% from agrochemical dealers, and 10% from colleague farmers. Seventy-five percent (75% of the respondents purchased the pesticides from agrochemical shops. Out of 74 farmers who were observed spraying pesticides on their farms, only 25.7% wore dresses that covered their whole body but without goggles. About sixty-seven percent (66.7% of the farmers whose chemical got finished left the containers on their farms or threw them into the bushes around. The frequency of application was influenced by affordability and size of farm, among others. The study recommended that training of farmers on pesticide handling and use should be intensified.

  16. 77 FR 25469 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-Up Grants

    2012-04-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- Up Grants Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.411A (Scale-up grants). AGENCY: Office of... fiscal year 2012 for the Investing in Innovation (i3) Scale-up grant competition (March 27 i3 Scale-up...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    2010-07-01

    ... to which the organism has been genetically modified. (4) Pest control organisms such as insect... and supported by data required in this subpart. (3) Genetically modified microbial pesticides may be...

  18. 77 FR 25787 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2013 Grant Application Package

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS, or inform individuals for...

  19. Impact of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications on soil properties in a cotton agroecosystem

    Hussain, Altaf; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Iqbal, Zafar; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted under field conditions to investigate the effects of heavy repeated long term pesticide applications, at their recommended doses, on some biological properties in relation to the cotton agroecosystem at NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan. Control, test and treated soils before (BPA) and after pesticide applications (APA) were collected and analyzed at different stages of pesticide applications. The selective tests were measurements of microbial numbers, basal as well as substrate-induced respiration, nitrification, Fe-III reduction and the activities, of dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Endosulfan, profenophos + alphamethrin and methamidophos inhibited while monocrotophos and bifenthrin + acetamiprid enhanced the bacterial population numbers. The fungal population was depressed with endosulfan while monocrotophos, profenophos and methamidophos stimulated it. All other applied pesticides did not cause any appreciable change in total bacterial and fungal populations throughout the study period. Monocrotophos, propargite, endosulfan alone or with dimethoate and profenophos with cypermethrin or with ethion inhibited the respiration and hence affected the biomass. All other pesticides had no effect in test and treated soils compared to control soil. No pronounced inhibition or stimulation was seen in respiration after several weeks following the applications of pesticide. Endosulfan, endosulfan with dimethoate, methamidophos stimulated while profenophos + cypermethrin and bifenthrin + endosulfan inhibited the nitrification. All other pesticide applications showed similar nitrification rates in test and treated soils compared to control soil. Iron reduction capacity was stimulated by dimethoate + endosulfan and propenophos + cypermethrin and profenphos, methamidophos, propargite and diafenthiuron + profenophos reduced it. Soil dehydrogenase activity was inhibited by methamidophos, fenpropathrin, endosulfan + dimethoate and bifenthrin + ethion

  20. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  1. Application of radioisotopes to studies of pesticide metabolism

    Shishido, Takashi

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic form and structural change of pesticides in the living body were mentioned. In the early stage of the study, 14 C, 35 S, 36 Cl, and 32 P were used, and 32 P was used mainly. At present, specimen labelled with 14 C or 3 H can be traced easily with liquid scintillation counter, and metabolic study is performed by using gaschromatography, nuclear magnetism resonant together with mass, and infrared spectrum analysis. Generally, pesticides are fat-soluble compounds. They convert into water-soluble compounds through the changes such as oxidation, reduction, and hydrolysis. Furthermore, they combine with ingredients in the living body, and are taken in. In animals, they are excreted outside the body, and in plants, they are stored after detoxication. Microorganisms break molecules into parts. They are used as energy source, and perform oxidative cleavage of nucleus of aromatic pesticides. (Kanao, N.)

  2. 76 FR 10321 - Announcement of Solicitation of Applications and Grant Application Deadlines

    2011-02-24

    ... students, teachers, medical professionals, and rural residents. The grants, which are awarded through a... substance satisfactory to the Agency as described in the Application Guide are subject to budgetary... Agency worksheet with documentation National School Lunch Program Yes Agency worksheet with (NSLP...

  3. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  4. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical

  5. 34 CFR 606.13 - How many applications for a development grant may an institution submit?

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many applications for a development grant may an institution submit? 606.13 Section 606.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... INSTITUTIONS PROGRAM How Does an Institution Apply for a Grant? § 606.13 How many applications for a...

  6. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the...

  7. 76 FR 12017 - Announcement of Grant Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2011-03-04

    ... Supplementary Information I. Funding Opportunity: Brief introduction to the Community Connect Grant Program II... adequate to deliver much needed benefits such as distance learning and telemedicine to communities that are... application at http://www.grants.gov . Applications will not be accepted via facsimile machine transmission or...

  8. 29 CFR 37.38 - What information must grant applicants and recipients provide to CRC?

    2010-07-01

    ... provide to CRC? 37.38 Section 37.38 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE... information must grant applicants and recipients provide to CRC? In addition to the information which must be collected, maintained, and, upon request, submitted to CRC under § 37.37: (a) Each grant applicant and...

  9. 25 CFR 700.335 - Grouping and granting of applications for life estate leases.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grouping and granting of applications for life estate... OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Life Estate Leases § 700.335 Grouping and granting of applications for... least 50% (fifty percent) disabled shall be ranked in order of their age with the oldest listed first...

  10. 78 FR 40092 - Inviting Rural Business Enterprise Grant Program Applications for Grants To Provide Technical...

    2013-07-03

    ... corporate felony convictions and corporate Federal tax delinquencies, applicants that are not delinquent on... result in a zero-point score for that criterion and will impact the overall evaluation of the application... Felony Convictions and Corporate Felony Tax Delinquencies Applications from corporate applicants...

  11. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    Gasco Manuel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa, Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years. In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04 and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02 better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk.

  12. Data on application frequency of pesticide for risk assessment purposes

    Drooge, H.L. van; Groeneveld, C.N.; Schipper, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In risk assessment, information from toxicity studies is combined with information on worker exposure. In general, agricultural practice implies long-term intermittent exposure to various pesticides. This issue can only be addressed when sufficient information exist, on exposure regimes. Patterns of

  13. 77 FR 11087 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants

    2012-02-24

    ... (e.g., cognitive science, educational psychology), computer science, and personal technology. These... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development... Information: Investing in Innovation Fund, Development grants Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  14. 76 FR 40679 - Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines and Funding

    2011-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Household Water Well System Grant Program Announcement of Application Deadlines and Funding AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of funding availability and solicitation of applications. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities...

  15. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  17. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  18. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  19. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  20. Dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus in applicators of agricultural pesticides in Majes – Arequipa (Peru

    Chung Arturo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OPs pesticides are the most commonly used pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. The population at risk for OPs exposure includes formulators, applicators and farmers. Majes Valley is the most important agricultural center of the Southern region of Peru. The present study was aimed to determine the knowledge about using OPs, safety practice and urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites on OP applicators in the Majes Valley, Peru. Methods This study was based on a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of safety practices to handling OPs, characteristics of pesticide application and use of protective measures to avoid pesticide contamination. Exposure was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. The sample consisted of 31 men and 2 women aged 20 – 65 years old. Results 76% of applicators had at least one urinary dialkylphosphate metabolite above the limit of detection. The geometric mean (GM and the geometric standard deviation (GSD of DMP and DEP were 5.73 ug/g cr. (GSD 2.51, and 6.08 ug/g cr. (GSD 3.63, respectively. The percentage of applicators with detectable DMP, DMDTP, and DMTP in urine was 72.72%, 3.03%, and 15.15%, respectively, while the corresponding figures for DEP, DETP, and DEDTP were 48.48%, 36.36% and 15.15%, respectively. There was no significant association between the use of protection practices and the absence of urine OPs metabolites suggesting inadequate protection practices. Conclusion The pesticide applicators in Majes Valley have significant exposure to OP pesticides, probably due to inappropriate protective practices. Future work should evaluate possible health effects.

  1. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Nowell, Lisa H., E-mail: lhnowell@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center, Placer Hall, 6000 J Street, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Norman, Julia E., E-mail: jnorman@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon Water Science Center, 2130 SW 5" t" h Avenue, Portland, OR 97201 (United States); Ingersoll, Christopher G., E-mail: cingersoll@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, 4200 New Haven Road, Columbia, MO 65021 (United States); Moran, Patrick W., E-mail: pwmoran@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center, 934 Broadway, Suite 300, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  2. Development and application of freshwater sediment-toxicity benchmarks for currently used pesticides

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Moran, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Sediment-toxicity benchmarks are needed to interpret the biological significance of currently used pesticides detected in whole sediments. Two types of freshwater sediment benchmarks for pesticides were developed using spiked-sediment bioassay (SSB) data from the literature. These benchmarks can be used to interpret sediment-toxicity data or to assess the potential toxicity of pesticides in whole sediment. The Likely Effect Benchmark (LEB) defines a pesticide concentration in whole sediment above which there is a high probability of adverse effects on benthic invertebrates, and the Threshold Effect Benchmark (TEB) defines a concentration below which adverse effects are unlikely. For compounds without available SSBs, benchmarks were estimated using equilibrium partitioning (EqP). When a sediment sample contains a pesticide mixture, benchmark quotients can be summed for all detected pesticides to produce an indicator of potential toxicity for that mixture. Benchmarks were developed for 48 pesticide compounds using SSB data and 81 compounds using the EqP approach. In an example application, data for pesticides measured in sediment from 197 streams across the United States were evaluated using these benchmarks, and compared to measured toxicity from whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-d exposures) and the midge Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposures). Amphipod survival, weight, and biomass were significantly and inversely related to summed benchmark quotients, whereas midge survival, weight, and biomass showed no relationship to benchmarks. Samples with LEB exceedances were rare (n = 3), but all were toxic to amphipods (i.e., significantly different from control). Significant toxicity to amphipods was observed for 72% of samples exceeding one or more TEBs, compared to 18% of samples below all TEBs. Factors affecting toxicity below TEBs may include the presence of contaminants other than pesticides, physical/chemical characteristics

  3. 77 FR 2060 - Amendment of the System of Records for Records of Pesticide Applicators Certified Under EPA...

    2012-01-13

    ... requesting certification to apply restricted use pesticides (RUP) under certification plans administered by... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Section 11(a)(1) provides for the certification of RUP... to track RUP applicator certifications issued by EPA under pesticide applicator certification plans...

  4. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  5. 45 CFR 148.316 - Grant application instructions.

    2010-10-01

    ... in § 148.310(d)). (3) Bonus grants for supplemental consumer benefits. Provide detailed information about the following supplemental consumer benefits for which the entity is applying: (i) A narrative description of one or more of the following of the supplemental consumer benefits to be provided to enrollees...

  6. 7 CFR 1703.126 - Criteria for scoring grant applications.

    2010-01-01

    ... resources, library assets, adult education, lifetime learning, community use of technology, jobs, connection... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Grant Program... benefits derived from services (up to 55 points); (2) The comparative rurality of the project service area...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart B of... - Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging... Application Packaging Grants Pt. 1944, Subpt. B, Exh. D Exhibit D to Subpart B of Part 1944—Designated Counties for Housing Application Packaging Grants ER25my05.036 ER25my05.037 ER25my05.038 ER25my05.039 [70...

  8. Effect of pesticide applications on soil microbial activity and on 14C-methyl parathion dissipation

    Peres, Terezinha Bonanho

    2000-01-01

    Some crops, as cotton, need different pesticide application to control pests and diseases. These compounds reach soil and may affect the soil microbial activity. As the microorganisms play important role on the nutrient cycling, changes in their activities may affect the soil fertility. The influence of several pesticides on soil microbial activity of the 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth of the soil profile, and the 14 C-methyl parathion dissipation was studied under influence of other pesticide applications. The influence of pesticides on the microorganisms was followed in an experimental area of the Instituto Biologico, that was divided in two subareas, both under cotton crop. Columns of PVC was buried in both subareas and a solution of 14 C-methyl parathion diluted in the technical compound was applied on the soil surface of each column. One subarea received all the recommended pesticides for the cotton crop besides the 14 C-methyl parathion. The other subarea received only 14 C-methyl parathion solution on the columns soil surface. The soil microbial activity of both subareas was estimated by measurements of dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase and arginine deaminase enzymes. Further, the availability of total nitrogen in the soil was also measured. The dissipation of 14 C-methyl parathion was studied by radiocarbon recovery in soil extracts and combustion of extracted soil and quantification by radiometric techniques. (author)

  9. 78 FR 14121 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Strategies Targeting...

    2013-03-04

    ... Solicitation for Grant Applications for Strategies Targeting Characteristics Common to Female Ex-Offenders... will be targeted to females, but must also be open to eligible male ex-offenders. Strategies Targeting... period of performance. These grants will include an integrated strategy of recruitment and assessment...

  10. 77 FR 22806 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Cooperative...

    2012-04-17

    ... Applications (SGA). Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY-11-11. SUMMARY: The Employment and Training... participation of persons with disabilities in the workforce. DOL is using this funding to make six to ten grant... through exemplary and model service delivery by the public workforce system. The DOL will award DEI grants...

  11. 78 FR 57457 - Notice of Funds Availability Inviting Applications for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in...

    2013-09-18

    ..., VA announced that a copy of the Application Package can be downloaded directly from `` http://www.ruralhealth.va.gov/coordination-pilot/index.asp ''. It should have read, `` http://www.grants.gov/web/grants... CONTACT heading, remove `` http://www.ruralhealth.va.gov/coordination-pilot/index.asp '' and add, in its...

  12. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  13. Pesticide Applicator Profiling: Using Polycom[R] Distance Delivery for Continuing Education and Characterizing Florida's Licensed Applicators

    Fishel, Fred; Langeland, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The University of Florida offers continuing education units (CEUs) via distance technology using Polycom[R] to meet requirements for applicators of pesticides to renew their licenses. A large statewide event conducted in 2010 also included a needs assessment of this group concerning CEUs. Results indicate that these applicators strongly prefer…

  14. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  15. Evaluation of Aerosol Pesticide Application Against Old World Phlebotomine Sand Fly Vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  16. Acquisition of Information to be Used in Programming for Pesticides Applicator Certification Training. Final Report.

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    Five methods were evaluated for training Kansas agricultural producers for certification as Private Pesticide Applicators. The study involved 471 participants throughout the state. Comparison of pre- and post-test scores showed that teaching by video cassette caused the most improvement, followed by the traditional method using a team of…

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  18. 77 FR 12041 - Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program

    2012-02-28

    ... involvement of migratory parents in the education of migratory students whose education is interrupted... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Migrant Education Program (MEP) Consortium Incentive Grants Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education...

  19. 76 FR 39615 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition

    2011-07-06

    ... talking with their child about the importance of college and career; or --possible fourth indicator TBD by... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-- Implementation Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION...

  20. 77 FR 6096 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Professional Development Grants Program

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Indian Education--Professional Development...: Notice. Overview Information: Indian Education--Professional Development Grants Program Notice inviting... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purposes of the Indian Education Professional Development...

  1. Pesticide fate at regional scale: Development of an integrated model approach and application

    Herbst, M.; Hardelauf, H.; Harms, R.; Vanderborght, J.; Vereecken, H.

    As a result of agricultural practice many soils and aquifers are contaminated with pesticides. In order to quantify the side-effects of these anthropogenic impacts on groundwater quality at regional scale, a process-based, integrated model approach was developed. The Richards’ equation based numerical model TRACE calculates the three-dimensional saturated/unsaturated water flow. For the modeling of regional scale pesticide transport we linked TRACE with the plant module SUCROS and with 3DLEWASTE, a hybrid Lagrangian/Eulerian approach to solve the convection/dispersion equation. We used measurements, standard methods like pedotransfer-functions or parameters from literature to derive the model input for the process model. A first-step application of TRACE/3DLEWASTE to the 20 km 2 test area ‘Zwischenscholle’ for the period 1983-1993 reveals the behaviour of the pesticide isoproturon. The selected test area is characterised by an intense agricultural use and shallow groundwater, resulting in a high vulnerability of the groundwater to pesticide contamination. The model results stress the importance of the unsaturated zone for the occurrence of pesticides in groundwater. Remarkable isoproturon concentrations in groundwater are predicted for locations with thin layered and permeable soils. For four selected locations we used measured piezometric heads to validate predicted groundwater levels. In general, the model results are consistent and reasonable. Thus the developed integrated model approach is seen as a promising tool for the quantification of the agricultural practice impact on groundwater quality.

  2. The effects of orchard pesticide applications on breeding robins

    Johnson, E.V.; Mack, G.L.; Thompson, D.Q.

    1976-01-01

    From 1966 through 1968, robins reproduced successfully in commercial apple orchards which were periodically sprayed with DDT, dieldrin, and other pesticides. Observations by a Z-man team using walkie-talkies revealed that breeding robins obtained essentially all food for themselves and nestlings from unsprayed areas adjacent to the orchards. Invertebrate trapping in sprayed and unsprayed areas showed that these food items were 5 or 6 times more abundant in unsprayed habitat. Worms forced to live in sprayed orchard soil displayed significantly greater mortality than controls. Mean robin clutch sizes in the study orchards were lower than those reported for robins in other studies, perhaps because of food shortage and/or increased foraging distances. Levels of DDT and its analogs in food items from robin foraging areas did not exceed 8 ppm wet weight basis. From late April to July, adult robins showed small but significant increases in DDE levels in all tissues examined, as well as an increase in dieldrin in brains. Pesticides sprayed on the farm had no direct demonstrable adverse effects on the robins; productivity was high and adult mortality low. The situation was in large measure fortuitous, since any changes in orchard management practices which resulted in the presence or availability of invertebrates under orchard trees would be expected to result in robin mortality and/or reduced breeding success.

  3. Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification

    Book Chapter 18, titled Application in pesticide analysis: Liquid chromatography - A review of the state of science for biomarker discovery and identification, will be published in the book titled High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Pesticide Residue Analysis (Part of the C...

  4. 78 FR 65422 - Notice of Funding Availability and Solicitation of Applications for Grants Under the Railroad...

    2013-10-31

    .... If an application does not address each of these requirements to FRA's satisfaction, the application... contact must be an employee of the applicant (i.e. a State employee). 2. Include an explanation of why the... Requirements Reporting requirements must be met throughout the life of the grant (additional detail will be...

  5. 38 CFR 61.13 - Rating criteria for capital grant applications.

    2010-07-01

    ... the project at the time of application. (h) Cost-effectiveness. VA will award up to 100 points for cost-effectiveness. Projects will be rated based on the cost and number of new supportive housing beds... capital grant applications. (a) Applicants that meet the threshold requirements in § 61.12 of this part...

  6. Concocting that Magic Elixir: Successful Grant Application Writing in Dissemination and Implementation Research.

    Brownson, Ross C; Colditz, Graham A; Dobbins, Maureen; Emmons, Karen M; Kerner, Jon F; Padek, Margaret; Proctor, Enola K; Stange, Kurt C

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports core competencies for dissemination and implementation (D&I) grant application writing and provides tips for writing a successful proposal. Two related phases were used to collect the data: a card sorting process among D&I researchers and an expert review among a smaller set of researchers. Card sorting was completed by 123 respondents. In the second phase, a series of grant application writing tips were developed based on the combined 170 years of grant review experience of the writing team. The card sorting resulted in 12 core competencies for D&I grant application writing that covered the main sections in a grant application to the US National Institutes of Health: (a) specific aims that provide clear rationale, objectives, and an overview of the research plan; (b) significance that frames and justifies the importance of a D&I question; (c) innovation that articulates novel products and new knowledge; and (d) approach that uses a relevant D&I model, addresses measurement and the D&I context, and includes an analysis plan well-tied to the aims and measures. Writing a successful D&I grant application is a skill that can be learned with experience and attention to the core competencies articulated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [Professional risk assessment for modern pesticides during their application in the horticulture].

    Semenenko, V M; Korshun, M M

    2014-01-01

    The work conditions on application of modern pesticides Masai, Regalis and Bellis for apple orchards protection have been researched. We show that total risk of hazard influence of tebufenpyrad, prohexadione-calcium, pyraclostrobin and boscalid on agricultural workers under condition of complex entry in body through skin and respiratory tracts is permissible. We proved that application of studied preparations is not dangerous for workers in case of abidance of agrotechnical and hygienic regulations.

  8. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  9. Evaluation of a Web-based Online Grant Application Review Solution

    Marius Daniel PETRISOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the evaluation of a web-based application used in grant application evaluations, software developed in our university, and underlines the need for simple solutions, based on recent technology, specifically tailored to one’s needs. We asked the reviewers to answer a short questionnaire, in order to assess their satisfaction with such a web-based grant application evaluation solution. All 20 reviewers accepted to answer the questionnaire, which contained 8 closed items (YES/NO answers related to reviewer’s previous experience in evaluating grant applications, previous use of such software solutions and his familiarity in using computer systems. The presented web-based application, evaluated by the users, shown a high level of acceptance and those respondents stated that they are willing to use such a solution in the future.

  10. Peer Review of Grant Applications: Criteria Used and Qualitative Study of Reviewer Practices

    Abdoul, Hendy; Perrey, Christophe; Amiel, Philippe; Tubach, Florence; Gottot, Serge; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Alberti, Corinne

    2012-01-01

    Background Peer review of grant applications has been criticized as lacking reliability. Studies showing poor agreement among reviewers supported this possibility but usually focused on reviewers’ scores and failed to investigate reasons for disagreement. Here, our goal was to determine how reviewers rate applications, by investigating reviewer practices and grant assessment criteria. Methods and Findings We first collected and analyzed a convenience sample of French and international calls for proposals and assessment guidelines, from which we created an overall typology of assessment criteria comprising nine domains relevance to the call for proposals, usefulness, originality, innovativeness, methodology, feasibility, funding, ethical aspects, and writing of the grant application. We then performed a qualitative study of reviewer practices, particularly regarding the use of assessment criteria, among reviewers of the French Academic Hospital Research Grant Agencies (Programmes Hospitaliers de Recherche Clinique, PHRCs). Semi-structured interviews and observation sessions were conducted. Both the time spent assessing each grant application and the assessment methods varied across reviewers. The assessment criteria recommended by the PHRCs were listed by all reviewers as frequently evaluated and useful. However, use of the PHRC criteria was subjective and varied across reviewers. Some reviewers gave the same weight to each assessment criterion, whereas others considered originality to be the most important criterion (12/34), followed by methodology (10/34) and feasibility (4/34). Conceivably, this variability might adversely affect the reliability of the review process, and studies evaluating this hypothesis would be of interest. Conclusions Variability across reviewers may result in mistrust among grant applicants about the review process. Consequently, ensuring transparency is of the utmost importance. Consistency in the review process could also be improved by

  11. 77 FR 33709 - Inviting Applications for Rural Cooperative Development Grants

    2012-06-07

    ... the rural areas for which the Center will provide services. Expected economic impacts should be tied... convictions and corporate federal tax delinquencies. To comply with these provisions, all applicants must...

  12. 14 CFR 156.3 - Application and grant process.

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator. The State shall certify, in its written acceptance, that the acceptance complies with all applicable Federal and State law, that the acceptance constitutes a legal and binding obligation of the State...

  13. 7 CFR 1944.410 - Processing preapplications, applications, and completing grant dockets.

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM..., address, and principal business. If the applicant is not already formed, attach copies of the proposed... under subpart B of part 1900 of this chapter. (3) If the applicant is eligible and no grant or loan...

  14. 77 FR 26241 - Announcement of Grant Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2012-05-03

    ... funding. Items in Supplementary Information I. Funding Opportunity: Brief introduction to the Community... speeds are not adequate to deliver much needed benefits such as distance learning and telemedicine to... application at http://www.grants.gov . Applications will not be accepted via facsimile machine transmission or...

  15. Environmental Assessment Aerial Application of Pesticide for Mosquito Control at Tyndall Air Force Base and Vicinity

    2008-10-27

    near the proposed treatment area. d. The pesticides used will not negatively affect parklands, farmlands, wetlands , wild and scenic rivers, or...alternative, application over human populated areas and residences would be minimal. Wild or culti vate-d bee colonies would not be affected and...proposed treatment area; 2) MechanicaJJ y manipulate marshland/ wetland breeding areas through drainage or open marsh management activities. The

  16. 78 FR 28184 - Inviting Applications for Rural Business Opportunity Grants

    2013-05-14

    ..., which are capable of undertaking self- sustained economic development. For the first phase of IMCP in FY..., you will receive notification by mail. All adverse determinations regarding applicant eligibility and... bases of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identify, religion, reprisal, and...

  17. 7 CFR 4280.112 - Evaluation of grant applications.

    2010-01-01

    ... primarily for self-use by the agricultural producer or rural small business and will provide energy.... (D) Design and engineering (maximum score of 30 points). The applicant has described the design, engineering, and testing needed for the proposed project. The description supports that the system will be...

  18. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    Whelan, M.J.; Davenport, E.J.; Smith, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K OC ]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios

  19. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    Whelan, M.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mick.whelan@unilever.com; Davenport, E.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Smith, B.G. [Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Team, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K {sub OC}]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios.

  20. Development and application of a catchment scale pesticide fate and transport model for use in drinking water risk assessment.

    Pullan, S P; Whelan, M J; Rettino, J; Filby, K; Eyre, S; Holman, I P

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of IMPT (Integrated Model for Pesticide Transport), a parameter-efficient tool for predicting diffuse-source pesticide concentrations in surface waters used for drinking water supply. The model was applied to a small UK headwater catchment with high frequency (8h) pesticide monitoring data and to five larger catchments (479-1653km(2)) with sampling approximately every 14days. Model performance was good for predictions of both flow (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency generally >0.59 and PBIAS water resources to support operational and strategic risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of repeated applications of pesticides used on cotton on soil properties

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Soliman, S.M.; Taha, H.

    2001-01-01

    Repeated application of monocrotophos, methomyl and carbaryl for four years considerably reduced microbial counts, iron reduction, nitrification and arginine deaminase activity in soil. The microbial activities seemed to recover several weeks following pesticide application. The inhibition of enzyme activities was in general more obvious during the second to the fourth years. The maximum inhibition of iron reduction capacity and arginine deaminase activity was observed by the end of the fourth year and amounted to about 90% of control values. No pronounced effect of the used insecticides on respiration and dehydrogenase activity could be detected over the experimental period. (author)

  2. 78 FR 59347 - Pesticides; Revised Fee Schedule for Registration Applications

    2013-09-26

    .../category-table.html . 2. The following acronyms are used in some of the tables: DART-Dose Adequacy Response... 2,409 applicant-initiated; excludes DART, pre-registration conference, Rapid Response review, DNT... insufficient funds, the Agency may try to make the transfer up to two times. All paper-based payments should be...

  3. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  4. 78 FR 38915 - Notice of Available Funding and Grant Application Deadlines

    2013-06-28

    ... used by students, teachers, medical professionals, and rural residents. The grants, which are awarded.... Applications that do not document all matching contributions in form and substance satisfactory to the Agency... Agency worksheet with documentation. National School Lunch Program Yes Agency worksheet with (NSLP...

  5. 76 FR 37774 - Announcement of Value-Added Producer Grant Application Deadlines

    2011-06-28

    ... communities in urban or rural areas, with limited access to healthy foods and with a high poverty and hunger... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Announcement of Value-Added Producer Grant Application Deadlines AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Funding...

  6. 77 FR 48175 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short...

    2012-08-13

    ... Collection for Applications, Grants and Administration of Short Time Compensation (STC) Provisions, Extension... act'') contains Subtitle D, Short-Time Compensation Program, also known as the ``Layoff Prevention Act..., or wish to initiate a new program in, a layoff aversion program known as short time compensation (STC...

  7. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-Up Grants

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- Up Grants Correction In notice document 2012-7362 appearing on pages 18216-18229 in the issue of Tuesday, March 27, 2012 make the following corrections: 1. On page 18225, in the second column, in the second...

  8. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Development Grants Correction In notice document 2012-4357 appearing on pages 11087-11101 in the issue of Friday, February 24, make the following correction: 1. On page 11097, in the first column, in the first bulleted...

  9. 77 FR 25152 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants Correction In notice document 2012-7365 appearing on pages 18229-18242 in the issue of Tuesday, March 27, 2012 make the following corrections: 1. On page 18238 in the second column, in the second...

  10. 78 FR 24236 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Trade Adjustment...

    2013-04-24

    ... foreign trade by funding the expansion and improvement of education and career training programs that are... Applications. Funding Opportunity Number: SGA/DFA PY-12-10. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Labor (the..., potentially funding more than one per state. The Department will award grants up to $25 million to single...

  11. Investigation of the occurrence of pesticide residues in rural wells and surface water following application to tobacco

    Edson C. Bortoluzzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the exposure of wells and surface water to pesticides, commonly used for tobacco cropping, was assessed. Water consumption wells and surface water flows were sampled at different times. After a preconcentration step with solid phase extraction (SPE, the selected pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD or high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. No pesticides were detected in the well water samples and surface water flow in the winter season. However, in the spring and summer higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid were found in the water source samples. Atrazine, simazine and clomazone were also found. The occurrence of pesticides in collected water samples was related with the application to tobacco.

  12. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Nash, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion) were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids) and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles) invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield loss regardless

  13. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Matthew P. Hill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield

  14. 34 CFR 607.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    2010-07-01

    ... objectives, the Secretary may— (1) Decide not to fund the applicant; or (2) Fund the applicant but impose... progress toward fulfilling, the goals and objectives of the previous grant, including, but not limited to... the goals and objectives of a previous grant or is not making substantial progress towards fulfilling...

  15. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records

    Castellanos Rozo, José; Sánchez Nieves, Jimena; Uribe Vélez, Daniel; Moreno Chacón, Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz, Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for their ability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mg L-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/ or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtai...

  16. [Study on botanical pesticides and its application in production of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Influence of pesticide applications on degradation of the herbicide 14C - 2,4-D in different soils

    Marcondes, Marcilio Amaral

    2001-01-01

    Despite the importance of pesticide usage for the food production, its indiscriminate use may cause changes in the soil fertility, because pesticides influence soil microorganisms which are important for the biogeochemical cycles. The influence of applications of several pesticides, as recommended for cotton culture, was studied on the bioactivity of different soils (from Sao Paulo and Tatui, SP) by using radiometric techniques and a closed system for detection of bio mineralization of ''1 4 C-2,4-D ( 14 C-2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and production of 14 C-volatile compounds. The 14 C-2,4-D dissipation under influence of other pesticide applications was also studied by determination of 14 C-extractable residues, 14 C-bound residues and qualitative and quantitative analysis of the 14 C-extractable residues by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC). 14 C-volatile compounds were never detected but increases and decreases of bio mineralization were detected in both soils after different treatments. The mixture of deltamethrin + methyl parathion increased significantly the bioactivity in both soils; nevertheless, monocrotophos did not have any influence. The applications of different pesticides have also influenced the 14 C-2,4-D dissipation, because the radiocarbon recovered as 14 C-extractable residues differed between the treated and untreated samples of both soils. On the other hand, the pesticide applications did not influence the production of 14 C-bound residues. This 14 C-residue was produced in larger amounts by the richest in organic matter soil (Sao Paulo). Although radiocarbon had been detected not only as 14 'C-2,4-D but also as a 14 C-metabolite, in both soils and treatments, results indicate that the ' 14 C-2,4-D dissipation varied in the two studied soils and was influenced by treatments with others pesticides. (author)

  18. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993-1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or "cumulative exposure days" (years of use times days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use times days/year times estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure-response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers.

  19. An examination of the abandonment of applications for energy efficiency retrofit grants in Ireland

    Collins, Matthew; Curtis, John

    2017-01-01

    The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) operates the Better Energy Homes (BEH) grant scheme to incentivise residential energy efficiency retrofits, an ongoing scheme which was implemented in 2009. This scheme provides a financial incentive for home owners to engage in energy efficiency retrofits, provided the upgrades meet appropriate energy efficiency standards. This study analyses the BEH data, which is comprised of all applications from March 2009 to October 2015, in order to examine the extent to which applications are abandoned and the determinants thereof. We find that more complicated retrofits are more likely to be abandoned, with variation across certain combinations of retrofit measure. We find lower probabilities of abandonment among certain obligated parties, who are energy retailers obliged by the State to reduce energy consumption in Ireland, while others possess greater likelihoods of abandonment, relative to private retrofits. We find that newer homes are less likely to abandon an application than older homes, as are applications made for apartments, relative to houses. Regional variations exist in abandonment, with rural households more likely to abandon than urban households. A seasonal trend in abandonment is also present, with higher likelihoods of abandonment among applications made during winter. - Highlights: • We use a stated preference approach to model the abandonment of grant applications. • Deeper retrofits are more likely to be abandoned, with variation across measures. • Abandonment is less likely in applications made via obligated energy suppliers. • Regional and Seasonal variations exist in abandonment.

  20. Acute and chronic disability among U.S. farmers and pesticide applicators: the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    Gómez-Marín, O; Fleming, L E; Lee, D J; LeBlanc, W; Zheng, D; Ma, F; Jané, D; Pitman, T; Caban, A

    2004-11-01

    The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a multipurpose household survey of the U.S. civilian non-institutionalized population conducted annually since 1957. From 1986 to 1994, over 450,000 U.S. workers, age 18 years and older, participated in a probability sampling of the entire non-institutionalized U.S. population; variables collected included a range of measures of acute and chronic disability. The objective of the present study was to assess predictors of health status, and acute and chronic disability for farmers and pesticide applicators (pesticide-exposed workers) compared to all other U.S. workers using the 1986-1994 NHIS. After adjustment for sample weights and design effects using SUDAAN, several measures of acute and chronic disability and health status were modeled with multiple logistic regression. Farmers (n = 9576) were significantly older compared to all other U.S. workers (n = 453,219) and pesticide applicators (n = 180). Farmers and pesticide applicators had a higher proportion of males, whites, and Hispanics and were less educated. After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education, compared to all other workers, farmers were significantly less likely to report acute and chronic disability and health conditions, while pesticide applicators were more likely to report chronic disability, health conditions, and poor health. Given the cross-sectional nature of the data and the significant job demands of farming, both leading to a relative healthy worker effect, the present results indicate that at any point in time, farmers report less acute and chronic disability, compared to other U.S. workers, whereas pesticide applicators report similar or poorer health.

  1. 34 CFR 606.24 - How does the Secretary use an applicant's performance under a previous development grant when...

    2010-07-01

    ... those goals and objectives, the Secretary may— (1) Decide not to fund the applicant; or (2) Fund the..., or is making substantial progress toward fulfilling, the goals and objectives of the previous grant... did not fulfill the goals and objectives of a previous grant or is not making substantial progress...

  2. 76 FR 7898 - Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag...

    2011-02-11

    ...-0118] Wheego Electric Cars, Inc.; Grant of Application for Temporary Exemption From Advanced Air Bag... grants the petition of Wheego Electric Cars, Inc. (Wheego) for the temporary exemption of its Whip LiFe... manufacturer of a plug-in electric car. The stated basis of the petition was that requiring compliance would...

  3. 77 FR 17098 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Serving Adult and...

    2012-03-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Serving Adult and Youth Ex-Offenders Through Strategies Targeted to... award approximately eight grants to serve adult and youth ex-offenders pre- and post-release. Services...

  4. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  5. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  6. Biosensors and their applications in detection of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

    Hassani, Shokoufeh; Momtaz, Saeideh; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Maghsoudi, Armin Salek; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Norouzi, Parviz; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the past and recent advancements of biosensors focusing on detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) due to their exceptional use during the last decades. Apart from agricultural benefits, OPs also impose adverse toxicological effects on animal and human population. Conventional approaches such as chromatographic techniques used for pesticide detection are associated with several limitations. A biosensor technology is unique due to the detection sensitivity, selectivity, remarkable performance capabilities, simplicity and on-site operation, fabrication and incorporation with nanomaterials. This study also provided specifications of the most OPs biosensors reported until today based on their transducer system. In addition, we highlighted the application of advanced complementary materials and analysis techniques in OPs detection systems. The availability of these new materials associated with new sensing techniques has led to introduction of easy-to-use analytical tools of high sensitivity and specificity in the design and construction of OPs biosensors. In this review, we elaborated the achievements in sensing systems concerning innovative nanomaterials and analytical techniques with emphasis on OPs.

  7. Application of isotope-labelled compounds in the study of the chemical stability of pesticides

    Roesseler, M.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.; Koch, H.

    1980-01-01

    The user of pesticides requires specific biological modes of action from the corresponding commercial products. Impurities and degradation products may cause uncontrollable toxicological reactions. Profound knowledge of the chemical stability of the effective substance in question and its formulations under storage conditions as well as under those of analytical sample preparation and detection is required. Radioisotope labelled effective substances dimethoate and 1-butyl-amino-cyclohexane-phosphonic acid dibutyl ester are used to study storage stability of the pure effective substance and its formulations; effects of selected impurities, such as technical by-products, moisture or water content, binding or carrier materials, organic solvents, chemical stabilizers and other formulation components on storage properties; temperature dependence of storage stability; selection of suitable analytical techniques for quantitative determination of the effective substance without interference effects from any by-product; reduction of the necessary analytical expense; disclosure of sources of error in the application of usual analytical techniques; improvement of possibilities of an immediate and clearer discrimination between types and amounts of compounds in a chemical system consisting of one pesticide and its degradation or reaction products at the beginning and at the end of an experimental or reaction period. Radiochemical analytical techniques, such as radio thin-layer chromatography (also combined with liquid scintillation counting), radio gas chromatography, autoradiography and isotope dilution analysis were used. Results are discussed, especially of experiments on dimethoate and its technical by-products

  8. NLM's Medical Library Resource Improvement Grant for Consortia Development: a proposed outline to simplify the application process.

    Kabler, A W

    1980-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Resource Improvement Grant for Consortia is available to assist with developing hospital library consortia, and to support the development of basic healthy information collections. In an effort to simplify the grant application process, this paper presents suggestions for writing the narrative section of the first budget-period application, using the outline in NLM's Application Instructions for Consortium Applicants. Suggestions for writing the narratives of the second budget-period application and the collection development application are also included.

  9. Pesticides and children

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  10. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds.

  11. Modelling pesticide volatilization after soil application using the mechanistic model Volt'Air

    Bedos, Carole; Génermont, Sophie; Le Cadre, Edith; Garcia, Lucas; Barriuso, Enrique; Cellier, Pierre

    Volatilization of pesticides participates in atmospheric contamination and affects environmental ecosystems including human welfare. Modelling at relevant time and spatial scales is needed to better understand the complex processes involved in pesticide volatilization. Volt'Air-Pesticides has been developed following a two-step procedure to study pesticide volatilization at the field scale and at a quarter time step. Firstly, Volt'Air-NH 3 was adapted by extending the initial transfer of solutes to pesticides and by adding specific calculations for physico-chemical equilibriums as well as for the degradation of pesticides in soil. Secondly, the model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on bare soil (atrazine, alachlor, and trifluralin) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. A sensitivity analysis confirmed the relevance of tuning to K h. Then, using Volt'Air-Pesticides, environmental conditions and emission fluxes of the pesticides were compared to fluxes measured under 2 environmental conditions. The model fairly well described water temporal dynamics, soil surface temperature, and energy budget. Overall, Volt'Air-Pesticides estimates of the order of magnitude of the volatilization flux of all three compounds were in good agreement with the field measurements. The model also satisfactorily simulated the decrease in the volatilization rate of the three pesticides during night-time as well as the decrease in the soil surface residue of trifluralin before and after incorporation. However, the timing of the maximum flux rate during the day was not correctly described, thought to be linked to an increased adsorption under dry soil conditions. Thanks to Volt'Air's capacity to deal with pedo-climatic conditions, several existing parameterizations describing adsorption as a function of soil water content could be tested. However, this point requires further investigation. Practically speaking, Volt'Air-Pesticides can be a useful tool to make

  12. Phytase production by Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 for a novel application to degrade organophosphorus pesticides.

    Shah, Parin C; Kumar, V Ravi; Dastager, Syed G; Khire, Jayant M

    2017-12-01

    The production of phytase using Aspergillus niger NCIM 563 under submerged fermentation conditions was studied using protein rich chickpea flour as substrate. Employing a hybrid statistical media optimization strategy of Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken experimental designs in shake-flasks gave an increased phytase activity from an initial 66 IU/mL in 216 h to 160 IU/mL in a reduced time of 132 h. Productivity, thus increased by 3.97 times from 7.3 to 29 IU/mL/day. Using the optimized media, the production was successfully scaled-up further and improved up to 164 IU/mL in 96 h by studies carried out employing 2 and 10-L fermenters. The enzyme supernatant was recovered using centrifugal separation of biomass and the stability of the produced phytase was tested for animal feed applications under gastric conditions. In vitro degradation studies of water soluble monocrotophos, methyl parathion and water insoluble chlorpyrifos, pesticides used extensively in agriculture was carried out. It was observed by HPLC analysis that phytase could degrade 72% of chlorpyrifos at pH 7.0, 35 °C. Comparable results were obtained with monocrotophos and methyl parathion. With chlorpyrifos at higher temperature 50 °C as much as 91% degradation could be obtained. The degradation of chlorpyrifos was further validated by spraying phytase on harvested green chilli (Capsicum annuum L) under normal conditions of pH 7.0, 35 °C and the degradation products obtained analyzed by LCMS. Thus, the present study brings out a potentially novel application of phytase for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides.

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  14. Sustainable Use of Pesticide Applications in Citrus: A Support Tool for Volume Rate Adjustment

    Cruz Garcerá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rational application of pesticides by properly adjusting the amount of product to the actual needs and specific conditions for application is a key factor for sustainable plant protection. However, current plant protection product (PPP labels registered for citrus in EU are usually expressed as concentration (%; rate/hl and/or as the maximum dose of product per unit of ground surface, without taking into account those conditions. In this work, the fundamentals of a support tool, called CitrusVol, developed to recommend mix volume rates in PPP applications in citrus orchards using airblast sprayers, are presented. This tool takes into consideration crop characteristics (geometry, leaf area density, pests, and product and application efficiency, and it is based on scientific data obtained previously regarding the minimum deposit required to achieve maximum efficacy, efficiency of airblast sprayers in citrus orchards, and characterization of the crop. The use of this tool in several commercial orchards allowed a reduction of the volume rate and the PPPs used in comparison with the commonly used by farmers of between 11% and 74%, with an average of 31%, without affecting the efficacy. CitrusVol is freely available on a website and in an app for smartphones.

  15. 45 CFR 2516.410 - What must a community-based entity include in an application for a grant?

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SCHOOL-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING PROGRAMS Application... Corporation in the grant application package. (c) Assurances that the applicant will— (1) Keep such records... fiscal audits and program evaluations; (2) Prior to the placement of a participant, consult with the...

  16. Nanotechnology applications and implications research supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency STAR grants program.

    Savage, Nora; Thomas, Treye A; Duncan, Jeremiah S

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been funding research on the environmental aspects of nanotechnology through its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program. In total, more than $25 million has been awarded for 86 research projects on the environmental applications and implications of nanotechnology. In the applications area, grantees have produced promising results in green manufacturing, remediation, sensors, and treatment using nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Although there are many potential benefits of nanotechnology, there has also been increasing concern about the environmental and health effects of nanomaterials, and there are significant gaps in the data needed to address these concerns. Research performed by STAR grantees is beginning to address these needs.

  17. Pesticide Labels

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  19. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  20. 78 FR 76611 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Notice of Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    2013-12-18

    .... Environmental justice. EPA seeks to achieve environmental justice, the fair treatment and meaningful involvement... high and adverse human health impacts or environmental effects from exposure to the pesticide(s... product to be used: maximum of 0.162 milligram (mg) fluoxastrobin per seed with a seed/pound (lb) average...

  1. Effect of Pesticide Application Rate on Yield of Vegetables and Soil ...

    komla

    advantage over the other pesticides as it caused the least increase in yield. ... Each plot received a 20-, 30-, and 40-ml portion of each pesticide added to water and made to a volume of 15 litres .... Chlorinated hydrocarbons and carbamates.

  2. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  3. Hygienic assessment of professional risk for worker, involved in application of pesticides and tank mixtures in chemical protection of strawberry

    Zinchenko T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When using tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical crop protection systems there exists danger of simultaneous or sequential action of ingredients. It was established that the combined potential risk of the harmful effects of Torero SC preparation on workers is 0.11-0.30 arb.units, Switch 62.5 WG – 0.054-0,065 arb.units, tank mixture 1 – 0.26-0.51 arb.units, tank mixture 2 – 0.26-0.49 arb.units correspondently and does not exceed the allowable value of risk (<1. The combined risk in sequential application of components of chemical protection system of strawberry exceeds allowable values of risk and is 0.954-2.02 arb.units. Ways of occupational risk decrease were proposed and regulations of safe application of tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical protection of strawberry were substantiated.

  4. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless...

  5. 76 FR 17970 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Young Parents...

    2011-03-31

    ... Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Young Parents Demonstration AGENCY: Employment and Training... of 2010 to support applicants in providing intensive mentoring services to low- income young parents (both mothers and fathers, and expectant parents ages 16 to 24) participating in workforce development...

  6. 45 CFR 2517.410 - What must a qualified organization include in an application for a grant or a subgrant?

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE COMMUNITY-BASED SERVICE-LEARNING... Corporation in the grant application package; and (3) Assurances that the applicant will— (i) Keep such... fiscal audits and program evaluation; (ii) Comply with the nonduplication, nondisplacement, and grievance...

  7. Long-term relationships among pesticide applications, mobility, and soil erosion in a vineyard watershed.

    Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Develle, Anne-Lise; Wilhelm, Bruno; Ployon, Estelle; Pignol, Cécile; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Montuelle, Bernard; Arnaud, Fabien

    2014-11-04

    Agricultural pesticide use has increased worldwide during the last several decades, but the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of pesticides in a changing environment are poorly understood. Many pesticides have been progressively banned, but in numerous cases, these molecules are stable and may persist in soils, sediments, and ice. Many studies have addressed the question of their possible remobilization as a result of global change. In this article, we present a retro-observation approach based on lake sediment records to monitor micropollutants and to evaluate the long-term succession and diffuse transfer of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticide treatments in a vineyard catchment in France. The sediment allows for a reliable reconstruction of past pesticide use through time, validated by the historical introduction, use, and banning of these organic and inorganic pesticides in local vineyards. Our results also revealed how changes in these practices affect storage conditions and, consequently, the pesticides' transfer dynamics. For example, the use of postemergence herbicides (glyphosate), which induce an increase in soil erosion, led to a release of a banned remnant pesticide (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, DDT), which had been previously stored in vineyard soil, back into the environment. Management strategies of ecotoxicological risk would be well served by recognition of the diversity of compounds stored in various environmental sinks, such as agriculture soil, and their capability to become sources when environmental conditions change.

  8. 47 CFR Appendix B to Part 400 - Initial Certification for E-911 Grant Applicants

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial Certification for E-911 Grant... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE, AND NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION E-911 GRANT PROGRAM Pt. 400, App. B Appendix B to Part 400—Initial Certification for E-911 Grant...

  9. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Cardinali, Alessandra; Pizzeghello, Diego; Zanin, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality. In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures) treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole), with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days). FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI) and ester-linked method (EL). The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2) values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time. Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  10. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME Succession in Different Substrates as Affected by the Co-Application of Three Pesticides.

    Alessandra Cardinali

    Full Text Available In intensive agriculture areas the use of pesticides can alter soil properties and microbial community structure with the risk of reducing soil quality.In this study the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs evolution has been studied in a factorial lab experiment combining five substrates (a soil, two aged composts and their mixtures treated with a co-application of three pesticides (azoxystrobin, chlorotoluron and epoxiconazole, with two extraction methods, and two incubation times (0 and 58 days. FAMEs extraction followed the microbial identification system (MIDI and ester-linked method (EL.The pesticides showed high persistence, as revealed by half-life (t1/2 values ranging from 168 to 298 days, which confirms their recalcitrance to degradation. However, t1/2 values were affected by substrate and compost age down to 8 days for chlorotoluron in S and up to 453 days for epoxiconazole in 12M. Fifty-six FAMEs were detected. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the EL method detected a higher number of FAMEs and unique FAMEs than the MIDI one, whereas principal component analysis (PCA highlighted that the monosaturated 18:1ω9c and cyclopropane 19:0ω10c/19ω6 were the most significant FAMEs grouping by extraction method. The cyclopropyl to monoenoic acids ratio evidenced higher stress conditions when pesticides were applied to compost and compost+soil than solely soil, as well as with final time.Overall, FAMEs profiles showed the importance of the extraction method for both substrate and incubation time, the t1/2 values highlighted the effectiveness of solely soil and the less mature compost in reducing the persistence of pesticides.

  11. Spray pesticide applications in Mediterranean citrus orchards: Canopy deposition and off-target losses.

    Garcerá, Cruz; Moltó, Enrique; Chueca, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    Only a portion of the water volume sprayed is deposited on the target when applying plant protection products with air-assisted axial-fan airblast sprayers in high growing crops. A fraction of the off-target losses deposits on the ground, but droplets also drift away from the site. This work aimed at assessing the spray distribution to different compartments (tree canopy, ground and air) during pesticide applications in a Mediterranean citrus orchard. Standard cone nozzles (Teejet D3 DC35) and venturi drift reducing nozzles (Albuz TVI 80 03) were compared. Applications were performed with a conventional air-assisted sprayer, with a spray volume of around 3000lha -1 in a Navel orange orchard. Brilliant Sulfoflavine (BSF) was used as a tracer. Results showed that only around 46% of the applied spray was deposited on the target trees and around 4% of the spray was deposited on adjacent trees from adjoining rows independently of the nozzle type. Applications with standard nozzles produced more potential airborne spray drift (23%) than those with the drift reducing nozzles (17%) but fewer direct losses to the ground (22% vs. 27%). Indirect losses (sedimenting spray drift) to the ground of adjacent paths were around 7-9% in both cases. The important data set of spray distribution in the different compartments around sprayed orchard (air, ground, vegetation) generated in this work is highly useful as input source of exposure to take into account for the risk assessment in Mediterranean citrus scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of six pesticides leaching indexes using field data of herbicide application in Casablanca Valley, Chile.

    Kogan, M; Rojas, S; Gómez, P; Suárez, F; Muñoz, J F; Alister, C

    2007-01-01

    A field study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of six pesticide screening leaching indexes for herbicide movement. Adsorption, dissipation and soil movement were studied in a vineyard in a sandy loam soil during 2005 season. Simazine, diuron, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin were applied to bare soil at rates commonly used, and their soil concentrations throughout soil profile were determined at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application (DAA). Herbicides were subjected to two pluviometric regimens, natural field condition and modified conditions (plus natural rainfall 180 mm). Leaching indexes utilized were: Briggs's Rf, Hamaker's Rf, LEACH, LPI, GUS and LIX. Simazine reached 120 cm, diuron 90 cm, flumioxazin 30 cm soil depth respectively. Pendimethalin and oxyfluorfen were retained up to 5 cm. None of the herbicides leaching was affected by rainfall regimen. Only flumioxazin field dissipation was clearly affected by pluviometric condition. The best representation of the herbicide soil depth movement and leaching below 15 cm soil depth were: Hamaker's Rf < Briggs's Rf < GUS < LPI, < LEACH < LIX. Field results showed a good correlation between herbicides K(d) and their soil depth movement and mass leached below 15 cm soil depth.

  13. 78 FR 76612 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    2013-12-18

    ... January 17, 2014. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by docket identification (ID) number and the...: Herbicide. Proposed use: Tree nuts. List of Subjects Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated...

  14. 77 FR 48519 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients

    2012-08-14

    ... Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection...: Insecticide. Proposed Uses: For use on ornamental plants, turf, vegetables, fruits, and field crops against a...

  15. 75 FR 6027 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    2010-02-05

    ... Agrochemicals Ltd. requesting an experimental use permit (EUP) for the end-use product FAL 1800, containing the... Agrochemicals Ltd., (62097-EUP-R). Pesticide Chemical: Prohydrojasmon (PDJ). Summary of Request: Use as a plant...

  16. Application of the Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of organic pesticides

    Sato B, R.Y.; Medina G, C.; Medina V, J.; Frausto R, C.

    2004-01-01

    Raman spectra of organophosphate, organo chlorine and bipyridyl pesticides are presented in this study. They have been obtained satisfactorily by the NlR-Raman spectroscopy technique. Pesticides have been analyzed in solution or as a solid in glass containers and on aluminum substrates. This analytic technique can be an alternative tool for the detection of pesticides in the agriculture, presenting advantages as be quick, not destructive and require little or no sample preparation. Moreover, samples can be analyzed through transparent containers avoiding contact with the toxic substances. The implementation of the aluminium substrate is easy and practical. Moreover, it is commercially available and does not need a previous preparation. The analysis of a mixture of two pesticides in a β carotene solution is shown. (Author) 25 refs., 8 figs

  17. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    2013-11-22

    ... CONTACT: Robert McNally, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide... 8, 2013. Robert McNally, Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of...

  18. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  19. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  1. Hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite: Characterization and application as a pesticide adsorbent

    Gámiz, B.; Hermosín, M.C.; Cornejo, J.; Celis, R.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Characterization of hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite was appraised. • Comparative studies with traditional HDTMA-montmorillonite were performed. • We investigated the pesticide adsorption mechanisms displayed by the nanocomposites. • Hexadimethrine-nanocomposite showed selective affinity for anionic pesticides. - Abstract: The goal of this work was to prepare and characterize a novel functional material by the modification of SAz-1 montmorillonite with the cationic polymer hexadimethrine (SA-HEXAD), and to explore the potential use of this nanocomposite as a pesticide adsorbent. Comparative preparation and characterization with the well-known hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified SAz-1 montmorillonite (SA-HDTMA) was also assessed. The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), physisorption of N 2 , scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Z potential measurements. The characterization and adsorption experiments showed that the extent of pesticide adsorption was markedly subjected to the structure and features of the surface of each organo-clay and also to the nature of the considered pesticide. SA-HEXAD displayed a high affinity for anionic pesticides which, presumably, were adsorbed by electrostatic attraction on positively-charged ammonium groups of the polymer not directly interacting with the clay. In contrast, SA-HDTMA displayed great adsorption of both uncharged and anionic pesticides with predominance of hydrophobic interactions. This work provided information about the surface properties of a new organic–inorganic nanohybrid material, SA-HEXAD, and its potential as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions

  2. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    Hore, Paromita [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[New York City Department of Health, 253 Broadway New York, New York 10007 (United States); Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Robson, Mark; Georgopoulos, Panos [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Sheldon, Linda [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Needham, Larry Barr, Dana [Contemporary Pesticide Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Freeman, Natalie [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lioy, Paul J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]. E-mail: plioy@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2006-08-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found

  3. 76 FR 54456 - Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of Samsung from the...

    2011-09-01

    ... for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of Samsung from the Department of... Public Comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from specified portions of the U.S...

  4. 78 FR 16871 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Training to Work...

    2013-03-19

    ... Solicitation for Grant Applications for Training to Work--Adult Reentry AGENCY: Employment and Training... Workforce Investment Act and the Second Chance Act of 2007 to serve adult offenders enrolled in state and/or... training leading to industry- recognized credentials for in demand industries and occupations in the state...

  5. Blinding Applicants in a First-Stage Peer-Review Process of Biomedical Research Grants: An Observational Study

    Solans-Domènech, Maite; Guillamón, Imma; Ribera, Aida; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Carrion, Carme; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Pons, Joan M. V.

    2017-01-01

    To blind or not researcher's identity has often been a topic of debate in the context of peer-review process for scientific publication and research grant application. This article reports on how knowing the name and experience of researchers/institutions influences the qualification of a proposal. We present our experience of managing the…

  6. 77 FR 36012 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Pay for Success Pilot...

    2012-06-15

    ... model, an innovative funding strategy for achieving specific social service outcomes. The complete SGA... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [Funding Opportunity Number SGA/DFA PY-11-13] Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Pay for Success...

  7. 77 FR 17530 - Order Granting an Application of Edward Jones & Co. LLP Exemption From Exchange Act Section 11(d...

    2012-03-26

    ...'') requested that the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') issue to Edward Jones an exemption... subject to the conditions contained in this order, is exempt from the new issue lending restriction of... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66624] Order Granting an Application of Edward...

  8. 76 FR 11285 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for the Career...

    2011-03-01

    ... in grant funds authorized by Workforce Investment Act of 1998, Public Law 105-220 to develop and..., for students of different skill levels and at varying academic levels, including students with low... conduct a third-party evaluation of the grant activities with this SGA. The complete SGA and any...

  9. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Workforce...

    2011-12-23

    ... job seeker and employer customers and cost- effectiveness. ETA expects to fund approximately 20 to 30... Innovation Fund Grants AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Solicitation... Innovation Fund grants authorized by the Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011 (Pub. L. 112-10) to...

  10. Searching for the universal reactivator for treatment of pesticide poisoning

    Kuca, K.; Musilek, K.; Pohanka, M.; Jun, D.; Karasova, J.; Novotny, L.

    2009-01-01

    According to the present knowledge, none of the currently available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB-4 or HI-6) originally developed for the treatment of the nerve agent poisonings is able to treat organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Among them, obidoxime seems to be the best candidate, however, its high toxicity disfavors its application in the high quantities. As byproduct of our searching for the new nerve agent reactivators, we found that oxime K027 seems to be very promising in the case of the treatment of organophosphorus pesticide poisonings. Its reactivation potency is similar or better than that of obidoxime, and moreover, its acute toxicity is lower. Thanks to these results, this oxime seems to be the best candidate for future use as universal reactivator for the treatment of poisonings caused by organophosphorus pesticides. This work was supported by the Czech Grant Agency - project No. 305/07/P162.(author)

  11. Modelling of pesticide emissions for Life Cycle Inventory analysis: Model development, applications and implications

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes

    with variations in the climates and soils present in Europe. Emissions of pesticides to surface water and groundwater calculated by PestLCI 2.0 were compared with models used for risk assessment. Compared to the MACRO module in SWASH 3.1 model, which calculates surface water emissions by runoff and drainage...... chromatographic flow of water through the soil), which was attributed to the omission of emissions via macropore flow in the latter model. The comparison was complicated by the fact that the scenarios used were not fully identical. In order to quantify the implications of using PestLCI 2.0, human toxicity......The work presented in this thesis deals with quantification of pesticide emissions in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The motivation to model pesticide emissions is that reliable LCA results not only depend on accurate impact assessment models, but also...

  12. 77 FR 59186 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications To Register New Uses

    2012-09-26

    ... to me? You may be potentially affected by this action if you are an agricultural producer, food... code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... cantaloupe, cucumber, pea (succulent), pumpkin, squash (Summer and Winter), watermelon, and vegetable soybean...

  13. 78 FR 3422 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2013-01-16

    ... included in any currently registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide.... Box 667, Ames, IA 50010. Active Ingredient: Trichoderma fertile strain JM41R at 96.0%. Product Type: Fungicide. Proposed Use: Manufacturing use. Contact: Jeannine Kausch, (703) 347-8920, email address: kausch...

  14. 78 FR 75343 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    2013-12-11

    ... Center (EPA/DC), (28221T), 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001. Hand Delivery: To make special arrangements for hand delivery or delivery of boxed information, please follow the instructions at... action if you are an agricultural producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. The following...

  15. 78 FR 48677 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications to Register New Uses

    2013-08-09

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS..., root (except sugar beet), subgroup 1B; onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A; Brassica, head and stem, subgroup 5...

  16. 75 FR 51043 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    2010-08-18

    ... Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... tests on 10 acres or more of land or one acre or more of water. Pursuant to 40 CFR 172.11(a), the Agency..., Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, Mississippi, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma Puerto...

  17. 78 FR 16498 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Notice of Receipt of Applications; Comment Request

    2013-03-15

    ... the body of this document, by one of the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www...; suggest alternatives and substitute language for your requested changes. iv. Describe any assumptions and... 20737. Pesticide Chemical: GonaCon--Canine. Type of Chemical: Contraceptive. Summary of Request: For use...

  18. 77 FR 2092 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Application (SGA) for Reintegration of...

    2012-01-13

    ... these grants to provide pre-release and post-release services to ex-offenders returning to high-poverty...- demand industries; and provide evidence of partnerships with the criminal justice system, local One-Stop...

  19. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  20. Grants Solutions -

    Department of Transportation — The Grants Center of Excellence The Grants Center of Excellence (COE) delivers end-to-end grants management products and support to over 17 Federal partner agencies....

  1. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  2. Application of Pesticide Phytoremediation in Irrigated Rice Fields System Using Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes) Plants

    Febriani, Ika Kartika; Hadiyanto

    2018-02-01

    The problem of environmental pollution especially urban water pollution becomes major issue in Indonesia. The cause of water pollution is not only from industrial factory waste disposal but also other causes which become pollution factor. One cause of water pollution is the existence of agricultural activities with the use of the amount of pesticides that exceed the threshold. As regulated in Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control, it is necessary to manage water quality and control water pollution wisely by taking into account the interests of current and future generations as well as the ecological balance. To overcome the problem of water pollution due to agricultural activities, it is necessary to conduct research on phytoremediation technique by utilizing eceng gondok plant. It is excepted that using this phytoremediation technique can reduce the problem of water pollution due to the use of pesticides on agricultural activities.

  3. Application of Pesticide Phytoremediation in Irrigated Rice Fields System Using Eceng Gondok (Eichhornia crassipes Plants

    Kartika Febriani Ika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of environmental pollution especially urban water pollution becomes major issue in Indonesia. The cause of water pollution is not only from industrial factory waste disposal but also other causes which become pollution factor. One cause of water pollution is the existence of agricultural activities with the use of the amount of pesticides that exceed the threshold. As regulated in Government Regulation No. 82/2001 on Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Control, it is necessary to manage water quality and control water pollution wisely by taking into account the interests of current and future generations as well as the ecological balance. To overcome the problem of water pollution due to agricultural activities, it is necessary to conduct research on phytoremediation technique by utilizing eceng gondok plant. It is excepted that using this phytoremediation technique can reduce the problem of water pollution due to the use of pesticides on agricultural activities.

  4. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    A.M. García

    2002-06-01

    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.

  5. Comparison of atmospheric concentrations of currently used pesticides between urban and rural areas during intensive application period in Alsace (France) by using XAD-2® based passive samplers.

    Liaud, Celine; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Millet, Maurice

    2017-07-03

    XAD-2® passive samplers (PAS) have been exposed simultaneously for 14 days on two sites, one rural and one urban, situated in Alsace (East of France) during intensive pesticides application in agriculture (between March and September). PAS have been extracted and analyzed for current-used pesticides and lindane with an analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS/MS. Results show the detection of pesticides is linked to the period of application and spatial and temporal variabilities can be observed with these PAS during the selected sampling period. The spatial and temporal variability is comparable to the one previously observed by comparing data obtained with PAS with data from Hi.-Vol. samplers in an urban area. Sampling rates were calculated for some pesticides and values are comparable to the data already available in the literature. From these sampling rates, concentrations in ng m -3 of pesticides in PAS have been calculated and are in the same order of magnitude as those obtained with Hi.Vol. sampling during the same period of time.

  6. 77 FR 790 - Grant Lake Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13212-002] Grant Lake.... The proposed project would consist of: (1) Either (a) a 2-foot-high by 120-foot-long, concrete gravity... project reservoir, with a total storage capacity of 15,900 acre-feet and a water surface area of 1,790...

  7. 77 FR 46797 - Notice of Fiscal Year 2013 Safety Grants and Solicitation for Applications

    2012-08-06

    ..., Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Public Law 109-59, as amended by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141.... BEG--Jackie Cambridge, jackie.cambridge@dot.gov , 202-366-1351. CDLPI Grants--James Ross, james.ross...

  8. 77 FR 18229 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Validation Grants

    2012-03-27

    ... reading skills administered in the same way to both groups). Experimental study means a study that employs...-experimental study (as defined in this notice) supporting the effectiveness of the practice, strategy, or...-4357.pdf . Validation grants provide funding to support practices, strategies, or programs that show...

  9. Educators' Use of Research and Other Evidence within Local Grant Foundation Applications

    Malin, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, educators' requests for foundation grant funding to purchase desired educational materials or services were examined. Specifically, this study sought to review to what extent, and in what manner, educators utilize research and other forms of evidence to support their decision making. Data analysis revealed several themes. Although…

  10. 75 FR 13245 - Announcement of Funds Availability and Grant Application Deadlines

    2010-03-19

    ... used by students, teachers, medical professionals, and rural residents. The grants, which are awarded... not document all matching contributions in form and substance satisfactory to the Agency as described... Worksheet Yes Agency worksheet with documentation. National School Lunch Program Yes Agency worksheet (NSLP...

  11. 75 FR 5561 - Notice of Funds Availability (NOFA) Inviting Applications for the Specialty Crop Block Grant...

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0072] Notice of Funds...) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) announces the availability, of $55,000,000 in grant funds, less USDA administrative costs, to...

  12. 77 FR 48951 - Inviting Applications for Value-Added Producer Grants

    2012-08-15

    ... provided by the Agency (matching funds plus grant funds must equal proposed total project costs). Matching funds may be in the form of cash or eligible in-kind contributions and may be used only for eligible... costs, a substantive work plan and budget, independent feasibility study and/or business plan...

  13. 76 FR 18513 - Announcement of Grant Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2011-04-04

    ... programs; and for the development and expansion of public health-related facilities in the Delta Region... may be used to finance any of the following: a. Develop health care services; b. Develop health... Care Services Grant Program are available from these sources: [[Page 18515

  14. 34 CFR 608.20 - What are the application requirements for a grant under this part?

    2010-07-01

    ... goals of its plan; (d) An assurance that the institution will provide the Secretary with an annual report on the activities carried out under the grant; (e) An assurance that the institution will provide for, and submit to the Secretary, the compliance and financial audit described in § 608.41; (f) An...

  15. 75 FR 14555 - Announcement of Grant and Loan Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2010-03-26

    ... communities and the growth of our economy without endangering the environment. The RFP has been established to... Available From These Sources 1. The Internet: http://www.usda.gov/rus/water/index.htm or http://www.grants... achieve, you should tell the reader if it also will have broader influence. The narrative should address...

  16. 77 FR 27015 - Announcement of Grant and Loan Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2012-05-08

    ... growth of our economy without endangering the environment. The Revolving Fund Program (RFP) has been.... The Internet: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/UWP-revolvingfund.html or http://www.grants.gov . 2. For... describing what the project will achieve, you should tell the reader if it also will have broader influence...

  17. 77 FR 15812 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications for Serving Juvenile...

    2012-03-16

    ... the long-term labor market prospects of these youth. These grants will be awarded through a competitive process open to organizations with the capacity to implement multi-site, multi-state projects. The... includes up to 6 months of planning and a minimum of 26 months of operation. DOL will require grantees to...

  18. The profile of disability grant applicants in Bishop Lavis, Cape Town ...

    Background: Disability grants in South Africa increased from 600 000 in 2000 to almost 1.3 million in 2004. This rise can be attributed to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, South Africa's high rate of unemployment and possibly an increased awareness of constitutional rights. The Western Cape, which has a disability prevalence of ...

  19. 45 CFR 1634.5 - Identification of qualified applicants for grants and contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ...) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION COMPETITIVE BIDDING FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.5 Identification of... bidding process: (1) Current recipients; (2) Other non-profit organizations that have as a purpose the furnishing of legal assistance to eligible clients; (3) Private attorneys, groups of attorneys or law firms...

  20. 75 FR 69097 - Allocations and Common Application and Reporting Waivers Granted to and Alternative Requirements...

    2010-11-10

    ... Plan for Disaster Recovery published via the usual methods and on the grantee's official Web site for... Grant (CDBG) Disaster Recovery Grantees Under the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212... requirements. SUMMARY: This Notice advises the public of the allocation of CDBG disaster recovery funds for the...

  1. 25 CFR Appendix A to Part 276 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants

    2010-04-01

    ... provided in d. above. 5. Management studies. The cost of management studies to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of grant management for ongoing programs is allowable except that the cost of studies..., such as meals, beverages, lodgings, rentals, transportation, and gratuities, are unallowable. 5. Fines...

  2. 75 FR 54330 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Field of Use License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive Field of Use License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... intent to grant an exclusive, revocable license for the field of use in the research reagent market to...

  3. 75 FR 39668 - Intent To Grant a Field of Use Exclusive License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant a Field of Use Exclusive License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... intent to grant a field of use exclusive, revocable license for the field of shigella vaccine development...

  4. List randomization for soliciting experience of intimate partner violence: Application to the evaluation of Zambia's unconditional child grant program.

    Peterman, Amber; Palermo, Tia M; Handa, Sudhanshu; Seidenfeld, David

    2018-03-01

    Social scientists have increasingly invested in understanding how to improve data quality and measurement of sensitive topics in household surveys. We utilize the technique of list randomization to collect measures of physical intimate partner violence in an experimental impact evaluation of the Government of Zambia's Child Grant Program. The Child Grant Program is an unconditional cash transfer, which targeted female caregivers of children under the age of 5 in rural areas to receive the equivalent of US $24 as a bimonthly stipend. The implementation results show that the list randomization methodology functioned as planned, with approximately 15% of the sample identifying 12-month prevalence of physical intimate partner violence. According to this measure, after 4 years, the program had no measurable effect on partner violence. List randomization is a promising approach to incorporate sensitive measures into multitopic evaluations; however, more research is needed to improve upon methodology for application to measurement of violence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Evaluation of ultra low volume and thermal fog pesticide applications against Old World Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in Kenya

    One component of the Department of Defense (DoD) pest management system is ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog aerosol pesticide application. Despite widespread implementations of this and other components of the system, such as use of repellents and permethrin, US military operations in hot-a...

  6. Asylum grant rates following medical evaluations of maltreatment among political asylum applicants in the United States.

    Lustig, Stuart L; Kureshi, Sarah; Delucchi, Kevin L; Iacopino, Vincent; Morse, Samantha C

    2008-02-01

    Although many individuals applying for political asylum allege maltreatment and sometimes torture in their countries of origin, the utility of medical evaluations in asylum adjudication has not been documented. This study compares the asylum grant rate among US asylum seekers who received medical evaluations from Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), with rates among asylum seekers who did not receive PHR evaluations. Retrospective analysis was carried out on all asylum cases referred to PHR between 2000 and 2004 for medical evaluations for which adjudication outcome was available. Basic demographic information was obtained: age, sex, country of origin, English language ability, US region where adjudication occurred, whether legal representation was pro bono, type of evaluation, provision of oral court testimony, and whether asylum seekers were in detention. Cases were analyzed descriptively and with chi square tests. Between 2000 and 2004, 1663 asylum seekers received medical evaluations from PHR; the adjudication status (either granted or denied) was determined in 746 cases at the time of the study. Of these cases, 89% were granted asylum, compared to the national average of 37.5% among US asylum seekers who did not receive PHR evaluations. Medical evaluations may be critical in the adjudications of asylum cases when maltreatment is alleged.

  7. Relationships between past and present pesticide applications and pollution at a watershed outlet: The case of a horticultural catchment in Martinique, French West Indies.

    Mottes, Charles; Lesueur Jannoyer, Magalie; Le Bail, Marianne; Guéné, Mathilde; Carles, Céline; Malézieux, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The understanding of factors affecting pesticide transfers to catchment outlet is still at a very early stage in tropical context, and especially on tropical volcanic context. We performed on-farm pesticide use surveys during 87 weeks and monitored pesticides in water weekly during 67 weeks at the outlet of a small catchment in Martinique. We identified three types of pollution. First, we showed long-term chronic pollution by chlordecone, diuron and metolachlor resulting from horticultural practices applied 5-20 years ago (quantification frequency higher than 80%). Second, we showed peak pollution. High amounts of propiconazole and fosthiazate applied at low frequencies caused river pollution peaks for weeks following a single application. Low amounts of diquat and diazinon applied at low frequencies also caused pollution peaks. The high amounts of glyphosate applied at high frequency resulted into pollution peaks by glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in 6 and 20% of the weeks. Any intensification of their uses will result in higher pollution levels. Third, relatively low amounts of glufosinate-ammonium, difenoconazol, spinosad and metaldehyde were applied at high frequencies. Unexpectedly, such pesticides remained barely detected (pollution of shallow aquifers alimenting surface water. We prove that to avoid the past errors and decrease the risk of long-term pollution of water resources, it is urgent to reduce or stop the use of pesticides with leaching potential by changing agricultural practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of graphene for preconcentration and highly sensitive stripping voltammetric analysis of organophosphate pesticide

    Wu Shuo, E-mail: wushuo@dlut.edu.cn [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Lan Xiaoqin; Cui Lijun; Zhang Lihui; Tao Shengyang; Wang Hainan; Han Mei; Liu Zhiguang; Meng Changgong [School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} An electrochemical sensor is fabricated based on {beta}-CD dispersed graphene. {yields} The sensor could selectively detect organophosphate pesticide with high sensitivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene owns large adsorption capacity for MP and superconductivity. {yields} The {beta}-CD dispersed graphene is superior to most of the porous sorbents ever known. - Abstract: Electrochemical reduced {beta}-cyclodextrin dispersed graphene ({beta}-CD-graphene) was developed as a sorbent for the preconcentration and electrochemical sensing of methyl parathion (MP), a representative nitroaromatic organophosphate pesticide with good redox activity. Benefited from the ultra-large surface area, large delocalized {pi}-electron system and the superconductivity of {beta}-CD-graphene, large amount of MP could be extracted on {beta}-CD-graphene modified electrode via strong {pi}-{pi} interaction and exhibited fast accumulation and electron transfer rate. Combined with differential pulse voltammetric analysis, the sensor shows ultra-high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response. The limit of detection of 0.05 ppb is more than 10 times lower than those obtained from other sorbent based sensors. The method may open up a new possibility for the widespread use of electrochemical sensors for monitoring of ultra-trace OPs.

  9. Solar efficiency of a new deposited titania photocatalyst. Chlorophenol, pesticide and dye removal applications

    Guillard, Chantal; Disdier, Jean; Maldonado, Manuel I.; Herrmann, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire D' Application de la Chimie a l' Environnement LACE (UMR 5634), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon I, Bat Jules Raulin, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Monnet, Christine; Dussaud, Joseph [AHLSTROM Research and Services, ZI de l' Abbaye, 38780 Pont-Eveque (France); Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Ctra. Senes Km. 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2003-11-10

    A specially designed titania photocatalyst was prepared by coating Ahlstrom non-woven paper, used as a flexible photocatalytic support, with Millennium PC500 anatase. At the same time, a new solar photoreactor (STEP) was designed based on the multi-step cascade falling-film principle to ensure good exposure to sunlight and good oxygenation of the effluent to be treated. Several types of reactants were treated: 4-chlorophenol as a model organic pollutant; formetanate, a widely used pesticide in horticulture; a mixture of pesticides used in vineyards; and indigo carmine (IC) and Congo red (CR), which are complex multifunctional dye molecules. Each reaction was performed simultaneously in a solar CPC slurry photoreactor and in the STEP photoreactor under identical solar exposure to better evaluate and validate the results obtained. The STEP solar reactor was found to be as efficient as the CPC for 4-chlorophenol and formetanate total degradation. In contrast, both dyes required longer treatment in STEP experiments. This new system, in which the final tedious filtration can actually be avoided, constitutes a good alternative to slurries.

  10. Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice farming soils.

    Gimeno-García, E; Andreu, V; Boluda, R

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn in different inorganic fertilizers (urea, calcium superphosphate, iron sulphate and copper sulphate) and in pesticides (two herbicides and one fungicide) are evaluated together with the contribution of these metals in soils from their use. The study was made in rice farming areas to the north of Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). The results obtained show that superphosphate is the fertilizer that contains the highest concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu and Zn as impurities. Copper sulphate and iron sulphate have the most significant concentrations of Pb, and are the only fertilizers in which Ni was detected. The three pesticides analysed show similar Cd contents and the highest levels of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni are found in the herbicides. The most significant additions of heavy metals as impurities that soil receives from agricultural practices, are Mn, Zn, Co and Pb. Three contamination indexes have been applied to provide a basis for comparison of potential heavy metal toxicity. These results denote the potential toxicity of heavy metals in the studied soils.

  11. 75 FR 70256 - Tralomethrin; Notice of Receipt of Request To Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations

    2010-11-17

    ... of Request To Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... voluntarily cancel their registrations of products containing the pesticide tralomethrin. The request would... will cancel the sole technical product registration for tralomethrin. EPA intends to grant this request...

  12. Tracer work in pesticide research

    Gonzales, B.P.

    1989-01-01

    Innumerable studies on the large number of pesticides being used throughout the world led to some adverse findings on the properties and behavior of these chemicals and their degradation products in revelation to potential toxicity and environmental pollution. However, it is also a fact (difficult to accept as it may) that the use of pesticides as an indirect means of increasing food production cannot yet be dispensed with despite the potential dangers attributed to it. What can be done is to insure its judicious application which means minimizing its effectiveness in controlling pest infestations. To be able to do this it is necessary to know not only what pesticide is to be used against a given pest but also the fate of pesticide after application to a particular environment under prevailing conditions. Knowledge of the distribution and persistence of the parent compounds under metabolites will also help either, to confirm or to dispel the alleged dangers posed by them. Radiotracer methodology is particularly effective for this type of work because it permits highly sensitive analysis with minimum clean-up and permits one to determine even the bound residues which defies ordinary extraction procedures. Some studies made are studies on fate of pesticides in plant after foliar application to plant needs, uptake and translocation of systemic pesticides, fate of pesticides in soil, bioaccumulation of pesticide by aquatic organisms, etc. This particular study is on distribution of pesticide among the components of a rice/fish ecosystem. This project aims to generate data from experiments conducted in a model ecosystem using radiolabelled lindane and carbo-furan. In both cases, results show a decline in extractable species from the recommended dosage of pesticide application although they tend to imbibe a considerable amount of pesticide. It is hoped that depuration in additional experiments will bring useful results. (Auth.)

  13. Optimising Solar Photo catalytic Mineralization of Pesticides at Solar Pilot by Adding Inorganic Oxidising Species; Application to the Recycling of Pesticide Containers

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S.; Fernandez, P.; Caceres, J.; Campos, A.; Carrion, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on optimising the use of additional oxidants in the photo catalytic degradation of a complex mixture of ten commercial pesticides. The CPC solar pilot plant used for the tests has 8.9 m 2 of collector surface and a total volume of 247 L. Same TOC quantities of each pesticide were added to achieve the desired initial TOC concentration in all the experiments (from 5 to 100 mg of TOC per litre). Experiments were performed with H 2 O 2 and S 2 OS 8 - 2, but only peroxydisulphate was chosen for optimisation, because better results have been obtained with it. In addition to the consumption of the oxidant under different experimental conditions, the effect of peroxydisulphate and TOC concentrations was also evaluated. The mechanism of peroxydisulphate action is discussed with these results. The effect of reusing water and catalysts has also been studied. The results obtained from these experiments have been used to decide the dimensions and operating conditions of a solar photo catalytic plant, the final objective of which is the treatment of rin sates produced by washing pesticide containers. (Author) 37 refs

  14. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River

    Inostroza, Pedro A.; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-01-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g −1 (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g −1 (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River. - Highlights: • A method based on pulverised liquid extraction/QuEChERS for organic micropollutants in invertebrates was developed. • The method is applicable in assessing target environmental pollutants in invertebrates by LC-MS/MS. • The method allows for a nontarget screening of extracts by LC-HRMS. • First body burden analysis of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates in the Danube River is reported. - Capsule: A multi

  15. Simulating Effects of Forest Management Practices on Pesticide.

    M.C. Smith; W.G. Knisel; J.L. Michael; D.G. Neary

    1993-01-01

    The GLEAMS model pesticide component was modified to simulate up to 245 pesticides simultaneously, and the revised model was used to pesticide pesticide application windows for forest site preparation and pine release. Five herbicides were made for soils representing four hydrologic soil groups in four climatic regions of the southeastern United States. Five herbicides...

  16. 75 FR 36349 - Announcement of Rural Cooperative Development Grant Application Deadlines

    2010-06-25

    ... entrepreneurship and expansion of market opportunities for small businesses; iv. Access to capital in rural areas... authentication and have sufficient computer resources to complete the application. C. Content and Form of... Agency will evaluate the applicant's vision for funding its operations in future years. Applicants should...

  17. Assessment of surface water vulnerability to pesticide contamination using the modeling tool PegOpera: Application in North Tunisia

    Boukari, Amira; Habaieb, Hamadi; Deliège, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Tunisia is a country in which three quarters of the territory is arid to semi-arid with limited water resources. Decreasing water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water stakeholders particularly in rural areas and poor communities. The main factors influencing water availability in this Mediterranean country is, among others, overexploitation of non-renewable resources and diffuse pollution. Due to intensive agriculture in proximity of rivers and continuous use of pesticides, there is a potential risk for contamination of waterbodies by the agrochemicals used. This could have a negative impact on agricultural production as well as human health and threaten in priority the north part of the country where 82% of surface water is available. Despite this situation, no catchment monitoring program is currently put in place since it is expensive and require large investment. In this study, we established a methodology using the PegOpera modeling tool to assess the potential risk of pesticides contamination of surface water at the scale of a rural catchment situated in the northwestern part of Tunisia, the Joumine basin, draining an area of 418 km2 and devoted to agriculture, mainly rainfed cereal crops. In the downstream part of the basin, the Joumine dam was built in 1984 to provide water for irrigation and drinking purposes. We performed a survey with catchment farmers to report management practices in the area as well as spatial and temporal information about pesticide compounds, timing and application rate from which we identified the most used pesticide molecules. The SIRIS method (System of Integration of Risk with Interactions of Scores) was applied to classify compounds used according to the risk that they present to the aquatic environment and therefore to identify those chemicals that should be monitored (Guerbet et al., 2002; Le Gall et al., 2007). According to the results of this classification, we selected 6 molecules to study in

  18. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  19. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    ZHAO Xiao-yun; XIE De-fang

    2018-01-01

    At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pestici...

  20. 76 FR 40876 - Announcement of Grant Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2011-07-12

    ... that are eligible. VI. Application Review Information: Considerations and preferences, scoring criteria..., or a postsecondary vocational institution that provides a program of training to prepare students for...

  1. 76 FR 22147 - Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA); Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and...

    2011-04-20

    ... with Section IVB, Part IIIa, of the SGA, which states that the Abstracts will be shared publicly, we... information that can be used to distinguish or trace an individual's identity, such as a name, social security... the application, for DOL to post that redacted version. If an applicant fails to provide a redacted...

  2. 7 CFR 1944.682 - Preapplication/application review, grant approval, and requesting HPG funds.

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM... part 1900 of this chapter. Applications determined not eligible will be handled in the same manner. The... advise the applicant of its appeal rights under subpart B of part 1900 of this chapter. (c) With the...

  3. 77 FR 25452 - Applications for New Awards; Territories and Freely Associated States Education Grant Program

    2012-04-30

    ... (American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, and the Virgin Islands) and the... Applicants: LEAs in American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the U.S. Virgin... the fourteenth calendar day before the application deadline date falls on a Federal holiday, the next...

  4. 76 FR 14694 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for National...

    2011-03-17

    ... Training Administration (ETA), Office of Workforce Investment, Division of Adult Services, announces a... among state service delivery areas for operation of NFJP. All interested applicants should read this... applications is May 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeannette Flowers, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW...

  5. 7 CFR 1783.7 - What is the grant application process?

    2010-01-01

    ... 1783.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...: Standard Form 424A; (3) Assurances—Non-Construction Programs: Standard Form 424B; (4) Evidence of applicant... (6) Most recent annual audit conducted by an independent auditor. (b) The applicant must submit a...

  6. Design of a compressed air modulator to be used in comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography and its application in the determination of pesticide residues in grapes.

    Pizzutti, Ionara R; Vreuls, René J J; de Kok, André; Roehrs, Rafael; Martel, Samile; Friggi, Caroline A; Zanella, Renato

    2009-04-10

    In this study, a new modulator that is simple, robust and presents low operation costs, was developed. This modulator uses compressed air to cool two small portions in the first centimeters of the second chromatographic column of a comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) system. The results show a variation in the peak area less than 3 and 5% to alkanes and pesticides, respectively. The standard deviations for the retention times in the first and second dimension are around 0.05 min and 0.05s for all the compounds. The system was optimized with n-alkanes. The GCxGC system proposed was applied in the determination of pyrethroid pesticides (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, esfenvalerate, cis- and trans-permethrin) in grape samples. Samples were extracted by the mini-Luke modified method and pesticides were quantified by comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detection (microECD). The values of method limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.01-0.02 mg kg(-1) for all studied pyrethroid and the values of recovery were between 94.3 and 115.2%, with good precision (RSDcompressed air has the potential for application in the analysis of a wider range of pesticide residues in other commodities since it provides low values of LOQ with acceptable accuracy and precision.

  7. Development and Application of Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) for Estimating Atrazine Concentration Distributions in Streams

    Larson, Steven J.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Regression models were developed for predicting atrazine concentration distributions in rivers and streams, using the Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) methodology. Separate regression equations were derived for each of nine percentiles of the annual distribution of atrazine concentrations and for the annual time-weighted mean atrazine concentration. In addition, seasonal models were developed for two specific periods of the year--the high season, when the highest atrazine concentrations are expected in streams, and the low season, when concentrations are expected to be low or undetectable. Various nationally available watershed parameters were used as explanatory variables, including atrazine use intensity, soil characteristics, hydrologic parameters, climate and weather variables, land use, and agricultural management practices. Concentration data from 112 river and stream stations sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment and National Stream Quality Accounting Network Programs were used for computing the concentration percentiles and mean concentrations used as the response variables in regression models. Tobit regression methods, using maximum likelihood estimation, were used for developing the models because some of the concentration values used for the response variables were censored (reported as less than a detection threshold). Data from 26 stations not used for model development were used for model validation. The annual models accounted for 62 to 77 percent of the variability in concentrations among the 112 model development stations. Atrazine use intensity (the amount of atrazine used in the watershed divided by watershed area) was the most important explanatory variable in all models, but additional watershed parameters significantly increased the amount of variability explained by the models. Predicted concentrations from all 10 models were within a factor of 10 of the observed concentrations at most

  8. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  9. 77 FR 12792 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2012

    2012-03-02

    ... Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service... Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG) program pursuant to 7 CFR part 4280, subpart A for... Economic Development Loans and Grants. Announcement Type: Initial Announcement. Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  10. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  11. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    2012-01-18

    ...), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). A copy of the application and any information submitted...

  13. 78 FR 25977 - Applications for New Awards; Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-up Grants

    2013-05-03

    ...) There are at least two studies of the effectiveness of the process, product, strategy, or practice being... strategies that allow organizations or practices to expand quickly and efficiently while maintaining their... increasing number of careers require an understanding of STEM concepts and the application of STEM skills and...

  14. 76 FR 30094 - Announcement of Grant and Loan Application Deadlines and Funding Levels

    2011-05-24

    ... water systems are basic and vital to both health and economic development. With dependable water.... It supports the sound development of rural communities and the growth of our economy without... figures, rounding off figures to the nearest dollar. Applicants should consult OMB Circular A-122: ``Cost...

  15. 76 FR 32943 - Announcement of Rural Cooperative Development Grant Application Deadlines

    2011-06-07

    ... otherwise improve the economic conditions of rural areas. Applicants that provide statistics for historical... reviewed for detailed actions and an accompanying timetable for implementing the proposal. Clear, logical... customers will be identified; iii. Key personnel; and iv. The evaluation methods to be used to determine the...

  16. 76 FR 40890 - Application for New Awards; Charter Schools Program (CSP); Grants for Replication and Expansion...

    2011-07-12

    ... Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools AGENCY: Department of Education, Office of... for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools Notice inviting applications for new... Schools This priority is for projects that will provide for the replication or expansion of high-quality...

  17. 77 FR 13304 - Application for New Awards; Charter Schools Program (CSP); Grants for Replication and Expansion...

    2012-03-06

    ... Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement... Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools Notice inviting applications for new awards for... effects on students, student academic achievement, staff, and parents. The purpose of the Replication and...

  18. 77 FR 10663 - Due Date of Initial Application Requirements for State Home Construction Grants

    2012-02-23

    ... aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or more (adjusted annually for inflation) in any given year. This rule would have no such effect on State, local, and tribal governments, or on the private... anomalously high number of applications. We acknowledge that the ARRA increased the 2010 workload but maintain...

  19. 78 FR 42788 - American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into...

    2013-07-17

    ... postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 390(2) of the Tribally Controlled Vocational... Preference Will Be Given to Applicants Who Have: A. Programs that provide a preference to Indian students... 1988. If an eligible organization claims preference in order to be given priority, the organization...

  20. 76 FR 17629 - Applications for New Awards; Transition to Teaching Grant Program

    2011-03-30

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT if you have any questions about the details of the pre-application meeting. Individuals... and will produce quantitative and qualitative data to the extent possible. (2) The extent to which the..., national origin, gender, age, or disability. (2) The extent to which the services to be provided by the...

  1. 77 FR 23675 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition

    2012-04-20

    ... solutions, applicants should be mindful of the importance of ensuring that all children, including infants... education reforms that are linked to improved educational outcomes for children and youth in preschool... report talking with their child about the importance of college and career; or --possible fourth...

  2. 77 FR 59611 - Notice of Receipt of Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    2012-09-28

    ... Symbol: 85004-RN. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2012- 0609. Applicant: Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc., 12085 Research Dr., Suite 185, Alachua, FL 32615. Active ingredient: Nematicide with Pasteuria spp. (Hoplolaimus... Symbol: 85004-RR. Docket ID Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2012- 0609. Applicant: Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc., 12085...

  3. Application of ACD/LABS 12 program for determination of conditions for experimental membrane extraction of pesticides

    Đorđević J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the conditions for membrane extraction of pesticides using ACD / LABS 12 program. The program contains a large database of more than 2000 compounds and their ionized species, for determining the pKa, further analysis includes 600 new compounds confirmed by Hammett’s equation, which gives more precise values for logD and solubility. The 16 pesticides of different classes (organophosphates, carbamates, carbamidas, neonicotinoids etc. and polarities commonly used in Serbia were examined. The program is used to calculate logD, pKa and solubility at different pH values for the mixture of pesticides. Based on the calculated values, the conditions for the extraction of pesticides in water using two-phase liquid-liquid membrane extraction were optimized.

  4. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    EL-Saeid, Mohamed H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Flui...

  5. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  6. Teleconference versus face-to-face scientific peer review of grant application: effects on review outcomes.

    Stephen A Gallo

    Full Text Available Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects.

  7. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  8. USEPA Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all grants given out by the USEPA going back to the 1960s through today. There are many limitations...

  9. Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis.

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H

    2003-12-11

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  10. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    Mohamed H. EL-Saeid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates.By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues ± RSD% ranging from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.05 ± 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.8 ± 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.8 ±0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  11. 77 FR 64988 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    2012-10-24

    ... fair treatment and meaningful involvement of any group, including minority and/or low income... factors, may have atypical or disproportionately high and adverse human health impacts or environmental.../Product: Glyphosate and Dicamba/M1751 Herbicide. Summary of Request: Application for an EUP to conduct...

  12. 78 FR 25436 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permits; Receipt of Applications; Comment Request

    2013-05-01

    ... more of land or 1 acre or more of water. A copy of the applications and any information submitted is... to mate with indigenous female Aedes albopictus, causing conditional sterility and resulting in... product in the indigenous population. Contact: Shanaz Bacchus, BPPD, (703) 308-8097, email address...

  13. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  14. Column liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry: selected techniques in environmental applications for polar pesticides and related compounds.

    Slobodnik, J.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    A review covering the field of environmental applications of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. Recent developments and advances are discussed with emphasis on the presently popular thermospray, particle beam and atmospheric pressure ionisation interfaces. Each interface

  15. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources...

  16. 76 FR 66721 - New Policies and Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant...

    2011-10-27

    ... electronic submission of discretionary grant applications through the government-wide grants application site... Procedural Requirements for the Electronic Submission of Discretionary Grant Applications AGENCY: Division of... requirements for the electronic submission of discretionary grant applications. Overview Information: The...

  17. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  18. Environmental Assessment for Aerial Application of Pesticide for Gypsy Moth Control, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland

    2008-04-01

    treated, such as plants, soil, or water, is: • coveralls • waterproof gloves • shoes plus socks. DIMILIN 4L is an insect growth regulator which is...Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and maintaining PPE. If no such...EQUIPMENT Applicators and Other Handlers Must Wear: A long-sleeved shirt and long pants; shoes plus socks. Follow manufacturer’s instructions for

  19. Pesticides and the Environment

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  20. Developing the Librarians' Role in Supporting Grant Applications and Reducing Waste in Research: Outcomes from a Literature Review and Survey in the NIHR Research Design Service

    Edmunds Otter, Mary L.; Wright, Judy M.; King, Natalie V.

    2017-01-01

    Librarians and information specialists' involvement during the development of grant applications for external funding can save researchers' time, provide specialist support, and contribute to reducing avoidable waste in research. This article presents a survey of information specialists working for the National Institute for Health Research's…

  1. Application of solid-phase micro extraction for the determination of pesticides in vegetable samples by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat; Kumari, Asha

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) method has been developed for the determination of 9 pesticides in 2 vegetables -cucumber and tomato - samples, based on direct immersion mode and subsequent desorption into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The main factors affecting the SPME process such as extraction time and temperature, desorption time and temperature, the effect of salt addition and fiber depth into the liner were studied and optimized. The analytical procedure proposed consisted of a 30 minute ultrasonic extraction of the target compounds from 1.0 g vegetable samples with 5 mL of distilled water. Then, the samples were filtered and topped up with distilled water to 10 mL. The analytes in this aqueous extract were extracted for 15 minutes with a 100 μm thickness polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber. Relative standard deviations for triplicate analyses of samples were less than 10 %. The recoveries of the pesticides studied in cucumber and tomato ranged from 52 % to 82 % and the RSD were below 10 %. Therefore, the proposed method is applicable in the analysis of pesticides in vegetable matrices. SPME has been shown to be a simple extraction technique, which has a number of advantages such as solvent free extraction, simplicity and compatibility with the chromatographic analytical system. (author)

  2. Application of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a quadrupole/linear ion trap instrument for the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil.

    Hernando, M D; Ferrer, C; Ulaszewska, M; García-Reyes, J F; Molina-Díaz, A; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the development of an enhanced liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the analysis of pesticides in olive oil. One hundred pesticides belonging to different classes and that are currently used in agriculture have been included in this method. The LC-MS method was developed using a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap (QqQ(LIT)) analyzer. Key features of this technique are the rapid scan acquisition times, high specificity and high sensitivity it enables when the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode or the linear ion-trap operational mode is employed. The application of 5 ms dwell times using a linearly accelerating (LINAC) high-pressure collision cell enabled the analysis of a high number of pesticides, with enough data points acquired for optimal peak definition in MRM operation mode and for satisfactory quantitative determinations to be made. The method quantifies over a linear dynamic range of LOQs (0.03-10 microg kg(-1)) up to 500 microg kg(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated by comparing the slopes of matrix-matched and solvent-based calibration curves. Weak suppression or enhancement of signals was observed (ion (EPI) and MS3 were developed.

  3. 76 FR 8334 - Inviting Applications for the Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2011

    2011-02-14

    ... Economic Development Loan and Grant Program for Fiscal Year 2011 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service... Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant (REDLG) program pursuant to 7 CFR part 4280, subpart A for... Federal Agency: Rural Business-Cooperative Service. Funding Opportunity Type: Rural Economic Development...

  4. GIS applications in eco-logical grant projects : peer exchange summary report Austin, TX July 22-23, 2009

    2009-10-31

    This report provides a summary of a 1.5-day peer exchange convened with select recipients of FHWA's first Eco-Logical grant. The purpose of the exchange, which was held in Austin, TX, in July 2009, was to allow grant recipients the opportunity to sha...

  5. Protocol for an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectral product ion library: development and application for identification of 240 pesticides in foods.

    Zhang, Kai; Wong, Jon W; Yang, Paul; Hayward, Douglas G; Sakuma, Takeo; Zou, Yunyun; Schreiber, André; Borton, Christopher; Nguyen, Tung-Vi; Kaushik, Banerjee; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2012-07-03

    Modern determination techniques for pesticides must yield identification quickly with high confidence for timely enforcement of tolerances. A protocol for the collection of liquid chromatography (LC) electrospray ionization (ESI)-quadruple linear ion trap (Q-LIT) mass spectrometry (MS) library spectra was developed. Following the protocol, an enhanced product ion (EPI) library of 240 pesticides was developed by use of spectra collected from two laboratories. A LC-Q-LIT-MS workflow using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) survey scan, information-dependent acquisition (IDA) triggered collection of EPI spectra, and library search was developed and tested to identify the 240 target pesticides in one single LC-Q-LIT MS analysis. By use of LC retention time, one sMRM survey scan transition, and a library search, 75-87% of the 240 pesticides were identified in a single LC/MS analysis at fortified concentrations of 10 ng/g in 18 different foods. A conventional approach with LC-MS/MS using two MRM transitions produced the same identifications and comparable quantitative results with the same incurred foods as the LC-Q-LIT using EPI library search, finding 1.2-49 ng/g of either carbaryl, carbendazim, fenbuconazole, propiconazole, or pyridaben in peaches; carbendazim, imazalil, terbutryn, and thiabendazole in oranges; terbutryn in salmon; and azoxystrobin in ginseng. Incurred broccoli, cabbage, and kale were screened with the same EPI library using three LC-Q-LIT and a LC-quadruple time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments. The library search identified azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, fludioxinil, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, spinosyn A, D, and J, amd spirotetramat with each instrument. The approach has a broad application in LC-MS/MS type targeted screening in food analysis.

  6. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of a Spray Deposition Sensing System for Improving Pesticide Application.

    Kesterson, Melissa A; Luck, Joe D; Sama, Michael P

    2015-12-17

    An electronic, resistance-based sensor array and data acquisition system was developed to measure spray deposition from hydraulic nozzles. The sensor surface consisted of several parallel tin plated copper traces of varying widths with varying gap widths. The system contained an embedded microprocessor to monitor output voltage corresponding to spray deposition every second. In addition, a wireless module was used to transmit the voltage values to a remote laptop. Tests were conducted in two stages to evaluate the performance of the sensor array in an attempt to quantify the spray deposition. Initial tests utilized manual droplet placement on the sensor surface to determine the effects of temperature and droplet size on voltage output. Secondary testing utilized a spray chamber to pass nozzles at different speeds above the sensor surface to determine if output varied based on different application rates or spray droplet classification. Results from this preliminary analysis indicated that manual droplets of 5 and 10 μL resulted in significantly different values from the sensors while temperature did not consistently affect output. Spray chamber test results indicated that different application rates and droplet sizes could be determined using the sensor array.

  7. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands.

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and to airborne endotoxin. In addition we evaluated specific pesticides (active ingredients) previously associated with PD. We used data from a hospital-based case-control study, including 444 patients with PD and 876 age and sex matched controls. Exposures to pesticides from application and re-entry work were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix and with an exposure algorithm based on self-reported information on pesticide use. To assess exposure to specific active ingredients a crop-exposure matrix was developed. Endotoxin exposure was estimated with the DOM job-exposure matrix. The results showed almost no significant associations. However, ORs were elevated in the higher exposure categories for pesticides in general, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and below unity for endotoxin exposure. The analyses on specific active ingredients showed a significant association of PD risk with the fungicide benomyl. This study did not provide evidence for a relation between pesticide exposure and PD. However, the consistently elevated ORs in the higher exposure categories suggest that a positive association may exist. The possible association with the active ingredient benomyl requires follow-up in other studies. This study did not provide support for a possible association between endotoxin exposure and PD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  9. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  10. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica.

    Polidoro, Beth A; Dahlquist, Ruth M; Castillo, Luisa E; Morra, Matthew J; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A

    2008-09-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabécar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  11. Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica

    Polidoro, Beth A.; Dahlquist, Ruth M.; Castillo, Luisa E.; Morra, Matthew J.; Somarriba, Eduardo; Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets

  12. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    Grey, Charlotte N.B.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  13. 76 FR 24917 - Notice of Funding Opportunity and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for H-1B Technical...

    2011-05-03

    ... Department will award grants to a partnership of private and public sector entities as defined in ACWIA. This... training program was authorized under Section 414(c) of the American Competitiveness and Workforce...

  14. Assisted inhibition effect of acetylcholinesterase with n-octylphosphonic acid and application in high sensitive detection of organophosphorous pesticides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Cai, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Wang, Haoyang; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Yinlong

    2011-11-14

    A simple and practical approach to improve the sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibited method has been developed for monitoring organophosphorous (OP) pesticide residues. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS) was used to detect AChE activity. Due to its good salt-tolerance and low sample consumption, MALDI-FTMS facilitates rapid and high-throughput screening of OP pesticides. Here we describe a new method to obtain low detection limits via employing external reagents. Among candidate compounds, n-octylphosphonic acid (n-Octyl-PA) displays assistant effect to enhance AChE inhibition by OP pesticides. In presence of n-Octyl-PA, the percentages of AChE inhibition still kept correlation with OP pesticide concentrations. The detection limits were improved significantly even by 10(2)-10(3) folds in comparison with conventional enzyme-inhibited methods. Different detection limits of OP pesticides with different toxicities were as low as 0.005 μg L(-1) for high toxic pesticides and 0.05 μg L(-1) for low toxic pesticides. Besides, the reliability of results from this method to analyze cowpea samples had been demonstrated by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The application of this commercial available assistant agent shows great promise to detect OP compounds in complicated biological matrix and broadens the mind for high sensitivity detection of OP pesticide residues in agricultural products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Application of zirconium dioxide nanoparticle sorbent for the clean-up step in post-harvest pesticide residue analysis.

    Uclés, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Dolores Hernando, Maria; Rosal, Roberto; Ferrer, Carmen; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2015-11-01

    The use of yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide nanoparticles as d-SPE clean-up sorbent for a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the determination of post-harvest fungicides (carbaryl, carbendazim, chlorpropham, diphenylamine, ethoxyquin, flutriafol, imazalil, iprodione, methomyl, myclobutanil, pirimiphos-methyl, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, thiabendazole, thiophanate-methyl and tolclofos-methyl) in orange and pear samples has been evaluated and validated. The sample preparation was a modification of the QuEChERS extraction method using yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) nanoparticles as the solid phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up sorbents prior to injecting the ten-fold diluted extracts into the LC system. By using the yttria-stabilized zirconium dioxide extraction method, more recoveries in the 70-120% range were obtained - thus this method was used for the validation. Quantification was carried out using a matrix-matched calibration curve which was linear in the 1-500 µg kg(-1) range for almost all the pesticides studied. The validated limit of quantification was 10 µg kg(-1) for most of the studied compounds, except chlorpropham, ethoxyquin and thiophanate-methyl. Pesticide recoveries at the 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) concentration levels were satisfactory, with values between 77% and 120% and relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 10% (n=5). The developed method was applied for the determination of selected fungicides in 20 real orange and pear samples. Four different pesticide residues were detected in 10 of these commodities; 20% of the samples contained pesticide residues at a quantifiable level (equal to or above the LOQs) for at least one pesticide residue. The most frequently-detected pesticide residues were: carbendazim, thiabendazole and imazalil-all were below the MRL. The highest concentration found was imazalil at 1175 µg kg

  16. Water and Pesticides

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Water and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Water Solubility Drinking Water and Pesticides Fact Sheet

  17. Soil and Pesticides

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Soil and Pesticides Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides español Soil and Pesticides Soil can be degraded and the community of organisms living in the soil can

  18. Application of Box-Behnken design for the removal of two organophosphorus pesticides by used Tea leaves

    Albanis, Triantafyllos; Valileios, Sakkas; Islam, Azharul M.

    2016-04-01

    Removal of two organophosphorus pesticides bromophos methyl [BM: O, O- dimethyl - O - (2, 5-dichloro -4 bromophenyl) phosphorothioate] and quinalphos [QP: O, O-diethyl O-2-quinoxalinyl phosphorothioate] on used tea leaves were studied by batch equilibration method. Adsorption isotherms were conformed well to Langmuir for quinalphos and Freundlich equation for bromophos methyl. The kinetic data fitted well by the pseudo second order model for both pesticides. Box-Behnken design was successfully employed for experimental design and analysis of results. The interactions of pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose on two pesticides adsorption by used tea leaves were investigated by this model. The optimum pH, initial concentration and adsorbent dose with their corresponding removal efficiency were found to be 7.88, 11.94 mg L-1, 0.37g and 100% for bromophos methyl respectively, for quinalphos 8.72, 6.44 mg L-1, 0.39g and 93.98% respectively. Keywords: Box-Behnken; quinalphos; bromophos methyl; Kinetics; used tea leaves

  19. Zinc(II) phthalocyanines immobilized in mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 and their applications in photocatalytic degradation of pesticides

    Silva, M.; Calvete, M.J.F.; Gonçalves, N.P.F.; Burrows, H.D.; Sarakha, M.; Fernandes, A.; Ribeiro, M.F.; Azenha, M.E.; Pereira, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Complete immobilization of zinc(II) phthalocyanines accomplished in Al-MCM-41. ► Efficient photodegradation of model pesticides achieved using 365 nm irradiation. ► Sodium azide experiments showed the involvement of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ). - Abstract: In the present study the authors investigated a set of three new zinc(II) phthalocyanines (zinc(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnTNPc), zinc(II) tetra(phenyloxy)phthalocyanine (ZnTPhOPc) and the tetraiodide salt of zinc(II)tetra(N,N,N-trimethylaminoethyloxy) phthalocyaninate (ZnTTMAEOPcI)) immobilized into Al-MCM-41 prepared via ship-in-a-bottle methodology. The samples were fully characterized by diffuse reflectance-UV–vis spectroscopy (DRS-UV–vis), luminescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DSC), N 2 adsorption techniques and elemental analysis. A comparative study was made on the photocatalytic performance upon irradiation within the wavelength range 320–460 nm of these three systems in the degradation of pesticides fenamiphos and pentachlorophenol. ZnTNPc-Al-MCM-41 and ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41 were found to be the most active systems, with the best performance observed with the immobilized cationic phthalocyanine, ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41. This system showed high activity even after three photocatalytic cycles. LC–MS product characterization and mechanistic studies indicate that singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), produced by excitation of these immobilized photosensitizers, is a key intermediate in the photocatalytic degradation of both pesticides.

  20. 42 CFR 52.6 - Grant awards.

    2010-10-01

    ... grant to those applicants whose approved projects will in the Secretary's judgment best promote the..., the grant will initially be for one year and subsequent continuation awards will also be for one year... application nor the award of any grant commits or obligates the United States in any way to make any...

  1. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  2. 77 FR 21089 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Application for Grants Under the Upward Bound Math and...

    2012-04-09

    ... Upward Bound Math and Science Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. SUMMARY: The Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) program provides grants to institutions of higher... for success in a program of postsecondary education that lead to careers in math and science. DATES...

  3. 75 FR 12272 - Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant Applications (SGA) for Community-Based...

    2010-03-15

    ... available or job openings that are anticipated during the life of the grant; (3) educate individuals about... education/training for jobs currently available or job openings that are anticipated during the life of the... their skills to retain employment or advance in their careers, and workers who are currently working...

  4. 34 CFR 611.2 - What management plan must be included in a Teacher Quality Enhancement Grants Program application?

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What management plan must be included in a Teacher... TEACHER QUALITY ENHANCEMENT GRANTS PROGRAM General Provisions § 611.2 What management plan must be... appropriate, a management plan that includes a proposed multiyear workplan. (b) At a minimum, this workplan...

  5. 77 FR 50680 - Notice of Orders Granting Applications and an Order Vacating Authority To Import and Export...

    2012-08-22

    ... import LNG from various international sources by vessel. 3121 06/22/12 12-65-NG Nexen Energy Marketing... various international sources by vessel. 3123 06/22/12 12-67-NG ETC Marketing, Ltd.... Order granting... Docket Nos. NATIONAL FUEL MARKETING COMPANY, LLC.... 11-101-NG CHENIERE MARKETING, LLC 12-36-LNG PAA...

  6. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  7. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  8. Applications of phytochemical and in vitro techniques for reducing over-harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants and generating income for the rural poor.

    Sarasan, Viswambharan; Kite, Geoffrey C; Sileshi, Gudeta W; Stevenson, Philip C

    2011-07-01

    Plants provide medicine and pest control resources for millions of poor people world-wide. Widespread harvesting of medicinal and pesticidal plants puts pressure on natural populations, thus severely compromising their contribution to the income and well-being of traders and consumers. The development of in vitro propagation techniques appropriate for developing countries will provide a robust platform for effective propagation and cultivation of endangered plants. This review focuses on advances in the application of phytochemical and in vitro tools to identify and rapidly propagate medicinal and pesticidal plants. Problems of over-harvesting can be alleviated and ex situ cultivation in agroforestry systems can be facilitated through improving seed germination, in vitro cloning and the use of mycorrhizal fungi. We also present a case for effective use of phytochemical analyses for the accurate identification of elite materials from wild stands and validation of the desired quality in order to counter loss of efficacy in the long run through selection, propagation or ex situ management in agroforestry systems. Future prospects are discussed in the context of medicinal activity screening, sustainable propagation, on-farm planting, management and utilization.

  9. A new SERS substrate based on silver nanoparticle functionalized polymethacrylate monoliths in a capillary, and it application to the trace determination of pesticides

    Pan, Yingcheng; Zhu, Jinglu; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Han; Kang, Yan; Wu, Ting; Du, Yiping; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a simple, sensitive and practical substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It consists of a column material that is obtained by modifying the surface of (glycidyl methacrylate)-co-(ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary monoliths with silver nanoparticles. This new SERS column substrate was applied to the determination of 4-mercaptopyridine (4-Mpy) and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) to give detection limits as low as 100 and 10 pM, respectively. The calculated enhancement factor is approximately 1.2 × 10 8 . This represents a substantial improvement over conventional colloidal substrates. The new substrate was applied to the determination of residues of the pesticide phosmet and gave a detection limit of 3 μg∙L −1 , with a linear response in the 3 to 1000 μg∙L −1 concentration range (R 2  = 0.995). Additionally, 0.2 mg∙kg −1 of phosmet on apples and oranges, and of 0.5 mg∙kg −1 on tea leaves were detectable via SERS using this column along with a simple extraction process. The above LODs are well below the tolerance level prescribed by National Standard of China. Thus, this simple method is highly efficient, sensitive, and affordable and introduces a SERS–based trace detection suitable for real-world applications, especially for the determination of pesticides. (author)

  10. Zinc(II) phthalocyanines immobilized in mesoporous silica Al-MCM-41 and their applications in photocatalytic degradation of pesticides

    Silva, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Laboratoire de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, UMR CNRS 6505, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere cedex (France); Calvete, M.J.F.; Goncalves, N.P.F.; Burrows, H.D. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Sarakha, M. [Laboratoire de Photochimie Moleculaire et Macromoleculaire, UMR CNRS 6505, Universite Blaise Pascal, F-63177 Aubiere cedex (France); Fernandes, A.; Ribeiro, M.F. [Instituto para a Biotecnologia e Bioengenharia, Centro para a Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Instituto Superior Tecnico - Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Azenha, M.E., E-mail: meazenha@ci.uc.pt [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Pereira, M.M., E-mail: mmpereira@qui.uc.pt [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete immobilization of zinc(II) phthalocyanines accomplished in Al-MCM-41. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient photodegradation of model pesticides achieved using 365 nm irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sodium azide experiments showed the involvement of singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}). - Abstract: In the present study the authors investigated a set of three new zinc(II) phthalocyanines (zinc(II) tetranitrophthalocyanine (ZnTNPc), zinc(II) tetra(phenyloxy)phthalocyanine (ZnTPhOPc) and the tetraiodide salt of zinc(II)tetra(N,N,N-trimethylaminoethyloxy) phthalocyaninate (ZnTTMAEOPcI)) immobilized into Al-MCM-41 prepared via ship-in-a-bottle methodology. The samples were fully characterized by diffuse reflectance-UV-vis spectroscopy (DRS-UV-vis), luminescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DSC), N{sub 2} adsorption techniques and elemental analysis. A comparative study was made on the photocatalytic performance upon irradiation within the wavelength range 320-460 nm of these three systems in the degradation of pesticides fenamiphos and pentachlorophenol. ZnTNPc-Al-MCM-41 and ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41 were found to be the most active systems, with the best performance observed with the immobilized cationic phthalocyanine, ZnTTMAEOPcI-Al-MCM-41. This system showed high activity even after three photocatalytic cycles. LC-MS product characterization and mechanistic studies indicate that singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}), produced by excitation of these immobilized photosensitizers, is a key intermediate in the photocatalytic degradation of both pesticides.

  11. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E.E.; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL −1 . Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues

  12. A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay composite solid phase microextraction fiber: Preparation, characterization and application to pesticide analysis

    Pelit, Füsun Okçu, E-mail: fusun.okcu@ege.edu.tr; Pelit, Levent; Dizdaş, Tuğberk Nail; Aftafa, Can; Ertaş, Hasan; Yalçınkaya, E.E.; Türkmen, Hayati; Ertaş, F.N.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • A novel polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surface has been prepared. • Polymerization was performed electrochemically on a stainless steel wire. • This material was used as a SPME fiber in head space mode. • This new SPME fiber was applied for analysis of pesticides in juice samples. • Fiber adsorption properties were improved by modification of ionic liquids. - Abstract: This report comprises the novel usage of polythiophene – ionic liquid modified clay surfaces for solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber production to improve the analysis of pesticides in fruit juice samples. Montmorillonite (Mmt) clay intercalated with ionic liquids (IL) was co-deposited with polythiophene (PTh) polymer coated electrochemically on an SPME fiber. The surface of the fibers were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters effecting the extraction efficiency namely; the sample volume and pH, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature and time, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized. In order to reveal the major effects, these eight factors were selected and Plackett–Burman Design was constructed. The significant parameters detected; adsorption and temperature along with the stirring rate, were further investigated by Box–Behnken design. Under optimized conditions, calibration graphs were plotted and detection limits were calculated in the range of 0.002–0.667 ng mL{sup −1}. Relative standard deviations were no higher than 18%. Overall results have indicated that this novel PTh-IL-Mmt SPME surface developed by the aid of electrochemical deposition could offer a selective and sensitive head space analysis for the selected pesticide residues.

  13. Improvement of thermophysiological stress in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticide, and its application in the field.

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2000-04-01

    Thermoregulatory responses were compared under two experimental conditions, in the laboratory (Experiment I), and in the field (Experiment II), between two kinds of protective clothing for spraying pesticides. One was currently being used (Type A), and was composed of ready made Gore-Tex clothing, mask, polyurethane gloves and rubber boots. The other one was newly designed (Type B), and was composed of pesticide-proof clothing (100% cotton with water repellent finish), mask, Gore-Tex gloves, and special boots consisting of rubber for the feet and ankle and Gore-Tex around the legs. In addition, the head and chest were cooled by frozen gel strips fixed in the cap and undershirt. In Experiment I, five female adults took part, in a climate-chamber controlled at an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and a relative humidity of 60%. In Experiment II, five farmers (one male and four female) were tested in an apple orchard in July, August and September. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) change of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in Type B in Experiment I, (2) change of heart rate tended to be lower in Type B than in Type A in both experiments, (3) salivary lactic acid concentration at the end of the first exercise was significantly higher in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (4) the number of contractions in the handgrip exercise which was performed immediately after the third exercise, was significantly smaller in Type A than in Type B in Experiment I, (5) subjective comfort sensation was significantly improved in Type B in Experiments I and II. Thus, it was concluded that the newly designed protective clothing could reduce thermal stress during the spraying of pesticides in an apple orchard in summer.

  14. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields – Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    Rosenbom, Annette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K.; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. - Highlights: • Field-results reveal shortcomings in the EU authorization procedure for pesticides. • The plough layer can be bypassed via preferential transport in e.g. wormholes. • Pesticides properties are decisive for leaching pattern on the sandy fields. • The hydrogeological settings control the leaching patterns on the loamy fields. • Pesticide detection frequency seems to be independent of the month of the year. - Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveals shortcomings in the European Union authorization procedure for pesticides

  15. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  16. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  17. Business grants

    Twelve small businesses who are developing equipment and computer programs for geophysics have won Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants from the National Science Foundation for their 1989 proposals. The SBIR program was set up to encourage the private sector to undertake costly, advanced experimental work that has potential for great benefit.The geophysical research projects are a long-path intracavity laser spectrometer for measuring atmospheric trace gases, optimizing a local weather forecast model, a new platform for high-altitude atmospheric science, an advanced density logging tool, a deep-Earth sampling system, superconducting seismometers, a phased-array Doppler current profiler, monitoring mesoscale surface features of the ocean through automated analysis, krypton-81 dating in polar ice samples, discrete stochastic modeling of thunderstorm winds, a layered soil-synthetic liner base system to isolate buildings from earthquakes, and a low-cost continuous on-line organic-content monitor for water-quality determination.

  18. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  19. ACED Federal Grant Contractor Tracking

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Dataset includes grant, project, and contractor awarded which are tracked for ensuring Davis-Bacon Act compliance where applicable. The 1931 Davis-Bacon Act...

  20. Utilization of long duration high-volume sampling coupled to SPME-GC-MS/MS for the assessment of airborne pesticides variability in an urban area (Strasbourg, France) during agricultural application.

    Liaud, Céline; Brucher, Michel; Schummer, Claude; Coscollà, Clara; Wolff, Hélène; Schwartz, Jean-Jacques; Yusà, Vicent; Millet, Maurice

    2016-10-02

    Atmospheric samples have been collected between 14 March and 12 September 2012 on a 2-week basis (15 days of sampling and exchange of traps each 7 days) in Strasbourg (east of France) for the analysis of 43 pesticides. Samples (particle and gas phases) were separately extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) and pre-concentrated by Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) before analysis by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Four SPME consecutive injections at distinct temperatures were made in order to increase the sensitivity of detection for the all monitored pesticides. Currently used detected pesticides can be grouped in four classes; those used in maize crops (acetochlor, benoxacor, dicamba, s-metolachlor, pendimethalin, and bromoxynil), in cereal crops (benoxacor, chlorothalonil, fenpropimorph, and propiconazole), in vineyards (tebuconazole), and as herbicides for orchards, meadows of green spaces (2,4-MCPA, trichlopyr). This is in accordance with the diversity of crops found in the Alsace region and trends observed are in accordance with the period of application of these pesticides. Variations observed permit also to demonstrate that the long time sampling duration used in this study is efficient to visualize temporal variations of airborne pesticides concentrations. Then, long time high-volume sampling could be a simple method permitting atmospheric survey of atmospheric contamination without any long analysis time and consequently low cost.

  1. Comparative studies of tripolyphosphate and glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan-botanical pesticide nanoparticles and their agricultural applications.

    Gabriel Paulraj, Michael; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Shajahan, Azeez; Ganesan, Pathalam; Packiam, Soosaimanickam Maria; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdhullah

    2017-11-01

    A nanopesticide formulation was developed using chitosan and a botanical pesticide PONNEEM ® and its antifeedant, larvicidal and growth regulating activities were screened against Helicoverpa armigera, a major lepidopteran pest. Chitosan nanoparticles (CSNs) were prepared by using two different cross-linking agents namely glutaraldehyde (GLA) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). The effects of cross linking agents on CSNs and the biological properties against the insect pest were also studied. Cross linking of chitosan with either TPP or GLA was confirmed through Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Electron micrograph revealed that the size of CSNs varied from 32 to 90nm. The stability of nanoparticles lasted for 9days in CSNs-TPP-PONNEEM. In CSNs-GLA-PONNEEM, the stability of nanoparticles was higher. CSNs-TPP-PONNEEM treatment recorded 88.5% antifeedant activity and 90.2% larvicidal activity against H. armigera. Weights of H. armigera pupae in CSNs-TPP-PONNEEM treatment were significantly low. Chitosan-based nano-pesticide formulation holds great promise in H. armigera management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. You Can Get Grants!

    Novelli, Joan

    1994-01-01

    Presents strategies to help elementary teachers win grants for the classroom. The article includes information on grant sources, where to find out more about grants, and how to write winning grants. Examples of successful grant projects are provided, and announcement of a $500 Instructor grant competition is included. (SM)

  3. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A consistent framework for modeling inorganic pesticides: Adaptation of life cycle inventory models to metal-base pesticides

    Peña, N.A.; Anton, A.; Fantke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    emission factors (percentages) or dynamic models base on specific application scenarios that describe only the behavior of organic pesticides. Currently fixed emission fractions for pesticides dearth to account for the influence of pesticide-specific function to crop type and application methods....... On the other hand the dynamic models need to account for the variability in this interactions in emissions of inorganic pesticides. This lack of appropriate models to estimate emission fractions of inorganic pesticides results in a lower accuracy when accounting for emissions in agriculture......, and it will influence the outcomes of the impact profile. The pesticide emission model PestLCI 2.0 is the most advanced currently available inventory model for LCA intended to provide an estimation of organic pesticide emission fractions to the environment. We use this model as starting point for quantifying emission...

  5. Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals by composting: Applications, microbes and future research needs.

    Chen, Ming; Xu, Piao; Zeng, Guangming; Yang, Chunping; Huang, Danlian; Zhang, Jiachao

    2015-11-01

    Increasing soil pollution problems have caused world-wide concerns. Large numbers of contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum and related products, pesticides, chlorophenols and heavy metals enter the soil, posing a huge threat to human health and natural ecosystem. Chemical and physical technologies for soil remediation are either incompetent or too costly. Composting or compost addition can simultaneously increase soil organic matter content and soil fertility besides bioremediation, and thus is believed to be one of the most cost-effective methods for soil remediation. This paper reviews the application of composting/compost for soil bioremediation, and further provides a critical view on the effects of this technology on microbial aspects in contaminated soils. This review also discusses the future research needs for contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Revealing Pesticide Residues Under High Pesticide Stress in Taiwan's Agricultural Environment Probed by Fresh Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollen.

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tsui-Yao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ting; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Yue-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Significant pesticide residues are among the most serious problems for sustainable agriculture. In the beekeeping environment, pesticides not only impact a honey bee's survival, but they also contaminate bee products. Taiwan's agricultural environment has suffered from pesticide stress that was higher than that found in Europe and America. This study deciphered problems of pesticide residues in fresh honey bee pollen samples collected from 14 monitoring apiaries in Taiwan, which reflected significant contaminations within the honey bee population. In total, 155 pollen samples were screened for 232 pesticides, and 56 pesticides were detected. Among the residues, fluvalinate and chlorpyrifos showed the highest concentrations, followed by carbendazim, carbaryl, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, ethion, and flufenoxuron. The average frequency of pesticide residues detected in pollen samples was ca. 74.8%. The amounts and types of pesticides were higher in winter and in southwestern Taiwan. Moreover, five of these pollen samples were contaminated with 11-15 pesticides, with average levels between 1,560 and 6,390 μg/kg. Compared with the literature, this study emphasized that pollen gathered by honey bee was highly contaminated with more pesticides in Taiwan than in the America, France, and Spain. The ubiquity of pesticides in the pollen samples was likely due to the field applications of common pesticides. Recently, the Taiwanese government began to improve the pesticide policy. According to the resurvey data in 2016, there were reductions in several pesticide contamination parameters in pollen samples from west to southwest Taiwan. A long-term investigation of pollen pesticide residues should be conducted to inspect pesticides usage in Taiwan's agriculture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pesticides poisoning

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  8. Pesticide Product Label System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  9. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    Samir, E.; Fonseca, E.; Baldyga, N.; Acosta, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Felicita, F.; Tomasso, M.; Esquivel, D.; Parada, A.; Enriquez, P.; Amilibia, M.

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  10. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  11. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: I. Impact on microbes, iron reduction capacity and respiration

    Vig, K.; Singh, D.K.; Agarwal, H.C.; Dhawan, A.K.; Dureja, P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil microorganisms have a primary catabolic role in the environment through degradation of plant and animal residues. The activities of microorganisms in soil are thus, essential to the global cycling of nutrients. As these pesticides are designed to be biologically active, their continuous use might affect soil microflora either by changing their properties or their numbers, which may lead to impairment in soil fertility. Soil was analyzed for microbial numbers, iron reduction capacity and respiration. Stimulatory, inhibitory or no effects of insecticide treatments were observed on microbes and microbial activities. The insecticides used had only temporary effects on microbes and their activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment was carried out or at the end of experimental period. (author)

  12. Body burden of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants on freshwater invertebrates: Method development and application in the Danube River.

    Inostroza, Pedro A; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Huber, Thomas; Nagy, Claudia; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2016-07-01

    While environmental risk assessment is typically based on toxicant concentrations in water and/or sediment, awareness is increasing that internal concentrations or body burdens are the key to understand adverse effects in organisms. In order to link environmental micropollutants as causes of observed effects, there is an increasing demand for methods to analyse these chemicals in organisms. Here, a multi-target screening method based on pulverised liquid extraction (PuLE) and a modified QuEChERS approach with an additional hexane phase was developed. It is capable to extract and quantify organic micropollutants of diverse chemical classes in freshwater invertebrates. The method was tested on gammarids from the Danube River (within the Joint Danube Survey 3) and target compounds were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Furthermore, a non-target screening using high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS) was conducted. A total of 17 pollutants were detected and/or quantified in gammarids at low concentrations. Pesticide concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 6.52 ng g(-1) (wet weight), those of wastewater-derived pollutants from 0.1 to 2.83 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The presence of wastewater-derived pollutants was prominent at all spots sampled. Using non-target screening, we could successfully identify several chlorinated compounds. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of pesticides and wastewater-derived pollutants in invertebrates of the Danube River. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective extraction of organophosphorus pesticides from vegetable oils.

    Boulanouar, Sara; Combès, Audrey; Mezzache, Sakina; Pichon, Valérie

    2017-09-01

    The increasing use of pesticides in agriculture causes environmental issues and possible serious health risks to humans and animals. Their determination at trace concentrations in vegetable oils constitutes a significant analytical challenge. Therefore, their analysis often requires both an extraction and a purification step prior to separation with liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. This work aimed at developing sorbents that are able to selectively extract from vegetable oil samples several organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides presenting a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Therefore, different conditions were screened to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by a non-covalent approach. The selectivity of the resulting polymers was evaluated by studying the OPs retention in pure media on both MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIP) used as control. The most promising MIP sorbent was obtained using monocrotophos (MCP) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker with a molar ratio of 1/4/20 respectively. The repeatability of the extraction procedure and of the synthesis procedure was demonstrated in pure media. The capacity of this MIP was 1mg/g for malathion. This MIP was also able to selectively extract three OPs from almond oil by applying the optimized SPE procedure. Recoveries were between 73 and 99% with SD values between 4 and 6% in this oil sample. The calculated LOQs (between 0.3 and 2μg/kg) in almond seeds with a SD between 0.1 and 0.4μg/kg were lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established for the corresponding compounds in almond seed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of the Efficiency of Simultaneous Application of UV/O3 for the Removal of Organophosphorus and Carbamat Pesticides in Aqueous Solutions

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast variety of pesticides are used for agricultural pests in Iran. The release of these persistent organic pollutants. into water supplies leaves adverse effects on both the environment and public health. Advanced oxidation processes have been used recently for pesticide removal. In this research, the combined UV/O3 process has been investigated for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides (Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Carbamate pesticides (carbaryl. In this survey, samples have been prepared by adding given concentration (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/L of the pesticides to deionized water. The samples at separation periods were exposed to the combined UV/O3 (UV=50-200 Wm-2 and O3 = 1g hr-1in a bath  reactor at different pH levels (6, 7, 9 and for different contact times (0.5,1,1.5,2 hr and the removal efficiencies were determined. Residual concentrations were determined using GC/MS/MS and HPLC.  Based on the results, increasing pH reduced pesticide concentration and increased contact time had a direct effect on enhancing removal efficiency. The combined UV/O3 process was found to have a high efficiency (>80% in degrading both halogenated Organophosphorus(Chlorpyrifos and non- halogenated Organophosphorus (Diazinon pesticides. Its removal efficiency for degrading carbamate pesticide (Carbari was found to be >90%. Based on our results, this method may be suggested for the removal of pesticides from aqueous solutions.

  15. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  16. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  17. Validated analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of a wide range of pesticides in human blood using GC-MS/MS and LC-ESI/MS/MS and its application in two poisoning cases.

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Meilán, María José; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D

    2015-09-01

    Pesticides are frequently responsible for human poisoning and often the information on the involved substance is lacking. The great variety of pesticides that could be responsible for intoxication makes necessary the development of powerful and versatile analytical methodologies, which allows the identification of the unknown toxic substance. Here we developed a methodology for simultaneous identification and quantification in human blood of 109 highly toxic pesticides. The application of this analytical scheme would help in minimizing the cost of this type of chemical identification, maximizing the chances of identifying the pesticide involved. In the methodology that we present here, we use a liquid-liquid extraction, followed by one single purification step, and quantitation of analytes by a combination of liquid and gas chromatography, both coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, which is operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring. The methodology has been fully validated, and its applicability has been demonstrated in two recent cases involving one self-poisoning fatality and one non-fatal homicidal attempt. Copyright © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 75 FR 54116 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License of the United States Patent Application No...

    2010-09-03

    ... coatings, side dressing, lawn application and starter ground cover) and applications in the fields of soil... announcement. ADDRESSES: United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Attn: CEERD-OT (Ms. Bea...

  19. 76 FR 47579 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    2011-08-05

    ... To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... voluntarily cancel certain pesticide registrations. EPA intends to grant these requests at the close of the... will be permitted after the registrations have been cancelled only if such sale, distribution, or use...

  20. Pesticide transport simulation in a tropical catchment by SWAT

    Bannwarth, M.A.; Sangchan, W.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Lamers, M.; Ingwersen, J.; Ziegler, A.D.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    The application of agrochemicals in Southeast Asia is increasing in rate, variety and toxicity with alarming speed. Understanding the behavior of these different contaminants within the environment require comprehensive monitoring programs as well as accurate simulations with hydrological models. We used the SWAT hydrological model to simulate the fate of three different pesticides, one of each usage type (herbicide, fungicide and insecticide) in a mountainous catchment in Northern Thailand. Three key parameters were identified: the sorption coefficient, the decay coefficient and the coefficient controlling pesticide percolation. We yielded satisfactory results simulating pesticide load dynamics during the calibration period (NSE: 0.92–0.67); the results during the validation period were also acceptable (NSE: 0.61–0.28). The results of this study are an important step in understanding the modeling behavior of these pesticides in SWAT and will help to identify thresholds of worst-case scenarios in order to assess the risk for the environment. - Highlights: • We performed a global LH-sensitivity analysis of all pesticide related parameters. • Key physical parameters are associated to percolation, degradation and sorption. • We simulated the measured loads of three different pesticides. • We performed an uncertainty analysis of all pesticide simulations. • All Pesticides differed considerably in their sensitivity and simulation behavior. - Pesticide load simulations of three pesticides were modeled by SWAT, providing clues on how to handle pesticides in future SWAT studies

  1. Silver Nanopartical over AuFON Substrate for Enhanced Raman Readout and Their Application in Pesticide Monitoring

    Kun Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman detection of thiram is demonstrated by using Ag-nanoparticles (Ag NPs on Au film over nanosphere (AuFON substrate as the hybrid substrate. The SERS signal of the Ag NPs attached to solid supports is studied. The close coupling together of thousands of Ag NPs on AuFON leads to the generation of hot spots for SERS. The Ag NPs on AuFON can be applied to detect rhodamine-6G (R6G with the detection limitation of 10−11 M and the pesticide thiram in acetone with a detection limit of as low as 0.24 ppm, which is much lower than the maximal residue limit (MRL of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. The hybrid substrates are shown to be highly sensitive for the detection of thriam, which produce highly enhanced Raman signals with good uniformity and reproducibility due to having plenty of hot spots on its surface.

  2. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  3. A screening framework for pesticide substitution in agriculture

    Steingrímsdóttir, María Magnea; Petersen, Annette; Fantke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Farmers lack science-based tools to flexibly and rapidly identify more sustainable pesticides. To address this gap, we present a screening-level substitution framework to compare and rank pesticides using a consistent set of indicators including registration, pest resistance, human toxicity...... substitution list, performed worst. Total costs across considered pesticides range from 23 to 302 €/ha. Our framework constitutes an operational starting point for identifying sustainable pesticides by farmers and other stakeholders and highlights (a) the need to consider various relevant aspects influencing...... and aquatic ecotoxicity impact potentials, and market price. Toxicity-related damage costs and application costs were combined with application dosages to yield total costs per pesticide. We applied and tested our framework in a case study on pesticides applied to lettuce in Denmark. Our results indicate...

  4. Fabrication of cube-like Fe3O4@SiO2@Ag nanocomposites with high SERS activity and their application in pesticide detection

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Aiwu; Wang, Dapeng; Guo, Hongyan; Sun, Henghui; He, Qinye

    2016-01-01

    The cube-like Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @Ag (FSA) nanocomposites with great SERS activity have been successfully synthesized by a layer-by-layer procedure in this paper. The cube-like Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 core–shell structures were prepared via a new route and Ag nanoparticles were introduced onto their surface through a one-pot hydrothermal reaction. By controlling the reaction time, the coverage rate of Ag on the FSA surface could be tuned, and then a series of FSA composites were obtained. The SERS properties of these FSA composites were investigated using p-aminothiophenol (p-ATP) as the probe molecule. It was found that the FSA composites synthesized with a reaction time of 6 h showed the best SERS performance, and the detection limit for p-ATP could reach 1 × 10 −7 M. For practical application, the FSA composites were also used to detect thiram, one of the dithiocarbamate fungicides that has been widely used as a pesticide in agriculture. The detection limit is as low as 1 × 10 −6 M (0.24 ppm), lower than the maximal residue limit of 7 ppm in fruit prescribed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The resulting substrate with high SERS activity, stability and strong magnetic responsivity makes the FSA composite a perfect choice for practical SERS detection applications.

  5. 77 FR 4845 - Order Granting Application by BOX Options Exchange LLC for a Conditional Exemption Pursuant to...

    2012-01-31

    ... statements to include, at a minimum, a balance sheet and an income statement with such footnotes and other... 1 application. Amendment No. 1, among other things, provides the unconsolidated financial statements... associated with the applicant during the previous year, and a brief statement of the reasons for termination...

  6. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  7. New techniques for interpreting spot imagery. Application to uranium exploration: example of Grants district (New Mexico, USA)

    Leymarie, P.; Pisot, N.; Renouard, L.; Clement, E.; Dardel, J.; Ballery, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    A series of studies to assess the value for uranium exploration of SPOT 3D data, comprising SPOT images and a derived DEM (Digital Elevation Model), was undertaken in uranium bearing sectors with varying characteristics. This article describes the methods used to compare SPOT data and ground data, identify fractures and contacts on 3D visual representations, detect relief features resulting from contacts and fractures on the DEM (Digital Elevation Model), calculate the dip, strike and thickness of layers, reconstruct hidden contacts and calculate fault throws. It then gives an example of the results obtained using SPOT 3D data only for a sedimentary basin, in this case Grants basin (New Mexico). So a fairly accurate and complete geological map with thickness estimation of the main formation is given. In all cases, the digital images exploited may be used to prepare field programmes and impact study files. The cost and the future prospects of this type of study in terms of the increasing use of Geographic Information Systems in the mining industry, the improved resolution of available images and DEMs, and the use of stereoscopic screens are evaluated. 13 Refs.; 9 Figs [fr

  8. Effects of pesticides on soil invertebrates in laboratory studies: A review and analysis using species sensitivity distributions

    Frampton, G.K.; Jänsch, S.; Scott-Fordsmand, J.J.; Römbke, J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) and 5% hazardous concentrations (HC5) are distribution-based approaches for assessing environmental risks of pollutants. These methods have potential for application in pesticide risk assessments, but their applicability for assessing pesticide risks to soil

  9. Note on pesticide residues as a function of formulation used

    Lord, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    The total quantities of pesticides needed for adequate pest control may be minimized by the correct choice of methods of formulation and application. This will diminish the total burden of residues in the environment but not necessarily in the crop. Radiolabelled pesticides are useful for small-scale and laboratory tests to elucidate the principles which determine the behaviour of pesticides in the environment and to check analytical methods used for field-scale tests. (author)

  10. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...... monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time...

  11. 75 FR 32418 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License of the United States Patent Application No...

    2010-06-08

    ...-1076. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Bea Shahin (217) 373-7234, FAX (217) 373-7210, e-mail: Bea.S... applications to achieve increased soil strength, reduced air transport, and decreased soil erosion. During...

  12. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: a cross-sectional survey

    Smith Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is an important health problem among Chinese farm workers, but there is a paucity of pesticide poisoning data from China. Using the WHO standard case definition of a possible acute pesticide poisoning, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors of acute work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in Southern China. Methods A stratified sample of 910 pesticide applicators from two villages in southern China participated in face-to-face interviews. Respondents who self-reported having two or more of a list of sixty-six symptoms within 24 hours after pesticide application were categorized as having suffered acute pesticide poisoning. The association between the composite behavioral risk score and pesticide poisoning were assessed in a multivariate logistic model. Results A total of 80 (8.8% pesticide applicators reported an acute work-related pesticide poisoning. The most frequent symptoms among applicators were dermal (11.6% and nervous system (10.7% symptoms. Poisoning was more common among women, farmers in poor areas, and applicators without safety training (all p 2 = 0.9246. Conclusions This study found that 8.8% of Chinese pesticide applicators suffered acute pesticide poisoning and suggests that pesticide safety training, safe application methods, and precautionary behavioral measures could be effective in reducing the risk of pesticide poisoning.

  13. Pesticide leaching in a changing climate

    Rasmussen, Signe Bonde

    There is a widespread consensus among scientists that the climate will change in the future, and that this change has already begun. These climatic changes will undoubtedly challenge the use of pesticides, which has been proposed to increase in the future. Accordingly, the primary aim of this Ph......D-project was to contribute to the knowledge of how climate change will effect pesticide leaching in the future, which was done by use of mathematical modelling. The agro-ecological model Daisy, was used in all simulations, as well as the 2 model soils: a coarse sand and a subsurface drained sandy loam containing......, resulting in 3000-year long weather series of statistically stationary climate. Effects of pesticide properties (sorption and degradation), pesticide application dates, and soil properties were included. The synthetic weather series produced in relation to objective (II) were used to simulate future changes...

  14. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  15. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  16. [Discussion on present situation of study on pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines].

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-01-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions

  18. Impact of repeated pesticide applications on the binding and release of 14C-methamidophos to soil matrices under field conditions

    Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Chaudhry, Jamil Anwar

    2001-01-01

    The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was monitored in the absence or presence of other pesticides using in situ soil columns in cotton fields. Samples were taken randomly in duplicate at 0, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months. The soils were analyzed for total, extractable and bound residues. The dissipation of 14 C-methamidophos was rapid in the field environment; 3 hours after application, 12% was of the radioactivity lost due to volatilization and 88% was found in the 0-15 cm soil layer. With the passage of time bound residues in treated soil were less (11.52%) compared to those in untreated soil (13.47%). In general bound residues gradually increased with time and binding was higher in untreated soil at every sampling stage. The estimated time required for loss of 50% of radiocarbon was 73 days. In untreated samples the parent compound and three unknown spots were seen on TLC plates whereas four unknown spots with the parent chemical were found in the treated samples. (author)

  19. Summary of Validation of Multi-Pesticide Methods for Various Pesticide Formulations

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The validation of multi-pesticide methods applicable for various types of pesticide formulations is treated. In a worked-out practical example, i.e. lambda cyhalothrin, the theoretical considerations outlined in the General Guidance section are put into practice. GC conditions, selection of an internal standard and criteria for an acceptable repeatability of injections are outlined, followed by sample preparation, calibration, batch analysis and confirmation of results through comparison using different separation columns. Complete sets of data are displayed in tabular form for other pesticide active ingredients and real formulations. (author)

  20. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips - Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertainty

    Lauvernet, Claire; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips are often used for protecting surface waters from pollution transferred by surface runoff in agricultural watersheds. In Europe, they are often prescribed along the stream banks, where a seasonal shallow water table (WT) could decrease the buffer zone efficiency. In spite of this potentially important effect, there are no systematic experimental or theoretical studies on the effect of this soil boundary condition on the VFS efficiency. In the companion paper (Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2018), we developed a physically based numerical algorithm (SWINGO) that allows the representation of soil infiltration with a shallow water table. Here we present the dynamic coupling of SWINGO with VFSMOD, an overland flow and transport mathematical model to study the WT influence on VFS efficiency in terms of reductions of overland flow, sediment, and pesticide transport. This new version of VFSMOD was applied to two contrasted benchmark field studies in France (sandy-loam soil in a Mediterranean semicontinental climate, and silty clay in a temperate oceanic climate), where limited testing of the model with field data on one of the sites showed promising results. The application showed that for the conditions of the studies, VFS efficiency decreases markedly when the water table is 0 to 1.5 m from the surface. In order to evaluate the relative importance of WT among other input factors controlling VFS efficiency, global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (GSA) was applied on the benchmark studies. The most important factors found for VFS overland flow reduction were saturated hydraulic conductivity and WT depth, added to sediment characteristics and VFS dimensions for sediment and pesticide reductions. The relative importance of WT varied as a function of soil type (most important at the silty-clay soil) and hydraulic loading (rainfall + incoming runoff) at each site. The presence of WT introduced more complex responses dominated by strong interactions in

  1. Shallow water table effects on water, sediment, and pesticide transport in vegetative filter strips – Part 2: model coupling, application, factor importance, and uncertainty

    C. Lauvernet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative filter strips are often used for protecting surface waters from pollution transferred by surface runoff in agricultural watersheds. In Europe, they are often prescribed along the stream banks, where a seasonal shallow water table (WT could decrease the buffer zone efficiency. In spite of this potentially important effect, there are no systematic experimental or theoretical studies on the effect of this soil boundary condition on the VFS efficiency. In the companion paper (Muñoz-Carpena et al., 2018, we developed a physically based numerical algorithm (SWINGO that allows the representation of soil infiltration with a shallow water table. Here we present the dynamic coupling of SWINGO with VFSMOD, an overland flow and transport mathematical model to study the WT influence on VFS efficiency in terms of reductions of overland flow, sediment, and pesticide transport. This new version of VFSMOD was applied to two contrasted benchmark field studies in France (sandy-loam soil in a Mediterranean semicontinental climate, and silty clay in a temperate oceanic climate, where limited testing of the model with field data on one of the sites showed promising results. The application showed that for the conditions of the studies, VFS efficiency decreases markedly when the water table is 0 to 1.5 m from the surface. In order to evaluate the relative importance of WT among other input factors controlling VFS efficiency, global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis (GSA was applied on the benchmark studies. The most important factors found for VFS overland flow reduction were saturated hydraulic conductivity and WT depth, added to sediment characteristics and VFS dimensions for sediment and pesticide reductions. The relative importance of WT varied as a function of soil type (most important at the silty-clay soil and hydraulic loading (rainfall + incoming runoff at each site. The presence of WT introduced more complex responses dominated by strong

  2. 75 FR 44051 - Resolicitation of Applications for the Railroad Safety Technology Program Grant Program (RS-TEC...

    2010-07-27

    ... have a public benefit of improved railroad safety and efficiency. The program makes available $50... projects * * * that have a public benefit of improved safety and network efficiency.'' To be eligible for... percent grantee, cost share (cash or in-kind) requirement. Applications that do not clearly indicate at...

  3. 78 FR 32381 - Applications for New Awards, Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale-up and Validation Grants...

    2013-05-30

    ... journals) or informal (e.g., newsletters) mechanisms, the results of any evaluations it conducts of its...., newsletters) mechanisms, the results of any evaluations it conducts of its funded activities. For Scale-up and... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards, Investing in Innovation Fund, Scale- up and...

  4. 2 CFR Appendix A to Part 220 - Principles for Determining Costs Applicable to Grants, Contracts, and Other Agreements With...

    2010-01-01

    ... activity costs 49. Taxes 50. Termination costs applicable to sponsored agreements 51. Training costs 52... utility consumption. The cost of materials supplied from stock or services rendered by specialized... selective distribution by establishing separate groupings of cost within one or more of the F&A cost...

  5. Application of the Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of organic pesticides; Aplicacion de la espectroscopia Raman para la caracterizacion de pesticidas organicos

    Sato B, R.Y.; Medina G, C.; Medina V, J.; Frausto R, C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion 607, Reserva Loma Bonita, C.P. 20200, Aguascalientes (Mexico)]. e-mail: rsato@foton.cio.mx

    2004-07-01

    Raman spectra of organophosphate, organo chlorine and bipyridyl pesticides are presented in this study. They have been obtained satisfactorily by the NlR-Raman spectroscopy technique. Pesticides have been analyzed in solution or as a solid in glass containers and on aluminum substrates. This analytic technique can be an alternative tool for the detection of pesticides in the agriculture, presenting advantages as be quick, not destructive and require little or no sample preparation. Moreover, samples can be analyzed through transparent containers avoiding contact with the toxic substances. The implementation of the aluminium substrate is easy and practical. Moreover, it is commercially available and does not need a previous preparation. The analysis of a mixture of two pesticides in a {beta} carotene solution is shown. (Author) 25 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  7. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  8. 77 FR 4248 - Cyazofamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    2012-01-27

    ... basil, fresh and dried. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency exemption under... pesticide on basil. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of cyazofamid in or... of the fungicide cyazofamid, in or on fresh basil at 12 parts per million (ppm), and on dried basil...

  9. 76 FR 55799 - Mandipropamid; Pesticide Tolerances for Emergency Exemptions

    2011-09-09

    ... on basil, fresh and basil, dried. This action is in response to EPA's granting of an emergency... use of the pesticide on basil. This regulation establishes a maximum permissible level for residues of...-propynyloxy)- benzeneacetamide, in or on basil, fresh at 20 parts per million (ppm) and basil, dried at 240...

  10. Life cycle human health impacts of 875 pesticides

    Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    present a consistent framework for characterizing human toxicological impacts associated with pesticides applied to agricultural crops in the frame of life cycle impact assessment based on state-of-the-art data and methods. Methods We combine a dynamic multicrop plant uptake model designed for evaluating......-crop combinations of 10 orders of magnitude. Conclusions Our framework is operational for use in current life cycle impact assessment models, is made available for USEtox, and closes an important gap in the assessment of human exposure to pesticides. For ready use in life cycle assessment studies, we present...... pesticide-crop combination-specific characterization factors normalized to pesticide mass applied and provide default data for application times and loss due to post-harvest food processing. When using our data, we emphasize the need to consult current pesticide regulation, since each pesticide...

  11. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  12. Application of a health risk assessment model for cattle exposed to pesticides in contaminated drinking waters: A study case from the Pampas region, Argentina.

    Dubny, Sabrina; Peluso, Fabio; Masson, Ignacio; Othax, Natalia; González Castelain, José

    2018-04-01

    Using the USEPA methodology we estimated the probabilistic chronic risks for calves and adult cows due to pesticide exposure through oral intake of contaminated surface and ground waters in Tres Arroyos County (Argentina). Because published data on pesticide toxicity endpoints for cows are scarce, we used threshold levels based on interspecies extrapolation methods. The studied waters showed acceptable quality for cattle production since none of the pesticides were present at high-enough concentrations to potentially affect cow health. Moreover, ground waters had better quality than surface waters, with dieldrin and deltamethrin being the pesticides associated with the highest risk values in the former and the latter water compartments, respectively. Our study presents a novel use of the USEPA risk methodology proving it is useful for water quality evaluation in terms of pesticide toxicity for cattle production. This approach represents an alternative tool for water quality management in the absence of specific cattle pesticide regulatory limits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as

  14. 25 CFR 23.21 - Noncompetitive tribal government grants.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noncompetitive tribal government grants. 23.21 Section 23... ACT Grants to Indian Tribes for Title II Indian Child and Family Service Programs § 23.21 Noncompetitive tribal government grants. (a) Grant application information and technical assistance. Information...

  15. Effect of pesticides on soil microbial community.

    Lo, Chi-Chu

    2010-07-01

    According to guidelines for the approval of pesticides, information about effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and soil fertility are required, but the relationships of different structures of pesticides on the growth of various groups of soil microorganisms are not easily predicted. Some pesticides stimulate the growth of microorganisms, but other pesticides have depressive effects or no effects on microorganisms. For examples, carbofuran stimulated the population of Azospirillum and other anaerobic nitrogen fixers in flooded and non-flooded soil, but butachlor reduced the population of Azospirillum and aerobic nitrogen fixers in non-flooded soil. Diuron and chlorotoluron showed no difference between treated and nontreated soil, and linuron showed a strong difference. Phosphorus(P)-contains herbicides glyphosate and insecticide methamidophos stimulated soil microbial growth, but other P-containing insecticide fenamiphos was detrimental to nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the following review presents some data of research carried out during the last 20 years. The effects of twenty-one pesticides on the soil microorganisms associated with nutrient and cycling processes are presented in section 1, and the applications of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for studying microbial diversity are discussed in section 2.

  16. On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated Powerpoint Presentations

    Johnson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    UMaine Cooperative Extension is the primary educational delivery organization for pesticide recertification credits in Maine. Shrinking budgets and staff numbers are making traditional face-to-face delivery increasingly difficult to maintain. To address this issue, on-line pesticide applicator recertification training credits were developed. The…

  17. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil

    Xiaomei Yang

    Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the

  18. 78 FR 26935 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    2013-05-08

    ... pesticides used in conjunction with the manufacturing and processing of foods, at that time, were regulated....S.C. 136 et seq., and section 408 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), 21 U.S.C.... Antimicrobial pesticides are used to control microbiological contamination in healthcare applications, and...

  19. Pesticide poisoning: a major health problem in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Athukorala, K

    1998-01-01

    pesticides is the most important reason for this high number of poisoning cases. The frequent application of highly hazardous pesticides in high concentrations was often irrational and posed serious health and financial risks to the farmers. Sales promotion activities and credit facilities promoted...

  20. Heavy metal contamination of some vegetables from pesticides and ...

    Vegetable farming in developing countries is characterized by the indiscriminate application of pesticides and the resultant pollution of agricultural soil with heavy metals that form constituents of these pesticides. These heavy metals have long term toxicity to human and other biota in the ecosystem. This problem is ...

  1. Response of an estuarine benthic community to application of the pesticide carbaryl and cultivation of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Willapa Bay, Washington.

    Dumbauld, B R; Brooks, K M; Posey, M H

    2001-10-01

    Oyster culture operations on the West coast of North America have developed into complete farming operations for the introduced Japanese oyster, Crassostrea gigas, which now covers vast areas of the intertidal landscape, particularly in Washington State where the pesticide carbaryl has also been used to control burrowing thalassinid shrimp for more than 30 years. Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of these habitat modifications on the benthic community in Willapa, Bay Washington (124 degrees 06'W,46 degrees 24'N) where 50% of the state's oyster production occurs. Results indicated that the primary long-term effect of carbaryl application was removal of the two species of thalassinid shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis), which dominated the community at the start of the experiment and clearly influenced community composition themselves. Small peracarid crustaceans like the amphipods Corophium acherusicum and Eohaustorius estuarius experienced the most significant short-term mortalities, but generally recruited back to treated sites within 3 months, and were often more abundant on treated than untreated sites 1 year after carbaryl application. Results for molluscs were mixed, with no significant effect on Macoma spp, but a significant effect on the commensal clam Crytomya californica and mixed results for the cockle Clinocardium nutalli. Polychaetes were the least susceptible to carbaryl and with the exception of a short-term effect on oligochaetes, no significant negative effects were observed. The addition of oysters did not affect the infaunal community in this study, however greater abundance of epifaunal organisms like mussels, scaleworms, and the amphipod Amphithoe valida, which builds tubes in algae attached to shells, was observed. Carbaryl, which is currently applied to roughly 242 ha (oyster culture operations like the addition of oysters themselves to a community often dominated by burrowing thalassinid shrimp

  2. Estimation of emission fluxes from a horizontal flux budget method, exemplified with determination of pesticide volatilization

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental set-up designed to measure the volatilization of different pesticides after application under full-scale field conditions. The pesticides were sprayed around the circumference of a circle and measurements of meteorology and air concentrations of pesticides were...

  3. Control of Pesticides 2001

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  4. Pesticides in Ground Water

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  5. National Pesticide Information Center

    ... How can I protect my pets when using pesticides around them? More FAQs FAQ Comics Video FAQs From NPIC: Fact Sheets Videos Web Apps Podcasts Outreach Materials NPIC Professional Resources Social Media: National Pesticide Information Center Tweets by NPICatOSU Please read our ...

  6. Food and Pesticides

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  7. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in pesticide research

    1983-01-01

    This is a laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques, and in particular radioisotopes in pesticide research. It is designed to give the scientists involved in pesticide research the basic terms and principles for understanding ionizing radiation: detection and measurement its hazards and safety measures, and some of the more common applications. Laboratory exercises representing the types of experiments that are valuable in pesticide research programmes and field tests which demonstrate the use of radiolabelled pesticides are included

  8. Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia.

    Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Rao, Pamela; Snively, Beverly M; Camann, David E; Doran, Alicia M; Yau, Alice Y; Hoppin, Jane A; Jackson, David S

    2004-01-01

    Children of farmworkers can be exposed to pesticides through multiple pathways, including agricultural take-home and drift as well as residential applications. Because farmworker families often live in poor-quality housing, the exposure from residential pesticide use may be substantial. We measured eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses in residences of 41 farmworker families with at least one child < 7 years of age in western North Caro...

  9. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  10. 76 FR 22096 - Federal Plan for Certification of Applicators of Restricted Use Pesticides Within EPA Region 8...

    2011-04-20

    ... convenience, EPA could arrange the list by State such that certifications issues for all Indian country... provide a contact person to the Web site so that applicators would know who to contact to learn of any... instructions; develop, acquire, install, and utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting...

  11. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of...

  12. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  13. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  14. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  15. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  16. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  17. SRA Grant Writing Tutorial

    This tutorial will help give your organization a broad but succinct analysis of what the SRA grant program is about. This self-paced tutorial is organized under two segments: Overview of Grant Program and Program Details.

  18. Quinone-Based Polymers for Label-Free and Reagentless Electrochemical Immunosensors: Application to Proteins, Antibodies and Pesticides Detection

    Minh-Chau Pham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyquinone derivatives are widely recognized in the literature for their remarkable properties, their biocompatibility, simple synthesis, and easy bio-functionalization. We have shown that polyquinones present very stable electroactivity in neutral aqueous medium within the cathodic potential domain avoiding side oxidation of interfering species. Besides, they can act as immobilized redox transducers for probing biomolecular interactions in sensors. Our group has been working on devices based on such modified electrodes with a view to applications for proteins, antibodies and organic pollutants using a reagentless label-free electrochemical immunosensor format. Herein, these developments are briefly reviewed and put into perspective.

  19. Bioimpact of application of pesticides with plant growth hormone (gibberellic acid on target and non-target microorganisms

    Mohamed Abdullah Al Abboud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the impacts of fungicide, insecticide, plant growth hormone (gibberellic acid on soil microbiota, and the growth characteristics of Aspergillus flavus. In the fungicide or insecticide mixed with plant growth hormone treated soil sample, the total viable number of soil microbiota was found to be higher than that of the soil treated with fungicide or insecticide alone. Moderate effect of insecticide used on the total number of fungi was observed. On the other hand the effect of insecticide on soil bacteria was more than effect of fungicide, and the negative effect of fungicide on soil bacteria was observed particularly at latent periods (15 and 20 days of application. A great sensitivity to fungicide and insecticide was observed in the case of nitrogen fixing bacteria. At 15 days after fungicide and insecticide application the adverse effect was found. Morphological deformations were clear in A. flavus cultivated on medium containing fungicide, the fungus failed to form conidiospores, conidiophores and vesicles. Intermediate and terminal outgrowths like blisters and terminal vesicle originate from hyphae. The addition of plant growth hormone reduced the effect of fungicide on fungus.

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure

    Yuantari, M.G.C.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Widianarko, B.; Sunoko, H.R.; Shobib, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic pesticides in tropical countries has increased over the years, following the intensification of agriculture. However, awareness among farmers of the importance of protecting themselves from hazards associated with pesticide application is still lacking, especially in Indonesia.

  1. 34 CFR 691.15 - Eligibility to receive a grant.

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS ACCESS TO RETAIN TALENT GRANT (NATIONAL SMART GRANT) PROGRAMS Application Procedures § 691.15 Eligibility... on an application under § 691.12, or otherwise self-identifies to the institution, that he or she...

  2. 42 CFR 38.5 - Grant assistance.

    2010-10-01

    ... nonprofit agencies and organizations which are located or do business primarily in the area affected by the... part 16—Procedures of the Departmental Grant Appeals Board 45 CFR part 74—Administration of grants 45... regulations of this part, the terms and the conditions of the award, and the applicable cost principles...

  3. Use-exposure relationships of pesticides for aquatic risk assessment.

    Yuzhou Luo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM. The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO, organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC, and application rate (RATE. In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90-95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides.

  4. Atmospheric Photooxidation Products and Chemistry of Current-use Pesticides

    Murschell, T.; Farmer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural, commercial, and residential applications across the United States. Pesticides can volatilize off targets and travel long distances, with atmospheric lifetimes determined by both physical and chemical loss processes. In particular, oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) can reduce the lifetime and thus atmospheric transport of pesticides, though the rates and oxidation products of atmospheric pesticide oxidation are poorly understood. Here, we investigate reactions of current-use pesticides with OH. MCPA, triclopyr, and fluroxypyr are herbicides that are often formulated together to target broadleaf weeds. We detect these species in the gas-phase using real-time high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) with both acetate and iodide reagent ions. We used an Oxidative Flow Reactor to explore OH radical oxidation and photolysis of these compounds, simulating up to 5 equivalent days of atmospheric aging by OH. Use of two ionization schemes allowed for the more complete representation of the OH radical oxidation of the three pesticides. The high resolution mass spectra allows us to deduce structures of the oxidation products and identify multi-generational chemistry. In addition, we observe nitrogen oxides, as well as isocyanic acid (HNCO), from some nitrogen-containing pesticides. We present yields of species of atmospheric importance, including NOx and halogen species and consider their impact on air quality following pesticide application.

  5. Pesticide Use and Self-Reported Health Symptoms Among Rice Farmers in Zanzibar.

    da Silva, Marisa; Stadlinger, Nadja; Mmochi, Aviti J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The agrarian population in low- and middle-income countries suffers from a number of adverse health effects due to pesticide exposure. In Zanzibar, the government subsidizes pesticides to enhance local rice production. The objectives of this study were to assess Zanzibar smallholder rice farmers' pesticide use and self-reported health symptoms in relation to pesticide exposure, training, and use of protective measures and to raise awareness for future local policy formulation. An exploratory cross-sectional interviewer-administered study was conducted among 99 rice farmers. Participants were selected based on convenience sampling and stratified by expected exposure category. The study participants reported using pesticides in World Health Organization (WHO) Class II. Of pesticide users, 61% reported one or more symptoms of possible acute pesticide poisoning. Only 50% of pesticide users had received training in safe handling and application of pesticides, but those who had displayed a higher use of protective measures. Farmers who did not use protective measures were more likely to have reported skin irritation and headache, which, together with eye irritation, were the most commonly reported acute symptoms. The main sociodemographic differences between the expected exposure categories of pesticide users and nonusers were in gender and education level. Scaling up of training in safe handling and application of pesticides is needed. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms behind the choice to use pesticides or not.

  6. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  7. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  8. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    ... It is unlikely that having your home or workplace treated by a professional exterminator will result in a high enough exposure to increase the risk to a pregnancy. To reduce exposure to pesticides found on food, ...

  9. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  10. What Is a Pesticide?

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Related ... pesticide's distribution, sale, and use only after the company meets the scientific and regulatory requirements. In evaluating ...

  11. Control of Pesticides 2004

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  12. Pesticide Registration Information System

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  13. Clinical and Biochemical Parameters of Children and Adolescents Applying Pesticides

    A Ismail

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary agricultural product in Egypt is the cotton crop. Children and adolescents work seasonally in the cotton fields applying pesticides. Objectives: To examine the effect of pesticide exposure on clinical and biochemical parameters in children and adolescents applying pesticides. Methods: Male children currently applying pesticides and aged between 9 and 19 years (n = 50 were recruited for this study. They were asked to complete work, health, and exposure questionnaires; examined for any medical and neurological problems with particular attention to sensory and motor functions including cranial nerves, sensory and motor system, and reflexes. From each participant, a blood sample was taken to measure acetylcholinesterase activity, and liver and kidney functions. Children who have never worked in agriculture (n = 50, matched on age, education, and socioeconomic status were also studied and served as controls. Results: More neuromuscular disorders were identified in pesticide applicators than controls. A significant lower level of acetylcholinesterase was found in the applicator group compared to the controls. There was also a significant difference in hematological, renal and hepatic indices in the exposed children compared to the control children. Working more days in the current season and also working more years as a pesticide applicator were both associated with an increase in the prevalence of neuromuscular abnormalities and significant changes in the laboratory tests. Conclusion: Children and adolescent pesticide applicators working in farms of Egypt are at risk of developing serious health problems similar to those of adults.

  14. Control of Pesticides 2000

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    , fluazinam, and kresoximmethyl. 3) Insecticides containing buprofezin and fenazaquin. All products were examined for content of active ingredient. Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing aclonifen, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, and simazine, among fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  15. Mapping Pesticide Partition Coefficients By Electromagnetic Induction

    A potential method for reducing pesticide leaching is to base application rates on the leaching potential of a specific chemical and soil combination. However, leaching is determined in part by the partitioning of the chemical between the soil and soil solution, which varies across a field. Standard...

  16. Quality Control of Selected Pesticides with HPLC

    Karasali, H. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Analysis of Pesticides, Ekalis (Greece)

    2009-07-15

    Laboratory data obtained on two different HPLC separation columns and detection by UV and DAD under repeatability conditions are presented and discussed. The behaviour of pesticides on different HPLC columns under gradient and isocratic conditions is evaluated concerning the applicability of respective methodologies. Representative chromatograms of real formulations and “empty” formlants are given for illustration. (author)

  17. Hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticles: preparation and application in magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides in environmental water samples.

    He, Zeying; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a novel hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced magnetic nanoparticle, magnetic poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) (HLB-MPNP) was successfully synthesized and applied for the extraction and determination of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples. The specific ratio of two monomers, hydrophilic N-vinylpyrrolidone and lipophilic divinylbenzene, endowed the magnetic nanoparticles with hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced character, which made it capable of extracting both polar and nonpolar analytes. The experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency, including desorption conditions, sample pH, sample volume and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.20-10 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 5.0-100 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.994 to 0.999. The limits of determination were between 0.048 and 0.081 μg L(-1) for triazine herbicides and 0.39 and 3.26 ng L(-1) for organochlorine pesticides. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of triazine and organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples (ground, river and reservoir). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography linear ion-trap orbitrap to qualitative and quantitative assessment of pesticide residues.

    Farré, M; Picó, Y; Barceló, D

    2014-02-07

    The analysis of pesticides residues using a last generation high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was explored. Pesticides were extracted from fruits, fish, bees and sediments by QuEChERS and from water by solid-phase with Oasis HLB cartridges. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer acquired full scan MS data for quantification, and data dependent (dd) MS(2) and MS(3) product ion spectra for identification and/or confirmation. The regression coefficients (r(2)) for the calibration curves (two order of magnitude up to the lowest calibration level) in the study were ≥0.99. The LODs for 54 validated compounds were ≤2ngmL(-1) (analytical standards). The relative standard deviation (RSD), which was used to estimate precision, was always lower than 22%. The recovery of extraction and matrix effects ranged from 58 to 120% and from -92 to 52%, respectively. Mass accuracy was always ≤4ppm, corresponding to a maximum mass error of 1.6millimass units (mmu). This procedure was then successfully applied to pesticide residues in a set of the above-mentioned food and environmental samples. In addition to target analytes, this method enables the simultaneous detection/identification of non-target pesticides, pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, mycotoxins, and their metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records / Caracterización de Bacterias Degradadoras de Carbofuran Obtenidas de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa y con Diferente Histor

    Castellanos Rozo José; Sánchez Nieves Jimena; Uribe Vélez Daniel; Moreno Chacón Leonardo; Melgarejo Muñoz Luz Marina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofurandegradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soilscultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosum)in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different recordsof pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for theirability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mgL-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those ob...

  20. 40 CFR 170.235 - Posted pesticide safety information.

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides that may be on plants and soil, in irrigation water, or drifting from nearby applications. (ii... as at a decontamination site or an equipment storage site. (e) Accessibility. Handlers shall be...

  1. SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL

    The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

  2. The aqueous radiation chemistry of pesticides

    Cornelius, K.; Laurence, G.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The degradation of pesticides is an important issue affecting the users and the environment. Degradation rates influence the spatial and temporal application rates and the effects on crops sown in subsequent seasons. Free radical reactions have been widely suggested as important in the aqueous degradation chemistry of pesticides and we report direct measurements of free radical reactions of nine pesticides widely used in Australia. Steady-state gamma radiolysis and pulse radiolysis have been used to follow the chemistry of the reactions of OH, H, O 2 - ,SO 4 - ,CO 2 - ,e aq - and other radical species with the nine pesticides. HPLC and mass spectrometry were used to determine the reaction products and the spectra and kinetics of the primary radical reactions and their products were followed by pulse radiolysis. Elucidation of the reaction mechanisms and the structures of the radical intermediates formed from the initial radical attacks has been aided by the use of molecular modelling programs to estimate the configuration and electron density of the intermediates. The results, particularly the rate constants for the Initial radical attack, do not suggest that photochemically generated free radicals play a large part in the degradation of these pesticides in the environment

  3. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human...... and environmental exposure. Comparative pesticide substitution scenarios are presented to address this need. In a case study on wheat, different pesticides have been compared with respect to their substitution potential with focus on human health. Results demonstrate that health impacts can be reduced up to 99......% by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use...

  4. Modeling the Factors Impacting Pesticide Concentrations in Groundwater Wells

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Binning, Philip John; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effect of pumping, hydrogeology, and pesticide characteristics on pesticide concentrations in production wells using a reactive transport model in two conceptual hydrogeologic systems; a layered aquifer with and without a stream present. The pumping rate can significantly...... affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at the well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depends on the hydrogeology of the aquifer; in a layered aquifer, a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate......, while in an aquifer with a stream the effect of the pumping rate was insignificant. Pesticide application history and properties have also a great impact on the effect of the pumping rate on the concentration at the well. The findings of the study show that variable pumping rates can generate temporal...

  5. The impact of social grant dependency on smallholder maize producers’ market participation in South Africa: Application of the double-hurdle model

    Sikhulumile Sinyolo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Social grants have become an increasingly popular means of improving the welfare of poor households in South Africa and beyond. While the goals of these transfers are to alleviate current poverty as well as to improve human capital capacity, they also have unintended effects, positive or negative, on beneficiary households. A question that has not been adequately addressed in the literature is the role that social grants play in the efforts to commercialise smallholder farming. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of social grant dependency on the incentives of smallholder maize producers to participate in the market. Setting: The study was done in the rural areas of four districts (Harry Gwala, Umzinyathi, Umkhanyakude and Uthukela in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Methods: The study adopted a quantitative research design. A total of 984 households were randomly selected from the four districts, of which 774 had planted maize in the previous season. The analysis was done on the 774 farmers who had planted maize. The double-hurdle model was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results show a negative association between social grant dependency and market participation, suggesting that social grant-dependent households are more subsistent, producing less marketable surplus. Moreover, households with access to social grants sold less quantities of maize in the market, indicating reduced selling incentives. Conclusion: The study indicates that social grants reduce the incentives of smallholder farmers to commercialise their production activities. The results suggest that, while policies aimed at reducing transaction costs would increase smallholder market participation, attention should be paid on how to reduce social grants’ dis-incentive effects. To reduce spill over effects to unintended household members, the study recommends offering part of the grant as ‘in-kind support’, which is

  6. Determination of pesticide residue in selected fruits and vegetable

    Tabbasum, R.; Aman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Food contamination due to indiscriminate use of pesticides has become a serious problem. Fruits samples of tomato, grapes, musk melon, parsimen and vegetable samples of potato, pea, spinach, cabbage and pumpkin ere collected from local market of Peshawar, coming from different regions. All samples were extracted, purified and analyzed for the commonly used pesticides. Dichlorovas, BHC, Atrazine, Daizinon, Methadiathion and Cypermethrin were detected by Gas Chromatography. These pesticides were detected in vegetable samples Id Atrazine were found in potato sample and not detected in other samples. Large concentration of Cypermethrin (44.6) was detected in the pea sample. All the vegetables samples have maximum concentration of pesticides, which is higher than their MRLs, but in pumpkin no one of the above pesticides were detected. In fruits samples, dichlorovas, atrazine, diazinon, methadiathion. Cypermethrin were detected. BHC was not present in fruits samples. All these pesticides were above the MRLs. The study concluded that agriculture crops are highly contaminated due to the uncontrolled use of pesticides in project area and suggested that pesticides should be applied in calculated dose to avoid resistance and persistence due to over and under dose application. (author)

  7. Occupational pesticide use and Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson Environment Gene (PEG) study.

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2017-10-01

    To study the influence of occupational pesticide use on Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population with information on various occupational, residential, and household sources of pesticide exposure. In a population-based case control study in Central California, we used structured interviews to collect occupational history details including pesticide use in jobs, duration of use, product names, and personal protective equipment use from 360 PD cases and 827 controls. We linked reported products to California's pesticide product label database and identified pesticide active ingredients and occupational use by chemical class including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. Employing unconditional logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PD and occupational pesticide use. Ever occupational use of carbamates increased risk of PD by 455%, while organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide use doubled risk. PD risk increased 110-211% with ever occupational use of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Using any pesticide occupationally for >10years doubled the risk of PD compared with no occupational pesticide use. Surprisingly, we estimated higher risks among those reporting use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Our findings provide additional evidence that occupational pesticide exposures increase PD risk. This was the case even after controlling for other sources of pesticide exposure. Specifically, risk increased with occupational use of carbamates, OPs, and OCs, as well as of fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides. Interestingly, some types of PPE use may not provide adequate protection during pesticide applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  9. Decontamination of spills and residues of some pesticides and of protective clothing worn during the handling of the pesticides

    Armour, M.A.; Nelson, C.; Sather, P. Briker, Y. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Users of pesticides may have waste or surplus quantities or spills for disposal. One alternative is to deactivate the pesticide at the handling site by using a straightforward chemical reaction. This option can be practical for those who use relatively small quantities of a large variety of pesticides, for example, greenhouse workers, small farmers, and agricultural researchers. This paper describes practical on-site methods for the disposal of spills or small waste quantities of five commonly used pesticides, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, Iprodione, 2,4-D, and Captan. These have been tested in the laboratory for the rate of disappearance of the pesticide, the degree of conversion to nontoxic products, the nature and identity of the products, the practicality of the method, and the ease of reproducibility. Methods selected were shown to be safe for the operator, reliable, and reproducible. Greater than 99% of the starting material had to be reacted under reasonable conditions and length of time. Detailed descriptions of the reactions are presented, so that they can be performed with reproducible results. Protective clothing worn during the handling and application of pesticides may become contaminated. Simple laundering does not always remove all of the pesticide residues. Thus, chronic dermal exposure may result from the pesticide-contaminated clothing. Appropriate methods of laundering using specific pretreatments have been determined. 7 refs.

  10. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  11. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    Beketov, M.A.; Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A.; Sacchi, A.; Capri, E.; Biggs, J.; Wells, C.; Liess, M.

    2009-01-01

    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR pesticides ) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR pesticides with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm) pesticides is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR pesticides according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR pesticides can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  12. SPEAR indicates pesticide effects in streams - Comparative use of species- and family-level biomonitoring data

    Beketov, M.A., E-mail: mikhail.beketov@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Foit, K.; Schaefer, R.B.; Schriever, C.A. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Sacchi, A.; Capri, E. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Chimica Agraria ed Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy); Biggs, J. [Pond Conservation, c/o Oxford Brookes University, Headington (United Kingdom); Wells, C. [Environment Agency of England and Wales, Science Department, Bristol (United Kingdom); Liess, M. [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    To detect effects of pesticides on non-target freshwater organisms the Species at risk (SPEAR{sub pesticides}) bioindicator based on biological traits was previously developed and successfully validated over different biogeographical regions of Europe using species-level data on stream invertebrates. Since many freshwater biomonitoring programmes have family-level taxonomic resolution we tested the applicability of SPEAR{sub pesticides} with family-level biomonitoring data to indicate pesticide effects in streams (i.e. insecticide toxicity of pesticides). The study showed that the explanatory power of the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is not significantly lower than the species-level index. The results suggest that the family-level SPEAR(fm){sub pesticides} is a sensitive, cost-effective, and potentially European-wide bioindicator of pesticide contamination in flowing waters. Class boundaries for SPEAR{sub pesticides} according to EU Water Framework Directive are defined to contribute to the assessment of ecological status of water bodies. - We show that SPEAR{sub pesticides} can be based on family-level biomonitoring data and is applicable for large-scale monitoring programmes to detect and quantify pesticide contamination.

  13. 42 CFR 59.4 - How does one apply for a family planning services grant?

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does one apply for a family planning services... GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Project Grants for Family Planning Services § 59.4 How does one apply for a family planning services grant? (a) Application for a grant under this subpart shall...

  14. The influence of the electroactive PDMcT hybrid HDL / polyaniline and its application as an adsorbent of the pesticide endosulfan (ES)

    Freitas, L.L. de; Nunes, B.N.; Santana, L.K.; Amaral, F. A. do; Canobre, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    By the method of co-precipitation at constant pH was possible to perform the chemical synthesis of hybrid materials with HDLs bridging agent having as 2,5-dimercapto 1,3,4-thiadiazole (DMcT) and organic material capable of intercalating and polymerization (PAni). From the results of X-ray can be concluded that there was obtained the desired lamellar structure for collating the conductive polymer. From SEM micrographs, it was observed that the composite HDL / PDMcT / polyaniline, has a large number of compact crystallites various characteristic shapes and PDMcT polyaniline nanofibers. The VC of the ternary composite showed a significant increase of anodic charge. Given the results of adsorption of 98% of the pesticide in the composite polyaniline / PDMcT / HDL, it can contribute significantly to the removal of pesticide endosulfan contaminated water.(author)

  15. Preparation and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate doped polypyrrole solid phase micro extraction fiber and its application to endocrine disruptor pesticide analysis

    Korba, Korcan; Pelit, Levent; Okçu Pelit, Füsun; Özdokur, K. Volkan; Ertaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Ahmet E.; Ertaş, Fatma Nil

    2013-01-01

    A robust in house solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) surface has been developed for the headspace (HS)-SPME determination of endocrine disruptor pesticides, namely, Chlorpyrifos, Penconazole, Procymidone, Bromopropylate and Lambda-Cyhalothrin in wine sample by using sodium dodecylsulfate doped polypyrrole SPME fiber. Pyrrole monomer was electrochemically polymerized on a stainless steel wire in laboratory conditions in virtue of diminishing the cost and enhancing the analyte retention on its...

  16. Simulation of pesticide dissipation in soil at the catchment scale over 23 years

    Queyrel, Wilfried; Florence, Habets; Hélène, Blanchoud; Céline, Schott; Laurine, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Pesticide applications lead to contamination risks of environmental compartments causing harmful effects on water resource used for drinking water. Pesticide fate modeling is assumed to be a relevant approach to study pesticide dissipation at the catchment scale. Simulations of five herbicides (atrazine, simazine, isoproturon, chlortoluron, metolachor) and one metabolite (DEA) were carried out with the crop model STICS over a 23-year period (1990-2012). The model application was performed using real agricultural practices over a small rural catchment (104 km²) located at 60km east from Paris (France). Model applications were established for two crops: wheat and maize. The objectives of the study were i) to highlight the main processes implied in pesticide fate and transfer at long-term; ii) to assess the influence of dynamics of the remaining mass of pesticide in soil on transfer; iii) to determine the most sensitive parameters related to pesticide losses by leaching over a 23-year period. The simulated data related to crop yield, water transfer, nitrates and pesticide concentrations were first compared to observations over the 23-year period, when measurements were available at the catchment scale. Then, the evaluation of the main processes related to pesticide fate and transfer was performed using long-term simulations at a yearly time step and monthly average variations. Analyses of the monthly average variations were oriented on the impact of pesticide application, water transfer and pesticide transformation on pesticide leaching. The evolution of the remaining mass of pesticide in soil, including the mobile phase (the liquid phase) and non-mobile (adsorbed at equilibrium and non-equilibrium), was studied to evaluate the impact of pesticide stored in soil on the fraction available for leaching. Finally, a sensitivity test was performed to evaluate the more sensitive parameters regarding the remaining mass of pesticide in soil and leaching. The findings of the

  17. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  18. Development and validation of a simple GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides in blood--clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Mendonis, Marcela; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos; Maravelias, Constantinos; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-05-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used, and as a result they are involved in numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was the development, optimization, and validation of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides (aldicarb, azinphos methyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dialifos, diazinon, malathion, methamidophos, methidathion, methomyl, and terbufos) in blood. Only 500 μL of blood was used, and the recoveries after liquid-liquid extraction (toluene/chloroform, 4:1, v/v) were more than 65.6%. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.996). Limit of detections and limit of quantifications were found to be between 1.00-10.0 and 3.00-30.0 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy expressed as the %E(r) was found to be between -11.0 and 7.8%. Precision expressed as the percent relative standard deviation was found to be forensic and clinical cases of accidental or suicidal poisoning with these pesticides. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Preparation and characterization of sodium dodecyl sulfate doped polypyrrole solid phase micro extraction fiber and its application to endocrine disruptor pesticide analysis.

    Korba, Korcan; Pelit, Levent; Pelit, Füsun Okçu; Ozdokur, K Volkan; Ertaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Ahmet E; Ertaş, F Nil

    2013-06-15

    A robust in house solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) surface has been developed for the headspace (HS)-SPME determination of endocrine disruptor pesticides, namely, Chlorpyrifos, Penconazole, Procymidone, Bromopropylate and Lambda-Cyhalothrin in wine sample by using sodium dodecylsulfate doped polypyrrole SPME fiber. Pyrrole monomer was electrochemically polymerized on a stainless steel wire in laboratory conditions in virtue of diminishing the cost and enhancing the analyte retention on its surface to exert better selectivity and hence the developed polymerized surface could offer to analyst to exploit it as a fiber in headspace SPME analysis. The parameters, mainly, adsorption temperature and time, desorption temperature, stirring rate and salt amount were optimized to be as 70°C and 45min, 200°C, 600rpm and 10gL(-1), respectively. Limit of detection was estimated in the range of 0.073-1.659ngmL(-1) for the pesticides studied. The developed method was applied in to red wine sample with acceptable recovery values (92-107%) which were obtained for these selected pesticides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    YU, Lianchao; GU, Limeng; BI, Qian

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City, this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides, which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with...

  1. 45 CFR 2551.93 - What are grants management requirements?

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are grants management requirements? 2551.93... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE SENIOR COMPANION PROGRAM Application and Fiscal Requirements § 2551.93 What are grants management requirements? What rules govern a sponsor's management of grants? (a) A sponsor shall...

  2. 45 CFR 2552.93 - What are grants management requirements?

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are grants management requirements? 2552.93... AND COMMUNITY SERVICE FOSTER GRANDPARENT PROGRAM Application and Fiscal Requirements § 2552.93 What are grants management requirements? What rules govern a sponsor's management of grants? (a) A sponsor...

  3. 38 CFR 61.44 - Awarding special needs grants.

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Awarding special needs... (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.44 Awarding special needs grants. (a... applicable, will be conditionally selected to receive a special needs grant in accordance with their ranked...

  4. 15 CFR 917.11 - Guidelines for Sea Grant Fellowships.

    2010-01-01

    ... percent matching funds from non-Federal sources to which all Matched Funding Program projects are subject... NATIONAL SEA GRANT PROGRAM FUNDING REGULATIONS Sea Grant Matched Funding Program § 917.11 Guidelines for... applications for Sea Grant Fellowship funding. (b) Funding will be made to eligible entities (see § 917.10 of...

  5. Occurrence and distribution of dissolved pesticides in the San Joaquin River basin, California

    Panshin, Sandra Yvonne; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Gronberg, JoAnn M.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of pesticide application, hydrology, and chemical and physical properties on the occurrence of pesticides in surface water in the San Joaquin River Basin, California, were examined. The study of pesticide occurrence in the highly agricultural San Joaquin?Tulare Basins is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. One hundred forty-three water samples were collected throughout 1993 from sites on the San Joaquin River and three of its tributaries: Orestimba Creek, Salt Slough, and the Merced River. Of the 83 pesticides selected for analysis in this study, 49 different compounds were detected in samples from the four sites and ranged in concentration from less than the detection limit to 20 micrograms per liter. All but one sample contained at least one pesticide, and more than 50 percent of the samples contained seven or more pesticides. Six compounds were detected in more than 50 percent of the samples: four herbicides (dacthal, EPTC, metolachlor, and simazine) and two insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon). None of the measured concentrations exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water criteria, and many of the measured concentrations were very low. The concentrations of seven pesticides exceeded criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life: azinphos-methyl, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diuron, malathion, and trifluralin. Overall, some criteria for protection of aquatic life were exceeded in a total of 97 samples. Factors affecting the spatial patterns of occurrence of the pesticides in the different subbasins included the pattern of application and hydrology. Seventy percent of pesticides with known application were detected. Overall, 40 different pesticides were detected in Orestimba Creek, 33 in Salt Slough, and 26 in the Merced River. Samples from the Merced River had a relatively low number of detections, despite the high number (35) of pesticides applied, owing to the

  6. Characterization of Carbofuran Degrading Bacteria Obtained from Potato Cultivated Soils with Different Pesticide Application Records / Caracterización de Bacterias Degradadoras de Carbofuran Obtenidas de Suelos Bajo Cultivo de Papa y con Diferente Histor

    Castellanos Rozo José

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofurandegradation activity (Furadan®3SC were obtained from soilscultivated with the potato variety Unica (Solanum tuberosumin Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia, with different recordsof pesticide application. The bacteria were selected for theirability to grow at 25 °C for 72 h in media containing 200 mgL-1 of analytical Carbofuran as the sole source of carbon and/or nitrogen. The results showed that ten isolates, 12% of those obtained, grew in the culture media. Eight of theses isolates were obtained from soils with a high pesticide exposure (eight years of application, and identified, by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics, as Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The other two were obtained from soils with three years and one year of application and were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, respectively. Subsequently, these bacteria were tested for their ability of hydrolytic degradation of Carbofuran; the results show that the pesticide was degraded only by the isolates of Sphingomonas paucimobilis for 72 h. The results obtained in the in vitro tests show the bacterial metabolic capacity for the biodegradation of Carbofuran, highlighting the potential use of the bacteria for future field evaluation tests in places where residues of the pesticide may exist, as an alternative to control the impact that N-methyl carbamate pesticides have on the environment and human health. / Resumen. Ochenta y dos aislamientos bacterianos con actividad potencial de degradación de Carbofuran (Furadan®3SC, fueron obtenidos de suelos, cultivados con papa (Solanum tuberosum variedad Única, del municipio de Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia con diferente historia de aplicación del plaguicida. Las bacterias fueron seleccionadas por su capacidad para crecer a 25 °C durante 72 h, en medios de cultivo conteniendo 200 mg L-1 de Carbofuran analítico como

  7. Pesticide monitoring in surface water and groundwater using passive samplers

    Kodes, V.; Grabic, R.

    2009-04-01

    Passive samplers as screening devices have been used within a czech national water quality monitoring network since 2002 (SPMD and DGT samplers for non polar substances and metals). The passive sampler monitoring of surface water was extended to polar substances, in 2005. Pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS samplers have been exposed in surface water at 21 locations and analysed for polar pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Pesticide POCIS samplers in groundwater were exposed at 5 locations and analysed for polar pesticides. The following active substances of plant protection products were analyzed in surface water and groundwater using LC/MS/MS: 2,4,5-T, 2,4-D, Acetochlor, Alachlor, Atrazine, Atrazine_desethyl, Azoxystrobin, Bentazone, Bromacil, Bromoxynil, Carbofuran, Clopyralid, Cyanazin, Desmetryn, Diazinon, Dicamba, Dichlobenil, Dichlorprop, Dimethoat, Diuron, Ethofumesate, Fenarimol, Fenhexamid, Fipronil, Fluazifop-p-butyl, Hexazinone, Chlorbromuron, Chlorotoluron, Imazethapyr, Isoproturon, Kresoxim-methyl, Linuron, MCPA, MCPP, Metalaxyl, Metamitron, Methabenzthiazuron, Methamidophos, Methidathion, Metobromuron, Metolachlor, Metoxuron, Metribuzin, Monolinuron, Nicosulfuron, Phorate, Phosalone, Phosphamidon, Prometryn, Propiconazole, Propyzamide, Pyridate, Rimsulfuron, Simazine, Tebuconazole, Terbuthylazine, Terbutryn, Thifensulfuron-methyl, Thiophanate-methyl and Tri-allate. The POCIS samplers performed very well being able to provide better picture than grab samples. The results show that polar pesticides and also perfluorinated compounds, personal care products and pharmaceuticals as well occur in hydrosphere of the Czech republic. Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the financial support of grant No. 2B06095 by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports.

  8. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff

  9. Control of Pesticides 2006

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    in the products comply with the labelled content. The tolerance of deviation from the labelled content of active ingredient is set by the Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. In addition to the examination of the content of active ingredients, all collected samples are examined for the content of octylphenol...

  10. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  11. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  12. US EPA CARE Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for the subset of Community Action for a Renewed Environment (CARE) grants given out by the US EPA. CARE...

  13. Zambia - Innovation Grants

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the IGP is structured according to five phases of IGP implementation that we have identified for each grant cycle: start-up, selection,...

  14. Brownfields Grants Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes all types of information regarding Brownfields grant programs that subsidize/support Brownfield cleanup. This includes EPA's Brownfields Program...

  15. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  16. US EPA EJ Grants

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a provisional dataset that contains point locations for all Environmental Justice (EJ) grants given out by the US EPA. There are many limitations to the data...

  17. A method for testing whether model predictions fall within a prescribed factor of true values, with an application to pesticide leaching

    Parrish, Rudolph S.; Smith, Charles N.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative method is described for testing whether model predictions fall within a specified factor of true values. The technique is based on classical theory for confidence regions on unknown population parameters and can be related to hypothesis testing in both univariate and multivariate situations. A capability index is defined that can be used as a measure of predictive capability of a model, and its properties are discussed. The testing approach and the capability index should facilitate model validation efforts and permit comparisons among competing models. An example is given for a pesticide leaching model that predicts chemical concentrations in the soil profile.

  18. Pesticides in the atmosphere; distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Majewski, Michael S.; Capel, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive review of existing literature on the occurrence and distribution of pesticides in the atmosphere of the United States and adjoining Canadian provinces showed that the atmosphere is an important part of the hydrologic cycle that acts to distribute and deposit pesticides in areas far removed from their application sites. A compilation of existing data shows that pesticides have been detected in the atmosphere throughout the nation. Most of the available information on pesticides in the atmosphere is from small-scale, short-term studies that seldom lasted more than one year. Only two national-scale, multi-year studies were done since the late 1960's that analyzed for a wide variety of pesticides in air that were in current use at the time. Another large-scale study was done during 1990-91, but was limited to the midwestern and northeastern United States and only analyzed for two classes of herbicides in wet deposition. Most of the pesticides analyzed for were detected in either air or rain, and represent about 25 percent of the total number of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides in current use. The geographical distribution of studies, and the type of sampling and analysis were highly variable with most of the historical study efforts concentrated in the Great Lakes area and California. Air and rain were the main atmospheric matrices sampled, but pesticides were also detected in fog and snow. Reported pesticide concentrations in air and rain were frequently positively correlated to their regional agricultural use. Deviations from this relation could usually be explained by non-agricultural use of pesticides, sampling and analytical difficulties, and environmental persistence. High concentrations of locally used pesticides were found to occur seasonally, usually in conjunction with spring planting of row crops and warm temperatures, but high concentrations also occurred during winter months in those areas where dormant orchards were sprayed. The

  19. Sun Grant Initiative Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program

    Owens, Vance [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States). North Central Regional Sun Grant Center

    2016-12-30

    The Sun Grant Initiative partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to create the Regional Biomass Feedstock Partnership Competitive Grants Program. The overall goal of this project was to utilize congressionally directed funds to leverage the North Central Regional Sun Grant’s Competitive Grant program at South Dakota State University (SDSU) to address key issues and research gaps related to development of the bioeconomy. Specific objectives of this program were to: 1. Identify research projects through a Regional Competitive Grants program that were relevant to the sustainable production, harvest, transport, delivery, and processing/conversion of cost-competitive, domestically grown biomass. 2. Build local expertise and capacity at the North Central Regional Sun Grant Center at SDSU through an internal selection of key bioenergy research projects. To achieve these, three nationwide Request for Applications (RFA) were developed: one each in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Internal, capacity building projects at SDSU were also selected during each one of these RFAs. In 2013 and 2015, two additional Proof of Concept RFAs were developed for internal SDSU projects. Priority areas for each RFA were 1) Biomass feedstock logistics including biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, storage, and densification; 2) Sustainable biomass feedstock production systems including biomass crop development, production, and life-cycle analysis; 3) Biomass production systems that optimize biomass feedstock yield and economic return across a diverse landscape while minimizing negative effects on the environment and food/feed production; and 4) Promotion of knowledge-based economic development in science and technology and to advance commercialization of inventions that meet the mission of the Sun Grant Initiative. A total of 33 projects were selected for funding through this program. Final reports for each of these diverse projects are included in this summary report

  20. Occurrence of Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    . Considering only detections using the CAL, triazine pesticides were detected much more frequently than all other pesticide classes, and the number of different pesticides classified as triazines was the largest of all classes. More pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than the CSALs in water from wells sampled in the fall (28 different pesticides) than in the spring (21 different pesticides). Many pesticides were detected infrequently as nearly one-half of pesticides detected in the fall and spring at concentrations greater than the CSALs were detected only in one well. Using the CSALs for pesticides analyzed for in 11 or more wells, only five pesticides (atrazine, prometon, tebuthiuron, picloram, and 3,4-dichloroaniline, listed in order of decreasing detection frequency) were each detected in water from more than 5 percent of sampled wells. Atrazine was the pesticide detected most frequently at concentrations greater than the CSAL. Concentrations of detected pesticides generally were small (less than 1 microgram per liter), although many infrequent detections at larger concentrations were noted. All detected pesticide concentrations were smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standards or applicable health advisories. Most concentrations were at least an order of magnitude smaller; however, many pesticides did not have standards or advisories. The largest percentage of pesticide detections and the largest number of different pesticides detected were in samples from wells located in the Bighorn Basin and High Plains/ Casper Arch geographic areas of north-central and southeastern Wyoming. Prometon was the only pesticide detected in all eight geographic areas of the State. Pesticides were detected much more frequently in samples from wells located in predominantly urban areas than in samples from wells located in predominantly agricultural or mixed areas. Pesticides were detected distinctly less often in sa

  1. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  2. Model-based computer-aided design for controlled release of pesticides

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Gani, Rafiqul; Bell, G.

    2005-01-01

    In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available, ...... extended models have been developed and implemented into a computer-aided system. The total model consisting of the property models embedded into the release models are then employed to study the release of different combinations of AIs and polymer-based microcapsules.......In the field of controlled release technology for pesticides or active ingredients (AI), models that can predict its delivery during application are important for purposes of design and marketing of the pesticide product. Appropriate models for the controlled release of pesticides, if available...

  3. Addressing bystander exposure to agricultural pesticides in life cycle impact assessment

    Ryberg, Morten Walbech; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Mosqueron, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Residents living near agricultural fields may be exposed to pesticides drifting from the fields after application to different field crops. To address this currently missing exposure pathway in life cycle assessment (LCA), we developed a modeling framework for quantifying exposure of bystanders...... magnitude of individual bystanders can be substantially larger than the exposure of populations not living in the proximity to agricultural fields. Our framework for assessing bystander exposure to pesticide applications closes a relevant gap in the exposure assessment included in LCA for agricultural...... to pesticide spray drift from agricultural fields. Our framework consists of three parts addressing: (1) loss of pesticides from an agricultural field via spray drift; (2) environmental fate of pesticide in air outside of the treated field; and (3) exposure of bystanders to pesticides via inhalation...

  4. Pesticide residue levels in green beans cultivated in Souss Masa valley (Morocco) after multiple applications of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin.

    Bouri, M; Salghi, R; Bazzi, Lh; Zarrouk, A; Rios, A; Zougagh, M

    2012-09-01

    Dissipation of bifenthrin and λ-cyhalothrin pyrethroid insecticides, under environmental conditions, was evaluated on green beans grown in experimental greenhouses (Souss Massa valley, Morocco). Pesticide residues were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron-capture detector (GC-μECD) after dichloromethane extraction and cleanup on florisil phase cartridges. In the case of field experiments, a random block scheme was employed. Each block contained 25 plants in a single row and tests were carried out in triplicates applying pesticides at the recommended doses by the manufacturers. Fruit samples were periodically taken until the end of the preharvest interval (p.i.). The results obtained showed that the p.i of bifenthrin in green bean were 4 days in the winter and 3.5 days in the spring, whereas that for λ-cyhalothrin 8 days was found in the winter and 7.5 days in the spring. Consequently, it is possible to consider the European Union maximum residue limit (EU MRL) values compatible with the proper agricultural practices used for growing green bean in the plastic greenhouse of Souss Massa valley in South Morocco. Bifenthrin had a degradation of first-order kinetics, whereas that of levels for λ-cyhalothrin residue can not be interpreted by the use of a first order model.

  5. Enzyme stabilization for pesticide degradation

    Rivers, D.B.; Frazer, F.R. III; Mason, D.W.; Tice, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Enzymes offer inherent advantages and limitations as active components of formulations used to decontaminate soil and equipment contaminated with toxic materials such as pesticides. Because of the catalytic nature of enzymes, each molecule of enzyme has the potential to destroy countless molecules of a contaminating toxic compound. This degradation takes place under mild environmental conditions of pH, temperature, pressure, and solvent. The basic limitation of enzymes is their degree of stability during storage and application conditions. Stabilizing methods such as the use of additives, covalent crosslinking, covalent attachment, gel entrapment, and microencapsulation have been directed developing an enzyme preparation that is stable under extremes of pH, temperature, and exposure to organic solvents. Initial studies were conducted using the model enzymes subtilisin and horseradish peroxidase.

  6. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  7. How to minimise direct pesticide load on bees

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Navntoft, Søren

    a simple method to pinpoint pesticide problems that causes the highest regional pesticide load (regional hot spots) to various non-target organisms. Finally the potential of MWD systems to reduce the pesticide load in these regional hotspots are discussed with a special focus on bees and other insects...... concentration of potatoes, seed grass and sugar beets. MWD systems are available but not profitable, and the present, very detailed restrictions on the application, seems to be a better solution for the bees, than new and improved MWD systems. In the case of other insects and arthropods, however, the load from...... different pesticides is not systematically registered and also bee related restrictions may be of little help....

  8. Pesticide uptake in potatoes: model and field experiments.

    Juraske, Ronnie; Vivas, Carmen S Mosquera; Velásquez, Alexander Erazo; Santos, Glenda García; Moreno, Mónica B Berdugo; Gomez, Jaime Diaz; Binder, Claudia R; Hellweg, Stefanie; Dallos, Jairo A Guerrero

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic model for uptake of pesticides in potatoes is presented and evaluated with measurements performed within a field trial in the region of Boyacá, Colombia. The model takes into account the time between pesticide applications and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on soil surface, mobility and degradation of pesticide in soil, diffusive uptake and persistence due to crop growth and metabolism in plant material, and loss due to food processing. Food processing steps included were cleaning, washing, storing, and cooking. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically in soil and potato samples from the beginning of tuber formation until harvest. The model was able to predict the magnitude and temporal profile of the experimentally derived pesticide concentrations well, with all measurements falling within the 90% confidence interval. The fraction of chlorpyrifos applied on the field during plant cultivation that eventually is ingested by the consumer is on average 10(-4)-10(-7), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion and the processing step considered.

  9. Degradation Processes of Pesticides Used in Potato Cultivations.

    Kurek, M; Barchańska, H; Turek, M

    Potato is one of the most important crops, after maize, rice and wheat. Its global production is about 300 million tons per year and is constantly increasing. It grows in temperate climate and is used as a source of starch, food, and in breeding industry.Potato cultivation requires application of numerous agro-technical products, including pesticides, since it can be affected by insects, weeds, fungi, and viruses. In the European Union the most frequently used pesticides in potato cultivations check are: thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin (insecticides), rimsulfuron (herbicide) and metalaxyl (fungicide).Application of pesticides improves crop efficiency, however, as pesticides are not totally selective, it affects also non-target organisms. Moreover, the agrochemicals may accumulate in crops and, as a consequence, negatively influence the quality of food products and consumer health. Additional risks of plant protection products are related to their derivatives, that are created both in the environment (soil, water) and in plant organisms, since many of these compounds may exhibit toxic effects.This article is devoted to the degradation processes of pesticides used in potato crop protection. Attention is also paid to the toxicity of both parent compounds and their degradation products for living organisms, including humans. Information about the level of pesticide contamination in the environment (water, soil) and accumulation level in edible plants complement the current knowledge about the risks associated with widespread use of thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin, rimsulfuron and metalaxyl in potato cultivation.

  10. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  11. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  12. Pesticides and Arthropods: Sublethal Effects and Demographic Toxicology

    Dejan Marčić

    2007-01-01

    refers to an evaluation of individuals, rather than populations, and it is the latter that are required for a more reliable evaluation of effectiveness of pesticides in real life. A demographic-toxicologicalapproach has been proposed therefore as a way of integrating the effects that a toxicant may cause at population level, which includes the construction of life tables and computation of population growth parameters, including intrinsic rate of increase (rm as a crucialparameter. Compared to other laboratory toxicity tests, the demographic-toxicological bioassay has been found superior in terms of a capacity to evaluate overall effects of pesticides, and such approach in evaluating pesticide effects is crucial for environmentally-based programmes of integrated plant protection and a competent evaluation of ecotoxicological risks of pesticide applications.

  13. The geochemistry of pesticides

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  14. Transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides and the relationship with their physicochemical property.

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Pan, Rong; Zhang, Minglu; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2015-01-21

    Determining the transfer rate of pesticides during tea brewing is important to identify the potential exposure risks from pesticide residues in tea. In this study, the transfer rates of 19 typical pesticides from tea to brewing were investigated using gas chromatography tandem mass and ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass. The leaching rates of five pesticides (isocarbophos, triazophos, fenvalerate, buprofezin, and pyridaben) during tea brewing were first reported. The pesticides exhibited different transfer rates; however, this result was not related to residual concentrations and tea types. Pesticides with low octanol-water partition coefficients (Logkow) and high water solubility demonstrated high transfer rates. The transfer rates of pesticides with water solubility > 29 mg L(-1) (or 25% (or 2.48) were >65% (or <35%). This result indicates that water solubility at approximately 20 mg L(-1) and LogKow at approximately 2.0 could be the demarcation lines of transfer rate. The results of this study can be used as a guide in the application of pesticides to tea trees and establishment of maximum residue limits of pesticides in tea to reduce pesticide exposure in humans.

  15. Maternal pesticide use and birth weight in the agricultural health study.

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Basso, Olga; Karr, Catherine J; Lozano, Paula; Alavanja, Michael; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2010-04-01

    Studies examining the association between maternal pesticide exposure and low birth weight yield conflicting results. The authors examined the association between maternal pesticide use and birth weight among women in the Agricultural Health Study, a large study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The authors evaluated self-reported pesticide use of 27 individual pesticides in relation to birth weight among 2246 farm women whose most recent singleton birth occurred within 5 years of enrollment (1993-1997). The authors used linear regression models adjusted for site, preterm birth, medical parity, maternal body mass index, height, and smoking. The results showed that mean infant birth weight was 3586 g (+/- 546 g), and 3% of the infants were low birth weight (birth weight. Ever use of the pesticide carbaryl was associated with decreased birth weight (-82 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -132, -31). This study thus provides limited evidence about pesticide use as a modulator of birth weight. Overall, the authors observed no associations between birth weight and pesticide-related activities during early pregnancy; however, the authors have no data on temporal specificity of individual pesticide exposures prior to or during pregnancy and therefore cannot draw conclusions related to these exposure windows. Given the widespread exposure to pesticide products, additional evaluation of maternal pregnancy exposures at specific time windows and subsequent birth outcomes is warranted.

  16. Microwave-assisted synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated with magnetite and gold nanoparticles, and its application to solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides

    Mehdinia, Ali; Rouhani, Shirin; Mozaffari, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    An agent-free microwave-assisted method was developed for the preparation of a reduced graphene oxide/Fe_3O_4-gold nanocomposite. This material was used as an adsorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from water samples. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effects of sample volume, amount of sorbent, eluent volume, extraction and desorption time, and the effect of salt on the extraction efficiency were optimized. The linear response range of GC analysis extends from 0.05 to 500 μg L"−"1 of OCPs, the limits of detection range from 0.4 to 4.1 ng L"−"1, relative standard deviations from 1.7 to 7.3 %, and recoveries (from spiked seawater samples) from 69 to 114 %. (author)

  17. Application of XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers and SPME–GC–MS/MS analysis for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticides in Luxembourg

    Schummer, Claude; Tuduri, Ludovic; Briand, Olivier; Appenzeller, Brice M.; Millet, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Passive air sampling has been shown to be a very interesting alternative to high-volume sampling by overcoming its disadvantages (size, weight, expensiveness). However, to date, only limited data is available about passive air sampling of current-use pesticides. In order to test if passive samplers allow monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric pesticide concentrations, five XAD-2-resin based passive air samplers were deployed at five locations in Luxembourg. Samplers were analyzed using accelerated solvent extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Collected data was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the concentrations of the compounds. Twenty two pesticides were detected between March and October, while no pesticides were detected from November to February. Highest concentrations were measured on the rural sites, suggesting that the used XAD-2 resin-based passive samplers allow the simultaneous monitoring of multiple current-use pesticides and identifying spatial and temporal variations. - Highlights: ► XAD-2 passive sampling of current-used pesticides. ► Coupling of ASE and SPME–GC–MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides in XAD-2 passive sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for current-used pesticides atmospheric sampling. ► XAD-2 passive samplers suitable for spatial and temporal atmospheric concentrations variations. - XAD-2 passive sampling of current-use pesticides in the atmosphere.

  18. Toxicity and efficacy of selected pesticides and new acaricides to stored product mites (Acari : Acaridida)

    Hubert, J.; Stejskal, V.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Hajšlová, J.; Arthur, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2007), s. 283-290 ISSN 0168-8162 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : allergens * pesticide s * food Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2007

  19. Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the fate of current-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central California coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many current-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of current-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.