WorldWideScience

Sample records for grands ecosystemes forestiers

  1. Research of the Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the mission, objectives, and preliminary results of the Middle Rio Grande Ecosystem Management Research Program managed at the Rocky Mountain Research Station's Albuquerque laboratory. This program was initiated in 1994 to address growing pressures to effectively manage the limited resources of the middle Rio Grande Basin. The program is...

  2. Madagascar, politique forestière : Bilan 1990 – 2013 et propositions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    espace forestier en grands ..... donc à elle seule une solution efficace pour préserver les éco- à elle seule une solution efficace pour ... important de grandes aires protégées à des opérateurs privés (même de droit étranger).

  3. Human impacts on riparian ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Valley during historic times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank E. Wozniak

    1996-01-01

    The development of irrigation agriculture in historic times has profoundly impacted riparian ecosystems in the Middle Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico. A vital relationship has existed between water resources and settlement in the semi-arid Southwest since prehistoric times. Levels of technology have influenced human generated changes in the riparian ecosystems of the...

  4. Forestier's disease presenting with dysphagia and disphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Jaafar; Goutagny, Stephane; Peyre, Mathieu; Faillot, Thierry; Kalamarides, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Forestier's disease, also known as diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), is a pathology of vertebral bodies characterised by exuberant osteophytis formation. Forestier's disease is usually managed conservatively. Surgical resection of the osteophytes is reported to be an effective treatment for severe cases and/ or cases with airway obstruction. We report a 55-year-old man presenting with 6 months' progressive dysphagia and dysphonia. He was managed successfully with an anterior cervical osteophytectomy without fusion. A literature review is included.

  5. Impact des herbicides sur les écosystèmes forestiers et aquatiques et la faune sauvage: l'expérience américaine. (Impact of herbicides on the forest ecosystem, aquatic ecosystems, and wildlife - The US Experience)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry Lee Michael

    2003-01-01

    The impact of forestry herbicides on ecosystems, terrestrial and aquatic, is a subject which has received much attention. That attention increased with the publication of Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring in 1962. At that time, several chlorinated hydrocarbons were in wide spread use in the US and around the world, the most well known of which...

  6. Leptospirosis in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: An Ecosystem Approach in the Animal-Human Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Pereira, Martha M.; Machado, Gustavo; dos Anjos, Celso B.; Rodrigues, Rogério O.; Cavagni, Gabriela M.; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Corbellini, Luis G.; Leone, Mariana; Buss, Daniel F.; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone neglected disease that affects humans and animals, mostly in vulnerable populations. The One Health approach is a recommended strategy to identify drivers of the disease and plan for its prevention and control. In that context, the aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of human cases of leptospirosis in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to explore possible drivers. Additionally, it sought to provide further evidence to support interventions and to identify hypotheses for new research at the human-animal-ecosystem interface. Methodology and findings The risk for human infection was described in relation to environmental, socioeconomic, and livestock variables. This ecological study used aggregated data by municipality (all 496). Data were extracted from secondary, publicly available sources. Thematic maps were constructed and univariate analysis performed for all variables. Negative binomial regression was used for multivariable statistical analysis of leptospirosis cases. An annual average of 428 human cases of leptospirosis was reported in the state from 2008 to 2012. The cumulative incidence in rural populations was eight times higher than in urban populations. Variables significantly associated with leptospirosis cases in the final model were: Parana/Paraiba ecoregion (RR: 2.25; CI95%: 2.03–2.49); Neossolo Litolítico soil (RR: 1.93; CI95%: 1.26–2.96); and, to a lesser extent, the production of tobacco (RR: 1.10; CI95%: 1.09–1.11) and rice (RR: 1.003; CI95%: 1.002–1.04). Conclusion Urban cases were concentrated in the capital and rural cases in a specific ecoregion. The major drivers identified in this study were related to environmental and production processes that are permanent features of the state. This study contributes to the basic knowledge on leptospirosis distribution and drivers in the state and encourages a comprehensive approach to address the disease in the animal-human-ecosystem

  7. [Dysphagia: Forestier and Rotes Querol disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, M A; López-Saúz, M; Padierna-Luna, J L; García-Pescador, D; Franco-Grande, M A; Núñez-Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    Inside of the study of Dysphagia, until 38% of the greater patients of 50 years, they present/display cervical Osteophytes like cause of Dysphagia; frequently I diagnose passes for the methods of radiology and endoscopy unnoticed. The disease of Forestier and Rotes better well known Querol or like skeletal hiperostosis diffuse idiophatic it is characterized by the formation of spinal and cervical Osteophytes, ossification of ligaments and muscles for vetebrates of the cervical column. Frequently it produces affectation to medullar that it can pronounce like Dysphagia and crosstalk. We presented/displayed the case of a patient of 78 years with chronic pneumopathy, that presents/displays Dysphagia and progressive crosstalk with pondered loss, in where radiology of the cervical column they show cervical osteofitos with espondilolistesis, rectification of the cervical lordosis and diminution of the intersomatic spaces that they compress the trachea and column of air and an extrinsic compression below the cricopharyngeal is documented by endoscopy.

  8. Effect of ecosystems substitutions and CO{sub 2} increase of the atmosphere on the microbial ecosystems of forests; Effet de substitutions d'essence et de l'augmentation en CO{sub 2} de l'atmosphere sur les communautes microbiennes intervenant dans le fonctionnement d'un ecosysteme forestier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F

    2007-07-01

    Biological diversity is often exclusively considered at the level of plants and animals, whereas the bulk of global biodiversity is in fact at the microbial level. Although it is clear that the ecology of our planet is driven by microbial ecosystems, we are severely hampered by our limited understanding of the diversity and function of such microbial ecosystems. In the present project, teams in the disciplines of geochemistry, soil microbiology, genomics and ecosystem processes are assembled to study the relationship between environmental change, land use changes, biodiversity, and functioning of forest ecosystems. The network has a strong focus on developing and applying biochemical and genotyping methodologies to address key scientific issues in soil microbial ecology. These include assessing the impact of environmental- and land use changes on microbial diversity and function and exploring the evolutionary and mechanistic links between biological diversity and ecosystem function. In the present study, we have shown that: (1) The native mixed forest showed the highest microbial diversity (2) The mono specific plantations of tree species (e.g., oak, beech, pine, spruce) strikingly alter genetic and functional diversities of soil bacterial and fungal species. (3) Bacterial denitrification rates were dramatically modified by the planted species. Only by taking into account the impact of forest management on below-ground microbial diversity can one hope to get a full ecosystem-based understanding, and this must be addressed via modelling in order to provide relevant and useful information for conservation and policy making. (author)

  9. Maladie De Forestier Revelee Par Une Dysphagie A Propos De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La maladie de Forestier ou hyperostose ankylosante vertébrale engainante est un désordre musculo-squelettique non inflammatoire responsable d\\'une ossification ligamentaire essentiellement du ligament longitudinal antérieur. Elle touche de préférence l\\'homme de plus de 50 ans. La dysphagie est un symptôme ...

  10. Long-term Water Table Monitoring of Rio Grande Riparian Ecosystems for Restoration Potential Amid Hydroclimatic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, James R.; Cleverly, James R.; Dahm, Clifford N.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological processes drive the ecological functioning and sustainability of cottonwood-dominated riparian ecosystems in the arid southwestern USA. Snowmelt runoff elevates groundwater levels and inundates floodplains, which promotes cottonwood germination. Once established, these phreatophytes rely on accessible water tables (WTs). In New Mexico's Middle Rio Grande corridor diminished flooding and deepening WTs threaten native riparian communities. We monitored surface flows and riparian WTs for up to 14 years, which revealed that WTs and surface flows, including peak snowmelt discharge, respond to basin climate conditions and resource management. WT hydrographs influence the composition of riparian communities and can be used to assess if potential restoration sites meet native vegetation tolerances for WT depths, rates of recession, and variability throughout their life stages. WTs were highly variable in some sites, which can preclude native vegetation less adapted to deep drawdowns during extended droughts. Rates of WT recession varied between sites and should be assessed in regard to recruitment potential. Locations with relatively shallow WTs and limited variability are likely to be more viable for successful restoration. Suitable sites have diminished greatly as the once meandering Rio Grande has been constrained and depleted. Increasing demands on water and the presence of invasive vegetation better adapted to the altered hydrologic regime further impact native riparian communities. Long-term monitoring over a range of sites and hydroclimatic extremes reveals attributes that can be evaluated for restoration potential.

  11. Application of the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobrand, L.; Lestelle, L.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action

  12. Application of the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method to the Grande Ronde Model Watershed project : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobrand, Lars Erik; Lestelle, Lawrence C.

    1997-01-01

    In the spring of 1994 a technical planning support project was initiated by the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board of Directors (Board) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration. The project was motivated by a need for a science based method for prioritizing restoration actions in the basin that would promote effectiveness and accountability. In this section the authors recall the premises for the project. The authors also present a set of recommendations for implementing a watershed planning process that incorporates a science-based framework to help guide decision making. This process is intended to assist the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Board in its effort to plan and implement watershed improvement measures. The process would also assist the Board in coordinating its efforts with other entities in the region. The planning process is based on an approach for developing an ecosystem management strategy referred to as the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method (Lichatowich et al. 1995, Lestelle et al. 1996). The process consists of an on-going planning cycle. Included in this cycle is an assessment of the ability of the watershed to support and sustain natural resources and other economic and societal values. This step in the process, which the authors refer to as the diagnosis, helps guide the development of actions (also referred to as treatments) aimed at improving the conditions of the watershed to achieve long-term objectives. The planning cycle calls for routinely reviewing and updating, as necessary, the basis for the diagnosis and other analyses used by the Board in adopting actions for implementation. The recommendations offered here address this critical need to habitually update the information used in setting priorities for action.

  13. Maladie de forestier chez un jeune adolescent au CHU Campus de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forestier's disease is a non inflammatory esthesopathy that ossifying the anterolateral spine and sparing the disc and joint space in adults men. We report an early onset Forestier's disease in a Togolese 20- year–old schoolboy. He was complained about proprioceptive ataxia, lower hearing and sight, and speech ...

  14. Madagascar, politique forestière : Bilan 1990 – 2013 et propositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les auteurs dressent une rétrospective de la mise en oeuvre de la politique environnementale et forestière 1990-2013 qui repose sur quatre lois, à savoir la Charte ... au niveau des communes à travers les guichets fonciers, les contrats de transferts de gestion et les expériences positives de contrôle forestier décentralisé.

  15. Reforestation trials and secondary succession with three levels of overstory shade in the Grand Fir Mosaic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; John C. Byrne; Dale O. Coffen

    2005-01-01

    Grand Fir Mosaic habitats are difficult to regenerate because of pocket gophers (Thomomys talpoides) and successional plant communities dominated by bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) and western coneflower (Rudbeckia occidentalis). This study tested reforestation practices recommended by previous research, tested hypotheses about the effects of overstory shade on...

  16. Middle Rio Grande Bosque Ecosystem Restoration Feasibility Study Habitat Assessment Using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP): Analyses, Results and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ecosystem that displays the biodiversity characteristic of the reference, such as species composition and community structure, and is fully capable of...of one or more environ- mental variables that characterize or typify the site conditions (i.e., vegeta- tive cover and composition , hydrologic regime...area (outside of the levees), farming is still a major land use. Small truck farms grow chile, corn, squash, tomatoes and fruit. Alfalfa is a main

  17. Impacts de l’utilisation accrue de biomasse sur les sols forestiers

    OpenAIRE

    Ranger, Jacques; Dambrine, Etienne; Nicolas, Manuel; Landmann, Guy

    2009-01-01

    A la demande du ministère de l’écologie, cette étude a été réalisée dans le but de faire un état de l’art des relations entre biomasse forestière et biodiversité. Elle s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’accord de 2007 (Grenelle de l’environnement) entre la Fédération France Nature Environnement, la Fédération nationale des Communes forestières, l’Office national des Forêts et la Fédération Forestiers privés de France sur le thème « Produire plus de bois tout en préservant mieux la biodiversité ; un...

  18. Final report of the project CARBOFOR. Carbon sequestration in the big forest ecosystems in France. Quantification, spatialization, vulnerability and impacts of different climatic and forestry scenario; Rapport final du projet CARBOFOR. Sequestration de carbone dans les grands ecosystemes forestiers en France. Quantification, spatialisation, vulnerabilite et impacts de differents scenarios climatiques et sylvicoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loustau, D

    2004-06-15

    The main outcomes of the project allowed to revise the carbon stock estimate of the national french forests, to clarify the interactions between climate and sylviculture according to the ecological profile of main species, to describe the changes in species area distribution for forest trees and pathogens. Different approaches for estimating the national carbon stock in forest biomass were investigated such as biomass equations and architectural models. Some conclusions in terms of adaptation scenario can be drawn. The global production potential of the french forest will be changed. This change is rapid and will occur a time interval shorter than average tree life duration. Species substitution and changing practices must be considered from now. The soil water holding capacity and the nutrient availability interact strongly with the climate effects and are therefore target factors for adapting forest stands to future changes. The dramatic change in the potential area distribution of most pathogens over France lead to recommend strong regulations for avoiding dissemination of fungal diseases and to anticipate the pathogen risks through species distribution. (A.L.B.)

  19. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management of Glen Canyon Dam is improving downstream resources of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP), a federal advisory committee of 25 members with diverse special interests tasked to advise the U.S. Department of the Interior), was established in 1997 in response to the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act. Adaptive management assumes that ecosystem responses to management policies are inherently complex and unpredictable, but that understanding and management can be improved through monitoring. Best known for its high-flow experiments intended to benefit physical and biological resources by simulating one aspect of pre-dam conditions—floods, the AMP promotes collaboration among tribal, recreation, hydropower, environmental, water and other natural resource management interests. Monitoring has shown that high flow experiments move limited new tributary sand inputs below the dam from the bottom of the Colorado River to shorelines; rebuilding eroded sandbars that support camping areas and other natural and cultural resources. Spring-timed high flows have also been shown to stimulate aquatic productivity by disturbing the river bed below the dam in Glen Canyon. Understanding about how nonnative tailwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and downstream endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) respond to dam operations has also increased, but this learning has mostly posed “surprise” adaptation opportunities to managers. Since reoperation of the dam to Modified Low Fluctuating Flows in 1996, rainbow trout now benefit from more stable daily flows and high spring releases, but possibly at a risk to humpback chub and other native fishes downstream. In contrast, humpback chub have so far proven robust to all flows, and native fish have increased under the combination of warmer river temperatures associated with reduced storage in Lake Powell, and a

  20. Savoirs locaux et apprentissage du partenariat dans la gestion des écosystèmes forestiers humides au Cameroun

    OpenAIRE

    Bidzanga Nomo, L.; Kalms, Jean-Marie; Havard, Michel; Njoya, Aboubakar

    2011-01-01

    Les écosystèmes forestiers humides du Cameroun subissent une pression accrue sur les ressources forestières et sur la terre liée à l'augmentation rapide de la population. Les agriculteurs s'adaptent en mobilisant leurs savoirs et développant des pratiques innovantes de gestion des écosystèmes forestiers dont la durabilité est mise en cause. Pour accompagner les agriculteurs dans ces évolutions, l'Association pour le développement des exploitations agricoles du centre (ADEAC) au Cameroun, en p...

  1. Modèles de gestion des ressources forestières du massif ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ingénieurs. Institution Country. Maroc. Institution Website. http://www.enfi.ac.ma. Project Leader. Dr. Mohamed Khemici. Institution. Institut national de la recherche forestière. Institution Country. Algérie. Project Leader. Dr. Abdelhamid Khaldi ...

  2. Modèles de gestion des ressources forestières du massif ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expérimentation Participative et Adaptative de Modèles de Gestion des Ressources Forestières dans la Chaine Montagneuse de l'Atlas (Algérie, Maroc, Tunisie) : rapport final (17 mars 2009 au 18 septembre 2012). Download PDF. Reports. Unité de transformation de cire d'abeille (Commune de M'Sara). Download PDF ...

  3. La gestion forestière communautaire dans le sud-ouest de Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders

    2012-01-01

    La principale conclusion est que le modèle de transfert de la gestion forestière vers les communautés locales malgaches, du moins dans cette partie du pays, n'a pas modifié significativement l'attitude des villageois vis-à-vis de la conservation de la forêt....

  4. Modèles de gestion des ressources forestières du massif ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il ne fait aucun doute que le surpâturage et les coupes excessives des arbres constituent de graves problèmes, tandis que les produits forestiers non ligneux ... de ce fonds de recherche concurrentiel est de soutenir la recherche appliquée dans des domaines essentiels pour assurer la sécurité alimentaire à long terme.

  5. Structures et dynamiques forestières en milieu tempéré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Julien-Laferrière

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Le travail a été réalisé à l’atelier PASTEL, structure commune à l’EHESS, au CNRS et à l’ENS de Fontenay, établie dans les locaux de l’UMR 180 CNRS, laboratoire de biogéographie de l’ENS de Fontenay Problématique Le thème de recherche porte sur les structures forestières et leur dynamique. Les objectifs thématiques poursuivis sont les suivants : caractérisation des structures forestières par télédétection et estimation de leur productivité en terme de biomasse, analyse des dynamiques intra et...

  6. Aménagement forestier et lutte contre la pauvreté au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukary Ouedraogo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article utilise des données d’enquêtes sur les 8 principaux chantiers forestiers aménagés pour l’exploitation du bois-énergie au Burkina Faso, pour analyser l’impact de cette politique forestière sur les conditions de vie des ménages riverains de ces zones forestières. Ces enquêtes qui ont été financées par USAID à travers l’Antenne Régionale du Centre International de Recherche en Foresterie (CIFOR en mai-juin 2005, ont couvert 355 bûcherons de 24 villages situés entre 35 km et 250 km de la ville de Ouagadougou. Une première approche de la structure des revenus des bûcherons a révélé la prédominance des revenus issus de l’exploitation forestière sur les autres sources de revenus de ceux-ci, et aussi la contribution de cette activité à l’amélioration des conditions de vie des bûcherons. Les méthodes des percentiles et des indices de pauvreté ont été utilisées pour appréhender l’incidence, la profondeur et la sévérité de pauvreté parmi les bûcherons exploitant ces zones forestières. Il en ressort que l’incidence de pauvreté des bûcherons est inférieure à celle évaluée au plan national en 2003. Il en est de même pour la profondeur de la pauvreté dans ces zones forestières qui s’est révélée être inférieure à celle obtenue au niveau national. Cependant, la sévérité moyenne de pauvreté sur ces zones forestières observées est supérieure à celle observée au niveau national bien qu’il existence une forte disparité de ce seuil entre zones forestières et villages de ces zones.This article uses data from a large survey funded by US-AID and implemented by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR on the main eight managed forest areas for wood fuel production in Burkina Faso (may-june, 2005, for analyzing the effects of this forest management policy on peasants living conditions around these forest areas. This survey has covered 355 woodcutters of 24

  7. Recherche-action mondiale sur les droits forestiers | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... grande échelle les expériences locales et la modification des politiques nationales venant faciliter la gestion locale des forêts. De plus, ce projet permettra de faire mieux connaître la foresterie communautaire à l'échelle internationale, car les constatations seront diffusées et les partenaires du PRR utiliseront les résultats.

  8. Des collectivités forestières du Nigeria prennent des mesures pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des collectivités forestières du Nigeria prennent des mesures pour réduire les émissions de carbone. 08 juin 2016. Image. Deforestation in Nigeria. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. En Afrique subsaharienne, il est crucial de conserver et de protéger les forêts pour assurer la durabilité des moyens de subsistance des ...

  9. maladie de forestier revelee par une dysphagie a propos de deux cas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... L'imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) est indiquée en cas de complications neurologiques. Le transit oesophagien est demandé dans le cadre de l'ex- ploration d'une dysphagie (3). Le diagnostic de la maladie de Forestier se base sur des critères radiologiques établis par Resnick et al. (8) dans les.

  10. L'impact de la tempête "Martin" sur le couvert forestier en Auvergne. Origine des chablis et logique de reconstitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Jubertie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La tempête du 27 décembre 1999 a laissé des traces durables sur le couvert forestier auvergnat. Aussi semble-t-il aujourd'hui intéressant, non seulement de connaître les raisons qui expliquent la localisation et une telle ampleur des dégâts, mais aussi d'aborder le problème des reconstitutions.Le système dépressionnaire océanique responsable des rafales tempétueuses (158 km/h enregistré à Clermont-Aulnat ! sort de l'ordinaire. Il fut remarquable à cause de sa petite taille, de sa grande mobilité et surtout par le fait qu'il trouva son maximum d'intensité en pénétrant à l'intérieur des terres. D'une manière générale, les vents ont atteint, en Auvergne, des valeurs presque comparables à celles qui avaient été enregistrées lors de la tempête de novembre 1982, événement de référence pour le Massif Central. Associés à ces vents violents, de fortes pluies ont été enregistrées. Saturant largement les sols, elles ont ainsi rendu plus efficace l'impact de la tempête sur les forêts.L'inégale répartition des chablis apparaît clairement en visualisant des cartes départementales des dégâts établies par l'Inventaire Forestier National, ainsi qu'à travers une étude personnelle réalisée à l'échelle locale dans une forêt témoin de la Haute-Loire. L'interprétation de ces cartes permet de montrer quelles interactions ont joué entre facteurs météorologiques et orographiques. De même, elles mettent en évidence la trop grande présence de parcelles de conifères à forte densité, fragiles face au vent, issues des reboisements artificiels réalisés principalement après la Seconde Guerre mondiale.Du coup, l'importance des dégâts, en partie liée à la mauvaise gestion sylvicole, a provoqué chez les forestiers une remise en cause des pratiques qui avaient prévalu jusqu'alors. Un véritable changement dans la stratégie des reconstitutions forestières semble aujourd'hui se développer. Des r

  11. Middle Rio Grande Basin Research Report 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Catherine Dold

    2008-01-01

    An ecosystem is rarely static. A natural system composed of plants, animals, and microorganisms interacting with an area's physical factors, an ecosystem is always fluctuating and evolving. But sometimes, often at the hands of humans, ecosystems change too much. Such is the case with many of the ecosystems of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico.

  12. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Ouédraogo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso Résumé Cette étude a pour objectif d’évaluer la dépendance économique des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé aux produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL et d’identifier les déterminants de cette dépendance. Des enquêtes ont été menées auprès de 583 ménages de 14 villages riverains de ces forêts. Les résultats montrent que le revenu moyen annuel par ménage est de 846 800 F CFA avec une contribution de 60% du revenu des cultures et 12% du revenu d’élevage. Les PFNL procurent en moyenne 72 479 F CFA par ménage et par an à près de 93% des ménages enquêtés. La dépendance économique des ménages aux PFNL est estimée à 12%. Elle diminue avec le revenu, traduisant une plus grande dépendance des ménages pauvres des PFNL. Par ailleurs, les hommes sont économiquement moins dépendants des PFNL que les femmes. Les principaux déterminants de la dépendance aux PFNL sont le statut d’autochtone, la taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux ressources forestières. Mots clés : Produits forestiers non ligneux, dépendance économique, modélisation économétrique, Burkina Faso.   Economic dependence on non-timber forest products: case of households living near the Forests of Boulon and Koflande, in the south-western of Burkina Faso Abstract This study aims at assessing the household economic dependence on non-timber forest products (NTFPs in Boulon and Koflande Forest area and the main determinants of that dependence. The data have been collected with a sample of 583

  13. Dynamique de fréquentation des grands mammifères dans une ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2016 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectifs : Dans le but de connaitre les animaux fréquentant les clairières (ou Baï) forestières au Gabon, une étude sur la fréquentation du Baï de Momba par les grands mammifères a été conduite durant la petite saison des pluies pendant deux mois du 19 février au 13 mars 2012. Méthodologie ...

  14. Évolution spatio-temporelle des écosystèmes forestiers à pin D’Alep de L’Aurès oriental en Algérie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Garah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CGarah, K., Chafai, C. and Bentouati, A. Évolution spatio-temporelle des écosystèmes forestiers à pin d’Alep de l'Aurès oriental en Algérie. 2016. Lebanese Science Journal, 17(2: 104-116. The present study falls within the framework of a characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use between 1987 and 2014 of a forest area located in eastern Aures. The method of diachronic comparison of satellite images was adopted. Results revealed profound regressive changes in aurasian forest during the last 27 years (from 1987 to 2014. This regression of vegetation cover is mainly localized in Aleppo pine forest stands which predominates the study area. The current degradation would be related to recent climate changes which have amplified the regression of certain forest ecosystems of the region.

  15. Grandes remolques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1961-07-01

    Full Text Available El empleo creciente del material pesado auxiliar en la construcción de obras de ingeniería civil ha motivado la fabricación de grandes plataformas, capaces de transportar toda clase de maquinaria auxiliar. En general, este tipo de maquinaria requiere medios de transporte, pues su circulación por carreteras es lenta, obstructiva y cara, siempre que se trate de grandes distancias, caso presente en la mayoría de ocasiones en que se exige un traslado de esta maquinaria de una a otra obra.

  16. The introduced snail Melanoides Tuberculatus (Muller, 1774 (Mollusca: Thiaridae in aquatic ecosystems of the Brazilian Semiarid Northeast (Piranhas-Assu River basin, State of Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Santos

    Full Text Available Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774, family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind.m-2 as in Armando Ribeiro Gonçalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is urgently required.

  17. Coupe à blanc : Activités illégales d'exploitation forestière et de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    On y expose et analyse les pratiques illégales de l'industrie forestière et du commerce du bois dans quatre pays tropicaux. ... Le CRDI investit dans des solutions locales aux problèmes auxquels l'Inde est confrontée, comme le stress thermique, la gestion de l'eau et les migrations liées aux changements climatiques.

  18. Doença de Forestier e suas implicações otorrinolaringológicas: revisão de literatura,

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcherio,Janaina Oliveira Bentivi; Velasco,Cláudia Márcia Malafaia de Oliveira; Machado,Rosane Siciliano; Souza,Wallace Nascimento de; Menezes,Daniella Rossi de

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Doença de Forestier afeta a coluna vertebral, preferencialmente em homens Coluna vertebral; idosos. Não é rara, mas é frequentemente não reconhecida e pode levar a relevante morbimortalidade. Quando acomete a coluna cervical, pode gerar importantes manifestações otorrino-Transtornos de laringológicas. Objetivo: Destacar os sintomas faringolaríngeos da doença de Forestier. Método: Revisão da literatura nas base...

  19. Doença de Forestier e suas implicações otorrinolaringológicas: revisão de literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Pulcherio, Janaina Oliveira Bentivi; Velasco, Cláudia Márcia Malafaia de Oliveira; Machado, Rosane Siciliano; Souza, Wallace Nascimento de; Menezes, Daniella Rossi de

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A Doença de Forestier afeta a coluna vertebral, preferencialmente em homens Coluna vertebral; idosos. Não é rara, mas é frequentemente não reconhecida e pode levar a relevante morbimortalidade. Quando acomete a coluna cervical, pode gerar importantes manifestações otorrino-Transtornos de laringológicas. Objetivo: Destacar os sintomas faringolaríngeos da doença de Forestier. Método: Revisão da literatura nas bases de dados Web of Knowledge, PubMed e SciELO e entre os dez periód...

  20. [Forestier-Rotes-Querol's disease. Ossification of the anterior cervical longitudinal ligament as a cause of dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, L; Jerez, P; Gómez-Angulo, J C; Tamarit, M; Navarro, R; Ortega, J M; Aragonés, P; Salazar, F; Del Pozo, J M

    2008-08-01

    Forestier's disease or diffuse idiophatic skeletal hyperostosis is a systemic reumathological abnormality of unknown etiology. It produces calcificationossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament. The low dorsal region is the most affected in the raquis. These patients are tipically asymptomatic or with few symptoms (minimal joint pain, spinal pain, stiffness). Dysphagia is the most common symptom when the disease affects the cervical spine; less frequent is dyspnea, both secondary to extrinsic compression of the esophagus and trachea. Neurological complaints are quite rare. In the 1970s Resnick described specific radiological criteria for the diagnosis of Forestier's disease that are still used today. It affects men more frequently than women (2:1); the peak occurrence is in patients in their 60s. We present two cases diagnosed by severe difficulty with deglution, a 84 years-old woman and a 54 years-old man; we operated on them for surgical decompression of the esophagus with resection of osteophytes C3-C4 and C5-C6 respectively through a conventional anterolateral neck approach. Relief of difficulty in swallowing was immediately ensued.

  1. Rôle des forêts plantées dans l’économie forestière mondiale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Les forets plantees, constituees par pl antati on ou ensemencemen t, jouen t un role de plus en plus important dans l'economie foresti ere mondia le, dans I a conservation des ressources, et dans Ia lu tte contre le changement cli matique. Au nivea u mondial , elles occupent 258 million d'ha, soit 6% de Ia co u verture forestiere...

  2. Plants, arthropods, and birds of the Rio Grande [chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Gale L. Wolters; Wang Yong; Mary Jean Mund

    1995-01-01

    Human populations have increased dramatically along the Rio Grande since European settlement. Human use of water for irrigation and consumption, and human use of land for agriculture, urban centers, livestock grazing, and recreation have changed Rio Grande ecosystems by altering flood cycles, channel geomorphology, upslope processes, and water quality and quantity....

  3. L’hybridation interspécifique et l’hétérosis chez les arbres forestiers

    OpenAIRE

    Pâques E., Luc

    2011-01-01

    L’hybridation interspécifique se rencontre fréquemment chez les arbres forestiers et intéressent les chercheurs dans des contextes très différents : introgression dans les aires naturelles des espèces, pollution des pools génétiques autochtones par des espèces/variétés introduites…. Elle est aussi valorisée en amélioration génétique en vue de la création variétale. Ce dernier aspect constitue le cœur de nos activités et de notre projet de recherche. Etudiés depuis longtemps chez les plantes...

  4. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  5. Pour une valorisation durable des produits forestiers non ligneux Cas des faciès à romarin de l’Oriental du Maroc

    OpenAIRE

    NAGGAR, Mustapha; IHARCHINE, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Actuellement, il est généralement admis que les produits forestiers non ligneux (PFNL), particulièrement tel que le romarin, ont un rôle important à jouer dans la création d'activités génératrices de revenus au profit de la population locale et par conséquent dans la préservation et le développement des écosystèmes forestiers. Dans la partie orientale du Maroc, le romarin (Rosmarinus officinalis) une espèce de la famille des Labiées est très répandue, et s'étend sur pl...

  6. Acquis et défis de la gestion participative des ressources forestières : Cas du Parc National d’Ifrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larbi Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Les ressources forestières constituent un capital naturel pour l’approvisionnement des populations locales, en bois, en plantes aromatiques et médicinales et en parcours pour le pâturage. Ces multiples usages ont conduit ces populations à mettre en place une gestion communautaire et très ancienne de ces ressources. Depuis 2002, l’administration des Eaux et Forêts a mis en place une politique forestière basée sur une stratégie de gestion participative. Nous avons étudié les formes de gestion communautaire et par l’administration des ressources forestières dans quatre communes rurales du Parc National d’Ifrane. L’administration organise une mise en défens, fondée sur l’implication et la responsabilisation des populations usagères, organisée en associations sylvo-pastorales ou en coopératives forestières, à travers une incitation financière sous forme de compensation. Ce mécanisme a permis d’obtenir un certain nombre d’acquis : conscientisation des populations vis-à-vis de la mise en défens, investissement des sommes de la compensation dans des projets de développement local, etc. Cependant, ce mécanisme présente certaines fragilités, notamment un risque de non durabilité des mises en défens (du fait que celles-ci ne sont financées que par le budget de l’Etat et un contrôle social plus faible dans les nouvelles associations qui n’ont pas la même légitimité pour prendre des décisions au nom du collectif que les anciennes jmaa.

  7. Décentralisation des ressources forestières et justice environnementale: Analyse des évidences empiriques du Sud-Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Assembe Mvondo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available La justice environnementale est sans doute l’un des objectifs attendus de tout processus de gestion décentralisée des ressources naturelles. Le modèle camerounais de décentralisation des ressources forestières en cours de construction n’échappe pas à cette logique de la quête de l’équité distributive des ressources intra-communautaires. En effet, les dispositions de la législation forestière de 1994, se fondant sur la théorie et les normes multilatérales environnementales, offrent désormais trois types d’opportunités de gestion locales aux communautés: forêts communales, forêts communautaires, redevance forestière. Mais, l’examen et l’analyse empirique de ce modèle camerounais de transfert des pouvoirs et de responsabilités de gestion locale des forêts mettent en exergue aussi bien un certain nombre d’acquis juridico-politiques et matériels, que des effets sociaux pervers qui sont contraires au concept de la justice environnementale.

  8. Behaviour of radiocesium in forest ecosystem contaminated during a nuclear accident; Comportement du radiocesium en ecosysteme forestier contamine lors d'un accident nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Y. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Ronneau, C. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Lab. de Chimie Inorganique, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Myttenaere, C. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    Vegetation and soils sampling were realized in 2 forest zones near the accidented power plant of Chernobyl. The {sup 137}Cs distribution in a red pine stand is established; many specific measures of wood complete the study. Results discussion point out the difficulties to manage the contaminated forest area without a good knowledge of the radioelement biochemical cycle. (author)

  9. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  10. Rice-fish farming in Guinée Forestière – outcome of a rural development project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Simon

    2010-09-01

    ressources financières et humaines. La méthode de l’élevage, basée sur la polyculture extensive, a utilisé uniquement les moyens disponibles sur l’exploitation : par exemple, les pisciculteurs fournissaient eux-mêmes les alevins.Afin d’assurer la pérennité des activités de rizipisciculture une fois le projet terminé, une structure a été mise en place pour encourager les membres du groupe à parrainer et à former de nouveaux candidats.Bien que les résultats aient dépassé les objectifs initiaux, avec en fin de projet 350 pisciculteurs et 500 étangs actifs, la production de riz et de poisson en bas fonds reste limitée. Toutefois, environ 6000 personnes sont régulièrement approvisionnées en poisson, calcul basé sur le faible niveau de consommation locale (10 kg par an et par personne.L’impact de ce projet est considérable. En termes économiques, le développement des bas fonds constitue une excellente source de profit car il multiplie par six les revenus des éleveurs, deux-tiers provenant de la pisciculture et un tiers de la riziculture. En outre, la technique de développement des bas fonds réduit de 30 % le temps nécessaire pour cultiver le riz. Ces avantages séduisent un grand nombre de candidats potentiels.L’impact sur l’environnement est également positif, en particulier en raison de l’amélioration de la fertilité du sol et des effets bénéfiques des étangs sur l’environnement naturel. Enfin, ces bons résultats ont permis de planifier de nouveaux projets, afin de prolonger et de consolider les bénéfices existants et d’appliquer cette méthode dans d’autres pays.El proyecto de piscicultura en arrozales en Guinea Forestière puesto en marcha en el año 2000 fue, al principio, un proyecto piloto con el propósito de probar la introducción de una nueva técnica de producción en una región empobrecida y sin salida al mar. Este proyecto pretendía mejorar la seguridad alimentaria de las personas que viven en la región y

  11. Grand Hotel prijutil hudozhnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Raadioajakirjanik Lea Veelmaa lindistas "Kunstikanali" 2004. a. esimese saate Grand Hotel Viljandis. Saatekülaliseks oli maalikunstnik Andres Tolts. Toltsi kaheksa akrüülmaali on eksponeeritud hotelli fuajees ja restoranis

  12. Doença de Forestier e suas implicações otorrinolaringológicas: revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Oliveira Bentivi Pulcherio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Doença de Forestier afeta a coluna vertebral, preferencialmente em homens Coluna vertebral; idosos. Não é rara, mas é frequentemente não reconhecida e pode levar a relevante morbimortalidade. Quando acomete a coluna cervical, pode gerar importantes manifestações otorrino-Transtornos de laringológicas. Objetivo: Destacar os sintomas faringolaríngeos da doença de Forestier. Método: Revisão da literatura nas bases de dados Web of Knowledge, PubMed e SciELO e entre os dez periódicos de maior número de citações na área de otorrinolaringologia e também busca manual por publicações nas listas de referências dos artigos selecionados, principalmente os de cunho histórico. Resultados: A doença não tem etiologia clara. Os sintomas das complicações são mais exuberantes que os da doença propriamente dita. A disfagia é o sintoma cervical mais conhecido. Outros sintomas discutidos são a apneia do sono, globus faríngeo, tosse, disfonia, dispneia, otalgia reflexa e sintomas medulares compressivos. O diagnóstico é efetuado com apropriado estudo radiológico. O tratamento é baseado em estratégia conservadora. Pacientes com disfagia refratária e comprometimento respiratório podem ser submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico. Conclusão: A doença de Forestier deve ser suspeitada em pacientes idosos com os principais sintomas das complicações, os quais são comuns na prática otorrinolaringológica, para o início precoce de acompanhamento multidisciplinar.

  13. Modélisation de la canopée forestière par photogrammétrie depuis des images acquises par drone

    OpenAIRE

    Lisein, Jonathan; Bonnet, Stéphanie; Lejeune, Philippe; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Les petits drones civils développés à des fins de cartographie rapide offrent, à une échelle locale, de nombreuses opportunités pour le suivi d’écosystèmes forestiers. Nous utilisons dans cette recherche des images acquises avec un avion sans pilote à voilure fixe afin de modéliser la surface de la canopée de peuplements feuillus. Une chaine de traitements photogrammétriques est mise en place au moyen des outils de la suite open source MICMAC. Nous comparons différentes stratégies de corrélat...

  14. Etude de l'exploitation et du marché des produits forestiers non ligneux à Kinshasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biloso, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of Non Woody Forest Products Exploitation and Market in Kinshasa. In spite of the considerable number of ethnobotanic studies carried out in many regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo, almost no information is available on the exploitation and commerce of the wild products (non woody forest products, "produits forestiers non ligneux" – PFNL of the Congolese provinces in general and the urban province of Kinshasa in particular. Nevertheless, these products are largely used and marketed. Therefore, direct observations in situ, and socio-economic and ethnoecologic investigations (including interviews were organized in the urban province of Kinshasa to analyse various aspects of consumption of these wild products. The purpose of these investigations was to collect information regarding the use and the marketing of PFNL products by the populations living in the zones surrounding the urban area. The analysis of the various types of exploitation and use of the PFNL has shown twelve categories of PFNL use: energy, food, construction of music instruments, saw mill applications, drink, drugs, dye, packing, construction of baskets, textile fabrication, construction and ornamentation. The majority of these PFNL originate not only from the secondary forests and from forest galleries, but from shrubby savannas and the marshes as well. The exploitations and uses of the PFNL vary rather largely with the level of income, the purchasing power, the attachment with food practices and with local traditions. The various levels of semi-monthly income by owner of the PFNL are estimated for the following plants which were used as vegetables: Gnetum africanum Welw., (275.0 $; Pteridium aquilinium Hieron. (166.7 $; Dracaena camerooniana Baker. (75.5 $; Dioscorea praehensilis (Benth. (71.0 $; Psophocarpus scandens (Endl. Verdc. (58.7 $. The average income resulting from the firewood sale was estimated at 80 $ per month and per person, for a group of 25 owners

  15. Grand antiprism and quaternions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Mehmet; Al Ajmi, Mudhahir; Koca, Nazife Ozdes [Department of Physics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, PO Box 36, Al Khoud, 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)], E-mail: kocam@squ.edu.om, E-mail: mudhahir@squ.edu.om, E-mail: nazife@squ.edu.om

    2009-12-11

    Vertices of the four-dimensional (4D) semi-regular polytope, the grand antiprism and its symmetry group of order 400 are represented in terms of quaternions with unit norm. It follows from the icosian representation of the E{sub 8} root system which decomposes into two copies of the root system of H{sub 4}. The symmetry of the grand antiprism is a maximal subgroup of the Coxeter group W(H{sub 4}). It is the group Aut(H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2}) which is constructed in terms of 20 quaternionic roots of the Coxeter diagram H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2}. The root system of H{sub 4} represented by the binary icosahedral group I of order 120, constitutes the regular 4D polytope 600-cell. When its 20 quaternionic vertices corresponding to the roots of the diagram H{sub 2} + H'{sub 2} are removed from the vertices of the 600-cell the remaining 100 quaternions constitute the vertices of the grand antiprism. We give a detailed analysis of the construction of the cells of the grand antiprism in terms of quaternions. The dual polytope of the grand antiprism has also been constructed.

  16. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  17. Democracy and "Grand" Corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Ackerman, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Defines "grand" corruption as that occurring at the higher levels of a political system and involving large sums of money. Discusses the impact and incentives for this level of corruption as well as various government responses. Identifies multinational corporations as the major malefactors. (MJP)

  18. Grand-Bassam

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geo

    l'estuaire du fleuve Comoé (Grand-Bassam, Côte d'Ivoire). Kouassi Laurent ADOPO1*, Apie Colette AKOBE1, Etche Mireille AMANI2,. Sylvain MONDE3 et Kouamé AKA3. (1)Laboratoire de Géologie Marine, Sédimentologie et Environnement, Centre de Recherche en Ecologie,. Université Felix Houphouet Boigny Abidjan, ...

  19. The GRANDE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, A.; Bond, R.; Coleman, L.; Rollefson, A.; Wold, D.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, H.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Price, L.R.; Reines, F.; Schultz, J.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Wilson, C.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a detector facility which meets the requirements outlined above for a next-generation instrument. GRANDE (Gamma Ray and Neutrino DEtector) is an imaging, water Cerenkov detector, which combines in one facility an extensive air shower array and a high-energy neutrino detector. (orig.)

  20. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  1. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership is co-chaired by the U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. There are also a number of other federal agencies engaged in projects with Tribal, State, and local officials, and community stakeholders. Like many western river ecosystems, the Middle Rio Grande faces numerous challenges in balancing competing needs within a finite water supply and other resource constrains. Historical practices by our ancestors and immigrants to the Middle Rio Grande have established the conditions that we have inherited. Long-term drought exacerbated by climate change is changing conditions that affect natural and human communities as we strive to improve our precious Rio Grande.The Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will reconnect our urban communities, particularly those that are overburdened or economically distressed, with the waterway by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led revitalization efforts. Our projects will improve our community water systems and promote their economic, environmental and social benefits. Specifically, the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Federal Partnership will support the development of the Valle de Oro

  2. Malles pédagogiques itinérantes « les grands singes et leur habitat »: parcours et premières évaluations de l’impact du projet en Ouganda et au Gabon Educative kits « great apes and their habitat » : itinerary and impact evaluation of the project in Uganda and in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Nambogwe

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Un programme de sensibilisation sur les grands singes et les forêts tropicales a été conçu en partenariat entre le « Projet pour la conservation des Grands Singes », le Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, l’UNESCO et la Coopération Française. Il s’appuie sur la circulation de malles pédagogiques d’un volume d’environ 1m3 contenant des outils ludiques et didactiques présentés par des animateurs locaux. Après une année de circulation de la malle dans les écoles à proximité des zones où vivent les grands singes en Ouganda et au Gabon, près de 15 000 enfants ont pris part à ce programme. Reçue dans 52 écoles primaires et secondaires en Ouganda, sur un parcours de 1 500 km organisé par le Wildlife Club of Uganda, la malle pédagogique et les animations associées ont permis selon une première étude d’impact d’accroître la motivation des enfants à protéger les grands singes et leur habitat. Au Gabon, le projet, sous l’impulsion du RAPAC, s’est appuyé sur neuf partenaires impliqués dans l’éducation environnementale et a pu être accueilli dans 66 écoles du pays dont certaines situées dans une concession forestière. Dans certaines localités, des données sur la consommation de viande de grands singes ont été collectées. Les sites atteints étaient répartis sur un circuit de 1 500 km. Les perspectives sont d’élargir le programme à d’autres pays de l’aire de répartition des grands singes en y associant des enquêtes socio-économiques et des études d’impact.  The Association « Projet pour la Conservation des Grands Singes » in partnership with MNHN, UNESCO and France Cooperation designed Great Apes kits. The showcases contain a set of entertaining and educative tools and activities explaining forests, ecosystems and great apes presented by national educators. The two first kits have moved in Uganda and Gabon in areas located where great apes occur. 15,000 kids from remote

  3. Asymptotically safe grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajc, Borut [J. Stefan Institute,1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sannino, Francesco [CP-Origins & the Danish IAS, University of Southern Denmark,Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Université de Lyon, France, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, UMR5822 IPNL,F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2016-12-28

    Phenomenologically appealing supersymmetric grand unified theories have large gauge representations and thus are not asymptotically free. Their ultraviolet validity is limited by the appearance of a Landau pole well before the Planck scale. One could hope that these theories save themselves, before the inclusion of gravity, by generating an interacting ultraviolet fixed point, similar to the one recently discovered in non-supersymmetric gauge-Yukawa theories. Employing a-maximization, a-theorem, unitarity bounds, as well as positivity of other central charges we nonperturbatively rule out this possibility for a broad class of prime candidates of phenomenologically relevant supersymmetric grand unified theories. We also uncover candidates passing these tests, which have either exotic matter or contain one field decoupled from the superpotential. The latter class of theories contains a model with the minimal matter content required by phenomenology.

  4. LA GRANDE DESCENTE

    CERN Multimedia

    The first endcap disc of CMS being lowered slowly and carefully 100 m underground into the experimental cavern. The disc is one of 15 large pieces to make the grand descent.  The uniquely shaped slice, 16 m high, about 50 cm thick weighs 400 tonnes. The two HF that were lowered earlier in November can also be seen in the foreground and background.  

  5. Application des techniques de photogrammétrie par drone à la caractérisation des ressources forestières

    OpenAIRE

    Lisein, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Une gestion raisonnée et multifonctionnelle des forêts n’est possible qu’avec une description à jour de l’état de la ressource naturelle. Les inventaires forestiers traditionnels, réalisés sur le terrain, sont couteux et ne couvrent qu’un échantillonnage de la surface boisée. L’essor des drones civils pour la cartographie a initié une révolution dans le domaine de la télédétection environnementale. La polyvalence et la diversité des systèmes drones sont une aubaine pour la f...

  6. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  7. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  8. Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Alcides-Rezende

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyse the integration of information systems and information technology resources in the municipal planning of 14 small cities of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil. The research methodology consisted of a multiple case study together with a convenient non-probabilistic sample chosen through a research protocol. The results demonstrate the difficulties of these cities to organise the municipal data as well as their struggle for accessibility of information and planning for management and control.

  9. Polychromatic Grand Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, Gustavo Castello; Felipe, R G; Nobre, B M

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of achieving a gauge coupling grand unification by increasing the QCD degrees of freedom at higher energies is investigated. When confronted with precision low-energy data, the generic weak-mixing angle relation sin^2(theta_W) = N/2(N+1) requires N=7 colors at the GUT scale M_U ~ 10^17 GeV. With the exclusive addition of light Higgs doublets to the standard model particle content, such a unification may also occur if N=5 at M_U ~ 10^16 GeV.

  10. Historia forestis : Nederlandse bosgeschiedenis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, J.

    1985-01-01

    General study on the history of Dutch forests. Various aspects of the history of woodlands, forests and forestry. Analysis of various types of use and misuse of forests and woodlands by communities, local populations, landowners and local managers. Local forest management and forest legislation

  11. Ligeti, Le Grand Macabre (1978)

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Le Grand Macabre, de Györgi Ligeti, uma obra que, em plenos anos setenta, retoma e reinventa a grande tradição da ópera de repertório. Escrita para a Ópera de Estocolmo, estreada em Abril de 1978, Le Grand Macabre é uma das obras mais marcantes e uma das mais consagradas, internacionalmente, no plano da música dramática da segunda metade do século XX. Escrita a partir de uma peça do dramaturgo belga Michel de Ghelderode, “A Balada do Grande Macabro”, de 1934, a obra de Ligeti retoma um...

  12. Dépendance économique aux produits forestiers non ligneux : cas des ménages riverains des forêts de Boulon et de Koflandé, au Sud-Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouédraogo, M; Ouédraogo, D; Thiombiano, T

    2013-01-01

    taille du ménage, la superficie forestière et la densité de population du département qui affectent positivement la dépendance aux PFNL. Dans le cadre d’une politique de réduction de la pauvreté en milieu rural, il faut prendre des mesures qui favorisent l’accès durable des ménages les plus pauvres aux...

  13. La Grande Muraille Verte

    OpenAIRE

    Achouak, Wafa; Adjonou, Kossi; Albergel, Jean; Bâ, Amadou; Bâ, Amadou M.; Bally, René; Baudoin, Ezékiel; Bellefontaine, Ronald; Billaz, René; Boetsch, Gilles; Bonnet, Bernard; Broutin, Cécile; Castellanet, Christian; Delville, Philippe Lavigne; Descroix, Luc

    2013-01-01

    La désertification est un phénomène mondial qui affecte près de la moitié de la surface de la planète, notamment en Afrique où 43 % des terres se trouvent dans des zones arides ou semi-arides. La lutte contre la désertification dans ces milieux constitue une des priorités majeures des États sahélo-sahariens du Circum-Sahara. L’ « Initiative africaine Grande Muraille Verte » (IAGMV) répond à ces enjeux via un ensemble d’actions destinées à assurer le développement socio-économique régional. El...

  14. La importancia de ser grande

    OpenAIRE

    Baisre, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Se responde a las preguntas ¿por qué los mamíferos marinos son los animales más grandes del planeta?, ¿Por qué los peces no pueden ser más grandes?. Éstas y otras interrogantes son respondidas de forma sencilla y clara.

  15. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic ecosystems are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic ecosystems (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...

  16. Grand slam on cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    A winner of 59 Grand Slam championships including a record 9 Wimbledon singles titles, Martina Navratilova is the most successful woman tennis player of the modern era. Martina was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame, named "Tour Player of the Year" seven times by the Women's Tennis Association, declared "Female Athlete of the Year" by the Associated Press, and ranked one of the "Top Forty Athletes of All-Time" by Sports Illustrated. Equally accomplished off the court, Martina is an author, philanthropist, TV commentator, and activist who has dedicated her life to educating people about prejudice and stereotypes. After coming out as a lesbian in 1981, Martina became a tireless advocate of equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people, and she has contributed generously to the LGBT community. Martina is the author of seven books, including most recently Shape Your Self: My 6-Step Diet and Fitness Plan to Achieve the Best Shape of your Life, an inspiring guide to healthy living and personal fitness. Martina was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010.

  17. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  18. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  19. Grand Gestures: A Somatic Ethnography

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Trish

    2015-01-01

    This is a 'Plain English' report on the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project 'A Somatic Ethnography of Grand Gestures Elders Dance Group'. It is written for the communities of practice around elders dance and participatory arts more generally.

  20. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  1. Diversité floristique sous canopée en plantation forestière de Mangombe-Edea (Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makombu, G.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity under canopy in forest plantation of Mangombe-Edea (Cameroon. Trees plantation of Mangombe is situated in rain forest of low altitude. Six plots among which one of Mansonia altissima (A.Chev. A.Chev., 2 of Lovoa trichilioides Harms, 3 of Terminalia ivorensis A.Chev. and one perturbed natural forest are concerned by this study. The work consisted to the evaluation of the floristic diversity under canopy in order to appreciate the influence of forest plantation on natural regeneration. A total of 26 families, 42 genders and 46 species were censured. Meliaceae and Apocynaceae are present in all the plots. In plot one of T. ivorensis, M. altissima and natural forest, the low value of equitability of Pielou traduces the dominance of flora by few species and the transitory situation of the ecosystem. On contrary the rest of plots present a good repartition of individuals among the species. One can notice a weak organization of the ecologic system in M. altissima plot, this corresponds to favourable conditions of environment for installation of many species represented by a few number of individuals. Shannon indices, relatively low in plot one of T. ivorensis characterize an ecosystem where one species is dominant. Globally, the regeneration under canopy is reconstituted progressively and remains less diversified than the nearest natural forest. Creation of genetic pool through selective entertainment under canopy will permit polycyclic management of plots for sustainable production of wood.

  2. Gestion alternative des conflits liés à la gestion des ressources forestières dans le cadre de la gestion des terroirs: Rapport de l'atelier national de Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Agne, A.; Sylla, C.I.; Ndione, P.D.; Mathieu, H.

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record Du 17 au 19 Mai 1995, s'est tenu au Centre Foret à Thiès, l'atelier national sur la Gestion Alternative des Conflits liés aux ressources forestières dans le cadre de la gestion des terroirs. Cet atelier qui a réuni une trentaine de participants issus de divers milieux de la recherche, du développement, de la justice, des ONG, de la pressure ainsi que des représentants de bailleurs de fonds (cf. liste des participants), avait entre autre but, la validation et l'enrichis...

  3. La taille du grand homme

    OpenAIRE

    Tillier, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Le gigantisme plastique a été l’objet, tant de la part des artistes que des instances politiques, de nombreux débats et controverses, en particulier à propos de la multiplication des sculptures monumentales publiques. Les grands programmes sculptés de Bartholdi — le Lion de Belfort et la Liberté de New-York — n’ont pas été sans susciter de vives polémiques. Mais celles-ci atteignent leur summum quand le monumentalisme concerne les effigies de grands hommes, en lesquelles les adversaires de la...

  4. Pentimento: Fuels reduction and restoration in the Bosque of the Middle Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Middle Rio Grande of New Mexico is the most extensive, remaining bosque, or cottonwood forest in the southwest. Alterations caused by humans-damming and channeling the river, controlling floods, and planting non-native trees-have disrupted the cycles of the earlier ecosystem. Without periodic flooding, native cottonwoods cannot regenerate. Invasive exotic plants...

  5. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service Research. Its mission focuses on the development and application of new...

  6. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Presentation. Grand Rounds in Pediatric Nephrology. Elisabeth M. Hodson. Centre for Kidney Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead NSW 2145, Australia .... nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) with minimal change disease ... and reduced renal function while severe SLE nephropathy.

  7. Results from KASCADE-Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertaina, M., E-mail: bertaina@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velazquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bluemer, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Buchholz, P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF Torino (Italy); Chiavassa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell' Universita, Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); and others

    2012-11-11

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10{sup 14}-10{sup 18} eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} eV range by sampling charged (N{sub ch}) and muon (N{sub {mu}}) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE-Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  8. Results from KASCADE–Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaina, M.; Apel, W.D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Blümer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Buchholz, P.; Cantoni, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Cossavella, F.

    2012-01-01

    The KASCADE–Grande experiment, located at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany) is a multi-component extensive air-shower experiment devoted to the study of cosmic rays and their interactions at primary energies 10 14 –10 18 eV. Main goals of the experiment are the measurement of the all-particle energy spectrum and mass composition in the 10 16 –10 18 eV range by sampling charged (N ch ) and muon (N μ ) components of the air shower. The method to derive the energy spectrum and its uncertainties, as well as the implications of the obtained result, is discussed. An overview of the analyses performed by KASCADE–Grande to derive the mass composition of the measured high-energy comic rays is presented as well.

  9. Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    volcanically active nations in the world with nearly 70 active or potentially active volcanoes .13 During the 20th century, volcanic eruptions in...Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction deformation, gravity changes, gas emissions, magma move- ment, and other parameters to distinguish between mag...address the interdependencies of these lifelines at a systems level (e.g., communications, electricity, financial, gas , sewage, transportation, and

  10. Grand unification: quo vadis domine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    The present theoretical and experimental situation with grand unification is summarized. The issues of proton decay and the Weinberg angle are addressed, going through the predictions of both the standard SU(5) theory and its supersymmetric extension. The SO(10) theory, which provides a minimal one family model, is then studied. The gravitational characteristics of domain walls and strings are then discussed. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond SO(10) in order to incorporate a unified picture of families. This leads to the prediction of mirror fermions, whose physics is analyzed. 31 refs

  11. Graafikatriennaali grand prix Korea kunstnikule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Tallinna XI graafikatriennaali rahvusvaheline žürii andis grand prix korea kunstnikule Chung¡Sang-Gonile, kolm võrdset preemiat - soome kunstnikele Anita Jensenile ja Tapani Mikkonenile ning jaapani kunstnikule Estuko Obatale. Eesti Kunstimuuseumi preemia - Wendy Swallow. Tallinna linna preemia ja Ivar Luki sponsoripreemia - Walter Jule. Sponsoripreemiad : Paletti Eesti AS preemia - Inga Heamägi; Rannila Profiili preemia - Mojca Zlokarnik; UNDP preemia - Andrea Juan. Rotermanni soolalao arhitektuuri- ja kunstikeskuse diplom - Lis Ingram, Heli Päivikki Kurunsaari, Randi Strand, Wendy Swallow

  12. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  13. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  14. Diversité et fonction des communautés d'oiseaux et de lépidoptères dans les paysages forestiers fragmentés : réponses multi-échelles et interactions trophiques

    OpenAIRE

    Barbaro, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Une question centrale en écologie du paysage et en biogéographie de la conservation est d’identifier les processus écologiques sous-tendant la distribution des assemblages d’espèces à différentes échelles spatiales. La première partie de ce travail cherche à comprendre les patrons de réponses multi-échelles des communautés d’oiseaux et de lépidoptères à la structure et à la composition de l’habitat dans les paysages forestiers fragmentés. La seconde partie porte sur le rôle struct...

  15. Étude des variations de la végétation d’un massif forestier de la plaine lorraine (Moselle, France) depuis le Moyen Âge

    OpenAIRE

    Étienne, David; Ruffaldi, Pascale; Ritz, Frédéric; Dambrine, Étienne

    2013-01-01

    Il existe, au sein de massifs forestiers dits « anciens » du plateau Lorrain, de nombreuses dépressions humides appelées « mardelles » dont l’origine est encore inconnue. Certaines possèdent une sédimentation tourbeuse et une végétation oligotrophe originale sur ces terrains marneux du Keuper. Une séquence de 440 cm de profondeur, prélevée dans une des dépressions de la forêt du Römersberg est étudiée. Datée à la base du VIIIe siècle AD, elle permet une étude pollinique à haute résolution tem...

  16. Microbial Ecosystems, Protection of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Conservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes; Preservation of microbial diversity and ecosystem functions provided by microbes Definition The use, management, and conservation of ecosystems in order to preserve microbial diversity and functioning.

  17. Interactions comportementales et rythmes d’activité de Glossina palpalis gambiensis et G. tachinoides (Diptera : Glossinidae en galerie forestière au Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salou E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina palpalis gambiensis et G. tachinoides sont des vecteurs majeurs des trypanosomoses humaines et animales en Afrique de l’Ouest. Sur une partie de leur aire de répartition, elles sont présentes en sympatrie, mais très peu d’informations sont disponibles sur leurs interactions. Nous avons capturé ces deux espèces en utilisant un système attractif composé d’écrans de tissu noir/bleu/ noir muni de film adhésif, afin de retenir toutes les glossines posées et de pouvoir mesurer la hauteur à laquelle elles se sont posées, ainsi que leur rythme d’activité en fonction de l’heure de la journée. L’étude a eu lieu dans deux zones du sud du Burkina Faso : Kartasso en amont du fleuve Mouhoun, où seule G. p. gambiensis est présente, et Folonzo sur le fleuve Comoé, où les deux espèces cohabitent. Les résultats, sur 3 800 glossines capturées, montrent une forte prédominance des captures de G. tachinoides par rapport à G. p. gambiensis à Folonzo (84 % contre 16 % des captures respectivement. À Kartasso, où elle est seule, G. p. gambiensis est capturée en moyenne à 46 cm du sol. À Folonzo, G. p. gambiensis est en moyenne attrapée à une hauteur de 65 cm, et G. tachinoides à 55 cm, ces différences de hauteurs étant significatives. Les femelles sont capturées en général plus haut que les mâles. Les deux espèces montrent un rythme d’activité similaire en fonction de l’heure de capture, mais seule G. p. gambiensis réduit sa hauteur de vol aux heures les plus chaudes. Plusieurs hypothèses, non exclusives, sont évoquées pour expliquer ces hauteurs de capture différentes : la nature de la galerie forestière, un comportement d’approche qui différerait entre espèces, mais aussi la possibilité de phénomènes de compétition interspécifique en relation avec l’utilisation de ressources énergétiques limitées (métabolisme lié à la proline. Sont également discutées les conséquences possibles

  18. Grand unified brane world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    We present a field theoretical model unifying grand unified theory (GUT) and brane world scenario. As a concrete example, we consider S U (5 ) GUT in 4 +1 dimensions where our 3 +1 dimensional spacetime spontaneously arises on five domain walls. A field-dependent gauge kinetic term is used to localize massless non-Abelian gauge fields on the domain walls and to assure the charge universality of matter fields. We find the domain walls with the symmetry breaking S U (5 )→S U (3 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) as a global minimum and all the undesirable moduli are stabilized with the mass scale of MGUT. Profiles of massless standard model particles are determined as a consequence of wall dynamics. The proton decay can be exponentially suppressed.

  19. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    to engage in joint search and compete for funding. Prior research on joint search highlights the role of specialized organizations, mainly regarding technological domains, to identify a superior solution. However, stakeholder theory leads us to believe that the success of any solution depends...... on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...... stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show...

  20. Grandes almacenes en Ginebra, Suiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braillard, P.

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available This large building, whose metal structure is one of the most important ones erected in Switzerland, has 14 storeys. The sales zones occupy all the above ground floor levels, and the basements contain garages and stores. Additionally, there is a restaurant on the third floor, and administrative offices in the fourth floor of this outstanding commercial building, the «La Placette» Stores, of Geneva.Este gran edificio, cuya estructura metálica es una de las mayores construidas en Suiza, fue organizado en 14 niveles. Las plantas baja y superiores están destinadas a «venta»; y los sótanos, a garajes, almacenes, etc. La tercera planta alberga, además, el comedor, restaurante, etc.; y la cuarta, los locales de administración y dirección de este notable edificio comercial: «Grandes Almacenes La Placette», de Ginebra.

  1. Google Earth Grand Tour Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, D. G.; Whitmeyer, S. J.; Bentley, C.; Dordevic, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    As part of an NSF TUES Type 3 project entitled "Google Earth for Onsite and Distance Education (GEODE)," we are assembling a "Grand Tour" of locations on Earth and other terrestrial bodies that every geoscience student should know about and visit at least in virtual reality. Based on feedback from colleagues at previous meetings, we have identified nine Grand Tour themes: "Plates and Plumes," "Rocks and Regions," "Geology Through Time," "The Mapping Challenge*," "U.S. National Parks*," "The Magical Mystery Tour*," "Resources and Hazards," "Planets and Moons," and "Top of the Pops." Themes marked with an asterisk are most developed at this stage and will be demonstrated in real time. The Mapping Challenge invites students to trace geological contacts, measure bedding strike and dip and the plunge, trend, and facing of a fold. There is an advanced tool for modeling periclinal folds. The challenge is presented in a game-like format with an emphasis on puzzle-solving that will appeal to students regardless of gender. For the tour of U.S. national parks, we divided the most geologically important parks into four groups—Western Pacific, West Coast, Rockies, and East Coast. We are combining our own team's GigaPan imagery with imagery already available on the Internet. There is a great deal of imagery just waiting to be annotated for geological education purposes. The Magical Mystery Tour takes students to Google Streetview locations selected by instructors. Students are presented with questions or tasks and are given automatic feedback. Other themes are under development. Within each theme, we are crowd-sourcing contributions from colleagues and inviting colleagues to vote for or against proposed locations and student interactions. The GEODE team includes the authors and: Heather Almquist, Stephen Burgin, Cinzia Cervato, Gene Cooper, Paul Karabinos, Terry Pavlis, Jen Piatek, Bill Richards, Jeff Ryan, Ron Schott, Kristen St. John, and Barb Tewksbury.

  2. Hyacinths Choke the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These images acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, demonstrate the potential of satellite-based remote sensors to monitor infestations of non-native plant species. These images show the vigorous growth of water hyacinths along a stretch of the Rio Grande River in Texas. The infestation had grown so dense in some places it was impeding the flow of water and rendered the river impassible for boats. The hyacinth is an aquatic weed native to South America. The plant is exotic looking and, when it blooms, the hyacinth produces a pretty purple flower, which is why it was introduced into North America. However, it has the capacity to grow and spread at astonishing rates so that in the wild it can completely clog the flow of rivers and waterways in a matter of days or weeks. The top image was acquired on March 30, 2002, and the bottom image on May 9, 2002. In the near-infrared region of the spectrum, photosynthetically-active vegetation is highly reflective. Consequently, vegetation appears bright to the near-infrared sensors aboard ASTER; and water, which absorbs near-infrared radiation, appears dark. In these false-color images produced from the sensor data, healthy vegetation is shown as bright red while water is blue or black. Notice a water hyacinth infestation is already apparent on March 30 near the center of the image. By May 9, the hyacinth population has exploded to cover more than half the river in the scene. Satellite-based remote sensors can enable scientists to monitor large areas of infestation like this one rather quickly and efficiently, which is particularly useful for regions that are difficult to reach from on the ground. (For more details, click to read Showdown in the Rio Grande.) Images courtesy Terrametrics; Data provided by the ASTER Science Team

  3. Dynamiques spatio-temporelles des plantations forestières industrielles dans le sud chilien : de l'analyse diachronique à la modélisation prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Maestripieri, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Southern Chile forest cover represents a major environmental issue. The native forest, integrated into the Valvidian Ecoregion (35°S-48°S), belongs to ecosystems with the highest conservation priority in the world. The application of the Decree Law 701 in 1974 generated the expansion of pines and eucalyptus monocultures in Southern Chile. The intensification of silvicultural practices, combined with the substitution of native forested ecosystems, reappraises their sustainability on both short...

  4. Proton hexality in local grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerste, Stefan; Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics

    2010-07-15

    Proton hexality is a discrete symmetry that avoids the problem of too fast proton decay in the supersymmetric extension of the standard model. Unfortunately it is inconsistent with conventional grand unification. We show that proton hexality can be incorporated in the scheme of ''Local Grand Unification'' discussed in the framework of model building in (heterotic) string theory. (orig.)

  5. Effet des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols, zaï forestier et cordons pierreux, sur la réhabilitation de la végétation herbacée à l'Ouest du Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yameogo, Jérôme T.; Hien, Mipro; Lykke, Anne Mette

    2011-01-01

    Dans la perspective de trouver des solutions pour remédier au problème de dégradation des ressources naturelles en milieu forestier, des techniques de conservation des eaux et des sols ont été appliquées dans la forêt classée de Kuinima, à l’Ouest du Burkina Faso. L’étude a consisté au suivi de l...

  6. La Grande: volver a empezar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Premat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, borrador de un trabajo más amplio, pretende despejar algunas pistas de lectura de La grande, en tanto que paradójico final de la producción de Saer. Digo “paradójico” porque puede tomársela como una novela de comienzo o de origen : de un volver a empezar, en todos los sentidos del término. En esa perspectiva podrían estudiarse algunos núcleos temáticos (como el retorno o el recuerdo de cara a la construcción del texto, a la relación planteada con la tradición y a la singular historia de su escritura (y al material genético que rodea y completa esta novela a la vez inacabada y póstuma. En esta intervención, la idea es la de comentar tres textos, escenas o frases del texto, y a partir de allí esbozar pistas para un estudio que está en ciernes.Première ébauche d’un travail de plus d’ampleur, ce texte vise à éclairer quelques pistes de lecture de La grande, en tant que fin paradoxale de la production de Saer. Je dis « paradoxale » parce que l’on peut considérer cette œuvre comme un roman des commencements ou des origines : comme un retour aux débuts, dans tous les sens du terme. Dans cette perspective, plusieurs nœuds thématiques (comme le retour ou le souvenir pourraient être étudiés en relation à la construction du texte, à la relation qui s’établit avec la tradition et à la singulière histoire de son écriture (et au matériau génétique qui entoure et complète ce roman, à la fois inachevé et posthume. Il sera question ici de commenter trois textes, scènes ou phrases du texte, et d’ébaucher à partir de là quelques pistes pour une étude à l’état naissant.The objective of this text, a draft for a broader work, is to outline some reading clues for La grande, inasmuch as it constitutes a paradoxical ending of Saer’s production. I say “paradoxical” because we can consider this work a novel of beginnings or of origins: a return to the beginning, in every meaning of the

  7. Usages et gestion du domaine forestier de Regina / Saint- Georges Uso e gestão da floresta Regina / Saint-Georges, Guiana Francesa Use and management of forest area of Regina / Saint-Georges, French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Sévelin-Radiguet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Le domaine forestier de Régina / Saint-Georges fait l’objet d’une attention grandissante en Guyane française. En effet, cet espace possède plusieurs particularités. C’est le domaine le plus à l’est du département et il représente une activité d’exploitation forestière grandissante. D’autre part, sa limite sud est en contact direct avec le fleuve Oyapock qui représente la frontière naturelle entre la Guyane française et le Brésil. Afin de déterminer le réel potentiel attractif du domaine forestier de Régina / Saint- Georges, il est nécessaire d’en préciser les différents acteurs et leurs usages. Au travers de questionnaires, d’enquêtes, d’entretiens menés auprès de la population, différents intervenants ont été déterminés. L’activité d’exploitation forestière est de plus en plus importante dans ce domaine, les professionnels du bois jouant un rôle considérable sur la ressource. Cette étude permet de retracer la filière bois de l’Est guyanais et de proposer des perspectives d’évolution quant à l’utilisation du domaine. D’autant plus que son contexte frontalier avec le Brésil et l’ouverture prochaine du pont transfrontalier entre le Brésil et la Guyane française apporte différents questionnements sur l’évolution de l’accessibilité aux ressources de part et d’autre de la frontière. Inquiétudes qui se posent aussi bien pour les professionnels que pour les particuliers. Il est important de ne pas omettre que la population locale a également un impact non négligeable sur les ressources qu’offre la forêt. Les activités traditionnelles de chasse et de cueillette sont encore beaucoup pratiquées par certaines communautés et le domaine forestier reste pour elles une source indispensable de produits alimentaires.Regina / Saint-Georges forest estate is the subject of increasing attention in French Guiana. In fact, this location has several specific aspects. As the

  8. do rio grande do sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of quantifying the production of wood in the Area of the Fourth Colony of Italian Immigration in Rio Grande do Sul. Firstly, using a questionnaire, a census of the consuming companies of wood in that area was made, investigating mainly the amount, type, origin of the consumed raw material, and the amount, type and end use of wood products. As principal results, it was verified that such area presents 77 consuming companies and wood processing units. These were classified into micro and small companies, with familiar features and capital, and low industrialization. In the visits made to the industries, it was evident that many technological aspects are not known or are neglected, thus causing loss of the raw material and/or in low quality of the final products. A great amount of raw material (96,8% of the boards and 98,9% of the timber comes from other areas of the State or the country. In the same way the main products are sold abroad (wood frames 86,3%, panelings 99,7%, sawed wood 53%.

  9. A Grande Reportagem no contexto informativo SIC

    OpenAIRE

    Colaço, Vanessa Alexandra Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Os telespectadores querem ver grandes reportagens? Como evoluíram as audiências da Grande Reportagem SIC? É este o produto premium da estação? Terá este formato um investimento e continuidade garantidas? Estas são algumas das questões formuladas e às quais se procurou dar resposta neste Relatório de Estágio. Neste trabalho traça-se o perfil do programa Grande Reportagem SIC, clarificando a linha editorial que lhe serviu de base, procurando perceber as suas dinâmicas e passando em revista mome...

  10. Supersymmetry and supergravity: Phenomenology and grand unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnowitt, R.; Nath, P.

    1993-01-01

    A survey is given of supersymmetry and supergravity and their phenomenology. Some of the topics discussed are the basic ideas of global supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its phenomenology, the basic ideas of local supersymmetry (supergravity), grand unification, supersymmetry breaking in supergravity grand unified models, radiative breaking of SU(2) x U(1), proton decay, cosmological constraints, and predictions of supergravity grand unified models. While the number of detailed derivations are necessarily limited, a sufficient number of results are given so that a reader can get a working knowledge of this field

  11. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  12. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...

  13. Las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan ter Laak

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo revisa las distintas posiciones teóricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones de la personalidad, mostrando las semejanzas y diferencias entre las posturas teóricas. Esta contribución presenta lo siguiente: (a la génesis del contenido y la estructura de las cinco dimensiones; (b la fortaleza de las cinco dimensiones; (e la relación de las cinco grandes dimensiones con otros constructos de personalidad; (d discute el valor predictivo de las puntuaciones del perfil de las cinco dimensiones para criterios pertinentes; (e analiza el estatus teórico de las cinco dimensiones; (f discute críticas históricas sobre las cinco grandes dimensiones y se formulan respuestas a estas críticas; (g hace conjeturas para el futuro de las cinco grandes dimensiones; y (h concluye con algunas conclusiones y comentarios.

  14. Rio Grande Channel, El Paso Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.-Mexican Boundary Survey.The original map is a Xerox of a Photolithographic Copy of Salazar...

  15. Rio Grande Channel, Guadalupe Area, 1852

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Historical map of Rio Grande river between Texas and Mexico. U.S.- Mexican Boundary Survey. The original map is a xerox of a map entitled Boundary between the United...

  16. Grand unification and gravity - selected topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-09-01

    The material given here was presented in lectures delivered at the 4th Kyoto Summer Institute on Grand Unification and Related Topics. It consists of six sections. The sections are: the family problem, fermion mass hierarchy, maximal local symmetry, operator analysis of new physics, dynamically generated gravity, and Kaluza theory and grand unification. The last section contains a (hopefully) pedagogical introduction to Kaluza theory. For pedagogical completeness, several appendices reviewing some elementary notions of differential geometry have been added

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.; Stennfeld, Scott P.

    2001-04-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian enclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2000 included: (1) Implementing 2 new projects in the Grande Ronde drainage, and retrofitting one old

  18. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  19. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  20. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  1. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  2. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  3. Mesurer l’évolution des stocks forestiers de carbone: un véritable défi à Bornéo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Dorais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Les forêts pluviales sont d’importants réservoirs de carbone. Des initiatives comme REDD-plus prennent forme en vue de limiter le réchauffement climatique en protégeant ces forêts. Elles reposent sur l’élaboration et l’application de méthodes et techniques de surveillance efficaces des forêts pluviales. Nous avons nous-mêmes mis au point une méthodologie adaptée à ces forêts et permettant d’y localiser des points chauds de déforestation et de dégradation. Cela nous a permis de produire une série chronologique de points chauds de déforestation pour la grande île de Bornéo.

  4. Répartition spatiale et préférences trophiques de Glossina palpalis palpalis dans le foyer forestier de Zoukougbeu (Cote d'Ivoire. Implications épidémiologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sané B.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans le foyer de maladie du sommeil de Zoukougbeu (Côte d'Ivoire, plus d'un quart des glossines capturées s'étaient gorgées sur cochon en zone de plantations, lieux préférentiels de transmission de la trypanosomose humaine. En outre, on y observe une concordance nette entre la localisation des sites où Glossina palpalis palpalis a été capturée gorgée sur ces animaux et la présence de trypanosomés. Ceci laisse penser que, dans le foyer de Zoukougbeu, mais peut-être aussi dans d'autres foyers de trypanosomose humaine africaine du secteur forestier, le cochon joue un rôle plus actif qu'on ne le pense généralement, dans la transmission de l'endémie en permettant une large diffusion du parasite par l'intermédiaire des glossines.

  5. Nouvelles données sur le parasitisme de Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera : Glossinidae par Hexamermis glossinae (Nematoda : Mermithidae en secteur pré-forestier de Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnogo M.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Une étude sur un cycle annuel du parasitisme de Glossina palpalis palpalis par Hexamermis glossinae a été effectuée dans les secteurs d'Abengourou, d'Aboisso et de Daloa (zones forestières de Côte d'Ivoire. Les dissections de 2 168 glossines à Abengourou et 9732 à Aboisso n'ont pas permis de mettre le parasite en évidence. À Daloa, en revanche, le pourcentage d'infection est de 1,75 % sur un total de 7341 mouches disséquées. Tous les parasites sont localisés dans la cavité abdominale sans léser les organes. Les mâles sont plus infectés que les femelles (2,68 % contre 1,26 %, et parmi celles-ci les nullipares sont plus infectées que les jeunes pares et vieilles pares (2,30 % contre 1,19 % et 0,52 % respectivement. Le parasite est le plus abondant chez les glossines en début de saison des pluies (5, 17 % et plus rare en saison sèche (0,23 %. Le faible niveau de parasitisme observé ici semble indiquer que celui-ci a naturellement peu d'impact sur la dynamique du principal vecteur de la maladie du sommeil en Côte d'Ivoire.

  6. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  7. Fishing for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Pegg, Mark A.; Cole, Nicholas W.; Siddons, Stephen F.; Fedele, Alexis D.; Harmon, Brian S.; Ruskamp, Ryan L.; Turner, Dylan R.; Uerling, Caleb C.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships.

  8. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. 2010 Panel on the Biomaterials Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, William “Monty”; Ratner, Buddy D.; Anderson, James; Coury, Art; Hoffman, Allan S.; Laurencin, Cato T.; Tirrell, David

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy for Engineering issued the Grand Challenges for Engineering in the 21st Century comprised of 14 technical challenges that must be addressed to build a healthy, profitable, sustainable, and secure global community (http://www.engineeringchallenges.org). Although crucial, none of the NEA Grand Challenges adequately addressed the challenges that face the biomaterials community. In response to the NAE Grand Challenges, Monty Reichert of Duke University organized a panel entitled Grand Challenges in Biomaterials at the at the 2010 Society for Biomaterials Annual Meeting in Seattle. Six members of the National Academies—Buddy Ratner, James Anderson, Allan Hoffman, Art Coury, Cato Laurencin, and David Tirrell—were asked to propose a grand challenge to the audience that, if met, would significantly impact the future of biomaterials and medical devices. Successfully meeting these challenges will speed the 60-plus year transition from commodity, off-the-shelf biomaterials to bioengineered chemistries, and biomaterial devices that will significantly advance our ability to address patient needs and also to create new market opportunities. PMID:21171147

  10. Lifeomics leads the age of grand discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuchu

    2013-03-01

    When our knowledge of a field accumulates to a certain level, we are bound to see the rise of one or more great scientists. They will make a series of grand discoveries/breakthroughs and push the discipline into an 'age of grand discoveries'. Mathematics, geography, physics and chemistry have all experienced their ages of grand discoveries; and in life sciences, the age of grand discoveries has appeared countless times since the 16th century. Thanks to the ever-changing development of molecular biology over the past 50 years, contemporary life science is once again approaching its breaking point and the trigger for this is most likely to be 'lifeomics'. At the end of the 20th century, genomics wrote out the 'script of life'; proteomics decoded the script; and RNAomics, glycomics and metabolomics came into bloom. These 'omics', with their unique epistemology and methodology, quickly became the thrust of life sciences, pushing the discipline to new high. Lifeomics, which encompasses all omics, has taken shape and is now signalling the dawn of a new era, the age of grand discoveries.

  11. Grand Tour: immaginario, territorio e culture digitali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Ilardi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Il Grand Tour può essere recuperato come asset narrativo utile per un intervento strategico di re-branding del viaggio in Italia? Il contributo analizza il contesto e le condizioni per una progettazione di questo livello nell’ambiente culturale dell’epoca digitale. Considerando gli archetipi moderni della mediazione dei luoghi come una grande riserva di senso, da riattivare sia nelle pratiche basate sui format seriali e transmediali che valorizzano i territori nella produzione creativa, sia nella costruzione di infrastrutture digitali e  transluoghi per la valorizzazione degli attrattori culturali.

  12. Effective Higgs theories in supersymmetric grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Sibo [Chongqing University, Department of Physics, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    The effective Higgs theories at the TeV scale in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unification models are systematically derived. Restricted to extensions on 5{sub H} containing the Higgs sector we show that only two types of real (vector-like) models and one type of chiral model are found to be consistent with perturbative grand unification. While the chiral model has been excluded by the LHC data, the fate of perturbative unification will be uniquely determined by the two classes of vector-like models. (orig.)

  13. Grand Master Perellos : rheumatic fever and syphilis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonello, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    It is not given to everyone to have his maladies made the subject-matter of a published book. Not so Grand Master Perellos (1697 ­ 1720) who lived to see a 104-page volume about his recalcitrant fevers printed in his lifetime.1 It all started with a letter written on February 15, 1708, by Malta's protomedico (Chief Government Medical Officer) Dr Arcangelo Grech2 at the instance of the Grand Master, addressed to the most eminent physician in Sicily, indirectly asking for guidance about the def...

  14. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species......—should be framed to facilitate their final expression in a single, aggregated metric. This would also improve comparability with other LCIA damage-level indicators. Furthermore, to allow for a broader inclusion of ecosystem quality perspectives, the development of an additional indicator related to ecosystem...

  15. Dynamic belowground ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, W. F.; Santantonio, D.; McGinty, D.

    1979-01-01

    Roots comprise the primary interface between plant and soil for uptake of water and nutrients. Much is known about the biochemistry, cell physiology and membrane physics associated with these important processes. In this paper we discuss the role of the belowground ecosystem, especially the autotrophic root component, in the structure and function of forest ecosystems. Beyond recognizing roles of anchoring terrestrial plants and uptake of water and nutrients, this component of the forest has been largely neglected in an ecosystem context. In order to focus discussion on the properties of the belowground ecosystem, we use the term rhizosphere to include roots, mycorrhizae, microbes, and rhizophagus invertebrates.

  16. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  17. "Teine" võitis Prantsusmaal Grand Prix'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Prantsusmaal Essonne'is toimuval 8. Euroopa filmifestivalil Cinessonne sai üliõpilaste žürii grand prix rahvusvahelises ühistöös valminud tantsufilm "Teine" ("Another") : režissöör Rene Vilbre. Ka teistest festivalidest, kus film osalenud

  18. Grand Prix Eurovision: Eine Fankultur im Medienzeitalter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Moser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Grand Prix Eurovision ist seit Jahrzehnten eine der bekanntesten Unterhaltungssendungen im europäischen Raum. Dennoch erregte es Verwunderung, wenn der Schreibende Bekannten darüber berichtete, daß dies ein Forschungsgegenstand sei. Wurde von Interviews mit Grand Prix-Fans erzählt, so fielen schnell Aussagen wie: „Wie kann man sich nur für so etwas Abseitiges und Triviales wie den Grand Prix interessieren“. Dennoch bin ich der Meinung, daß Fankulturen für die entstehende Mediengesellschaft ein nicht unwichtiges Forschungsthema darstellen. Zwar geht es nicht um eine medienpädagogische Fragestellung im engeren Sinne; die Fans des Grand Prix Eurovision sind dem Jugendalter längst entwachsen. Dennoch handelt es sich bei Fangemeinschaften um Phänomene, die im Rahmen von Jugend- und Kinderkulturen von besonderer Relevanz sind. So meint Winter (1997, daß jugendliche Fanwelten eine bedeutende Rolle als Kristallisationspunkte kultureller Differenzierung spielen: ,Die Zugehörigkeit zu einer Fan weit ist Teil der jugendlichen Lebensbewältigung in der Postmoderne, denn in der Gemeinschaft der Fans können Jugendliche emotionale Allianzen eingehen, außeralltäglichen Beschäftigungen nachgehen, expressive Identitätsmuster gemeinschaftlich realisieren und sich mit ihrer Lebenssituation als Heranwachsende auseinandersetzen“ (Winter 1997, S. 51f..

  19. The Virtual Grand Tour as Educational Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Mouritsen, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The Virtual Grand Tour as defined here bears some resemblance to its 18th century ancestor: a wide range of individual topics are treated as a whole; a tutor, whether real or simulated, present or remote, is provided; a set of problem solving tools forms an integrated part of the "traveller...

  20. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  1. Plasma nanoscience: setting directions, tackling grand challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya; Cvelbar, Uros; Murphy, Anthony B

    2011-01-01

    This review paper presents historical perspectives, recent advances and future directions in the multidisciplinary research field of plasma nanoscience. The current status and future challenges are presented using a three-dimensional framework. The first and the largest dimension covers the most important classes of nanoscale objects (nanostructures, nanofeatures and nanoassemblies/nanoarchitectures) and materials systems, namely carbon nanotubes, nanofibres, graphene, graphene nanoribbons, graphene nanoflakes, nanodiamond and related carbon-based nanostructures; metal, silicon and other inorganic nanoparticles and nanostructures; soft organic nanomaterials; nano-biomaterials; biological objects and nanoscale plasma etching. In the second dimension, we discuss the most common types of plasmas and plasma reactors used in nanoscale plasma synthesis and processing. These include low-temperature non-equilibrium plasmas at low and high pressures, thermal plasmas, high-pressure microplasmas, plasmas in liquids and plasma-liquid interactions, high-energy-density plasmas, and ionized physical vapour deposition as well as some other plasma-enhanced nanofabrication techniques. In the third dimension, we outline some of the 'Grand Science Challenges' and 'Grand Socio-economic Challenges' to which significant contributions from plasma nanoscience-related research can be expected in the near future. The urgent need for a stronger focus on practical, outcome-oriented research to tackle the grand challenges is emphasized and concisely formulated as from controlled complexity to practical simplicity in solving grand challenges.

  2. Future of the Middle Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Coe

    1999-01-01

    Because decisions made today about the Middle Rio Grande will influence future conditions, symposium participants - the stakeholders - collaborated in a final session to plan improvements for the watershed and river corridor. The result included several action plans focusing on desired future conditions and actions to achieve them.

  3. Reisipakkumine - Grand Tour Itaalias / Mai Levin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levin, Mai, 1942-

    2009-01-01

    Tiina Abeli koostatud ja Urmas Viigi kujundatud näitus "Grand Tour. Eesti kunstnikud Itaalias" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 05. aprillini. Loetletud eksponeeritud tööde autoreid. Näitus annab ülevaate, kes siinsetest kunstnikest 19. sajandi algusest kuni 1930ndate aastateni Itaalias käisid ja kuidas see nende loomingut mõjutas

  4. SU(9) grand unification model of subquarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinmin; Xue Xiaozhou

    1986-01-01

    An improved version of the grand unification composite model propose earlier is suggested. Under the hypothesis of partly broken global chiral symmetry, we give the four family of Fermions at low energies to realize unification of four family of Fermions. Neutrino may acquire naturally the Dirac mass. Proton lifetime and weak neutral current at low energy are consistent with experimental results

  5. Rio Branco, grand strategy and naval power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Alsina Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses Baron of Rio Branco's grand strategy and the role played by the naval reorganization program (1904-1910 in this context. The ensuing case study determined the domestic and international constraints that affected the program, as well as the worldview of the patron of Brazilian diplomacy regarding military power's instrumentality to foreign policy.

  6. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  7. Climate change, cranes, and temperate floodplain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sammy L.

    2010-01-01

    Floodplain ecosystems provide important habitat to cranes globally. Lateral, longitudinal, vertical, and temporal hydrologic connectivity in rivers is essential to maintaining the functions and values of these systems. Agricultural development, flood control, water diversions, dams, and other anthropogenic activities have greatly affected hydrologic connectivity of river systems worldwide and altered the functional capacity of these systems. Although the specific effects of climate change in any given area are unknown, increased intensity and frequency of flooding and droughts and increased air and water temperatures are among many potential effects that can act synergistically with existing human modifications in these systems to create even greater challenges in maintaining ecosystem productivity. In this paper, I review basic hydrologic and geomorphic processes of river systems and use three North American rivers (Guadalupe, Platte, and Rio Grande) that are important to cranes as case studies to illustrate the challenges facing managers tasked with balancing the needs of cranes and people in the face of an uncertain climatic future. Each river system has unique natural and anthropogenic characteristics that will affect conservation strategies. Mitigating the effects of climate change on river systems necessitates an understanding of river/floodplain/landscape linkages, which include people and their laws as well as existing floodplain ecosystem conditions.

  8. DAWN GRAND CALIBRATED MARS FLYBY COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND RDR are a time-ordered collection of corrected gamma ray and neutron counting data and calibrated pulse height spectra acquired by GRaND during all phases...

  9. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J. (Inst. of Marine Sciences, Zanzibar (Tanzania, United Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  12. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  13. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  15. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Morton, Winston H.

    2008-12-30

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an intergovernmental contract to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the contract, and in 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and partners is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. Both passive and active restoration treatment techniques are used. Passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing and alternate water sources are the primary method to restore degraded streams when restoration can be achieved primarily through changes in management. Active restoration techniques using plantings, bioengineering, site-specific instream structures, or whole stream channel alterations are utilized when streams are more severely degraded and not likely to recover in a reasonable timeframe. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and

  17. The geology of Piz Pian Grand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, M.; Staeuble, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nagra has identified four potential sites for a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. Exploration work is already underway at Oberbauenstock (UR) and Piz Pian Grand (GR). As part of the investigations in the Piz Pian Grand area, geological surface mapping was carried out between 1984 and 1987. Since the data obtained is still being evaluated, it would be premature to draw any interpretative conclusions at this stage. On the other hand, some of the most significant observations of this work can be summarised here. As a first step, the geological framework in which these investigations are to be seen should be defined. Observations will then be made on the rock content (lithology) and geometric structure (structural geology) of the area. (author) 6 figs

  18. Grand Gulf-prioritization of regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    As cost pressures mount, Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) is relying increasingly on various prioritization approaches to implement, modify, eliminate, or defer regulatory requirements. Regulatory requirements can be prioritized through the use of three measures: (1) safety (or risk) significance; (2) cost; and (3) public policy (or political) significance. This paper summarizes GGNS' efforts to implement solutions to regulatory issues using these three prioritization schemes to preserve a balance between cost and safety benefit

  19. Between two evils: Investors prefer grand corruption!

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann

    2005-01-01

    Recent empirical studies claim that, in addition to levels of corruption, investors are deterred by its unpredictability. I claim instead that it is petty corruption that deters investors. I employ seven subcomponents of corruption for a sample of 102 countries that appear in the 2003 Global Competitiveness Report of the WEF. The second principal component of this data depicts a grand, political type, embracing corruption in government policymaking and in judicial decisions as opposed to corr...

  20. Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, K.; Tanaka, K.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrino mixing in a grand unified theory in which the neutrino mass matrix is determined by the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism was investigated. With an arbitrary real right-handed Majorana mass matrix which incorporates three neutrino mass scales, the effects of the up-quark mass matrix are found to be dominant and as a result no significant mixing of ν/sub e/ occurs, while ν/sub μ/ - ν/sub γ/ mixing can be substantial

  1. Dans le grand collisionneur du CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051256

    2014-01-01

    Ce livre fait pénétrer le lecteur non initié dans l’instrument scientifique le plus grand du monde. D’ailleurs, le web fut précisément inventé à Genève en vue d’une collaboration aussi gigantesque. Résultat de vingt ans de recherche, le LHC, Grand collisionneur de hadrons, est l’anneau de 26,7 km creusé sous la frontière francosuisse, où sont accélérés, en sens opposés, des paquets de particules jusqu’à des vitesses et des énergies extrêmes. Ainsi la physique s’est-elle engagée dans une étape nouvelle de nos connaissances. Après les grandes découvertes de l’univers et de la réalité microscopique du siècle dernier, le collisionneur nous fait progresser aujourd’hui dans un «nuage de probabilités» aux frontières de l’antimatière. Dans une bousculade de particules, voici le champ convoité du boson de Higgs. Mario Campanelli, professeur associé à l’Université de Londres et collaborateur au projet ATLAS du LHC, propose, dans cet ouvrage, de s’introduire pas �...

  2. [Grand Banks activity : updates and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the exploration and on-going activities by the petroleum industry on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland was presented. The two offshore oil developments underway are Hibernia and Terra Nova, both located in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin. Current production from Hibernia is 68,000 bopd, expected to rise to 130,000 bopd in 1999. The Terra Nova Field is still under development. Total recoverable reserves from the 17 discoveries made in the Jeanne d'Arc Basin are estimated at 1.6 billion barrels of oil and 4 trillion cubic feet of gas. Industry participants in the area include Amoco, Petro-Canada, Mobil, Chevron, Husky and Norsk Hydro. Petro-Canada believes the Grand Banks represent one of the best opportunities for oil anywhere in the world. There are currently 21 exploration licenses held on the Grand Banks. Major attractions of the area include the large reserve potential, the relatively low finding costs, the size of the pools being discovered, improvements in offshore technology that have substantially lowered development costs, and a profit-sensitive generic royalty regime that ensures reasonable rates of return for investors. figs

  3. Raptor Use of the Rio Grande Gorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponton, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-20

    The Rio Grande Gorge is a 115 km long river canyon located in Southern Colorado (15 km) and Northern New Mexico (100 km). The majority of the canyon is under the administration of the Bureau of Land Management {BLM), and 77 km of the canyon south of the Colorado/New Mexico border are designated Wild River under the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Visits I have made to the Rio Grande Gorge over the past 15 .years disclosed some raptor utilization. As the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area gained publicity, its similarity to the Rio Grande Gorge became obvious, and I was intrigued by the possibility of a high raptor nesting density in the Gorge. A survey in 1979 of 20 km of the northern end of the canyon revealed a moderately high density of red-tailed hawks and prairie falcons. With the encouragement of that partial survey, and a need to assess the impact of river-running on nesting birds of prey, I made a more comprehensive survey in 1980. The results of my surveys, along with those of a 1978 helicopter survey by the BLM, are presented in this report, as well as general characterization of the area, winter use by raptors, and an assessment of factors influencing the raptor population.

  4. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Scenarios provide useful insight into the complex factors that drive ecosystem change, estimating the magnitude of regional...

  5. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable...

  6. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  7. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  8. Pesticide Pollution in Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Kurt, Burak; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2018-01-01

    Pesticidepollution affects both aquatic and soil ecosystems. Factors that promotepesticide pollution include drainage patterns, properties of the pesticide,rainfall, microbial activity, treatment surface and rate of application.Pesticides are able to move from one ecosystem to another through processessuch as transfer (mobility) and transformation (degradation). Transfer mayoccur through surface runoff, vapourization to atmosphere, sorption (adsorp‐tion/desorp-tion), plant uptakeor soil water...

  9. Needs assessment for the Greenway Grand Forks-East Grand Forks development and public education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munski, Laura

    Following the flood of 1997, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers included the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks (the Greenway) as a flood control measure for Grand Forks, North Dakota and East Grand Forks, Minnesota. It extends along both the Red River of the North and the Red Lake River, encompassing 2200 acres of land. The cities of Grand Forks and East Grand Forks hired consultants to assist with the postflood planning process. The planning process culminated with the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report (Flink, 1998). The purpose of this study was to determine if the development of the Greenway addressed the objectives of the planning report. The history of the land adjacent to the rivers was reviewed to document the progression of riverfront development. Anecdotal evidence was collected, field observations were made, city council minutes were reviewed, Greenway Technical Committee members were interviewed, Greenway Technical Committee minutes were reviewed, and the Greenway Grand Forks---East Grand Forks survey results were reviewed to determine if the objectives of the Red River of the North Greenway Final Report were addressed. A cross section survey was designed by Laura Munski for this dissertation research. The survey was approved by the Greenway Technical Committee. The survey collected both quantitative and qualitative data from the community. The purpose of the survey portion of the research project was to ascertain how residents were kept informed of activities on the Greenway and what amenities residents were using on the Greenway and to solicit their comments regarding the Greenway. The results of the survey research were used in both marketing and event planning for the Greenway. The singular qualitative survey question gave respondents an opportunity to share their comments regarding the Greenway. The qualitative data analysis provided insight to the amenities and educational programs desired by respondents, their concerns regarding the

  10. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  11. Maternal and fetal outcome in grand multipara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, A.; Qamar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynecology and Obstetric Unit-I of the Jinnah Post Graduate and Medical Centre Karachi, from February 2009 to January 2010. Patients and Methods: One hundred (100) patients of grand multipara (GMP), (parity = 5) and 100 patients of multipara (MP) (parity 2-4) were included in the study. Pregnant women with known medical conditions including essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, primigravidas, women with previous caesarean section and twin pregnancies were excluded. Patients were admitted through antenatal clinic and emergency. A detailed history was taken and a physical examination was done with special emphasis on obstetrical examination. Investigations like blood CP, Urine D/R, blood grouping and sonogram were done. During labour, mother and neonates were managed according to ward protocols. Maternal and fetal outcomes were compared among GMPs and MPs. Results: A high frequency of anaemia (81% vs 20%), pregnancy induced hypertension (45%, vs. 26%) and gestational diabetes (9%, vs1%) were seen in GMP as compared to MP group. Frequency of malpresentations (26% vs 15%), postpartum hemorrhage (15%, vs 10%) and intrauterine deaths (26%, vs 13%) were higher in GMP group along with a high caesarean delivery rate (GMP 21%, MP 14%). A higher maternal mortality (GMP 4%, MP 1%) and low APGAR score (GMP 12%, MP 4%) were observed among babies born to grand multipara group. Conclusion: Grand multiparity is associated with adverse outcome for both mother and fetus. Effort should be directed to reduce high parity in the community through effective family planning initiatives. Specialized antenatal and obstetrical care facilities should be available. (author)

  12. Aldrin at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. and his wife, Lois, stand before a painting of an Apollo/Saturn V launch vehicle at the pad in the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft component displays and multimedia presentations. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  13. A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Goldin

    2014-01-01

    The converging roles of men and women are among the grandest advances in society and the economy in the last century. These aspects of the grand gender convergence are figurative chapters in a history of gender roles. But what must the "last" chapter contain for there to be equality in the labor market? The answer may come as a surprise. The solution does not (necessarily) have to involve government intervention and it need not make men more responsible in the home (although that wouldn't hur...

  14. SLAM contraint en environnement de grande taille

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadasan, Datta; Chevaldonné, Marc; Chateau, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Ce papier présente un algorithme de localisation et cartographie simultanée (ou SLAM pour Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) utilisant des contraintes issues d'un modèle d'environnement, on parle alors de SLAM contraint. L'objectif est d'utiliser un modèle 3D épars de grande taille issu d'une reconstruction de type SFM (Structure From Motion) afin d'estimer le mouvement de la caméra relativement au modèle, même lorsque ce dernier est peu ou pas observé. Il est nécesaire...

  15. Produccion de plantas grandes usando minicontenedores

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2012-01-01

    En América del Norte hay cada vez más interés por la producción híbrida o mixta. La misma consiste en cultivar plantines en contenedores de pequeño volumen y luego trasplantarlos; el trasplante se puede realizar a canteros en el suelo como en la producción a raíz desnuda o bien a contenedores más grandes. Originalmente se llamaban plantines "plug+", "...

  16. String-inspired special grand unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Naoki

    2017-10-01

    We discuss a grand unified theory (GUT) based on an SO(32) GUT gauge group broken to its subgroups including a special subgroup. In the SO(32) GUT on the six-dimensional (6D) orbifold space M^4× T^2/\\mathbb{Z}_2, one generation of the standard model fermions can be embedded into a 6D bulk Weyl fermion in the SO(32) vector representation. We show that for a three-generation model, all the 6D and 4D gauge anomalies in the bulk and on the fixed points are canceled out without exotic chiral fermions at low energies.

  17. Lie groups and grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubitoso, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This work presents some concepts in group theory and Lie algebras and, at same time, shows a method to study and work with semisimple Lie groups, based on Dynkin diagrams. The aproach taken is not completely formal, but it presents the main points of the elaboration of the method, so its mathematical basis is designed with the purpose of making the reading not so cumbersome to those who are interested only in a general picture of the method and its usefulness. At the end it is shown a brief review of gauge theories and two grand-unification models based on SO(13) and E 7 gauge groups. (author) [pt

  18. Impacts of climate change on marine organisms and ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Kingsford, Michael J

    2009-07-28

    Human activities are releasing gigatonnes of carbon to the Earth's atmosphere annually. Direct consequences of cumulative post-industrial emissions include increasing global temperature, perturbed regional weather patterns, rising sea levels, acidifying oceans, changed nutrient loads and altered ocean circulation. These and other physical consequences are affecting marine biological processes from genes to ecosystems, over scales from rock pools to ocean basins, impacting ecosystem services and threatening human food security. The rates of physical change are unprecedented in some cases. Biological change is likely to be commensurately quick, although the resistance and resilience of organisms and ecosystems is highly variable. Biological changes founded in physiological response manifest as species range-changes, invasions and extinctions, and ecosystem regime shifts. Given the essential roles that oceans play in planetary function and provision of human sustenance, the grand challenge is to intervene before more tipping points are passed and marine ecosystems follow less-buffered terrestrial systems further down a spiral of decline. Although ocean bioengineering may alleviate change, this is not without risk. The principal brake to climate change remains reduced CO(2) emissions that marine scientists and custodians of the marine environment can lobby for and contribute to. This review describes present-day climate change, setting it in context with historical change, considers consequences of climate change for marine biological processes now and in to the future, and discusses contributions that marine systems could play in mitigating the impacts of global climate change.

  19. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  20. Dynamique et bilan des Elements Traces Métalliques (ETM) dans des écosystèmes forestiers français. Modélisation, spéciation et charges critiques.

    OpenAIRE

    Gandois, Laure

    2009-01-01

    Trace Metals (TM: Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) are dispersed in the atmosphere due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. Forest ecosystems can receive atmospheric inputs, even if they are located far from direct emission sources. In fact, forest ecosystems are particularly sensitive to atmospheric inputs since forest cover can interact with atmospheric pollution. Forest ecosystems are protected from TM atmospheric inputs through the definition of Critical Loads. TM impact on fore...

  1. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-03-14

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of Science TM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  2. The Grand Duchy on the Grand Tour: A Historical Study of Student Migration in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohstock, Anne; Schreiber, Catherina

    2013-01-01

    Since Luxembourg became independent in 1839, practically the entire political, economic and intellectual elite of the country has been socialised abroad. It was only in 2003 that the Grand Duchy set up its own university; before then, young Luxembourgers had to study in foreign countries. Over the past 150 years, Luxembourg has thus experienced…

  3. Working group 7: Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheyen, R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the environmental impact of nuclear power plants. The effects of ionizing radiations, of the thermal and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems as well as on terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated. After a general survey of such effects and their interaction, practical conclusions in regard to determined areas such as Meuse-Escaut marine and the coast have been drawn. The contamination effects of food chains have been evaluted under deliberately pessimistic conditions with regard to the choice of the radionuclide as well as of concentration factors. Following the biodegradation conditions of the surface waters, criteria for the quality of the aquatic ecosystems have been established. Finally, attention has been paid on certain factors affecting the site selection especially within the frame of the nature conservation. The effects of cooling towers have been also considered. (G.C.)

  4. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  5. O conservadorismo patronal da grande imprensa brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise da opinião dos editoriais dos quatro principais periódicos diários da grande imprensa, isto é, o Jornal do Brasil, O Globo, a Folha de S. Paulo e O Estado de S. Paulo - aqui considerados "aparelhos privados de hegemonia" -, este artigo procura desvendar os posicionamentos adotados perante a ordem social na Constituinte de 1987/1988, que também contribuem para compreender a reação à Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho. Observa-se, além do mais, as estratégias utilizadas para sua consecução. Conclui-se que, por mecanismos diversos, a grande imprensa contribuiu decisivamente para a introdução da agenda ideológica neoliberal no país, pois atuou de forma a "divulgar e vulgarizar" as idéias pertinentes a este ideário e de forma militantemente conservadora e patronal.

  6. Aprovechamiento de Salto Grande Argentina – Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiovanni, M.

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The power harnessing of Salto Grande will be the first common project carried out by two South American Countries and this will foster greater integration of both countries. The project involves the following: — One 39 m-high dam — Two hydroelectric power plants — One international bridge — One shipping canal The benefits to be obtained from the project include: increase and improvement of the waterway network; increase of electricity production; railways and highway tie-ups between both countries; industrial development; increased availability of irrigation water; new tourist resorts; increase of fishing resources.

    El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Salto Grande será el primer aprovechamiento común a dos países sudamericanos, lo que permitirá una mayor integración entre ellos. Consta de las siguientes obras: _ una presa de 39 m de altura; _ dos centrales hidroeléctricas; _ un puente internacional; _ un canal de navegación, etc. Entre los beneficios que se obtendrán destacan: aumento y mejora de la red de navegación; aumento de la producción eléctrica; enlace de las vías de ferrocarril y carreteras entre los dos países; desarrollo industrial; aumento de la disponibilidad de agua de riego; creación de zonas de turismo, e incremento de la riqueza piscícola.

  7. Coral reef ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.

    3 Coral Reef Ecosystem M. V M. Wafar 1 and Sayeeda Wafar Among the various inland and coastal wetlands, it is probably the coral reef ecosystem that has generated the greatest sc-ientific and economic interest and received in the recent years a world... they play in global biogeochemical cycles as sinks for atmo spheric carbon dioxide. The economic potential includes c-aleium car bonate, food and ornamental fishes, bio-molecules, tourism, molluscan shells, macro-algae, a range of other minor products...

  8. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, Robson L.

    2011-01-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  9. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    proposition; a value proposition (e.g., a business opportunity or a business idea) may form the starting point for actors to collaborate and integrate resources in order realize the value proposition. The initiator of a service ecosystem could for example be an actor (Mark Zuckerberg), resources (website...

  10. Governing ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, René; Selnes, Trond; Verweij, Pita

    2016-01-01

    The TEEB approach to the use of ecosystem services has found its way to policy as a means to biodiversity conservation and greening of the economy. In this paper we analysed the uptake of the TEEB approach at national and local levels by applying a framework that revolves around the problem,

  11. Governance of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in

  12. The Ecosystem Engineer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walles, B.; Salvador de Paiva, J.; Van Prooijen, B.; Ysebaert, T.; Smaal, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers that inhabit coastal and estuarine environments, such as reef building oysters, do not only stabilise the sediment within their reefs, but their influence might also extend far outside their reefs, affecting tidal flat morphology and protecting the surrounding soft-sediment

  13. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  14. La masa de los grandes impactores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, M. G.; Brunini, A.

    Los planetas han sido formados fundamentalmente acretando masa a través de colisiones con planetesimales sólidos. La masa más grande de la distribución de planetesimales y las masas máxima y mínima de los impactores, han sido calculadas usando los valores actuales del período y de la inclinación de los planetas (Lissauer & Safronov 1991; Parisi & Brunini 1996). Recientes investigaciones han mostrado, que las órbitas de los planetas gigantes no han sufrido variaciones con el tiempo, siendo su movimiento regular durante su evolución a partir de la finalización de la etapa de acreción (Laskar 1990, 1994). Por lo tanto, la eccentricidad actual de los planetas gigantes se puede utilizar para imponer una cota máxima a las masas y velocidades orbitales de los grandes impactores. Mediante un simple modelo dinámico, y considerando lo arriba mencionado, obtenemos la cota superior para la masa del planetesimal más grande que impactó a cada planeta gigante al final de su etapa de acreción. El resultado más importante de este trabajo es la estimación de la masa máxima permitida para impactar a Júpiter, la cúal es ~ 1.136 × 10 -1, siendo en el caso de Neptuno ~ 3.99 × 10 -2 (expresada en unidades de la masa final de cada planeta). Además, fue posible obtener la velocidad orbital máxima permitida para los impactores como una función de su masa, para cada planeta. Las cotas obtenidas para la masa y velocidad de los impactores de Saturno y Urano (en unidades de la masa y velocidad final de cada planeta respectivamente) son casi las mismas que las obtenidas para Júpiter debido a que estos tres planetas poseen similar eccentricidad actual. Nuestros resultados están en buen acuerdo con los obtenidos por Lissauer & Safronov (1991). Estas cotas podrían ser utilizadas para obtener la distribución de planetesimales en el Sistema Solar primitivo.

  15. MUNICIPAL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL (INSUSTAINABILITY OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF JOÃO PESSOA AND CAMPINA GRANDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José da Silva Feitosa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban centers clearly show how human interferes in nature. Faced these considerations, this study aims to answer the following problem: What, among the Paraiba municipalities ofJoão Pessoa and Campina Grande presents environmentally (unsustainable, in light of Ecological footprint Method? To solve this problem, this paper aims to analyze the ecological footprint of these municipalities in light of the Ecological Footprint Method. Methodologically, this article can be characterized as an exploratory and descriptive research, quantitative approach, using secondary data. The results show that both municipalities had ecological deficits, and are therefore environmentally unsustainable. However, compared to Campina Grande, João Pessoa’s situation shows significantly unfavorable, because this city had an ecological deficit greater than 597 times the carrying capacity of its ecosystem. Thus, is necessary the emergency in redefinition of public policies at this location.

  16. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of the exotic lizard Hemidactylus mabouia Moreau de Jonnès, 1818 in Ilha Grande, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD Rocha

    Full Text Available The gekkonid lizard Hemidactylus mabouia is an exotic species in Brazil and is found in different ecosystems. This species was recorded at Ilha Grande, RJ, one of the largest insular remains of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. In this study, the occurrence of H. mabouia was determined throughout the island, including the rain forest, restinga and anthropic environments. We used the active search method in points along 19 trails that surround Ilha Grande. At each regular interval of 100 m, we searched for the presence of H. mabouia. The species was recorded in a total of 100 points among the 719 sampled and, in all cases, the occurrence of the lizard corresponded to points located in anthropic or perianthropic areas. As most of Ilha Grande is covered by dense tropical rain forest, we believe this has restricted the invasion of H. mabouia in natural environments within the island.

  18. Philippe Riou, Louis-Michel Nageleisen, François-Xavier Saintonge, Dominique Piou, La santé des forêts, Maladies, insectes, accidents climatiques… Diagnostic et prévention, Département de la santé des forêts, Institut pour le développement forestier, Paris, 2010, 608 pages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Raison du Cleuziou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est un manuel synthétique et pédagogique que publient conjointement le Centre National de la propriété forestière et le Département de la santé des forêts du Ministère de l’Agriculture. Son objet : la santé des forêts. Qu’est qu’une forêt en bonne santé ? La question n’a rien d’évident et a fait l’objet de polémiques entre naturalistes non-interventionnistes et écologues gestionnaires. On se souvient des critiques de la gestion des chablis (les arbres couchés par une tempête après la tempê...

  19. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  20. Pitié pour les grandes villes !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Monnet

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Roger Caillois disait, en 1938, qu´il existe "une représentation de la grande ville, assez puissante sur les imaginations pour que jamais en pratique ne soit posée la question de son exactitude, créée de toute pièce par le livre, assez répandue néanmoins pour faire partie de l´atmosphère mentale collective et posséder par suite une certaine force de contrainte"(Le mythe et l´homme, p.156 [c´est lui qui souligne]. En 1996, la presse française a consacré dossiers et articles à "Habitat II...

  1. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  2. Preface to a GUT (Grand Unified Theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, W.

    1982-01-01

    A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is proposed exhibiting relativistic invariance and based on a physical model for vacuum space consisting of the superposition of oppositely charged continuous fluids. Models for the photon, electron, neutrino, proton, etc., consist of separate unique variations in the relative densities of the fluids and their flow patterns. This GUT is also based on the use of transfinite axiomatic number forms and on a concept of metrical relativity which hopefully reconciles the many logical dichotomies in and between Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. These ideas result in a number of experimental proposals and predicted results which appear to be underivable from present paradigms, first among which is a physical model for the hidden variable of Quantum Mechanics. It is on these features that attention should rest. (Auth.)

  3. The problem of the Grand Unification Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, H.-J.

    The evolution and fundamental questions of physical theories unifying the gravitational, electromagnetic, and quantum-mechanical interactions are explored, taking Pauli's aphorism as a motto: 'Let no man join what God has cast asunder.' The contributions of Faraday and Riemann, Lorentz, Einstein, and others are discussed, and the criterion of Pauli is applied to Grand Unification Theories (GUT) in general and to those seeking to link gravitation and electromagnetism in particular. Formal mathematical symmetry principles must be shown to have real physical relevance by predicting measurable phenomena not explainable without a GUT; these phenomena must be macroscopic because gravitational effects are to weak to be measured on the microscopic level. It is shown that empirical and theoretical studies of 'gravomagnetism', 'gravoelectricity', or possible links between gravoelectrity and the cosmic baryon assymmetry eventually lead back to basic questions which appear philosophical or purely mathematical but actually challenge physics to seek verifiable answers.

  4. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  5. A grand model for chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ka Y.; Ng, Ka M.; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    , ingredients and structure. Market and competitive analysis, government policies and regulations have to be explicitly considered in product design. All these considerations are accounted for in the Grand Product Design Model, which consists of a process model, a property model, a quality model, a cost model......Chemical engineering has been expanding its focus from primarily business-to-business products (B2B) to business-to-consumer (B2C) products. The production of B2B products generally emphasizes on process design and optimization, whereas the production of B2C products focuses on product quality...... product composition changes with market conditions. Another is a hand lotion that illustrates how product quality affects the profit.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Spatial characterisation of the Benguela ecosystem for ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three countries of the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME), namely Angola, Namibia and South Africa, have committed to implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) including an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) in the region, to put in practice the principles of sustainable development in ...

  7. Elastoplasticidad anisotropa de metales en grandes deformaciones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminero Torija, Miguel Angel

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos numericos que simulen el comportamiento del material bajo estas condiciones en el contexto de programas de elementos finitos, dando como resultado predicciones mas precisas de los procesos de conformado y deformacion plastica en general. Para lograr este objetivo se han desarrollado diversas tareas destinadas a mejorar las predicciones en tres aspectos fundamentales. El primer aspecto consiste en la mejora de la descripcion del endurecimiento cinematico anisotropo en pequenas deformaciones, lo cual se ha realizado a traves de modelos y algoritmos implicitos de superficies multiples. Ha sido estudiada la consistencia de este tipo de modelos tanto si estan basados en una regla implicita similar a la de Mroz o en la regla de Prager. Ademas se han simulado los ensayos de Lamba y Sidebottom, obteniendo, en contra de la creencia general, muy buenas predicciones con la regla de Prager. Dichos modelos podrian ser extendidos de forma relativamente facil para considerar grandes deformaciones a traves de procedimientos en deformaciones logaritmicas, similares a los desarrollados en esta tesis y detallados a continuacion. El segundo aspecto consiste en la descripcion de la anisotropia elastoplastica inicial. Esto se ha conseguido mediante el desarrollo de modelos y algoritmos para plasticidad anisotropa en grandes deformaciones, bien ignorando la posible anisotropia elastica, bien considerandola simultaneamente con la anisotropia plastica. Para ello ha sido necesario desarrollar primero un nuevo algoritmo de elastoplasticidad anisotropa en pequenas deformaciones consistentemente linealizado y sin despreciar ningun termino, de tal forma que se conserve la convergencia cuadratica de los metodos de Newton. Este algoritmo en pequenas deformaciones ha servido para realizar la correccion plastica de dos algoritmos en grandes deformaciones. El primero de estos algoritmos es una variacion del clasico algoritmo de

  8. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  9. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a) Commercial...

  10. The Distance to L∞ in the Grand Orlicz Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Farroni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a formula for the distance to L∞ from the grand Orlicz space LΦΩ introduced in Capone et al. (2008. A new formula for the distance to L∞ from the grand Lebesgue space LnΩ introduced in Iwaniec and Sbordone (1992 is also provided.

  11. Rio Grande Basin Consortium: Mission, goals, and activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah A. Potter; Deborah M. Finch

    1996-01-01

    The Rio Grande Basin Consortium (RGBC) serves as a networking group and clearinghouse for scientific information pertaining to the Rio Grande Basin. Its membership consists of natural and social scientists from New Mexico’s three research universities, administrators, and resource managers from federal, state, and local governmental agencies, members of community and...

  12. Fetal Outcomes among Grand Multiparous and Multiparous Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To compare fetal outcomes among grand multiparous (para 5-9) and multiparous (para 2-4) delivering in Mulago hospital, Uganda. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Mulago hospital, Uganda. Subjects: One hundred and fifty six grand multiparous and multiparous women were recruited on admission in ...

  13. First report of Phytophthora ramorum infecting grand fir in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Riley; G.A. Chastagner

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum was detected on grand fir in 2003 and 2005 in a Christmas tree plantation near Los Gatos, CA, in association with infected California bay laurel. Isolates derived from stem lesions were used to inoculate grand fir seedlings in two tests. Isolations from lesions on inoculated plants were positive for P. ramorum...

  14. Phase transitions at finite chemical potential in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, D.; Love, A.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the circumstances in which non-zero chemical potentials might prevent symmetry restoration in phase transitions in the early universe at grand unification or partial unification scales. The general arguments are illustrated by consideration of SO(10) and SU(5) grand unified theories. (orig.)

  15. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balice, R.G.; Bennett, K.D.; Wright, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE. According to the burn severity map and the fire intensity map, the Cerro Grande Fire is estimated to have covered 42,885.4 acres and 42,854.7 acres, respectively. Of this, 57.0 percent was burned at low severity and 34.7 percent was burned at high severity. Similarly, 40.0 percent of the Cerro Grande Fire burned at high fire intensity, greater than 70 percent mortality, while 33.1 percent burned at moderately low intensity, 10 to 40 percent mortality. The most frequently burned cover types over the entire Cerro Grande Fire were ponderosa pine forest and mixed conifer forest, at approximately 43 percent each. However, portions of the fire that burned on Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) property were predominantly in ponderosa pine forests, whereas the Cerro Grande Fire burned primarily in mixed conifer forests on lands managed by other agencies. Some of the polygons of burn severities and fire intensities were extensive. The two largest burn severity polygons were 10,111 acres and 10,903 acres and these were burned at low severity. The next two largest polygons were 8999 acres (14 square miles) and 1551 acres (2.4 square miles) and both of these polygons

  16. The Coevolution of Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungYong, Um

    2016-01-01

    Digital ecosystems are one of the most important strategic issues in the current digital economy. Digital ecosystems are dynamic and generative. They evolve as new firms join and as heterogeneous systems are integrated into other systems. These features digital ecosystems determine economic and technological success in the competition among…

  17. Promoting Transfer of Ecosystems Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent students transferred their knowledge from a familiar aquatic ecosystem to an unfamiliar rainforest ecosystem after participating in a technology-rich inquiry curriculum. We coded students' drawings for components of important ecosystems concepts at pre- and posttest. Our analysis examined the extent to which each…

  18. Ecosystems in the Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louviere, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Habitats, ecology and evolution are a few of the many metaphors commonly associated with the domain of biological ecosystems. Surprisingly, these and other similar biological metaphors are proving to be equally associated with a phenomenon known as digital ecosystems. Digital ecosystems make a direct connection between biological properties and…

  19. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og...

  20. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.

    1984-01-01

    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  1. Microplastic in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivleva, Natalia P; Wiesheu, Alexandra C; Niessner, Reinhard

    2017-02-06

    The contamination of marine and freshwater ecosystems with plastic, and especially with microplastic (MP), is a global ecological problem of increasing scientific concern. This has stimulated a great deal of research on the occurrence of MP, interaction of MP with chemical pollutants, the uptake of MP by aquatic organisms, and the resulting (negative) impact of MP. Herein, we review the major issues of MP in aquatic environments, with the principal aims 1) to characterize the methods applied for MP analysis (including sampling, processing, identification and quantification), indicate the most reliable techniques, and discuss the required further improvements; 2) to estimate the abundance of MP in marine/freshwater ecosystems and clarify the problems that hamper the comparability of such results; and 3) to summarize the existing literature on the uptake of MP by living organisms. Finally, we identify knowledge gaps, suggest possible strategies to assess environmental risks arising from MP, and discuss prospects to minimize MP abundance in aquatic ecosystems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The Arctic Grand Challenge: Abrupt Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkniss, P. E.

    2003-12-01

    Trouble in polar paradise (Science, 08/30/02), significant changes in the Arctic environment are scientifically documented (R.E. Moritz et al. ibid.). More trouble, lots more, "abrupt climate change," (R. B. Alley, et al. Science 03/28/03). R. Corell, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment team (ACIA), "If you want to see what will happen in the rest of the world 25 years from now just look what's happening in the Arctic," (Arctic Council meeting, Iceland, 08/03). What to do? Make abrupt Arctic climate change a grand challenge for the IPY-4 and beyond! Scientifically:Describe the "state" of the Arctic climate system as succinctly as possible and accept it as the point of departure.Develop a hypothesis and criteria what constitutes "abrupt climate change," in the Arctic that can be tested with observations. Observations: Bring to bear existing observations and coordinate new investments in observations through an IPY-4 scientific management committee. Make the new Barrow, Alaska, Global Climate Change Research Facility a major U.S. contribution and focal point for the IPY-4 in the U.S Arctic. Arctic populations, Native peoples: The people of the North are living already, daily, with wrenching change, encroaching on their habitats and cultures. For them "the earth is faster now," (I. Krupnik and D. Jolly, ARCUS, 2002). From a political, economic, social and entirely realistic perspective, an Arctic grand challenge without the total integration of the Native peoples in this effort cannot succeed. Therefore: Communications must be established, and the respective Native entities must be approached with the determination to create well founded, well functioning, enduring partnerships. In the U.S. Arctic, Barrow with its long history of involvement and active support of science and with the new global climate change research facility should be the focal point of choice Private industry: Resource extraction in the Arctic followed by oil and gas consumption, return the combustion

  3. Characterizing the Danish telemedicine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    and interoperability issues, silo solutions, and lack of guidelines and standards. In this paper, we characterise the ecosystem evolved around the telemedicine services in Denmark and study the actors involved in this ecosystem. We establish a method for this study, where we define two actor roles and ways...... of characterizing actor contributions, and apply the method to the largest healthcare region of Denmark. Our findings reveal an ecosystem that is relatively closed to new actors, where the actors tend to be related to single telemedicine applications, the applications have low connectivity, and the most influential...... actors of the ecosystem can be characterised as both being beneficial and inhibitory to the ecosystem prosperity....

  4. Pistes forestières et imaginaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Serge Lebon

    1990-05-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation de chorèmes comme d'un alphabet susceptible de traduire des concepts, permet de proposer une représentation de l'imaginaire, celle de la forêt mythique de Bretagne, et de la confronter à celle de la réalité, la forêt bretonne actuelle.

  5. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, Randy G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Kathryn D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wright, Marjorie A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  6. Ecosystem Management. A Management View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The need for management of the marine ecosystem using a broad perspective has been recommended under a variety of names. This paper uses the term Ecosystem Management, which is seen as a convergence between the ecological idea of an organisational hierarchy and the idea of strategic planning...... with a planning hierarchy---with the ecosystem being the strategic planning level. Management planning requires, in order to establish a quantifiable means and ends chain, that the goals at the ecosystem level can be linked to operational levels; ecosystem properties must therefore be reducible to lower...... genetic relation. The population structure is below the ecosystem in terms of the planning level, and goals for the community's genetic structure cannot be meaningful defined without setting strategic goals at the ecosystem level for functional groups....

  7. Habitat Mapping and Classification of the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve using AISA Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat mapping and classification provides essential information for land use planning and ecosystem research, monitoring and management. At the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (GRDNERR), Mississippi, habitat characterization of the Grand Bay watershed will also be used to develop a decision-support tool for the NERR's managers and state and local partners. Grand Bay NERR habitat units were identified using a combination of remotely sensed imagery, aerial photography and elevation data. Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Applications (AISA) hyperspectral data, acquired 5 and 6 May 2010, was analyzed and classified using ENVI v4.8 and v5.0 software. The AISA system was configured to return 63 bands of digital imagery data with a spectral range of 400 to 970 nm (VNIR), spectral resolution (bandwidth) at 8.76 nm, and 1 m spatial resolution. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Inverse Minimum Noise Fraction were applied to the data prior to using Spectral Angle Mapper ([SAM] supervised) and ISODATA (unsupervised) classification techniques. The resulting class image was exported to ArcGIS 10.0 and visually inspected and compared with the original imagery as well as auxiliary datasets to assist in the attribution of habitat characteristics to the spectral classes, including: National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography, Jackson County, MS, 2010; USFWS National Wetlands Inventory, 2007; an existing GRDNERR habitat map (2004), SAV (2009) and salt panne (2002-2003) GIS produced by GRDNERR; and USACE lidar topo-bathymetry, 2005. A field survey to validate the map's accuracy will take place during the 2012 summer season. ENVI's Random Sample generator was used to generate GIS points for a ground-truth survey. The broad range of coastal estuarine habitats and geomorphological features- many of which are transitional and vulnerable to environmental stressors- that have been identified within the GRDNERR point to the value of the Reserve for

  8. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P

    2017-06-20

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth.

  9. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

    2010-02-01

    Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also

  10. Avoiding collapse: Grand challenges for science and society to solve by 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Barnosky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We maintain that humanity’s grand challenge is solving the intertwined problems of human population growth and overconsumption, climate change, pollution, ecosystem destruction, disease spillovers, and extinction, in order to avoid environmental tipping points that would make human life more difficult and would irrevocably damage planetary life support systems. These are not future issues: for example, detrimental impacts of climate change (increased wildfires and extreme weather, sea-level rise, ocean acidification, pollution (contaminated drinking water in many parts of the world, rapid population growth in some areas (contributing to poverty, war, and increasingly frequent migration and overconsumption in others (a main driver of overexploitation of resources and greenhouse gas emissions, and new disease outbreaks (Ebola, Zika virus already are apparent today, and if trends of the past half century continue, even more damaging, long-lasting impacts would be locked in within three decades. Solving these problems will require some scientific and technological breakthroughs, but that will not be enough. Even more critical will be effective collaboration of environmental and physical scientists with social scientists and those in the humanities, active exchange of information among practitioners in academics, politics, religion, and business and other stakeholders, and clear communication of relevant issues and solutions to the general public. This special feature offers examples of how researchers are addressing this grand challenge through the process of discovering new knowledge and relevant tools, transferring insights across disciplinary boundaries, and establishing critical dialogues with those outside academia to help effect positive global change.

  11. The grand descent has begun for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, the CMS experimental cavern looked relatively empty; its detector was assembled entirely at ground level, to be lowered underground in 15 sections. On 2 November, the first hadronic forward calorimeter led the way with a grand descent. The first section of the CMS detector (centre of photo) arriving from the vertical shaft, viewed from the cavern floor. There is something unusual about the construction of the CMS detector. Instead of being built in the experimental cavern, like all the other detectors in the LHC experiments, it was constructed at ground level. This was to allow for easy access during the assembly of the detector and to minimise the size of the excavated cavern. The slightly nerve-wracking task of lowering it safely into the cavern in separate sections came after the complete detector was successfully tested with a magnetic field at ground level. In the early morning of 2 November, the first section of the CMS detector began its eagerly awaited descent into the underground ca...

  12. Proton decay: Numerical simulations confront grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, R.C.; Maturana, G.; Giles, R.C.; Moriarty, K.J.M.; Samuel, S.

    The Grand Unified Theories of the electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions constitute a far reaching attempt to synthesize our knowledge of theoretical particle physics into a consistent and compelling whole. Unfortunately, many quantitative predictions of such unified theories are sensitive to the analytically intractible effects of the strong subnuclear theory (Quantum Chromodynamics or QCD). The consequence is that even ambitious experimental programs exploring weak and super-weak interaction effects often fail to give definitive theoretical tests. This paper describes large-scale calculations on a supercomputer which can help to overcome this gap between theoretical predictions and experimental results. Our focus here is on proton decay, though the methods described are useful for many weak processes. The basic algorithms for the numerical simulation of QCD are well known. We will discuss the advantages and challenges of applying these methods to weak transitions. The algorithms require a very large data base with regular data flow and are natural candidates for vectorization. Also, 32-bit floating point arithmetic is adequate. Thus they are most naturally approached using a supercomputer alone or in combination with a dedicated special purpose processor. (orig.).

  13. do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argemiro Luís Brum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness of the Brazilian rice possess a strategical position, as much for its economic representation how much for its relevance next to the alimentary security. The analysis of the productive chain of the rice, in the Border-West of the Rio Grande Do Sul (Brazil, ahead of a global economy, subject of this work, has as objective to present alternatives and strategies that come to become the sector more competitive rice dealer. In this context, the cooperatives of the Border-West are the central focus of the study for the strong participation in the rice economy sul-rio-grandense. One searchs to identify to the difficulties faced for the productive chain sul-rio-grandense, ahead of the economic globalization, especially, of the Mercosul and the position of the rice cooperatives of the Border-West gaucho, presenting proposals of strategies to become them more competitive and to thus contribute for the supported regional development. As conclusion, the work detaches the necessity of the inter-cooperation and the structuration of a regional central office of purchases that values the products and the marks of the cooperatives.

  14. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J

    2002-01-01

    Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...

  15. Local grand unification in the heterotic landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jonas

    2009-07-15

    We consider the possibility that the unification of the electroweak interactions and the strong force arises from string theory, at energies significantly lower than the string scale. As a tool, an effective grand unified field theory in six dimensions is derived from an anisotropic orbifold compactification of the heterotic string. It is explicitly shown that all anomalies cancel in the model, though anomalous Abelian gauge symmetries are present locally at the boundary singularities. In the supersymmetric vacuum additional interactions arise from higher-dimensional operators. We develop methods that relate the couplings of the effective theory to the location of the vacuum, and find that unbroken discrete symmetries play an important role for the phenomenology of orbifold models. An efficient algorithm for the calculation of the superpotential to arbitrary order is developed, based on symmetry arguments. We furthermore present a correspondence between bulk fields of the orbifold model in six dimensions, and the moduli fields that arise from compactifying four internal dimensions on a manifold with non-trivial gauge background. (orig.)

  16. Les grandes surfaces à dominance alimentaire à Sfax.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennasr, Ali

    2005-01-01

    National audience; A l'image des autres grandes villes du pays, Sfax a connu depuis quelques années une multiplication des magasins de grande surface à dominance alimentaire. Aujourd'hui, quatorze magasins, répartis sur l'espace urbain et totalisant une superficie globale de 10000 m2, se partagent le marché. Les supermarchés à dominance alimentaire marquent aujourd'hui le paysage de la distribution commerciale à Sfax. A l'origine de nouvelles centralités, les grandes surfaces représentent des...

  17. Sustainable web ecosystem design

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the process of creating web-based systems (i.e., websites, content, etc.) that consider each of the parts, the modules, the organisms - binary or otherwise - that make up a balanced, sustainable web ecosystem. In the current media-rich environment, a website is more than a collection of relative html documents of text and images on a static desktop computer monitor. There is now an unlimited combination of screens, devices, platforms, browsers, locations, versions, users, and exabytes of data with which to interact. Written in a highly approachable, practical style, this boo

  18. Ecosystem approaches to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen N. Ole

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of human health must be embedded in the wider pursuit of ecosystem health. Interventions will be impaired if ecosystem-linked determinants of health are not taken into account. In the extreme case, if ecosystems lose their capacity for renewal, society will lose life support services. Essential features of ecosystem health are the capacity to maintain integrity and to achieve reasonable and sustainable human goals. An ecosystem approach to research and management must be transdisciplinary and assure participation of stakeholders. These requisites provide a means for science to better deal with the complexity of ecosystems, and for policy-makers and managers to establish and achieve reasonable societal goals. The ecosystem approach can determine links between human health and activities or events which disturb ecosystem state and function. Examples are: landscape disturbance in agriculture, mining, forestry, urbanization, and natural disasters. An understanding of these links can provide guidance for management interventions and policy options that promote human health. An ecosystem approach to management must be adaptive because of irreducible uncertainty in ecosystem function.

  19. Tres grandes plataformas marinas Mar del Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soulas, R.

    1978-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the different building stages of three large sea platforms. After studying the structure's main characteristics, preparing scale models and calculating ail the elements, platform construction was carried out in three stages: — Dry-dock construction of the hull base. — Installation in the water and finishing the structure. — Immersion and bridge installation. Finally, the necessary operations to move the platform to its definite location were carried out. The structures are formed by a parallelepiped hull of reinforced concrete, divided into compartments by means of vertical orthogonals panels on top of which 2 or 4 piles are placed to support the bridge.

    En este artículo se analizan las diversas etapas en la realización de tres grandes plataformas marinas. Después de un estudio de las características principales de la estructura, ensayos en modelo reducido y cálculo de todos los elementos, se procede a la construcción de las plataformas en tres fases: — Construcción en seco de la base del casco. — Colocación en el agua y acabado de la estructura. — Inmersión y colocación del puente. Por último, se realizan las operaciones necesarias para llevar la plataforma a su ubicación definitiva. Las estructuras están formadas por un casco paralelepipédico de hormigón armado, dividido en compartimientos mediante tabiques verticales ortogonales y sobre el que se han colocado 2 ó 4 pilas que soportan el puente.

  20. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  1. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  2. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1941

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  3. Engagement: The Nations Premier Grand Strategy, Who's In Charge?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derrick, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Selective Engagement, one of the premiere post cold war grand strategies, refers to activities between the US and other nations ranging from trade relations to diplomatic recognition to combined military exercises...

  4. American Grand Strategy in an Age of Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Paul T

    2006-01-01

    ...: diplomatic, informational, military, economic, and law enforcement. It develops seven fundamental features of a grand strategy, and compares thirteen national strategy documents to these fundamentals to determine areas for future refinement...

  5. Grand Performances: Building Self and Social Ties through Theatrical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie May de Montigny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The stories that individuals tell about their experiences on stage and behind-the-scenes at the Grand Opera House of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, contribute to their knowledge of self and social ties.

  6. Albuquerque/Middle Rio Grande Urban Waters Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data have been compiled in support of the Middle Rio Grande/Albuquerque Urban Waters Partnership for the region including Albuquerque, New Mexico.The Middle...

  7. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  8. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  9. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  10. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  11. VT Developed Lands in Grand Isle County - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  12. VT Built Up Lands in Grand Isle County - 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) NRCS mapped historical and current-day built-up lands for Grand Isle County, VT using several vintages of aerial photography: 1941, 1962, 1974,...

  13. DAWN GRAND CALIBRATED (RDR) CERES COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The EPG data are...

  14. DAWN GRAND CALIBRATED (RDR) VESTA COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND Reduced Data Records (RDR) contain a time series of calibrated spectra, counting data, and ephemeris, pointing, and geometry (EPG) data. The data set is...

  15. Du cannabis sous les cacaoyers : épuisement du modèle pionnier et reproduction des « institutions de la frontière » en Côte d’Ivoire forestière

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Eric

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Structuration du milieu rural de la zone forestière ivoirienne : rôle de la « frontière interne » et de ses institutions : Kopytoff [1] puis, en référence au contexte ivoirien, Chauveau [2] ont montré à quel point les phénomènes de « frontière interne » ont joué un rôle structurant dans la constitution des espaces nationaux et des champs identitaire, politique et économique en Afrique subsaharienne. En Côte d’Ivoire, l’économie de plantation de café et de cacao, à travers les fronts pionniers qui ont balayé d’est en ouest la moitié méridionale du pays, a ainsi largement contribué au façonnage du système politique et de l’ensemble de la société civile [3]. Au point que la crise économique, politique et institutionnelle que traverse la Côte d’Ivoire depuis la fin des années 80 se superpose dans une large mesure à la crise du secteur exportateur de café et de cacao, elle-même indissociable de l’épuisement des frontières internes et des difficultés que pose la reproduction des systèmes d’exploitation pionniers (voir, entre autres, les lectures de cette crise que proposent Contamin et Memel-Fotê [4] ; Losch [5] ; Ruf [6]. Parmi ces « institutions de la frontière » qui ont tant pesé dans la construction d’un « État paysan » en Côte d’Ivoire et dans l’élaboration d’un mode de gouvernance aujourd’hui en crise [2], celles qui ont encadré la mise en rapport des deux principaux facteurs du boom de l’arboriculture d’exportation - la terre forestière et le travail fourni par les migrants - retiennent d’emblée l’attention, en ce sens qu’elles ont été le véritable support des dynamiques pionnières et ont structuré de façon durable les relations entre les différents acteurs de la dynamique de colonisation - paysans de différentes origines, autorités coutumières, commerçants, représentants des administrations publiques. En particulier, les différentes formes de

  16. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  17. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-12-31

    In this research, we study Albuquerque`s water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper.

  18. Analysis of Steles with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Samia Ait Ali Yahia

    2017-01-01

    Several steles with Libyan inscriptions were discovered in Grande Kabylia (Algeria), but very few researchers were interested in these inscriptions. Our work is to list, if possible all these steles in order to do a descriptive study of the corpus. The steles analysis will be focused on the iconographic and epigraphic level and on the different forms of Libyan characters in order to highlight the alphabet used by the Grande Kabylia.

  19. Simulations of Precipitation Variability over the Upper Rio Grande Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costigan, Keeley R.; Bossert, James E.; Langley, David L.

    1997-10-01

    In this research, we study Albuquerque's water and how it may be affected by changes in the regional climate, as manifested by variations in Rio Grande water levels. To do this, we rely on the use of coupled atmospheric, runoff, and ground water models. Preliminary work on the project has focused on uncoupled simulations of the aquifer beneath Albuquerque and winter precipitation simulations of the upper Rio Grande Basin. The latter is discussed in this paper

  20. Restrictions on SU(5) as a grand unified theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellard, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symetry breakdown are examined. They are shown that, in particular, theories SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  1. Audit Branding Grand Candi Hotel Semarang dalam Mempertahankan Okupansi

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Rony Kristanto; Naryoso, Agus; Rahmiaji, Lintang Ratri; Pradekso, Tandiyo

    2015-01-01

    Grand Candi Hotel merupakan salah satu independent hotel bintang limayang berdiri di Kota Semarang. Okupansi Grand Candi Hotel pada awal tahun2015 sangat rendah, di bawah 60%. Okupansi awal tahun 2015 lebih rendahdibanding dengan tahun-tahun sebelumnya. Rendahnya okupansi disebabkan olehbeberapa faktor, diantaranya: melemahnya kondisi ekonomi Indonesia di tahun2015 yang berdampak krisis pada semua sektor USAha, diterbitkannya surat edaranMen-PAN RB No. 10/2014, dan persaingan bisnis perhotela...

  2. Conditions for entrepreneurial ecosystem development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Agnieszka; Bogers, Marcel; Brem, Alexander

    In this paper, we explore on the value creation and capturing process in a regional entrepreneurial ecosystem. We investigate the conditions for the ecosystem development with a particular focus on small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), potentially the largest group of stakeholders within many...... ecosystems. The key findings discussed in the paper include general organizational requirements and governing structures, the role of leadership and ownership of the initiatives, and suggestions for potential collaborative areas. The paper concludes with suggestions both for potential inter...

  3. Ecosystem Management and Ecological Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    JØrgensen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    It is the intention of this paper to demonstrate that environmental technology must be supplemented by other tools to be able to solve environmental problems properly. Five cases are used to illustrate the possibilities of ecological engineering, a new engineering field based on ecology, as chemical engineering is based on chemistry. It encompasses restoration of ecosystems, utilization of ecosystems to the benefit of both mankind and nature, construction of ecosystems, and ecologically sound...

  4. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishinhi, Stephen S.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; Farah, Ibrahim O.

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters. PMID:23761974

  5. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity provides data and information on amphibians, disease agents (extent and distribution of infectious and parasitic...

  6. Ecosystem services for energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Andrea; McCormick, Nadine

    2010-09-15

    The world is at an energy crossroads. The changes underway will have implications for ecosystems and livelihoods. Energy security is the reliable supply of affordable energy, of which there are two dimensions; reliability and resilience. Changes in ecosystem services linked to degradation and climate change have the potential to impact both on the reliabiity of energy systems and on their resiliance. Investing in ecosystems can help safeguard energy systems, and mitigate unforeseen risks to energy security. The energy and conservation community should come together to build reliable and resilliant energy systems in ways which recognise and value supporting ecosystems.

  7. Understanding the mobile money ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobbin, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of the new mobile money ecosystem and the roles of its key players. Mobile money is an evolving sector both in volume and in economic impact especially in the developing world. The paper is an exploratory study that investigates the structure of the ecosystem......, providing a foundation for future strategic analysis of the system. We adopt a theoretical insight from Moore's business ecosystem theory to explain the key roles of the actors in the mobile money ecosystem. And also draw extensively from the work of Iansiti and Levien to explain the best strategies...

  8. Historical analysis of riparian vegetation change in response to shifting management objectives on the Middle Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Roy; van Leeuwen, Willem J.D.; Villarreal, Miguel; Tashjian, Paul; Dello Russo, Regina; Scott, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems are valuable to the ecological and human communities that depend on them. Over the past century, they have been subject to shifting management practices to maximize human use and ecosystem services, creating a complex relationship between water policy, management, and the natural ecosystem. This has necessitated research on the spatial and temporal dynamics of riparian vegetation change. The San Acacia Reach of the Middle Rio Grande has experienced multiple management and river flow fluctuations, resulting in threats to its riparian and aquatic ecosystems. This research uses remote sensing data, GIS, a review of management decisions, and an assessment of climate to both quantify how riparian vegetation has been altered over time and provide interpretations of the relationships between riparian change and shifting climate and management objectives. This research focused on four management phases from 1935 to 2014, each highlighting different management practices and climate-driven river patterns, providing unique opportunities to observe a direct relationship between river management, climate, and riparian response. Overall, we believe that management practices coupled with reduced surface river-flows with limited overbank flooding influenced the compositional and spatial patterns of vegetation, including possibly increasing non-native vegetation coverage. However, recent restoration efforts have begun to reduce non-native vegetation coverage.

  9. Appropriate experimental ecosystem warming methods by ecosystem, objective, and practicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.L. Aronson; S.G. McNulty

    2009-01-01

    The temperature of the Earth is rising, and is highly likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The study of the effects of sustained heating on the ecosystems of the world is necessary so that wemight predict and respond to coming changes on both large and small spatial scales. To this end, ecosystem warming studies have...

  10. Payment for ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Oddershede, Jakob Stoktoft; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    Research question: Northern Europe experiences an increasingly wet climate, leading to more frequent and severe fluvial flood events. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is becoming recognised as a valuable yet under-utilised means to alleviating negative effects of a changing climate. This however...... that would allow the local municipality to periodically flood farmland in order to avoid or limit urban flooding from Storåen. The experiment aims to estimate the costs of getting farmers to participate in the scheme, which would represent (some of) the costs of reducing climate change problems in the town...... of Holstebro. In a number of choice occasions, farmers were asked to select between either no contract or contracts characterised by a set of positive and negative attributes, including a whether or not to require specific flood resistant crops or not; whether to allow for a compensation in case of crop loss...

  11. Ecotoxicology and ecosystems health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that traditional investigations are no longer sufficient either to assess the ecological characteristics of a resource or to better understand the dynamics of an ecosystem. Reliable experimental data to be used for further investigation as well as for environmental corrective action are obtained using the traditional quantitative and qualitative biological methods. In fact, environmental health is connected with well functioning global and local ecological cycles, that also assure renewable, good quality natural resources. There is, therefore, a keen need for new, adequate techniques based on biological parameters that will allow for a better understanding and protection of the environment. The use of biological indexes and indicators and toxicology tests have been also prescribed by a recent Italian law on water protection. Differences between toxicology, environmental toxicology and ecotoxicology, often used as equivalent terms, are also analyzed. Furthermore a new classification is proposed and mapping of ecobiotic and toxicologic data on studying waters in river basins.

  12. Review and perspective on mathematical modeling of microbial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Antonella; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2018-03-14

    Understanding microbial ecosystems means unlocking the path toward a deeper knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of life. Engineered microbial communities are also extremely relevant to tackling some of today's grand societal challenges. Advanced meta-omics experimental techniques provide crucial insights into microbial communities, but have been so far mostly used for descriptive, exploratory approaches to answer the initial 'who is there?' An ecosystem is a complex network of dynamic spatio-temporal interactions among organisms as well as between organisms and the environment. Mathematical models with their abstraction capability are essential to capture the underlying phenomena and connect the different scales at which these systems act. Differential equation models and constraint-based stoichiometric models are deterministic approaches that can successfully provide a macroscopic description of the outcome from microscopic behaviors. In this mini-review, we present classical and recent applications of these modeling methods and illustrate the potential of their integration. Indeed, approaches that can capture multiple scales are needed in order to understand emergent patterns in ecosystems and their dynamics regulated by different spatio-temporal phenomena. We finally discuss promising examples of methods proposing the integration of differential equations with constraint-based stoichiometric models and argue that more work is needed in this direction. © 2018 The Author(s).

  13. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  14. Enterotoxemia em caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul Caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson M. Colodel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos surtos de enterotoxemia em caprinos em cinco propriedades no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais afetados eram, normalmente, encontrados mortos ou apresentavam evolução aguda de 2 a 3 horas com acentuada depressão, cólicas abdominais e diarréia profusa com fibrina. Em duas propriedades relataram-se casos com a evolução de até 12 horas. Em treze animais necropsiados observaram-se aumento de líquidos nas cavidades abdominal, torácica e pericárdica, congestão e hiperemia da serosa e mucosa do intestino, conteúdo do cólon líquido com fibrina além de hemorragias de serosa e fibrina. Em um animal constatou-se microangiopatia cerebral caracterizada por acúmulo de material homogêneo e eosinofílico no espaço perivascular. No conteúdo intestinal, colônias com bastonetes morfológica e bioquimicamente sugestivos de Clostridium perfringens foram caracterizadas no estudo bacteriológico. A soroneutralização em camundongos com conteúdo intestinal dos animais afetados, revelou a presença da toxina épsilon. Estes achados evidenciam a enterotoxemia como doença de importância para criação de caprinos no Rio Grande do Sul.Five outbreaks of caprine enterotoxaemia in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were studied. The animals were found dead or had a clinical course that usually lasted 2-3 hours. From two farms a clinical manifestation period of 12 hours was reported. Clinical signs were characterized by depression, marked abdominal discomfort, profuse watery diarrhea with fibrin clots, and death. Thirteen necropsies were performed and hydropericardium, hydrothorax and hydroperitoneum were commonly found. The mucosa and serosa of the colon were congested, and its contents was watery with multiple fibrin clots. Serosal hemorrhages and fibrin clots in the gallbladder were also seen. Fibrinous colitis and thyphilitis were the most frequent histological changes. Cerebral microangiopathy was observed in one case, which was

  15. Ecology in Small Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel René

    Small ecosystems are many-fold more abundant than their larger counterparts. Both on regional and global scale small lakes outnumber medium and large lakes and account for a much larger surface area. Small streams are also far more common than rivers. Despite their abundance small ecosystems are ...

  16. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  17. Economic values of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beukering, Pieter J H; Brouwer, Roy; Koetse, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystems provide important commodities and environmental benefits to society. As such, the management of ecosystems is an economic, social, and political issue encompassing all sectors of an economy. It involves trade-offs between competing uses and users, as well as between additional economic

  18. Ecosystem Restoration: A Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Kenna; Gilpin R., Jr. Robinson; Bill Pell; Michael A. Thompson; Joe McNeel

    1999-01-01

    Elements of ecological restoration underlie much of what we think of as ecosystem management, and restoration projects on federal lands represent some of the most exciting, challenging, and convincing demonstrations of applied ecosystem management. The Society for Ecological Restoration defined restoration as "the process of reestablishing to the extent possible...

  19. Terrestrial ecosystems and their change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Z. Shvidenko; Eric Gustafson; A. David McGuire; Vjacheslav I. Kharuk; Dmitry G. Schepaschenko; Herman H. Shugart; Nadezhda M. Tchebakova; Natalia N. Vygodskaya; Alexander A. Onuchin; Daniel J. Hayes; Ian McCallum; Shamil Maksyutov; Ludmila V. Mukhortova; Amber J. Soja; Luca Belelli-Marchesini; Julia A. Kurbatova; Alexander V. Oltchev; Elena I. Parfenova; Jacquelyn K. Shuman

    2012-01-01

    This chapter considers the current state of Siberian terrestrial ecosystems, their spatial distribution, and major biometric characteristics. Ongoing climate change and the dramatic increase of accompanying anthropogenic pressure provide different but mostly negative impacts on Siberian ecosystems. Future climates of the region may lead to substantial drying on large...

  20. Refocusing ecosystem services towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroter, Matthias; Stumpf, Klara H.; Loos, Jacqueline; Oudenhoven, van Alexander P.E.; Böhnke-Henrichs, Anne; Abson, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services and sustainability have become prominent concepts in international policy and research agendas. However, a common conceptual ground between these concepts is currently underdeveloped. In particular, a vision is missing on how to align ecosystem services with overarching

  1. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  2. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  3. Linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide are recognising ecosystem services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of ecosystem services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking ecosystem characteristics to final ecosystem services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate ecosystem services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate ecosystem characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final ecosystem services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857

  4. The Grand Tour via Geodesic Interpolation of 2-frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Daniel; Buja, Andreas

    1994-01-01

    Grand tours are a class of methods for visualizing multivariate data, or any finite set of points in n-space. The idea is to create an animation of data projections by moving a 2-dimensional projection plane through n-space. The path of planes used in the animation is chosen so that it becomes dense, that is, it comes arbitrarily close to any plane. One of the original inspirations for the grand tour was the experience of trying to comprehend an abstract sculpture in a museum. One tends to walk around the sculpture, viewing it from many different angles. A useful class of grand tours is based on the idea of continuously interpolating an infinite sequence of randomly chosen planes. Visiting randomly (more precisely: uniformly) distributed planes guarantees denseness of the interpolating path. In computer implementations, 2-dimensional orthogonal projections are specified by two 1-dimensional projections which map to the horizontal and vertical screen dimensions, respectively. Hence, a grand tour is specified by a path of pairs of orthonormal projection vectors. This paper describes an interpolation scheme for smoothly connecting two pairs of orthonormal vectors, and thus for constructing interpolating grand tours. The scheme is optimal in the sense that connecting paths are geodesics in a natural Riemannian geometry.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substances in waters along the Grand Canal, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, H T; Jiao, X C; Gai, N; Chen, S; Lu, G H; Yin, X C; Yamazaki, E; Yamashita, N; Tan, K Y; Yang, Y L; Pan, J

    2017-07-01

    The Grand Canal, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the longest canal in the world. It is an important trunk line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. The contamination status and spatial distributions of perfluoroalky substances (PFASs) in waters of the Grand Canal were investigated. The total concentrations of PFASs (∑PFASs) range from 7.8 ng/L to 218.0 ng/L, with high ∑PFASs occurring in the southern part of the Grand Canal which is located in a highly urbanized and economically developed region. The dominance of PFOA showed a decreasing trend toward north while shorter chain homologue proportions increased in the northern part of the Canal which mainly traverses underdeveloped and rural areas in Eastern China. Positive correlations were observed between ∑PFASs and the population density as well as GDP per capita. Intersection with large rivers may affect the contamination levels and composition of PFASs in the water of the Grand Canal near the intersection sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Food security in a perfect storm: using the ecosystem services framework to increase understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppy, G M; Chiotha, S; Eigenbrod, F; Harvey, C A; Honzák, M; Hudson, M D; Jarvis, A; Madise, N J; Schreckenberg, K; Shackleton, C M; Villa, F; Dawson, T P

    2014-04-05

    Achieving food security in a 'perfect storm' scenario is a grand challenge for society. Climate change and an expanding global population act in concert to make global food security even more complex and demanding. As achieving food security and the millennium development goal (MDG) to eradicate hunger influences the attainment of other MDGs, it is imperative that we offer solutions which are complementary and do not oppose one another. Sustainable intensification of agriculture has been proposed as a way to address hunger while also minimizing further environmental impact. However, the desire to raise productivity and yields has historically led to a degraded environment, reduced biodiversity and a reduction in ecosystem services (ES), with the greatest impacts affecting the poor. This paper proposes that the ES framework coupled with a policy response framework, for example Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR), can allow food security to be delivered alongside healthy ecosystems, which provide many other valuable services to humankind. Too often, agro-ecosystems have been considered as separate from other natural ecosystems and insufficient attention has been paid to the way in which services can flow to and from the agro-ecosystem to surrounding ecosystems. Highlighting recent research in a large multi-disciplinary project (ASSETS), we illustrate the ES approach to food security using a case study from the Zomba district of Malawi.

  7. Towards a consistent approach for ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edens, B.; Hein, L.G.

    2013-01-01

    In spite of an increasing interest in environmental economic accounting, there is still very limited experience with the integration of ecosystem services and ecosystem capital in national accounts. This paper identifies four key methodological challenges in developing ecosystem accounts: the

  8. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  9. Ecosystem overfishing in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the ecosystem impacts of fishing-i.e., the level of ecosystem overfishing. Here we evaluate the historical and current risk of ecosystem overfishing at a global scale by quantifying the depletion of secondary production using the best available fisheries and ecological data (i.e., catch and primary production). Our results highlight an increasing trend in the number of unsustainable fisheries (i.e., an increase in the risk of ecosystem overfishing) from the 1950s to the 2000s, and illustrate the worldwide geographic expansion of overfishing. These results enable to assess when and where fishing became unsustainable at the ecosystem level. At present, total catch per capita from Large Marine Ecosystems is at least twice the value estimated to ensure fishing at moderate sustainable levels.

  10. Adaptive management for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgé, Hannah E; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Pope, Kevin L

    2016-12-01

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with management designed to meet the demands of a growing human population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Assist the National Park Service in Monitoring Shoreline Land Cover Change in the Lower Grand Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C. L.; Phillips, A.; Young, S.; Counts, A.

    2017-12-01

    Sustained drought conditions have contributed to a significant decrease in the volume of the Colorado River in the Lake Mead reservoir and lower portion of the Grand Canyon. As a result, changes in riparian conditions have occurred in the region, such as sediment exposure and receding vegetation. These changes have large negative impacts on ecological health, including water and air pollution, aquatic, terrestrial and avian habitat alterations, and invasive species introduction. Scientists at Grand Canyon National Park seek to quantify changes in water surface and land cover area in the Lower Grand Canyon from 1998 to 2016 to better understand the effects of these changing conditions within the park. Landsat imagery was used to detect changes of the water surface and land cover area across this time period to assess the effects of long-term drought on the riparian zone. The resulting land cover and water surface time-series from this project will assist in monitoring future changes in water, sediment, and vegetation extent, increasing the ability of park scientists to create adaptation strategies for the ecosystem in the Lower Grand Canyon.

  12. New innovative ecosystems in France to develop the Bioeconomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Thierry; Chauvet, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-25

    The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain. It also facilitated investments in new platforms and programs through public-private partnerships. The Biorefinery of Pomacle is a good illustration of such a collective approach. The role of regional and national public partners is essential to succeed in this development which requires a long term strategy and support. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The module provides a link to an article that is part of a series of articles in Issues in Ecology. This article discusses the many services an ecosystem provides in order to sustain and fulfill human needs.

  14. Biomechanical analysis technique choreographic movements (for example, "grand battman jete"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Batieieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : biomechanical analysis of the execution of choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Material : the study involved students (n = 7 of the department of classical choreography faculty of choreography. Results : biomechanical analysis of choreographic movement "grand battman jete" (classic exercise, obtained kinematic characteristics (path, velocity, acceleration, force of the center of mass (CM bio parts of the body artist (foot, shin, thigh. Built bio kinematic model (phase. The energy characteristics - mechanical work and kinetic energy units legs when performing choreographic movement "grand battman jete". Conclusions : It was found that the ability of an athlete and coach-choreographer analyze the biomechanics of movement has a positive effect on the improvement of choreographic training of qualified athletes in gymnastics (sport, art, figure skating and dance sports.

  15. Historical records of solar grand minima: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, José M.

    2012-07-01

    Knowing solar activity during the past centuries is of great interest for many purposes. Historical documents can help us to know about the behaviour of the Sun during the last centuries. The observation of aurorae and naked-eye sunspots provides us with continuous information through the last few centuries that can be used to improve our knowledge of the long-term solar activity including solar Grand Minima. We have more or less detailed information on only one Grand minimum (the Maunder minimum in the second half of 17th century), which serves as an archetype for Grand minima in general. Telescopic sunspot records and measurements of solar diameter during Maunder minimum are available. In this contribution, I review some recent progress on these issues.

  16. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  17. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Environmental Audit of the Grand Junction Projects Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is located in Mesa County, Colorado, immediately south and west of the Grand Junction city limits. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) established the Colorado Raw Materials Office at the present-day Grand Junction Projects Office in 1947, to aid in the development of a viable domestic uranium industry. Activities at the site included sampling uranium concentrate; pilot-plant milling research, including testing and processing of uranium ores; and operation of a uranium mill pilot plant from 1954 to 1958. The last shipment of uranium concentrate was sent from GJPO in January, 1975. Since that time the site has been utilized to support various DOE programs, such as the former National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP), the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP), and the Technical Measurements Center (TMC). All known contamination at GJPO is believed to be the result of the past uranium milling, analyses, and storage activities. Hazards associated with the wastes impounded at GJPO include surface and ground-water contamination and potential radon and gamma-radiation exposure. This report documents the results of the Baseline Environmental Audit conducted at Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) located in Grand Junction, Colorado. The Grand Junction Baseline Environmental Audit was conducted from May 28 to June 12, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at GJPO, as well as GJPO activities at the State-Owned Temporary Repository. 4 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Recent drought effects on ecosystem carbon uptake in California ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Guan, K.; Brodrick, P. G.; Berry, J. A.; Asner, G. P.

    2016-12-01

    California is one of the Earth's most biodiverse places and most of California has experienced an extreme (millennium scale) drought in the period of 2012-2015. Although the effect of the drought on the water resources have been well studied, the responses of ecosystems has not been explored in this detail. This study used advanced remotely sensed data (e.g., remotely sensed vegetation indices and solar-induced fluorescence), an ecosystem model, and model-data fusion techniques to study the impacts of the severe drought on ecosystem carbon uptakes in California. We have found that: (1) the drought has significantly suppressed carbon uptake and light use efficiency in California ecosystems - except in the semi-deserts, and the moist forests in the northern coast; (2) effects on the photosynthetic capacity of the ecosystems extends after the drought is relieved; and (3) the drought has shifted both the timing and magnitude of the seasonality of the carbon uptake in non-forested regions. These findings provide a better understanding of the impacts of droughts, and provide an improved basis for prediction of ecosystem responses under a more extreme climate in the future.

  20. Falares: a oralidade como elemento construtor da grande-reportagem

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Criado

    2006-01-01

    Esta tese discute a incorporação da oralidade de falantes excluídos social e culturalmente na grande-reportagem. O foco desta pesquisa é refletir como a grande-reportagem no Brasil, em sua missão de desvendamento do real, tem lidado com a questão da oralidade. Discute os desafios para a incorporação dos registros orais de pessoas com baixa escolaridade, tendo em vista o preconceito que existe na sociedade em relação aos falantes que se utilizam de modalidades diferentes da língua padrão. Prop...

  1. Divisão Territorial do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Augusto Thofehrn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Versa sobre a Divisão Territorial do Rio Grande do Sul. Dividido em: Conceito de divisão administrativa; Necessidade da Geografia na divisão territorial; Conceito de área; Fatores que compõem uma paisagem geográfica; O problema da análise da paisagem; Análise da posição; Análise da paisagem; Análise das Interrrelações; Aplicação dos processos geográficos para o Rio Grande do Sul; O método; Estabelecimento de médias;

  2. The Grand Geochemistry of 4 Vesta: First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T. H.; Beck, A.; Feldman, W. C.; Forni, O.; Joy, S. P.; Lawrence, D. J.; McCoy T. J.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    On 12-Dec-2011, the Dawn spacecraft commenced low altitude mapping of the giant asteroid, 4 Vesta (264-km mean radius). Dawn's roughly circular, polar, low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) has a mean radius of 470 km, placing the spacecraft within about 210 km of Vesta's surface. At these altitudes, Dawn s Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is sensitive to Vesta's elemental com-position (Fig. 1). GRaND will acquire data in LAMO for up to 16 weeks, which is sufficient to map the elemental composition of the entire surface of Vesta. The timing of LAMO enables us to report the first results of our geochemistry investigation at this conference. In this abstract, we present an overview of our initial observations, based on data acquired at high altitude and during the first weeks of LAMO. GRaND overview. A detailed description of the GRaND instrument, science objectives and prospective results is given in [1]. At low altitudes, GRaND is sensitive to gamma rays and neutrons produced by cosmogenic nuclear reactions and radioactive decay occurring within the top few decimeters of the surface and on a spatial scale of a few hundred kilometers. From these nuclear emissions, the abundance of several major- and minor-elements, such as Fe, Mg, Si, K, and Th can be determined. Assuming the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites are representative of Vesta s crustal composition [2], then GRaND will be able to map the mixing ratios of whole-rock HED end-members, enabling the determination of the relative proportions of basaltic eucrite, cumulate eucrite, and diogenite as well as the proportions of mafic and plagioclase minerals [1,3]. GRaND will also search for compositions not well-represented in the meteorite collection, such as evolved, K-rich lithologies [4], and outcrops of olivine from Vesta s mantle or igneous intrusions in major impact basins [5]. The search for a possible mesosiderite source region is described in [6]. GRaND will globally map the abundance of

  3. Grand Minima: Is The Sun Going To Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, S. W.; Leamon, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    We explore recent observational work which indicate that the energetics of the sun's outer atmosphere have been on a steady decline for the past decade and perhaps longer. Futher, we show that new investigations into evolution of the Sun's global magnetic activity appear to demonstrate a path through which the Sun can go into, and exit from, a grand activity minimum without great difficulty while retaining an activity cycle - only losing sunspots. Are we at the begining of a new grand(-ish) minimum? Naturally, only time will tell, but the observational evidence hint that one may not be far off to what impact on the Sun-Earth Connection.

  4. Examining the Effects of Anthropogenic Landscape Transformation on Wetland Habitats within the Grand Kankakee Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Z.; Patterson, T. A.; Grundel, R.; Bolster, D.; Hamlet, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Kankakee River watershed spans areas of southern Michigan, northern Indiana (IN), and eastern Illinois (IL), and was once home to one of the largest and most ecologically productive freshwater wetland complexes in North America, the 2400 km2 Grand Kankakee Marsh. The organically-rich marsh bottom land in the Kankakee basin also yielded productive farmland, but required extensive drainage. By 1919, more than 145 km of the 240-km-long river in IN were channelized and most of the wetlands in IN were drained. On the IL side, the river's channel system remained more intact, but the river was negatively affected by loss of wetland habitat upstream and increasing high flows, erosion and sediment transport arising from the hydrologic changes in the upstream areas. This study integrates surface water and groundwater modeling to explore the potential to recover a portion of the Kankakee's historic wetland ecosystem by removing agricultural drainage infrastructure within the basin. Results of wetland area and habitat metrics across the entire basin at coarse (500 m) resolution for several wetland restoration configurations and climate scenarios are presented, exhibiting the ability to successfully capture much of the watershed's historic features and traits as well as to respond to changes in model forcing to predict future wetland dynamics. Additionally, preliminary methods and results relating to a study site at finer (30 m) resolution over a moderate sized wetland restoration area ( 30 km2) are presented, helping to incorporate and address the fundamental interactions and limitations between agricultural practices and wetland restoration efforts within the entire Grand Kankakee Watershed.

  5. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  6. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  7. Puako Ecosystem Model Output Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reefs provide a wide range of ecosystem services that are valued differently by different users. Managers are challenged to comprehensively address the full...

  8. Mineral nutrients in mediterranean ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Day, JA

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ' classifications of plant forms and formations, categories implicitly based on their intuitive views of convergence. Because of the striking similarities in plant form among the small, widely-separated Mediterranean ecosystems (Figure 1), biogeographical concepts...

  9. Engineering Ecosystems and Synthetic Ecologies#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Michael T; Wang, Harris H

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ecosystems play an important role in nature. Engineering these systems for industrial, medical, or biotechnological purposes are important pursuits for synthetic biologists and biological engineers moving forward. Here, we provide a review of recent progress in engineering natural and synthetic microbial ecosystems. We highlight important forward engineering design principles, theoretical and quantitative models, new experimental and manipulation tools, and possible applications of microbial ecosystem engineering. We argue that simply engineering individual microbes will lead to fragile homogenous populations that are difficult to sustain, especially in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable environments. Instead, engineered microbial ecosystems are likely to be more robust and able to achieve complex tasks at the spatial and temporal resolution needed for truly programmable biology. PMID:22722235

  10. Mirador - Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. This Focus Area deals with the cycling of carbon in reservoirs and ecosystems as it changes naturally, is changed by humans,...

  11. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  12. Interaction webs in arctic ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Niels M.; Hardwick, Bess; Gilg, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    How species interact modulate their dynamics, their response to environmental change, and ultimately the functioning and stability of entire communities. Work conducted at Zackenberg, Northeast Greenland, has changed our view on how networks of arctic biotic interactions are structured, how they ...... that the combination of long-term, ecosystem-based monitoring, and targeted research projects offers the most fruitful basis for understanding and predicting the future of arctic ecosystems....

  13. Ecosystem Overfishing in the Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the ecosystem) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the ecosystem impac...

  14. La Grande Guerra fra realtà ed illusione: La Grande Illusion e l’immaginario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Di Blasi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this brief essay is to focus on the relation between the meaning of reality and illusion in the movie La Grande Illusion (1937 by Jean Renoir and therefore to find how these ideas of the author may be productive in a thought about the imaginary. After a short look on the movies made at that time on the First World War, there is an overview of the French director poetics, which redefines the conception of the realism, contextualizing its work at the point of convergence of two imaginary “technological lines”, the cinema and the aviation. It follows the analysis of the movie and the illusions, as social largely shared imaginaries, described by the author. In the end it is showed the importance and the of illusion in Renoir’s poetics. Beyond the relationship realityfiction, he thought a dynamic reciprocity among illusion and reality: so that the reality is as “illusion” (a ruled horizon in which it is possible to enjoy a world of play and the illusion as an activity creating contents of “reality”.

  15. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance

    2003-08-01

    On July 1, 1984 the Bonneville Power Administration and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife entered into an agreement to initiate fish habitat enhancement work in the Joseph Creek subbasin of the Grande Ronde River Basin in northeast Oregon. In July of 1985 the Upper and Middle Grande Ronde River, and Catherine Creek subbasins were included in the intergovernmental contract, and on March 1, 1996 the Wallowa River subbasin was added. The primary goal of 'The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project' is to create, protect, and restore riparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin. This project provided for implementation of Program Measure 703 (C)(1), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC, 1987), and continues to be implemented as offsite mitigation for mainstem fishery losses caused by the Columbia River hydro-electric system. All work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife is on private lands and therefore requires that considerable time be spent developing rapport with landowners to gain acceptance of, and continued cooperation with this program throughout 10-15 year lease periods. This project calls for passive regeneration of habitat, using riparian exclosure fencing as the primary method to restore degraded streams to a normative condition. Active remediation techniques using plantings, off-site water developments, site-specific instream structures, or whole channel alterations are also utilized where applicable. Individual projects contribute to and complement ecosystem and basin-wide watershed restoration efforts that are underway by state, federal, and tribal agencies, and local watershed councils. Work undertaken during 2002 included: (1) Implementing 1 new fencing project in the Wallowa subbasin that will protect an additional 0.95 miles of stream

  16. Reevaluating American Grand Strategy in an Era of Retrenchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    bipartisan support for what was essentially a “liberal institutionalist ” strategy began to breakdown.54 The absence of a military and ideological ...56 12 Synthetic Approach ...political ideology was vindicated after 20 years of doubt. Almost by default, “primacy” became the overarching grand strategy of the United States.3

  17. Brighty, donkeys and conservation in the Grand Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, John

    2006-09-01

    The Grand Canyon is a vast place. It is almost incomprehensible in size. And yet it can also seem strangely crowded. Millions of tourists flock to the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona every year. In 1999, almost 5 million people visited, the highest figure in Canyon history. And each one of them expected to see a wild, free and untrammelled landscape. Despite the obvious natural resources, this expectation has proved anything but easy to satisfy. The US National Park Service (NPS), responsible for the management of most large North American parks (along with several historic sites and museums), has struggled to make or keep the canyon "grand". Park rangers have grappled with a multitude of issues during the past century, including automobile congestion, drying of the Colorado River and uranium mining inside the park. Conservation has posed a unique set of challenges. On a fundamental level, "restoring" the Grand Canyon to its "original" wilderness setting has proved intensely problematic. In the field of wildlife management, restoring the Canyon to its pre-Columbian splendour has entailed some tough decisions--none more so than a 1976 plan to eliminate a sizeable population of feral burros (wild donkeys) roaming the preserve, animals classified as exotics by the NPS.

  18. Johannes Althusius' grand federalism, the role of the Ephors and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the primary structures Johannes Althusius' constitutionalism, as explained in his Politica: Politics Methodically Set Forth and Illustrated with Sacred and Profane Examples published in 1603. The first of these structures and the theme that Althusius is most famous for, is his scheme of grand republican ...

  19. Condors back after long absence from Grand Canyon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-03-02

    Mar 2, 2007 ... or even for UFOs. Benefield follows the birds closely. Condors are very curious and must be trained to stay away from humans. That requires hazing the birds by throwing pebbles at them or making noise when they get too close to the. Grand Canyon crowds. But visitors who get a glimpse of the scavengers ...

  20. Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Joseph A. Tainter

    1995-01-01

    This book synthesizes existing information on the ecology, diversity, human uses, and research needs of the Middle Rio Grande Basin of New Mexico. Divided into nine chapters, the volume begins with reviews of the environmental history and human cultures in the Basin, followed by an analysis of the influences and problems of climate and water. Later chapters focus on...

  1. The Grand Coalition and Pension and Health Care Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverland, M.; Stiller, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on German pension and health care reform politics under the Grand Coalition. All rich democracies face functional pressures to reform these sectors but are confronted with political and sometimes also institutionalobstacles. This holds in particular for the German party system,

  2. A grand-canonical ensemble of randomly triangulated surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, J.; Krzywicki, A.; Petersson, B.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm is presented generating the grand-canonical ensemble of discrete, randomly triangulated Polyakov surfaces. The algorithm is used to calculate the susceptibility exponent, which controls the existence of the continuum limit of the considered model, for the dimensionality of the embedding space ranging from 0 to 20. (orig.)

  3. Eesti nukufilm sai järjekordse grand prix

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    XII Rahvusvaheline animafilmifestival "KROK-2005", mis toimus laeval, mis sõitis Kiievist Odessasse. Rao Heidmets ja Hardi Volmer said festivali karnevalil oma jänese kostüümi eest grand prix. Eesti filmidest olid programmis "Karl ja Marilyn", "Frank ja Wendy", "Barbarid", "Laud" ja "Conkistadoor"

  4. Piccolo tõi Soomest taas grand prix'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Tänavuse Lappeenrantas toimunud rahvusvahelise suupillifestivali võistumängimisel osalesid suupilliklubi Piccolo orkester, kvartett ja noored solistid. Grand prix' ehk suure võidukarika pälvis Piccolo suupillikvartett koosseisus Ilmar Tõnisson, Andrus Haugas, Andres Kokk ja Elmar Trink. Noorte kategooria võitjaks tunnistati Martin Merevits, kolmandad kohad saavutasid Janek Sildvee bluusi- ja Eduard Einmann diatoonilise suupilli kategoorias

  5. Cromoblastomicose no Rio Grande do Sul: relato de 12 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matte Shirley M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 12 casos de cromoblastomicose diagnosticados no interior do Rio Grande do Sul, no período 1988-1995. Os aspectos clínicos e evolutivos são analisados e comparados com a literatura. O único agente isolado foi Fonsecaea pedrosoi.

  6. Nuove prospettive storiografiche sulla Grande guerra: violenze, traumi, esperienze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bizzocchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il testo propone, attraverso l’analisi delle recensioni pubblicate sulla rivista internazionale “First World War Studies”, una rassegna su alcuni recenti studi storici sulla Prima guerra mondiale. Dopo la svolta degli anni Settanta-Ottanta, la storiografia sta continuando ad approfondire in particolare il tema dei risvolti sociali e culturali della Grande guerra.

  7. Scaling up Social: Strategies for Solving Social Work's Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria Y.; Ostrow, Laysha; Kemp, Susan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Grand Challenges for Social Work Initiative aims to focus the profession's attention on how social work can play a larger role in mitigating contemporary social problems. Yet a central issue facing contemporary social work is its seeming reticence to engage with social problems, and their solutions, beyond individual-level interventions.…

  8. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations

  9. Prescribed fire, elk, and aspen in Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron Steffens; Diane Abendroth

    2001-01-01

    In Grand Teton National Park, a landscape-scale assessment of regeneration in aspen has assisted park managers in identifying aspen stands that may be at risk due to a number of interrelated factors, including ungulate browsing and suppression of wildland fire. The initial aspen survey sampled an estimated 20 percent of the park's aspen stands. Assessment of these...

  10. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  11. Academia meets industry at the Multimedia Grand Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, C.G.M.; Slaney, M.

    2011-01-01

    This column is about last year's ACM Multimedia Grand Challenge in Florence, Italy, an event that endeavors to connect (academic) researchers more effectively with the realities of the business world. The authors describe the 10 challenges and present the three winning applications.

  12. Workshop and conference on Grand Challenges applications and software technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    On May 4--7, 1993, nine federal agencies sponsored a four-day meeting on Grand Challenge applications and software technology. The objective was to bring High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge applications research groups supported under the federal HPCC program together with HPCC software technologists to: discuss multidisciplinary computational science research issues and approaches, identify major technology challenges facing users and providers, and refine software technology requirements for Grand Challenge applications research. The first day and a half focused on applications. Presentations were given by speakers from universities, national laboratories, and government agencies actively involved in Grand Challenge research. Five areas of research were covered: environmental and earth sciences; computational physics; computational biology, chemistry, and materials sciences; computational fluid and plasma dynamics; and applications of artificial intelligence. The next day and a half was spent in working groups in which the applications researchers were joined by software technologists. Nine breakout sessions took place: I/0, Data, and File Systems; Parallel Programming Paradigms; Performance Characterization and Evaluation of Massively Parallel Processing Applications; Program Development Tools; Building Multidisciplinary Applications; Algorithm and Libraries I; Algorithms and Libraries II; Graphics and Visualization; and National HPCC Infrastructure.

  13. A GRAND PLAN FOR EARTH LOVE EDUCATION IN SOUTHERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A GRAND PLAN FOR EARTH LOVE EDUCATION IN SOUTHERN AFRICA: The dream becomes a nightmare. So, what went wrong? Rob O'Donoghue. INTRODUCTION. The recent critique of the Council for the Environment (CFE) core syllabus for environmental education. (Taylor et.al, 1993) worried many people active in ...

  14. Alt-Energy Grand Prix Inspires an "I Can" Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer, Al; Trzeciak, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how a team comprised largely of high school students builds and races an E85-fueled car and takes first place at the Bowling Green (Ohio) State University (BGSU) Grand Prix. Free and open to the public, the event features student drivers and crews, racing go-karts powered by renewable, ethanol-based E85 fuel. The track is a…

  15. Winning in straight sets helps in Grand Slam tennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dries R.; Kempeneers, Jurgen; Koning, Ruud H.; Spieksma, Frits C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we study whether fatigue resulting from the previous match affects a player's chances of winning his (or her) next match in Grand Slum tennis. We measure relative fatigue levels of two opponents by looking at the difference in number of sets played in their previous match. We

  16. Structures of Urban Poverty in Greg Sarris's "Grand Avenue"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Greg Sarris's 1994 "Grand Avenue" offers tough urban stories about a long-fought, still-continuing struggle for survival and self-determination. Sarris's stories present the day-to-day lives of a contemporary, fictional Pomo community living in a multiracial neighborhood not far from their traditional homeland. The stories depict poverty, high…

  17. The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical ...

  18. Grand Challenges Emerging Perspectives For Embedded Processing (BRIEFING CHARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-06

    nΗy(n) 0 0 11 1 LKL > Virtual Optical Systemi t l ti l tr Post- Processing Co- Optimization Metrics Page 5 PROCESSING GRAND CHALLENGE 1 EO/IR Space...would be pretty shocked by what’s in a showroom now. Camera stores of the future will surprise us just as much.” -Nathan Myhrvold, former CTO of

  19. Os grandes consumidores de consultas medicas: um estudo de familia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pereira Graça

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe un estudio sobre algunas características familiares de sujetos grandes consumidores de servicios de salud. Por un lado, se compara un grupo de grandes consumidores de servicios de salud, a nivel de número de consultas, con un grupo control en términos de funcionamiento familiar y actitudes hacia los médicos y la Medicina; por otro lado, se estudia la relación entre la dinámica familiar y las actitudes hacia la Medicina y los médicos en el grupo de los grandes consumidores. Los resultados muestran que los dos grupos de usuarios son significativamente diferentes; además, en el grupo de grandes consumidores el funcionamiento familiar problemático parece ser un factor intermediario en el desarrollo de actitudes menos negativas hacia los médicos y la Medicina. Se discuten las implicaciones que los resultados tienen a nivel de intervención terapéutica.

  20. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  1. Governance of ecosystem services on small islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, Nico; Reinhard, Stijn; Bets, van L.K.J.; Kuhlman, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Natural ecosystems provide an attractive focus for tourism on small islands. However, at the same time tourism and other human actions can be detrimental to these ecosystems especially because governance of the ecosystem may be difficult due to the limited resilience of small island ecosystems.

  2. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems' capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  3. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubayah, R.; Goetz, S. J.; Blair, J. B.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Hansen, M.; Healey, S. P.; Hofton, M. A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Kellner, J.; Luthcke, S. B.; Swatantran, A.

    2014-12-01

    Spaceborne lidar has been identified as a key technology by the international ecosystem science community because it enables accurate estimates of canopy structure and biomass and forms the basis for fusion approaches that extend the capabilities of existing and planned radar missions, such as the NASA-ISRO SAR and the ESA BIOMASS mission. The Global Ecosystems Dynamics Investigation Lidar (GEDI Lidar) was recently selected by NASA's Earth Ventures Instrument (EVI) program. From its vantage point on the International Space Station, GEDI Lidar provides high-resolution observations of forest vertical structure and addresses three, core science questions: What is the aboveground carbon balance of the land surface? What role will the land surface play in mitigating atmospheric CO2 in the coming decades? How does ecosystem structure affect habitat quality and biodiversity? GEDI informs these science questions by making billions of lidar waveform observations of canopy structure over its nominal one year mission length. The instrument uses three laser transmitters to produce 14 parallel tracks of 25 m footprints. These canopy measurements are then used to measure biomass and in fusion with radar and other remote sensing data to quantify changes in biomass resulting from disturbance and recovery. GEDI further marries ecosystem structure from lidar with ecosystem modeling to predict the sequestration potential of existing forests and to evaluate the impact of policy-driven afforestation and reforestation actions on sequestering additional carbon. Lastly, GEDI's observations of ecosystem structure provide a mapping of critical habitat metrics at the fine scales required for understanding the patterns, processes, and controls on biodiversity and habitat quality. The selection of GEDI Lidar, when combined with the rapid advancement of new radar missions and the availability of long-term land cover archives from passive optical sensors, ushers in an exciting new era of land

  4. Overview of natural gas in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Panorama do gas natural no Rio Grande do Norte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Pedro Helio Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (GREEN/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos

    2008-07-01

    This work draws a picture of what the natural gas means to Rio Grande do Norte in its quantitative dimension, expressed in the numbers and reserve indicators, production and structure of consume. In another dimension, it broaches the processes of energetic substitution by the natural gas in the state energetic matrix. (author)

  5. Ensemble ecosystem modeling for predicting ecosystem response to predator reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher M; Gordon, Ascelin; Bode, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Introducing a new or extirpated species to an ecosystem is risky, and managers need quantitative methods that can predict the consequences for the recipient ecosystem. Proponents of keystone predator reintroductions commonly argue that the presence of the predator will restore ecosystem function, but this has not always been the case, and mathematical modeling has an important role to play in predicting how reintroductions will likely play out. We devised an ensemble modeling method that integrates species interaction networks and dynamic community simulations and used it to describe the range of plausible consequences of 2 keystone-predator reintroductions: wolves (Canis lupus) to Yellowstone National Park and dingoes (Canis dingo) to a national park in Australia. Although previous methods for predicting ecosystem responses to such interventions focused on predicting changes around a given equilibrium, we used Lotka-Volterra equations to predict changing abundances through time. We applied our method to interaction networks for wolves in Yellowstone National Park and for dingoes in Australia. Our model replicated the observed dynamics in Yellowstone National Park and produced a larger range of potential outcomes for the dingo network. However, we also found that changes in small vertebrates or invertebrates gave a good indication about the potential future state of the system. Our method allowed us to predict when the systems were far from equilibrium. Our results showed that the method can also be used to predict which species may increase or decrease following a reintroduction and can identify species that are important to monitor (i.e., species whose changes in abundance give extra insight into broad changes in the system). Ensemble ecosystem modeling can also be applied to assess the ecosystem-wide implications of other types of interventions including assisted migration, biocontrol, and invasive species eradication. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Developing spatial biophysical accounting for multiple ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Schroter, M.; Hein, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is receiving increasing interest as a way to systematically monitor the conditions of ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide. A critical element of ecosystem accounting is understanding spatially explicit flows of ecosystem services. We developed spatial biophysical

  7. DAWN GRAND RAW (EDR) CRUISE CHECKOUT/BACKGROUND COUNTS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRaND EDR are a time-ordered collection of gamma ray and neutron counting data and histograms acquired by GRaND during all phases of the Dawn mission. The...

  8. Characterizing changes in marine ecosystem services

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kai MA; Ruckelshaus, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of marine ecosystems for people are increasingly being characterized through the concept of ecosystem services, with the promise to aid decision making from marine spatial planning to ecosystem-based management. The characterization of changes in marine ecosystem services is central to the application of ecological science to policy contexts, and this field is quickly evolving with innovations in frameworks for integrating science, understanding of ecosystems and human benefits, ...

  9. An ecosystem services framework to support both practical conservation and economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Heather; Kareiva, Peter; Marvier, Michelle; Chang, Amy

    2008-01-01

    The core idea of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is that the human condition is tightly linked to environmental condition. This assertion suggests that conservation and development projects should be able to achieve both ecological and social progress without detracting from their primary objectives. Whereas “win–win” projects that achieve both conservation and economic gains are a commendable goal, they are not easy to attain. An analysis of World Bank projects with objectives of alleviating poverty and protecting biodiversity revealed that only 16% made major progress on both objectives. Here, we provide a framework for anticipating win–win, lose–lose, and win–lose outcomes as a result of how people manage their ecosystem services. This framework emerges from detailed explorations of several case studies in which biodiversity conservation and economic development coincide and cases in which there is joint failure. We emphasize that scientific advances around ecosystem service production functions, tradeoffs among multiple ecosystem services, and the design of appropriate monitoring programs are necessary for the implementation of conservation and development projects that will successfully advance both environmental and social goals. The potentially bright future of jointly advancing ecosystem services, conservation, and human well-being will be jeopardized unless a global monitoring effort is launched that uses the many ongoing projects as a grand experiment. PMID:18621702

  10. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator–prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs, however, will always operate simultaneously with networks based on other types of ecological interaction, such as through the activities of ecosystem engineers or mutualistic interactions. Little is known about how to classify, organize and quantify these other ecological networks and their mutual interplay. The aim of this paper is to provide new and testable ideas on how to understand and model ecosystems in which many different types of ecological interaction operate simultaneously. We approach this problem by first identifying six main types of interaction that operate within ecosystems, of which food web interactions are one. Then, we propose that food webs are structured among two main axes of organization: a vertical (classic) axis representing trophic position and a new horizontal ‘ecological stoichiometry’ axis representing decreasing palatability of plant parts and detritus for herbivores and detrivores and slower turnover times. The usefulness of these new ideas is then explored with three very different ecosystems as test cases: temperate intertidal mudflats; temperate short grass prairie; and tropical savannah. PMID:19451126

  11. Ecosystem services provided by waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy J; Elmberg, Johan

    2014-02-01

    Ecosystem services are ecosystem processes that directly or indirectly benefit human well-being. There has been much recent literature identifying different services and the communities and species that provide them. This is a vital first step towards management and maintenance of these services. In this review, we specifically address the waterbirds, which play key functional roles in many aquatic ecosystems, including as predators, herbivores and vectors of seeds, invertebrates and nutrients, although these roles have often been overlooked. Waterbirds can maintain the diversity of other organisms, control pests, be effective bioindicators of ecological conditions, and act as sentinels of potential disease outbreaks. They also provide important provisioning (meat, feathers, eggs, etc.) and cultural services to both indigenous and westernized societies. We identify key gaps in the understanding of ecosystem services provided by waterbirds and areas for future research required to clarify their functional role in ecosystems and the services they provide. We consider how the economic value of these services could be calculated, giving some examples. Such valuation will provide powerful arguments for waterbird conservation. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Progress and challenges in the development of ecosystem accounting as a tool to analyse ecosystem capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars; Obst, Carl; Edens, Bram; Remme, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting has been developed as a systematic approach to incorporate measures of ecosystem services and ecosystem assets into an accounting structure. Ecosystem accounting involves spatially explicit modelling of ecosystem services and assets, in both physical and monetary terms. A

  13. Standard mapping of the environment sensibility of oil to Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Padronizacao do mapeamento da sensibilidade ambiental a derramamento de oleo para a Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Felipe C.; Griep, Gilberto H. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The intense flow of fossil fuels in the inland waters of Patos Lagoon (LP) - Rio Grande do Sul, justifies the importance of preventive actions to claims by oil and derivatives within the lagoon. The mapping and classification of coastline environmental sensitivity for oil spills (Cartas SAO) is fundamental tool for this type of action. Therefore, since 2001, the Laboratory of Geological Oceanography (LOG) of Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) has developed the mapping SAO for the LP. In this work, through review of raw data from the database of LOG, and taking into account the methodology proposed by the Ministry of Environment (MMA, 2004), gave up a strategic projection of standardized environmental sensitivity of the oil spill to Patos Lagoon. This new account also enable a better understanding of the lagoon ecosystem, enables comparisons between its different areas, facilitating the planning and decision-making, allowing the management for faster action-in response. Like, highlights the regions of the estuary of the LP, the delta of the Camaqua River and Casamento Lagoon as the areas of greater sensitivity to environmental spillage of oil from Patos Lagoon. (author)

  14. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  15. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks. PMID:27828969

  16. Bundling ecosystem services in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katrine Grace; Odgaard, Mette Vestergaard; Bøcher, Peder Klith

    2014-01-01

    We made a spatial analysis of 11 ecosystem services at a 10 km × 10 km grid scale covering most of Denmark. Our objective was to describe their spatial distribution and interactions and also to analyze whether they formed specific bundle types on a regional scale in the Danish cultural landscape....... We found clustered distribution patterns of ecosystem services across the country. There was a significant tendency for trade-offs between on the one hand cultural and regulating services and on the other provisioning services, and we also found the potential of regulating and cultural services...... to form synergies. We identified six distinct ecosystem service bundle types, indicating multiple interactions at a landscape level. The bundle types showed specialized areas of agricultural production, high provision of cultural services at the coasts, multifunctional mixed-use bundle types around urban...

  17. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  18. 76 FR 9341 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 1494-391] Grand River Dam.... Project No.: 1494-391. c. Date Filed: January 7, 2011. d. Applicant: Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA). e... Contact: Tamara E. Jahnke, Assistant General Counsel, Grand River Dam Authority, P.O. Box 409, Vinita, OK...

  19. Hydraulic modeling analysis of the Middle Rio Grande - Escondida Reach, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda K. Larsen

    2007-01-01

    Human influence on the Middle Rio Grande has resulted in major changes throughout the Middle Rio Grande region in central New Mexico, including problems with erosion and sedimentation. Hydraulic modeling analyses have been performed on the Middle Rio Grande to determine changes in channel morphology and other important parameters. Important changes occurring in the...

  20. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  1. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Renata; Hackspacker, Peter Christian; Anderson de Souza, Iata; Sousa Lima Costa, Iago

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we show that from satellite-derived gravity field, bathymetry and sediment thicknesses, it is possible to give a 3-D model of the basement over oceanic areas, and for this purpose, we have chosen the Rio Grande Rise, in South Atlantic Ocean, to build a gravity-equivalent basement topography. The advantages of the method applied in this study are manifold: does not depend directly on reflection seismic data; can be applied quickly and with fewer costs for acquiring and interpreting the data; and as the main result, presents the physical surface below the sedimentary layer, which may be different from the acoustic basement. We evaluated the gravity effect of the sediments using the global sediment thickness model of NOAA, fitting a sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the gravity inversion procedure. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 to 27 km over the area, being thicker under the Rio Grande Rise and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied for a gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. A description of the basement depth over Rio Grande Rise area is unprecedented in the literature, however, our results could be compared to in situ data, provided by DSDP, and a small difference of only 9 m between our basement depth and leg 516 F was found. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Seamounts, guyots and fracture zones are much more

  2. Addressing China's grand challenge of achieving food security while ensuring environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Bailey, Mark; Gordon, Iain J; Song, Shuai; Huang, Jikun; Jia, Shaofeng; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Xuejun; Feng, Zhaozhong; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-01

    China's increasingly urbanized and wealthy population is driving a growing and changing demand for food, which might not be met without significant increase in agricultural productivity and sustainable use of natural resources. Given the past relationship between lack of access to affordable food and political instability, food security has to be given a high priority on national political agendas in the context of globalization. The drive for increased food production has had a significant impact on the environment, and the deterioration in ecosystem quality due to historic and current levels of pollution will potentially compromise the food production system in China. We discuss the grand challenges of not only producing more food but also producing it sustainably and without environmental degradation. In addressing these challenges, food production should be considered as part of an environmental system (soil, air, water, and biodiversity) and not independent from it. It is imperative that new ways of meeting the demand for food are developed while safeguarding the natural resources upon which food production is based. We present a holistic approach to both science and policy to ensure future food security while embracing the ambition of achieving environmental sustainability in China. It is a unique opportunity for China to be a role model as a new global player, especially for other emerging economies.

  3. Evaluating the State of Water Management in the Rio Grande/Bravo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Partida, Jose Pablo; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; Diaz Gomez, Romina

    2017-04-01

    Water resource modeling tools have been developed for many different regions and sub-basins of the Rio Grande/Bravo (RGB). Each of these tools has specific objectives, whether it is to explore drought mitigation alternatives, conflict resolution, climate change evaluation, tradeoff and economic synergies, water allocation, reservoir operations, or collaborative planning. However, there has not been an effort to integrate different available tools, or to link models developed for specific reaches into a more holistic watershed decision-support tool. This project outlines promising next steps to meet long-term goals of improved decision support tools and modeling. We identify, describe, and synthesize water resources management practices in the RGB basin and available water resources models and decision support tools that represent the RGB and the distribution of water for human and environmental uses. The extent body of water resources modeling is examined from a perspective of environmental water needs and water resources management and thereby allows subsequent prioritization of future research and monitoring needs for the development of river system modeling tools. This work communicates the state of the RGB science to diverse stakeholders, researchers, and decision-makers. The products of this project represent a planning tool to support an integrated water resources management framework to maximize economic and social welfare without compromising vital ecosystems.

  4. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  5. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Piao, S.L.; Ottlé, C.; Brender, P.; Moors, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the

  6. Distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Zn) in sediment profiles associated to Rhizophora mangle in Sevilla River - Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Juan Pablo; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the heavy metals Pb, Cd, and Zn in sediments associated to Rhizophora mangle plants, potentially bioavailable and not bioavailable concentrations of these metals were determined in three sediment cores collected in the Sevilla River, Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta. Measurements were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The results showed that in Sevilla River mangrove ecosystem these metals are accumulated principally in non-bioavailable forms, this means that a great part or them are retained in the sediment. The retention of Pb, Cd, and Zn in the sediments of this mangrove ecosystem is strongly related to the physicochemical parameters pH, salinity, and redox potential, and to organic matter, and silt and clays contents

  7. Mapping monetary values of ecosystem services in support of developing ecosystem accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars; Edens, Bram; Suwarno, Aritta

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting has been proposed as a comprehensive, innovative approach to natural capital accounting, and basically involves the biophysical and monetary analysis of ecosystem services in a national accounting framework. Characteristic for ecosystem accounting is the spatial approach

  8. Does competition among ecosystem engineering species result in tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of ecosystem services depends on the ecological community structure at a given location. Ecosystem engineering species (EES) can strongly determine community structure, but do they consequently determine the production of ecosystem services? We explore this question ...

  9. Decomposition Analysis of Forest Ecosystem Services Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem services are fundamental for human life. To protect and increase forest ecosystem services, the driving factors underlying changes in forest ecosystem service values must be determined to properly implement forest resource management planning. This study examines the driving factors that affect changes in forest ecosystem service values by focusing on regional forest characteristics using a dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for 2000, 2007, and 2012. We applied two approaches: a contingent valuation method for estimating the forest ecosystem service value per area and a decomposition analysis for identifying the main driving factors of changes in the value of forest ecosystem services. The results indicate that the value of forest ecosystem services has increased due to the expansion of forest area from 2000 to 2007. However, factors related to forest management and ecosystem service value per area have contributed to a decrease in the value of ecosystem services from 2000 to 2007 and from 2007 to 2012, respectively.

  10. Ecosystem Services : In Nordic Freshwater Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Kristin; Hasler, Berit; Zandersen, Marianne

    Human wellbeing is dependent upon and benefit from ecosystem services which are delivered by well-functioning ecosystems. Ecosystem services can be mapped and assessed consistently within an ecosystem service framework. This project aims to explore the use and usefulness of the ecosystem service...... framework in freshwater management, particularly water management according to the Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are several examples of how ecosystem services have been used in WFD related studies in all the Nordic countries. Most of them involve listing, describing and categorizing freshwater...... ecosystem services, while there are few comprehensive Cost Benefit Analyses and analyses of disproportionate costs that apply this framework. More knowledge about ecosystem services and the value of ecosystem services for freshwater systems is needed....

  11. Scenarios for Ecosystem Services: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA scenarios address changes in ecosystem services and their implications for human well-being. Ecological changes pose special challenges for long-term thinking, because of the possibility of regime shifts that occur rapidly yet alter the availability of ecosystem services for generations. Moreover, ecological feedbacks can intensify human modification of ecosystems, creating a spiral of poverty and ecosystem degradation. Such complex dynamics were evaluated by a mixture of qualitative and quantitative analyses in the MA scenarios. Collectively, the scenarios explore problems such as the connections of poverty reduction and ecosystem services, and trade-offs among ecosystem services. Several promising approaches are considered by the scenarios, including uses of biodiversity to build resilience of ecosystem services, actively adaptive management, and green technology. Although the scenarios do not prescribe an optimal path, they illuminate the consequences of different policies toward ecosystem services.

  12. Land use in Permanent Preservation Areas of Grande River (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Delano Cardoso de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Brazilian Forestry Code established the Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs to preserve environmentally significant areas, such as the banks of waterways. Grande River is an important Brazilian river whose watercourse contains several hydroelectric plants, with few PPAs containing original features. Thus, this study analyzed land use in PPAs of a non-dammed stretch of the upper Rio Grande, in southern Minas Gerais. For this analysis, we used an image of the Rapideye sensor and the Maximum Likelihood classification method. The results showed the occurrence of pastures (49.63%, exposed soil (9.13%, others (0.77%, water (0.15% and ornamental vegetation (0.13% while the remaining native vegetation represented only 40.19% of PPAs. These numbers show that environmental laws have not been fulfilled in this area and there is strong human intervention in the PPAs studied.

  13. A Grande Reportagem em Televisão

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Clara Manuela Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciada em Ciências da Comunicação Este projecto de graduação é dedicado ao estudo da elaboração de uma grande reportagem em televisão. As próximas páginas procuram dar a conhecer ao leitor as diferentes fases do processo de realização de uma grande reportagem audiovisual: desde a preparação à investigação feita pelo jornalista, passando pela recolha de informação no terr...

  14. Carbon dioxide narcosis and grand mal seizure complicating laparoscopic herniorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Quentin M; Gemmill, Elizabeth H; Eastwood, Joanne R; Lobo, Dileep N

    2007-02-01

    A 60-year-old man without comorbidity underwent a totally extraperitoneal repair of bilateral inguinal hernias under general anesthesia. Forty minutes after the procedure he developed a slow, shallow respiratory pattern with a respiratory rate of 5/min and a self-limiting grand mal seizure lasting 30 seconds. Arterial blood gas analysis indicated significant hypercarbia and acidosis. The total dose of morphine administered was 20 mg intravenously. Naloxone was administered and the respiratory rate improved. The patient was discharged after 24 hours after making a good recovery and has had no further seizures a year after surgery. Although hypercarbia is a well-known complication of laparoscopic surgery when CO2 is used for insufflation, this, to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported case of a patient sustaining a grand mal seizure resulting from CO2 narcosis after laparoscopic surgery. The possible mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Vasculites dos médios e grandes vasos

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt,Hebert Roberto Clivati; Arnone,Marcelo; Valente,Neusa Yuriko Sakai; Sotto,Mirian Nacagami; Criado,Paulo Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    As vasculites são constituídas por um grande grupo de síndromes caracterizadas por inflamação e necrose da parede dos vasos sangüíneos, resultando em estreitamento ou oclusão do lúmen. A distribuição dos vasos envolvidos varia consideravelmente e serve de base para a classificação das síndromes vasculíticas: grandes vasos (arterite de Takayasu, arterite temporal); pequenos e médios vasos (poliarterite nodosa, síndrome de Churg-Strauss, granulomatose de Wegener, vasculites nas doenças reumátic...

  16. Grand societal challenges in information systems research and education

    CERN Document Server

    vom Brocke, Jan; Hofmann, Sara; Tumbas, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    This book examines how information systems research and education can play a major role in contributing to solutions to the Societal Grand Challenges formulated in "The Millennium Project" (millenium-project.org). Individual chapters focus on specific challenges, review existing approaches and contributions towards solutions in information systems research and outline a research agenda for these challenges. The topics considered in this volume range from climate change, population growth, global ICT availability, breakthroughs in science and technology and energy demand to ethical decision-making, policymaking, gender status and transnational crime prevention. It is the first book to present ideas on how the Information Systems discipline can contribute to the solution on this wide spectrum of grand societal challenges.

  17. Clinical Immersion and Biomedical Engineering Design Education: "Engineering Grand Rounds".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Matthew; Churchwell, André L

    2016-03-01

    Grand Rounds is a ritual of medical education and inpatient care comprised of presenting the medical problems and treatment of a patient to an audience of physicians, residents, and medical students. Traditionally, the patient would be in attendance for the presentation and would answer questions. Grand Rounds has evolved considerably over the years with most sessions being didactic-rarely having a patient present (although, in some instances, an actor will portray the patient). Other members of the team, such as nurses, nurse practitioners, and biomedical engineers, are not traditionally involved in the formal teaching process. In this study we examine the rapid ideation in a clinical setting to forge a system of cross talk between engineers and physicians as a steady state at the praxis of ideation and implementation.

  18. US DOE Grand Challenge in Computational Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryne, R.; Habib, S.; Qiang, J.; Ko, K.; Li, Z.; McCandless, B.; Mi, W.; Ng, C.; Saparov, M.; Srinivas, V.; Sun, Y.; Zhan, X.; Decyk, V.; Golub, G.

    1998-01-01

    Particle accelerators are playing an increasingly important role in basic and applied science, and are enabling new accelerator-driven technologies. But the design of next-generation accelerators, such as linear colliders and high intensity linacs, will require a major advance in numerical modeling capability due to extremely stringent beam control and beam loss requirements, and the presence of highly complex three-dimensional accelerator components. To address this situation, the U.S. Department of Energy has approved a ''Grand Challenge'' in Computational Accelerator Physics, whose primary goal is to develop a parallel modeling capability that will enable high performance, large scale simulations for the design, optimization, and numerical validation of next-generation accelerators. In this paper we report on the status of the Grand Challenge

  19. Avifauna de Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Maria Teixeira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n4p117 Entre os anos de 2003 e 2008, esforços foram conduzidos para amostrar a avifauna do município de Frederico Westphalen no extremo norte do Rio Grande do Sul. Foram registradas 165 espécies pertencentes a 51 famílias, correspondendo a 26,4% da riqueza conhecida para o estado.

  20. US Grand Strategy: An Assessment of Statutory Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Civilian Security, Democracy and Human Rights, expansion of the capacities of the Under Secretary for Arms Control and 18 National Security...and Athanassioss G. Koliopoulis. Thucydides on Strategy: Athenian and Spartan Grand Strategies in the Pelopenesian War and Their Relevance Today. New...distinct ways Y 3.0.4 Speak out for universal rights Y 3.0.5 Support fragile democracies & civil society Y 3.0.6 Support dignity that

  1. Bitcoin Market Volatility Analysis Using Grand Canonical Minority Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ortisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to use the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG, a highly simplified financial market model as a model of bitcoin market to show how the lack of an income for “miners”, similar to yield earned by bond holders, could be a structural reason for high volatility of bitcoin price in a reference currency. Coherently with present analysis, the introduction of future contracts on bitcoin would have the effect of reducing the overall market volatility.

  2. Grand challenges for integrated USGS science—A workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Karen E.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Baron, Jill S.; Bristol, R. Sky; Cantrill, Mary; Exter, Paul E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Haines, John W.; Hay, Lauren E.; Hsu, Leslie; Labson, Victor F.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Milly, Paul C. D.; Morelli, Toni L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Nassar, Nedal T.; Newman, Timothy R.; Ostroff, Andrea C.; Read, Jordan S.; Reed, Sasha C.; Shapiro, Carl D.; Smith, Richard A.; Sanford, Ward E.; Sohl, Terry L.; Stets, Edward G.; Terando, Adam J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Tischler, Michael A.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Wald, David J.; Waldrop, Mark P.; Wein, Anne; Weltzin, Jake F.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2017-06-30

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long history of advancing the traditional Earth science disciplines and identifying opportunities to integrate USGS science across disciplines to address complex societal problems. The USGS science strategy for 2007–2017 laid out key challenges in disciplinary and interdisciplinary arenas, culminating in a call for increased focus on a number of crosscutting science directions. Ten years on, to further the goal of integrated science and at the request of the Executive Leadership Team (ELT), a workshop with three dozen invited scientists spanning different disciplines and career stages in the Bureau convened on February 7–10, 2017, at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado.The workshop focused on identifying “grand challenges” for integrated USGS science. Individual participants identified nearly 70 potential grand challenges before the workshop and through workshop discussions. After discussion, four overarching grand challenges emerged:Natural resource security,Societal risk from existing and emerging threats,Smart infrastructure development, andAnticipatory science for changing landscapes.Participants also identified a “comprehensive science challenge” that highlights the development of integrative science, data, models, and tools—all interacting in a modular framework—that can be used to address these and other future grand challenges:Earth Monitoring, Analyses, and Projections (EarthMAP)EarthMAP is our long-term vision for an integrated scientific framework that spans traditional scientific boundaries and disciplines, and integrates the full portfolio of USGS science: research, monitoring, assessment, analysis, and information delivery.The Department of Interior, and the Nation in general, have a vast array of information needs. The USGS meets these needs by having a broadly trained and agile scientific workforce. Encouraging and supporting

  3. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  4. Bias Gender Dalam Novel La Grande Borne Karya NH. Dini

    OpenAIRE

    Dilla, Raili Irfa; Thahar, Harris Effendi; Zulfikarni, Zulfikarni

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the gender diffraction in novel La Grande Borne by Nh. Dini, evaluated from five aspects, (a) marginalization, (b) subordination, (c) stereotype, (d) violence, and (e) double work load. The data of this study was the sentences that refer to the gender diffraction.. The analyze technics were (1) describe the data, (2) analyze the data that refer to gender, (3) lnterpretated the unfair in gender, and (4) conclusion. The results of this study could be ...

  5. Blaise Cendrars et ses 'Grands Fétiches'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    repousser à l'extrême les frontières de la modernité. La série des Grands Fétiches participe directement de ce désir, et nous tenterons de montrer dans cet article comment ces objets dits primitifs deviennent des objets « instables » qui remettent en question la définition même du poétique....

  6. Interplay between grand unification and supersymmetry in SU(5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fermion masses in SU(5), and the issues of symmetry breaking, doublet–triplet splitting and fermion masses in E6. Keywords. Grand unification; supersymmetry. PACS Nos 12.10.−g; 12.60.Jv; 12.10.Dm; 12.10.Kt. 1. Introduction. This work is based on the papers [1–5]. I had the pleasure to work with Charan Aulakh (3 papers ...

  7. Sustentabilidade em Grandes Usinas Hidrelétricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censi Faria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nenhuma atividade empresarial nos dias atuais pode ser implementada sem que se levem em conta os aspectos de sustentabilidade. Esse conceito que nasceu do desenvolvimento sustentável dos anos 1970 e 1980 e que ficou consagrado no conceito dos três pilares de Jonh Elkington – econômico, social e ambiental, a “triple bottom line”, é um condicionante para todos os tipos de empreendimentos, especialmente para as grandes usinas hidrelétricas. As grandes usinas hidrelétricas foram por um tempo os grandes vilões do desenvolvimento, por causa da ênfase exagerada dada aos impactos que causam nas pessoas e no meio ambiente. Essa pecha que acometeu as usinas hidrelétricas, causada em grande parte por causa de alguns empreendimentos mal planejados, precisa ser revertida. Por outro lado, usinas hidrelétricas são formas de energia limpa e renovável, com mínima agressão ao meio ambiente, e menor dano às populações afetadas, se bem planejadas. Torna-se importante analisar os aspectos de sustentabilidade associados a esses empreendimentos. Existem arcabouços dedicados a fazer a análise dos aspectos de sustentabilidade de aproveitamentos hidrelétricos. Nesse trabalho é feita uma comparação entre duas ferramentas para avaliação de sustentabilidade em hidrelétricas, analisando prós e contras, facilidades e dificuldades relativas à aplicação destas.DOI:10.5585/gep.v3i1.81

  8. Filmagens pioneiras no Rio Grande do Sul aconteceram em 1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Póvoas, Glênio Nicola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O pouco que se conhece das histórias regionais do cinema brasileiro está baseado em fontes muitas vezes imprecisas, incompletas, duvidosas, não confiáveis. Este texto sobre a passagem de José Filippi1 pelo Rio Grande do Sul pretende introduzir uma nova abertura/leitura sobre as origens, em particular, da cinematografia gaúcha

  9. Radiative breaking of cosmologically acceptable grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, B.; Leon, J.; Quiros, M.

    1984-01-01

    We present a cosmologically acceptable grand unified model where the breaking of SU(5) proceeds through radiative corrections induced by supergravity soft-breaking terms. The breaking scale is determined by dimensional transmutation. The model is compatible with the radiative breaking of SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(Y) which provides an experimentally accessible low energy particle spectrum and small top quark mass. (orig.)

  10. Z2 vortex strings in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.; Turok, N.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneously broken gauge theories may display distinct vortex string solutions for the disconnected components of the exact gauge symmetry group. A type of Higgs mechanism thought to apply in grand unified theories as being responsible for fermion masses yields Z 2 vortex lines, irrespectively of the group. These could seed galaxy formation if the corresponding fermion masses are superheavy. More generally a Higgs mechanism producing Zsub(n) vortex strings is presented. (orig.)

  11. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  12. Proceedings of the fourth workshop on grand unification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, H.A.; Langacker, P.; Steinhardt, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    This book compiles the papers presented at the fourth conference of grand unified theories of nuclear physics held in University of Pennsylvania April 1983. The topics covered were proton decay theory; angular distribution and flux of atmospheric neutrinos; atmospheric neutrinos and astrophysical neutrinos in proton decay experiments; review of future nucleon decay experiments; monopole experiments; searches for magnetic monopole; monopoles, gauge, fields and anomalies; darkmatter, galaxies and voids; adiabatic fluctuations; supersymmetry, supergravity, and Kaluza-Klein theories; superstring theory and superunification.

  13. The Effects of Water Markets: Evidence from the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaere, P.; Li, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Effects of Water Markets: Evidence from the Rio GrandePeter Debaere, University of Virginia Tianshu Li, University of Virginia The Rio Grande water market is one of the oldest water markets in the United States. Employing techniques from the social sciences, we present the first difference-in-difference analysis of the actual impact of water markets on production. We compare from 1954 to 2012 the crop composition in counties in the Rio Grande water market with those in their neighboring control counties before and after the water market was established in 1971. We provide evidence that water markets can facilitate a shift from crops that are on average more to ones that are less water intensive, or, alternatively, from crops that are on average less to ones that are more productive in terms of $ generated per unit of water. In addition, we find that such reallocations are especially prevalent in times of drought. Our findings supports water markets as a tool to manage water more effectively, which is one of the main challenges of an increasingly water-strapped world.

  14. Frequency and initiation of debris flows in Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Melis, Theodore S.

    2004-12-01

    Debris flows from 740 tributaries transport sediment into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Arizona, creating rapids that control its longitudinal profile. Debris flows mostly occur when runoff triggers failures in colluvium by a process termed "the fire hose effect." Debris flows originate from a limited number of geologic strata, almost exclusively shales or other clay-rich, fine-grained formations. Observations from 1984 through 2003 provide a 20 year record of all debris flows that reached the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, and repeat photography provides a 100 year record of debris flows from 147 tributaries. Observed frequencies are 5.1 events/year from 1984 to 2003, and historic frequencies are 5.0 events/year from 1890 to 1983. Logistic regression is used to model historic frequencies based on drainage basin parameters observed to control debris flow initiation and transport. From 5 to 7 of the 16 parameters evaluated are statistically significant, including drainage area, basin relief, and the height of and gradient below debris flow source areas, variables which reflect transport distance and potential energy. The aspect of the river channel, which at least partially reflects storm movement within the canyon, is also significant. Model results are used to calculate the probability of debris flow occurrence at the river over a century for all 740 tributaries. Owing to the variability of underlying geomorphic controls, the distribution of this probability is not uniform among tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon.

  15. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  16. Lower Grande Ronde smolt trap monitoring. Annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setter, A.; Carmichael, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    The authors sampled downstream migrating salmonids at Boggan's Oasis in the Grande Ronde River with a screw trap during 1995 and a scoop trap during 1996. Sampling began in March and terminated early in June. Wild spring chinook and wild/hatchery steelhead were collected and marked to assess migration patterns and timing. Fish were marked with tags in order to obtain downstream migration data with minimal fish handling. Observations were recorded when a fish swam through an interrogation monitor at hydroelectric facilities downstream. The second year for monitoring smolts leaving the Grande Ronde River was completed in 1995. The authors continued to pursue moving to a permanent location downstream for 1997 because of the limitations for trapping smolts at Boggan's Oasis. This involved reconnaissance surveys of several potential sites near the mouth of the river from 1994--1996. During February of 1996, a water velocity and bottom topography assessment was completed. Results of the assessment were used for siting the anchoring tower structure upstream approximately 1.2 miles from the mouth of the Grande Ronde River

  17. United States Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Grand Junction Office (GJO), US Department of Energy (DOE), develops and administers programs for evaluating domestic uranium resources and the production capability of industry; for developing resource planning information for DOE; and for advancing geologic and geophysical exploration concepts and techniques. In addition, GJO administers the leasing of mineral lands under DOE control, and carries out activities relating to the environmental aspects of uranium mining and milling, including remedial programs. The Office is staffed by administrative and technical program-management personnel. Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix) is the DOE operating contractor at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Government-owned/contractor-operated (GOCO) facility. The technical staffs of both GJO and Bendix are primarily geoscience-oriented. Specifically during 1980, uranium resource assessment on 135 National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangles was completed, along with other specific studies, to yield October 1980 national resource estimates. In addition, updated uranium supply analysis and production capability projections were completed. Another key aspect of this successful program was the development of improved geophysical and geochemical equipment and techniques in support of uranium resource assessment. Much of the hardware and know-how developed was turned over to the public and to the uranium industry at large for application to uranium exploration and the assessment of uranium company resources. The Grand Junction Office also participated actively during 1980 in international cooperative research on uranium exploration techniques and on the geology of uranium deposits

  18. Parallel ecological networks in ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Alonso, David; Berg, Matty P.; Eriksson, B. Klemens; Loreau, Michel; Piersma, Theunis; Rooney, Neil

    2009-01-01

    In ecosystems, species interact with other species directly and through abiotic factors in multiple ways, often forming complex networks of various types of ecological interaction. Out of this suite of interactions, predator-prey interactions have received most attention. The resulting food webs,

  19. Simulating the net ecosystem CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Li, Longhui; Ceschia, Eric; Wattenbach, Martin; Bernhofer, Christian; Emmel, Carmen; Grünwald, Thomas; Jans, Wilma; Loubet, Benjamin; Wu, Xiuchen

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, efforts have been carried on to develop and evaluate versions of global terrestrial ecosystem models (GTEM) in which crop specificities are represented. The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of the ORCHIDEE-STICS (Organising Carbon and Hydrology In Dynamic

  20. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  1. Geodesign for Urban Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele La Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues about the use of Geodesign tools in planning for enhance the Ecosystem Services provision in a urban context. Recently evolved from GIScience, Geodesign is an emerging field  dealing with 2D and 3D representation tools developed for environmental design. On the other hand, the ES concept has become a central issue in environmental planning and research, dealing with the services provided by ecosystems to sustain and fulfill human life and well being. However, both Geodesign and ES still lack of a real integration in planning practices. While Geodesign tools appear to be stuck in rendering realistic 3D urban environments, the use of the ES concept in planning processes is still largely missing. For these reasons this paper will take advantage of concepts and tools from Geodesign and Ecosystem Services disciplines and will explore how they can be integrated in a methodological framework to generate Geodesign solution aimed at increasing the provision of urban ecosystem services.

  2. Mangrove ecosystems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T.C.; Gilman, E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lacerda, L.D.; Nordhaus, I.; Wolanski, E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter assesses the response of mangrove ecosystems to possible outcomes of climate change, with regard to the following categories: (i) distribution, diversity, and community composition, (ii) physiology of flora and fauna, (iii) water budget, (iv) productivity and remineralization, (v) carbon storage in biomass and sediments, and (vi) the filter function for elements beneficial or harmful to life. These categories are then used to identify the regions most vulnerable to climate change. The four most important factors determining the response of mangrove ecosystems to climate change are sea level rise, an increase in frequency and/or intensity of storms, increases in temperature, and aridity. While these changes may be beneficial for some mangrove forests at latitudinal distribution limits, they will threaten forest structure and functions and related ecosystem services in most cases. The interaction of climate change with human interventions is discussed, as well as the effects on ecosystem services including possible adaptation and management options. The chapter closes with an outlook on knowledge gaps and priority research needed to fill these gaps.

  3. Stability measures in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosshi, M. I.; Brunsell, N. A.; Koerner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stability, the capacity of ecosystems to persist in the face of change, has proven its relevance as a fundamental component of ecological theory. Here, we would like to explore meaningful and quantifiable metrics to define stability, with a focus on highly variable arid and semi-arid savanna ecosystems. Recognizing the importance of a characteristic timescale to any definition of stability, our metrics will be focused scales from annual to multi-annual, capturing different aspects of stability. Our three measures of stability, in increasing order of temporal scale, are: (1) Ecosystem resistance, quantified as the degree to which the system maintains its mean state in response to a perturbation (drought), based on inter-annual variability in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). (2) An optimization approach, relevant to arid systems with pulse dynamics, that models vegetation structure and function based on a trade off between the ability to respond to resource availability and avoid stress. (3) Community resilience, measured as species turnover rate (β diversity). Understanding the nature of stability in structurally-diverse arid ecosystems, which are highly variable, yields theoretical insight which has practical implications.

  4. Disturbance dynamics of forested ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf

    2004-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are dynamic, subject to natural developmental processes as well as natural and anthropogenic stresses and disturbances. Degradation is a related term. for lowered productive capacity from changes to forest structure of function (FAO. 2001). Degradation is not synonymous with disturbance, however; disturbance becomes degradation when natural...

  5. Microtopography recreation benefits ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Wei; Liding Chen; Lei Yang; F. Fred Samadani; Ge Sun

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of global warming and accelerated human activities, the surrounding environments of many terrestrial ecosystems worldwide have become increasingly deteriorated, such that finding suitable methods and effective environmental technology to confront climate change and prevent land degradation is critical to the health and sustainability of the earth. In...

  6. Quantifying the web browser ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdman, Sela; Minkov, Einat; Bekkerman, Ron; Gefen, David

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the assumption that web browsers are designed to support the user, an examination of a 900,000 distinct PCs shows that web browsers comprise a complex ecosystem with millions of addons collaborating and competing with each other. It is possible for addons to "sneak in" through third party installations or to get "kicked out" by their competitors without user involvement. This study examines that ecosystem quantitatively by constructing a large-scale graph with nodes corresponding to users, addons, and words (terms) that describe addon functionality. Analyzing addon interactions at user level using the Personalized PageRank (PPR) random walk measure shows that the graph demonstrates ecological resilience. Adapting the PPR model to analyzing the browser ecosystem at the level of addon manufacturer, the study shows that some addon companies are in symbiosis and others clash with each other as shown by analyzing the behavior of 18 prominent addon manufacturers. Results may herald insight on how other evolving internet ecosystems may behave, and suggest a methodology for measuring this behavior. Specifically, applying such a methodology could transform the addon market.

  7. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  8. Research applications of ecosystem patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Bailey

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the origins of natural ecosystem patterns from global to local scales. It describes how understanding these patterns can help scientists and managers in two ways. First, the local systems are shown within the context of larger systems. This perspective can be applied in assessing the connections between action at one scale and effect at another,...

  9. Soil-based ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Porter, John Roy; Sandhu, Harpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the soil-based ecosystem services (ES), nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration have direct influence on the biogeochemical cycles and greenhouse gas emissions affecting provision of other ES that support human existence. We reviewed methods to assess the two key ES by identifying...

  10. Future directions of ecosystem science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Galvin, Kathleen A.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific knowledge about ecosystem structure and function has expanded greatly during the past few decades. Terrestrial and aquatic nutrient cycling, ecosystem energetics, population dynamics, belowground processes, and food webs have been studied at the plot, stand, watershed, and landscape levels at many locations around the globe. Ideas about terrestrial-atmospheric interactions and human interference in these processes have changed dramatically. There is new appreciation of the need to incorporate into ecosystem studies the interactions between human populations and the ecosystem, not only because humans affect ecosystem processes, but because these systems support human populations (Glantz 1988, Holden 1988, Parry et al. 1988, WCED 1987). Recent advances in ecosystem science are due, in part, to technological improvements in computing power, new laboratory and field physical and chemical analytical techniques, and satellite imagery for remote sensing of Earth's structure and dynamics. Modeling and geographic information systems have provided the capability for integrating multiple data sets with process simulations to generate hypotheses about regional ecosystem function. Concurrent with these scientific developments has been a growing concern about the links between the health of the environment and world-wide industrial, land, and resource-management practices. Environmental damage at the local level was widely recognized in the 1960s, prompting the environmental movement of that decade. Regional environmental problems with multiple effects and politically difficult solutions have been perceived more recently; the issue of acidic deposition provides an example of such a second-generation concern (Clark and Holling 1985). Today there is a growing awareness of global-scale environmental degradation brought about by the combined actions of all peoples on Earth (Clark 1989, Woodmansee et al. 1988). The three levels of environmental concern--local, regional

  11. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN ACCOUNTING OF FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Costa Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the perception of undergraduate students in accounting, of Federal Institutions of Higher Education of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, on sustainable development. It is a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach. Respondents were beginners and graduates students, of the course in Accounting, in classroom mode, of the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande - FURG, the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul – UFRGS, held in second semester 2014. The results showed, in general trhat students have mean perception of the issue, though on some emphases have high perception, such as alternative energy sources, use of chemicals, water consumption and food, recycle reusable materials, long-term basic resources, preservation of biodiversity and ecosystems; according to studied assertive, and the graduating students have greater insight than beginners. Its recommends for future research a comparative analysis of the degree of environmental perception between students who attended the discipline of environmental accounting and environmental or not the attended one same, seeking to highlight the importance this discipline to higher education.

  14. Coral Reef Ecosystems Monitoring Feature Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Ecosystem Monitoring GIS data service provides access to data collected in the Mariana Archipelago by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program of the Pacific...

  15. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    as the software development and distribution by a set of actors dependent on each other and the ecosystem. We commence on the hypothesis that the establishment of a software ecosystem on the telemedicine services of Denmark would address these issues and investigate how a software ecosystem can foster...... the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business...

  16. Our natural capital: Ecosystem service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dziba, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available new technologies in Earth observation that target relevant ecosystem attributes for monitoring ecosystem service changes, tools for spatial development planning in multifunctional landscapes such as ecological infrastructure mapping for disaster...

  17. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    OpenAIRE

    EGOH BENIS NCHINE; DRAKOU EVANGELIA; DUNBAR MARTHA BONNET; MAES JOACHIM; WILLEMEN LOUISE

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure the continuous provision of these benefits to humans. The European Union has adopted an EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 in which the target of safeguarding ecosystem services is explicitly include...

  18. Socio-ecosystems and urban habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita V. Alario

    2007-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)—a United Nations effort to assess the health of major global ecosystems—reported that over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable time in history. Around two thirds of the ecosystems services (anything from fresh water to air) are being degraded or used unsustainably...

  19. Micetomas actinomicóticos no Rio Grande do Sul: relato de quatro casos Actinomycotic mycetomas in Rio Grande do Sul: report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto T. Londero

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available São relatados quatro casos de micetoma causados por Nocardia brasiliensis, ocorridos no Rio Grande do Sul. É revista a literatura rio-grandense-do-sul.Four cases of mycetoma caused by N. brasiliensis, occurring in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil, are reported.

  20. Ecosystem services project: Brigalow region of Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    University of Southern Queensland (USQ). Land Use Study Centre

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record The goals of this project were to develop and apply the concepts and methods of ecosystem services and ecosystem health to the management of Brigalow remnants with a view to better identifying and quantifying the range of productive and non-productive values found in this ecosystem. PES-1 (Payments for Environmental Services Associate Award)

  1. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egoh, Benis N; Drakou, Evangelia; Dunbar, Martha B.; Maes, Joachim; Willemen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure

  2. Fire for restoration of communities and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald I. Dickmann; Jeanette L. Rollinger

    1998-01-01

    The exclusion of fire from ecosystems to which it was a frequent visitor has produced profound alterations in historic ecological conditions; therefore, fire must be an integral component of ecosystem management. That was the overwhelming message conveyed by speakers at the symposium, Fire for Restoration of Communities and Ecosystems. Speakers from land management...

  3. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OF THE NIGER DELTA FORESTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to appraise the Niger Delta forest ecosystem services. The. Millennium Ecosystem ... Despite the good knowledge of ecosystem services by the urban respondents, only 42.5% were aware of fresh .... and in planning for government and other interventions such as conservation actions (Isoun, 2006).

  4. Applying ecosystem management to urban forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990s, the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service shifted from commodity production management to ecosystem-based management (Overbay, 1992). Although definitions of ecosystem-based management vary by objectives, the principle had four primary elements: (1) maintaining viable populations of native species, (2) representing native ecosystems...

  5. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. Biotic elements of NPP techno-ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protasov, A.A.; Silaeva, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Specific features of biotic elements in the NPP techno-ecosystems were considered and compared with natural ecosystems. Relationships between biotic communities and environmental factors that are specific to the techno-ecosystems were discussed, and the problems of limitation of biological hindrances in operation of equipment, principles of hydrobiological and environmental monitoring were considered.

  7. Process-Based Thinking in Ecosystem Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding complex systems such as ecosystems is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of ecosystems are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the ecosystem in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across ecosystems…

  8. Effects of invertebrates in lotic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. Wallace; J.J. Jr. Hutchens

    2000-01-01

    Freshwater invertebrates perform many roles in ecosystem processes (Palmer et al., 1997) and these roles are frequently associated with a diverse array of feeding habits which have been organized into functional feeding groups (FFGs). Wallace and Webster (1996) reviewed many roles ofFFGs in stream ecosystems. Streams differ markedly from most ecosystems in that the...

  9. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; Jong, de Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present

  10. Resident fish stock status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams : 2000 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, N.; McLellan, J.; Crossley, B.

    2001-01-01

    The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, commonly known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (blocked area). The three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the blocked area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information housed in a central location will allow managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP (NWPPC program measure 10.8B.26) is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the blocked area and the Columbia Basin blocked area management plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of blocked area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the blocked area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. The use of common collection and analytical tools is essential to the process of streamlining joint management decisions. In 1999 and 2000 the project

  11. Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Jr., Neil [Kalispel Tribe of Indians, Usk, WA (United States); McLellan, Jason G [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Spokane, WA (United States); Crossley, Brian [Spokane Tribe of Indians, Department of Natural Resources, Wellpinit, WA (United States); O' Connor, Dick

    2001-01-01

    The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, commonly known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial fish assemblages and native fish in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (blocked area). The three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the blocked area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information housed in a central location will allow managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP (NWPPC program measure 10.8B.26) is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the blocked area and the Columbia Basin blocked area management plan (1998). The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of blocked area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the blocked area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. The use of common collection and analytical tools is essential to the process of streamlining joint management decisions. In 1999 and 2000 the project

  12. Rural districts and community forest management and the fight against poverty in Niger Aménagements forestiers communaux et communautaires et lutte contre la pauvreté au Niger Ordenación forestal municipal y comunitaria y lucha contra la pobreza en Níger : La Estrategia Energía Doméstica, política forestal para el suministro de energía doméstica a los centros urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Montagne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The forestry policy developed in Niger from the early 1930s until 1990 was marked by the preeminent role played by the colonial government, and subsequently by the government of independent Niger. In 1990, following the Maradi Conference in 1984, the importance of bringing local populations in on the process of forest management, after almost 70 years of being excluded, was finally accepted. In 1989, Niger adopted the Household Energy Strategy (HES as a major axis of its forestry policy, choosing to prioritize the issue of firewood supplies for urban centers through community forest management. This policy, enacted by “decree 92-037” almost 20 years ago now, authorizes the creation of rural wood markets and allows rural communities to levy taxes at source, thus taking real ownership of their resources. After such a long period of exclusion, however, there is still some way to go in implementing this initiative. The hoped-for changes cannot be made to happen just by snapping ones' fingers, and this new power accorded to local populations has met with considerable reserve and much opposition. From 2007 to 2011, the rural district of Torodi introduced a major innovation in the implementation of the HES, improving the forestry control of woodfuel flows by setting up a communal monitoring unit, fully funded by the municipality. The HES is now in a position to consolidate its long-term viability and ultimately to improve the well-being of these populations.La politique forestière développée au Niger du début des années 1930 à 1990 a été marquée par le rôle prééminent de l’Etat d’abord colonial puis du Niger indépendant. En 1990, après le débat de 1984 à Maradi, le constat a été fait de l’importance d’associer, après près de 70 ans d’exclusion, les populations riveraines à l’aménagement forestier. En 1989, le Niger adoptait la Stratégie Energie Domestique comme axe majeur de sa politique forestière en faisant le

  13. Ship canals and aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, William I.; Smith, Stanford H.

    1971-01-01

    Through a combination of ecosystem homeostasis and the perversity of man and nature, oftentimes the significant biological changes effected by environmental modifications are not detected until long after the initial change has taken place. The immediate impact, which may range from the spectacular to the undetectable, is a deceptive measure of the long-term and often more important changes in the ecosystem. Two major engineering achievements illustrate this premise: (i) construction of the Erie Canal, which provided access from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes, and the Welland Canal, which bypasses the block between Lakes Ontario and Erie created by Niagara Falls (Fig. 1), and (ii) construction of the Suez Canal between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  14. Perception, acquisition and use of ecosystem services: human behavior, and ecosystem management and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Anne D. Guerry; Dale J. Blahna; Joshua J. Lawler

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services, fundamental to livelihoods and well-being, are reshaping environmental management and policy. However, the behavioral dimensions of ecosystem services and the responses of ordinary people to the management of those services, is less well understood. The ecosystem services framework lends itself to understanding the relationship between ecosystems...

  15. Soil conservation and ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated soil erosion, driven by anthropogenic activities such as conversion of natural ecosystems to agroecosystems and mechanical tillage, has numerous adverse impacts on ecosystem services. In addition to degrading soil quality and reducing agronomic/biomass productivity on-site through a decrease in use-efficiency of inputs, off-site impacts of accelerated erosion include eutrophication and contamination, sedimentation of reservoirs and waterways, and emissions of greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4 and N2O. While advancing food and nutritional security, adoption of restorative land use and recommended management practices are important to strengthening numerous ecosystem services such as improving water quality and renewability, increasing below and above-ground biodiversity, enhancing soil resilience to climate change and extreme events, and mitigating climate change by sequestering C in soil and reducing the emission of CO2, CH4 and N2O. An effective control of accelerated erosion is essential to sustainable development and improving the environment.

  16. Thermal alteration of aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.W.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The studies summarized emphasize that heated effluents may function to enrich or to stress an ecosystem, depending upon the biological feature examined. However, the potential for negative impact on aquatic environments must not be underestimated. The ultimate consequences of the sometimes drastic alteration of behavior patterns and life-history phenomena in the surviving inhabitants of thermal areas have yet to be assessed. The relatively short time span of thermal field studies has not allowed thorough understanding of the biological chain reactions that may take place as physiological and genetic adjustments are made. Ensuing changes in species interactions, practically uninvestigated at this time, may create heretofore unsuspected ecosystem changes. Man's challenge for the future is to gain a more thorough comprehension of thermal ecology and to determine how waste heat may be used as an energy subsidy rather than a stress to aquatic systems. These and subsequent studies may assist in understanding how natural ecosystems respond to temperature elevation and will lead to the development of concepts and principles pertaining to thermally altered environmental systems. (U.S.)

  17. The impact on ocean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear war would have less impact on ocean ecosystems than on terrestrial systems. But damage to coastal regions and estuaries might be substantial. This chapter discusses the distribution, effects, and hazards of fallout radionuclides in the ocean, and attempts to assess the impact on ocean ecosystems of dust particles in the atmosphere, ozone depletion, and temperature change following a nuclear war. The information offers some insight into the impact of such a war, but does not provide definitive predictions. Two other consequences, however, do have the potential for devastating effects upon marine ecosystems. It has been predicted that a 100-fold reduction in solar light intensity at the earth's surface due to particles in the atmosphere is possible; this would result in death to most of the phytoplankton and herbivorous zooplankton in more than half of the oceans of the Northern Hemisphere, and under some circumstances, depletion of ozone in the stratosphere by NOsub(X) could increase UV radiation at the earth's surface, the magnitude of the change being sufficient to seriously reduce the populations of organisms at the base of the food web. Temperature changes would be of little consequence. (U.K.)

  18. Fostering Scientific Literacy: Establishing Social Relevance via the Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyford, M. E.; Myers, J. D.; Buss, A.

    2010-12-01

    Numerous studies and polls suggest the general public’s understanding of science and scientific literacy remain woefully inadequate despite repeated calls for improvement over the last 150 years. This inability to improve scientific literacy significantly is a complex problem likely driven by a number of factors. However, we argue that past calls and efforts for improving scientific literacy have failed to: 1) articulate a truly meaningful justification for society to foster a scientifically literate public; 2) provide a rationale that motivates individuals of diverse backgrounds to become scientifically literate; 3) consider the impact of personal perspective, e.g. values, beliefs, attitudes, etc., on learning; and 4) offer a relevant and manageable framework in which to define scientific literacy. For instance, past calls for improving scientific literacy, e.g. the U.S. is behind the Soviets in the space race, U.S students rank below country X in math and science, etc., have lacked justification, personal motivation and a comprehensive framework for defining scientific literacy. In these cases, the primary justification for improving science education and scientific literacy was to regain international dominance in the space race or to advance global standing according to test results. These types of calls also articulate short-term goals that are rendered moot once they have been achieved. At the same time, teaching practices have commonly failed to consider the perspectives students bring to the classroom. Many STEM faculty do not address issues of personal perspective through ignorance or the desire to avoid controversial subjects, e g. evolution, climate change. We propose that the ‘grand challenges’ (e.g., energy, climate change, antibacterial resistance, water, etc.) humankind currently faces provides a compelling framework for developing courses and curricula well-suited for improving scientific literacy. A grand challenge paradigm offers four

  19. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  20. Structure spatiale des trois espèces les plus abondantes dans la Réserve Forestière de la Yoko, Ubundu, République Démocratique du Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumba, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Pattern of the Three Most Abundant Species in the Yoko Forest Reserve, Ubundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The spatial pattern of species is one of the key parameters studied in ecology for the understanding of the ecological processes and functioning of forest ecosystems. This study analyzes the spatial pattern of three plant species at a local scale: Gilbertiodendron dewevrei (De Wild J. Léonard, Scorodophloeus zenkeri Harms and Uapaca guineensis Müll. Arg., for which a forest inventory in the Yoko Forest Reserve in the Democratic Republic of the Congo showed that they were characterized by a high abundance. The methods of Clark and Evans and of Hines and Hines, based on the distances between nearest neighbors, were used. The analysis was carried out in two plots of different sizes: 6.25 and 25 ha. The method of Clark and Evans showed a random distribution for the 6.25 ha plot and an aggregated distribution at 25 ha, and this for all three species. The T-Square Sampling Procedure associated with the statistical test of Hines and Hines revealed an aggregated distribution for the two plot sizes and for all three species. It appears from this study that the aggregated distribution is the main spatial pattern observed for the most abundant species of the Yoko Forest Reserve. Environmental conditions combined with the seed dispersal mode characterized by weak distances could explain this aggregated distribution. The method of Clark and Evans proved to be sensitive to the effect of the extent of the plot. Indeed, the random distribution observed for a 6.25 ha plot has changed to an aggregated distribution after the extent was increased to 25 ha. Because less sensible to the plot size, the T-Square Sampling Procedure appears more suitable for spatial pattern analysis of species in this forest.

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  2. Experimental assessment of ecosystem services in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Porter, John Roy; Wratten, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles....... Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can...

  3. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    sharing and collaborating over one or more technological platforms and business model(s) that serve the actors. However, little research has investigated the properties of actual software ecosystems. In this paper, we present an exploratory study of software ecosystems using the formalizations and metrics...... of the "network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  4. Simone de Beauvoir - a grande dama do feminismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alice Caubet

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A primeira mulher em que se pensa quando se procura, na literatura francesa, o exemplo de uma mulher que seja também uma grande escritora, é seguramente Colette. Mas, se em sua vida Colette foi uma feminista convicta, se teve um comportamento que desafiava toda e qualquer convenção da sociedade machista - mesmo que consideremos os padrões atuais - as suas personagens de meia idade e seu extenso bestiário têm, pela maneira como ela aborda esses temas, relentos de misoginia.

  5. Impacts agricoles des sequences seches au cours de la grande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La variabilité pluviométrique de ces trois dernières décennies au Bénin est marquée par une diminution du nombre de jours de pluie. Cette diminution entraîne des séquences sèches au coeur de la grande saison pluviométrique et par conséquent influe sur la production agricole de la commune d'Adjohoun. La présente ...

  6. GRAND DESIGN MODEL PEMBINAAN PROFESIONAL GURU BERBASIS DETERMINAN KINERJA GURU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budi Wiyono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A Grand Design Model of Teacher Professional Education Based on Teacher's Perfor­mace Determinant. One of the crucial factors that determines the quality of education is teachers. Thus, developing teachers' professionalism in carrying out their work is essential. This study aims at developing a grand design model of teacher professional education based on determinant factors of teachers' performance. It is a research and development study (R&D, in which data were collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, correla­tion analysis, and qualitative data analysis. The sample consists of 90 teachers and 28 headmasters selected using quota random sampling. The findings of the study show that the effective model of teacher pro­fessional education is the one conducted through five steps, namely, needs analysis, development of training and supervision programs, implementation of the programs, evaluation of the programs, and follow-ups of the programs. The development of the programs requires coordination among related in­stitutions. The implementation needs to refer to the right principles, approach, and training techniques and be supported by good facilities, media, trainers, and training places. Keywords: training model, teachers' professionalism, teachers' performance Abstrak: Grand Design Model Pembinaan Profesional Guru Berbasis Determinan Kinerja Guru. Salah satu faktor yang sangat menentukan mutu pendidikan adalah guru. Untuk itu diperlukan pening­katan profesionalisme guru dalam melaksanakan tugas. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengembangkan grand design model pembinaan profesional guru yang efektif berbasis faktor-faktor determinan kinerja guru. Penelitian menggunakan desain penelitian pengembangan. Sampel diambil sebesar 90 guru dan 28 kepala sekolah dengan quota random sampling. Data dikumpulan data kuesioner, observasi, dan wawancara. Hasil pengumpulan data dianalisis

  7. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass

  8. Igreja e italianidade: Rio Grande do Sul (1875-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Possamai

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the position adopted by the catholic clergy concerning the italianità policy among the Italian immigrants in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. While the Carlists protected the Italian nationalism among the colonists and were inclined to a good relationship between the Catholic Church and the Kingdom of Italy, to the Capuchins the italianità was useful to preserve the catholic faith among the colonists, although they also supported the conservative point of view of the Vatican, that the liberal Italian State was the usurper of the papacy lands.

  9. The effects of radiation on the outer planets grand tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A handbook is presented which was designed to accompany an oral presentation on the effects of radiation on the outer planets grand tour (OPGT). A summary of OPGT radiation environments expected from natural sources and the radioisotope thermoelectric generators and basic radiation effects and processes are reviewed, and ionization and displacement effects are examined. The presentation summarizes the effects of radiation on miscellaneous spacecraft materials and devices. The annealing and hardening of electronics are described. Special emphasis is placed on microcircuits. Mathematical modeling of circuits affected by radiation and radiation environmental testing are discussed. A review of means of evaluating the performance and correcting failures of irradiated devices is also presented.

  10. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is."

  11. Google Science Fair 2012 : Grand Prize Winner Brittany Wenger

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    17-18 age category AND Grand Prize Winner: Brittany Wenger (USA)—“Global Neural Network Cloud Service for Breast Cancer.” Brittany’s project harnesses the power of the cloud to help doctors accurately diagnose breast cancer. Brittany built an application that compares individual test results to an extensive dataset stored in the cloud, allowing doctors to assess tumors using a minimally-invasive procedure. Brittany Michelle Wenger, and her mother, passed through the CERN Control Centre accompanied by Mike Lamont, CERN Beams Department, Operation Group Leader.

  12. Review of GI Science Trends and Grand Challenges (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, M.; Esri Education Team

    2010-12-01

    Geographic Information Science was defined by Goodchild's keynote presentation at the 1990 Symposium on Spatial Data Handling in Zurich and subsequent paper in the International Journal of Geographic Information Systems. Over the past 20 years it has maintained part of its original base but also has grown to accommodate possibilities afforded by new technologies and new societal concerns. Recent review articles and a special session on GI Science grand challenges held at the 2010 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, have provided perspectives on key trends in GI Science, that this AGU presentation now summarizes. The GIS software industry has responded to some and are pending advances on others of these trends.

  13. Municipalização do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Willaldino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consta de tabelas com a emancipação de todos os municípios da época. Artigo dividido em: A vida de Rio Grande de São Pedro; os quatro primeiros municípios; Começa a fragmentação; Uma transformação étnica, social, cultural e econômica: República; Revolução de 1930; A enxurrada; Os desmembramentos; Perspectiva

  14. Nitrogen cycling process rates across urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Alexander J; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2016-09-21

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Changing Ecosystem Service Values Following Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Schneider, Daniel W.; Brozović, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Research on ecosystem services has focused mostly on natural areas or remote places, with less attention given to urban ecosystem services and their relationship with technological change. However, recent work by urban ecologists and urban designers has more closely examined and appreciated the opportunities associated with integrating natural and built infrastructures. Nevertheless, a perception remains in the literature on ecosystem services that technology may easily and irreversibly substitute for services previously obtained from ecosystems, especially when the superiority of the engineered system motivated replacement in the first place. We emphasize that the expected tradeoff between natural and manufactured capital is false. Rather, as argued in other contexts, the adoption of new technologies is complementary to ecosystem management. The complementarity of ecosystem services and technology is illustrated with a case study in Barcelona, Spain where the installation of sophisticated water treatment technology increased the value of the ecosystem services found there. Interestingly, the complementarity between natural and built infrastructures may remain even for the very ecosystems that are affected by the technological change. This finding suggests that we can expect the value of ecosystem services to co-evolve with new technologies. Technological innovation can generate new opportunities to harness value from ecosystems, and the engineered structures found in cities may generate more reliance on ecosystem processes, not less.

  16. Human driven transitions in complex model ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfoot, Mike; Newbold, Tim; Tittinsor, Derek; Purves, Drew

    2015-04-01

    Human activities have been observed to be impacting ecosystems across the globe, leading to reduced ecosystem functioning, altered trophic and biomass structure and ultimately ecosystem collapse. Previous attempts to understand global human impacts on ecosystems have usually relied on statistical models, which do not explicitly model the processes underlying the functioning of ecosystems, represent only a small proportion of organisms and do not adequately capture complex non-linear and dynamic responses of ecosystems to perturbations. We use a mechanistic ecosystem model (1), which simulates the underlying processes structuring ecosystems and can thus capture complex and dynamic interactions, to investigate boundaries of complex ecosystems to human perturbation. We explore several drivers including human appropriation of net primary production and harvesting of animal biomass. We also present an analysis of the key interactions between biotic, societal and abiotic earth system components, considering why and how we might think about these couplings. References: M. B. J. Harfoot et al., Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model., PLoS Biol. 12, e1001841 (2014).

  17. Changing ecosystem service values following technological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Schneider, Daniel W; Brozović, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Research on ecosystem services has focused mostly on natural areas or remote places, with less attention given to urban ecosystem services and their relationship with technological change. However, recent work by urban ecologists and urban designers has more closely examined and appreciated the opportunities associated with integrating natural and built infrastructures. Nevertheless, a perception remains in the literature on ecosystem services that technology may easily and irreversibly substitute for services previously obtained from ecosystems, especially when the superiority of the engineered system motivated replacement in the first place. We emphasize that the expected tradeoff between natural and manufactured capital is false. Rather, as argued in other contexts, the adoption of new technologies is complementary to ecosystem management. The complementarity of ecosystem services and technology is illustrated with a case study in Barcelona, Spain where the installation of sophisticated water treatment technology increased the value of the ecosystem services found there. Interestingly, the complementarity between natural and built infrastructures may remain even for the very ecosystems that are affected by the technological change. This finding suggests that we can expect the value of ecosystem services to co-evolve with new technologies. Technological innovation can generate new opportunities to harness value from ecosystems, and the engineered structures found in cities may generate more reliance on ecosystem processes, not less.

  18. Terrestrial ecosystems under warmer and drier climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Future warmer and drier climates will likely affect many of the world's terrestrial ecosystems. These changes will fundamentally reshape terrestrial systems through their components and across organization levels. However, it is unclear to what extent terrestrial ecosystems would be resilient enough to stay put to increased temperature and water stress by only adjusting carbon fluxes and water balances? And to what extent it would reach the thresholds at which terrestrial ecosystems were forced to alter species compositions and ecosystem structures for adapting to newer climates? The energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems link thermal and water conditions to defines terrestrial carbon processes and feedbacks to climate, which will inevitably change under warmer and drier climates. Recent theoretical studies provide a new framework, suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems were capable of balancing costs of carbon gain and water transport to achieve optimums for functioning and distribution. Such a paradigm is critical for understanding the dynamics of future terrestrial ecosystems under climate changes, and facilitate modeling terrestrial ecosystems which needs generalized principles for formulating ecosystem behaviors. This study aims to review some recent studies that explore responses of terrestrial ecosystems to rather novel climate conditions, such as heat-induced droughts, intending to provide better comprehension of complex carbon-water interactions through plants to an ecosystem, and relevant factors that may alleviate or worsen already deteriorated climates such as elevated CO2 and soil conditions.

  19. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  20. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  1. Merging Platform Ecosystems in Technology Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowie, Jamie; Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    of the merging companies. Given the increasing importance of platforms and value co-creation with third-party providers for companies making technology acquisitions, we complement existing literature by reframing the analysis of technology acquisitions to include the merger of the broader partner ecosystems....... Specifically, we draw on theories of ecosystem governance to analyze how ecosystem tensions unfolded during the ecosystem merger and how the acquirer governed these tensions in SAP SE’s acquisition of the e-commerce provider Hybris AG. Our findings suggest that the governance of ecosystem tensions...... is an important aspect of managing technology acquisitions. We identify the pre-acquisition relation between the acquired company’s ecosystem partners and the acquirer as an important context factor for explaining how a partner company is exposed to the ecosystem tensions during the merger....

  2. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  3. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  4. Modeling on the grand scale: LANDFIRE lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori Blankenship; Jim Smith; Randy Swaty; Ayn J. Shlisky; Jeannie Patton; Sarah. Hagen

    2012-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the LANDFIRE project facilitated the creation of approximately 1,200 unique state-andtransition models (STMs) for all major ecosystems in the United States. The primary goal of the modeling effort was to create a consistent and comprehensive set of STMs describing reference conditions and to inform the mapping of a subset of LANDFIRE’s spatial...

  5. Grand Challenges for Biological and Environmental Research: A Long-Term Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkin, A.; Baliga, N.; Braam, J.; Church, G.; Collins, J; ; Cottingham, R.; Ecker, J.; Gerstein, M.; Gilna, P.; Greenberg, J.; Handelsman, J.; Hubbard, S.; Joachimiak, A.; Liao, J.; Looger, L.; Meyerowitz, E.; Mjolness, E.; Petsko, G.; Sayler, G.; Simpson, M.; Stacey, G.; Sussman, M.; Tiedje, J.; Bader, D.; Cessi, P.; Collins, W.; Denning, S.; Dickinson, R.; Easterling, D.; Edmonds, J.; Feddema, J.; Field, C.; Fridlind, A.; Fung, I.; Held, I.; Jackson, R.; Janetos, A.; Large, W.; Leinen, M.; Leung, R.; Long, S.; Mace, G.; Masiello, C.; Meehl, G.; Ort, D.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.; Randall, D.; Rasch, P.; Schneider, E.; Shugart, H.; Thornton, P.; Washington, W.; Wildung, R.; Wiscombe, W.; Zak, D.; Zhang, M.; Bielicki, J.; Buford, M.; Cleland, E.; Dale, V.; Duke, C.; Ehleringer, J.; Hecht, A.; Kammen, D.; Marland, G.; Pataki, D.; Riley, M. Robertson, P.; Hubbard, S.

    2010-12-01

    The interactions and feedbacks among plants, animals, microbes, humans, and the environment ultimately form the world in which we live. This world is now facing challenges from a growing and increasingly affluent human population whose numbers and lifestyles are driving ever greater energy demand and impacting climate. These and other contributing factors will make energy and climate sustainability extremely difficult to achieve over the 20-year time horizon that is the focus of this report. Despite these severe challenges, there is optimism that deeper understanding of our environment will enable us to mitigate detrimental effects, while also harnessing biological and climate systems to ensure a sustainable energy future. This effort is advanced by scientific inquiries in the fields of atmospheric chemistry and physics, biology, ecology, and subsurface science - all made possible by computing. The Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science has a long history of bringing together researchers from different disciplines to address critical national needs in determining the biological and environmental impacts of energy production and use, characterizing the interplay of climate and energy, and collaborating with other agencies and DOE programs to improve the world's most powerful climate models. BER science focuses on three distinct areas: (1) What are the roles of Earth system components (atmosphere, land, oceans, sea ice, and the biosphere) in determining climate? (2) How is the information stored in a genome translated into microbial, plant, and ecosystem processes that influence biofuel production, climate feedbacks, and the natural cycling of carbon? (3) What are the biological, geochemical, and physical forces that govern the behavior of Earth's subsurface environment? Ultimately, the goal of BER science is to support experimentation and modeling that can reliably predict the

  6. Nutrient and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems and their interactions with ecosystem services. 27th Francis New Memorial Lecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeteson, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. An ecosystem is the interacting system of living organisms and their associated non-living environment. Four types of ecosystem services can be distinguished: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and

  7. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  8. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi

  9. The Tragedy of Migrants. Gabriele Del Grande's Reportage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Franchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available L’espressione "Tragedia dei migranti" che ciclicamente compare nei notiziari televisivi, seppur evocando la categoria del tragico, non suscita nessuno dei sentimenti che caratterizzano questa forma di spettacolo. Lo spettatore infatti è portato a considerare i naufragi nel Mediterraneo il frutto di un destino ineluttabile, senza quindi intravedere alcuna possibilità da parte sua di intervenire sulla realtà. Mamadou va a morire e Il mare di mezzo di Gabriele Del Grande dimostrano come i naufragi dei migranti nel Mediterraneo non siano parte del disegno divino di un deus absconditus, ma una delle drammatiche conseguenze della crisi economica della contemporaneità. Esibendo i meccanismi sottesi al fenomeno della migrazione, l’autore mostra i presupposti razionali sui quali questa si fonda e suggerisce come i suoi esiti drammatici possano essere contrastati a livello individuale e collettivo. Questo articolo si propone di dotare di un senso più pieno l’espressione "tragedia dei migranti": per fare ciò si rintraccerà all’interno dei reportage la riemersione di alcuni topoi della tragedia greca. Verrà inoltre individuata tra gli individui incontrati da Del Grande nei suoi viaggi e i personaggi della tragedia greca una serie di analogie in grado di restituire alla condizione del migrante una reale potenzialità tragica.

  10. Towards a grand deal on subsidies and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have identified public subsidies as a principal cause of unsustainable development. Worldwide, governments are spending up to $US950 billion a year on subsidies. Many of these public subsidies fail to serve their purpose and in fact, often turn out as policy failures as they further distort trade and cause environmental harm. The energy sector is among the most subsidized sectors in the world, receiving over $US240 billion per annum of public subsidies. This article highlights current energy subsidies and their implications. The article examines: (i) the global size and distribution of energy subsidies in industrialized and developing countries; (ii) the impact of these subsidies on the economy, equity and the environment ana their role as barriers for sustainable development; (iii) the political economy behind public subsidies and the various political and institutional barriers and lock-in mechanisms that cause subsidies to become entrenched in economic and public structures; and (iv) proposals for effective subsidy reform in energy policies, suggesting a global strategy to eliminate energy subsidies. OECD governments are in a position to take the lead, and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change presents an excellent opportunity of striking a political grand deal and linking the reform of energy subsidies to a meaningful participation of developing countries to the Kyoto Protocol. Moreover, if sinks are to be included in the clean development mechanism (CDM), it is crucial to include the removal of forestry subsidies in the grand deal. (author)

  11. Geomorphology of plutonium in the Northern Rio Grande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, W.L. [Arizona Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept., of Geography

    1993-03-01

    Nearly all of the plutonium in the natural environment of the Northern Rio Grande is associated with soils and sediment, and river processes account for most of the mobility of these materials. A composite regional budget for plutonium based on multi-decadal averages for sediment and plutonium movement shows that 90 percent of the plutonium moving into the system is from atmospheric fallout. The remaining 10 percent is from releases at Los Alamos. Annual variation in plutonium flux and storage exceeds 100 percent. The contribution to the plutonium budget from Los Alamos is associated with relatively coarse sediment which often behaves as bedload in the Rio Grande. Infusion of these materials into the main stream were largest in 1951, 1952, 1957, and 1968. Because of the schedule of delivery of plutonium to Los Alamos for experimentation and weapons manufacturing, the latter two years are probably the most important. Although the Los Alamos contribution to the entire plutonium budget was relatively small, in these four critical years it constituted 71--86 percent of the plutonium in bedload immediately downstream from Otowi.

  12. O DISCURSO DO MARKETING DE LUGAR E OS GRANDES EVENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nicolau Netto

    Full Text Available Os grandes eventos se globalizam na mesma medida em que proliferam os lugares promovidos como marcas. Embora autônomos, esses processos estão relacionados ao se fundarem numa visão de que os lugares devem competir na globalização e que a competição deve se dar a partir de suas imagens. Esse tipo de competição se embasa num discurso produzido por publicitários de marketing de lugar, que tanto manuseiam formas simbólicas construídas como identidades coletivas, quanto se engajam na produção de novos elementos, de forma a configurá-los, tal qual as marcas de produtos, como diferencial competitivo. Neste artigo, investigo a atuação desses publicitários, compreendidos como artífices de um “senso comum planetário” que ressignifica a imagem do lugar a partir de concepção de uma marca. Serão aqui analisados os pressupostos desse discurso, suas instâncias de legitimidade e sua relação com os grandes eventos, que devem ser entendidos como espaços de consagração e circulação do discurso do marketing de lugar.

  13. Multivariable extrapolation of grand canonical free energy landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahynski, Nathan A.; Errington, Jeffrey R.; Shen, Vincent K.

    2017-12-01

    We derive an approach for extrapolating the free energy landscape of multicomponent systems in the grand canonical ensemble, obtained from flat-histogram Monte Carlo simulations, from one set of temperature and chemical potentials to another. This is accomplished by expanding the landscape in a Taylor series at each value of the order parameter which defines its macrostate phase space. The coefficients in each Taylor polynomial are known exactly from fluctuation formulas, which may be computed by measuring the appropriate moments of extensive variables that fluctuate in this ensemble. Here we derive the expressions necessary to define these coefficients up to arbitrary order. In principle, this enables a single flat-histogram simulation to provide complete thermodynamic information over a broad range of temperatures and chemical potentials. Using this, we also show how to combine a small number of simulations, each performed at different conditions, in a thermodynamically consistent fashion to accurately compute properties at arbitrary temperatures and chemical potentials. This method may significantly increase the computational efficiency of biased grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, especially for multicomponent mixtures. Although approximate, this approach is amenable to high-throughput and data-intensive investigations where it is preferable to have a large quantity of reasonably accurate simulation data, rather than a smaller amount with a higher accuracy.

  14. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Tomedi Leites

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016, the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005 and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015. The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391. The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  15. Female homicide in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela Tomedi; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Hirakata, Vania Noemi

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, using this as a "proxy" of femicide. This was an ecological study which correlated the female homicide rate due to aggression in Rio Grande do Sul, according to the 35 microregions defined by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), with socioeconomic and demographic variables access and health indicators. Pearson's correlation test was performed with the selected variables. After this, multiple linear regressions were performed with variables with p < 0.20. The standardized average of female homicide rate due to aggression in the period from 2003 to 2007 was 3.1 obits per 100 thousand. After multiple regression analysis, the final model included male mortality due to aggression (p = 0.016), the percentage of hospital admissions for alcohol (p = 0.005) and the proportion of ill-defined deaths (p = 0.015). The model have an explanatory power of 39% (adjusted r2 = 0.391). The results are consistent with other studies and indicate a strong relationship between structural violence in society and violence against women, in addition to a higher incidence of female deaths in places with high alcohol hospitalization.

  16. Measurement and reproduction accuracy of computer-controlled grand pianos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto

    2003-10-01

    The recording and reproducing capabilities of a Yamaha Disklavier grand piano and a Bösendorfer SE290 computer-controlled grand piano were tested, with the goal of examining their reliability for performance research. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the acoustic signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``staccato'' and ``legato''). Timing and dynamic differences between the original performance, the corresponding MIDI file recorded by the computer-controlled pianos, and its reproduction were analyzed. The two devices performed quite differently with respect to timing and dynamic accuracy. The Disklavier's onset capturing was slightly more precise (+/-10 ms) than its reproduction (-20 to +30 ms); the Bösendorfer performed generally better, but its timing accuracy was slightly less precise for recording (-10 to 3 ms) than for reproduction (+/-2 ms). Both devices exhibited a systematic (linear) error in recording over time. In the dynamic dimension, the Bösendorfer showed higher consistency over the whole dynamic range, while the Disklavier performed well only in a wide middle range. Neither device was able to capture or reproduce different types of touch.

  17. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    In the first part of this paper, we explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity — be it string/M-theory or a reincarnation — this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2)L × SU(2)R × SU(4)c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (i) observed neutrino oscillations, (ii) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (iii) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M-theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  18. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pati, Jogesh C.

    2006-06-09

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} x SU(4){sup c} or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in {mu} {yields} e{gamma}, {tau} {yields} {mu}{gamma}, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism.

  19. Grand Unification as a Bridge Between String Theory and Phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of the talk, I explain what empirical evidence points to the need for having an effective grand unification-like symmetry possessing the symmetry SU(4)-color in 4D. If one assumes the premises of a future predictive theory including gravity--be it string/M theory or a reincarnation--this evidence then suggests that such a theory should lead to an effective grand unification-like symmetry as above in 4D, near the string-GUT-scale, rather than the standard model symmetry. Advantages of an effective supersymmetric G(224) = SU(2) L x SU(2) R x SU(4) c or SO(10) symmetry in 4D in explaining (1) observed neutrino oscillations, (2) baryogenesis via leptogenesis, and (3) certain fermion mass-relations are noted. And certain distinguishing tests of a SUSY G(224) or SO(10)-framework involving CP and flavor violations (as in μ → eγ, τ → μγ, edm's of the neutron and the electron) as well as proton decay are briefly mentioned. Recalling some of the successes we have had in our understanding of nature so far, and the current difficulties of string/M theory as regards the large multiplicity of string vacua, some comments are made on the traditional goal of understanding vis a vis the recently evolved view of landscape and anthropism

  20. Acoustical and perceptual influence of duplex stringing in grand pianos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Fredrik; Askenfelt, Anders

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the acoustical and perceptual influence of the string parts outside the speaking length in grand pianos (front and rear duplex strings). Acoustical measurements on a grand piano in concert condition were conducted, measuring the fundamental frequencies of all main and duplex strings in the four octaves D4-C8. Considerable deviations from the nominal harmonic relations between the rear duplex and main string frequencies, as described by the manufacturer in a patent, were observed. Generally the rear duplex strings were tuned higher than the nominal harmonic relations with average and median deviations approaching +50 cent. Single keys reached +190 and -100 cent. The spread in deviation from harmonic relations within trichords was also substantial with average and median values around 25 cent, occasionally reaching 60 cent. Contributions from both front and rear duplex strings were observed in the bridge motion and sound. The audibility of the duplex strings was studied in an ABX listening test. Complete dampening of the front duplex was clearly perceptible both for an experiment group consisting of musicians and a control group with naive subjects. The contribution from the rear duplex could also be perceived, but less pronounced. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  1. Environmental Assessment: Construct Mass/Mobility Parking Lot at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-13

    land used for pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes...Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory for domestic...flow periods, the rivers are generally too saline for domestic use. Grand Forks AFB receives water from Grand Forks and Lake Agassiz Water. The city

  2. Environmental Assessment: Construct New Pavilion Playground at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-12

    pasture and hay, urban development, recreation, and wildlife habitat. Principal crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar...more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and generally unsatisfactory for domestic and most industrial uses...too saline for domestic use. Grand Forks AFB receives water from Grand Forks and Lake Agassiz Water. The city recovers its water from the Red River

  3. Environmental Assessment: Extend Parking Lot Building 807 at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-17

    com, barley , and oats. The valley ranks first in the nation in the production of potatoes, spring wheat , sunflowers, and durum wheat . Grand Forks...crops are spring wheat , barley , sunflowers, potatoes, and sugar beets. Turtle River State Park, developed as a recreation area in Grand Forks County...surface. Even though the Dakota Aquifer has produced more water than any other aquifer in Grand Forks County, the water is very saline and

  4. Kepuasan Kerja Karyawan Public Area Section pada Hotel Grand Central Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Benzani, Chalid Aulia; Sulistyani, Andri

    2017-01-01

    This study was to determine the level of employee satisfaction in the public area section of Grand Central Hotel Pekanbaru. Implementation What factors are affecting the level of employee satisfaction in the public area section of Grand Central Hotel Pekanbaru. The research was aimed to know how public employee job satisfaction section area at Grand Central Pekanbaru.This study uses qualitative descriptive method to describe the problem in the management of the facility. Subjects used as many...

  5. Bringing Seismology's Grand Challenges to the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M. H.; Taber, J.; Hubenthal, M.

    2011-12-01

    The "Seismological Grand Challenges in Understanding Earth's Dynamic Systems," a community-written long-range science plan for the next decade, poses 10 questions to guide fundamental seismological research. Written in an approachable fashion suitable for policymakers, the broad questions and supporting discussion contained in this document offer an ideal framework for the development of undergraduate curricular materials. Leveraging this document, we have created a collection of inquiry-based classroom modules that utilize authentic data to modernize seismological instruction in 100 and 200 level undergraduate courses. The modules not only introduce undergraduates to the broad questions that the seismological community seeks to answer in the future but also showcase the numerous areas where modern seismological research is actively contributing to our understanding of fundamental Earth processes. To date 6 in-depth explorations that correspond to the Grand Challenges document have been developed. The specific topics for each exploration were selected to showcase modern seismological research while also covering topics commonly included in the curriculum of these introductory classes. Examples of activities that have been created and their corresponding Grand Challenge include: -A guided inquiry that introduces students to episodic tremor and slip and compares the GPS and seismic signatures of ETS with those produced from standard tectonic earthquakes (Grand Challenge "How do faults slip?"). - A laboratory exercise where students engage in b-value mapping of volcanic earthquakes to assess potential eruption hazards (How do magmas ascend and erupt?). - A module that introduce students to glacial earthquakes in Greenland and compares their frequency and spatial distribution to tectonic earthquakes (How do processes in the ocean and atmosphere interact with the solid Earth?). What is the relationship between stress and strain in the lithosphere? - An activity that

  6. Annotated bibliography for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) with emphasis on the Grand Canyon population.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, C. T.; LaGory, K. E.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-10-05

    Glen Canyon Dam is a hydroelectric facility located on the Colorado River in Arizona that is operated by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) for multiple purposes including water storage, flood control, power generation, recreation, and enhancement of fish and wildlife. Glen Canyon Dam operations have been managed for the last several years to improve conditions for the humpback chub (Gila cypha) and other ecosystem components. An extensive amount of literature has been produced on the humpback chub. We developed this annotated bibliography to assist managers and researchers in the Grand Canyon as they perform assessments, refine management strategies, and develop new studies to examine the factors affecting humpback chub. The U.S. Geological Survey recently created a multispecies bibliography (including references on the humpback chub) entitled Bibliography of Native Colorado River Big Fishes (available at www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/data/COFishBib). That bibliography, while quite extensive and broader in scope than ours, is not annotated, and, therefore, does not provide any of the information in the original literature. In developing this annotated bibliography, we have attempted to assemble abstracts from relevant published literature. We present here abstracts taken unmodified from individual reports and articles except where noted. The bibliography spans references from 1976 to 2009 and is organized in five broad topical areas, including: (1) biology, (2) ecology, (3) impacts of dam operations, (4) other impacts, and (5) conservation and management, and includes twenty subcategories. Within each subcategory, we present abstracts alphabetically by author and chronologically by year. We present relevant articles not specific to either the humpback chub or Glen Canyon Dam, but cited in other included reports, under the Supporting Articles subcategory. We provide all citations in alphabetical order in Section 7.

  7. The New Totalitarians: Social Identities and Radical Islamist Political Grand Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Douglas J

    2007-01-01

    ... of the ideologically-driven grand political strategy of the Islamist extremists, which represents a totalitarian, transnational, and, in many versions, universalist social revolutionary movement...

  8. The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.

  9. Ecosystem Management: Synthesis and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-29

    G.W. 1982. The Gulf Coast pitcher plant bogs. American Scientist 70:260-267 Folkerts, G.W. 1997. Citronelle Ponds: Little-known wetlands of the...The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, USA. Guerin, D.N. 1993. Oak dome clonal structure and fire ecology in a Florida longleaf pine...effects of fire on species compositon in cypress dome ecosystem. Florida Scientist 41:25-31. Garten, Jr., C.T., J.B. Gentry, and R.R. Sharitz. 1977. An

  10. Trialogue model for ecosystem governance.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hattingh, J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available of ecosystem goods and services in the decision-making processes that deal with environmental management. This, in turn, would help to promote and attain the ideals of good governance in the water sector. Knowledge of corruption, in the form of the bribery... various court cases, Earle (p.69) shows that corruption had strongly negative impacts on the relationship between society and government, as it relates to the Trialogue Model. In turn, corruption had a detrimental effect on the various interfaces...

  11. Predicting Ecosystem Alliances Using Landscape Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Satsangi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous articles in the TIM Review have covered various aspects of the concept of business ecosystems, from the types of ecosystems to keystone strategy, to different member roles and value co-creation. While there is no dearth of suggested best practices that organizations should follow as ecosystem members, it can be difficult to apply these insights into actionable steps for them to take. This is especially true when the ecosystem members already have a prior history of cooperation or competition with each other, as opposed to where a new ecosystem is created. Landscape theory, a political science approach to predicting coalition formation and strategic alliances, can be a useful complement to ecosystems studies by providing a tool to evaluate the best possible alliance options for an organization, given information about itself and the other companies in the system. As shown in the case study of mobile device manufacturers choosing platform providers in the mobile ecosystem, this tool is highly flexible and customizable, with more data providing a more accurate view of the alliances in the ecosystem. At the same time, with even basic parameters, companies can glean significant information about which coalitions will best serve their interest and overall standing within the ecosystem. This article shows the synergies between landscape theory and an ecosystems approach and offers a practical, actionable way in which to analyze individual member benefits.

  12. Designing, developing, and implementing software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hämäläinen, Mervi; Tyrväinen, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    The notion of software ecosystems has been popular both in research and industry for more than a decade, but how software ecosystems are created still remains unclear. This becomes more of a challenge if one examines the "creation'' of ecosystems that have high probability in surviving in the fut...... aspects of a single re-iterating phase and thus propose the view of design, development, and establishment as a continous process, running in parallel with and interrelated to the monitoring of the ecosystem evolution....... in the future, i.e. with respect to ecosystem health. In this paper, we focus on the creation of software ecosystems and propose a process for designing, developing, and establishing software ecosystems based on three basic steps and a set of activities for each step. We note that software ecosystem research...... identifies that ecosystems typically emerge from either a company deciding to allow development on their product platform or from a successful open source project. In our study we add to this knowledge by demonstrating, through two case studies, that ecosystems can emerge from more than a technological...

  13. Urban ecosystem health assessment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D; Yang, Zhifeng

    2010-05-15

    Due to the important role of cities for regional, national, and international economic development and the concurrent degradation of the urban environmental quality under rapid urbanization, a systematic diagnosis of urban ecosystem health for sustainable ecological management is urgently needed. This paper reviews the related research on urban ecosystem health assessment, beginning from the inception of urban ecosystem health concerns propelled by the development needs of urban ecosystems and the advances in ecosystem health research. Concepts, standards, indicators, models, and case studies are introduced and discussed. Urban ecosystem health considers the integration of ecological, economic, social and human health factors, and as such it is a value-driven concept which is strongly influenced by human perceptions. There is not an absolute urban ecosystem standard because of the uncertainty caused by the changing human needs, targets, and expectation of urban ecosystem over time; thus, suitable approaches are still needed to establish health standards of urban ecosystems. Several conceptual models and suitable indicator frameworks have been proposed to organize the multiple factors to represent comprehensively the health characteristics of an urban ecosystem, while certain mathematical methods have been applied to deal with the indicator information to get a clear assessment of the urban ecosystem health status. Instead of perceiving the urban ecosystem assessment as an instantaneous measurement of the health state, it is suggested to conceptualize the urban ecosystem health as a process, which impels us to focus more studies on the dynamic trends of health status and projecting possible development scenarios. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phytoplankton primary production in the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Foster, S.Q.; Kleckner, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    reported values of APPP, 958 come from sites between 30 and 60° N; we found only 36 for sites south of 20° N. Second, of the 131 ecosystems where APPP has been reported, 37% are based on measurements at only one location during 1 year. The accuracy of these values is unknown but probably low, given the large interannual and spatial variability within ecosystems. Finally, global assessments are confounded by measurements that are not intercomparable because they were made with different methods. Phytoplankton primary production along the continental margins is tightly linked to variability of water quality, biogeochemical processes including ocean–atmosphere CO2 exchange, and production at higher trophic levels including species we harvest as food. The empirical record has deficiencies that preclude reliable global assessment of this key Earth system process. We face two grand challenges to resolve these deficiencies: (1) organize and fund an international effort to use a common method and measure APPP regularly across a network of coastal sites that are globally representative and sustained over time, and (2) integrate data into a unifying model to explain the wide range of variability across ecosystems and to project responses of APPP to regional manifestations of global change as it continues to unfold.

  15. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present.

  16. Is it possible to give scientific solutions to Grand Challenges? On the idea of grand challenges for life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2016-04-01

    This paper argues that challenges that are grand in scope such as "lifelong health and wellbeing", "climate action", or "food security" cannot be addressed through scientific research only. Indeed scientific research could inhibit addressing such challenges if scientific analysis constrains the multiple possible understandings of these challenges into already available scientific categories and concepts without translating between these and everyday concerns. This argument builds on work in philosophy of science and race to postulate a process through which non-scientific notions become part of science. My aim is to make this process available to scrutiny: what I call founding everyday ideas in science is both culturally and epistemologically conditioned. Founding transforms a common idea into one or more scientifically relevant ones, which can be articulated into descriptively thicker and evaluatively deflated terms and enable operationalisation and measurement. The risk of founding however is that it can invisibilise or exclude from realms of scientific scrutiny interpretations that are deemed irrelevant, uninteresting or nonsensical in the domain in question-but which may remain salient for addressing grand-in-scope challenges. The paper considers concepts of "wellbeing" in development economics versus in gerontology to illustrate this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  18. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  19. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  20. Ecosystems and Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Houghton, Richard A.

    Land use is at the center of one of the most vexing challenges for the coming decades: to provide enough food, fiber and shelter for the world's population; raise the standard of living for the billion people currently below the poverty line; and simultaneously sustain the world's ecosystems for use by humans and other species. The intended consequence of cropland expansion, urban growth, and other land use changes is to satisfy demands from the increasing appetite of the world's population. Unintended consequences, however, can alter ecological processes and have far-reaching and long-term effects that potentially compromise the basic functioning of ecosystems. Recently, the scientific community has begun to confront such issues. Several national and international programs have been at the forefront of scientific enquiry on the causes and consequences of land use change, including: the Land Use and Land Cover Change Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Land Use program element in the interagency U.S. Climate Change Science Program, and the International Geosphere-Biosphere's Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) core project. The result has been significant advances in understanding the complex socioeconomic, technological, and biophysical factors that drive land use change worldwide.